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  1. The 1.90-1.88 Ga magmatism in the southernmost Guyana Shield, Amazonas, Brazil: Geology, geochemistry, zircon geochronology, and tectonic implications

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    Valério, Cristóvão da Silva; Souza, Valmir da Silva; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano

    The southernmost Guyana Shield-Uatumã subdomain, northeastern Amazonas State, Brazil is dominantly formed by granitoid and volcanic rocks from the Água Branca Suite (ABS), undivided Granite Stocks (GS) and São Gabriel volcano-plutonic system (SGS). The ABS is characterized by a granite series that exhibits comparatively low Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio, low (Nb/Zr) N, high Sr values and high Rb/Zr ratio. Its rocks display metaluminous to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK 0.94-1.06), high-K calc-alkaline, I normal-type character and have moderately to strongly fractionated rare earth elements (REE) pattern. The SG granites and SGS effusive-ignimbrite-granite association is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK 0.84-1.18), high-K calc-alkaline, has moderately to weakly fractionated REE trend, higher Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio, lower Sr content and lower Rb/Zr ratio. The ABS geochemical signature is consistent with formation from volcanic arc rocks and small participation of collisional setting rocks, whereas the SG and SGS have post-collisional tectonic rocks-related geochemical signature. This model is in harmony with a post-collisional extensional regime, started with the 1.90-1.89 Ga Água Branca magmatism, and culminated with the 1.89-1.88 Ga São Gabriel system at an early stage of intracratonic reactivation, which included intrusion of mafic dikes. The Uatumã subdomain was related to mantle underplating with continental uplift and its origin involved contributions of 2.3-2.44 Ga Archean-contaminated Trans-Amazonian, 2.13-2.21 Ga Trans-Amazonian, 1.93-1.94/2.0 Ga Tapajós-Parima. Foliation styles point out that part of the Água Branca granitoids recorded later deformational effects, likely related to the Rio Negro Province formation.

  2. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Gianizella, Sergio L; Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Aguiar, Nair O; Gravena, Waleska; do Nascimento, Carlos A R; Neto, Laérzio C; Faria, Diogo L; Lima, Natália A S; Solorio, Monica R; Maranhão, Louise; Lima, Ivan J; Cobra, Iury V D; Santos, Tamily; Lopes, Gerson P; Ramalho, Emiliano E; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2018-02-01

    The tick fauna of Brazil is currently composed by 72 species. The state of Amazonas is the largest of Brazil, with an area of ≈ 19% of the Brazilian land. Besides its vast geographic area, only 19 tick species have been reported for Amazonas. Herein, lots containing ticks from the state of Amazonas were examined in three major tick collections from Brazil. A total of 5933 tick specimens were examined and recorded, comprising 2693 males, 1247 females, 1509 nymphs, and 484 larvae. These ticks were identified into the following 22 species: Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma goeldii, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatun, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, Amblyomma varium, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes cf. Ixodes fuscipes, Ixodes luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from 17 (27.4%) out of the 62 municipalities that currently compose the state of Amazonas. The following four species are reported for the first time in the state of Amazonas: A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, H. juxtakochi, and Ixodes cf. I. fuscipes. The only tick species previously reported for Amazonas and not found in the present study is Amblyomma parvum. This study provides a great expansion of geographical and host records of ticks for the state of Amazonas, which is now considered to have a tick fauna composed by 23 species. It is noteworthy that we report 1391 Amblyomma nymphs that were identified to 13 different species.

  3. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  4. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Olga Yano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.This survey lists 74 species of bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, namely, 41 species of mosses distributed in 24 genera and 15 families and 33 liverworts in 17 genera and seven families, of which, 17 species are new occurrences to Manaus. T. Ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck is new occurrence to Brazil. Associations with other bryophytes and comparison with other regions are presented.

  5. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Michelangeli, Fabián A; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas.

  6. ETHNOBOTANIC NOTES IN THE HIGH SOLIMÕES, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Pasa, Maria Corette; David, Margô De

    2017-01-01

    (Notas etnobotânicas no alto Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil): O presente estudo objetivou ampliar os conhecimentos sobre os recursos vegetais e as populações da região Amazônia, através da etnobotânica. As plantas usadas pela comunidade local são encontradas nas unidades de paisagem local constituída por ambientes naturais como as florestas tropicais e com espécies nativas, principalmente, e pelos ambientes antropicamente modificados, como roças, quintais e hortas, os cultivares, sempre localizad...

  7. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Garrido, Marlucia da Silva; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Souza, Alexandra Brito de; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Quincó, Patrícia de Lima; Monte, Rossicleia Lins; Santos, Lucilaide Oliveira; Perez-Porcuna, Tomás Maria; Martinez-Espínosa, Flor Ernestina; Saraceni, Valéria; Cordeiro-Santos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7%) concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3%) aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%), whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7%) and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%). During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002). The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%), Itamarati (78.1%), and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%). The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD).; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  8. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  9. Radioactive background of Granito Madeira, north Amazonas, Brazil

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    Moura, Vanderlei; Pereira, Claubia; Martins, Agnaldo Kenji, E-mail: vandermoura@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: amartins@mtaboca.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Mineracao Taboca S.A., Presidente Figueiredo, AM (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, such as the uranium and thorium decay chains, are present in rocks and soils. But its distribution is not homogeneous: it depends on the type of rock being that those of volcanic origin have higher concentrations of uranium and thorium. These are NORM. Locations with NORM present higher dose rates than the world average. Thus, the determination of the natural radioactivity of a NORM region is of extreme importance since it provides data for the estimation of human exposure to natural radiation. In addition, if there is a mining company exploring NORM, the background radiation estimation should be considered in the decommissioning and future planning. There are places in Brazil, such as Granito Madeira in the state of Amazonas, in the north of Brazil, where NORM is present. It is an extremely remote area located within the Amazon Forest currently in the process of open cast mining. In this study, the iodide scintillator detector was used to measure and map the natural background radiation of the Granito Madeira using a scintillator detector of sodium iodide that was transported in tracks within the forest. The data obtained were georeferenced, classified and used to obtain the annual dose related to gamma radiation. The results are presented in frequency histograms and maps. The annual average was (6.0 ± 3.0) mSv.y{sup -1}. These data were compared to those available from other regions with NORM in Brazil and the 2010 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  10. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment.

  11. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.

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    da Silva, Márcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4µgL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini→Tefé; Manacapuru→Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo→São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos→Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface ozone in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Souza, R. A. F. D.; Costa, P. S.; Silva, C.; Godoi, R. M.; Martin, S. T.; Tota, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Pauliquevis, T.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Wolf, S. A.; Cirino, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    When nitrogen oxides from vehicle and industrial emissions mix with volatile organic compounds from trees and plants with exposure to sunlight, a chemical reaction occurs contributing to ground-level ozone pollution. The preliminary results of the surface ozone study in urban area of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, are presented for the first intensive operating period (IOP1) of the GoAmazon experiment (February/March 2014). Photochemical ozone production was found to be a regular process, with an afternoon maximum of the ozone mixing ratio of lower than 20 ppbv for cloudy days or clear sky weather. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day were low (about 10 ppb). On the other hand, several high-value ozone episodes with surface ozone mixing ratios up to three times larger were registered during the dry season of 2013 (September/October). At the beginning of the wet season, the ozone concentration in Manaus decreased significantly, but diurnal variations can be found during the days with rainfall and other fast changes of meteorological conditions. Possible explanations of the nature of pulsations are discussed. Photochemical ozone production by local urban plumes of Manaus is named as a first possible source of the ozone concentration and biomass burning or power plant emissions are suggested as an alternative or an additional source.

  13. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Rocha, Lívia Laura dos Santos; Monte, Rossicléia Lins; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Santos, Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. Since the 1970s, the (currently named) Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD)] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  14. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  15. Mortality Predictors in Patients with Severe Dengue in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Pinto, Rosemary Costa; Castro, Daniel Barros de; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; Passos, Ricardo Augusto Dos; Costa, Cristiano Fernandes da; Sadahiro, Megumi; Braga, José Ueleres

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. There is a lack of information on the risk factors for death due to severe dengue fever in developing countries, including Brazil where the state of Amazonas is located. This knowledge is important for decision making and the implementation of effective measures for patient care. This study aimed to identify factors associated with death among patients with severe dengue, in Amazonas from 2001 to 2013. We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of dengue provided by the Fundação de Vigilância em Saúde do Amazonas, FVS (Health Surveillance Foundation) of the Secretaria de Saúde do Amazonas, SUSAM (Health Secretariat of the State of Amazonas). Data on dengue cases were obtained from the SINAN (Notifiable Diseases Information System) and SIM (Mortality Information System) databases. We selected cases of severe dengue with laboratory confirmation, including dengue-related deaths of residents in the state of Amazonas from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013. The explanatory variables analyzed were sex, age, level of education, spontaneous hemorrhagic manifestations, plasma extravasation and platelet count. Patients who died due to severe dengue had more hematuria, gastrointestinal bleeding, and thrombocytopenia than the survivors. Considering the simultaneous effects of demographic and clinical characteristics with a multiple logistic regression model, it was observed that the factors associated with death were age >55 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.98), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 10.26), hematuria (OR 5.07), and thrombocytopenia (OR 2.55). Gastrointestinal bleeding was the clinical sign most strongly associated with death, followed by hematuria and age >55 years. The study results showed that the best predictor of death from severe dengue is based on the characteristic of age >55 years, together with the clinical signs of

  16. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

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    Renato Eleotério de Aquino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a great lack of information from soil surveys in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The use of tools such as geostatistics may improve environmental planning, use and management. In this study, we aimed to use scaled semivariograms in sample design of soil physical properties of some environments in Amazonas. We selected five areas located in the south of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, with varied soil uses, such as forest, archaeological dark earth (ADE, pasture, sugarcane cropping, and agroforestry. Regular mesh grids were set up in these areas with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m from each other. At these points, we determined the particle size composition, soil resistance to penetration, moisture, soil bulk density and particle density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, and aggregate stability in water at a depth of 0.00-0.20 m. Descriptive and geostatistical analyses were performed. The sample density requirements were lower in the pasture area but higher in the forest. We concluded that managed-environments had differences in their soil physical properties compared to the natural forest; notably, the soil in the ADE environment is physically improved in relation to the others. The physical properties evaluated showed a structure of spatial dependence with a slight variability of the forest compared to the others. The use of the range parameter of the semivariogram analysis proved to be effective in determining an ideal sample density.

  17. A historical overview of leprosy epidemiology and control activities in Amazonas, Brazil

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    Carolina Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to comparative genomics studies, this disease originated in Eastern Africa or the Near East and spread with successive human migrations. The Europeans and North Africans introduced leprosy into West Africa and the Americas within the past 500 years. In Brazil, this disease arrived with the colonizers who disembarked at the first colonies, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Recife, at the end of the sixteenth century, after which it was spread to the other states. In 1854, the first leprosy cases were identified in State of Amazonas in the north of Brazil. The increasing number of leprosy cases and the need for treatment and disease control led to the creation of places to isolate patients, known as leprosaria. One of them, Colonia Antônio Aleixo was built in Amazonas in 1956 according to the most advanced recommendations for isolation at that time and was deactivated in 1979. The history of the Alfredo da Matta Center (AMC, which was the first leprosy dispensary created in 1955, parallels the history of leprosy in the state. Over the years, the AMC has become one of the best training centers for leprosy, general dermatology and sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil. In addition to being responsible for leprosy control programs in the state, the AMC has carried out training programs on leprosy diagnosis and treatment for health professionals in Manaus and other municipalities of the state, aiming to increase the coverage of leprosy control activities. This paper provides a historical overview of leprosy in State of Amazonas, which is an endemic state in Brazil.

  18. A historical overview of leprosy epidemiology and control activities in Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Carolina; Pedrosa, Valderiza Lourenço; Dias, Luiz Carlos; Braga, Andréa; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Santos, Mônica; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to comparative genomics studies, this disease originated in Eastern Africa or the Near East and spread with successive human migrations. The Europeans and North Africans introduced leprosy into West Africa and the Americas within the past 500 years. In Brazil, this disease arrived with the colonizers who disembarked at the first colonies, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Recife, at the end of the sixteenth century, after which it was spread to the other states. In 1854, the first leprosy cases were identified in State of Amazonas in the north of Brazil. The increasing number of leprosy cases and the need for treatment and disease control led to the creation of places to isolate patients, known as leprosaria. One of them, Colonia Antônio Aleixo was built in Amazonas in 1956 according to the most advanced recommendations for isolation at that time and was deactivated in 1979. The history of the Alfredo da Matta Center (AMC), which was the first leprosy dispensary created in 1955, parallels the history of leprosy in the state. Over the years, the AMC has become one of the best training centers for leprosy, general dermatology and sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil. In addition to being responsible for leprosy control programs in the state, the AMC has carried out training programs on leprosy diagnosis and treatment for health professionals in Manaus and other municipalities of the state, aiming to increase the coverage of leprosy control activities. This paper provides a historical overview of leprosy in State of Amazonas, which is an endemic state in Brazil.

  19. Ginandromorfo de Arsenura armida (Cramer de Querari, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae Gynandromorph of Arsenura armida (Cramer from Querari, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae

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    Catarina da Silva Motta

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a rare ginandromorph specimen of Saturniidae collected in the State of Amazonas, Brazil is reported. This is the first unique deposit of a gynandromorph in the Collection of the National Institute for Amazonian Research.

  20. [Characterization of the family health strategy in Amazonas state, Brazil: an analysis of implementation and impact].

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    de Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon; Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema Ferreira; Pires, Rodrigo Otávio Moretti

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the implementation of the Family Health Program (FHP) in municipalities (counties) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, analyzing potential population coverage, evidence of change in the health care model, and impact (2004 and 2008). Implementation was classified as fair versus unsatisfactory. The findings showed an increase in the number of municipalities with the FHP implemented, as well as in the program's coverage (which nevertheless was less than 50% of the population). Concerning change in the health care model, no municipalities were observed with a high rate of change. As for impact, there was a decrease in low impact and an increase in high impact. The final classification did not show a statistically significant change from one year to the next, and unsatisfactory implementation prevailed in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas. Evaluation of the FHP is not simple, since there are various factors involved in the issue. Further studies could reveal the factors that explain the program's suboptimal implementation in the State of Amazonas.

  1. A new species of Enderleina Jewett (Plecoptera, Perlidae) from Amazonas State, Brazil.

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    Hamada, N; Silva, J O; Pedroza, M K

    2016-04-06

    Enderleina Jewett, 1960 is one of the least-known Perlidae genera in northern South America, including six species. During an aquatic insect survey of the northern portion of Amazonas State, Brazil, we collected a male Enderleina with a distinct pronotum pattern and genitalic morphology. The objectives of this study are to describe a new species of Enderleina based on male morphology. The new species can be distinguished from all other Enderleina species in the male by the presence of a paired thin dark band on the mesal region of pronotum and by the structure of the penial armature.

  2. Scoloplax baskini: a new spiny dwarf catfish from rio Aripuanã, Amazonas, Brazil (Loricarioidei: Scoloplacidae

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    Marcelo Salles Rocha

    Full Text Available A new species of Scoloplax is described from small tributaries of rio Aripuanã, rio Madeira drainage, Amazonas State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by several morphological features, such as ventral midline plates with two longitudinal parallel rows of odontodes not covered by skin, pectoral and pelvic fins with all rays simple, unbranched, and mesethmoid with a thickened triangular anterior process. Implications of new records of S. dolicholophia from rio Japurá and other comparative features within the genus are discussed.

  3. Amazonas project: Application of remote sensing techniques for the integrated survey of natural resources in Amazonas. [Brazil

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    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner and return beam vidicon imagery for surveying the natural resources of the Brazilian Amazonas is described. Purposes of the Amazonas development project are summarized. The application of LANDSAT imagery to identification of vegetation coverage and soil use, identification of soil types, geomorphology, and geology and highway planning is discussed. An evaluation of the worth of LANDSAT imagery in mapping the region is presented. Maps generated by the project are included.

  4. "Hidden" sexually transmitted infections among women in primary care health services, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Danielle Albuquerque Pires; Filho, Roberto Alexandre Alves Barbosa; Mariño, Josiane Montanho; dos Santos, Cristina Maria Borborema

    2014-10-01

    This study describes the prevalence of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis in a female population in Amazonas, Brazil. We collected cervical samples from 361 women examined at 10 primary care health services in the city of Coari, Amazonas, Brazil. The women were interviewed about socio-economic data, clinical history and sexual behaviour. Pelvic examinations were performed and cervical specimens were collected for detection of pathogens by PCR. The prevalence of infection was: 12.7% for Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.4% for Chlamydia trachomatis and 1.4% for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. There were no statistically significant associations between infections by any of the pathogens nor by any pathogen alone with any clinical variable, socio-demographic data or sexual behaviour. This study draws attention to the need for surveillance and possible need for screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, which often progresses asymptomatically. For the significant prevalence found, attention should also be given to asymptomatic infection by Trichomonas vaginalis, since this pathogen has recently been implicated as a risk factor for HIV infection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Digenea parasites of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris (Osteichthyes, Acestrorhynchidae) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Berenice Maria Musco; Justo, Marcia Cristina Nascimento; Anjos, Camila Saraiva Dos; Malta, José Celso de Oliveira; Dumbo, José Chissiua

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the helminthofauna of digenean parasites of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris in the state of Amazonas (Brazil). Eight species belonging to four families were recovered: Metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Diplostomidae) and Clinostomum marginatum (Clinostomidae) and mature specimens of Bellumcorpus majus, Prosorhynchoides carvajali, Rhipidocotyle santanaensis (Bucephalidae); Prosthenhystera obesa (Callodistomidae); Genarchella genarchella (Derogenidae) and Phyllodistomum spatula (Gorgoderidae). Examining specimens belonging to the genus Bellumcorpus collected from A. falcirostris, were observed a great variation in the size and shape of testes, which also could be observed in the type specimens of Bellumcorpus majus and B. schubarti. Considering the similar morphology and morphometric characteristics of both species, in this paper B. schubarti is considered synonym of B. majus. Acestrorhynchus falcirostris is a new host records for all these species of digenean, except to A. compactum and C. marginatum. Prosorhynchoides carvajali is referred for the first time in Brazil.

  6. Factors associated with homicide in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall; Cunha, Geraldo Marcelo da; Brito, Bárbara Christie de Souza; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2017-01-01

    to identify characteristics, magnitude and factors associated with homicide in Manaus-AM, Brazil. cross-sectional study, with data from the Mortality Information System (SIM); homicide rates and odds ratio (OR) were estimated, comparing to other external causes, for 2014; logistic regression was used. of the 1,657 violent deaths, 913 were due to homicide; homicide rate was of 55.8/100 thousand inhabitants (95%CI 52.1;59.7); odds ratio was higher among males (OR 3.4; 95%CI 2.3;5.1) when compared with females; among single (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.1;2.5) and widowed individuals (OR 4.1; 95%CI 1.1;15.6), when compared with married individuals; at night/early hours (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.6;2.9) and in the afternoon (OR 1.7; 95%CI 1.2;2.4), when compared with the morning period; the probability was higher among individuals under 35 years, with less schooling. homicide mortality in Manaus was high, especially among males and young individuals with less schooling.

  7. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in urban rainforest fragments, Manaus -- Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; de Freitas, Rui Alves; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-05-01

    The non-flooded upland rainforest fragment in the Federal University of Amazonas Campus is considered one of the world's largest urban tropical woodland areas and Brazil's second largest one in an urban setting. It is located in the city of Manaus, State of Amazonas at 03° 04' 34″ S, 59° 57' 30″ W, in an area covering nearly 800 hectares. Forty-one (41) sand fly species belonging to genus Lutzomyia were found attaining a total of 4662 specimens collected. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the dominant species at all heights, followed by Lutzomyia anduzei and Lutzomyia claustrei. The fauna alpha diversity index showed to be 6.4, which is not much lower than that reported for areas of continuous forest in this Amazonian region. This data provides additional evidence on Phlebotomine sand flies found to transmit Leishmania and other trypanosomatids to humans and other animals circulating in this area. This is the first study being reported on sand flies collected in an urban rainforest fragment in Amazonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Medicinal animals: knowledge and use among riverine populations from the Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Leme da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article documents the use of animals in the home medicine among riverine populations from the Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews and observations concerning to the knowledge and everyday practices of the use of medicinal animals. About 60 animal species are known with medicinal purposes. The knowledge is well distributed between sexes (men and women and localities (urban and rural. The use of medicinal animals is embedded in etiological concepts and involves a complex cosmological vision of the cure process. The rural exodus and the facilitated access to the western medicine may be promoting the loss of the traditional knowledge, which can be mitigated through the valorization and transmission of this knowledge to the future generations.

  9. Evaluation of cryolite from pitinga (Amazonas-Brazil as a source of hydrogen fluoride

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    Jéssica F. Paulino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of cryolite from the Pitinga Mine (Amazonas state, Brazil as raw material in hydrogen fluoride production. Samples were initially characterized by chemical and mineralogical analyses. They presented low silica content (< 4 wt.%. After milling, cryolite samples were digested with concentrated sulfuric acid under stirring (200 rpm and variable temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio conditions. Under the best experimental conditions (140 °C, 3-5 h, 96 wt.% of fluorine was recovered as hydrogen fluoride. The application of a 23 full factorial design showed that temperature and reaction time were relevant parameters during leaching, whereas liquid to solid ratio was not statistically significant.

  10. Description of Trichophoromyia uniniensis, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeia-Andrade, Simone; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2014-08-29

    A new species of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 genus is described, based on males collected in Jaú National Park, Amazonas state, Brazil. The Sand flies were mounted in Canada balsam. They were measured with a binocular Olympus CH-2 microscope with the aid of a micrometer objective and the drawings were done with the help of a camera lucida. This new species named Trichophoromyia uniniensis sp. nov. is closely related to Trichophoromyia omagua (Martins, Llanos & Silva, 1976). The former can be distinguished from the latter by the shape of its paramere that has the lower apical region turned up in the new species. With the new species here described a total of 39 species belonging to the Trichophoromyia genus are now known, most of them present in the Amazon rainforest.

  11. An outbreak of chlamydiosis in captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Tânia de Freitas; Godoy, Sílvia Nery; Milanelo, Liliane; de Souza, Cláudia Almeida Igayara; Matuschima, Eliana Reiko; Araújo Júnior, João Pessoa; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2004-03-01

    Fifty-eight blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) nestlings, recovered from the illegal trade, became ill at a wildlife rehabilitation center in São Paulo State, Brazil. Clinical signs observed were nonspecific, and the mortality rate was 96.5% despite initial treatment with norfloxacin. Postmortem examinations were performed on 10 birds. Liver and spleen smears showed structures suggestive of Chlamydophila psittaci in four cases. Diagnosis was confirmed by seminested polymerase chain reaction on tissue samples. Other birds from the same location showed no clinical signs of the disease, although high complement fixation titers to C. psittaci were found in 10 adult psittacines. All birds in the facility were treated with doxycycline. The two surviving nestlings did not recover after two doxycycline treatments and were euthanatized. The high mortality rate observed in this outbreak was attributed to poor conditions of husbandry and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. After diagnosis, improved control measures for chlamydiosis were instituted.

  12. Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and palynological analysis of stingless bee honey from Amazonas, Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isnandia Andréa Almeida; da Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Queiroz, Neide; Magnani, Marciane; de Novais, Jaílson Santos; Soledade, Luiz Edmundo Bastos; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; de Souza, Antonia Lucia; de Souza, Antonio Gouveia

    2013-12-15

    In this study honey samples produced by Melipona (Michmelia) seminigra merrillae, collected in seven counties distributed in the central and southern region of Amazonas state in Brazil, were analysed for their botanical origin, content and profile of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-two pollen types were identified. The total phenolic content ranged from 17 to 66 mg GAE/g of extract; the highest contents were found in honeys produced from pollen types such as Clidemia and Myrcia. The antioxidant activity was higher in the samples that contained higher quantities of phenolic compounds. In relation to the antibacterial activity, samples CAD3, CAD4 and SAD3 presented the best results. Fourteen phenolic compounds were determined. Among them, we identified the flavonoid taxifolin, which has not previously been described in honeys from stingless bees, and we report the identification of catechol in Brazilian honey samples for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of primary drug resistance to rifampin in Mycobacterium leprae strains from leprosy patients in Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Mejía, Matilde Del Carmen; Porto Dos Santos, Maísa; Villarouco da Silva, George Allan; da Motta Passos, Isabella; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Souza Cunha, Maria da Graça; Moraes, Milton Ozório; de Paula, Lucia

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the folp1, gyrA, and rpoB genes in leprosy patients treated in Amazonas State, Brazil. Among 197 slit-skin smear samples from untreated or relapsed patients, we found three cases of primary resistance to rifampin and one confirmed case of multidrug resistance. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  15. Clinical and virological descriptive study in the 2011 outbreak of dengue in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria do Carmo Alves Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is a vector-borne disease in the tropical and subtropical region of the world and is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In the state of Amazonas, Brazil during the 2011 outbreak of dengue all the four Dengue virus (DENV serotypes circulating simultaneously were observed. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical epidemiology of dengue in Manaus, the capital city of the state of the Amazonas, where all the four DENV serotypes were co-circulating simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: Patients with acute febrile illness during the 2011 outbreak of dengue, enrolled at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Viera Dourado (FMT-HVD, a referral centre for tropical and infectious diseases in Manaus, were invited to participate in a clinical and virological descriptive study. Sera from 677 patients were analyzed by RT-nested-PCRs for flaviviruses (DENV 1-4, Saint Louis encephalitis virus-SLEV, Bussuquara virus-BSQV and Ilheus virus-ILHV, alphavirus (Mayaro virus-MAYV and orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus-OROV. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Only dengue viruses were detected in 260 patients (38.4%. Thirteen patients were co-infected with more than one DENV serotype and six (46.1% of them had a more severe clinical presentation of the disease. Nucleotide sequencing showed that DENV-1 belonged to genotype V, DENV-2 to the Asian/American genotype, DENV-3 to genotype III and DENV-4 to genotype II. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection with more than one DENV serotype was observed. This finding should be warning signs to health authorities in situations of the large dispersal of serotypes that are occurring in the world.

  16. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Claudia Marques de Oliveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Saraceni, Valeria; Lucena, Noaldo Oliveira de; Talhari, Sinésio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2011-10-01

    Reduction in the vertical transmission of HIV is possible when prophylactic measures are implemented. Our objective was to determine demographic characteristics of HIV-infected pregnant women and the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A descriptive study was conducted using notification, and investigating data from the Notifiable Diseases Data System in the Brazilian State of Amazonas, between 2007 and 2009. During the study period, notification was received of 509 HIV-positive pregnant women. The vertical transmission was 9.9% (95% CI: 7.2-12.6%). The mean age of women was 27 years (SD: 5.7), and the majority (54.8%) had not completed elementary school (eighth grade). Diagnosis of HIV seropositivity was made prior to pregnancy in 115 (22.6%) women, during prenatal care in 302 (59.3%), during delivery in 70 (13.8%), and following delivery in 22 (4.3%). Four hundred four of these women (79.4%) had had prenatal care, with 79.4% of patients receiving antiretroviral during pregnancy and 61.9% of the newborn infants receiving prophylaxis. In the final multivariate logistic regression model, living in urban area [OR = 0.7 (95% CI: 0.35-0.89)] and having had prenatal care [OR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.04-0.24)] remained as protective factors against vertical HIV transmission in this population. The relevance of adequate compliance with the measures already established as being effective in guaranteeing a reduction in HIV transmission within the maternal and infant population should be emphasized.

  17. The human platelet alloantigen profile in blood donors from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, C N; Schriefer, A; Albuquerque, S R L; Perdomo, R T; Parente, A F A; Weber, S S

    2016-12-01

    Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are alloantigens derived from polymorphisms in platelet-surface glycoproteins. The occurrence of alloantibodies against HPAs can lead to platelet destruction and subsequent thrombocytopenia. Brazilians have a high rate of racial admixture, and the knowledge of HPA polymorphisms in particular donors from north Brazil, who have a large Amerindian influence, is a relevant strategy to prevent alloimmunisation. Our aim was investigate the HPA allele's frequencies in the Amazonas blood donors. We performed HPA genotyping among 200 Amazonas blood donors by microarray for 11 HPA biallelic systems, including six of the most clinically significant systems (HPA-1 to -5 and -15) and five others (HPA-6 to -9 and -11) that have been also associated with alloimmunisation, amounting to 22 HPA alleles. The obtained allele frequencies were compared with data of 38 populations worldwide to determine the hierarchical relationship and estimated the probability of mismatch platelets. The allele frequencies were 0·862 for HPA-1a, 0·137 for HPA-1b, 0·852 for HPA-2a, 0·147 for HPA-2b, 0·665 for HPA-3a, 0·335 for HPA-3b, 0·995 for HPA-4a, 0·005 for HPA-4b, 0·892 for HPA-5a, 0·107 for HPA-5b, 0·997 for HPA-9a, 0·005 for HPA-9b, 0·502 for HPA-15a and 0·497 for HPA-15b. The incompatibility risks are higher for HPA-15 and HPA-3, followed by HPA-1, -2 and -5. We found differences among populations worldwide, and it is interesting to note the indigenous and European influences in this region, reinforcing the heterogeneity in the ancestry of Brazilians. The results will be helpful in providing information for platelet transfusion to avoid alloimmunisation. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Clinical and virological descriptive study in the 2011 outbreak of dengue in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Valquiria do Carmo Alves; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; de Figueiredo, Regina Pinto; Gimaque, João Bosco Lima; Braga, Wornei Silva Miranda; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Nozawa, Sergio; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a vector-borne disease in the tropical and subtropical region of the world and is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In the state of Amazonas, Brazil during the 2011 outbreak of dengue all the four Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes circulating simultaneously were observed. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical epidemiology of dengue in Manaus, the capital city of the state of the Amazonas, where all the four DENV serotypes were co-circulating simultaneously. Patients with acute febrile illness during the 2011 outbreak of dengue, enrolled at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Viera Dourado (FMT-HVD), a referral centre for tropical and infectious diseases in Manaus, were invited to participate in a clinical and virological descriptive study. Sera from 677 patients were analyzed by RT-nested-PCRs for flaviviruses (DENV 1-4, Saint Louis encephalitis virus-SLEV, Bussuquara virus-BSQV and Ilheus virus-ILHV), alphavirus (Mayaro virus-MAYV) and orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus-OROV). Only dengue viruses were detected in 260 patients (38.4%). Thirteen patients were co-infected with more than one DENV serotype and six (46.1%) of them had a more severe clinical presentation of the disease. Nucleotide sequencing showed that DENV-1 belonged to genotype V, DENV-2 to the Asian/American genotype, DENV-3 to genotype III and DENV-4 to genotype II. Co-infection with more than one DENV serotype was observed. This finding should be warning signs to health authorities in situations of the large dispersal of serotypes that are occurring in the world.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos-Ciminera, Patricia D

    2005-01-01

    .... In Manaus, the capital of Amazonas, atypical cases of Plasmodium vivax infections, including patients presenting with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding, led to the hypothesis that severe disease...

  20. Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, and screening against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, for the biological control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. From 25 soil samples collected in nine municipalities, 484 bacterial colonies were obtained, 57 (11.78% of which were identified as B. thuringiensis. Six isolates, IBt-03, IBt-06, IBt-07, IBt-28, IBt-30, and BtAM-27 showed insecticidal activity, and only BtAM-27 presents the five genes investigated cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba. The IBt-07 and IBt- 28, with lower LC50 values, showed equal toxicity compared to the standards. The isolates of B. thuringiensis from Amazonas constitute potential new means of biological control for A. aegypti, because of their larvicidal activity and the possibility that they may also contain new combinations of toxins.

  1. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  2. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Hamada Neusa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis and associated factors among women living with HIV/AIDS in Amazonas, Brazil

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    Leila Cristina Ferreira Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated factors among women living with HIV attending an AIDS clinic in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study among women attending an AIDS clinic in Manaus between March and December 2010 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a face-to-face interview including demographic, behavioral and clinical data. They also underwent a gynecological evaluation and cervical scrape samples were collected for wet mount, Gram stain, culture and cytological analysis. A blood sample was obtained to determine TCD4+ lymphocytes and viral load. RESULTS: A total of 341 (91.2% women participated in the study. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was 4.1% (95% CI: 2.0-6.2%. Median age was 32 (interquartile range 27-38 years and median years of schooling was 9.0 (interquartile range 4-11. A total of 165 (53.2% HIV women were classified as patients with AIDS. In multivariate analyses, squamous intraepithelial lesions in cytology [OR = 2.46 (95% CI: 1.31-4.63, p = 0.005] and anal sex practice [OR = 3.62 (95% CI: 1.08-12.19, p = 0.037] were associated with T. vaginalis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight that HIV-infected women should be screened for T. vaginalis. The control of this infection may have an impact on preventing reproductive complications among these women.

  4. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  5. Primary drug resistance among pulmonary treatment-naïve tuberculosis patients in Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Garrido, M; Ramasawmy, R; Perez-Porcuna, T M; Zaranza, E; Chrusciak Talhari, A; Martinez-Espinosa, F E; Bührer-Sékula, S

    2014-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is the main indicator of previous treatment in tuberculosis (TB) patients. MDR-TB among treatment-naïve patients indicates infection with drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, and such cases are considered primary drug-resistant cases. To estimate the prevalence of drug resistance in pulmonary TB (PTB) treatment-naïve patients and to identify the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the resistant population. A total of 205 treatment-naïve PTB patients from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, were enrolled. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed on all positive mycobacterial cultures using the 1% proportion method. Positive M. tuberculosis cultures were obtained from only 175 patients for DST. The prevalence of primary MDR-TB was 1.7% (3/175); 14.3% (25/175) of the cultures presented resistance to at least one of the drugs. Resistance to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol was respectively 8.6%, 6.9%, 3.4% and 2.3%. An association between TB patients with resistance to more than one drug and known previous household contact with a TB patient was observed (P= 0.008, OR 6.7, 95%CI 1.2-67.3). Although the prevalence of primary MDR-TB currently is relatively low, it may become a major public health problem if tailored treatment is not provided, as resistance to more than one drug is significantly associated with household contact.

  6. Self-medication among nursing students in the state of Amazonas - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Abel Santiago Muri; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2017-05-18

    To determine the prevalence of self-medication and associated factors among nursing students. This is a cross-sectional study with 116 nursing students from the public university in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, from March to April 2014. Data were collected using a questionnaire with socioeconomic and medicine use variables. The data were subjected to bivariate analysis and logistic regression at a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of self-medication was 76.0%, chiefly motivated by the belief that the health condition did not require a medical appointment (46.6%). Half of the students reported pain-related complaints. The most commonly used pharmacological groups were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (63.2%) and antibiotics (11.1%). Lack of awareness of the negative implications of self-medication was associated with self-medication (OR = 6.0). The high prevalence of self-medication that may lead to adverse reactions reveals the students' irrational use of medicines, especially considering the role of these future professionals in patient safety.

  7. Temporal genetic structure of major dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Barbara Alessandra Alves; de Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Scarpassa, Vera Margarete

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, high levels of Aedes aegypti infestation and several dengue outbreaks with fatal outcome cases have been reported in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. This situation made it important to understand the genetic structure and gene flow patterns among the populations of this vector in Manaus, vital pieces of information for their management and development of new control strategies. In this study, we used nine microsatellite loci to examine the effect of seasonality on the genetic structure and gene flow patterns in Ae. aegypti populations from four urban neighborhoods of Manaus, collected during the two main rainy and dry seasons. All loci were polymorphic in the eight samples from the two seasons, with a total of 41 alleles. The genetic structure analyses of the samples from the rainy season revealed genetic homogeneity and extensive gene flow, a result consistent with the abundance of breeding sites for this vector. However, the samples from the dry season were significantly structured, due to a reduction of Ne in two (Praça 14 de Janeiro and Cidade Nova) of the four samples analyzed, and this was the primary factor influencing structure during the dry season. Genetic bottleneck analyses suggested that the Ae. aegypti populations from Manaus are being maintained continuously throughout the year, with seasonal reduction rather than severe bottleneck or extinction, corroborating previous reports. These findings are of extremely great importance for designing new dengue control strategies in Manaus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trichomonas vaginalis and associated factors among women living with HIV/AIDS in Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leila Cristina Ferreira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Batalha, Rosieny Santos; Monte, Rossicléia Lins; Talhari, Sinésio

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated factors among women living with HIV attending an AIDS clinic in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Cross-sectional study among women attending an AIDS clinic in Manaus between March and December 2010 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a face-to-face interview including demographic, behavioral and clinical data. They also underwent a gynecological evaluation and cervical scrape samples were collected for wet mount, Gram stain, culture and cytological analysis. A blood sample was obtained to determine TCD4+ lymphocytes and viral load. A total of 341 (91.2%) women participated in the study. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was 4.1% (95% CI: 2.0-6.2%). Median age was 32 (interquartile range 27-38) years and median years of schooling was 9.0 (interquartile range 4-11). A total of 165 (53.2%) HIV women were classified as patients with AIDS. In multivariate analyses, squamous intraepithelial lesions in cytology [OR=2.46 (95% CI: 1.31-4.63, p=0.005)] and anal sex practice [OR=3.62 (95% CI: 1.08-12.19, p=0.037)] were associated with T. vaginalis. These results highlight that HIV-infected women should be screened for T. vaginalis. The control of this infection may have an impact on preventing reproductive complications among these women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of dengue vectors in neighborhoods with different urbanization types of Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Codeço, Cláudia T; Honório, Nildimar A; Sabroza, Paulo S; Moresco, Mônica; Cunha, Ivana C L; Levino, Antônio; Toledo, Luciano M; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2007-08-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are vectors of dengue viruses, which cause endemic disease in the city of Manaus, capital of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. More than 53 thousand cases have been registered in this city since the first epidemic in 1998. We evaluated the hypothesis that different ecological conditions result in different patterns of vector infestation in Manaus, by measuring the infestation level in four neighborhoods with different urbanization patterns, during the rainy (April), dry (August), and transitional (November) seasons. Ae. aegypti predominated throughout the study areas and sampling periods, representing 86% of all specimens collected in oviposition traps. High frequencies of houses positive for both species were observed in all studied sites, with Ae. aegypti present in more than 84% of the houses in all seasons. Ae. albopictus, on the other hand, showed more spatial and temporal variation in abundance. We found no association between infestation level and house traits. This study highlights the homogeneity of dengue vector distribution in Manaus.

  10. [Epidemiology of tegumentary leishmaniasis in São João, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Jéfferson Augusto Santana; Coelho, Leíla Inês de Aguiar Raposo da Camara; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Paes, Marcilene Gomes

    2006-11-01

    In Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, the degree of individual exposure to leishmaniasis is related to disorganized land occupation. In order to evaluate predisposing factors for an outbreak, confirm the parasitological diagnosis, treat patients, and assess etiological agents, reservoirs, and vectors, a 12-month study was conducted in Manaus in a community located along the BR-174 federal highway. Some 451 individuals were studied, among whom 17 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) were diagnosed (six women and 11 men). Age varied from one to 64 years. Eleven patients had from one to three lesions. As for reservoirs, three opossums were captured. No hemoflagellates were found in the blood tests. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the predominant vector species captured. Many ATL patients were engaged in activities that exposed them to Leishmania vectors. Some patients may have been infected in the household and peridomiciliary environments. The epidemiological profile of ATL in this community is similar that of other foci in the region. This case series characterizes ATL as an endemic local public health problem.

  11. Non-planed urbanization as a contributing factor for malaria incidence in Manaus-Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the dynamics of malaria in Manaus and its relationship with the urban expansion and environmental factors related to it. The purpose of this paper is: to analyse how the form of occupying the emptied space in the city, together with the urbanization and factors related to the environment, have contributed for the establishment, increase and/or sustainability of malaria in the urban area of the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A retrospective study was carried out on malaria epidemiology from 1986 to 1997; data on the evolution and urban expansion of the city of Manaus were surveyed. Data were descriptively analysed making a relationship between the environmental aspects of urbanization and the way the city of Manaus was occupied and how this has contributed to malaria epidemiology in the city. The findings point out to the importance of the environment on malaria incidence, and to the influence of the anthropic interventions on the modification of the ecosystem, making the urban environment ideal for the proliferation of Anopheles sp mosquitoes, vectors of this disease. These elements in association continue to favour the maintenance of the incidence of malaria in the urban area of Manaus.

  12. Fish, Marmelos Conservation Area (BX044, Madeira River basin, states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a species list of fish from the Marmelos River Area – BX044 in the states ofAmazonas and Rondônia in northern Brazil. During a Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA performed in October andNovember of 2003, 133 fish species from six orders and 24 families were recorded. The most diverse families wereCharacidae (47 species, Cichlidae (15 species, Loricariidae (12 species and Pimelodidae (7 species. 23 fish specieswere common to the entire river basin and 4 were endemic to the aquatic system studied.

  13. Freshwater mussels of Catalão, confluence of Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fettuccia, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a species list of freshwater mussels from Catalão, the meeting of the Solimõesand Negro rivers, in state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. Expeditions to collect molluscs were carried out between 2004and 2006, during high and low water seasons. Three hundred and thirty-one bivalve shells, 25 valves, and 57 livespecimens of four families and 10 species were identified. A single exotic species, Corbicula fluminea, represented overhalf the collected shells. All bivalve shells were photographed and registered at the mollusc collection of the InstitutoNacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus.

  14. Dynastinae beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae) of Parque Nacional do Jau, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreazze, R

    2001-01-01

    Dynastinae beetles were collected at the Parque National do Jau, state of Amazonas between july/1993 to june/1996, during new moon and last quarter in five different places near the lowlands of the Jau river...

  15. Molecular typing of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex isolates from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gleica Soyan Barbosa; Freire, Ana Karla Lima; Bentes, Amaury Dos Santos; Pinheiro, José Felipe de Souza; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Jackisch-Matsuura, Ani Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Effectiveness of syndromic management for male patients with urethral discharge symptoms in Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes Filho, Jonas Rodrigues de; Sardinha, José Carlos Gomes; Galbán, Enrique; Saraceni, Valéria; Talhari, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Urethral discharge syndrome (UDS) is characterized by the presence of purulent or mucopurulent urethral discharge.The main etiological agents of this syndrome are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. To evaluate the effectiveness of the syndromic management to resolve symptoms in male urethral discharge syndrome cases in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Retrospective cohort of male cases of urethral discharge syndrome observed at a clinic for sexually transmitted disease (STD) in 2013. Epidemiological and clinical data, as well as the results of urethral swabs, bacterioscopy, hybrid capture for C.trachomatis, wet-mount examination, and culture for N.gonorrhoeae, were obtained through medical chart reviews. Of the 800 urethral discharge syndrome cases observed at the STD clinic, 785 (98.1%) presented only urethral discharge syndrome, 633 (79.1%) returned for follow-up, 579 (91.5%) were considered clinically cured on the first visit, 41(6.5 %) were considered cured on the second visit, and 13(2.0%) did not reach clinical cure after two appointments. Regarding the etiological diagnosis, 42.7% of the patients presented a microbiological diagnosis of N.gonorrhoeae, 39.3% of non-gonococcal and non-chlamydia urethritis, 10.7% of C.trachomatis and 7.3% of co-infection with chlamydia and gonococcus. The odds of being considered cured in the first visit were greater in those who were unmarried, with greater schooling, and with an etiological diagnosis of gonorrhea. The diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis reduced the chance of cure in the first visit. A study conducted at a single center of STD treatment. Syndromic management of male urethral discharge syndrome performed in accordance with the Brazilian Ministry of Health STD guidelines was effective in resolving symptoms in the studied population. More studies with microbiological outcomes are needed to ensure the maintenance of the syndromic management.

  17. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de; Gato, Cynara Melo; Maciel, Lucinei Alves; Lalwani, Pritesh; Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Lalwani, Jaila Dias Borges

    2017-12-21

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Blood donors (2001-2003) were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13%) were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116) was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16), HTLV-2 (n=5) and HTLV-untypable (n=3)]. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  18. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de Morais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Materials and Methods: Blood donors (2001-2003 were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Results: Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13% were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116 was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16, HTLV-2 (n=5 and HTLV-untypable (n=3]. Discussion: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  19. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of Solimões, Amazonas, and Parnaíba Basin Provinces, Brazil, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 5 billion barrels of oil and 47 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Paleozoic Solimões, Amazonas, and Parnaíba Basin Provinces, Brazil

  20. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the Amazonas State, Brazil, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, M da S; Bührer-Sékula, S; Souza, A B; de Oliveira, G P; Antunes, I A; Mendes, J M; Saraceni, V; Martinez-Espinosa, F E; Ramasawmy, R

    2015-05-01

    Amazonas is facing increasing challenges in tuberculosis (TB) control, with nearly 3000 cases per year, and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) may jeopardise the TB control programme. To assess the number of MDR-TB cases in the Amazonas and to improve estimates of the burden of TB. The Brazilian National Mandatory Disease Reporting System (SINAN) and the Brazilian Epidemiological Surveillance System of Multidrug Resistance (TBMR) were searched for MDR-TB cases in the State of Amazonas from 2000 to 2011. Eighty-one MDR-TB cases were notified. The rates of primary MDR-TB, initial MDR-TB during the first treatment regimen and acquired MDR-TB were respectively 3.8%, 13.7% and 82.7%; 26.9% of previously treated patients had ⩾ 4 treatment cycles. The MDR-TB cases reported 263 contacts, only 35.0% of whom were examined. The cure and death rates among the 81 patients with MDR-TB were respectively 45.7% and 25.9%. The number of MDR-TB cases seems incompatible with the high TB prevalence in the Amazonas. Most patients were unaware of contact with TB patients. TB is endemic in the Amazonas. This highlights the need for improving resistance investigation among all TB cases.

  1. [Characterization of hepatitis C virus in chronic hepatitis patients: genotypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Ruth; Almeida, Carlos Mauríco de; Fraporti, Liziara; Garcia, Nadja; Lima, Tatiane Amábili de; Maia, Laura Patrícia Viana; Torres, Kátia Luz; Tarragô, Andréa Monteiro; Victória, Flamir; Victória, Marilu; Tateno, Adriana; Levi, José Eduardo; Talhari, Sinésio; Malheiro, Adriana

    2011-10-01

    In the State of Amazonas, data regarding the prevalence of different genotypes of hepatitis C virus remains scarce. The genotype of 69 HCV positive patients was determined. An in-house standardized nested-PCR was used to detect HCV RNA. Genotype assignment was based on type-specific motifs on the sequenced amplicons delimited by primers HC11/HC18 from the 5' untranslated region. Of the 69 patients studied, 65.2% were male and 34.8% were female. Genotype 1 showed the greatest prevalence, followed by 3 and 2. These data suggesting that Manaus is the point of arrival of HCV in the State of Amazonas.

  2. New Records of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Nesse trabalho registramos a ocorrência de Clypearia apicipennis (Spinola, 1851, Leipomeles pusilla (Ducke, 1904, Metapolybia nigra Richards, 1978, Parachartergus richardsi Willink, 1951 e Pseudopolybia langi Bequaert, 1944 pela primeira vez no estado do Amazonas e incluímos notas de distribuição.

  3. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, L K H; Kashima, S; Amarante, M F C; Haddad, R; Rodrigues, E S; Silva, K L T; Lima, T A; Castro, D B; Brito, F C; Almeida, E G; Covas, D T; Malheiro, A

    2012-02-01

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF_BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible "homogenous" subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country.

  4. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, L.K.H. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G. [Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Malheiro, A. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization.

  5. First record of Phanuropsis laniger Johnson in Brazil and first record of Phanuropsis semiflaviventris Girault in Amazonas (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) with notes of their hosts, stink-bugs of cupuaçu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlmann, Thiago; Oliveira, Bruno G

    2016-01-01

    We report the first record and collection of Phanuropsis laniger Johnson, 1987, for Brazil since its original description. In addition we expand the distribution of Phanuropsis semiflaviventris Girault, 1916, for Amazonas, Brazil and present an updated list of records for both species with the occurrence of P. semiflaviventris in egg of stink-bugs on cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum). First record of Phanuropsis laniger Johnson, 1987, for Brazil. We also expanded the distribution of Phanuropsis semiflaviventris Girault, 1916, for the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

  6. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio Amazonas basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gustavo D; Marinho, Manoela M F

    2016-03-24

    Moenkhausia abyss is herein described from the rio Amazonas basin lowlands. The new species can be distinguished from the congeners by presenting the combination of the following characters: a dark blotch located on the upper caudal-fin lobe and the lower lobe hyaline, 25-29 branched anal-fin rays, humeral spot rectangular, vertically oriented, extending horizontally through two or two and a half scales and located over the third to the fifth lateral line scales, five longitudinal scale rows above the lateral line, predorsal scales arranged in a single not interrupted median row and 30-34 perforated lateral line scales. Brief comments on Moenkhausia megalops are provided.

  7. [Community-based organizations and the aids epidemic in Amazonas state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Julio Cesar

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perception of community-based organizations and their contributions to the history of tackling Aids in Amazonas State. It involved qualitative research with the use of oral and documental sources. Data were collected between June and September 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews with the leaders of eight organizations that work or worked with more vulnerable communities. Based on Discourse Analysis the conclusion drawn is that that the organizations perceive two distinct phases since the decentralization of funds from the Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Aids and Viral Hepatitis Department to the local leaders. The first phase was marked by the strengthening of organizations, collective empowerment and active political participation. The current phase has seen the distancing between organizations, a loss of political momentum and weakening of common response and organization.

  8. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for leptospirosis in the City of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciete Almeida; Lima, Kátia Maria da Silva; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Balassiano, Ilana Teruszkin; Avelar, Kátia Eliane Santos; Jesus, Michele Silva de

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by a bacterium of the genus Leptospira. This study aimed at investigating the seroprevalence of and risk factors for leptospirosis in humans in Manaus, State of Amazonas. Interviews were performed, and 1,000 blood serum samples were examined using a microscopic agglutination test. Forty-three cases were positive; there were 10 serotypes, with coagglutination in 8 cases. The most frequently occurring serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (20.7%), Cynopteri (20.7%), Australis (18.8%), and Copenhageni (16.9%), and the Midwest (54.7%) and South (23.8%) had the most cases; these areas lack basic sanitation. Disease occurrence might be reduced through improved basic infrastructural conditions.

  9. Characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara Coelho, Leila Ines; Paes, Marcilene; Guerra, Jorge Augusto; Barbosa, Maria das Graças; Coelho, Candisse; Lima, Bruna; Brito, Maria Edileuza; Brandão Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2011-03-01

    In the State of Amazonas, American tegumentary leishmaniasis is endemic and presents a wide spectrum of clinical variability due to the large diversity of circulating species in the region. Isolates from patients in Manaus and its metropolitan region were characterized using monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymes belonging to four species of the parasite: Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, 73% (153/209); Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 14% (30/209); Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, 8% (17/209); and Leishmania (Viannia) naiffii, 4% (9/209). The most prevalent species was L. (V.) guyanensis. The principal finding of this study was the important quantity of infections involving more than one parasite species, representing 14% (29/209) of the total. The findings obtained in this work regarding the parasite are further highlighted by the fact that these isolates were obtained from clinical samples collected from single lesions.

  10. Mansonella ozzardi in Brazil: prevalence of infection in riverine communities in the Purus region, in the state of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and to estimate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Pauini, Amazonas, Brazil. We used thick blood films to examine 921 individuals in 35 riverine communities along the Pauini and Purus Rivers. Simuliids were caught in several communities. Flies were identified, stained with haematoxylin and dissected. Overall, 44 (24.86% of 177 riverines were infected in communities on the Pauini River and 183 (24.19% of 744 on the Purus. The prevalence was higher in men (31.81% and 29.82% than in women (17.98% and 19.18% and occurred in most age groups. The prevalence increased sharply in the 28-37 (50% and 42.68% age group and increased in the older age classes. The highest prevalence was in farmers (44% and 52.17%, respectively in the Pauini and Purus Rivers. Only Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae transmits M. ozzardi in this municipality, and we found a PIR of 0-8.43% and infectivity rate of 0-3.61%. These results confirm that rates of M. ozzardi infection are high in Pauini and suggest that its prevalence may be far greater than has been previously reported due to the absence of a program for treating the population.

  11. Variability of the Leaf Area Index in natural fields and transition forest in Southern Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Walleson Higor Corrêa Jordão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Leaf Area Index (LAI has strong influence on ecosystems’ energy and mass exchange and is fundamental to the understanding of regional climate changes and ecosystem dynamics. The main goal of this work was to establish, based on geostatistical analyses, the variability and spatial dependence of LAI in the natural fields and transitional forest in southern Amazonas State, in Brazil. The LAI was measured in a regular grid with 33 points at each studied area. Field measurements were done using the canopy analyser LAI-2000, which calculates the structure of the vegetation based on the radiation beneath the tree canopy. The average values of LAI varied according to the studied sites: the highest values were found in the transitional forest (4.42 m²m -2 , followed by the high (2.03 m²m -2 and low (1.72 m²m -2 natural fields. All studied sites showed spatial dependence according to the kriging methods, but with different degrees of dependence: spatial dependence was moderate at the transition forest and weak at the natural fields. In the more arboreal open field, the maximum limit at which the points are correlated reached a distance of 35.3 m. The kriging maps proved to be very important tools for describing the spatial distribution of LAI in the Amazon.

  12. Survey of pathogens in threatened wild red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis nestlings in Rasa Island, Brazil

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    Frederico Fontanelli Vaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis. Swab samples were collected from 58 parrots for C. psittaci detection by PCR and from 50 nestlings for Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and West Nile viruses’ detection analysis by real-time RT-PCR. Ten bacterial genera and 17 species were identified, and the most prevalent were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. There was no influence of the type of nest in the nestlings’ microbiota. All samples tested by ELISA and PCR were negative. There is currently insufficient information available about the health of A. brasiliensis and data of this study provide a reference point for future evaluations and aid in conservation plans.

  13. Survey of pathogens in threatened wild red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) nestlings in Rasa Island, Brazil.

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    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Serafini, Patrícia Pereira; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Meurer, Rafael; Durigon, Edison Luiz; de Araújo, Jansen; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumiya; Ometto, Tatiana; Sipinski, Elenise Angelotti Bastos; Sezerban, Rafael Meirelles; Abbud, Maria Cecília; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis. Swab samples were collected from 58 parrots for C. psittaci detection by PCR and from 50 nestlings for Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and West Nile viruses' detection analysis by real-time RT-PCR. Ten bacterial genera and 17 species were identified, and the most prevalent were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. There was no influence of the type of nest in the nestlings' microbiota. All samples tested by ELISA and PCR were negative. There is currently insufficient information available about the health of A. brasiliensis and data of this study provide a reference point for future evaluations and aid in conservation plans. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening of Amazonian plants from the Adolpho Ducke forest reserve, Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil, for antimicrobial activity

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    Ana Lúcia Basílio Carneiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are species-rich reserves for the discovery and development of antimicrobial drugs. The aim of this work is to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Amazon plants found within the National Institute on Amazon Research's Adolpho Ducke forest reserve, located in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. 75 methanol, chloroform and water extracts representing 12 plant species were tested for antimicrobial activity towards strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans using the gel-diffusion method. Active extracts were further evaluated to establish minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and antimicrobial profiles using bioautography on normal-phase thin-layer chromatography plates. Diclinanona calycina presented extracts with good antimicrobial activity and S. oralis and M. smegmatis were the most sensitive bacteria. D. calycina and Lacmellea gracilis presented extracts with the lowest MIC (48.8 µg/ml. D. calycina methanol and chloroform leaf extracts presented the best overall antimicrobial activity. All test organisms were sensitive to D. calycina branch chloroform extract in the bioautography assay. This is the first evaluation of the biological activity of these plant species and significant in vitro antimicrobial activity was detected in extracts and components from two species, D. calycina and L. gracilis.

  15. The role of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines in patients infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Amazonas State, Brazil.

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    Espir, Thaís Tibery; Figueira, Luanda de Paula; Naiff, Maricleide de Farias; da Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo; Malheiro, Adriana; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss in this paper the role of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines in patients infected with different species of Leishmania in Amazonas State, Brazil. A comparative analysis was made of serum concentrations of these cytokines in the peripheral blood of 33 patients infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The isolates were identified as Leishmania guyanensis, L. naiffi, and L. amazonensis. Most (64%) of the patients were male ranging in age from 18 to 58 years. Protein expression profiles of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 cytokines were shown to vary significantly between infected and noninfected (control group) individuals and according to the Leishmania species. Infection caused by L. guyanensis accounted for 73% of the cases and patients with this parasite also showed higher concentrations of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 when compared to infection by L. amazonensis. Patients with infection caused by L. naiffi showed higher concentration of the cytokines analyzed when compared to uninfected patients; however, there was no statistically significant difference with the other species analyzed.

  16. [Socio-ecological super-determination of health in rural areas in Humaitá, State of Amazonas, Brazil].

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    Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Marcia Gomide da Silva; de Carvalho, Marcia Aparecida Ribeiro; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2014-10-01

    The scope of this article is to apply a trans-disciplinary socio-ecological approach to discuss the super-determination of health in rural areas of the southern Amazon region from a case study developed in Humaitá in the State of Amazonas in Brazil. Field data were collected using ethnographic techniques applied during three expeditions in Humaitá's rural area between 2012 and 2014. Based on the 'socio-ecological metabolism' analytical category, a descriptive and theoretical analysis of four crucial components in the process of super-determination of local health are presented: (1) the composition of the local rural population; (2) fixed and changing territorial aspects; (3) construction of socio-ecological identities; (4) ethnic conflict between Indians and non-Indians. The conclusion reached is that the incorporation of a socio-ecological approach in territorial-based health research provides input for analyses of the local health situation through the systematization of information related to the process of super-determination of health. It also helps in the construction of trans-disciplinarity, which is a necessary epistemological condition for addressing the complex reality at the interfaces of social production, the environment and health.

  17. A new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) from the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil: the smallest species of Potamotrygon.

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    Carvalho, Marcelo R De; Rosa, Ricardo S; Araújo, Maria Lúcia G De

    2016-05-04

    A new species of Potamotrygon is described from the Rio Negro drainage, Amazonas, Brazil. In spite of being cited or pictured several times in the scientific and aquarium fish literature since the 19th Century, it had been misidentified and still lacked a scientific name. Potamotrygon wallacei, n. sp., is diagnosed by the following characters: dorsal surface of disc light brown, with black irregularly-shaped vermiculate markings forming an amphora- or Ω-shaped figure on mid-disc, delimiting light brown reniform areas at disc center, and with subcircular light brown ocellate markings on disc margins; small body size (smallest known Potamotrygon species; largest examined specimen measured 310 mm DW); dorsal spines on tail usually rather low, without broad bases, in one to rarely three irregular rows, but extending posteriorly only to tail mid-length and not to caudal stings, with altogether relatively few spines; denticles on posterior mid-disc and tail base Y-shaped, with a central, anterior, bulbous cusp and usually two posterior pairs of smaller, rounded cusps; and single (anterior) angular cartilage. The new species is similar to P. orbignyi and other "reticulated" species in having a single (anterior) angular cartilage and in the color pattern of the tail, but is easily distinguished based on its size, dorsal tail spine arrangement, and specific details of color pattern.

  18. The Role of Inflammatory, Anti-Inflammatory, and Regulatory Cytokines in Patients Infected with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Thaís Tibery Espir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss in this paper the role of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines in patients infected with different species of Leishmania in Amazonas State, Brazil. A comparative analysis was made of serum concentrations of these cytokines in the peripheral blood of 33 patients infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The isolates were identified as Leishmania guyanensis, L. naiffi, and L. amazonensis. Most (64% of the patients were male ranging in age from 18 to 58 years. Protein expression profiles of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 cytokines were shown to vary significantly between infected and noninfected (control group individuals and according to the Leishmania species. Infection caused by L. guyanensis accounted for 73% of the cases and patients with this parasite also showed higher concentrations of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 when compared to infection by L. amazonensis. Patients with infection caused by L. naiffi showed higher concentration of the cytokines analyzed when compared to uninfected patients; however, there was no statistically significant difference with the other species analyzed.

  19. Landscapes and ethno-knowledge in the Ticuna and Cocama agriculture at upper River Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Sandra do Nascimento Noda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The units of landscape in the Cocama and Ticuna agriculture, in the upper River Solimões, are characterized by productionarrangements and management of natural resources. This paper aims to characterize these agro-ecological based practices,the landscaped results and its regional applicability. The survey was conducted in Novo Paraíso, at Bom Intento Island,and in Nova Aliança, both located in the municipality of Benjamin Constant, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The social andeconomic organization of Ticuna and Cocama Peoples is founded on kinship and communal ownership of natural resources,including spaces for gathering. Family units, despite their weak linkages with the market and its rules, have in the logicof reciprocity the motivation for the production, transmission and management of resources and factors of production.The landscapes are reconstructed by agro-ecological production derived from ethno-knowledge and correspond to theinherent processes of management and conservation of flora and fauna. This process allows the existence of compleximbrications of constantly changing landscapes in which forms of production are recreated for sufficiency and sustainability.

  20. Prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi among riverine communities in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and calculate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Prevalence was measured using the thick blood smear method collected from the fingers and was related to age, sex and occupation. Simuliidae were collected with a suction apparatus, then stained with hematoxylin and dissected to verify the PIR. RESULTS: The average prevalence rate of M. ozzardi among the 694 individuals examined was 20.7%. Infection was higher in men (27.6% than in women (14.3% (p 58 (60.5%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in the retired (64%, followed by farm workers (47.1%. Infection by M. ozzardi was only identified in Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae with a PIR of 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of M. ozzardi in the riverine communities of Lábrea due to the lack of policies regarding the treatment of microfilaremic individuals in the region and an abundance of competent vectors for M. ozzardi.

  1. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

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    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 < 2 wt.%), with the exception of four samples (with 2.2 - 3.3 wt.% TiO2). The low-Ti rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  2. Fish fauna of small streams of the Catua-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Py-Daniel, L. H. R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in an Amazonas state conservation unit, the Catuá-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve (Catuá-IpixunaRESEX. The main purpose was to provide an ichthyological survey of its small streams, all them tributaries of theSolimões River. Nine small streams (up to 4 m width and 1 m depth were sampled in September 2006. A total of 1,525specimens were captured, belonging to 78 species, 24 families and eight orders. Eight species had higher abundancesand represented altogether 61.4 % of all collected specimens (Hemigrammus belotii, Microphilypnus amazonicus,Physopyxis ananas, Apistogramma agassizii, Elachocharax pulcher, Apistogramma cf. cruzi, Gladioglanisconquistador and Copella nigrofasciata. Based on the high number of singletons and doubletons present in oursamples, as well as the estimated number of species for those streams (106 spp., we believe that the total fish speciesrichness present in the Catuá-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve may be considerably higher than indicated by our samples.This seems especially true when considering the dimensions of the Catuá-Ipixuna RESEX and the dense hydrographicnetwork present in the area.

  3. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

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    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  4. Late Neogene Sequence Stratigraphic Evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Christian; Haq, Bilal U.; Tadeu dos Reis, Antonio; Guizan Silva, Cleverson; Cruz, Alberto; Soares, Emilson; Grangeon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The margin of the Foz do Amazonas Basin saw a shift from predominantly carbonate to siliciclastic sedimentation in the early late Miocene. By this time the Amazon shelf had also been incised by a canyon that allowed direct influx of sediment to the basin floor, thus confirming that the paleo-Amazon fan had already initiated by that time (9.5-8.3Ma). Above this interval, during a prolonged lowstand, Messinian third-order sequences are preserved only in the incised-valley fills of the canyon with no equivalent strata on the shelf. Third and fourth-order sequences younger than Messinian are preserved on the shelf after sea-level rise above the shelf by early Pliocene. Sequences younger than 3.8 Ma often show fourth-order cyclicity with average duration of 400 kyr (larger scale eccentricity cycles) often preserved in high sedimentation rate areas of river deltas. Mass wasting and transportation of slope sediments to the basin began to play an important role in sediment dispersal at least as far back as mid Pliocene, after rapid progradation had produced steeper slopes 23 more prone to failure.

  5. Historical analysis of the records of sylvan yellow fever in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 1996 to 2009.

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    Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Amorim, Raul Diniz Souza; Moura, Marco Antônio Sabóia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos; Sampaio, Leônidas Sales; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever is a non-contagious infectious disease, highly lethal, transmitted by the Aedes, Haemagogus and Sabethes. Descriptive retrospective study of the yellow fever cases in Amazonas, between 1996 and 2009. Forty two cases of yellow fever were confirmed, with 30 deaths, 10% of which were foreigners. The presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in both rural Amazonas and its capital demonstrates the dispersion of these vectors and underscores the need for better and continuous epidemiological and entomological control.

  6. Spawning areas, dispersion and microhabitats of fish larvae in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Edinbergh C. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton and their relationships to current velocity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity of the water in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, Negro River, Amazonas State, Brazil, were analyzed. Preferred microhabitats for spawning, dispersion and nursery were also verified. Sampling was undertaken during the falling water period of 2001 and the rising water period of 2002, in a section of 100 km subdivided into 5 subsections, with a total of 20 stations (5 beaches, 5 ravines, 5 channels, and 5 lake channels at night and during the day at the surface and at the bottom. 647 eggs and 4,187 larvae were captured, belonging to 10 families and four orders: Characiformes (6, Siluriformes (2, Perciformes (1, and Clupeiformes (1. Engraulidae (55.39%, Pimelodidae (30.45%, Auchenipteridae (5.23% and Sciaenidae (5.13% were the dominant families. The hierarchical statistical model (ANOVA with three factors (microhabitat, depth and period was applied to the environmental variables and the larval abundance, showing greater abundances of sciaenids in the ravines and lower abundances of engraulids in the channels. The highest captures were obtained at lower temperature values, at the bottom during the day and at the surface at night, suggesting an active larval behavior. The presence of the four larval development stages in all subsection for pimelodids and sciaenids, and in three subsections for engraulids, indicates that the Anavilhanas Ecological Station is an important spawning and nursery area for species of these groups in the Negro River. Larvae abundance of all characiform families was extremely low (from 0.1 to 1.17%, suggesting that they do not spawn in this system.

  7. Evaluation of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in primary health care services in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Dária; Sabidó, Meritxell; Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Benzaken, Nina Schwartz; Jardim, Lucília; Ferreira, Cynthia; Leturiondo, André; Santos, Camila Gurgel Dos; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2016-10-20

    Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered to young asymptomatic women in Brazil. This study evaluated the performance, usefulness, and operational suitability of the Digene Hybrid Capture II (HCII) CT-ID DNA-test as an opportunistic screening tool to detect C. trachomatis in the public health system in Manaus, Amazonas State. Women aged 14-25 years who attended primary health care services were interviewed and one cervical specimen was collected during cytological screening. The HCII CT test was evaluated for its ability to detect the presence of C. trachomatis and against real-time PCR (q-PCR) in a subset of samples. Operational performance was assessed through interviews with providers and patients. Overall, 1,187 women were screened, and 1,169 had a HCII CT-ID test result (292 of these were also tested by q-PCR). Of those, 13.1% (n = 153) were positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of HCII CT were 72.3% (95%CI: 65.4-78.6), 91.3% (95%CI: 84.1-95.9), 93.8% (95%CI: 88.5-97.1), and 64.4% (95%CI: 56.0-72.1), respectively. Sample collection caused discomfort in 19.7% of women. Among health professionals (n = 52), the main barriers reported included positive cases who did not return for results (56.4%), unwillingness to screen without an appointment (45.1%), and increase in their workload (38.8%). HCII CT-ID identified a high proportion of C. trachomatis cases among young women in Manaus. However, its moderate sensitivity limits its use as an opportunistic screening tool in primary health care settings in Manaus. Screening was well accepted although the barriers we identified, especially among health professionals, challenge screening detection and treatment efforts.

  8. Evaluation of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in primary health care services in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Dária Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered to young asymptomatic women in Brazil. This study evaluated the performance, usefulness, and operational suitability of the Digene Hybrid Capture II (HCII CT-ID DNA-test as an opportunistic screening tool to detect C. trachomatis in the public health system in Manaus, Amazonas State. Women aged 14-25 years who attended primary health care services were interviewed and one cervical specimen was collected during cytological screening. The HCII CT test was evaluated for its ability to detect the presence of C. trachomatis and against real-time PCR (q-PCR in a subset of samples. Operational performance was assessed through interviews with providers and patients. Overall, 1,187 women were screened, and 1,169 had a HCII CT-ID test result (292 of these were also tested by q-PCR. Of those, 13.1% (n = 153 were positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of HCII CT were 72.3% (95%CI: 65.4-78.6, 91.3% (95%CI: 84.1-95.9, 93.8% (95%CI: 88.5-97.1, and 64.4% (95%CI: 56.0-72.1, respectively. Sample collection caused discomfort in 19.7% of women. Among health professionals (n = 52, the main barriers reported included positive cases who did not return for results (56.4%, unwillingness to screen without an appointment (45.1%, and increase in their workload (38.8%. HCII CT-ID identified a high proportion of C. trachomatis cases among young women in Manaus. However, its moderate sensitivity limits its use as an opportunistic screening tool in primary health care settings in Manaus. Screening was well accepted although the barriers we identified, especially among health professionals, challenge screening detection and treatment efforts.

  9. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

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    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  10. Clinical-pathological aspects of Blue-fronted Parrots parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linne 1758 coming traffickin arrests from the State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Raul Antunes Silva Siqueira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Siqueira R.A.S., de Lucena R.B., Cavalcanti T.A., Luna A.C. de L., Firmino M. de O. & Guerra R.R. [Clinical-pathological aspects of Blue-fronted Parrots parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linne 1758 coming traffickin arrests from the State of Paraíba, Brazil.] Aspectos clinico-patológicos em papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva, L., 1758 oriundos de apreensões do tráfico no estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:439-444, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Av. Silas Munguba, 1700, Fortaleza, CE 60740-000, Brasil. E-mail: siqueiraras@gmail.com The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of true parrots (Amazona aestiva arising from trafficking seized by the Wild Animals Triage Center (CETAS in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. In order to establish the real condition which they were. The study was developed at CETAS in the Municipality of Cabedelo in the State of Paraíba. Fifteen birds from seizures were used, and nine of them were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected, body weight was checked and liver biopsy was performed. In the other six birds, that died, a necroscopic examination was performed. The results indicated that the birds had a poor body condition. Histopathological and serological findings showed very poor health conditions, and indicated the need to develop a health recovery work to reintroduce and release these birds in the wild.

  11. Occurrence of Symphyla (Myriapoda) in the region of the Upper Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Wellington de Morais; Ester Paixão da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The present work aimed at identifying the Symphyla species diversity and abundance in various land-use systems under different degrees of intensification in western Amazonia. This is the first inventory of Symphyla in primary and secondary forest, crops, agroforestry systems and pastures which was carried out in Benjamin Constant municipality, in the region of the Upper Solimões River, Brazil. Samples (n = 101) were collected using a metal corer, and the symphylan extraction was carried out u...

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and Guillain Barré Syndrome were present in patients from various countries including Brazil. 1.5.3 Genetic...Bilsborough, J.; Baumgart, K.; Bathurst, I.; Barr , P.; Good, M.F. (1997) Fine epitope specificity of antibodies to region II of the Plasmodium vivax...Bathurst, I.C.; Barr , P.J. (1992) Structure and expression of the gene for Pv200 a major blood-stage surface antigen of Plasmodium vivax. Mol

  13. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages. The following genera of Leptohyphidae occur in the Amazonas state: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer and Tricorythopsis Traver. Distribution of Leptohyphidae species in Amazonas state is presented. A new species, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., is described and can be distinguished from other Tricorythodes by: (1 tarsal claws with pair of submarginal denticles and no marginal denticles; (2 bi-articulated maxillary palp; (3 opercular gill black except on apical margin; (4 gill formula 2/3/3/3/2; and (5 expanded lateral abdominal margin of segments III_VI. The new combination, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., is proposed

  14. Simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Michele de Souza; Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Itapirema, Evaulino; Gimaque, João Bosco Lima; Santos, Lucilaide Oliveira; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Manaus, the capital city of the state of Amazon with nearly 2 million inhabitants, is located in the middle of the Amazon rain forest and has suffered dengue outbreaks since 1998. In this study, blood samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), aimed at identifying dengue virus serotypes. Acute phase sera from 432 patients were tested for the presence of dengue virus. Out of the 432 patients, 137 (31.3%) were found to be positive. All the four dengue virus serotypes were observed. The simultaneous circulation of the four dengue serotypes is described for the first time in Manaus and in Brazil.

  15. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Elder Augusto Guimarães; Silva, Glacicleide; Chagas, Erica Cristina da Silva; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM), Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5%) followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6%) and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%). Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.

  16. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

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    Elder Augusto Guimarães Figueira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5% followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6% and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%. Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.

  17. Simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil in 2011

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    Michele de Souza Bastos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Manaus, the capital city of the state of Amazon with nearly 2 million inhabitants, is located in the middle of the Amazon rain forest and has suffered dengue outbreaks since 1998. METHODS: In this study, blood samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, aimed at identifying dengue virus serotypes. RESULTS: Acute phase sera from 432 patients were tested for the presence of dengue virus. Out of the 432 patients, 137 (31.3% were found to be positive. All the four dengue virus serotypes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous circulation of the four dengue serotypes is described for the first time in Manaus and in Brazil.

  18. Growth of the Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 (Perciformes: Cichlidae from the middle rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Caroline Pereira Campos

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate age and growth of the peacock bass Cichla temensis from the rio Negro (Brazilian Amazonia by analyzing scale annuli. Specimens were captured between October 2011 and September 2012 in the main channel of the river and in adjacent lakes in the municipality of Barcelos, AM, Brazil. Six growth checks were identified on the scales of specimens. The annual variation in body condition observed suggests that fat is accumulated during the dry season. Results for the GSI (gonadosomatic index showed that peak reproduction occurred in the receding-water period, indicating that the fish had energy deficiencies as a result of reproductive activity. RMI (relative marginal increment analysis revealed that an annulus is formed once a year during the receding-water period. The population parameters estimated were L50 (length at sexual maturity = 31.11 cm, L∞ (asymptotic length = 68.05 cm, k (growth coefficient = 0.20.year-1 and A0.95 (longevity = 14 years. Our results corroborate the validity of using growth rings in scales as indicators to estimate the age and growth rate of Cichla temensis in the middle rio Negro.

  19. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  20. Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Claudia Marques de Oliveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Saraceni, Valeria; Santos, Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Talhari, Sinesio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of syphilis in pregnant women, including 224 in 2007 (3.8/1,000), 244(4.5/1,000) in 2008, and 198(4.0/1,000) in 2009. The study found 486 cases of congenital syphilis, of which 153 in 2007 (2.1/1,000), 193 in 2008 (2.6/1,000), and 140 in 2009 (2.0/1,000). After linkage of the SINAN databases, 237 pregnant women (35.6%) had cases of congenital syphilis reported. The SIM recorded 4,905 perinatal deaths, of which 57.8% were stillbirths. Probabilistic record linkage between SIM and SINAN-Congenital Syphilis yielded 13 matched records. The use of SINAN and SIM may not reflect the total magnitude of syphilis, but provide the basis for monitoring and analyzing this health problem, with a view towards planning and management.

  1. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Cristina Barbosa NUNES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  2. Mercury concentrations in different tissues of turtle and caiman species from the Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, Sam; Schneider, Larissa; Krikowa, Frank; Vogt, Richard C; Da Silveira, Ronis; Maher, William

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations of muscle, liver, blood, and epidermal keratin were measured in typically consumed, economically and culturally important species of turtle (Podocnemis unifilis and Podocnemis expansa) and caiman (Melanosuchus niger and Caiman crocodilus) from the Rio Purus in the Amazon basin, Brazil. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in muscle tissue, representing the first analysis of MeHg concentrations in Amazonian reptile species. In muscle tissues Hg was mostly MeHg (79-96%) for all species. No correlations existed between animal size and total Hg or MeHg concentrations for any species other than M. niger, possibly as a result of growth dilution or the evolution of efficient Hg elimination mechanisms. Significant linear correlations were found between total Hg concentrations in all pairs of nonlethally sampled tissues (keratin and blood) and internal tissues (muscle and liver) for M. niger and between keratin and internal tissues for P. expansa, indicating that nonlethally sampled tissues can be analyzed to achieve more widespread and representative monitoring of Hg bioaccumulation in Amazonian reptiles. Although mean Hg concentrations in muscle for all species were below the World Health Organization guideline for safe consumption (500 µg kg(-1)), mean concentrations in caiman liver were above the safe limit for pregnant women and children (200 µg kg(-1)). No significant differences were found between total Hg and MeHg concentrations in tissues from wild-caught and farm-raised P. expansa, suggesting that farming may not reduce Hg exposure to humans. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Two new species of Curculionichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio Amazonas basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Fábio F; Dias, Angelica C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2017-10-31

    In the present study, we describe two new species of Curculionichthys from rio Tapajós and rio Tocantins basins in Brazil. Both species present all diagnostic features of Curculionichthys. Furthermore, both species C. tukana and C. itaim are distinguished from congeners by the combination of seven characters: (1) a higher number of plates in abdominal lateral plates series; (2) the absence of large conspicuous odontodes forming rows on head and trunk; (3) the anterior profile of the head pointed; (4) a higher number of dentary teeth; (5) the lack of contrasting dark spots at the anterodorsal region of body; (6) the absence of an irregular concentration of chromatophores that entirely cover the anal-fin origin and adjacent region, and distal portion of the first unbranched anal-fin ray; and (7) the presence of odontodes forming aligned rows, more evident in the dorsal portion of head and in the lateral portion of caudal peduncle. Furthermore, C. tukana can be further distinguished from congeners by three characters: (1) the papillae aligned in series that extends from the distal portion of lower lip to dentary; (2) the absence of dark-brown spots scattered over the body; and (3) a higher number of maxillary teeth. The species C. itaim also can be further distinguished from congeners by five characters: (1) the papillae randomly distributed throughout the lower lip; (2) a smaller number of medial plates series on lateral portion of the body following the lateral line; (3) a smaller number of median plates series in abdomen; (4) the absence of dark-brown spots scattered over the body; and (5) the absence of one unpaired platelet on the dorsal portion of the caudal peduncle.

  4. Virulence of nematodes against larvae of the south-American fruit fly in laboratory using soil from Porto Amazonas, Paraná, Brazil, as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foelkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Anastrepha fraterculus is an important orchard pest. Its management has been based in chemical sprays, but biological control is a growing demand. The objective of this work was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the virulence of eight nematode isolates to A. fraterculus in a soil collected in Porto Amazonas, Paraná, Brazil, and to estimate lethal doses (LD50 and LD90 for the more virulent isolate. Steinernema carpocapsae CB 02, three Heterorhabditis sp., two H. amazonensis and two Oscheius sp. isolates were tested in laboratory against A. fraterculus third-instar larvae using as substrate a loam Cambisol collected in an apple orchard. S. carpocapsae CB 02 isolate caused the higher percent mortality of A. fraterculus. Heterorhabditis sp. isolates and LAMIP 9 ( Oscheius sp. isolates were intermediate, while LAMIP 92 (Oscheius sp. didn't differ from the control. S. carpocapsae CB 02 is able to kill 50% and 90% of A. fraterculus population with 96.3 and 314.7 infective juveniles per larva, respectively, in that soil. As a conclusion, CB 02 is the most virulent to A. fraterculus when the substrate is Porto Amazonas' apple orchard soil and it is able to kill 50 and 90% larval population with 96.3 and 314.7 infective juveniles per larva, respectively.

  5. Mansonella ozzardi in the municipality of Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil, 60 years after the first report: an epidemiologic study

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of mansonelliasis was studied in the municipality of Tefé, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The prevalence (thick blood smear method was 13.6% (147/1,078, higher in the Solimões River region (16.3% than in the Tefé River region (6.3%. In the sampled communities in the Solimões River region, a higher density of cases was observed, as indicated by a kernel analysis (odds ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.57. Males had a higher prevalence (χ2 = 31.292, p < 0.001 than women. Mansonella ozzardi prevalence was higher in retirees and farmers (28.9% and 27%, respectively. Prevalence also significantly increased with age (χ2 = -128.17, p < 0.001, with the highest numbers occurring in persons older than 67 years.

  6. [Intermedicality and protagonism: the role of indigenous health agents on the Kwatá-Laranjal Indian Reservation in Amazonas State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopel, Daniel; Dias-Scopel, Raquel Paiva; Langdon, Esther Jean

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes the results of an ethnographic study on the role of indigenous health agents on the Kwata-Laranjal Indian Reservation in Borba, Amazonas State, Brazil. The study aims to contribute to understanding the role of indigenous health agents in the expansion of the hegemonic medical model in a context of medical pluralism. The analysis included data from participant observation and interviews conducted from 2009 to 2011. Semi-structured interviews were held to record narratives on their work routine, experiences, and difficulties. The authors conclude that work by indigenous health agents is essential to primary care, and that their role extends beyond technical activities. The Munduruku indigenous health agents hold a key position in the links between indigenous and biomedical knowledge in contexts of intermedicality, emerging as new political actors in interethnic contexts.

  7. Mansonella ozzardi in the municipality of Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil, 60 years after the first report: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Rodrigues, Moreno Souza; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of mansonelliasis was studied in the municipality of Tefé, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The prevalence (thick blood smear method) was 13.6% (147/1,078), higher in the Solimões River region (16.3%) than in the Tefé River region (6.3%). In the sampled communities in the Solimões River region, a higher density of cases was observed, as indicated by a kernel analysis (odds ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.57). Males had a higher prevalence (χ2 = 31.292, p < 0.001) than women. Mansonella ozzardi prevalence was higher in retirees and farmers (28.9% and 27%, respectively). Prevalence also significantly increased with age (χ2 = -128.17, p < 0.001), with the highest numbers occurring in persons older than 67 years.

  8. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  10. Epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar na Comunidade São João, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Epidemiology of tegumentary leishmaniasis in São João, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, o grau de exposição dos indivíduos à leishmaniose está relacionado aos processos de ocupação desordenada. Para avaliar fatores predisponentes à gênese do surto, confirmar o diagnóstico parasitológico, tratar os doentes, avaliar agentes etiológicos, reservatórios e transmissores, realizou-se um estudo em Manaus, numa comunidade localizada no Km 4 da BR-174, durante 12 meses. Atendeu-se 451 indivíduos, dos quais foram diagnosticados 17 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Seis pacientes eram mulheres e 11 homens. A idade variou de um a 64 anos. Onze pacientes tinham entre uma e três lesões. Em relação aos reservatórios, três marsupiais foram capturados. Não foram encontrados hemoflagelados nos exames realizados. Dentre os insetos capturados, Lutzomyia umbratilis foi a espécie predominante. Grande parte dos pacientes de leishmaniose tegumentar americana tem atividades que os expõem aos vetores da Leishmania. Um grupo de pacientes foi infectado possivelmente no intra/peridomicílio. O perfil epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana nessa comunidade é semelhante àquele observado em outros focos na região. Com essa casuística, a leishmaniose tegumentar americana é caracterizada como endêmica e como um problema de saúde pública local.In Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, the degree of individual exposure to leishmaniasis is related to disorganized land occupation. In order to evaluate predisposing factors for an outbreak, confirm the parasitological diagnosis, treat patients, and assess etiological agents, reservoirs, and vectors, a 12-month study was conducted in Manaus in a community located along the BR-174 federal highway. Some 451 individuals were studied, among whom 17 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL were diagnosed (six women and 11 men. Age varied from one to 64 years. Eleven patients had from one to three lesions. As for reservoirs, three opossums were

  11. Prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi among riverine communities in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil Prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi entre comunidades ribeirinhas do município de Lábrea, Estado do Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and calculate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Prevalence was measured using the thick blood smear method collected from the fingers and was related to age, sex and occupation. Simuliidae were collected with a suction apparatus, then stained with hematoxylin and dissected to verify the PIR. RESULTS: The average prevalence rate of M. ozzardi among the 694 individuals examined was 20.7%. Infection was higher in men (27.6% than in women (14.3% (p 58 (60.5%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in the retired (64%, followed by farm workers (47.1%. Infection by M. ozzardi was only identified in Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae with a PIR of 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of M. ozzardi in the riverine communities of Lábrea due to the lack of policies regarding the treatment of microfilaremic individuals in the region and an abundance of competent vectors for M. ozzardi.INTRODUÇÃO: Estimar as prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi, e calcular a taxa de infecção parasitária nos simulídeos no município de Lábrea, Estado do Amazonas. MÉTODOS: As prevalências foram obtidas através do método de gota espessa a partir do sangue coletado da polpa digital e foram relacionadas com a idade, sexo e ocupação. Os simulídeos foram coletados com capturador de sucção, posteriormente foram corados com hematoxilina e dissecados para se obter a taxa de infecção parasitária. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de M. ozzardi entre as 694 pessoas examinadas foi de 20,7%. A infecção foi maior nos homens (27,6% do que nas mulheres (14,3% (p 58 (60,5% anos. As maiores prevalências foram observadas nos aposentados (64% e agricultores (47,1%. Somente Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae foi encontrado infectado com M. ozzardi com uma taxa de infecção parasitária de 0

  12. The environmental and social impact of electric energy generation in villages and states of the interior of Amazonas state, Brazil; O impacto socio-ambiental da geracao de energia eletrica nas vilas e municipios do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The interior of the State of Amazonas is nowadays socio and economically stagnant in consequence of various structural problems. The lack of a reliable source of electricity in these areas is one of these problems, and it has been causing several environment and social problems for the local population. To show, in a historic context, the consequences of this scenario to the country side of the State of Amazonas, is the goal of this article. (author)

  13. Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV From 1999 to 2011 in the Amazonas, Brazil: Risk Factors and Remaining Gaps in Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Solange Dourado; Sabidó, Meritxell; Marcelo Monteiro, Wuelton; Canellas, Luiz; Prazeres, Vania; Schwartz Benzaken, Adele

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in the Amazonas, Brazil, and to identify the associated factors. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1210 children born to HIV-infected women between 1999 and 2011 and enrolled before age of 18 months in a reference HIV/AIDS pediatrics service in Manaus. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the effect of maternal, obstetric and prophylactic interventions on MTCT of HIV. Ten children were excluded because of undocumented maternal HIV status. Among 1200 children, 163 (13.6%) were lost to follow-up. We included in the analysis 1037 children with known HIV status. Of those, 68 children were HIV infected, resulting in a MTCT rate of 6.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.3-8.3]. Among mothers, 76.1% had received antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, 59.3% elective caesarean, and 9.7% were breastfed. Factors associated with lower odds of MTCT of HIV were antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy [odds ratio (OR): 0.26; 95% CI: 0.12-0.58], elective caesarean (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.23-0.98) and with MTCT: being breastfed (OR: 4.56; 95% CI: 2.19-9.50). Transmission decreased from 7.5% in 2007-2008 to 3.2% in 2011, while breastfeeding decreased from 30.8% in 1999-2000 to 3.9% in 2011-2012. The HIV rate of MTCT is still high in the Amazonas and challenges for its prevention prevail including lost to follow-up and gaps in critical strategies such as antiretroviral use during pregnancy. More efforts are needed to increase the number of women and babies who successfully complete the prevention of MTCT cascade and work toward elimination of MTCT of HIV.

  14. Quality of the Solimões River water for domestic use by the riverine community situated in Manacapuru-Amazonas-Brazil.

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    Pantoja, N G P; Castro, L M; Rocha, S D; Silva, J A; Ribeiro, J S P; Donald, A R; Silva, L M; Oliveira, T C S

    2016-06-01

    The Amazon has the largest watershed in the world, with abundant fresh water reserves. Such abundance contrasts with the quality of the water consumed in the riverine communities. This work highlights the importance of assessing the quality of water of the Solimões River in the stretch situated opposite the Community Nossa Senhora das Graças-Costa do Pesqueiro, in front of the town of Manacapuru-Amazonas-Brazil. The research aimed to evaluate environmental indicators for the quality of the river water as well as in households in this community, according to the regional seasonality. The monitored parameters such as conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, color, pH, nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate were compared with the water quality standards in force in Brazil. Values well above the maximum level allowed (MLA) for color and turbidity parameters were found in some households, indicating that the water collected from the river is not getting appropriate treatment. The analysis of the correlation matrix of the parameters in the flood period of the river evidenced high correlation among dissolved oxygen (D.O), NO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), and color. In this study, by principal component analysis (PCA), it was observed that the characteristics of the water, obtained from the river to be consumed in the households, in the flood period showed similarities with the river water samples, indicating absence of efficient treatment for human consumption.

  15. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

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    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil.

  16. A new eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-fronted Amazon parrot Amazona aestiva L. (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Guaraldo, A M A

    2011-12-01

    The Neotropical psittacine species Amazona aestiva, commonly known as the blue-fronted Amazon, is one of the most common and best-known psittacine birds kept as a pet worldwide. However, very little is known about the diseases or parasites of these birds. In this study, we describe a new species, Eimeria aestivae, associated with these parrots. The new species is characterized by: ovoid smooth oocysts (n  =  60), 36.8 (33.2-41.5) × 23.7 (21.7-25.7) µm, length/width ratio  =  1.55; polar granule present; ellipsoidal sporocysts (n  =  25), 19.8 (17.5-21.6) × 9.3 (8.3-9.9) µm; Stieda, sub-Stieda body, and sporocyst residuum present. Sporozoites (n  =  20), 2 per sporocyst, elongate and curved, 17.6 (15.8-19.2) × 3.8 (3.2-4.8) µm; each with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts of the other 2 eimerian species described for Amazona are larger than those of the presented species, but they all seem to be closely related because of some similarities among them.

  17. Late Pleistocene sea-level changes recorded in tidal and fluvial deposits from Itaubal Formation, onshore portion of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

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    Isaac Salém Alves Azevedo Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe Pleistocene deposits exposed in the Amapá Coastal Plain (onshore portion of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, northeastern South America were previously interpreted as Miocene in age. In this work, they were named as "Itaubal Formation" and were included in the quaternary coastal history of Amazonia. The study, through facies and stratigraphic analyses in combination with optically stimulated luminescence (single and multiple aliquot regeneration, allowed interpreting this unit as Late Pleistocene tidal and fluvial deposits. The Itaubal Formation, which unconformably overlies strongly weathered basement rocks of the Guianas Shield, was subdivided into two progradational units, separated by an unconformity related to sea-level fall, here named as Lower and Upper Units. The Lower Unit yielded ages between 120,600 (± 12,000 and 70,850 (± 6,700 years BP and consists of subtidal flat, tide-influenced meandering stream and floodplain deposits, during highstand conditions. The Upper Unit spans between 69,150 (± 7,200 and 58,150 (± 6,800 years BP and is characterized by braided fluvial deposits incised in the Lower Unit, related to base-level fall; lowstand conditions remained until 23,500 (± 3,000 years BP. The studied region was likely exposed during the Last Glacial Maximum and then during Holocene, covered by tidal deposits influenced by the Amazon River.

  18. Ocorrência de enteroparasitas na população geronte de Nova Olinda do Norte Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of enteroparasites in the elderly population of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Ana Felisa Hurtado-Guerrero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitas em um grupo de idosos ribeirinhos, moradores do Município de Nova Olinda do Norte, Estado do Amazonas Brasil, no período de abril e agosto de 1999. Por meio de um estudo de corte transversal foram analisados 81 exames, através do método de Sedimentação Espontânea (Método de Hoffman et al., 1934. Foi constatada positividade em 72,8% dos idosos, predominando o monoparasitismo (43,2%. Os helmintos foram os mais freqüentes (70,4%, destacando-se: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16,0%, Ancylostoma duodenale (9,0% e Strongyloides stercoralis (9,0%. Dentre os protozoários (29,5%, a ocorrência de Entamoeba coli foi de 18,2%, Giárdia lamblia de 7,0% e Entamoeba histolytica 4,5%. Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre sexo e grau de parasitismo e entre faixas etárias e condição parasitária. Estes resultados evidenciam um quadro de alta prevalência de parasitas intestinais nesta população e discordam dos reportados por outros pesquisadores quando afirmam que a intensidade da infestação por parasitas diminui na idade avançada. Os achados anteriores exigem das autoridades governamentais medidas de controle e educação para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses idosos, considerando a grave repercussão que esses parasitas tem no estado nutricional dos gerontes de baixa renda.A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of enteroparasites attacking elderly people living in a riverside city of the Municipal district of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas State Brazil. In this cross sectional study were examined the faecal material from 81 elderly people using the method of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman et al., 1934. It was found a positiveness in 72,8% of the elderly people examined, predominating the mono parasitism (43,2%. The helminths were more frequents (70,3%: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16

  19. Reactions of community members regarding community health workers' activities as a measure of the impact of a training program in Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Ryoko; Sadamori, Toru; Ferreira de Almeida, Terezinha; Akiyoshi, Megumi; Nishihara, Mika; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Ohnishi, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of community health worker (CHW) training on recognition and satisfaction regarding the performance of CHWs among members of the community in Amazonas, Brazil, which is a resource-poor area underserved with regard to medical health-care accessibility. Baseline and endline surveys concerning recognition and satisfaction with respect to CHW performance among members of the community were conducted by interview using a questionnaire before and after implementation of a program to strengthen community health projects in Manicoré, Amazonas, Brazil. One of the components of the project was CHW refresher training, which focused on facilitating adequate use of health-care services and providing primary health care, including health guidance. The baseline survey was performed in February 2004 at the beginning of the project, and the endline survey was performed in February 2006 at the end of the project. There were 82 and 120 CHWs working in Manicoré at the times of the baseline and endline surveys, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the significance of changes in experience with CHW activities, expected functions of CHWs, and satisfaction regarding the performance of CHWs between the baseline and endline surveys. In addition, qualitative analysis was conducted to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and sustainability of CHW refresher training. Overall recognition and level of satisfaction regarding CHW performance among members of the community were improved from the baseline to the endline survey, regardless of type of residential area, such as town and/or remote area. Members of the community came to not expect CHWs to "provide strong medicine" (P < 0.001) and "provide injections" (P < 0.001), and came to appreciate "go to hospital with a sick person" (P = 0.031) as a function and role of CHWs. The results of the present study indicated that steady approaches to motivate and support CHWs

  20. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Luís Henrique Monteiro Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM. A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1. A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM.

  1. Primeiro registro de Eufriesea laniventris (Ducke, 1902 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini no Amazonas, Brasil First record of Eufriesea laniventris (Ducke, 1902 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Fernandez Storti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Eufriesea laniventris no Amazonas. No ano 2000, foram coletados seis exemplares na região de Manaus (2º 36' S e 60º 02' W atraídos pelas substâncias odoríferas 1,8 cineol e salicilato de metila.The first record of Eufriesea laniventris in the state of Amazonas is here reported. Attracted to 1.8 cineole and methyl salicylate fragrances, six specimens were colected in the region of Manaus (2º 36' S 60º 02' W during the year 2000.

  2. Evaluation of the residual effect of temephos on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae in artificial containers in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Pinheiro Valéria Cristina Soares

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trial tests and container observations were conducted in households to verify the residual effect of temephos in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Three plastic buckets, three tin cans, and three tires filled with water from an artesian well and larvicide were used in the experiment, with twenty-five third-instar larvae, which remained exposed for 24h, followed by mortality readings. The same types of containers were selected from common households. Collection and counts followed by chemical treatment were carried out on the larvae that were found. Follow-up was performed weekly to verify recolonization by Aedes aegypti.The experiment showed 100% mortality in the plastic buckets until day 90, and 80% in the tin cans until day 30, decreasing from day 45 onwards. Mortality in the tires decreased to 35% in the first month. Household results showed 100% mortality for all containers after 24h and differentiated values in the subsequent readings. Larvae were observed on day 35 in a tin can and on day 21 in a gallon can. There was a large diversity of results in the tires, with recolonization observed from day 7 onwards.

  3. Night and crepuscular mosquitoes and risk of vector-borne diseases in areas of piassaba extraction in the middle Negro River basin, state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Martha Cecília Suárez-Mutis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of crepuscular and night-biting mosquitoes was conducted at remote settlements along the Padauiri River, middle Negro River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Collections were performed with human bait and a CDC-light trap on three consecutive days per month from June 2003-May 2004. In total, 1,203 h of collection were performed, of which 384 were outside and 819 were inside houses. At total of 11,612 specimens were captured, and Anophelinae (6.01% were much less frequent than Culicinae (93.94%. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequent Anophelinae collected. Among the culicines, 2,666 Culex (Ae. clastrieri Casal & Garcia, 2,394 Culex. (Mel. vomerifer Komp, and 1,252 Culex (Mel. eastor Dyar were the most frequent species collected. The diversity of insects found reveals the receptivity of the area towards a variety of diseases facilitated by the presence of vectors involved in the transmission of Plasmodium, arboviruses and other infectious agents.

  4. Hematologic and Biochemical Values of Wild Red-Tailed Amazon Parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) Nestlings With Abnormal Clinical Examination in Rasa Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Beltrame, Olair Carlos; Sipinski, Elenise Angelotti Bastos; Abbud, Maria Cecília; Sezerban, Rafael Meirelles

    2016-12-01

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered psittacine species, but little information is available about abnormal clinical findings and hematologic and biochemical values of this species, which are important for monitoring the health of this population. To determine hematologic and biochemical values for wild red-tailed parrot nestlings exhibiting abnormal clinical findings, 31 nestlings from the Rasa Island (Paraná State, Southern Brazil) were physically restrained for clinical examination and blood sample collection. On physical examination, 26 birds had mild abnormalities and 5 had severe disorders. Parrots were divided into 5 groups according to the following clinical findings: presence of ectoparasites (group 1), respiratory disorders (group 2), chronic skin lesions caused by fly larvae (group 3), beak disorders (group 4), and severe clinical signs (group 5). Abnormal hematologic and biochemical findings in the nestlings were high total protein in group 3; low values for hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in group 4; low glucose concentration, high mean absolute heterophil count, and high heterophil : lymphocyte ratio in group 5; high concentrations of total plasma protein in groups 3 and 4; and high globulin concentration in groups 3 and 5. In general, the population assessed was in good condition. These results provide a guide to the expected clinical findings associated with hematologic and biochemical concentrations in a population of free-living parrots with abnormal clinical examination findings. The data support the conservation planning and health monitoring of the endangered red-tailed Amazon parrot.

  5. ["It sure ain't easy!": an ethnographic study of primary health care for patients with hypertension and/or diabetes in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maximiliano Loiola Ponte de; Garnelo, Luíza

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the results of an evaluative study in the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, on primary health care for patients with hypertension and/or diabetes. The ethnographic approach used access to services and comprehensiveness of health care as core analytical categories, comparing the health practices developed by Family Health Program (FHP) units with traditional non-FHP primary care units. Access to family health care units in low-income communities is limited by the precarious surrounding urban infrastructure. The main barrier to access to primary care units is distance. The lack of a referral system between the various levels of complexity jeopardizes patients' access to tests and specialists. The care supplied by the two units is limited to patient conditions that can be treated pharmacologically, thus compromising the comprehensiveness of care. The health professionals display a limited capacity to hear problems outside the immediate focus of the program activity. The paper highlights the potential for using ethnography in evaluative research on health systems and services.

  6. Clinical and epidemiological profile of sexually transmitted diseases in children attending a referral center in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Carla Barros da Rocha; Cunha, Maria da Graça Souza; Schettini, Antônio Pedro Mendes; Ribas, Jonas; Santos, Josie Eiras Bisi dos

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in children remain a public health concern that is relatively ignored. Further data are required on the management of these diseases and their association with child sexual abuse. To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of sexually transmitted diseases in children receiving care at a referral center in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A descriptive, exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) found in children who received care at this clinic between January 2003 and December 2007. A total of 182 children with STDs were included in the study. The majority were female (65.4%), dark-skinned and with a mean age of 8.5 years. Furthermore, 89% were from the city of Manaus and their parents were usually responsible for having brought them to the clinic. Genital warts constituted the principal diagnosis in children of both sexes and 90.1% of the children had only one STD. The frequencies and clinical characteristics of the STDs in the children in this study were similar to data reported in the literature. Although the signs and symptoms of the STDs found in these children do not, in themselves, constitute reliable parameters by which to confirm abuse, professionals should always be alert to this possibility, since these diseases may represent a sign of sexual offenses that may be dissimulated and repetitive.

  7. High prevalence detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction in endocervical samples of infertile women attending university hospital in Manaus-Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Freitas, Norma Suely; Borborema-Santos, Cristina Maria; Barroso Serrão das Neves, Dária; Costa de Oliveira, Cintia Mara; Dutra Ferreira, Júnia Raquel; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

    2011-01-01

    We established for the first time the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Manaus Amazonas Brazil using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. 106 women were studied at a public university hospital fertility clinic for infertility problems correlated with chlamydia infection. Social-economic and clinical information was obtained before medical examination to obtain samples for the amplification of C. trachomatis DNA plasmid. The prevalence of chlamydial infection among infertile women was 52.8, and 51.8% of the positive participants were older than 30 years of age (p = 0.8697). Of the 56 women positive for C. trachomatis, 31 (55.4%) had never given birth, while 9 (16%) had a pregnancy resulting in fetal death. Our findings also revealed that these patients had a low socio-economic status and high unemployment (p = 0.0274), and a significant association of 5% (p < 0.05) of chlamydial infection with family income. Due to the high prevalence of C. trachomatis, concerns about effects on reproductive health and fertility are undertaken. Therefore, we believe it is extremely necessary to implement large-scale PCR-based screening as part of routine clinical detection programs concerning preventive effects of chlamydial infection among this population. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Hematologic and Total Plasma Protein Values in Free-Living Red-tailed Amazon Parrot Nestlings (Amazona brasiliensis) in Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico F; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Sipinski, Elenise A B; Abbud, Maria C; Sezerban, Rafael M; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Dittrich, Jaqueline; Cavalheiro, Maria L

    2015-09-01

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered psittacid species that is endemic in the south and southeast Brazilian Atlantic coastal region. Hematologic evaluation is important to monitor the health of these birds, and information about laboratory values for this species is scarce. Hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for 33 free-living nestling parrots in Paraná state, Brazil. Parrots were temporarily removed from the nest and manually restrained to record body weight and collect blood samples. Mean body weight was 400 g in 20 birds (group 2). Significantly higher levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, monocytes, and basophils were observed in younger birds (group 1). A stress leukogram (high white blood cell and heterophil count) was found in all nestlings, suggesting stress induced by capture and restraint. Parameters obtained in this study will be essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild parrots, to evaluate the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation efforts of this endangered species.

  9. O controle do câncer do colo do útero: desafios para implementação de ações programáticas no Amazonas, Brasil Cervical cancer prevention: challenges facing the implementation of program actions in Amazonas, Brazil

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    Dina Albuquerque Duarte Corrêa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar alguns desafios para a implementação de ações programáticas visando ao controle do câncer do colo do útero no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foram analisados os relatórios do Programa Viva Mulher do Amazonas referentes à coleta e qualidade das lâminas e os dados de mortalidade por esta causa registrados no DATASUS para os períodos 2001 a 2005. Os resultados apresentam que no período não houve o aumento na cobertura da coleta de exames de Papanicolaou, embora tenha havido uma discreta melhora na qualidade das lâminas; as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero estão aumentando, e situam-se em patamares acima dos encontrados no país e na região norte. A análise desses resultados sugere a necessidade de haver um esforço, por parte da gestão do Programa no Amazonas, na capacitação de profissionais e dos gerentes dos serviços, visando aumentar a captação das mulheres sob maior risco.The purpose of this study is to present a number of challenges facing the implementation of program actions regarding the control of cervical cancer in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Reports of the Viva Mulher program in Amazonas on Papanicolaou screening tests and the quality of cervical samples and mortality rates from this disease taken from DATASUS were analyzed for the 2001 to 2005 period. The results show no increase in the population covered by the Papanicolaou screening test in this period, although there was a small improvement in the quality of cervical samples. However, mortality rates for cervical cancer are increasing in this reason, and are higher than the rates for Brazil as a whole and for the North region of the country. Analysis of these results suggests the need for local program managers, to make efforts to build the capacity of health-care professionals and service managers, with a view to increasing Papanicolaou screening test coverage for high-risk women.

  10. New records for helminths of hystricognath rodents from the middle and high Rio Negro microregion, State of Amazonas, Brazil Novos registros para helmintos de roedores histricognatos da microrregião do médio e alto Rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Alessandra Q. Gonçalves

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Four nematodes and one cestode species from three Brazilian agoutis - two Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 and one Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 - and six pacas - Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766 - captured in tributaries rivers in the middle and high Rio Negro microregion, State of Amazonas, Brazil, were studied. The nematodes Physaloptera torresi (Travassos, 1920 Ortlepp, 1922, Physocephalus mediospiralis (Molin, 1859 Hall, 1916 and the cestode Raillietina (R. trinitatae (Cameron & Reesal, 1951 Baer & Sandars, 1956 are reported from the State of Amazonas for the first time. The studied helminths (the nematodes P. torresi, P. mediospiralis, Trichuris gracilis (Rud., 1819 Hall, 1916, Helminthoxys urichi (Cameron & Reesal, 1951 Hugot, 1986 and the cestode R. (R. trinitatae represent new host record for Dasyprocta fuliginosa. New morphometric data and remarks about each species are provided.Foram estudadas quatro espécies de nematóides e uma de cestóide coletados de três cutias - duas Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 e uma Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 - e seis pacas - Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766 - capturadas em rios afluentes na microrregião do médio e alto Rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Os nematóides Physaloptera torresi (Travassos, 1920 Ortlepp, 1922, Physocephalus mediospiralis (Molin, 1859 Hall, 1916 e o cestóide Raillietina (R. trinitatae (Cameron & Reesal, 1951 Baer & Sandars, 1956 são registrados pela primeira vez no Estado do Amazonas. Os helmintos estudados (os nematóides P. torresi, P. mediospiralis, Trichuris gracilis (Rud., 1819 Hall, 1916, Helminthoxys urichi (Cameron & Reesal, 1951 Hugot, 1986 e o cestóide R. (R. trinitatae representam novos registros para Dasyprocta fuliginosa. Novos dados morfométricos e observações sobre cada espécie são fornecidos.

  11. Development Period of Forensic Importance Calliphoridae (Diptera: Brachycera in Urban Area Under Natural Conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alex Barros-Souza

    2012-06-01

    Resumo. Para descrever o tempo de desenvolvimento dos imaturos de Calliphoridae sob condições naturais, dois experimentos foram realizados no Campus II do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, um na estação chuvosa e o outro na estação menos chuvosa. Cadáveres de porcos domésticos (25kg cada foram utilizados como substrato atrativo para a ovipostura dos califorídeos. Fêmeas grávidas de Calliphoridae foram coletadas e os ovos foram transferidos para potes plásticos contendo placas de Petri com carne bovina moída. As espécies criadas, com respectivo tempo de desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto (em dias, na estação mais chuvosa e menos chuvosa, foram: Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 14,5 e 9,4 dias, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 10,7 e 9,4, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 11,5 e 10,7 Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann 19,4 e 14,3 e Paralucilia paraensis (Mello, 11,8 dias, essa criada somente na estação menos chuvosa. Este é o primeiro registro do tempo de desenvolvimento de P. paraensis.

  12. Hidroquímica do rio Solimões na região entre Manacapuru e Alvarães: Amazonas - Brasil The Solimões river hydrochemistry between Manacapuru and Alvarães: Amazonas - Brazil

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    Maria Mireide Andrade Queiroz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as características físico-químicas das águas dos rios Solimões, Purus e seus afluentes, coletadas em novembro de 2004 no Estado do Amazonas, entre as cidades de Manacapuru-Alvarães e Anamã-Pirarauara. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas (temperatura, pH, condutividade elétrica, turbidez, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, HCO3-, SO4(2-, Cl-, de elementos-traço (Li, B, Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pb, La, Ce e U e isótopos de estrôncio. Os parâmetros analisados e a composição química mostram que as águas dos rios e igarapés da região central da Amazônia são quimicamente distintas entre si. As águas brancas do Solimões são cálcicas-bicarbonatadas e as do Purus bicarbonatadas, os respectivos afluentes são sódico-potássico-bicarbonatados e sódico-potássico-sulfatados. Isso acarreta águas brancas fracamente ácidas a neutras e mais condutivas, enquanto as pretas são menos mineralizadas, mais ácidas, especialmente as do Purus. O Ba, Sr, Cu, V e As mais elevados diferenciam as águas brancas do Solimões das do Purus, bem como os afluentes do primeiro em relação ao segundo. Esse conjunto de características indicam que tanto o Solimões, como o Purus e os respectivos afluentes, estão submetidos a condições geológicas/ambientais distintas. A influência do aporte de sedimentos dos Andes é diluída ao longo da bacia do Solimões e se reflete na formação das várzeas dos Solimões e Purus. Por outro lado as rochas crustais, representadas pelos escudos das Guianas e Brasileiro também contribuem, mas em menor proporção.The present study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics of the water of the rivers Solimões, Purus and their tributaries, collected in November of 2004 in the State of Amazonas between the cities of Manacapuru and Alvarães and Anamã and Pirarauara. Physical-chemical analyses (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity

  13. Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil

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    Krings, Alexander; Morillo, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) are described from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil: Matelea brevistipitata Krings & Morillo, sp. nov. and Matelea trichopedicellataKrings & Morillo, sp. nov. The new species belong to a small group of adaxially-pubescent-flowered taxa within the complex, including Matelea hildegardiana and Matelea pakaraimensis. The new species are described and a dichotomous key is provided. PMID:23233816

  14. Frequency of human leukocyte antigen (hla in patients with malaria and in the general population of Humaitá county, Amazonas state, Brazil

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    Domingos Alves Meira

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available In August 1983,85 inhabitants of the municipality of Humaitá, Amazonas State, Brazil were studied to determine the prevalence of antigens to HLA-A, -B, -C and DR. Thirty-eight were sick with malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. All subjects were examined for splenomegaly, blood parasitaemia and antibodies to malaria. They constituted three groups: 1 25 subjects native to the Amazon region who had never had malaria; 2 38 Amazonian subjects who had malaria in the past or currently had an infection; 3 22 patients with malaria who had acquired the infection in the Amazon Region but came from other regions of Brazil. Blood was taken from each person, the lymphocytes were separated and typed by the test of microlymphocytotoxicity. There was a high frequency of antigens that could not be identified in the groups studied which suggests the existence of a homozygote or phenotype not identified in the population. There was a high frequency of the phenotype Ag(W24 (44.7% in group 2 when compared with group 1 (32% or group 3 (9%. Also the individuals in group 2 showed an elevated frequency of antigen DR(480% when compared with group 1 (36.6% or group 3 (16.6%. These observations suggest the possibility of a genetic susceptibility to malaria among Amazonian residents and indicate a necessity for more extensive studies of the frequency of HLA antigens among inhabitants of this endemic malarial zone.Em agosto de 1983 foram observados 85 habitantes do Município de Humaitá, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, com a finalidade de estudar a prevalência dos antígenos de HLA -A, -B, -C e DR, dentre os quais 38 eram doentes com malária causada pelo Plasmodium falciparum Todos eles foram examinados para avaliação de esplenomegalia, exame parasitológico de sangue e pesquisa de anticorpos de malária. Foram constituídos três grupos: (I 25 indivíduos nascidos na região Amazônica que nunca tiveram malária; (II 38 indivíduos naturais da Amazônia que tinham sido

  15. Ocorrência do gênero Marasmius Fr. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of the genus Marasmius Fr. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales in the Reserva Biologica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Helenires Queiroz de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Marasmius Fr. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales compreende fungos comumente conhecidos como cogumelos. São cosmopolitas, mas muito mais numerosos em corpos de frutificação e espécies nas regiões tropicais do que em regiões temperadas ou frias. Ocorrem mais freqüentemente sobre madeira ou folhas mortas ou vivas e mais raramente entre musgos ou gramíneas no solo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo de estudo os representantes do gênero Marasmius Fr. ocorrentes na Reserva Biológica Walter Alberto Egler, município de Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas. As coletas foram realizadas no período de dezembro de 2000 a junho de 2001 e seguiu-se a metodologia usual para identificação de Agaricales. Foi estudado um total de nove espécies: Marasmius bellus, Marasmius haedinus var. haedinus,Marasmius cf. leoninus, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. ruber,Marasmius cf. setulosifolius, Marasmius tageticolor, Marasmius cf. variabiliceps var. variabiliceps e Marasmius sp. Os táxons Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. setulosifolius e Marasmius cf. variabiliceps var. variabiliceps são citados pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Com exceção de M. tageticolor Berk, as demais espécies são citadas pela primeira vez para a Reserva Walter Egler. São apresentadas descrições morfológicas, chave para identificação dos taxa e ilustrações.The genus Marasmius Fr. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales take in fungus commonly well-known as mushrooms. It's cosmopolitan, but much more numerous in carpophore production and number of species in the tropical regions than in the temperate and frigid zones. Most frequently on wood or leaves, dead or living, more rarely among mosses or grasses on earth. A study of the representatives of the genus Marasmius occurring in the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Rio Preto da Eva, in the Amazon State, was carried out. The collection was carried out from December 2000 to June 2001 and the mushrooms were identified based

  16. Determination of toxicity in rabbits and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate in four Palicourea (Rubiaceae) species from the Amazonas state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous monofluoroacetate (MFA)-containing plants in Brazil cause sudden death syndrome precipitated by exercise in livestock, which is characterized by loss of balance, ataxia, labored breathing, muscle tremors, and recumbence leading to death. Four species of Palicourea collected at six farms wer...

  17. Ultrastructure and ssrRNA sequencing of Myxidium amazonense n. sp. a myxosporean parasite of Corydoras melini from the Rio Negro river, Amazonas state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Patrick D; Silva, Marcia R M; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2015-12-01

    In a survey of myxozoan parasites of ornamental freshwater fish from the Rio Negro river, it was found that seven of 30 (23.3 %) Corydoras melini specimens examined had plasmodia of a new Myxidium species (Myxidium amazonense n. sp.) in the gallbladder. The fish were caught in the Rio Negro river, in the municipality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. The plasmodia had a tubular shape, which was organized as a spiral spring with several turns in the gallbladder. The development of the myxospores was asynchronic, with disporic pansporoblasts. Mature myxospores were elongated, with 17.0 ± 0.9 (16.1-17.9) μm in length and 3.7 ± 0.7 (3.0-4.4) μm in width, and lightly arcuate from the valval view, with their bodies tapering slowly until ending in rounded extremities. The valval surface had nine to ten grooves in each valve. The polar capsules, one at either end of the spore, had a length of 5.4 ± 0.5 (4.9-5.9) μm and a width of 3.4 ± 0.6 (2.8-4.0) μm. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the wall of the plasmodia had numerous microvilli-like structures, pinocytotic canals, and cytoplasmic bridges connecting the pansporoblasts to each other and to the ectoplasm zone. Phylogenetic analysis, based on a small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA), identified the new species as a sister species of Myxidiumceccarelli, the unique South American Myxidium species whose ssrRNA sequence is available in the NCBI database. This study is the first description of Myxidium species in ornamental freshwater fish from Amazon.

  18. Molecular Detection of Leishmania in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Collected in the Caititu Indigenous Reserve of the Municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T R R; Assis, M D G; Freire, M P; Rego, F D; Gontijo, C M F; Shimabukuro, P H F

    2014-11-01

    Phlebotominae sand flies are of medical importance because they are vectors of human pathogens, such as protozoa of the genus Leishmania Ross, etiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). In Lábrea, a municipality in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, ACL is primarily associated with subsistence activities, such as collection and extraction of forest products, undertaken by both indigenous and nonindigenous people. Data on ACL in indigenous populations are scarce, such that there is little information on the identity of the etiologic agent(s), reservoir host(s) and insect vector(s). The aim of this work was to study the sand fly fauna collected during an 8-d surveillance of different habitats in the Indigenous Reserve Caititu, Lábrea. In total, 1,267 sand flies were collected in different habitats for eight consecutive days, of which 819 (64.6%) were females and 448 (35.4%) males, from 10 genera and 32 species. The most abundant genera were Psychodopygus (34.3%), Trichophoromyia (22.9%), and Nyssomyia (15.3%). The most abundant species were Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira) (n = 235, 18.5%), Psychodopygus davisi (Root) (n = 228, 18.0%) and Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (n = 135, 10.7%). Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products demonstrated the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in the following species of sand flies: Evandromyia apurinan (Shimabukuro, Silveira, & Silva), Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (Young & Porter), Ps. davisi, Sciopemyia servulolimai (Damasceno & Causey), and Th. ubiquitalis. The presence of natural infection by Leishmania detected in the sand fly species investigated in this study suggests their possible role in the transmission cycle of ACL in the studied area. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Home-based counseling and testing for HIV and syphilis - an evaluation of acceptability and quality control, in remote Amazonas State, Brazil.

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    Ribeiro, Luciana Viana da Costa; Sabidó, Meritxell; Galbán, Enrique; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2015-03-01

    Home-based, voluntary counselling and testing (HBCT) can help scale up early diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the acceptance of HBCT for HIV and syphilis, estimate the prevalence among home-tested individuals and assess the performance of point-of-care testing by health staff using dried tube specimens (DTS) in a remote municipality of the Amazon region. Community health teams conducted door-to-door outreach in the urban area of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas. HBCT for HIV and syphilis was offered to all residents aged ≥15 years. To provide an external quality assurance (EQA) of the healthcare workers' (HCW') ability to perform testing, DTS panels of reference samples were reconstituted and tested by the workers. HBCT was offered to 1752 individuals and accepted by 1501 (85.6%). Those tested had a median age 32.0 years, 64.4% were women and 85.1% were indigenous; none were previously tested using a rapid test. The prevalence of HIV was 0.37% in men and 0.0% in women; the prevalence of syphilis was 1.12% in men and 2.69% in women. Eleven HCW tested 44 DTS samples for HIV and 44 for syphilis. EQA testing revealed that workers interpreted 55.8% and 90.7% of HIV and syphilis reference samples correctly. HBCT was acceptable and successful in reaching untested individuals. However, there were concerns with the quality of test performance, highlighting the need for continual evaluation and retraining of community HCW. As Brazil scales up HIV and syphilis testing, our findings highlight how HBCT can maximise coverage in similar remote areas and improve knowledge about prevalence of these infections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men treated at a referral hospital for sexually transmitted diseases in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkh, Alex Panizza; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Hurtado-Guerreiro, Jose Camilo; Ramos, Lorena Angelica Castano; Figliuolo, Guiseppe; Maia, Jussimara; Costa, Cintia Mara; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; de Lima Ferreira, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and to identify the demographic, behavioural and clinical factors associated with C. trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus infected men. This was a cross-sectional study of C. trachomatis prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men enrolled at the Outpatient clinic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome of the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. C. trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid from urethral samples was purified and submitted to real time polymerase chain reaction to identify the presence of C. trachomatis. A total of 276 human immunodeficiency virus-infected men were included in the study. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 12% (95% confidence interval 8.1%-15.7%). The mean age of the participants was 34.63 (standard deviation 10.80) years. Of the 276 human immunodeficiency virus-infected men, 93 (56.2%) had more than one sexual partner in the past year and 105 (38.0%) reported having their first sexual intercourse under the age of 15 years. Men having sex with men and bisexuals amounted to 61.2% of the studied population. A total of 71.7% had received human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis in the last three years and 55.1% were using antiretroviral therapy. Factors associated with C. trachomatis infection in the logistic model were being single (p<0.034), men having sex with men (p<0.021), and having previous sexually transmitted diseases (p<0.001). The high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men highlights that screening human immunodeficiency virus-infected men for C. trachomatis, especially among men having sex with men, is paramount to control the spread of C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. IMPACT OF THE INVASION FROM NILE TILAPIA ON NATIVES CICHLIDAE SPECIES IN TRIBUTARY OF AMAZONAS RIVER, BRAZIL

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    Luana Silva Bittencourt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo providenciou a primeira investigação sobre impacto causado pela invasão da Oreochromis niloticus sobre a população de Cichlidae nativos da bacia hidrográfica Igarapé Fortaleza, um tributário do Rio Amazonas no estado do Amapá, no Norte do Brasil. Como uma consequência de escapes e/ou liberações intencionais de O. niloticus de pisciculturas, houve a invasão e estabelecimento dessa espécie de peixe exótico no ecossistema natural, especialmente em área de refúgio, alimentação e reprodução das espécies de ciclídeos nativos.  Os fatores que contribuíram para essa invasão e estabelecimento foram aqui discutidos. A invasão de O. niloticus está causando pressão sobre as populações de ciclídeos nativos, os quais encontram-se em baixa densidade populacional, pois 72,7% da biomassa dos ciclídeos (nativos e não nativos está constituída por O. niloticus. Consequentemente, a CPUE (2,489 kg.h-1 para essa tilápia invasora é muito superior aos valores da CPUE (0,641 kg.h-1 de todas as 16 espécies de ciclídeos nativos juntos. Os resultados indicam uma necessidade de plano de manejo para controle desse peixe invasor, evitando assim a extinção de espécies de ciclídeos nativos. Além disso, serão úteis também para a tomada de decisão crítica de instituições governamentais (estadual e federal quanto à aprovação da introdução de peixes não nativos na Amazônia ou qualquer outra região do país. Palavras-chaves: Amazônia, peixe exótico, Oreochromis niloticus, crescimento. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p88-94

  2. Checklist of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types of the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil, and of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Pará, Belém, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monné, Miguel A; Almeida, Lucia M; Oliveira, Marcio L; Viana, Jéssica Herzog; Monné, Marcela L

    2017-01-17

    The primary types of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil (DZUP), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil (INPA), and in the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Pará, Belém,Brazil (MPEG) are catalogued. There are 54 primary types of Cerambycidae in the DZUP, 48 in the INPA, and 25 in the MPEG.

  3. Determination of toxicity in rabbits and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate in four Palicourea (Rubiaceae) species from the Amazonas state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de L Carvalho, Fabricio K; Cook, Daniel; Lee, Stephen T; Taylor, Charlotte M; Soares Oliveira, Jefferson Bruno; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous monofluoroacetate (MFA)-containing plants in Brazil cause sudden death syndrome precipitated by exercise in livestock, which is characterized by loss of balance, ataxia, labored breathing, muscle tremors, and recumbence leading to death. Four species of Palicourea collected at six farms were tested for the presence of MFA and their toxicity to rabbits. Palicourea longiflora and Palicourea barraensis contained MFA and caused sudden death in the rabbits. Palicourea croceoides and Palicourea nitidella did not contain MFA and were not toxic to rabbits. P. longiflora and P. barraensis were collected at three farms with a history of sudden death in their cattle. This is the first report of toxicity in regard to these two species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Passiflora fissurosa, uma nova espécie de Passifloraceae para o Amazonas, Brasil Passiflora fissurosa, a new species of Passifloraceae from Amazon, Brazil

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    Maria Anália Duarte de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora fissurosa M.A.D.Souza sp. nov., até o momento conhecida apenas da Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, no Amazonas, Brasil, é descrita e ilustrada. Foi inserida no Subgênero Passiflora, Superseção Passiflora, Seção Laurifoliae e Série Laurifoliae, por apresentar folhas simples e inteiras, pecíolo biglandular, brácteas foliáceas, livres, maiores que 1 cm, pertencendo ao grupo de espécies com as duas séries externas da corona subiguais. Morfologicamente é semelhante a P. nitida, que difere pelo opérculo horizontal-encurvado com margem ereto-divergente, anel nectarífero presente, límen vertical e ovário glabro. A designação do epíteto deve-se à característica do ritidoma, suberoso e profundamente fissurado, característica somente encontrada em P. phellos, também pertencente à Série Laurifoliae, mas do grupo de espécies com a primeira série da corona menor que a segunda.Passiflora fissurosa M.A.D. Souza sp. nov., presently known only from the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve in Amazonian Brazil, is described and illustrated. P. fissurosa belongs in the subgenus Passiflora, Supersection Passiflora, Section Laurifoliae and Series Laurifoliae, with simple, entire leaves, a biglandular petiole, free foliaceous stipules larger than 1 cm, in the group of species with the outer two series of the corona sub-equal. Morphologically it resembles P. nitida, which differs by the horizontal curved with erect-divergent margin operculum, the presence of a nectariferous ring, vertical limen and glabrous ovary. The epithet is derived from the characteristic of the bark, which is corky and profoundly fissured, which is showed only by P. phellos of the Laurifoliae group which has the first series of the corona smaller than the second.

  5. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals of free-living Red-Tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) nestlings on Rasa Island, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico F; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Beltrame, Olair C; Sipinski, Elenise A B; Abbud, Maria C; Sezerban, Rafael M

    2016-12-01

    The Red-Tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered species of the Psittaciformes. There is little information about hematologic and biochemical variables of this species. The purpose of this study was to determine hematologic and biochemical RIs for free-living A brasiliensis nestlings on Rasa Island, Paraná, Brazil, and to compare the results between sexes. Thirty-seven parrots were taken from their nests and physically restrained for clinical examination and blood collection. The sex was diagnosed by PCR using the blood samples collected. Reference intervals were determined as recommended by the ASVCP guidelines in healthy nestlings. The difference between groups was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test or Student's t-test. Sexing revealed 12 females and 25 males. The RIs for the measured variables were as follows: RBC 1.1-2.6 × 10(6) /μL, PCV 29.1-50.3%, HGB 7.2-12.9 g/dL, MCV 152-293 fL, MCHC 22.2-28.4 g/dL, WBC 4.9-28.5 × 10(3) /μL, 1.2-16 × 10(3) /μL, lymphocytes 2.4-18.7 × 10(3) /μL, monocytes 0.0-1.0 × 10(3) /μL, eosinophils 0.0-0.9 × 10(3) /μL, 0.0-1.3 × 10(3) /μL, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio 0.0-2.2, plasma total solids 2.1-3.7 g/dL, uric acid 0.5-2.0 mg/dL, glucose 184.9-284.3 mg/dL, AST 100.3-226.6 U/L, LDH 178.1-927.7 U/L, CK 149.8-1144.0 U/L, cholesterol 137.5-256.9 mg/dL, total protein 1.8-3.0 g/dL, calcium 7.0-8.6 mg/dL, and phosphorus 2.9-6.1 mg/dL. Increased concentrations of cholesterol (P < .05) were observed in females. This is the first study to establish hematologic and biochemical RIs for free-living A brasiliensis nestlings on Rasa Island. Hematologic and biochemical variables are important tools for evaluating the health status of free-living birds, and also support conservation planning for endangered species. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Distribution of species and antimicrobial resistance among enterococci isolated from the fecal microbiota of captive blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Freitas, Andréa de Andrade Rangel de; Faria, Adriana Rocha; Pinto, Tatiana de Castro Abreu; Merquior, Vânia Lúcia Carreira; Neves, Daniel Marchesi; Costa, Rodrigo de Cerqueira da; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins

    2018-02-15

    Enterococcal strains recovered from fecal samples of captive blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva) assisted at two wild animal screening centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as Enterococcus hirae (the predominant species; 75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (17.3%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (4.8%), Enterococcus gallinarum (1.7%), and Enterococcus hermanniensis (0.9%). All strains were susceptible to linezolid and teicoplanin. Rates of nonsusceptibility (including resistant and intermediate categories) to other 16 antimicrobials tested varied from 69.3% to 0.4%, A considerable proportion (48.0%) of the strains was multidrug-resistant and diverse genetic determinants associated with antimicrobial resistance were identified. Tetracycline-resistant strains carried the tet(M) and/or tet(L) genes. Macrolides resistance was associated with the erm(B), erm(A) and mefA genes, while 43.2% of the isolates were negative for the investigated genes. High-level resistance to gentamicin associated with the aac(6')-le-aph(2″)-la gene was detected in one E. faecalis strain. The two strains presenting high-level resistance to streptomycin were negative for the ant(6')-Ia, ant(3')-Ia, ant(9')-Ia and ant(9')-Ib genes. The vat(D) gene was found in all the 47 quinupristin/dalfopristin resistant strains identified as non-E. faecalis. Analysis of PFGE profiles of E. hirae strains after restriction with SmaI demonstrated the occurrence of five clonal groups. The predominant E. hirae clone was distributed among birds in the two institutions, suggesting that this clone was well adapted to the host and environments investigated. The four clonal groups identified among E. faecalis were composed by small numbers of strains and, generally, restricted to birds in the same sector. The occurrence of enterococcal strains exhibiting antimicrobial resistance traits and carrying genetic determinants that represent potential threats to the health of both humans and animals, in

  7. Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; García, Andrés; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

  8. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil

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    Luana Silva Bittencourt

    Full Text Available This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea, and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem.

  9. Haematological reference for red-browed parrot ( Amazona rhodocorytha , Salvadori, 1890 captive in the Atlantic Forest in Eastern Brazil

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    R.H. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To conduct the survey were used 35 (thirty-five red-browned parrots (A. rhodocorytha, adults, captive, of both genders and clinically healthy, belonging to the live collection of the Museum of Biology Teacher Mello Leitao, located in Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Harvests were performed in the morning, by puncture of the brachial vein getting 0.5mL of blood stored in EDTA for a period no longer than 6 hours. Blood smears of fresh material were made at collection, stained using the method of May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Analysis of blood elements was done by cell counting in a mirrored Neubauer chamber using Natt and Herrick solution at a ratio of 2:200 as diluent. For the analysis of the methodology, homoglobinometry cyanide hemoglobin using commercial kits by colorimetry on a semi-automatic biochemical analyzer was used. After completion of the statistical data the following parameters were obtained (mean±standard deviation: Erythrocytes (x106/μl: 2.68±0.56; Hemoglobin (g/dl: 14.27±0.69; Hematocrit (%: 53±3.38; Mean corpuscular volume (fl: 206.7±45.82; Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (pg: 56.4±14.46; Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (%: 27.5±1.19; Thrombocytes (x3/μl: 25.8 ± 10.5; Total plasma protein (g/dl 5.4±0.5; Leukocytes (x103/dl: 3.1±2; Heterophile (/uL: 1937±1676; Lymphocytes (/uL: 1144±599; Monocytes (/uL: 24.4 ± 28.2; Basophils (/uL: 42.2±46.2; Eosinophils (/uL: 11.7±19.9. In the relation between males and females, no significant differences were found in any hematological parameter evaluated.

  10. Estimation of electric power generation using coal from the fruit peel of cupuassu in Amazonas State, Brazil; Estimativa de geracao de energia eletrica utilizando o carvao da casca do fruto do cupuacuzeiro no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Cleuder Lima da [Manaus Energia S/A., Manaus, AM (Brazil); Santos, Eyde Cristiane Saraiva dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (FCA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Solos], e-mail: eyde_cristianne@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of the charcoal of agroforestry residue for the generation of electric energy, for being renewable power plant and possessing technology for application, comes being evidenced. In this research the potential of generation of electric energy was estimated, in the main producing cities of the State of Amazonas of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Wild. Ex. Spreng. Shum.), using the rind carbonized in technology of gasification, substitution of diesel. The charcoal of the rind of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro presents to be able calorific next to the one to the deriving coal of the wood. Known the annual production of each one the cities, the amount and the cost of production of the generated electric energy, determined in this research, it justifies the exploitation of this residue, for having economic advantages, when comparative with the tariff of the adopted electric energy in the region for the concessionaire. (author)

  11. Integrated evaluation of the geology, aerogammaspectrometry and aeromagnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Léo A; Lopes, William R; Savian, Jairo F

    2016-03-01

    An integrated evaluation of geology, aerogammaspectrometry and aeromagnetometry of the Sul-Riogran-dense Shield is permitted by the advanced stage of understanding of the geology and geochronology of the southern Brazilian Shield and a 2010 airborne geophysical survey. Gamma rays are registered from the rocks near the surface and thus describe the distribution of major units in the shield, such as the Pelotas batholith, the juvenile São Gabriel terrane, the granulite-amphibolite facies Taquarembó terrane and the numerous granite intrusions in the foreland. Major structures are also observed, e.g., the Dorsal de Canguçu shear. Magnetic signals register near surface crustal compositions (analytic signal) and total crust composition (total magnetic signal), so their variation as measured indicates either shallow or whole crustal structures. The Caçapava shear is outstanding on the images as is the magnetic low along the N-S central portion of the shield. These integrated observations lead to the deepening of the understanding of the largest and even detailed structures of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, some to be correlated to field geology in future studies. Most significant is the presence of different provinces and their limits depending on the method used for data acquisition - geology, aerogammaspectrometry or aeromagnetometry.

  12. Composition and abundance of fishes in the interface between open water and macrophyte banks, and the dynamics of this interface during morning and evening twilight, in lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the composition and abundance of the fishes that move between macrophyte banks and open water during the morning twilight (CM and afternoon twilight (CV. The collections were made using gillnets, along banks of Paspalum repens, at Catalão lake, in Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 222 individuals and 37 species were collected. Of these, 130 individuals were collected during the CM and 92 during the CV; 80 individuals were leaving during the CM and 40 individuals were leaving during the CV. Auchenipterus nuchalis, Pellona castelnaeana, Triportheus angulatus and T. albus were the most common and concentrated species collected in the CM and Pimelodus blochii was the most common species collected in the CV.

  13. Pseudoescorpiões (Arachnida da vegetação de sub-bosque da floresta primária tropical de terra firme (Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Pseudoscorpions (Aracnida in the undergrowth vegetetion in dryland forest in Coari, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Otaviano Aguiar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi encontrada uma riqueza de 15 espécies de pseudoscorpiões, de 12 gêneros e 5 famílias (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae e Chernetidae, habitando diferentes plantas da vegetação do sub-bosque, em floresta primária de terra firme, no alto rio Urucu, Coari, Amazonas, no período de 1991 a 1996. As plantas foram examinadas pelo método de "bateção". Apolpium aff. vastum foi à espécie mais freqüente e abundante sobre as plantas. Dentre os tipos de plantas avaliados, as maiores diversidades de espécies de pseudoscorpiões foram registradas nas pequenas palmeiras, tanto com fronde junto ao chão, como elevada acima do chão. A análise da composição das espécies que ocorreram sobre os diferentes tipos de plantas avaliadas foi realizada pelo "modo-Q", tendo como base a matriz de coeficientes de similaridade de "Jaccard", o que demonstrou maior similaridade entre a fauna das palmeiras e outras plantas que acumulam detritos acima do chão, entre as bromélias e entre aráceas de chão e outras plantas que acumulam detritos junto ao chão.A richness of 15 pseudoscorpion species, 12 genera belonging to 5 families (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae and Chernetidae were found in the undergrowth vegetation of the dryland forest, at the upper Urucu river, Coari, Amazonas, from 1991 to 1996, and was collected by the "beating tray" method. Apolpium aff. vastum was the most frequent and abundant species in the undergrowth forest vegetation. Among the various types of plants examined, the majority of the pseudoscorpions occurred in small palms (in the ground-trenched palms as much as the erect stemmed palms. To appraise the specie's composition of these arachnids found in the different kinds of plants, the Q-mode analysis was used based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients. The coefficients that showed the greatest similarity were between the fauna of the palms and other plants that accumulate litter on top of the

  14. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  15. Ocorrência de entorse e lesões do joelho em jogadores de futebol da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas Knee lesions and sprains in soccer players of Manaus city, Amazonas - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Telles de Menezes Stewien

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 50 jogadores de dois times profissionais e 47 jogadoras de três times amadores de futebol do Estado do Amazonas, todos da primeira divisão e sediados em Manaus. Foi determinada a ocorrência de entorse do joelho e lesões decorrentes, mediante uma entrevista sobre a história de entorse do joelho, além de avaliação subjetiva e exame físico, segundo o International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC 2000. Entre os jogadores, 16 (32% haviam referido entorse do joelho, sendo 14 (28% unilateral e 2 (4% bilateral. Entre as jogadoras, 11 (23% haviam referido entorse do joelho, sendo 9 (19% unilateral e 2 (4% bilateral. Dez (63% dos jogadores com entorse sofreram lesões ligamentares ou meniscais, dos quais 7 atletas submeteram-se à cirurgia, sendo 6 meniscectomias e 2 reconstruções do ligamento cruzado anterior. Não encontramos lesões do joelho entre as jogadoras de futebol examinadas. O tempo médio de afastamento dos atletas foi em torno de 3,5 meses em ambos os sexos, sendo que entre os jogadores o tempo médio de retorno foi quase 3 vezes maior naqueles que sofreram lesões ligamentares ou meniscais. A média da pontuação do IKDC subjetivo foi no sexo masculino de 95 pontos e de 96 pontos no sexo feminino.Fifty male and 47 female soccer players from Amazonas state teams in Manaus City were studied. The occurrence of knee sprain and resultant lesions was determined by interviewing the athletes about their history of knee sprain, as well as by subjective evaluation and physical examination using the method recommended by the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC 2000. Among male soccer players, 16 (32% have mentioned knee sprain, being 14 (28% unilateral and 2 (4% bilateral. Among females, 11 (23% have mentioned knee sprain, being 9 (19% unilateral and 2 (4% bilateral. Ten (63% male athletes with knee sprain presented ligament or meniscus lesions, seven of which have been submitted to surgery (6 meniscectomies

  16. Análise de rendimento cárneo das principais espécies de peixes comercializadas no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Meat yield analysis of the major fish species commercialized in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fábio Lopes de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade do aproveitamento integral dos recursos pesqueiros tem produzido diversas pesquisas sobre os aspectos tecnológicos e nutricionais, objetivando estimular a exploração comercial de várias espécies, bem como oferecer suporte para a implantação de indústrias na região. O presente trabalho determinou o rendimento cárneo de dez espécies com maior volume de desembarque no estado do Amazonas, visando fornecer dados mais recentes para a indústria de beneficiamento de pescado. As espécies foram selecionadas segundo dados estatísticos do IBAMA e coletadas em dois períodos sazonais (cheia e seca, no município de Manacapuru-AM. No período da cheia, os percentuais médios de rendimento das espécies atingiram 69,4% de corpo limpo, 38,4% de filé com pele e 30,7% de filé sem pele, cortes preferenciais para comercialização. Na seca estes valores foram de 69%; 37,6%; 29,5%, respectivamente. As dez espécies de peixes amazônicos estudadas apresentaram bom rendimento cárneo, com potencial para uso em diversos procedimentos tecnológicos.The possibility of whole use of fishery resources has led institutions and researchers to establish permanent studies on technological and nutritional aspects, aiming to stimulate commercial exploitation as well as to support the setting up industries in the region, that can make products of excellent quality based on regional fishes. This study determined the meat yield of ten species with the highest fish landing volume in Amazonas, aiming to provide more recent data for the fish processing industry. The species were selected according to data of IBAMA and collected in two seasons (flood and drought, in the municipality of Manacapuru-AM. In the flood period, the average yield reached 69.4% for gutted body, 38.4% for fillets with skin, and 30.7% for skinless fillets, which are the favored commercial cuts. In the drought period, data showed 69%, 37.6%, and 29.5% respectively. The analyses

  17. Mortality by suicide: a focus on municipalities with a high proportion of self-reported indigenous people in the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall; Basta, Paulo Cesar; de Souza, Maximiliano Loiola Ponte

    2013-09-01

    To analyze mortality rates and to describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of suicides recorded in the state of Amazonas. A descriptive and retrospective study has been carried out with emphasis on municipalities, which have shown, simultaneously, a high mortality rates and a high proportion of self-reported indigenous population, based on 2005 - 2009 data as provided by the Informatics Department of the Unified National Health System. Among the general population of the state of Amazonas, the mortality rate, by suicide, of 4.2/100.000 inhabitants has been reported, similar to that of Manaus (4.6/100.000 inhabitants). In contrast, at Tabatinga (25.2/100.000 inhabitants), at São Gabriel da Cachoeira (27.6/100.000 inhabitants) and at Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (36.4/100.000 inhabitants), municipalities, where the proportion of self-reported indigenous population is high, besides the taxes being notably higher, it was observed that most of the suicides has occurred among men; among young men aged between 15 - 24 years; at home; by hanging; during "weekend" and among the indigenous population. Our findings have unveiled that suicide comes forth as a serious public health issue in some municipalities in the state of Amazonas, further indicating that the event occurs within very specific contexts, and that the dimension and the magnitude of the problem can be even more serious among populations or in territories exclusively inhabited by indigenous people.

  18. Mortality by suicide: a focus on municipalities with a high proportion of self-reported indigenous people in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesem Douglas Yamall Orellana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze mortality rates and to describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of suicides recorded in the state of Amazonas. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study has been carried out with emphasis on municipalities, which have shown, simultaneously, a high mortality rates and a high proportion of self-reported indigenous population, based on 2005 - 2009 data as provided by the Informatics Department of the Unified National Health System. Results: Among the general population of the state of Amazonas, the mortality rate, by suicide, of 4.2/100.000 inhabitants has been reported, similar to that of Manaus (4.6/100.000 inhabitants. In contrast, at Tabatinga (25.2/100.000 inhabitants, at São Gabriel da Cachoeira (27.6/100.000 inhabitants and at Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (36.4/100.000 inhabitants, municipalities, where the proportion of self-reported indigenous population is high, besides the taxes being notably higher, it was observed that most of the suicides has occurred among men; among young men aged between 15 - 24 years; at home; by hanging; during "weekend" and among the indigenous population. Discussion: Our findings have unveiled that suicide comes forth as a serious public health issue in some municipalities in the state of Amazonas, further indicating that the event occurs within very specific contexts, and that the dimension and the magnitude of the problem can be even more serious among populations or in territories exclusively inhabited by indigenous people.

  19. Determination of shielding factors for typical buildings in Brazil; Determinacao dos fatores de blindagem para construcoes tipicamente brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, Isabel Cristina Poquet

    2006-10-15

    This study presents a methodology for the determination of the air kerma inside buildings due to contamination on the external surfaces and the shielding factors for the construction material to be used on emergency assessment systems for urban areas. The commonly used construction materials were simulated with the MCNP computer code. A special methodology to simulate the bricks with holes were developed, mixing all different regions into a single one, making the simulation easier and faster. The effective density and the attenuation coefficients for the 50-3000 keV energy range were determined. The effective protection for the bricks with no cement cover decreases by 40-50% for energies greater then 300 keV when compared to bricks covered on both sides. With the data made available it was possible to evaluate the influence of the construction materials densities and thickness on the exposure due to external surfaces contamination and to estimate the error on the dose when the shielding factor applied on the calculation differs from the more realistic ones. The shielding factors for three types of walls were determined for a five rooms house. Special protection procedures should be applied for houses built with bricks with no cement cover, because they are due to the double of the dose when compared to houses built with bricks two-sided cement covered. The influence of windows and doors were evaluated too. This work was developed at the IRD in order to provide information on the construction material commonly uses on building in Brazil. (author)

  20. Composição florística de plantas daninhas em um lago do Rio Solimões, Amazonas Floristic composition of weeds in a lake of Solimoes River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.F. Albertino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As áreas inundáveis localizadas na bacia dos rios Amazonas e Solimões são denominadas várzeas. A inundação é um evento natural que promove mudanças na estrutura e composição florística dessas comunidades. O conhecimento da diversidade de espécies é de fundamental importância para o entendimento da dinâmica da regeneração natural de espécies nos ecossistemas amazônicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo levantar a composição florística do solo do fundo do lago do Manaquiri-AM, em um período de seca excepcional, ocorrida em 2005, na Amazônia. Foram realizadas coletas de material botânico em duas áreas do lago, em novembro de 2005; para a amostragem, utilizou-se um quadrado de madeira de 0,36 m², atirado aleatoriamente por 20 vezes em cada local de estudo. A vegetação emergente foi de 5.958 indivíduos, distribuídos em sete famílias e nove espécies. As famílias mais representativas em número de espécies foram Poaceae e Cyperaceae. Cyperus esculentus e Luziola spruceana foram as mais frequentes, e Mimosa pudica e Alternanthera sessilis, as de maior abundância. C. esculentus e M. pudica apresentaram maior número de indivíduos, de densidade e de valor de importância. As espécies de plantas encontradas neste estudo mantiveram sua capacidade de crescer e se desenvolver mesmo após longo período submersas.The swamps located at the basins of the Amazonas and Solimões rivers are denominated "várzeas". In these areas, flooding is a natural event that changes the structure and composition of the local plants. Thus, knowing the species diversity in these Amazon region areas is extremely important to understand the dynamics of the natural regeneration of the Amazon ecosystem species. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to survey the soil floristic composition at the bottom of the Manaquiri Lake, Amazon, during an exceptional dry period in 2005. Plants were collected in two areas of the lake in November 2005. Flora

  1. Fungos emboloradores e manchadores de madeira em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras no município de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Mould and stain fungi in logs stored in wood industries of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Eiji Hanada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando conhecer a diversidade e a incidência de fungos emboloradores e manchadores de madeira da região Amazônica, foi realizado um levantamento em 12 espécies florestais, estocadas em quatro indústrias madeireiras de Manaus. De cada espécie florestal selecionaram-se cinco toras, das quais retiraram-se amostras de onde procedeu-se isolamento dos fungos. Foram isolados 106 fungos associados às essências florestais, representados por nove gêneros e por dezesseis espécies. Paecilomyces variotii e Lasiodiplodia theobromae foram as espécies fúngicas mais freqüentemente associadas às espécies florestais. Ceiba pentandra e Hura crepitans foram as essências florestais que apresentaram maior diversidade de fungos, com sete espécies cada uma. Hymeneae courbaril foi a que apresentou menor diversidade de fungo, com apenas uma espécie.In order to know a diversity and incidence of wood mould and wood stain fungi from Amazonian wood, the survey and identification of these kinds of fungi were carried out in twelve wood species from four wood industries of Manaus, Amazonas. Five logs were randomly selected. Wood samples were prepared and transported to the Wood Pathology Laboratory at the Forest Product Research Center of the National Institute for Amazonian Research, where the isolation and identification of the fungi were conducted. One hundred and six fungi associated to the wood species were isolated, represented by nine genera and sixteen fungi species. Paecilomyces variotti and Lasiodiplodia theobromae were the more representative fungi, associated with ten and seven wood species respectively. Ceiba pentandra e Hura crepitans were the wood species with highest diversity of fungi, with seven species each. Hymenae courbaril was the wood that presented the lowest diversity of fungi, with only one fungus.

  2. Eight new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Amazonas State, Brazil, with description of the female terminalia of Oragua jurua Young, 1977, and new records for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisão, Beatriz M; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-07-29

    The thirty known species of Oragua are distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. Seventeen species are recorded from Brazil, but only O. elegantula Young, 1977, O. insipida Young, 1977, and O. jurua Young, 1977 are recorded from Amazonas State. Oragua partitula (Jacobi, 1905) is herein firstly recorded from Brazil, ocurring in Amazonas State. The aim of the study was to describe eight new species of Oragua, to provide a key to males of the species of the genus that are recorded from Amazonas State and to study in detail the female terminalia of these new species. Also, the female of O. jurua Young, 1977 is herein described for the first time. Oragua alerochae sp. nov. has the external color pattern similar to O. bifasciata Cavichioli, 2000, however, the head is darker, the forewings are paler and the stripes are thinner, aedeagus is much more curved with long apical processes, and apex of paraphyses rami are curved. Oragua aurantimaculata sp. nov. is similar externally to O. elegantula and Oragua jau sp. nov. as they share the body brown with three orange maculae on crown and orange maculae on forewings, but it has the aedeagus with shaft enlarged medially with a pair of apical processes curved anteriorly and connective more slender. Oragua bella sp. nov. is dark with orange spots, aedeagus with basal elongated processes extending to the apex of the pygofer, with the basal portion enlarged and narrowing toward the apex. Oragua copiosa sp. nov. is dark with small pale dots all over the body, paraphyses rami are slender and their apices expanded, and styles with hooked apex, extending posteriorly beyond the connective apex. Oragua gracilenta sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. galerula, but it can be distinguished by the brown ground color, absence of two maculae near median line just before posterior margin on pronotum and apex of rami of paraphyses bifurcate and not truncate. Oragua jau sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. elegantula, but

  3. Decapod crustaceans used as food by the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, State of Amazonas, Brazil Crustáceos decápodos usados na alimentação pelos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Célio Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yanomami are a group of South American Indians that live in the rainforest along the borderlands of Brazil and Venezuela. They depend on hunting, gardening and wild food for survival; crustaceans are a highly prized food item in their diet. Taxonomical and ethnozoological aspects of the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, state of Amazonas, Brazil, related to the crustaceans are described. Information and specimens were obtained from August to December, 2003. Interviews were conducted with residents of the village and focused on questions about species exploited, indigenous names, modes of capture and use of the species. One shrimp species of the family Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense and two crab species of Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata as well as two of Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius fittkaui, F. platyacanthus were recorded. The indigenous names applied to these species are: shuhu, for shrimp, oko and peimatherimi for each of the two pseudothelphusid crabs, and hesiki tôtôrema for both trichodactylid crabs.Os Yanomami são um grupo de índios que habitam a floresta tropical úmida ao longo da fronteira entre Brasil e Venezuela. Eles dependem da caça, da agricultura e da coleta de produtos da floresta para a sua sobrevivência, sendo os crustáceos um dos itens alimentares mais apreciados. São descritos aspectos taxonômicos e etnozoológicos dos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, no estado do Amazonas, Brasil, relacionados aos crustáceos. Informações e espécimes foram coletados de agosto a dezembro de 2003. Foram realizadas entrevistas com habitantes da aldeia com enfoque nas espécies exploradas, nomes indígenas, modos de captura e utilização. Foram registradas uma espécie de camarão da família Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense, duas espécies de caranguejos da família Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata e duas da família Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius

  4. Trilobites, scolecodonts and fish remains occurrence and the depositional paleoenvironment of the upper Monte Alegre and lower Itaituba formations, Lower - Middle Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Lemos, Valesca Brasil

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the scolecodonts, trilobite pygidium fragments and fish remains of an outcropped region in the southern Amazonas Basin, comprising the uppermost section of the Monte Alegre Formation and the basal section of the Itaituba Formation. These, correspond to part of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group, related to an intracratonic carbonate platform. The Monte Alegre Formation includes a deposition of fluvial-deltaic and aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales of interdunes and lakes, intercalated with transgressive carbonates of a shallow restrict nearshore marine environment. The Itaituba Formation comprises a thickest deposit of marine carbonates, representing the establishment of widespread marine conditions, and is the richest interval containing organisms of shallow marine environment in the Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin. The associated fauna includes brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, crinoids, echinoids, bryozoans, corals, foraminifers, sponges, ostracods, trilobites, scolecodonts, fish remains and conodonts, mainly in the packstones, and subordinately in the wackestones and mudstones. Conodonts Neognathodus atokaensis, Diplognathodus orphanus, Idiognathodus incurvus, and foraminifers Millerella extensa, Millerella pressa, Millerella marblensis, Eostaffella ampla, Eostaffella pinguis and Eostaffella advena characterizes a predominant Atokan age to the analyzed profile. The fossil association herein presented is taxonomically diversified and biologically interesting, comprising an important and well preserved, for the first time occurrence of two molds and two fragments of Proetida trilobites. Well preserved Eunicida and Phyllodocida scolecodonts and paleonisciform fish remains. These fossils help in the paleoenvironmental establishment of the studied interval in the Amazonas Basin and as a potential biostratigraphic and paleoecological tool to correlate regionally and globally the Pennsylvanian.

  5. Conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the marine sequence of the Tapajós Group, Early-Middle Pennsylvanian of Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in the south and western regions of the Amazonas Basin to describe the conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of Pennsylvanian carbonate rocks of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group comprising the upper Monte Alegre, Itaituba, and lower Nova Olinda formations. The analyzed area includes one outcrop along the Tapajós river (TAP), two carbonate quarries (QI, QII), and 18 wells (dots 1-18). The conodont fauna is dominated by Idiognathoides sinuatus and Neognathodus symmetricus in the Monte Alegre Formation, followed by Idiognathodus incurvus, Diplognathodus coloradoensis and Neognathodus bassleri in the Itaituba and Nova Olinda formations. The conodont association suggests an Early to Middle Pennsylvanian age to the analyzed section. Relative ages attributed to the three lithostratigraphic units using conodonts, palynomorphs, and foraminifers are consistent. Herein are proposed one local taxon-range zone of Idiognathodus incurvus in the Itaituba and lower part of the Nova Olinda Formation and one local taxon-range subzone of Diplognathodus coloradoensis in the Itaituba Formation, suggesting a late Bashkirian - Moscovian (Atokan - early Desmoinesian) age to these strata. The Itaituba Formation marks the establishment of large Pennsylvanian marine conditions in the Amazonas Basin and is composed primarily of marine carbonates of abundant fossil content, tidal flat evaporites and siliciclastic thin intervals. Its lower limit, with the Monte Alegre Formation, is characterized by the predominant occurrence of fluvial-deltaic sandstones superimposed on an extensive sequence of aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales intercalated with the interdune and lakes. From the upper strata of Itaituba Formation the faunal and lithological characteristics indicate the occurrence of a regressive phase culminating in a restricted environment, arid which indicates the Nova Olinda Formation. This is characterized by the occurrence of evaporites

  6. Provenance of Pliocene and recent sedimentary deposits in western Amazônia, Brazil: Consequences for the paleodrainage of the Solimões-Amazonas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbe, Adriana Maria Coimbra; Motta, Marcelo Batista; de Almeida, Carolina Michelin; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Vieira, Lucieth Cruz

    2013-10-01

    Integrated data on paleocurrents, the morphology of detrital minerals and zircon grains, chemical compositions and U-Pb geochronology, reveal that the flow of the modern Solimões-Amazonas River has changed from west to east since the Plio-Pleistocene. This finding is supported by several lines of evidence, including paleocurrent directions and detrital mineral assemblages in the Içá Formation and in recent sediments. The Içá Formation, which was most likely deposited during the Pliocene, has NE and SE paleocurrents, a high proportion of stable detrital mineral assemblages and U-Pb zircon ages that we interpreted as being derived from the Amazonian craton (e.g., the Rondonian-San Ignácio and Sunsas-Grenvillian geochronologic provinces) and neighboring provinces, including the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Brazilian Pampean mobile belts. A small proportion is derived from the Cambrian to Silurian Famatinian continental arch. Another source is the Precambrian and Paleozoic basement from the Andes cordillera, which includes several metamorphic inliers in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. The overlying recent deposits have different provenances and are characterized by a more variable detrital assemblage with zircon grains that are enriched in trace elements and depleted in Si and have Mesoproterozoic ages. In our interpretation, the erosion of the Iquitos Arch after deposition of the Içá Formation allowed the westward expansion of the Solimões-Amazonas system in the Plio-Pleistocene.

  7. Evaluation of the micro nutrients daily ingestion and mercury on pre-elementary school children from some communities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil; Avaliacao da ingestao diaria de micronutrientes e mercurio em pre-escolares de algumas comunidades do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andrea C.P. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Farias, Luciana; Maihara, Vera A.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br; ime, P.L.; Alencar, Fernando H.; Yuyama, Lucia K. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)]. E-mail: yuyama@inpa.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluates the daily dietetic ingestion of Hg and some nutrients of pre-scholar children from eight communities of Amazonas state, Brazil. Some children from each community were selected and their diets (24 hours total consumption) were collected by the duplicate quantity method and a pool of diets composed for each of these communities. The diet samples were analysed for the Hg total content by a CV AAS linear accelerator and neutron activation analysis for determination of Ca, Fe, K, Se and Zn micro nutrients. Both analytical methodologies precision and accuracy were validated using the certified reference materials analysis. The provisional tolerable weekly ingestion (PTWI) for Hg and the daily micro nutrient ingestion were calculated for each group, considering an 10 kg average weight for each child. The obtained results for all diets were shown the inadequacy prevail for the evaluated micro nutrients, and some communities exceeded the limit of 5 {mu}g Hg/kg of body weight (PTWI). Those results suggested that the nutritional education program must be implemented at those communities, aiming the better utilization of the local food natural resources. (author)

  8. Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, a host of Leishmania amazonensis, sympatric with two other members of the Flaviscutellata complex in southern Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988 um hospedeiro de Leishmania amazonensis, simpátrico com duas outras espécies do complexo flaviscutellata no sul do Amazonas e Rondônica, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    R. A. Freitas

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A member of the Lutzomyia flaviscutellata complex from Rondônia and southern Amazonas States, Brazil, is so close to the Venezuelan Lutzomyia olmeca recuta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, that it is regarded as belonging to the same species. Since this phlebotomine co-extis with L. olmeca nociva in Brazil, the subspecific status of the former is untenable and is rased to specific rank, as Lutzomyia reducta. The Brazilian material is described and illustrated, and compared with specimens of L. o. nociva and L. flaviscutellata from the same area. Keys to the known taxa of the flaviscutellata complex are presented. Leishmania amazonensis was isolated from one heavily infected specimen of L. reducta, making this the third species of the flaviscutellata complex to be implicated as a vector of this parasite in Brazil. The relative abundance of the three sympatric flaviscutellata complex species varies locally and appears to be related to soil drainage. L. reducta constituted about 25% if all phlebotomines captured in Disney traps at poorly drained and well drained site, but appears not to coloniza areas subject to periodic flooding. L. olmeca nociva was restricted to poorly drained areas not subject to flooding, whereas L. flaviscutellata was ubiquitous L. reducta has never been detected north of the Amazon river in Brazil, but absence of recosrds from western and northwestern Amazonas State may reflect lack of collecting in these areas.Um flebotomíneo do complexo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, de Rondônia e sul do Amazonas, Brasil é tão parecido com Lutzomyia olmeca reducta, que é considerado como sendo da mesma espécie. Este flebotomíneo ocorre junto com L. olmeca nociva, portanto o nome é emendado para o nível de espécie, como Lutzomyia reducta. O material do Brasil é descrito e ilustrado, e comparado com exemplares de L. o. nociva e L. flaviscutellata da mesma área. Chaves para as espécies e subespécies do complexo flaviscutellata são inclu

  9. Lectura, biblioteca e inclusión social: Importancia de la promoción de la lectura en comunidades ribereñas en Amazonas, Brasil = Reading, library and social inclusion: The importance of promoting reading in riverside communities in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Giordano de Souza Siqueira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La lectura es un factor clave para la vida en sociedad; sin embargo, hay personas que no se han apropiado de este práctica. Este tema ha sido objeto de varias investigaciones e instancias académicas y científicas, siempre con el objetivo de lograr que la lectura sea accesible a todos. Brasil es conocido por su enorme extensión, pero carece de eficiencia en la ejecución de dichos proyectos. El Estado de Amazonas ocupa la superficie terrestre más grande del país; además, el transporte fluvial por los ríos es la única forma de acceso a las comunidades. El artículo describe un conjunto de actividades con el fin de acercar la lectura a las comunidades ribereñas, en un intento de democratizar el acceso a los libros y la lectura en ausencia de las bibliotecas públicas contribuyendo, de este modo, al proceso de inclusión informacional en la sociedad actual de la información y del conocimiento, donde la cuestión de la lectura es un desafío y, aunque sea una condición esencial, todavía existen analfabetos que necesitan ser incluidos con el fin de garantizar su participación como ciudadanos = Reading is a key factor for life in society, yet there are people who have not appropriated this habit. This theme has been the focus of various research and academic and scientific events, always with the intention of making it accessible to all. Brazil is known for its huge extension, but suffers from inefficiency in the implementation of this type of projects. The State of Amazonas occupies the largest land area of the country; in addition, the river transport is the only way to access to many communities. The article describes developed activities with the intention of bringing the reading to the riverside communities in an attempt to democratize access to books and reading in the absence of public libraries, contributing to the process of informational inclusion in the current society of information and knowledge where the issue of reading is

  10. Ocorrência da Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Município de Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae in riverine communities of the Purus river, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de estimar as prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi e calcular taxa de infecção parasitária nos simulídeos. O trabalho foi realizado em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil. As prevalências foram obtidas por meio do método de gota espessa de sangue obtido por porção digital. Os simulídeos coletados foram dissecados para estimar a taxa de infecção parasitária. A prevalência de M. ozzardi foi de 27,3% (282/77. Foram observadas maiores prevalências nos homens (31,97% que nas mulheres (22,22%, nos agricultores (48% e nos indivíduos entre: 38-47 (60%, 48-57 (66,66% e 58-67 (75%. A microfilaremia foi maior nos indivíduos entre 58-67 anos (média = 58,41mf/40µL, sexo masculino (41,44mf/40µL e nos agricultores (49,94mf/40µL. Somente o simulídeo Cerqueirellum amazonicum foi encontrado infectado com taxa de infecção parasitária de 0,98%.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi and calculate the parasitic infection rate in simuliid blackflies. The research was conducted in communities on the Purus River, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Prevalence was measured using the thick smear method. Captured blackflies were dissected to verify the parasitic infection rate. M. ozzardi prevalence was 27.30% (77/282. The study showed higher prevalence in men (31.97% than women (22.22%, farmers (48.99%, and individuals in the 38-47 (60.00%, 48-57 (66.66%, and 58-67-year age brackets (75.00%. Microfilaremia was higher in individuals 58 to 67 years of age (average= 58.41mf/40µl, men (41.44mf/40µl, and farmers (49.94mf/40µl. Only the simuliid Cerqueirellum amazonicum was found infected with a parasitic infection rate of 0.98%.

  11. Mercury and methylmercury concentration assessment in children's hair from Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio e metilmercúrio em cabelo de crianças de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Farias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated Hg and MeHg content in hair samples of 201 children 2 to 7 years old, living in six neighborhoods of the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. In general, the total Hg and MeHg median ranges in hair were similar (0.91 to 1.71 mg kg-1 except for the São Jose neighborhood, which was lower (0.16 mg kg-1. De spite the fact that the Manaus population consumes fish as part of the normal dietary intake, the Hg hair levels were below the level for an adult population not exposed to mercury (2.0 mg kg-1. These data were compared to demographic, socioeconomic information and eating habits of the families that took part in the study. The results were also compared to other published data from the Amazon region, other regions of Brazil and other countries. Future studies to set Hg and MeHg levels in hair of children in Brazil should take into account and assess the diversity of the country, mainly in terms of eating habits, socio-economic and cultural aspects.O presente estudo avaliou o teor de Hg e MeHg em amostras de cabelo de 201 crianças de 2 aos 7 anos de idade, residentes em seis bairros da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Em geral, o teor de Hg total e MeHg em cabelo foram semelhantes (medianas de 0,91 a 1,71 mg kg-1, exceto para o bairro São José, que foi menor (0,16 mg kg-1. Apesar da população de Manaus consumir peixe como parte da dieta normal, os níveis de Hg nos cabelos ficaram abaixo do nível para uma população adulta não exposta ao mercúrio (2,0 mg kg-1. Esses dados foram comparados com informações demográficas, socioeconômicas e hábitos alimentares das famílias que participaram do estudo. Os resultados também foram comparados com outros dados publicados da Amazônia, outras regiões do Brasil e outros países. Futuros estudos para definir os níveis de Hg total e MeHg no cabelo das crianças brasileiras deverão considerar e avaliar a diversidade do país, principalmente em termos de h

  12. Damselflies of the genus Argia of the Guiana Shield (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Rosser W; Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2015-11-16

    This revision of all 21 species of Argia known to occur within the Guiana Shield includes descriptions of new species, synonymies, keys to both sexes based primarily on morphology of caudal appendages and genital ligula in males and of the mesostigmal plates in females, diagnoses accompanied by illustrations and distribution maps for all species. Twelve new species are described: A. appendiculata (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Base Camp, 0°50' N, 66°10' W, 18 ii 1985, P.J. & P.M. Spangler, R.A. Faitoute leg., in USNM), A. azurea (Holotype ♂: Guyana, Potaro-Siparuni Region, Kaieteur Ravine, about 5°10' N, 59°28' W, 11 iv 1912, J.M. Geddes leg., in UMMZ), A. cuneifera (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Base Camp, 0°50' N, 66°10' W, 20-24 iii 1984, O.S. Flint, Jr. & J.A. Louton leg., in USNM), A. deceptor (Holotype ♂: French Guiana, Cayenne Department, Régina Commune, Saut Athanase, 4°10'59" N, 52°20'6" W, 9 x 2001, L. Juillerat leg, in MHNN), A. donnellyi (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Bolívar State, small marsh and creek on plateau surface above Coñac River, 10 km E of El Paují; about 4°31' N, 61°31' W, 5 viii 1990, RWG leg., in CSCA), A. gemella (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Reserva Ducke, 26 km E Manaus (3°0'15'' S, 59°56'23'' W, 120 m), 2-4 ii 1979, O.S. Flint Jr. leg., in USNM), A. guyanica (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Camp IV, 0°58' N, 65°57' W, 15-18 iii 1984, O.S. Flint, Jr. leg., in USNM), A. joallynae (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Bolívar State, Canaima, palm marsh, 6°14'30" N, 62°50'53" W, 22-25 ix 1980, R.W. & J.A. Garrison. leg., in CSCA), A. loutoni (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Purus River, Nova Olinda, about 3°30' S, 57°56' W, 6 ii 1979, O.S. Flint, Jr. leg., in FSCA), A. meioura (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Manaus, about 2°55' S, 59°59' W, 26 vi 1922, J.H. Williamson & J.W. Strohm leg., in UMMZ), A. palmata

  13. The use of renewable alternative sources for the isolated electric generation: proposal of agroenergy system implantation based on the palm oil from the Amazonas state, Brazil; O uso de fontes alternativas renovaveis para a geracao eletrica isolada: proposta de implantacao de sistemas agroenergeticos com base na palma africana no Estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the introduction potential of agroenergetic systems in the state of Amazonas, BR, by giving priority to the plantation of the palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in deforested areas od the state of Amazonas, BR, which presents the edaphoclimatic conditions necessary for the plantation of this palm tree. The palm oil can be used in natura in stationary engines and cas basic raw material for the production of biodiesel, both through transesterification and cracking as well.

  14. Occurrence of Symphyla (Myriapoda in the region of the Upper Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil Ocorrência de Symphyla (Myriapoda na região do Alto Rio Solimões, Amazonas

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    José Wellington de Morais

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at identifying the Symphyla species diversity and abundance in various land-use systems under different degrees of intensification in western Amazonia. This is the first inventory of Symphyla in primary and secondary forest, crops, agroforestry systems and pastures which was carried out in Benjamin Constant municipality, in the region of the Upper Solimões River, Brazil. Samples (n = 101 were collected using a metal corer, and the symphylan extraction was carried out using Berlese-Tullgren funnels. Two genera and three species of symphylans were encountered. Considering the diversity encountered in Amazonian inventories, with only four genera and five known species overall, the three species found in the present study are considered a reasonable representation of the regional diversity. Two of the Hanseniella species found have been known to cause plant damage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a diversidade e a abundância de espécies de Symphyla em diversos sistemas de manejo do solo em diferentes graus de intensificação no oeste da Amazônia. Este é o primeiro inventário de Symphyla em florestas primárias e secundárias, roças, sistemas agroflorestais e pastagens, realizado na região do Alto Rio Solimões, em Benjamin Constant, AM. As amostras (n = 101 foram coletadas com uma sonda de metal, e a extração dos sínfilos foi efetuada com o aparelho de Berlese-Tullgren. Foram registrados dois gêneros e três espécies de sínfilos. Considerando a diversidade encontrada em inventários efetuados na Amazônia, que no geral têm apenas quatro gêneros e cinco espécies conhecidas, as três espécies registradas neste estudo são consideradas razoavelmente representativas da diversidade na área. Duas das espécies do gênero Hanseniella encontradas são conhecidas como causadoras de danos a plantas.

  15. Pupunha no mercado de Manaus: preferências de consumidores e suas implicações Peach palm in Manaus, market Amazonas, Brazil: consumer preferences and their implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A demanda para o fruto fresco de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae permanece estável após 50 anos de pesquisa e fomento na Amazônia. Entrevistas com 30 consumidores na principal feira de Manaus, durante a segunda safra, determinaram que o fruto preferido é o vermelho (por 53%, de tamanho médio (67%, moderadamente a oleoso (53% oleoso e 40% moderadamente, em cachos grandes (50% e com um custo razoável (R$5/cacho em outubro 2001, diferente dos frutos usados no fomento (grandes, secos, mais caros e de dificil criação por melhoristas. A quantificação e o detalhamento destas preferências são essenciais para reorientar a pesquisa e o fomento.The demand for fresh fruit of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth has remained stable through 50 years of research and promotion in the Brazilian Amazon. Interviews with 30 consumers at the principal market in Manaus, Amazonas, during the second harvest determined that red (by 53%, medium weight (67%, moderately oily fruit (53% oily and 40% moderately oily, in large bunches (50% with a reasonable price (R$5 = US$2 / bunch in October 2001 is preferred, which is different from the fruit used in promotion (large, dry, higher price and difficult for breeders to create. Quantifying and detailing these preferences are essential to guide future research and promotion.

  16. The relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Élvio R; Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Odim, Angeany; Machado, Floramara T; Muniz, Bárbara R; Antunes, António A; Ornelas, Rui T; Gouveia, Bruna R

    2017-11-01

    (1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤-0.10; p<0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  18. Perfil demográfico dos Hupd'äh, povo Maku da região do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Perfil demográfico de los Hupd'äh, pueblo Maku de la región del Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Demographic profile of the Hupd'äh, a Maku people living the Upper Rio Negro Region, State of Amazonas, Brazil (2000-2003

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    Marina Machado

    2009-06-01

    íticas públicas que la favorezcan y para los debates en antropología, demografía y salud indígena. La población de 1.487 individuos, en 2003, creció un 8,4% al año en el período estudiado. Su composición por edad y sexo indica concentración de jóvenes (44,9% con menos de 15 años, además de la predominancia de población del sexo masculino. La tasa bruta de natalidad (TBN media del período fue de 33,4 nacimientos por mil habitantes, la de fecundidad total (TFT correspondió a 3,4 hijos por mujer, la de mortalidad (TBM fue de 10 muertes por mil habitantes y la de mortalidad infantil (TMI llegó a 116,3 muertes por mil nacimientos. El perfeccionamiento de la recolección de informaciones, el elevado crecimiento vegetativo y la intensa movilidad espacial de los Hupd'äh podrían explicar el alto ritmo de crecimiento verificado entre 2000 y 2003.The Hupd'äh are a people of the Maku language who live in the Upper Rio Negro Region in Amazonas, Brazil. Indigenous leaders, anthropologists, missionaries and health professionals all say that this population lives under very precarious conditions of health, with high overall and child mortality rates. On the basis of data derived from the Special Indigenous District of Rio Negro (DSEI-RN, of Funasa/MS, for the period of 2000-2003, a descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the demographic and general profiles of the group The study also had the objective of contributing to the implementation of public policies for them, and for debates in the areas of anthropology, demography and indigenous health. The population of 1,487 individuals in 2003 grew 8.4% per year during the period studied. Composition by age and sex indicates a concentration of young people (44.9% under the age of 15, and a greater percentage of males. The average gross fertility rate (TBN for the period was 33.4 births per 1000 inhabitants, and total fertility (TFT was 3.4 children per woman. Mortality rate (TBM was 10 deaths per 1000 inhabitants and

  19. Adverse effects of alternative therapy (minocycline, ofloxacin, and clofazimine) in multibacillary leprosy patients in a recognized health care unit in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Marina Valente; Cunha, Maria da Graça Souza; Cunha, Carolina Souza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After the introduction of the multidrug therapy, there was a decline in the coefficients of prevalence and detection of new cases of leprosy. However, the records of drug resistance and relapses are threatening factors in leprosy control. Hence, new alternative schemes and monitoring of adverse effects to avoid treatment abandonment are important considerations. OBJECTIVE: Describe the side effects of a multidrug regimen containing minocycline, ofloxacin, and clofazimine in multibacillary leprosy patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, descriptive, and observational study with multibacillary patients, including cases of intolerance to standard MDT and relapses. The study was carried out at Fundação Alfredo da Matta (Alfredo da Matta Foundation), in Manaus, Amazonas, from April 2010 to January 2012. The patients received alternative therapy, which consisted of daily self-administered doses of 100mg of minocycline, 400 mg of ofloxacin, and 50mg of clofazimine and a supervised monthly dose of 300mg of clofazimine for six months, followed by eighteen months of daily doses of ofloxacin 400mg, clofazimine 50mg, and a supervised monthly dose of clofazimine 300mg. Results: Twenty-one cases were included. Mild and transitory side effects occurred in 33.3% of patients. Of the total episodes, 45.9% were attributed to ofloxacin and they included abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, and insomnia; 21.6% were due to clofazimine, with 100% of patients presenting skin pigmentation. The mean time for the development of adverse effects after beginning the therapy was 15.2 days. CONCLUSION: All patients tolerated the drugs well, and compliance was satisfactory, with no serious events. Unlike other standard MDT studies had shown, no treatment was stopped due to side effects. Nevertheless, patient follow-up and studies with bigger samples are necessary to guarantee the efficacy and safety of the alternative regimen as a second-line scheme in multi

  20. Adverse effects of alternative therapy (minocycline, ofloxacin, and clofazimine) in multibacillary leprosy patients in a recognized health care unit in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Marina Valente; Cunha, Maria da Graça Souza; Cunha, Carolina Souza

    2013-01-01

    After the introduction of the multidrug therapy, there was a decline in the coefficients of prevalence and detection of new cases of leprosy. However, the records of drug resistance and relapses are threatening factors in leprosy control. Hence, new alternative schemes and monitoring of adverse effects to avoid treatment abandonment are important considerations. Describe the side effects of a multidrug regimen containing minocycline, ofloxacin, and clofazimine in multibacillary leprosy patients. We conducted a prospective, descriptive, and observational study with multibacillary patients, including cases of intolerance to standard MDT and relapses. The study was carried out at Fundação Alfredo da Matta (Alfredo da Matta Foundation), in Manaus, Amazonas, from April 2010 to January 2012. The patients received alternative therapy, which consisted of daily self-administered doses of 100mg of minocycline, 400 mg of ofloxacin, and 50mg of clofazimine and a supervised monthly dose of 300mg of clofazimine for six months, followed by eighteen months of daily doses of ofloxacin 400mg, clofazimine 50mg, and a supervised monthly dose of clofazimine 300mg. Twenty-one cases were included. Mild and transitory side effects occurred in 33.3% of patients. Of the total episodes, 45.9% were attributed to ofloxacin and they included abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, and insomnia; 21.6% were due to clofazimine, with 100% of patients presenting skin pigmentation. The mean time for the development of adverse effects after beginning the therapy was 15.2 days. All patients tolerated the drugs well, and compliance was satisfactory, with no serious events. Unlike other standard MDT studies had shown, no treatment was stopped due to side effects. Nevertheless, patient follow-up and studies with bigger samples are necessary to guarantee the efficacy and safety of the alternative regimen as a second-line scheme in multi-drug therapy.

  1. Prevalência de cárie dentária e condições socioeconômicas em jovens alistandos de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Prevalence of dental caries and socioeconomic conditions among young conscripts in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alcione Regina Pegoraro Viana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cárie dentária tem origem multifatorial e a condição socioeconômica está inserida neste contexto. O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a prevalência de cárie, além de verificar sua associação com variáveis socioeconômicas em jovens alistandos de 17 a 19 anos de idade, sexo masculino, em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com uma amostra de conveniência dos conscritos das Forças Armadas Brasileiras. Os critérios de diagnóstico e questionário socioeconômico foram baseados no levantamento nacional SB Brasil e OMS. Uma única examinadora (kappa = 0,96 realizou o exame bucal em 578 alistandos. Foi utilizado o teste Shapiro-Wilk para verificação de normalidade dos dados; não sendo aceita a normalidade (p = 0,0001, foi utilizado o teste não-paramétrico Kruskall-Walis para comparação das médias e assim verificar a diferença significativa entre CPOD e seus componentes com as variáveis avaliadas. A prevalência de cárie encontrada foi de 88,8% e o índice CPOD médio foi igual a 5,16 ± 0,17. Diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram encontradas nas médias dos componentes Cariado, Perdido e Obturado do índice CPOD, sendo os piores indicadores verificados nos grupos de menor escolaridade, menor renda e procedentes de escola pública, demonstrando maior necessidade de medidas preventivas e assistenciais para estes grupos.Dental caries has multifactor origins and socioeconomic conditions are part of this context. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of caries and investigate its association with socioeconomic variables among young male conscripts aged 17 to 19 years in Manaus, Amazonas. This was a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of conscripts of the Brazilian armed forces. Diagnostic criteria and the socioeconomic questionnaire were based on the SB Brazil national survey and WHO criteria. A single examiner (kappa = 0.96 performed oral examinations on 578

  2. Hanseníase em populações indígenas do Amazonas, Brasil: um estudo epidemiológico nos municípios de Autazes, Eirunepé e São Gabriel da Cachoeira (2000 a 2005 Leprosy in indigenous populations of Amazonas State, Brazil: an epidemiological study in the counties of Autazes, Eirunepé and São Gabriel da Cachoeira (2000 to 2005

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    Elsia Belo Imbiriba

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, apresentou, em 2005, coeficientes hiperendêmicos de detecção de hanseníase e prevalência de média endemicidade. O estado detém a maior população indígena no país, mas inexistem informações sobre o perfil da hanseníase nesses grupos. O estudo objetivou a descrição e análise das características epidemiológicas das notificações de hanseníase nos municípios de Autazes, Eirunepé e São Gabriel da Cachoeira, comparando achados entre indígenas e não indígenas, segundo variáveis de interesse. Foram analisados os casos notificados no SINAN, no período de 2000 a 2005. Do total de 386 casos notificados, verificaram-se coeficientes médios de detecção de 3,55, 14,94 e 2,13/10 mil (entre os não indígenas e de 10,95, 1,93 e 0,78/10 mil (para os indígenas, para Autazes, Eirunepé e São Gabriel da Cachoeira, respectivamente. Houve predomínio de casos paucibacilares em indígenas e em não indígenas, no entanto, a forma dimorfa representou 1/3 das notificações. Apesar das limitações de cobertura e do sub-registro, os achados sugerem que a hanseníase representa importante problema de saúde pública para os indígenas no Amazonas. A classificação segundo "raça/etnicidade" se constituiu em ferramenta útil para elucidar desigualdades em saúde.In 2005, Amazonas State, Brazil, showed hyperendemic leprosy detection coefficients and prevalence with medium endemicity. Although this State has the largest indigenous population in Brazil, there are no data on the leprosy profile in these groups. This study aimed to describe and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of leprosy case reporting in the municipalities (counties of Autazes, Eirunepé, and São Gabriel da Cachoeira, comparing indigenous and non-indigenous findings according to target variables. A total of 386 cases reported to SINAN from 2000 to 2005 were analyzed. Mean detection rates were 3.55, 14.94, and 2.13/10,000 (among non

  3. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  4. Integrated evaluation of the geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Leo A.; Savian, Jairo F., E-mail: leo.hartmann@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Lopes, William R. [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Geologia e Mineracao

    2016-03-15

    An integrated evaluation of geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield is permitted by the advanced stage of understanding of the geology and geochronology of the southern Brazilian Shield and a 2010 airborne geophysical survey. Gamma rays are registered from the rocks near the surface and thus describe the distribution of major units in the shield, such as the Pelotas batholith, the juvenile São Gabriel terrane, the granulite-amphibolite facies Taquarembo terrane and the numerous granite intrusions in the foreland. Major structures are also observed, e.g., the Dorsal de Cangucu shear. Magnetic signals register near surface crustal compositions (analytic signal) and total crust composition (total magnetic signal), so their variation as measured indicates either shallow or whole crustal structures. The Cacapava shear is outstanding on the images as is the magnetic low along the N-S central portion of the shield. These integrated observations lead to the deepening of the understanding of the largest and even detailed structures of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, some to be correlated to field geology in future studies. Most significant is the presence of different provinces and their limits depending on the method used for data acquisition - geology, aero gamma spectrometry or aero magnetometry. (author)

  5. Variabilité hydrologique et vulnérabilité des populations du Lago Janauaca (Amazonas, Brésil Variabilidade hidrológica e vulnerabilidade das populações do Lago Janauaca (Amazonas, BrasilHydrological variability and human vulnerability in Lago Janauaca (Amazonas, Brazil

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    Josyane Ronchail

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Étroitement liées à la pulsation saisonnière des crues de l’Amazone, les activités des petits paysans et pêcheurs des várzeas sont particulièrement sensibles aux manifestations plus extrêmes de la variabilité hydrologique. Ce travail propose d’appréhender la vulnérabilité de ces communautés riveraines aux crues et étiages extrêmes autour du Lago Janauaca, près de Manaus, dans un contexte climatique d’intensification du cycle hydrologique. Dans un premier temps nous proposons de caractériser la variabilité hydrologique du Rio Solimões et son impact spatial sur le Lago. Si l’extension du phénomène est frappante, les dynamiques anthropiques sur les rives du lac sont elles aussi importantes. Celles-ci s’expliquent plus par l’ouverture de pistes entre le lac et la BR319, que par l’expansion des cultures traditionnelles qui restent modérée. Enfin, une série d’entretiens menés auprès des riverains dévoile une relation complexe entre les différentes activités des populations et les extrêmes hydrologiques. Les sécheresses y apparaissent comme les perturbations majeures, non seulement à cause de leurs impacts sur les cultures, mais surtout en raison des difficultés qu’elles entraînent pour les mobilités locale et régionale.Intimamente relacionado com o pulso de inundação sazonal do rio Amazonas, as atividades dos agricultores e pescadores das várzeas são particularmente sensíveis aos eventos mais extremos da variabilidade hidrológica. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a vulnerabilidade das comunidades ribeirinhas às cheias e às estiagens extremas ao redor do Lago Janauaca, próximo de Manaus, em um contexto de intensificação do ciclo hidrológico. Inicialmente, propomos uma caracterização da variabilidade hidrológica do Rio Solimões e do seu impacto espacial sobre o lago. As dinâmicas antrópicas às margens do lago são importantes também. Elas são mais decorrentes pela abertura

  6. del estado Amazonas, Venezuela

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    J. A. Rondón-R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aporta información sobre 12 especies forestales de uso en la cestería por las comunidades de la etnia Piaroa del Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Los productos de cestería más comunes son los bolsos (Darúafa, catumares (Phäjphá, cesta o red de pesca (Máya, cesta de pescar (Kawita, esteras (Deaka guayares, manares (Rütújkä mapires (Dejäcke, petacas (Rútupja, sebucanes (ärá y yoperas (Daruwapja. Las especies vegetales de mayor uso en esta actividad correspondieron a la familia Arecaceae (Palmae con siete especies, mientras que, las familias Araceae, Maranthaceae, Annonaceae, Lecythidaceae y Malpighiaceae están representadas por una especie cada una.

  7. The costs of REDD: lessons from Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.; Ribenboim, Gabriel [Amazonas Sustainable Foundation (Brazil); Mea, Rosana Della [Rainforest Concern (Brazil); Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2009-11-15

    Reducing tropical deforestation is a major climate and development issue: forest clearing is responsible for roughly a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions, and the forest-dependent poor number over a billion. In the runup to the Copenhagen climate summit, REDD – reducing emissions from deforestation and (forest) degradation by providing incentives to tropical forest countries – has been touted as one of the most cost-effective mitigation mechanisms on the table. But the benefits would be only temporary if forests saved today are cleared once incentives cease. Would the expense of maintaining such incentives over decades raise the price to uncompetitive levels? A forest reserve in Amazonas, Brazil, offers some of the first real-world data on the costs of REDD. Even with pessimistic assumptions about future pressures, the project's carbon cuts look highly affordable.

  8. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

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    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 é uma espécie endêmica da Mata Atlântica e ameaçada de extinção no Brasil e no mundo. Não existem relatos recentes de sua presença na porção setentrional de sua distribuição ao norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. O último é datado provavelmente de 1991, tendo sido considerado extinto ao norte do Espírito Santo. O presente trabalho noticia a redescoberta da espécie em Alto Rio Novo, noroeste do Espírito Santo, divisa com Minas Gerais. Foram registrados bandos em duas localidades em dezembro de 2005, sendo o maior deles composto por 28 indivíduos. Durante os registros foi observado A. vinacea se alimentando de Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, uma nova fonte alimentar para a espécie. Os registros históricos mais recentes para a região citam localidades com distância inferior a 35 km dos atuais registros, reforçando a importância local. No entanto, a degradação ambiental e a captura ilegal representam obstáculos à conservação da espécie nesta região. Em dezembro de 2002 foi criado o Parque Nacional dos Pontões Capixabas, primeira Unidade de Conservação na porção serrana do norte do Espírito Santo. Uma das áreas históricas da espécie está incluída em seus limites e um dos locais onde foi agora redescoberto fica a cerca de 10 km de distância da borda do parque. Essa Unidade de Conservação é essencial à proteção de trechos nativos da Mata Atlântica e conseqüentemente do papagaio-de-peito-roxo. Além de medidas conservacionistas, a aquisição de informações sobre as populações de A. vinacea no noroeste do Espírito Santo e leste de Minas Gerais torna-se indispensável para a proposição de medidas de manejo capazes de reverter o grave quadro atual, objetivando viabilizar a permanência de populações na região mais setentrional da distribuição conhecida atualmente para a espécie.Endemic of the Atlantic Forest, Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 is listed as

  9. The mystery of the 'resin-of-canuaru': a medicine used by caboclos river-dwellers of the Amazon, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E; Santos, J de F L; Souza, S M; Lago, J H G

    2012-12-18

    'Resin-of-canuaru' is a medicine utilized by caboclos living in the Amazon Region, Brazil. There is a mystery regarding its origin because the caboclos maintain that this substance is derived only from animal secretions (from a frog called canuaru), whereas the historic literature claims that 'resin-of-canuaru' is derived solely from a plant exudate (resin). Based on our ethnographic studies, we hypothesized that this substance is a combination of both. Because the past reports on this resiniferous material in the literature are based solely on observations, we aimed to present ethnographic, zoological and chemical data to try to elucidate the origin of the 'resin-of-canuaru'. Ethnographic techniques and methods were applied, including participant observation, the use of field diaries and informal and unstructured interviews. The canuaru frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix Goeldi, 1907) and 'resin-of-canuaru' were collected for taxonomic identification and chemical analysis, respectively. The resiniferous 'resin-of-canuaru' was extracted using MeOH and then analyzed by silica gel TLC and NMR. Canuaru frogs live in tree cavities and secrete a large amount of substances during spawning, resulting in a resiniferous material. NMR analysis of the MeOH extract of this crude material showed peaks assigned to 3,4-secofriedel-4(23)-en-3-oic acid (putranjuvic acid) and its methyl ester derivative (methyl putranjivate) and to biogenetic precursor of these two compounds (a lactone derivative), which is formed by the oxidation of friedelin. Based on evidence that Protium species accumulate primarily tetracyclic/pentacyclic triterpenoids and that the co-occurrence of the compounds listed above is rarely described in plant species, we suggest that these compounds could be products of the biotransformation of friedelin by the frog. According to our data, the 'resin-of-canuaru' seems to have both animal and vegetal origins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The generation of electric power in a model of endogenous development: possible solutions for isolated communities in the Amazonas State, Brazil; A geracao de energia eletrica em um modelo de desenvolvimento endogeno: possiveis solucoes para as comunidades isoladas do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work was developed to fit the generation of electric energy for the isolated communities of the interior of the Amazonas State in a context of endogenous development. A regional development is proposed, with the inclusion of the generation of electric energy for these communities in a context of development, rather than the isolated form proposed in the federal government electrification program of 'Luz Para Todos' (Light For All). (author)

  11. A new species of Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983 (Diptera: Simuliidae and proven new vector of mansonelliasis from the Ituxi River, Amazon basin, Brazil Uma nova espécie de Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983 (Diptera, Simuliidae e provável novo vetor de mansonelose no rio Ituxi, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983 (Diptera: Simuliidae is described. The adults are similar to the species C. oyapockense (Floch & Abonnenc, 1946 and C. roraimense (Nunes de Mello, 1974, of which the females are similar, and the males present discrete differences. The main differences of this new species to others of the genus Cerqueirellum are the integument of the larva recovered from stout spines and long cephalic trichomes in the pupa. Some females were infected with Mansonella ozzardii (Manson, 1897 (Nematoda, Onchocercidae and probably transmit mansonelliasis in the Ituxi river, state of Amazonas, Brazil.Uma nova espécie de pium do gênero Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983 (Diptera: Simuliidae é descrito. Os adultos são similares às espécies C. oyapockense (Floch & Abonnenc, 1946 e C. roraimense (Nunes de Mello, 1974, cujas fêmeas são indistinguíveis e os machos apresentam discretas diferenças. As principais diferenças dessa nova espécie para as outras espécies do gênero Cerqueirellum são o tegumento da larva recoberto de fortes espinhos e os longos tricomas cefálicos nas pupas. Algumas fêmeas foram encontradas infectadas com Mansonella ozzardi (Manson, 1897 (Nematoda, Onchocercidae e provavelmente estão transmitindo mansonelose no rio Ituxi, estado do Amazonas, Brasil.

  12. A new Centromochlus Kner, 1858 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae: Centromochlinae from the transition between Amazon floodplain and Guiana shield, Brazil

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    Luisa Maria Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Species of Centromochlus are widely distributed in South America, with records for major basins such as the Amazon and Orinoco, rivers draining the Guiana Shield such as the Essequibo, Courantyne (Corantijn, Coppename, Maroni, and Oyapock, and Brazilian Shield drainages as upper Paraná and São Francisco. In the last four years, three species of Centromochlus have been described, raising the total number of valid species to sixteen. The new species of Centromochlus described herein is diagnosed by having black ground color sharply delimited from a white underside by conspicuous wavy border. The new species is recorded from the Nhamundá, left bank tributary to the lower Amazon that drain from the Brazilian portion of the Guiana Shield. Although apparently similar to some Tatia species (e.g. Tatia musaica , T. carolae and T. melanoleuca , the new species possess two conditions of the Weberian apparatus otherwise observed only in Centromochlus heckelii and C. existimatus among centromochlin catfishes. The new Centromochlus comprises small catfishes with adults ranging from 48 to 57 mm SL.

  13. Protozoários e metazoários parasitos do cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, peixe ornamental proveniente de exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872 Protozoan and metazoan parasites of the cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, ornamental fish from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872

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    Maria Leonora Silva Brito

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a parasitofauna de peixes ornamentais cultivados são de grande relevância para o conhecimento das espécies de parasitos, permitindo interferência em sua proliferação para evitar epizootias e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas na criação. O presente estudo investigou a prevalência e intensidade de parasitos protozoários e metazoários em cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi (N = 89, mantidos em tanques de um exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Dos espécimes de P. axelrodi necropsiados, 65,2% (N = 58 estavam parasitados pelos Protozoa Piscinoodinium pillulare (3,4% e Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (7,9%, Monogenoidea Gyrodactylus sp. (42,7%, Nematoda Procamallanus sp. (23,6% e Trematoda (1,1%. Gyrodactylus sp. e Procamallanus sp., porém, foram os parasitos de maior prevalência e intensidade. Apesar da elevada prevalência de parasitismo em P. axelrodi durante a sua permanência no exportador, a intensidade de protozoários e metazoários foi baixa pelo manejo profilático nos tanques. Os resultados demonstram que os cuidados com tratamento e profilaxia são de extrema importância na aquicultura de peixes ornamentais.Studies regarding parasites fauna in farmed ornamental fish are of great relevance for knowledge of the parasites species, allowing interference in their proliferation to avoid epizooties and consequently, economical losses. This study was designed to investigate the protozoan and metazoan parasites prevalence and intensity on cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, maintained in tanks of an exporter from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. On necropsy 65.2% of P. axelrodi were found parasitized by Piscinoodium pillulare, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa, Gyrodactylus sp. (Monogenoidea, Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda and Trematoda. Gyrodactylus sp. (42.7% and Procamallanus sp. (23.6% were the parasites of greatest prevalence, and protozoan I. multifiliis was the parasite of greatest mean intensity (4

  14. Rineloricaria castroi, a new species of Mailed Catfish from Rio Trombetas, Brazil (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1984-01-01

    Rineloricaria castroi n. sp. from Rio Trombetas, Est. Pará, Brazil, is described and illustrated. It is compared with R. phoxocephala (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) from Rio Amazonas at Coari, Est. Amazonas, Brazil, which species is here illustrated for the first time.

  15. Natural Leishmania (Viannia infections of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae indicate classical and alternative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Guiana Shield, Brazil

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    de Souza Adelson Alcimar Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 multi-trapping methods (Center of Diseases Control, CDC light traps, light-baited Shannon traps, and aspiration on tree bases were used to study the phlebotomine fauna of the “Serra do Navio” region of the Brazilian State of Amapá, which is part of the Guiana Shield. Fifty-three species were identified among 8,685 captured individuals. The following species, associated with the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Amazonian Brazil, were captured: Nyssomyia umbratilis (3,388, Psychodopygus squamiventris maripaensis (995, Ny. anduzei (550, Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (400, Ny. whitmani (291, Ps. paraensis (116, and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (50. Flagellate infections were detected in 45 flies. Of the 19 parasites isolated in vitro, 15 were Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis (13 in Ny. umbratilis, 1 in Ny. whitmani, 1 in Ny. anduzei and three were L. (V. naiffi (2 in Ps. s. maripaensis, 1 in Ny. anduzei. The results indicate the participation of three phlebotomine species in the transmission of L. (V. guyanensis and two species in that of L. (V. naiffi, and show that the same phlebotomine species is involved in the transmission of different Leishmania (Viannia species in the Guianan/Amazon region. A review of the literature together with the results of the present study, and other published and unpublished results, indicate that eight phlebotomine species potentially participate in the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia naiffi in Amazonia.

  16. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado do Amazonas Epidemiological and clinical aspects of snake accidentes in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Campos Borges

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available No Amazonas, o acidente ofídico é um problema de saúde pública pouco conhecido. Por este motivo, foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos acidentes ofídicos atendidos nas Unidades de Saúde de 34 municípios, um distrito e dois pelotões de fronteira do Estado do Amazonas. As características mais comuns encontradas dentre os pacientes foram: agricultor (50,4%, do sexo masculino (81,3%, em idade produtiva (72,1%, picado no membro inferior (88,5%, por jararaca (48,6% ou surucucu (46,8%, na zona rural de seu município (70,2% e que só recebeu atendimento médico em tempo superior a seis horas, após acidente (57,3%. As manifestações locais mais freqüentes foram: edema (76,9%, dor (68,7%, eritema (10,2% e hemorragia (9,3%. Hemorragia (18,8% foi a manifestação sistêmica mais freqüente. O antiveneno foi administrado em apenas 65,9% dos pacientes. A via mais utilizada foi a endovenosa (52,3%, sendo relevante o uso de vias não mais recomendadas (47,7%. O antiveneno administrado, na maioria dos pacientes, foi o antibotrópico (66,7%. As complicações mais freqüentes foram abcesso (13,7%, necrose (12,3%, infecção secundária (8,3%, insuficiência renal (2,5% e gangrena (2,5%. Os procedimentos médicos mais usados para o tratamento das complicações foram: drenagem (52,6%, debridamento (28,9%, amputação (10,5%, limpeza cirúrgica (5,3% e diálise peritoneal (2,6%. A letalidade foi de 1%.In the State of Amazonas, accidents with snakes are a public health problem. For this reasons, the objective of this work was to carry out a descriptive study of the snake accidents attended in the health units of 34 municipalities, one district and two border platoons in the State of Amazonas. The characteristics most commonly observed among those involved in snake accidents were: farmers (50.4%, male (81.3%, belonging to the working age-group (72.1%, bitten on an upper limb (88.5% by a "jararaca" (48.6% or a "surucucu" (46.8% in the rural part of the

  17. Radiation shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Tadahiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Omori, Tetsu; Mizuochi, Akira

    1997-11-18

    A radiation shield is constituted by using a flexible bag made of a synthetic resin, a rubber plate or a composite member of them. Water is charged therein as a shielding liquid. Water injection ports are formed at the lower surface, and gas exhaustion ports are formed on the upper surface of the radiation shield. A plurality of vertical ribs made of the same material as the bag of the radiation shield are formed, integral with the bag, each at a space on the outer surface of the radiation shield. A reinforcing tube are inserted to the vertical ribs integral with the bag. The reinforcing tube may be made of an metal or non-metal material, but material having a bending strength greater than that of the bag is used. When wide surfaces are constituted in the horizontal direction as radiation shielding surfaces, a plurality of the radiation shields are used being in adjacent in the horizontal direction. The reinforcing tubes in adjacent with each other among the adjacent radiation shields are connected by connectors. (I.N.)

  18. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T

  19. Parasitos nas brânquias de Brycon amazonicus (Characidae, Bryconinae cultivados em canais de igarapé do Turumã-Mirim, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil = Parasites in gills of farmed Brycon amazonicus (Characidae, Bryconinae in stream channels of Turumã-Mirim, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Jefferson Raphael Gonzaga Lemos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos nas brânquias, bem como o fator de condição em matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz (1829 cultivados em três canais de igarapé da região do Tarumã-Mirim, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas. As condições sanitárias dos canais de igarapé, o manejo dospeixes e os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram monitorados. De 150 peixes examinados, 25,0% estavam parasitados pelo protozoário Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (18,0% e por sanguessungas Placobdella sp. (7,0%. A prevalência de I. multifiliis, nos três canais deigarapé, foi de 22,0%, 18,0% e 14,0%, respectivamente, e a intensidade média foi maior em um dos canais que mantinha peixes em grande densidade populacional. As sanguessugas Placobdella sp. ocorreram somente em um dos canais de igarapé. Não houve variação sazonal na infecção de I. multifiliis, mas Placobdella sp. ocorreu somente em janeiro e março. O fator de condição dos peixes parasitados foi significativamente (p The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites in the gills as well as the condition factor of farmed Brycon amazonicus (Spix e Agassiz, 1829 from three stream channels in Tarumã-Mirim, Manaus, Amazonas State. Sanitary conditions of stream channels, fish handling, and water physiochemical parameters were monitored. From the 150 examined fish, 25.0% were contaminated by protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (18,0% and by leeches Placobdella sp. (7.0%. The prevalence of I. multifiliis in the stream channels was of 22.0%, 18.0% and 14.0%, respectively, and the average intensity was high only in the stream channel that maintained fish in high population density. The leeches Placobdella sp. were found only in one stream channel. There was no seasonal variation in the infection by I. multifiliis; however Placobdella sp.infected the hosts only in January and March

  20. Taphofacies of Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian marine invertebrates from the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations, part of the outcropped marine sequence of the Tapajós Group (Southern Amazonas Basin, Brazil) - regional palaeoecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, L. P.; Scomazzon, A. K.; Nascimento, S.; Lemos, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most relevant characteristics of the Pennsylvanian shallow-water carbonates of the Amazonas Basin is its diverse and well preserved invertebrate fossiliferous assemblages. In order to better understand the origin of these fossil concentrations, taphonomic data were obtained along well exposed areas of the uppermost part of the Monte Alegre Formation and basal part of the Itaituba Formation, which, based on conodonts, fusulinids and palynomorphs is of Atokan age. The taphonomic data focused on invertebrate organisms were supported by petrographic analysis. The understanding of the stacking pattern of the strata in the studied section allowed the identification of five type taphofacies, which contributed in the development of regional palaeoecological models, expressed as block-diagrams. These characterize the distribution of the environmental parameters, the composition of the faunal associations and the distribution and amplitude of the taphonomic processes that created the taphonomic signatures of the bioclastic elements throughout the supratidal to lower intertidal/deep subtidal depositional environments pertinent to the studied depositional environment. The regional palaeoecological models here presented are related to the particularities of the depositional environments of the studied rocks and are exclusive for the characterization of this intracratonic basin set influenced by high frequency climatic variations. Lithofacies, biofacies and taphofacies associations also reflect depositional conditions pertinent to the studied regional context, differing from the elements observed in modern intracratonic contexts analogous to the one studied, from different sedimentary basins around the world. Therefore, invertebrate taphonomy, supported by the analysis of sedimentary facies, fulfills the purposes recommended in this work, demonstrating its potential as a tool for palaeoecological analysis in the Pennsylvanian outcropping section in the southern

  1. Effects of a regional décollement level for gravity tectonics on late Neogene-Quaternary deep-sea clastic sedimentation in the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A. M.; Gorini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sets of 2D multi-channel seismic and chronostratigraphic data allowed us to undertake analyses of source to sink processes and triggering mechanisms of the gigantic megaslides previously documented off the NW and SE steep slope settings of the Foz do Amazonas basin. These megaslides comprise two sets of stacked allochthonous masses within the Upper Miocene-Quaternary sedimentary record, now described as Mass-Transport Complexes (MTCs): the Amapá Megaslide Complex (AMC) and the Pará-Maranhão Megaslide Complex (PMMC). Individual megaslides of both MTCs can mobilize to deep waters up to kilometer thick sedimentary series as allochthonous masses with different flow directions, degrees of sediment disruption and internal coherence. Megaslides spread downslope over areas as large as thousands of km2, attaining dimensions comparable to the world's largest mass-transport deposits. The basal and largest megaslide of the AMC (AM1 megaslide) is a quite unique example of mass-transport deposit, since it is interpreted as a dominant carbonate allochthonous mass sourced from a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform. According to stratigraphic correlations with global sea-level positions, platform instability would have been triggered between the late Miocene and the end of the Early Pliocene by gravitational collapse of the mixed platform under its own weight, after successive subaerial exposures which were able to generate karstification processes. Siliciclastic-type megaslides, on the other hand, are all sourced from large upslope slide and/or rotated blocks (up to 60 km large in the case of the PMMC).Stratigraphic correlations evidenced that horizon equally acts as the upper décollement level for the gravity tectonic system that operates in the regional scale of the Foz do Amazonas basin. In such a context, results of this work evidence complex links between variable modes of gravity deformation (gravity tectonics and mass wasting), all induced by instability created from

  2. Shielding Effectiveness of Laminated Shields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Rao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Shielding prevents coupling of undesired radiated electromagnetic energy into equipment otherwise susceptible to it. In view of this, some studies on shielding effectiveness of laminated shields with conductors and conductive polymers using plane-wave theory are carried out in this paper. The plane wave shielding effectiveness of new combination of these materials is evaluated as a function of frequency and thickness of material. Conductivity of the polymers, measured in previous investigations by the cavity perturbation technique, is used to compute the overall reflection and transmission coefficients of single and multiple layers of the polymers. With recent advances in synthesizing stable highly conductive polymers these lightweight mechanically strong materials appear to be viable alternatives to metals for EM1 shielding.

  3. Caracterização e classificação de gleissolos da várzea do rio Solimões (Manacapuru e Iranduba, Amazonas, Brasil Characterization and classification of gleysoils on the floodplain of the Solimões river (Iranduba and Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Sérgio Tavares Guimarães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As várzeas do rio Solimões são áreas inundáveis com predomínio de Gleissolos, onde se estabeleceu grande parte da população rural do Estado do Amazonas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar e classificar cinco perfis de Gleissolos, distribuídos em três áreas da bacia do Médio Amazonas, localizados nas várzeas dos municípios de Manacapuru e Iranduba. Após a descrição morfológica dos solos, coletaram-se amostras dos seus horizontes para caracterização física, química e mineralógica. Similarmente, todos os perfis apresentaram expressiva gleização na matriz do solo, com cores cinzenta a cinzenta-esverdeada, nos horizontes mais superficiais, e cinzenta-clara a cinzenta-escura, nos subsuperficiais, denotando a redução do ferro. Os teores mais elevados da fração areia em horizontes de subsuperfície indicaram presença de diferentes camadas de deposição fluvial, enquanto os elevados teores de silte evidenciaram a natureza sedimentar recente e o baixo grau de desenvolvimento pedogenético desses solos. Os cátions predominantes nos solos foram Ca2+ e Mg2+, que apresentaram porcentagens de sódio trocável (PST, com amplitude de variação entre 0,70 e 2,09. Os valores de carbono orgânico encontrados foram menores de 80 g kg-1, apresentando a natureza mineral dos sedimentos recém-depositados. A composição mineralógica da fração argila revelou presença significativa de argilominerais 2:1, mas sem grande variabilidade entre os perfis. Esses resultados refletiram-se em elevada soma e saturação por bases, caracterizando solos eutróficos e com argila de atividade alta.The floodplains of the Solimões River are areas periodically flooded with predominance of Gleisols,where have lived a large number of small farmers of the region. The purpose of this study was to characterize and classify five profiles of Gleysoils distributed in three floodplain areas of the Middle Amazon basin, located in the municipalities

  4. A organização do desembarque e o comércio de pescado na década de 1990 em Manaus, Amazonas Landing and fish commercialization in the decade of 1990 in the Manaus fishing harbor, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenei de Melo Parente

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A maior parte da produção pesqueira do Estado do Amazonas é desembarcada em Manaus, entretanto, as características de organização do apoio à produção e da comercialização neste centro, pouco têm sido avaliadas ou consideradas nas discussões para o desenvolvimento do setor. O presente trabalho visa apresentar estas características de forma a estabelecer um referencial histórico sobre a organização do desembarque pesqueiro em Manaus e para subsidiar o planejamento do setor. Entrevistas foram efetuadas com diversos atores deste setor, de forma a cobrir o mosaico de alternativas que existem para o abastecimento de pescado. Há quatro tipos de agentes de comercialização atacadista de pescado para Manaus: o barco de pesca, o despachante, o atravessador e os frigoríficos. O despachante aparece como ator central no processo produtivo pesqueiro no período, seja por financiar as viagens e operações de comercialização, ou por executar a ligação entre os produtores-pescadores e os comerciantes de pescado. Exceção a esta regra ocorre com o "pescador ribeirinho autônomo", o qual pesca com seus próprios meios e comercializa sua produção com compradores sem intermediação. No comércio varejista, os feirantes são os mais importantes, sendo a Feira da Panair responsável por cerca de 20% do abastecimento do pescado in natura em Manaus. Os supermercados e os pequenos comerciantes são os demais agentes varejistas, cuja participação na comercialização da produção era ainda pequena, porém financeiramente é maior visto que disponibilizam produtos com valor agregado e portanto preços maiores a mercados de classe média que o dos feirantes.Manaus is the main commercial center for fish prodution in the state of Amazonas. However, its characteristics of commercialization have not been evaluated in order to assist the development of the fishery sector. The present paper presents these characteristics to establish a historical

  5. Campos nativos e matas adjacentes da região de Humaitá (AM: atributos diferenciais dos solos Native grassland and adjacent forest at Humaitá region, Amazonas state, Brazil: differential attributes of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Coimbra Martins

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Existem no sul do Amazonas aproximadamente 560 mil hectares de campos de cerrados, distribuídos principalmente, nos municípios de Humaitá, Lábrea e Canutama. A região não é coberta por campos contínuos, mas por várias unidades isoladas entremeadas por matas. As formas de vegetação primitiva indicam ambientes peculiares, como o regime hídrico, fertilidade natural e aeração do solo. Assim, objetivou-se no presente trabalho estabelecer algumas razões da estratificação ambiental entre mata e campo nativo na região de Humaitá (AM. Para tanto, foram observados morfologicamente e amostrados 10 perfis de solos, sendo 5 perfis sob mata e 5 perfis sob campo cerrado nativo. As amostras foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0-20, 20-40 e 60-80 cm, em trincheiras. Os solos sob vegetação de campo nativo e sob mata possuem atributos químicos semelhantes e mineralógicos idênticos. A ocorrência de solos com maior profundidade efetiva, com melhor drenagem e maior volume de armazenamento de água, em associação à maior inclinação do horizonte plíntico no sentido do igarapé, aumentando o fluxo de água nesta direção, favorecem o aparecimento da vegetação de mata, enquanto que condições opostas a estas favorecem o aparecimento da vegetação de campo nativo.At the south of Amazonas state there are about 560,000 hectares of cerrado grassland which are mainly distributed in Humaitá, Lábrea and Canutama counties. The region is not covered by continuous grasslands, but by various isolated units intermixed by forests. The primitive vegetation phases indicate peculiar environments, such as the hydric regimen, natural fertility and aeration of soil. So, this work has as objective to stablish some reasons for the environmental distinction between forest and native grassland at Humaitá ( Amazonas state region. For that, 10 soil profiles were morphologically observed and sampled, being 5 profiles under forest and 5 profiles under native

  6. Ecological aspects and molecular detection of Leishmania DNA Ross (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in terra firme and várzea environments in the Middle Solimões Region, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; de Azevedo dos Santos, Ana Paula; de Souza Rodrigues, Moreno; Marialva, Eric Fabrício; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    2015-03-25

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to the role that some species play in the transmission of leishmaniasis. This work aimed to study some ecological aspects among sand flies fauna inhabiting two different environments: the várzea (lowland Amazonian forest) and terra firme (upland Amazonian forest), both located in Tefé Municipality, Amazonas State, Braziland to detect Leishmania infection in those phlebotomine populations. Sand flies were collected using HP light traps. Collection took place over the course of six months: January, February, April, August, September, and October of 2013. To detect natural infection by Leishmania, DNA samples were extracted from female sand flies and submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the kDNA gene; Leishmania species were identified by PCR-RFLP targeting the hsp70 gene and genetic sequencing. In all, 5,716 individuals were collected, and 46 species were identified. Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (3,330 - 58.26%) and Nyssomyia antunesi (661 - 11.26%) were the most abundant species. Species richness was greater in terra firme environments (42 species) than in the várzea environments (22 species), and forests ecotopes (43 species) were richer than peridomiciles (28 species). DNA of Leishmania was found in Th. ubiquitalis and Psychodopygus davisi, both of which inhabit the terra firme environment and sequencing analysis confirmed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni DNA in Th. ubiquitalis in Tefé Municipality. The high abundance of Th. ubiquitalis and Ps. davisi and detection of DNA of Leishmania sp. may indicate that both species could be putative vectors for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in the terra firme environment of Tefé. The sand fly fauna found in várzea is rich and diverse, exhibiting several species, nevertheless the seasonal hydric stress during part of the year that could influence the local diversity, if compared with other studies

  7. Associação micorrízica e teores de nutrientes nas folhas de cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum e guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana de um sistema agroflorestal em Manaus, Amazonas Arbuscular mycorrhizal association and foliar nutrient concentrations of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum and guaraná (Paullinia cupana plants in an agroforestry system in Manaus, AM, Brazil

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    A. N. Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As micorrizas arbusculares podem ser importantes na nutrição das plantas em solos ácidos e de baixa fertilidade, como são os da Amazônia de modo geral. Avaliaram-se a colonização radicular por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs nativos e os teores de nutrientes em cupuaçuzeiro e guaranazeiro em um sistema agroflorestal no município de Manaus, Amazonas. Dez plantas de cada espécie foram selecionadas, das quais foram coletadas amostras de raiz, folha e solo durante o período seco e chuvoso da região de Manaus. Os guaranazeiros e os cupuaçuzeiros apresentaram maior colonização radicular por FMAs na época chuvosa. Os teores foliares de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu e Mn nas duas espécies não foram influenciados pelas épocas de amostragem. O teor de Fe nas folhas dos cupuaçuzeiros foi maior na época chuvosa, enquanto o dos guaranazeiros, na época seca. A colonização micorrízica correlacionou-se com a concentração foliar de Ca, Mg, P e Cu nos cupuaçuzeiros e com a de Ca, Fe, Zn e Cu nos guaranazeiros.Arbuscular mycorrhiza can be important for plant nutrition in acid and low fertility soils such as those of the Amazon. The present study evaluated the mycorrhizal colonization by native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and nutrient concentrations of cupuassu and guarana leaves in an agroforestry system in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Ten plants of each species were selected, of which the roots, soil and leaves were sampled during the rainy and dry seasons. Guarana and cupuassu trees presented higher levels of AMF colonization during the rainy season. Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations in both species were not affected by the season. Fe concentration was higher during the rainy season in the cupuassu leaves, but higher in the dry season in the guarana leaves. Mycorrhizal colonization correlated with Ca, Mg, P, and Cu concentrations in cupuassu plants and with Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in guarana plants.

  8. Estado nutricional e consumo de energia e nutrientes de pré-escolares que frequentam creches no município de Manaus, Amazonas: existem diferenças entre creches públicas e privadas? Estado nutricional y consumo de energía y nutrientes de pre-escolares que frecuentan guarderías en el municipio de Manaus, Amazonas (Brasil: ¿existen diferencias entre guarderías públicas y privadas? Nutritional status and energy and nutrients intake of children attending day-care centers in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil: are there differences between public and private day-care centers?

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    Bruno Mendes Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o estado nutricional e o consumo alimentar de crianças assistidas em creches públicas e privadas no município de Manaus, Amazonas. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas crianças entre 24 e 72 meses de duas creches públicas (n=217 e duas creches privadas (n=91 de Manaus. O estado nutricional foi classificado pelos índices peso para idade, peso para estatura, estatura para idade e índice de massa corporal (IMC para idade, em valores de escores Z. O consumo alimentar na creche foi avaliado pelo método da pesagem direta individual dos alimentos e, no domicílio, pelo registro alimentar de um dia aplicado aos responsáveis. Estimou-se a frequência de crianças com ingestão de nutrientes acima ou abaixo dos pontos de corte de Estimated Average Intake (EAR ou Adequate Intake (AI. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se maior frequência de crianças com excesso de peso nas creches privadas segundo os índices peso para estatura e IMC para idade. As crianças das instituições públicas, quando comparadas àquelas das privadas, consumiram mais gorduras poli-insaturadas, trans, ácido graxo ômega-6, vitamina C e sódio, e menos zinco. Em ambos os tipos de creches observaram-se consumo elevado de energia e proporção elevada de crianças com consumo de vitaminas A e C, zinco e sódio acima do limite superior tolerável de ingestão. A proporção de crianças com inadequação de consumo de cálcio foi maior nas creches públicas do que nas privadas (27,6 versus 7,9%; pOBJETIVO: Verificar el estado nutricional y el consumo alimentar de niños asistidos en guarderías públicas y privadas en el municipio de Manaus, Amazonas (Brasil. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron niños entre 24 y 72 meses de dos guarderías públicas (n=217 y dos guarderías privadas (n=91 de Manaus. El estado nutricional fue clasificado por los índices peso para la edad, peso para la estatura, estatura para la edad e índice de masa corporal (IMC para edad, en valores de escores Z. El

  9. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em fragmentos florestais ao redor de conjuntos habitacionais na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil: II. Estratificação horizontal Sand fly faune (Diptera: Psychodidae in forest fragments around housing complexes in the Manaus municipality, Amazonas Brazil: II. Horizontal stratification

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    Marlisson Augusto Costa Feitosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available No período Janeiro a agosto de 1999, foi realizado um estudo sobre a presença de flebotomíneos em duas áreas de floresta residual, situadas próximas e no peri e domicilio de conjuntos habitacionais, na periferia da cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a fauna de flebotomíneos e observar possíveis mudanças de hábito principalmente nos vetores da leishmaniose cutânea. Foram realizadas coletas de flebotomíneos na bases de árvores no estrato entre 0 e 2 metros. As fêmeas foram dissecados para a procura de flagelados. Na Estrada do Turismo, capturamos 579 flebotomíneos de 12 espécies; 545 na floresta residual e 33 espécimes na área domiciliar. Na outra área, Cidade de Deus, foram capturados 976 exemplares de 21 espécies; 883 flebotomos na floresta residual e 72 espécimes no ambiente domiciliar. Todas as 375 fêmeas dissecadas foram negativas para flagelados. Lutzomyia umbratilis Ward & Fraiha,1997 foi a espécie mais abundante em todos os ambientes de coletas.A study on phlebotomine sand fly occurrence was carried out from January to August, 1999, in two areas of residual forest (Estrada do Turismo and Cidade de Deus located near lowcost housing complexes, in the periphery of Manaus (AM. The objetive of this study was to verify the sand fly fauna, and observe possible behavior changes, mainly the cutaneous leishmaniasis vectors of CDC. Light traps were placed at a height of one meter on the inside and outside of the dwellings; in addition, manual catches with glass tubes were made at the base of trees. Females were dissected in search of flagellates. In area 1 (Estrada do Turismo 579 sand flies of 12 different species were captured, 545 in the residual forest and 33 specimens in the residence areas. In area 2 (Cidade de Deus 976 specimens of 21 different species were captured, 883 sand fly were caught in the residual forest e 72 other specimens in the domiciliar areas. All three hundred and

  10. Adverse effects of alternative therapy (minocycline, ofloxacin, and clofazimine in multibacillary leprosy patients in a recognized health care unit in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Efeitos adversos das drogas (minociclina, ofloxacina e clofazimina utilizadas no esquema alternativo para pacientes com hanseníase multibacilar, em unidade de referência, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Marina Valente Maia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After the introduction of the multidrug therapy, there was a decline in the coefficients of prevalence and detection of new cases of leprosy. However, the records of drug resistance and relapses are threatening factors in leprosy control. Hence, new alternative schemes and monitoring of adverse effects to avoid treatment abandonment are important considerations. OBJECTIVE: Describe the side effects of a multidrug regimen containing minocycline, ofloxacin, and clofazimine in multibacillary leprosy patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, descriptive, and observational study with multibacillary patients, including cases of intolerance to standard MDT and relapses. The study was carried out at Fundação Alfredo da Matta (Alfredo da Matta Foundation, in Manaus, Amazonas, from April 2010 to January 2012. The patients received alternative therapy, which consisted of daily self-administered doses of 100mg of minocycline, 400 mg of ofloxacin, and 50mg of clofazimine and a supervised monthly dose of 300mg of clofazimine for six months, followed by eighteen months of daily doses of ofloxacin 400mg, clofazimine 50mg, and a supervised monthly dose of clofazimine 300mg. Results: Twenty-one cases were included. Mild and transitory side effects occurred in 33.3% of patients. Of the total episodes, 45.9% were attributed to ofloxacin and they included abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, and insomnia; 21.6% were due to clofazimine, with 100% of patients presenting skin pigmentation. The mean time for the development of adverse effects after beginning the therapy was 15.2 days. CONCLUSION: All patients tolerated the drugs well, and compliance was satisfactory, with no serious events. Unlike other standard MDT studies had shown, no treatment was stopped due to side effects. Nevertheless, patient follow-up and studies with bigger samples are necessary to guarantee the efficacy and safety of the alternative regimen as a second-line scheme

  11. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  12. Limnological characterization of floodplain lakes in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Central Amazon (Amazonas State, Brazil Caracterização limnológica dos lagos da planície de inundação na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazônia Central (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Adriana Gomes Affonso

    2011-03-01

    em 2009, e água baixa em 2008, 2009 e 2010; RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que as variáveis medidas possuem uma alta variabilidade nos corpos d'água na região de estudo: a entre as fases da hidrógrafas; b entre os rios principais; e c entre as margens opostas do Rio Japurá, mostrando a importância do pulso de inundação na variação dos parâmetros físicos e químicos e ainda a em relação ao rio principal de alimentação; CONCLUSÕES: O monitoramento dos parâmetros físicos e químicos em Mamirauá servirá como futura referência para comparação com outras regiões menos preservadas, como o Baixo Amazonas, e ainda como linha de base para modelos sobre efeitos das mudanças climáticas e influências antropogênicas no ecossistema aquático Amazônico.

  13. Considerações limnológicas sobre um lago da planície de inundação amazônica (lago Catalão – Estado do Amazonas, Brasil = Limnological considerations about an Amazonian floodplain lake (Catalão lake – Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Fabiane Ferreira de Almeida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo aborda a variação temporal (sazonal, semanal e nictemeral e espacial de algumas variáveis limnológicas na região limnética do lago Catalão, um lago da planície de inundação do rio Amazonas. Foram analisados os valores de temperatura, zona eufótica, zona de mistura, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido, transparência, nitrogênio e fósforo total, amostrados em quatro estações, em escala semanal, durante um mês no período de seca de 2006 e um mês no período de cheia de 2007. Regressões simples foram realizadas para testar a hipótese da homogeneização de ambientes aquáticos em função da inundação. Foram analisados, também, os valores de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido e condutividade elétrica em um perfil vertical ao longo de um ciclo nictemeral na seca e outro na cheia. Os resultados confirmam a importância do pulso de inundação na dinâmica das variáveis físicas e químicas no lago. A ACP indicou que o maior gradiente das variáveis físicas e químicas na seca foi o espacial. Já na cheia, o padrão de comportamento foi temporal. As regressões indicaram homogeneização do ambiente em função da inundação. Os resultados das análises nictemerais indicam que o lago Catalão apresenta comportamento polimítico na seca e oligomítico na cheia.The temporal and spatial variation of some limnological variables in the limnetic zone of an Amazonian floodplain lake, Catalão Lake, wasstudied. The following parameters were measured weekly during the dry period of 2006 and the flood period of 2007: water temperature, euphotic zone, mixing zone, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, water transparency and total phosphorus and nitrogen. Simple regressions were carried out to test the hypothesis of environmental homogeneity as a function of flooding. Also, diel temperature, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity profiles were studied during the dry period and in the flood period. The

  14. Vulnerability of groundwater to contamination in the municipality of Humaitá, Amazonas

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    Miqueias Lima Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater has been used intensively throughout Brazil. In southern Amazonas state, the water supplies of some municipalities are derived exclusively from wells. Yet this region generally has no wastewater treatment, leading to potential contamination of the underground water. We classified and mapped the vulnerability of groundwater supplies to contamination in the urban and peri-urban area of Humaitá in southern Amazonas State. We used the GOD method (Groundwater occurrence; Overall Lithology of the unsaturated zone; Depth of the water table to score vulnerability classes. The results revealed the existence of average and high vulnerability of aquifer contamination in the area, indicating the fragility of the aquifer system that supplies the municipality, and showing the need for public policies aimed at the protection of the region’s groundwater resources.

  15. A survey of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Oestroidea in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region (Brazilian Amazon

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    Eduardo Amat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fauna of blowflies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae in three localities of primary Amazon forest coverage in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region was assessed. A total of 5066 blowflies were collected, with Chloroprocta idiodea being the most abundant species (66.3%. A difference in species richness between the localities ZF2 and Novo Airão was observed. Comparison among sampled sites revealed no considerable variation in fauna composition, except for the species Eumesembrinella benoisti (Séguy 1925 and Hemilucilia sp., whose occurrence was observed only in a single locality. Apparently, Amazon rivers are not efficient geographical barriers to influence the current composition of necrophagous blowfly assemblages. Also, most of the blowfly species did not show a noticeable specificity for any specific forest among the interfluvial areas of the ombrophilous forest. Finally, an updated checklist of necrophagous blowfly species of the Amazonas state in Brazil is presented.

  16. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins [Fundacao...

  17. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins...

  18. Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) and megaesophagus in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) - case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Marietto-Goncalves, Guilherme Augusto; Zampoli Troncarelli, Marcella; Lopes Sequeira, Julio; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2009-01-01

    The present article relates the occurrence of Proventricular Dilatation Disease (PDD) in a 20 years old blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva). The bird was raised in captivity and was examined at the Ornitopathology Laboratory of São Paulo State University's Veterinarian Hospital, São Paulo State, Brazil. The parrot clinically presented regurgitation, tremors and dyspnea. This is the first case of PDD followed by megaesophagus in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (A. aestiva). This patholog...

  19. Description of behavioral patterns of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824 (Testudines: Podocnemididae (Red-headed river turtle in captivity, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Descrição de padrões comportamentais de Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824 (Testudines: Podocnemididae (Irapuca em cativeiro, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Larissa Schineider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology and ecology of South American turtles is still poorly known, particularly, for the Brazilian species. Laboratory studies are essential to understand the life cycles of aquatic turtles species and to help in formulating management plans for their conservation. As a contribution to the knowledge of Podocnemis erythrocephala species, we give a description of its species-typical behaviors, categorized as: maintenance, locomotion, feeding, agonistic and reproduction, based on captives observations of four pairs of turtles in an aquarium in Manaus, Brazil. Similarities and differences with the repertoires of other turtle species are discussed, concluding that turtles have much more complex adaptative strategies and social life than was believed.A biologia e ecologia dos quelônios da América do Sul é pouco conhecida, particularmente para as espécies brasileiras. Estudos em laboratório são essenciais para entender o ciclo de vida das espécies de tartarugas aquáticas e ajudar na formulação de planos de manejo para sua conservação. Como uma contribuição ao conhecimento da espécie Podocnemis erythrocephala, nós descrevemos os comportamentos típicos nas categorias manutenção, locomoção, alimentação, agonístico e reprodutivo, baseado em observações de quatro pares de tartarugas em um aquário na cidade de Manaus, Brasil. São discutidas similaridades e diferenças com repertórios de outras espécies de quelônios, concluindo que esses animais possuem estratégias adaptativas e vida social muito mais complexas do que tem sido ponderado.

  20. A synopsis of the Hydrometra (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Hydrometridae from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil, with redescription of Hydrometra argentina Berg Sinopse de Hydrometra (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Hydrometridae da várzea do Rio Amazonas, Brasil, com a redescrição de Hydrometra argentina Berg

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    Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrometra argentina Berg, 1879, H. caraiba Guérin-Méneville, 1857 and H. guianana Hungerford & Evans, 1934 are newly recorded in the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil. A redescription of H. argentina is also given, as the original description is incomplete. A key to the three known species occurring in this region is provided. Hydrometra argentina can be distinguished from H. caraiba and H. guianana by the body length smaller than 12.50 mm, anteoculus/postoculus ratio between 1.80 and 2.00, clypeus narrow and conical, metacetabulum with no circular pits, and projections on male abdominal sternite VI in the shape of simple spines. The other species can be distinguished mainly by the anteoculus/postoculus ratio and position of projections on male abdominal sternite VI.Novos registros na várzea do Rio Amazonas, Brasil, são feitos para Hydrometra argentina Berg, 1879, H. caraiba Guérin-Méneville, 1857 e H. guianana Hungerford & Evans, 1934. Uma redescrição de H. argentina também é provida, já que a descrição original é incompleta. Uma chave de identificação para as três espécies do gênero ocorrentes na área é apresentada. Hydrometra argentina pode ser distinguida de H. caraiba e H. guianana pelo comprimento do corpo menor que 12,50 mm, proporção anteóculo/pós-óculo entre 1,80 e 2,00, clípeo estreito e cônico, metacetábulo sem pontuações, e projeções do esternito abdominal VI do macho na forma de espinhos simples. As demais espécies distinguem-se principalmente pela proporção anteóculo/pós-óculo e pela posição das projeções do esternito abdominal VI do macho.

  1. Percepção e compreensão dos conceitos contidos na Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar, em comunidades indígenas no estado do Amazonas, Brasil Perception and comprehension of concepts of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale in indigenous communities in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki Yuyama

    2008-08-01

    nas experiências de segurança ou insegurança alimentar. Sugere-se ainda que, para estudos quantitativos, o questionário deva ser mais resumido e simples.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the perception and comprehension of concepts and terminology related to food security and insecurity, especially those that comprise the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, in the context of indigenous socio-cultural reality. METHODS: Qualitative research techniques were used in Cacau, Flexeira and Mamori indigenous communities located in the Médio Juruá watershed, in the municipalities of Envira and Eirunepé (AM. The methods were based on a methodology used previously in Brazil and adapted to the present context in a meeting of specialists familiar with these indigenous communities. Next, focus groups were organized in each one of the three communities, with a total of 18 participants. RESULTS: Hunger appeared as a phenomenon experienced frequently by the participants. Many of the concepts and terms, such as "food security", "hunger", and "good food", were well-understood, but others, such as "varied food", "sufficient food" "strategies to avoid problems with food" were not. Everyday life depends on family relations that allow exchanges, which differs from studies conducted previously in urban and rural areas, where difficulties related to access to food were due to lack of financial resources. The subject of trading, or exchanges, appeared often during the focus groups, as well as a collective aspect of the experience of food security that had not emerged previously in focus groups conducted as part of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale validation. CONCLUSION: More in-depth qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to develop a food security measurement instrument that reflects the reality of these indigenous communities while, at the same time, provides results that are comparable to other indigenous communities as well as to results obtained using the Brazilian

  2. Aspectos ecológicos e epidemiológicos de acidentes ofídicos em comunidades ribeirinhas do baixo rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil Ecological and epidemiological aspects of snakebites in riverside communities of the lower Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Fabiano Waldez

    2009-09-01

    and bite height on the victim body were estimated with measuring tape. Correspondence of local names and scientific species were obtained by using descriptions and images of the snakes. Additional data on the number of families with snakebites victims were obtained from social-economic surveys for other 17 communities in the Piagaçu Purus Reserve. Eighteen people and 28 snakebites events were registered in five communities. The number of victims per community was not related to population's size. The number of families with victims was higher in larger communities (r²= 0.444; p= 0.003. Approximately 88% of snakebites were inflicted on the lower limbs of the victims. There was no relationship between estimated snake's size and the height of the bite. Most snakebites occurred at daytime (82.14%, and during the high rive period (64.28% that coincides with the extraction of brazil nut and timber by the local people when they spend more time in the forest. Only one death due to snakebite was registered. The species Bothrops atrox was responsible for most of the accidents in the region. Snake's identification by local people revealed various synonymies, with 20 local names attributed to 33 species. In their perception, B. atrox and Lachesis muta were the most dangerous species and differ in attack behavior.

  3. Stratigraphy of the Roraima Supergroup along the Brazil-Guyana border in the Guiana shield, Northern Amazonian Craton - results of the Brazil-Guyana Geology and Geodiversity Mapping Project

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    Nelson Joaquim Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Geological and Geodiversity Mapping binational program along the Brazil-Guyana border zone allowed reviewing and integrating the stratigraphy and nomenclature of the Roraima Supergroup along the Pakaraima Sedimentary Block present in northeastern Brazil and western Guyana. The area mapped corresponds to a buffer zone of approximately 25 km in width on both sides of the border, of a region extending along the Maú-Ireng River between Mount Roraima (the triple-border region and Mutum Village in Brazil and Monkey Mountain in Guyana. The south border of the Roraima basin is overlain exclusively by effusive and volcaniclastic rocks of the Surumu Group of Brazil and its correlated equivalent the Burro-Burro Group of Guyana.

  4. Dengue Virus Type 4, Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza Bastos, Michele; do Nascimento Melo, Miriam; de Souza Viana, Suziane; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2008-01-01

    We report dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) in Amazonas, Brazil. This virus was isolated from serum samples of 3 patients treated at a tropical medicine reference center in Manaus. All 3 cases were confirmed by serologic and molecular tests; 1 patient was co-infected with DENV-3 and DENV-4. PMID:18394292

  5. Aves de la ribera colombiana del Amazonas

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    Dugand Armando

    1946-08-01

    Full Text Available Las 106 especies y subespecies que se mencionan en este trabajo constituyen una lista preliminar de la fauna ornitológica de la región más meridional de Colombia, esto es, la ribera izquierda del rio Amazonas entre la boca del Atacuari y la población de Leticia, capital de la Intendencia del Amazonas, en el extrema sur del territorio que en Colombia llamamos comúnmente "Trapecio Amazónico". La lista esta compuesta principalmente por las colecciones hechas en Leticia y la Isla Ronda par el senor Carlos Lehmann en octubre y noviembre de 1939 y par uno de nosotros -José I. Borrero- en Leticia, Isla Mocagua, Hamacayacu y Loretoyacu en marzo y abril del presente año. Los ejemplares que mencionamos en dicha lista se hallan en la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales.

  6. The potential of aqueous extracts of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) to inhibit the biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom: A comparison of specimens collected in the states of Pará and Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; de Souza, Luana Yamille Andrade; da Costa Guimarães, Noranathan; Dos Santos, Ilia Gilmara Carvalho; de Almeida, Patrícia Danielle Oliveira; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Mourão, Rosa Helena Veras; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-20

    The effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) specimems collected in Santarém, PA, against some biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom (BaV) has been scientifically proven. Here, we analyzed the components and assessed the anti-snakebite potential of aqueous extracts of bark of B. dichotoma collected in Manaus, AM, (AEBd-MAO) and Santarém, PA, (AEBd-STM), both in Brazil. The phytochemical profiles of the aqueous extracts were identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and the concentrations of phenolics were determined by colorimetric assay. The inhibitory potential of the extracts was tested against the phospholipase A 2 , coagulant and gelatinolytic activities of BaV in vitro and its defibrinating and edema-inducing activities in vivo. Interaction between BaV and the extracts was investigated using SDS-Page electrophoresis and Western blotting. Extract cytotoxicity and antioxidant potential were assessed using the human fibroblast cell line MRC-5 and the DPPH assay in cell culture, respectively. While there was no difference between the phytochemical profiles of the extracts, AEBd-MAO had higher concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and hydrolysable tannins. The extracts inhibited 100% of the phospholipase and coagulant activity of BaV when pre-incubated. Without pre-incubation, however, there was no reduction in phospholipase activity, although significant inhibition of coagulant activity was observed. In the doses used in folk medicine, without pre-incubation, both extracts inhibited 100% of the coagulant activity of BaV. In vivo, the extracts were unable to inhibit the defibrinating activity of the venom but were effective in inhibiting its edema-inducing activity. In the profiles of the extracts pre-incubated with BaV, not all the protein bands revealed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot were observed. Both extracts had a high antioxidant potential and neither had a cytotoxic effect. Although the

  7. Radiation shielding member

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Tsutomu

    1998-03-17

    An iron box having optional width, depth and height with no back board is secured to the outer surface of an iron shielding member formed by laminating optional number of iron plates having an optional thickness. Optional number of structural walls acting also as partition walls and comprising a synthetic resin and having a neutron shielding function of a predetermined thickness is disposed between the front plate and the back face of the iron box. Pellets made of a synthetic resin having a radiation shielding function are filled in the iron box. As the synthetic resin having a neutron ray shielding function, a polyethylene resin is preferably used. The radiation shielding member thus constituted is used for a radiation shielding door. Radiation rays irradiated from a chamber are shielded except for neutron rays by the iron shielding member. Neutron rays permeate the iron shielding member, and are shielded by the layers of polyethylene pellets filled in the iron box. (I.N.)

  8. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilaine Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  9. A temática ambiental em representações e práticas de profissionais de saúde da família no município de Manaus - AM/Brasil The environmental theme in representations and practices of family health professionals in the municipality of Manaus - state of Amazonas /Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda das Chagas Mendonça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidências científicas mostram que mudanças ambientais antrópicas aumentam riscos de exposição a diversas doenças. Na Estratégia Saúde da Família - ESF, tarefas com claro enfoque ambiental são prescritas indicando às equipes de profissionais que considerem esses aspectos em suas intervenções. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi conhecer representações e práticas de profissionais de Saúde da Família de Manaus (AM sobre a questão ambiental e sua interface com a saúde pública. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas, e a análise qualitativa destes deu-se pela Análise de Conteúdo e Triangulação de Métodos. Resultados da pesquisa revelaram que a maioria dos profissionais não compreende o ambiente de forma sistêmica, mesmo tendo declarado que os fatores ambientais têm grande influência sobre a saúde humana; enquanto intervenções, as práticas educativas seguem metodologias tradicionais e são centradas na culpabilização do indivíduo e na simples transmissão de conhecimentos pontuais; o relacionamento dos profissionais com a comunidade resume-se ao atendimento individual e/ou coletivo. Concluiu-se que, para a ESF contribuir para o reordenamento do sistema, é fundamental o redirecionamento desse novo modelo de política de saúde para efetivar-se como prática social e ambiental.There are abundant scientific evidences showing that the increased risk of exposure to diseases is a consequence of anthropogenic environmental changes. In the Family Health Strategy, tasks with a clear environmental focus are prescribed, indicating to the professional teams that they should consider these aspects in their health practices. The objective of this research was to study representations and practices of Family Health Professionals of Manaus - State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil - about environmental issues and their interface with public health. Data were collected by means of

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.

    1957-09-24

    The reactor radiation shield material is comprised of alternate layers of iron-containing material and compressed cellulosic material, such as masonite. The shielding material may be prefabricated in the form of blocks, which can be stacked together in ary desired fashion to form an effective shield.

  11. Deforestation, drainage network, indigenous status, and geographical differences of malaria in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Wagner Cosme Morhy; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; de Castro, Daniel Barros; Pinto, Rosemary Costa; de Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Sadahiro, Megumi; Dos Passos, Ricardo Augusto; Braga, José Ueleres

    2015-09-30

    Malaria is a major public health problem worldwide. In Brazil, an average of 420,000 cases of malaria have been reported annually in the last 12 years, of which 99.7 % occurred in the Amazon region. This study aimed to analyse the distribution of malaria in the State of Amazonas and the influence of indigenous malaria in this scenario, to evaluate the correlation between incidence rates and socio-economic and environmental factors, and to evaluate the performance of health surveillance services. This ecological study used secondary data obtained from the SIVEP-MALARIA malaria surveillance programme. The relationship between demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors, the performance of health surveillance services and the incidence of malaria in Amazonas, a multiple linear regression model was used. The crude rate of malaria in Amazonas was 4142.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants between 2003 and 2012. The incidence rates for the indigenous and non-indigenous populations were 12,976.02 and 3749.82, respectively, with an indigenous population attributable fraction of only 8 %. The results of the linear regression analysis indicated a negative correlation between the two socio-economic indicators (municipal human development index (MHDI) and poverty rate) and the incidence of malaria in the period. With regard to the environmental indicators (average annual deforestation rate and percentage of areas under the influence of watercourses), the correlation with the incidence rate was positive. The findings underscore the importance of implementing economic and social development policies articulated with strategic actions of environmental protection and health care for the population.

  12. Mineralogical aspects of Morro de Seis Lagos deposit (Amazonas, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Lucy; Almeida, Marcelo; Silveira, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    The alkaline body Morro dos Seis Lagos, situated in the northwest Amazonian region, is a Nb bearing deposit formed by thick lateritic regolith as circular geological feature about 5 km in diameter. The host rock of this deposit is an intensely weathered siderite carbonatite. The alkaline intrusion body was formed during the late Mesozoic and enriched during the Cenozoic by process of denudation of the surrounding rocks and formation of lateritic cover with thickness in the order of hundreds of meters. In this process, enrichment of Nb, Fe, Ti, Mn, P and rare earth elements (REE) occurred where the lateritic regolith represents the major Nb mineralization, with estimated inferred reserves of 2.9 billion ton@ 2.8 % Nb2O5, one of the largest deposits of Nb in the world. The mineralogical composition of the lateritic regolith has the predominance of the goethite and hematite, followed by oxy - hydroxides of Mn, Ti - Nb oxides, pyrochlore, cerianite and phosphates. The lateritic regolith samples showed high contents of Fe2O3 40 %, and is followed by elevated Th concentration, which locally has concentration higher than (18%). Another REE mineral is the cerianite. The main manganese minerals are hollandite, romanechite (BaMn9O16[OH4] - mixtures of manganese oxides) and amorphous Mn oxy - hydroxides. The higher concentration of MnO2 (about 40 %) is restricted to manganesiferous range, where manganese minerals occur as layers and filling voids, indicating strong remobilization by later process.

  13. The Active Muon Shield

    CERN Document Server

    Bezshyiko, Iaroslava

    2016-01-01

    In the SHiP beam-dump of the order of 1011 muons will be produced per second. An active muon-shield is used to magnetically deflect these muons out of the acceptance of the spectrom- eter. This note describes how this shield is modelled and optimized. The SHiP spectrometer is being re-optimized using a conical decay-vessel, and utilizing the possibility to magnetize part of the beam-dump shielding iron. A shield adapted to these new conditions is presented which is significantly shorter and lighter than the shield used in the Technical Proposal (TP), while showing a similar performance.

  14. Characterization of woods known as pau-de-escora marketed in the city of Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize the wood product commercially known as pau-de-escora in Manaus, Amazonas. Pau-de-escora is a key foundation material to build concrete lining or storey in tower buildings. The use of pau-de-escora is very popular in Manaus even in public building construction. To carry out the analyses and the anatomical identification of the material, we used 450 pau-de-escora poles, which were apprehended by the Environmental Battalion of Amazonas Police Force. It was also carried out a social survey to better understand the dynamics of the trade of this product in Manaus. The length of the 450 poles averaged 3.74 ± 0.08 m (CI 95% and diameter at the base averaged 4.48 ± 0.03 cm (CI 95%. These small differences related to the means indicate that the market requires a very clear dimension pattern for this wood product. The seven most abundant families encountered were: Fabaceae, Annonaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Lauraceae, Burseraceae and Chrysobalanaceae. The selling price of pau-deescora pole in Manaus averaged R$ 2.63, and the buying price averaged R$ 3.94. The custody chain of pau-de-escora is completely illegal not only in Brazil, perhaps worldwide because it is part of the natural regeneration of primary or recovery forests.

  15. Hematology of the Red-capped parrot (Pionopsitta pileata) and Vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Ribas, Janaciara Moreira; Daciuk, Bárbara Maria; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Paulillo, Antonio Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary reference intervals for hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for nine adult Red-capped parrots (Pionopsitta pileata) (six males and three females) and six Vinaceous Amazon parrots (Amazona vinacea) (two adult males, two adult females, one juvenile, and one nonsexed) from the Curitiba Zoo, Paraná, Brazil. For both Red-capped parrots and Vinaceous Amazon parrots, adult males had higher red blood cell counts than adult females. Regarding white blood cell distribution, differences due to gender were also found for both species of parrots.

  16. Exchange, experimentation and preferences: a study on the dynamics of manioc diversity in the Middle Solimões, Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Lima; Angela Steward; Bárbara Trautman Richers

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a study on the manioc diversity in the Middle Solimões region, focusing largely on communities located in the Sustainable Development Reserves of Mamirauá and Amanã, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The study combines quantitative and ethnographic data. The analysis of survey data collected in 13 communities in the 'várzea' and in the 'terra firme' revealed the following pattern of manioc diversity: a total richness of 54 varieties, demonstrating a broad distribution of a small n...

  17. [The emergence of Aids in Amazonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Júlio César

    2016-01-26

    This article analyzes the historical, social, and political context in which Aids emerged in the Brazilian state of Amazonas, and how local responses were shaped by changes taking place on a national political level. Documental sources from governmental and non-governmental institutions were researched, and the information was supplemented and clarified by oral sources - testimonials of activists and health professionals/managers who have led the organization of healthcare for people with HIV/Aids in the state. This research reveals that the lack of coordination between healthcare institutions and the dearth of any real political will to fight the epidemic in the state have hampered the planning and execution of public strategies and actions covering the whole welfare system in the state.

  18. Health regionalization in Amazonas: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnelo, Luiza; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Silva, Clayton de Oliveira da

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the health services regionalization process in the State of Amazonas through a case study covering the health sub-region Manaus Surroundings. This is a qualitative, descriptive and analytical research, which data were collected using interviews, documents and Internet reviews, oriented by the guiding concept of health regionalization. Study findings revealed a social setting dominated by asymmetry, verticality, competitiveness and fragile multilateral relations among municipalities, associated to a bureaucratic profile of local institutions operating in the region under study. The political agents have limited acknowledgement of the sociopolitical and institutional conditions in which they operate. They usually impute healthcare networks' management and operational issues to the natural and geographical characteristics of the Amazon region, but their financing, governance and technical capacity are insufficient to overcome them.

  19. Considerações limnológicas sobre um lago da planície de inundação amazônica (lago Catalão – Estado do Amazonas, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4641 Limnological considerations about an Amazonian floodplain lake (Catalão lake – Amazonas State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4641

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Ferreira de Almeida

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo aborda a variação temporal (sazonal, semanal e nictemeral e espacial de algumas variáveis limnológicas na região limnética do lago Catalão, um lago da planície de inundação do rio Amazonas. Foram analisados os valores de temperatura, zona eufótica, zona de mistura, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido, transparência, nitrogênio e fósforo total, amostrados em quatro estações, em escala semanal, durante um mês no período de seca de 2006 e um mês no período de cheia de 2007. Regressões simples foram realizadas para testar a hipótese da homogeneização de ambientes aquáticos em função da inundação. Foram analisados, também, os valores de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido e condutividade elétrica em um perfil vertical ao longo de um ciclo nictemeral na seca e outro na cheia. Os resultados confirmam a importância do pulso de inundação na dinâmica das variáveis físicas e químicas no lago. A ACP indicou que o maior gradiente das variáveis físicas e químicas na seca foi o espacial. Já na cheia, o padrão de comportamento foi temporal. As regressões indicaram homogeneização do ambiente em função da inundação. Os resultados das análises nictemerais indicam que o lago Catalão apresenta comportamento polimítico na seca e oligomítico na cheiaThe temporal and spatial variation of some limnological variables in the limnetic zone of an Amazonian floodplain lake, Catalão Lake, was studied. The following parameters were measured weekly during the dry period of 2006 and the flood period of 2007: water temperature, euphotic zone, mixing zone, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, water transparency and total phosphorus and nitrogen. Simple regressions were carried out to test the hypothesis of environmental homogeneity as a function of flooding. Also, diel temperature, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity profiles were studied during the dry period and in the flood period. The

  20. Modified Schirmer tear test and rebound tonometry in blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S.A. Falcão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the modified Schirmer tear test (mSTT, intraocular pressure (IOP by rebound tonometry and palpebral fissure length (PFL in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva. Thirty-five healthy adult animals from a conservation breeding center in Brazil were used in this study. Modified Schirmer tear test, rebound tonometry and PFL measurements were performed in both eyes, with birds under physical restraint. Mean mSTT was 6.2±0.1mm/min and mean IOP was 6.4±0.1mmHg, while PFL was 10.1±0.1mm. A moderate correlation was seen between mSTT and PFL for OD (ρ=0.14 and OS (ρ=0.20. The results provide ophthalmic tests reference values for A. aestiva.

  1. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP. They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. The relative high contents of P2O5 (2.37 % in average come out as (Al,Fe-phosphate, an uncommon fact in primitive red ceramics, but found in some roman and egyptian archaeological sites. The contents of the trace elements are similar or below the Earth's crust average. This chemical composition (except P2O5 detaches saprolite material derived acid igneous rocks or sedimentary ones as the main raw material of the ceramics. The contents of K, Na and Ca represent the feldspars and rock fragments possibly introduced into saprolitic groundmass, indicated by mineralogical studies. The presence of cauixi and cariapé as well as quartz sand was confirmed by optical microscope, SEM analyses and by the high silica contents of ceramic fragments. Phosphorus was possibly incorporated into groundmass during cooking of foods, and ABE soil profile formation developed on yellow Latosols. The raw materials and its tempers (cauixi, or cariapé, feldspar, crushed rocks, old ceramic artifacts and quartz fragments are found close to the sites and therefore and certainly came from them.Neste trabalho realizou-se a caracterização química de fragmentos de artefatos cerâmicos encontrados em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta no Baixo Amazonas (Cachoeira-Porteira, Pará, Brasil, representativos da cultura Konduri (de 900 a 400 anos AP. Esses fragmentos são constituídos de SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O e P2O5, sendo que SiO2 e Al2O3, juntos, perfazem mais de 80 % em peso. Os teores

  2. Shielding for neutrons produced by medical linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebello, Wilson F.; Silva, Ademir X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br; ademir@con.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The shielding system called Multileaf Shielding (MLS) was designed in Brazil to be used for protection patients, who undergo radiotherapy treatment, against undesired neutrons produced in the medical linear accelerator heads. During the conceiving of the MLS it was necessary to evaluate its efficiency. For that purpose, several simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport code, MCNP5, were made, in order to evaluate the response of the new shielding system. The results showed a significant neutron dose reduction after the inclusion of the MLS. This work aims to presenting these simulation results. (author)

  3. TFCX shielding optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.; Gohar, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Design analyses and tradeoff studies for the bulk shield of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) were performed. Several shielding options were considered to lower the capital cost of the shielding system. Optimization analyses were carried out to reduce the nuclear responses in the TF coils and the dose equivalent in the reactor hall one day after shutdown. Two TFCX designs with different toroidal field (TF) coil configurations were considered during this work. The materials for the shield were selected based upon tradeoff studies and the results from the previous design studies. The main shielding materials are water, concrete, and steel balls (Fe1422 or Nitronic 33). Small amounts of boron carbide and lead are employed to reduce activation, nuclear heating in the TF coils, and dose equivalent after shutdown.

  4. Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Barros de Alencar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil. There are 11 species of Richardia known to Brazil. Of these, only four are known to occur in the Brazilian Amazon Region, where the diversity of Richardia is underestimated. Herein we describe and illustrate Richardia intemperata sp. nov. and Richardia parispina sp. nov. from Amazonas, Brazil. An illustrated key to males from this region is also provided.

  5. APLICAÇÃO DE IMAGENS IKONOS II E TM/LANDSAT-5 NA ELABORAÇÃO DE UMA BASE CARTOGRÁFICA PARA A RESERVA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL MAMIRAUÁ – AMAZONAS / APPLICATION OF IKONOS II AND TM/LANDSAT-5 SATELLITES DATA FOR DIGITAL BASE MAPPING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESERVE MAMIRAUÁ, AMAZON, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimara Martins Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as purpose present the methodology developed to produce an updated digital map base support for participatory management Mamirauá Reserve of Sustainable Development in the state of Amazonas, Braszil. Because this protected área is situated within an area of flooded forest, both the physical landscape and social organization often change, and the dynamic demand the systematic update of cartographic databases. This work has images of orbital sensors IKONOS II and LANDSAT 5 TM, interviews with users and collecting spatial data in the Mamirauá Reserve. This work obtained a cartographic base at 1:100.000 scale and a geodatabase compatible with the local references, with which is possible to generate thematic maps updated to support dialogue in the sustainable management programs of the Mamirauá Reserve and minimize conflicts with communities.

  6. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  7. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera) of the Guiana Shield

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evangelista, Dominic A; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L; Wilson, Megan M; Ware, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    .... The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling...

  8. iSHIELD - A Line Source Application of SHIELD11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.; Rokni, S.H.; /SLAC

    2006-04-27

    iSHIELD11 performs a line-source numerical integration of radiation source terms that are defined by the iSHIELD11 computer code[1] . An example is provided to demonstrate how one can use iSHIELD11 to perform a shielding analysis for a 250 GeV electron linear accelerator.

  9. Adhesive particle shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott [Dublin, CA; Rader, Daniel John [Albuquerque, NM; Walton, Christopher [Berkeley, CA; Folta, James [Livermore, CA

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  10. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.

  11. Grounding, shielding, and bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrysse, J.

    1991-06-01

    In the electromagnetic compatibility design (EMC) of systems and circuits, both grounding and shielding are related to the coupling mechanisms of the system with (radiated) electromagnetic fields. Grounding is more related to the source or victim circuit (or system) and determines the characteristic of the coupling mechanism between fields and currents/voltages. Shielding is a way of interacting in the radiation path of an electromagnetic field. The basic principles and practical design rules are discussed.

  12. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010. The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%, in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6% and in extractive workers (43.7%; 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.

  13. Drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive children newly diagnosed with HIV-1 in Manaus, Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Solange Dourado de; Sabidó, Meritxell; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2017-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRM), the prevalence of drug susceptibility [transmitted drug resistance (TDR)] and the prevalence of HIV-1 variants among treatment-naive HIV-infected children in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. Children born to HIV-infected mothers and diagnosed with HIV in an HIV reference service centre and with available pol sequence between 2010 and 2015 prior to antiretroviral initiation were included. TDR was identified using the Calibrated Population Resistance Tool. HIV-1 subtypes were defined by Rega and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred and seventeen HIV-infected children with a median age of 3.7 years were included. Among them, 28.2% had been exposed to some form of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). HIV DRM were present in 21.4% of all children. Among PMTCT-exposed children, 3% had NRTI mutations, 15.2% had NNRTI mutations and 3% had PI mutations. Among PMTCT-unexposed children, 1.2% had NRTI mutations, 21.4% had non-NNRTI mutations and 1.2% had PI mutations. The most common DRM was E138A (8.5%). The prevalence of TDR was 16.2%; 21.1% among PMTCT-exposed children and 14.3% among PMTC-unexposed children. The analysis of HIV-1 subtypes revealed that 80.2% were subtype B, 6.0% were subtype C, 3.4% were subtype F1 and 10.3% were possible unique recombinant forms (BF1, 4.3%; DB, 4.3%; BC, 0.9%; KC, 0.9%). We report a high prevalence of DRM in this population, including in almost a quarter of children with no reported PMTCT. The high prevalence of TDR observed might compromise ART effectiveness. Results show extensive HIV-1 diversity and expansion of subtype C, which highlights the need for surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes in Amazonas state.

  14. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Maciel, Marcel Gonçalves; Guerra, Marcus Vinítius de Farias; Talhari, Anette Chursciack; Prestes, Suzane Ribeiro; Fernandes, Marcos Antonio; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Martins, Alessandra; Coelho, Leíla Ines de Aguiar Raposo Camara; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010). The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%), in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6%) and in extractive workers (43.7%); 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.

  15. Verbreiting und Vorkommen einiger Pauropodenarten im Brasilianischen Amazonas-Gebiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüther, Walter

    1985-01-01

    The material studied was taken by Berlese-Tullgren funnels. From the about 60 pauropod species occurring in the Brazilian Amazonas region, this paper deals only with 23 species belonging to 6 genera. Only 3 species are spread all over the region, 15 species are restricted to one locality. The mean

  16. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Siqueira, André Machado; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Marchesini, Paola Barbosa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Nascimento, Joabi; Figueira, Élder Augusto Guimarães; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  17. Biological behavior of Trypanosoma cruzi stocks obtained from the State of Amazonas, Western Brazilian Amazon, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; Oliveira, Josué Costa; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Silveira, Henrique; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2012-01-01

    The biological diversity of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi stocks in the Amazon region most likely plays an important role in the peculiar clinic-epidemiological features of Chagas disease in this area. Seven stocks of T. cruzi were recently isolated in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from humans, wild mammals, and triatomines. They belonged to the TcI and Z3 genotypes and were biologically characterized in Swiss mice. Parasitological and histopathological parameters were determined. Four stocks did not promote patent parasitemia in mice. Three stocks produced low parasitemia, long pre-patent periods, and a patent period of 1 day or oscillating parasitemia. Maximum parasitemia ranged from 1,400 to 2,800 trypomastigotes/0.1 mL blood. Mice inoculated with the T. cruzi stocks studied showed low positivity during fresh blood examinations, ranging from 0% to 28.6%. In hemoculture, positivity ranged from 0% to 100%. Heart tissue parasitism was observed in mice inoculated with stocks AM49 and AM61. Stock AM49 triggered a moderate inflammatory process in heart tissue. A mild inflammatory process was observed in heart tissue for stocks AM28, AM38, AM61, and AM69. An inflammatory process was frequently observed in skeletal muscle. Examinations of brain tissue revealed inflammatory foci and gliosis in mice inoculated with stock AM49. Biological and histopathological characterization allowed us to demonstrate the low infectivity and virulence of T. cruzi stocks isolated from the State of Amazonas.

  18. Use of Information Derived from Radar Remote Sensing (RADARSAT-1) Interferometry and SRTM MOSAIC) for Mapping Neotectonic Activities in the REgion of Manaus City (Amazonas State)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda Ledo G.; Landau, Luiz; De Miranda, Fernando P.; da Silva, Clauzionor Lima

    2010-03-01

    The prime objective of the present research is to understand and contextualize, from a tectonic and structural standpoint, the results obtained by an interferometric study recently carried out in the Manaus area, Amazonas State, Brazil in which a stack of archived RADARSAT-1 data has been processed. The research question has been approached through the analysis of the drainage network extracted with the aid of SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data, as well as through the comparison with images from different optical sensors and with geologic and geomorphologic information available in the literature.

  19. PIE DESCALZO DEL INDIGENA DEL AMAZONAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Malagón

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Dentro del trabajo que se está llevando a cabo en el servicio de ortopedia el Hospital Infantil de Bogotá, sobre la "Evolución de la postura del niño colombiano", trabajo iniciado hace ya más de cuatro años y algunas de cuyas características han sido descritas en comunicaciones anteriores, se creyó muy pertinente conocer ciertos detalles relacionados con la estructura y función del pie descalzo, lo cual permitiría hacer una serie de comparaciones entre éste y el pie del colombiano calzado, considerado como "normal" en la presente época. Hasta ahora se han examinado 4.013 individuos normales en el resto de Colombia. Por muchas razones se escogió a laAmazonía Colombiana, y dentro de ésta la zona de Leticia, como centro de este estudio.

    Se seleccionaron 294 historias de otros tantos nativos del Amazonas que tuvieron como hecho fundamental y común, el no haberse calzado nunca: correspondían a 154 hombres y 140 mujeres. Sus edades fluctuaron entre un mes de vida y 60 años de edad. Los grupos de edades se distribuyeron así: 136 menores de 10 años; 96 entre 11 y 20 años; 39 entre 21 y 30 años; 11 entre 31 y 40 años y 12 mayores de 41 años. El grupo estudiado procedía de 4 conglomerados indígenas: Arara: 41, Kilómetro 6:32, San Sebastián: 37 y Nazaret 84. (Figura 1. Se tomó el peso y la talla de los indígenas, así como medidas de la longitud de los pies; su anchura, la altura del dedo gordo, del quinto dedo y del empeine; el perímetro del antepie y del postpie; se estudió el arco longitudinal, la torsión tibial, el ángulo fémorotibial y los movimientos de rotación de la cadera. Se tomaron huellas plantares y en 50 de estos individuos, se realizaron radiografías de los pies, con y sin apoyo...

  20. Stress perturbation associated with the Amazonas and other ancient continental rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M.L.; Richardson, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The state of stress in the vicinity of old continental rifts is examined to investigate the possibility that crustal structure associated with ancient rifts (specifically a dense rift pillow in the lower crust) may modify substantially the regional stress field. Both shallow (2.0-2.6 km depth) breakout data and deep (20-45 km depth) crustal earthquake focal mechanisms indicate a N to NNE maximum horizontal compression in the vicinity of the Paleozoic Amazonas rift in central Brazil. This compressive stress direction is nearly perpendicular to the rift structure and represents a ???75?? rotation relative to a regional E-W compressive stress direction in the South American plate. Elastic two-dimensional finite element models of the density structure associated with the Amazonas rift (as inferred from independent gravity modeling) indicate that elastic support of this dense feature would generate horizontal rift-normal compressional stresses between 60 and 120 MPa, with values of 80-100 MPa probably most representative of the overall structure. The observed ???75?? stress rotation constrains the ratio of the regional horizontal stress difference to the rift-normal compressive stress to be between 0.25 and 1.0, suggesting that this rift-normal stress may be from 1 to 4 times larger than the regional horizontal stress difference. A general expression for the modification of the normalized local horizontal shear stress (relative to the regional horizontal shear stress) shows that the same ratio of the rift-normal compression relative to the regional horizontal stress difference, which controls the amount of stress rotation, also determines whether the superposed stress increases or decreases the local maximum horizontal shear stress. The potential for fault reactivation of ancient continental rifts in general is analyzed considering both the local stress rotation and modification of horizontal shear stress for both thrust and strike-slip stress regimes. In the Amazonas

  1. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Francisco

    2017-11-28

    Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

  2. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  3. Lightweight Shield Against Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, John W., Jr.; Lawson, Bobby E.; Miller, Andre E.; Cobb, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents concept for lightweight, deployable shield protecting orbiting spacecraft against meteoroids and debris, and functions as barrier to conductive and radiative losses of heat. Shield made in four segments providing 360 degree coverage of cylindrical space-station module.

  4. Prevalência de parasitos intestinais e aspectos socioambientais em comunidade indígena no Distrito de Iauaretê, Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM, Brasil Prevalence of intestinal parasites and social-environmental aspects in an indigenous Community in the Iauaretê District, Municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira (State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rios

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Situado em Terra Indígena do Alto Rio Negro, Iauaretê é o segundo maior pólo de concentração humana no município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM e agrega dez vilas, com 15 etnias. Esse distrito indígena vem sofrendo processo de transformação progressiva de padrão de ocupação disperso e ribeirinho para núcleo com feições urbanas, com aproximadamente 2700 habitantes, desencadeando problemas de saúde pública. Com objetivo de investigar a distribuição de prevalências de parasitos intestinais na população local e discutir a relação desse indicador de saúde com aspectos socioambientais no distrito de Iauaretê, foram realizadas análises da qualidade da água de abastecimento e exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes e solo. Do total de amostras de água analisadas, 89,2% apresentaram resultado positivo para coliformes termotolerantes. Identificou-se que a vila Dom Bosco foi a que apresentou maior índice de prevalência em amostras fecais com 76% dos indivíduos parasitados. A vila São José apresentou o menor índice com 56%. Os parasitos mais prevalentes em amostras fecais positivas foram, em ordem decrescente, Ascaris lumbricoides (64,84%, Entamoeba coli (32,58%, Endolimax nana (14,84% e Blastoyistis hominis (13,39%. Em amostras de solo as prevalências mais significativas foram de ovos de Ascaris sp (52,6%, cistos de Entamoeba coli (52,6% e larvas de ancilostomídeos (52,6%. Concluiu-se que os altos índices de parasitoses intestinais na população, aliados à falta de saneamento básico e à manutenção de práticas sanitárias tradicionais constituem um quadro preocupante em saúde pública.The Iauaretê District is the second largest human concentration centre in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, state of Amazonas. Situated in Alto Rio Negro Indigenous Land, on the border between Brazil and Colombia, Iauaretê aggregates ten villages, encompassing 15 ethnic cultures. This indigenous district has

  5. Biologia reprodutiva de Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840 (Pisces, Cichlidae na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Amanã-AM, visando seu manejo sustentável Reproductive biology of Heros efasciatus Heckel,1840 (Pisces, Cichlidae in the Amanã Sustainable Reserve (Amazonas, Brazil, aiming at sustainable management of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o principal objetivo de fornecer ferramentas para auxiliar na implementação do manejo sustentável de peixes ornamentais na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Amanã, Amazonas, foi realizado o estudo da biologia reprodutiva de Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840, um ciclídeo com potencial ornamental e com poucos trabalhos sobre a sua biologia e ecologia, apesar de já ser comercializado em algumas regiões amazônicas. Coletas bimestrais foram realizadas de fevereiro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007 em dez igarapés contribuintes do Lago Amanã e Urini, sendo utilizados três aparelhos de pesca (rede de arrasto, rapiché e armadilha tipo matapi e ainda galhadas artificiais nas amostragens realizadas próximas aos lagos. Foram capturados 140 exemplares de H. efasciatus, sendo 50 fêmeas, 42 machos, e 46 indivíduos cujo sexo não foi identificado devido ao pequeno tamanho. O tipo de crescimento encontrado foi isométrico, sendo que o maior indivíduo observado apresentava 174 mm e o menor 14 mm. Os resultados encontrados auxiliarão na adoção de medidas de manejo, como a determinação de tamanhos mínimos de captura, superiores aos tamanhos médios de maturação (97 mm para as fêmeas e o estabelecimento de períodos de defeso durante a época de sua reprodução (outubro a janeiro. A pequena abundância de indivíduos da espécie, quando comparada com o total de exemplares capturados (apenas 0,07% e a baixa fecundidade média, de 2502 ovócitos, indica que se deve trabalhar anualmente apenas com um pequeno número de indivíduos, a fim de garantir a continuidade do estoque.The aim if the present work is to supply basic information that may help the management of ornamental fishes in the Amanã Sustainable Reserve, State of Amazonas, Brazi. A study of the reproductive biology of Heros efasciatus, a cichlid fish with ornamental potential, was performed using specimens collected bi-monthly between February 2006 and January 2007 in ten creeks

  6. Vertebral chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva)

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Guilherme Reis; Oliveira, Ayisa Rodrigues de; Mattioli, Mariana Portugal; Oliveira, Letícia Batelli de; Reis Junior, Janildo Ludolf; Sant'Ana, Fabiano José Ferreira de

    2015-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor in which the neoplastic cells produce cartilaginous matrix and is uncommonly described in birds. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of one case of chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva). Macroscopically a 3.6x3.5x1.8cm, nodular, ulcerated, and firm mass was identified in the dorsal synsacrum. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a monomorphic proliferation of pleomorphic spindle chondrocytes with...

  7. Roof Shield for Advance and Retreat Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Shield sections change their configuration to suit mining mode. Articulation cylinders raise rear shield to advance position, and locking cylinders hold it there. To change to retreat position articulation cylinders lower shield. Locking pins at edge of outermost shield plate latch shield to chock base. Shield accommodates roof heights ranging from 36 to 60 inches (0.9 to 1.52 meters).

  8. Amazônia em transe: Tensões políticas e estéticas do documentário Amazonas, Amazonas, de Glauber Rocha

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Rosiel do Nascimento; UFAM - Universidade Federal do Amazonas; do Amaral, Vinicius Alves; UFAM - Universidade Federal do Amazonas

    2016-01-01

    DOI: 10.12957/revmar.2016.20879O projeto de pesquisa intitulado “Amazônya de Glauber Rocha” pretende investigar o impacto da breve estadia no Amazonas em 1965 na obra e na trajetória do cineasta baiano. Tanto essa passagem quanto seu resultado imediato, o filme Amazonas, Amazonas (1966), carecem de maiores estudos. Por meio de um leque variado de documentos, tentamos apresentar neste texto o principal foco da pesquisa até o momento: as tensões políticas e estéticas que cercaram a produção do ...

  9. Light shielding apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Richard Dean; Thom, Robert Anthony

    2017-10-10

    A light shielding apparatus for blocking light from reaching an electronic device, the light shielding apparatus including left and right support assemblies, a cross member, and an opaque shroud. The support assemblies each include primary support structure, a mounting element for removably connecting the apparatus to the electronic device, and a support member depending from the primary support structure for retaining the apparatus in an upright orientation. The cross member couples the left and right support assemblies together and spaces them apart according to the size and shape of the electronic device. The shroud may be removably and adjustably connectable to the left and right support assemblies and configured to take a cylindrical dome shape so as to form a central space covered from above. The opaque shroud prevents light from entering the central space and contacting sensitive elements of the electronic device.

  10. ["SESP never worked with Indians": the (in)visibility of indigenes in the activities of the Fundação de Serviços de Saúde Pública in the state of Amazonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Schweickardt, Júlio César

    2013-10-01

    From 1960 to 1990, the Fundação de Serviços de Saúde Pública (Public Health Services Foundation) was in charge of a network of health services across Brazil, in continuation of work previously done by the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Public Health Service). The article presents a 2010 research conducted in the state of Amazonas regarding the Foundation's activities among indigenous populations based on interviews with the Foundation's personnel and the analysis of its documentation. The findings indicate that while the Foundation had no formal policy for indigenous populations, in practice its staff did serve indigenes since in most municipalities in the interior of Amazonas they comprised a significant number of the inhabitants.

  11. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M.; Ribeiro, C. M.; Borba, A. J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  12. Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas: history, epidemiological evolution, risks of endemicity and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Ferreira, João Marcos Bemfica Barbosa; Arcanjo, Ana Ruth Lima; Santana, Rosa Amélia Gonçalves; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; Magalhães, Laise Kelma Costa; Mota, Daniel Testa; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Silveira, Henrique; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is a parasitic infection that originated in the Americas and is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the last few years, the disease has spread to countries in North America, Asia and Europe due to the migration of Latin Americans. In the Brazilian Amazon, CD has an endemic transmission, especially in the Rio Negro region, where an occupational hazard was described for piaçaveiros (piassaba gatherers). In the State of Amazonas, the first chagasic infection was reported in 1977, and the first acute CD case was recorded in 1980. After initiatives to integrate acute CD diagnostics with the malaria laboratories network, reports of acute CD cases have increased. Most of these cases are associated with oral transmission by the consumption of contaminated food. Chronic cases have also been diagnosed, mostly in the indeterminate form. These cases were detected by serological surveys in cardiologic outpatient clinics and during blood donor screening. Considering that the control mechanisms adopted in Brazil's classic transmission areas are not fully applicable in the Amazon, it is important to understand the disease behavior in this region, both in the acute and chronic cases. Therefore, the pursuit of control measures for the Amazon region should be a priority given that CD represents a challenge to preserving the way of life of the Amazon's inhabitants.

  13. Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas: history, epidemiological evolution, risks of endemicity and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is a parasitic infection that originated in the Americas and is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the last few years, the disease has spread to countries in North America, Asia and Europe due to the migration of Latin Americans. In the Brazilian Amazon, CD has an endemic transmission, especially in the Rio Negro region, where an occupational hazard was described for piaçaveiros (piassaba gatherers. In the State of Amazonas, the first chagasic infection was reported in 1977, and the first acute CD case was recorded in 1980. After initiatives to integrate acute CD diagnostics with the malaria laboratories network, reports of acute CD cases have increased. Most of these cases are associated with oral transmission by the consumption of contaminated food. Chronic cases have also been diagnosed, mostly in the indeterminate form. These cases were detected by serological surveys in cardiologic outpatient clinics and during blood donor screening. Considering that the control mechanisms adopted in Brazil's classic transmission areas are not fully applicable in the Amazon, it is important to understand the disease behavior in this region, both in the acute and chronic cases. Therefore, the pursuit of control measures for the Amazon region should be a priority given that CD represents a challenge to preserving the way of life of the Amazon's inhabitants.

  14. A contribution to shielding effectiveness analysis of shielded tents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Zoran M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of shielding effectiveness (SE of the shielded tents made of the metallised fabrics is given. First, two electromagnetic characteristic fundamental for coupling through electrically thin shield, the skin depth break frequency and the surface resistance or transfer impedance, is defined and analyzed. Then, the transfer function and the SE are analyzed regarding to the frequency range of interest to the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Community.

  15. Measurement of the transient shielding effectiveness of shielding cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herlemann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new definitions of shielding effectiveness (SE for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields were introduced by Klinkenbusch (2005. Analytical results were shown for closed as well as for non closed cylindrical shields. In the present work, the shielding performance of different shielding cabinets is investigated by means of numerical simulations and measurements inside a fully anechoic chamber and a GTEM-cell. For the GTEM-cell-measurements, a downscaled model of the shielding cabinet is used. For the simulations, the numerical tools CONCEPT II and COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS were available. The numerical results agree well with the measurements. They can be used to interpret the behaviour of the shielding effectiveness of enclosures as function of frequency. From the measurement of the electric and magnetic fields with and without the enclosure in place, the electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness as well as the transient shielding effectiveness of the enclosure are calculated. The transient SE of four different shielding cabinets is determined and discussed.

  16. Analysis of the characteristics appearing in LANDSAT multispectral images in the geological structural mapping of the midwestern portion of the Rio Grande do Sul shield. M.S. Thesis - 25 Mar. 1982; [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Ohara, T.

    1982-01-01

    The central-western part of Rio Grande do Sul Shield was geologically mapped to test the use of MSS-LANDSAT data in the study of mineralized regions. Visual interpretation of the images a the scale of 1:500,000 consisted, in the identification and analysis of the different tonal and textural patterns in each spectral band. After the structural geologic mapping of the area, using visual interpretation techniques, the statistical data obtained were evaluated, specially data concerning size and direction of fractures. The IMAGE-100 system was used to enlarge and enhance certain imagery. The LANDSAT MSS data offer several advantages over conventional white and black aerial photographs for geological studies. Its multispectral characteristic (band 6 and false color composition of bands 4, 5 and 7 were best suitable for the study). Coverage of a large imaging area of about 35,000 sq km, giving a synoptical view, is very useful for perceiving the regional geological setting.

  17. High risk human papillomavirus prevalence and genotype distribution among women infected with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Monique Figueiredo; Sabidó, Meritxell; Leturiondo, André Luiz; de Oliveira Ferreira, Cynthia; Torres, Kátia Luz; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2018-02-17

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are infected with a broader range of HPV types than HIV-negative women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cervical cytologic abnormalities, high-risk (HR)-HPV prevalence, type distribution according to the severity of cervical lesions and CD4 cell count and identify factors associated with HR-HPV infection among women living with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas. We enrolled 325 women living with HIV that attended an infectious diseases referral hospital. Each woman underwent a gynecological exam, cervical cytology, HR-HPV detection by Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR) using the BD Onclarity™ HPV Assay, colposcopy and biopsy, when necessary. We assessed the associations between potential risk factors and HR-HPV infection. Overall, 299 (92.0%) women had a PCR result. The prevalence of HR-HPV- infection was 31.1%. The most prevalent HR-HPV types were: 56/59/66 (32.2%), 35/39/68 (28.0%), 52 (21.5%), 16 (19.4%), and 45 (12.9%). Among the women with HR-HPV infection (n = 93), 43.0% had multiple infections. Women with HPV infection showed higher prevalence of cervical abnormalities than that HPV-negative (LSIL: 22.6% vs. 1.5%; HSIL: 10.8% vs. 0.0%). The prevalence of HR-HPV among women with cytological abnormalities was 87.5% for LSIL and 100.0% for HSIL. Women with CD4 Amazonas. The low CD4 cell count was an important determinant of HPV infection and abnormal cytological findings. HPV quadrivalent vaccination used in Brazil might not offer protection for an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden in women living with HIV. This is partly explained by the high presence of non targeted vaccine HR-HPVs, such as the HPV genotype groups 56/59/66, 35/39/68 and individually HPV-52 and HPV-45, some of which contribute to high-grade lesion.

  18. SHIELDS Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanova, Vania Koleva [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure, i.e. “space weather”, remains a big space physics challenge. A new capability was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. This framework simulates the dynamics of the Surface Charging Environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- and micro-scale. In addition to using physics-based models (like RAM-SCB, BATS-R-US, and iPIC3D), new data assimilation techniques employing data from LANL instruments on the Van Allen Probes and geosynchronous satellites were developed. An order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy in the simulation of the spacecraft surface charging environment was thus obtained. SHIELDS also includes a post-processing tool designed to calculate the surface charging for specific spacecraft geometry using the Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell (CPIC) code and to evaluate anomalies' relation to SCE dynamics. Such diagnostics is critically important when performing forensic analyses of space-system failures.

  19. Hypervelocity impact shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour-Palais, Burton G. (Inventor); Crews, Jeanne Lee (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A hypervelocity impact shield and method for protecting a wall structure, such as a spacecraft wall, from impact with particles of debris having densities of about 2.7 g/cu cm and impact velocities up to 16 km/s are disclosed. The shield comprises a stack of ultra thin sheets of impactor disrupting material supported and arranged by support means in spaced relationship to one another and mounted to cover the wall in a position for intercepting the particles. The sheets are of a number and spacing such that the impacting particle and the resulting particulates of the impacting particle and sheet material are successively impact-shocked to a thermal state of total melt and/or vaporization to a degree as precludes perforation of the wall. The ratio of individual sheet thickness to the theoretical diameter of particles of debris which may be of spherical form is in the range of 0.03 to 0.05. The spacing between adjacent sheets is such that the debris cloud plume of liquid and vapor resulting from an impacting particle penetrating a sheet does not puncture the next adjacent sheet prior to the arrival thereat of fragment particulates of sheet material and the debris particle produced by a previous impact.

  20. New Toroid shielding design

    CERN Multimedia

    Hedberg V

    On the 15th of June 2001 the EB approved a new conceptual design for the toroid shield. In the old design, shown in the left part of the figure above, the moderator part of the shielding (JTV) was situated both in the warm and cold areas of the forward toroid. It consisted both of rings of polyethylene and hundreds of blocks of polyethylene (or an epoxy resin) inside the toroid vacuum vessel. In the new design, shown to the right in the figure above, only the rings remain inside the toroid. To compensate for the loss of moderator in the toroid, the copper plug (JTT) has been reduced in radius so that a layer of borated polyethylene can be placed around it (see figure below). The new design gives significant cost-savings and is easier to produce in the tight time schedule of the forward toroid. Since the amount of copper is reduced the weight that has to be carried by the toroid is also reduced. Outgassing into the toroid vacuum was a potential problem in the old design and this is now avoided. The main ...

  1. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  2. Presencia de Aedes albopictus en Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Vélez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available La especie Aedes albopictus es un eficiente vector del dengue en Asia y, posiblemente, de otros arbovirus incluyendo la fiebre amarilla y la encefalitis. En la ultima década se ha extendido la distribución de A. albopictus a las Américas. En la ciudad de Tabatinga, Brasil, muy cerceide la frontera con Colombia, se ha informado la presencia de esta especie en 1996 y, posteriormente, en octubre de 1997. En marzo de 1998, en desarrollo de un e&udio sobre enfermedades tropicales realizado por el Programa de Estudio y Cotítrol de Enfermedades Tropicales, PECET, de la Universidad de Antioquia y la secretaría de Salud del Amazonas, se capturaron 8 ejemplares adultos de A. albopictus en la ciudad de Leticia, departamento del Amazonas, siendo éste el primer hallazgo de esta especie en Colombia. La presencia en Colombia de A. albopictus vuelve más complejo el problema del dengue por la mayor adaptación de este vector a climas más fríos, la capacidad de transmisión transovariana, la buena capacidad vectorial para transmitir los cuatro serotipos del virus y la mayor dificultad para su control dado que sus criaderos están en áreas peridomésticas y rurales. La distribución de esta especie tanto en zonas selváticas como rurales y urbanas presenta un peligro potencial de urbanizar la transmisión de la fiebre amarilla. Se presenta el plan de contingencia que se debe implementar por parte de la Secretaría de Salud del Amazonas con miras a evitar la propagación de este vector a otras regiones del país.

  3. El Amazonas en el camino de la sostenibilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Pinilla

    2003-01-01

    La Amazonia es en la conciencia colectiva del planeta el espacio natural y cultural más conservado y donde es posible el desarrollo sostenible. Pero la realidad es otra: factores históricos y económicos, aunados a la codicia, la ignorancia y las erradas políticas andinas para las selvas han llevado a esta región a soportar intensos procesos de deforestación y extracción de sus recursos naturales y culturales. Al analizar la encrucijada del sin modelo económico actual del Amazonas, se encuentr...

  4. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  5. Cloacolith in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-06-01

    A 4-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was admitted for vocalization secondary to constipation. Saline infusion cloacoscopy revealed the presence of a 2-cm-diameter cloacolith within the coprodeum that was obstructing the rectal opening. The cloacolith was fragmented with a pair of biopsy forceps and the pieces removed. The cloacolith was subsequently analyzed and was composed of 100% uric acid salts. The bird improved completely and was able to defecate normally after the procedure. Cloacoliths are relative uncommon cloacal conditions, and this case documents cloacoscopic findings, rectal obstruction, and confirmation of its uric acid composition by urolith analysis.

  6. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  7. Vertebral chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Reis Blume

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor in which the neoplastic cells produce cartilaginous matrix and is uncommonly described in birds. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of one case of chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva. Macroscopically a 3.6x3.5x1.8cm, nodular, ulcerated, and firm mass was identified in the dorsal synsacrum. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a monomorphic proliferation of pleomorphic spindle chondrocytes with abundant cartilaginous matrix, consistent with chondrosarcoma

  8. The unsustainability of the implantation of the 'Luz para todos' programme in the Amazonas state; A (in)sustentabilidade da implantacao do programa Luz para Todos no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article brings to discuss the policy of universalization of the supply of electrical energy 'Luz para todos' showing the significance of this proposal of the government, in a short time, bring electricity to more than 10 million people who still live in the darkness. It features the efficiency of this action of the government from the reality experienced in the context Amazon, which show a framework for various characteristics and natural, cultural and focused on the issue geospatial. This involves understanding the multitude of climates and geographical characteristics, cultural and social constitute major obstacles for the implementation of policies homogeneous, demonstrating that the potential for development of each region has different dynamics, which should influence in the formulation of policies. While electricity is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to society must be viewed with great discretion, in order to prevent the exploitation and consumption exacerbated of natural resources and waste of energy. With this reading, the work he proposes to show the inconsistencies of the program in the state of Amazonas, on presentation of data from the Companhia Energetica do Amazonas (CEAM), showing thus obstacles to the achievement of the goals outlined in the State. Considering the environmental importance that the Amazon represents for Brazil and for the world, emerges is the need for a differentiated look for the region, taking into account their unique reality. It is believed that is the acceptance of their characteristics that we can really promote a development that is sustainable for the Amazon. (author)

  9. Evaluation of an alternative shielding materials for F-127 transport package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Maritza R.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Pereira, Cláubia

    2018-03-01

    Lead is used as radiation shielding material for the Nordion's F-127 source shipping container is used for transport and storage of the GammaBeam -127's cobalt-60 source of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. As an alternative, Th, Tl and WC have been evaluated as radiation shielding material. The goal is to check their behavior regarding shielding and dosing. Monte Carlo MCNPX code is used for the simulations. In the MCNPX calculation was used one cylinder as exclusion surface instead one sphere. Validation of MCNPX gamma doses calculations was carried out through comparison with experimental measurements. The results show that tungsten carbide WC is better shielding material for γ-ray than lead shielding.

  10. Radiation Shielding for Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel. Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor

  11. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912, malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  12. Socket Shield Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, João Eduardo Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Nos dias atuais, é cada vez mais comum a realização de extrações de dentes que estejam severamente comprometidos e substituí-los por implantes dentários. Após extração, existe uma reabsorção de osso alveolar que vai resultar numa perda de osso vertical e horizontal, tornando-se um dos fatores que subsequentemente se vai colocar como uma das maiores dificuldades na colocação de implantes. A técnica Socket Shield é uma técnica de preservação de osso alveolar em situações de implantes imediatos,...

  13. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  14. Gynacantha dryadula sp. nov. from the Guiana Shield (Odonata, Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Marmels, Jürg DE

    2017-04-20

    The new species is described and illustrated on the basis of two reared, subteneral males from Brazil, their larval exuviae, a mature male from French Guiana, a mature female from Venezuela, and a mature female from Surinam. One of the Brazilian males is the holotype (BRAZIL, Amazonas State, Manaus, Reserva Florestal Ducke, BR 174-km 26, trail to Acará creek, 02º55'47"S, 59º58'22"W, 0.7 m elevation, deposited in INPA). The new species (total length 50-54 mm) differs from other small species of same genus by color pattern of thorax, middle and hind tibiae dark with external (dorsal) yellow streak, male cercus with truncated tip lacking apical spine, and male epiproct reaching or slightly surpassing midlength of cercus. The larva, besides of its small size (28-31 mm), has an epiproct with well-developed and slightly diverging apical spines and an unusually long paraproct.

  15. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de; Gimaque, João Bosco de Lima; Alves, Valquíria do Carmo Rodrigues; Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Figueiredo, Mário Luis Garcia; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-01-01

    The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon), is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF) were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42) were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  16. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD, located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon, is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42 were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  17. Branchial cysts in two Amazon parrots (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Holmberg, David L; Boston, Sarah; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael

    2010-03-01

    A 37-year-old yellow-crowned Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) and a 20-year-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis) each presented with a large mass localized on the lateral neck. With the first bird, there was no evidence of signs of pain or discomfort, and the bird prehended and swallowed food normally. The second bird showed signs of mild upper-gastrointestinal discomfort. Results of an ultrasound examination and aspiration of the mass on each bird revealed a cystic structure. A computed tomography performed on the second bird revealed a large polycystic mass connected to the pharynx by a lateral tract. During surgical resection, both masses were found to originate from the subpharyngeal area. Based on topography and the histopathologic and immunohistochemical results, the masses were determined to be a second branchial cleft cyst for the first case and a second branchial pouch cyst for the second case. In addition, a carcinoma was present in situ within the epithelium of case 1, and the cyst in case 2 was secondarily infected. Branchial cysts are uncommonly diagnosed in veterinary and human medicine. These 2 cases are the first documented in parrots and appear similar to second branchial cysts reported in adult humans.

  18. Descrição anatômica de esqueletos de papagaios do gênero Amazona através da utilização de radiografias

    OpenAIRE

    Cavinatto,Carla C.; Armando,Alexandre P.R.N.; Cruz,Layla K.S.; Lima,Eduardo M.M. de; Santana,Marcelo I.S.

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: O esqueleto de papagaios da espécie Amazona aestiva foi descrito e comparado com representantes de outras espécies do gênero Amazona. Para tanto, foram utilizados 22 exemplares da espécie Amazona aestiva; dois das espécies Amazona vinacea; Amazona rhodocorythae, Amazona farinosa, além de um exemplar das espécies Amazona brasiliensis e Amazona pretrei, doados após morte natural pelo Criadouro Poços de Caldas. Foram realizadas radiografias de corpo inteiro, variando de decúbito lateral ...

  19. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  20. Valores hematologicos de psitacidos de los generos Ara y Amazona cautivos en zoologicos de Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz Alvarado, Mary; Arraga-Alvarado, Cruz; Rincon Rincon, Maria; Fernandez, Gibson; Aguilar Lara, Juan; Villasmil-Ontiveros, Yenen; Gomez, Orlando; Henriquez, Antmar

    2008-01-01

    Se obtuvieron muestras sanguineas de 104 aves cautivas en zoologicos de Venezuela con la finalidad de obtener valores hematologicos de referencia en especies de los generos Amazona (loros) y Ara (guacamayas...

  1. A dermoid of the eye in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, A.C.; Bürge, T.

    1999-01-01

    A corneo-conjunctival dermoid is reported in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva). After laminar keratectomy, histology showed the epidermis with feather follicles and dermal connective tissue with lymph follicles and sebaceous glands.

  2. [Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Ana Maria Lima

    2007-12-01

    The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  3. [Dengue: epidemiological aspects and the first outbreak in the Middle Solimões Region of Coari in the State of Amazonas from 2008 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães da; Santos, Jefferson Dantas dos; Conceição, Jemmis Karters Tomé da; Alecrim, Priscilla Heckmann; Casseb, Almeida Andrade; Batista, Weber Cheli; Heckmann, Maria Izabel Ovellar

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in Brazil and is a major public health problem worldwide. It is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with 2.5 to 3 billion people at risk of becoming infected. Thus, this study sought to demonstrate the epidemiological characteristics of individuals affected by dengue, its prevalence and its epidemic process in the Middle Solimões region of Coari in the state of Amazonas between 2008 and 2009. Epidemiological data were obtained through epidemiological monitoring by the Municipal Health Facility of the city of Coari, AM. The variables analyzed were the month of notification, the number of confirmed cases, the cases' genders, the cases' ages and their neighborhoods of residence. In total, 1,003 cases were reported (635 in 2008 and 368 in 2009), and 639 cases were diagnosed as positive. Of these, +54% involved female subjects, and +46% were male. The majority of the affected individuals were between 10 and 49 years of age, and the spatial distribution was concentrated in neighborhoods near streams, lakes and areas in which housing had recently been disrupted. We concluded that, during the period studied, there was an outbreak of dengue in the City of Coari, AM. However, it is possible that a dengue epidemic may have occurred earlier in Coari without proper diagnosis or follow-up and that previously infected individuals may have traveled to the capital of Amazonas (Manaus), where the virus has circulated since 1998.

  4. HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Romina do Socorro Marques de; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Saraceni, Valeria; Sabidó, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases are hitting mostly young adults and have recently shifted toward men, both homosexual and heterosexual. AIDS cases among the indigenous people have remained stable and low. However, the epidemic has disseminated to the interior of the state, which adds difficulties to its control, given the geographical isolation, logistical barriers, and culturally and ethnically diverse population. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been decentralized, but peripheral ARV services are still insufficient and too distant from people who need them. Recently, the expansion of point-of-care (POC) rapid HIV testing has been contributing to overcoming logistical barriers. Other new POC devices, such as the PIMA CD4 analyzer, will bring the laboratory to the patient. AIDS uniquely coexists with other tropical infections, sharing their epidemiological profiles. The increased demand for HIV/AIDS care services can only be satisfied through increased decentralization to peripheral health units, which can also naturally integrate care with other tropical infections and can promote a shift from vertical to integrated programming. Future challenges involve building surveillance data on HIV case notification and covering the spectrum of engagement in care, including adherence to treatment and follow-up loss.

  5. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; de Almeida, Sílvia Maria; de Lima, Edna Tereza; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Pinczowski, Pedro; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2010-03-01

    Avian salmonellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella that can cause three distinct diseases in birds: pullorum diseases, fowl typhoid, and paratyphoid infection. Various wildlife species are susceptible to infections by Salmonella, regardless of whether they live in captivity or freely in the wild. The present study verified the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in three captive specimens of Amazona aestiva. The study involved a total of 103 birds undergoing rehabilitation to prepare for living in the wild, after having been captured from animal traffickers and delivered to the Centrofauna Project of the Floravida Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is the first report of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation in A. aestiva that originated from capture associated with animal trafficking; Salmonella was detected during the study by the serologic method of rapid serum agglutination on a plate with bacterial isolate. The antimicrobial profile exam of the isolated samples demonstrated sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and cloranfenicol. The three samples also presented resistance to more than four antibiotics. The presence of the genes invA and spvC was verified by PCR technique and was associated with virulence and absence of class 1 integron, a gene related to antimicrobial resistance. The commercial antigen for pullorum disease was shown to be a useful tool for rapid detection in the screening of Salmonella of serogroup D1 in Psittaciformes. New studies on Salmonella carriage in birds involved in trafficking must be performed to better understand their participation in the epidemiologic cycle of salmonellosis in humans and other animals.

  6. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  7. Composite Aerogel Multifoil Protective Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    New technologies are needed to survive the temperatures, radiation, and hypervelocity particles that exploration spacecraft encounter. Multilayer insulations (MLIs) have been used on many spacecraft as thermal insulation. Other materials and composites have been used as micrometeorite shielding or radiation shielding. However, no material composite has been developed and employed as a combined thermal insulation, micrometeorite, and radiation shielding. By replacing the scrims that have been used to separate the foil layers in MLIs with various aerogels, and by using a variety of different metal foils, the overall protective performance of MLIs can be greatly expanded to act as thermal insulation, radiation shielding, and hypervelocity particle shielding. Aerogels are highly porous, low-density solids that are produced by the gelation of metal alkoxides and supercritical drying. Aerogels have been flown in NASA missions as a hypervelocity particle capture medium (Stardust) and as thermal insulation (2003 MER). Composite aerogel multifoil protective shielding would be used to provide thermal insulation, while also shielding spacecraft or components from radiation and hypervelocity particle impacts. Multiple layers of foil separated by aerogel would act as a thermal barrier by preventing the transport of heat energy through the composite. The silica aerogel would act as a convective and conductive thermal barrier, while the titania powder and metal foils would absorb and reflect the radiative heat. It would also capture small hypervelocity particles, such as micrometeorites, since it would be a stuffed, multi-shock Whipple shield. The metal foil layers would slow and break up the impacting particles, while the aerogel layers would convert the kinetic energy of the particles to thermal and mechanical energy and stop the particles.

  8. Natural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, E C; Wadt, L H O; Silva, K E; Lima, R M B; Batista, K D; Guedes, M C; Carvalho, G S; Carvalho, T S; Reis, A R; Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G

    2017-12-01

    Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is native of the Amazon rainforest. Brazil nuts are consumed worldwide and are known as the richest food source of selenium (Se). Yet, the reasoning for such Se contents is not well stablished. We evaluated the variation in Se concentration of Brazil nuts from Brazilian Amazon basin, as well as soil properties, including total Se concentration, of the soils sampled directly underneath the trees crown, aiming to investigate which soil properties influence Se accumulation in the nuts. The median Se concentration in Brazil nuts varied from 2.07 mg kg - 1 (in Mato Grosso state) to 68.15 mg kg - 1 (in Amazonas state). Therefore, depending on its origin, a single Brazil nut could provide from 11% (in the Mato Grosso state) up to 288% (in the Amazonas state) of the daily Se requirement for an adult man (70 μg). The total Se concentration in the soil also varied considerably, ranging from Brazil nuts generally increased in soils with higher total Se content, but decreased under acidic conditions in the soil. This indicates that, besides total soil Se concentration, soil acidity plays a major role in Se uptake by Brazil nut trees, possibly due to the importance of this soil property to Se retention in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

  10. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  11. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  12. The SHIELD11 Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W

    2005-02-02

    SHIELD11 is a computer code for performing shielding analyses around a high-energy electron accelerator. It makes use of simple analytic expressions for the production and attenuation of photons and neutrons resulting from electron beams striking thick targets, such as dumps, stoppers, collimators, and other beam devices. The formulae in SHIELD11 are somewhat unpretentious in that they are based on the extrapolation (scaling) of experimental data using rather simple physics ideas. Because these scaling methods have only been tested over a rather limited set of conditions--namely, 1-15 GeV electrons striking 10-20 radiation lengths of iron--a certain amount of care and judgment must be exercised whenever SHIELD11 is used. Nevertheless, for many years these scaling methods have been applied rather successfully to a large variety of problems at SLAC, as well as at other laboratories throughout the world, and the SHIELD11 code has been found to be a fast and convenient tool. In this paper we present, without extensive theoretical justification or experimental verification, the five-component model on which the SHIELD11 code is based. Our intent is to demonstrate how to use the code by means of a few simple examples. References are provided that are considered to be essential for a full understanding of the model. The code itself contains many comments to provide some guidance for the informed user, who may wish to improve on the model.

  13. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  14. El Amazonas en el camino de la sostenibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pinilla

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La Amazonia es en la conciencia colectiva del planeta el espacio natural y cultural más conservado y donde es posible el desarrollo sostenible. Pero la realidad es otra: factores históricos y económicos, aunados a la codicia, la ignorancia y las erradas políticas andinas para las selvas han llevado a esta región a soportar intensos procesos de deforestación y extracción de sus recursos naturales y culturales. Al analizar la encrucijada del sin modelo económico actual del Amazonas, se encuentra que la salida está en apoyar técnica y decididamente a los productores indígenas y campesinos para estructurar participativamente encadenamientos comerciales entre diferentes sectores productivos, como una gran red asociativa de "empresas" e iniciativas sostenibles locales.

  15. Lipid Panel Reference Intervals for Amazon Parrots (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravich, Michelle; Cray, Carolyn; Hess, Laurie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01

    The lipoprotein panel is a useful diagnostic tool that allows clinicians to evaluate blood lipoprotein fractions. It is a standard diagnostic test in human medicine but is poorly understood in avian medicine. Amazon parrots (Amazona species) are popular pets that frequently lead a sedentary lifestyle and are customarily fed high-fat diets. Similar to people with comparable diets and lifestyles, Amazon parrots are prone to obesity and atherosclerosis. In human medicine, these conditions are typically correlated with abnormalities in the lipoprotein panel. To establish reference intervals for the lipoprotein panel in Amazon parrots, plasma samples from 31 captive Amazon parrots were analyzed for concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The data were also grouped according to sex, diet, body condition score, and age. Aside from HDL levels, which were significantly different between male and female parrots, no intergroup differences were found for any of the lipoprotein fractions.

  16. Colisepticemia em Papagaio verdadeiro ("Amazona aestiva" - Relato de Caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Lopes Sequeira

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Colibacilose é o termo comumente empregado para designar as infecções por Escherichia coli nos animais, sendo a colisepticemia um dos quadros causados por esta. Durante muito tempo a E. coli foi considerada um microrganismo não patogênico, porém alguns sorogrupos começaram a ser associado com diversas patologias no homem e nos animais domésticos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de colisepticemia em um Papagaio verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva atendido no Laboratório de Ornitopatologia do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Estadual Paulista (FMVZ-UNESP, campus Botucatu-SP, Brasil.

  17. A new species of Atractus (Reptilia: Ophidia: Colubridae: Dipsadinae) from the Amazon forest region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Prudente, A.L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Three specimens of Atractus natans were found during fieldwork in the “Reserva Mamirauá”, Amazonas and a fourth one in the “Estação Científica Ferreira Penna”, Floresta de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. The specimens from Mamirauá were all collected in floating logs in várzea forest during the period of

  18. Parasitism of two zoonotic reservoirs Dasyprocta leporina and D. fuliginosa (Rodentia from Amazonas, with Trichostrongylina nematodes (Heligmonellidae: description of a new genus and a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and a new species of Heligmonellidae nematodes are described parasiting the stomach of three agoutis (two Dasyprocta fuliginosa and one D. leporina captured in the middle and high Negro river microregion, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new genus, as well as its type-species, are closely related to the trichostrongylids included in Fuellebornema, particularly on what concerns the pattern of the caudal bursa, but differing from them by the characteristics of the synlophe, that presents a poorly developed carene, when compared to the referred number of body ridges in Freitastrongylus n. gen. and consequently in F. angelae n. sp.,in which the ridges are well developed and the carene at mid-body has a similar size when compared to the ridge situated in front of the right field (ridge no. 5. Caudal bursa is of the type 1-4, with rays 9 shorter than rays 10, with a very long genital cone.

  19. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  20. The paleozoic of Amazonas basin south edge: Tapajos river, Para state; O paleozoico da borda sul da bacia do Amazonas: rio Tapajos, estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko [Petrobras E e P, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Estratigrafia e Sedimentologia Geologia Aplicada a Exploracao], E-mail: nilo@petrobras.com.br; Winter, Wilson Rubem [Petrobras, Campoas dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Sedimentologia e Estratigrafia], E-mail: winter@petrobras.com.br; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro; Cacela, Alessandra Suzely Moda [Petrobras, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao. Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao da Amazonia], Emails: jwand@petrobras.com.br, alessandra.suzely@petrobras.com.br

    2009-11-15

    The intracratonic Amazonas Basin covers an area close to 500.000km{sup 2} shared between the Amazonas and Para states. The phanerozoic stratigraphic framework is up to 6.000m thick and may be subdivided into two, first order depositional sequences: the Paleozoic sequence, intruded by diabase dikes and sills and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence. Analyzing the stratigraphic framework, the great tectonic influence on the basin development can be appreciated. The mainly NW-SE structural directions of the basement, which mark the boundaries of the geochronological provinces of the Amazonas, are clearly identified along the Tapajos River. The Paleozoic sequence outcrops on the southern border of the Amazonas Basin embraces potential source rocks, reservoirs and seal rocks. They can be subdivided in three, second order sequences, limited by regional unconformities, as: the Ordovician/Devonian, which corresponds to the Pitinga lithostratigraphic formation; the Devonian-Tournaisian, which corresponds to the Maecuru, Erere, Barreirinha and Curiri formations and, the Pensylvanian-Permian that are represented by the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations. This field trip guide presents these classic lithostratigraphic outcrop units, together with a brief sedimentological description and an analysis of their positioning related to sequence stratigraphical concepts. (author)

  1. [New record of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), in the urban area of La Pedrera, Amazonas, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Gil, Yesika; Brochero, Helena

    2008-12-01

    Before 2005, Aedes aegypti had not been recorded in the Colombian province of Amazonas. Because this species has been increasing its range throughout Colombia, an entomological surveillance program has been routinely directed toward detecting it presence in Amazonas by the Amazonas State Health Authority. Surveillance data were used as the basis for recording Aedes aegypti in Amazonas Province. Household surveys of Ae. aegypti larvae were conducted by trained personnel belonging to the Amazonas State Health Authority. The following standard larval indices were estimated: house index (HI)--the percentage of premises with positive containers, the container index (CI)--the percentage of positive containers among the water-holding containers, and the Breteau index (BI)--the number of positive containers per 100 premises. Residents were questioned concerning their perception of mosquito presence in their houses. Subsequently, control activities were undertaken to reduce the mosquito's infestation. Aedes aegypti was found in the urban area of the village of La Pedrera. During the first household survey, the indices were HI=29.6%, CI=9.0% and, BI=40.8%. After control activities, these values decreased; however, elimination of the infestation was not possible in this geographical area. The community recognizes the mosquito immature forms in water containers in houses and associated them as vectors of several diseases. The presence of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the village La Pedrera was verified. Aedes albopictus was not found in this area.

  2. The Socioeconomic Factors and the Indigenous Component of Tuberculosis in Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel Barros de; Pinto, Rosemary Costa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Sadahiro, Megumi; Braga, José Ueleres

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of tuberculosis prevention and control services throughout Amazonas, high rates of morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis remain in the region. Knowledge of the social determinants of tuberculosis in Amazonas is important for the establishment of public policies and the planning of effective preventive and control measures for the disease. To analyze the relationship of the spatial distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in municipalities and regions of Amazonas to the socioeconomic factors and indigenous tuberculosis component, from 2007 to 2013. An ecological study was conducted based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis. A linear regression model was used to analyze the relationship of the annual incidence of tuberculosis to the socioeconomic factors, performance indicators of health services, and indigenous tuberculosis component. The distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in the municipalities of Amazonas was positively associated with the Gini index and the population attributable fraction of tuberculosis in the indigenous peoples, but negatively associated with the proportion of the poor and the unemployment rate. The spatial distribution of tuberculosis in the different regions of Amazonas was heterogeneous and closely related with the socioeconomic factors and indigenous component of tuberculosis.

  3. Exchange, experimentation and preferences: a study on the dynamics of manioc diversity in the Middle Solimões, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the manioc diversity in the Middle Solimões region, focusing largely on communities located in the Sustainable Development Reserves of Mamirauá and Amanã, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The study combines quantitative and ethnographic data. The analysis of survey data collected in 13 communities in the 'várzea' and in the 'terra firme' revealed the following pattern of manioc diversity: a total richness of 54 varieties, demonstrating a broad distribution of a small number of varieties and a local occurrence of the majority; an average richness of ten varieties per community; and an average of three varieties maintained per household. A temporal analysis of survey data collected at the household level illustrates the dynamic nature of this regional diversity. Over the course of five years, almost all the 55 accompanied families altered the composition of manioc varieties in their collections; however, the size of these collections showed little variation. To discuss the dynamics of diversity, we conducted qualitative research in three communities. This analysis sought to understand the social and environmental conditions with which farmers contend, patterns of manioc management, and the logic behind farmers' preferences for certain manioc varieties. The research demonstrates that maniva diversity is a result of active experimentation, and that collections of manivas maintained by farmers are dynamic and ever-changing. This dynamism is defined by a series of factors that include economic practices, environmental conditions, and the historical relationship of the regional population with manioc.

  4. A Novel Radiation Shielding Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation shielding simulations showed that epoxy loaded with 10-70% polyethylene would be an excellent shielding material against GCRs and SEPs. Milling produced an...

  5. Retrobulbar adenocarcinoma in an Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Victoria E; Murdock, Jessica H; Cazzini, Paola; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Divers, Stephen J; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2013-03-01

    Retrobulbar neoplasms are not common in mammals and are even more infrequently seen in nonmammalian species. The current report describes a retrobulbar mass creating exophthalmia and neurologic signs in a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis). A 27-year-old female parrot presented for a 3-day history of anorexia and a 2-week history of periocular soft tissue swelling and exophthalmia of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 9% dehydration and right eye exophthalmia with inability to retropulse the globe. A fine-needle aspirate was performed, and cytologic evaluation revealed necrotic debris with scattered clusters of epithelial cells, moderate numbers of macrophages, and few heterophils. Given the possibility of neoplasia and paucity of treatment options, the owners elected euthanasia and submitted the body for necropsy. A large, fluctuant, friable, red, retrobulbar mass with multiple areas of hemorrhage, on cut surface, was noted at necropsy. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic, cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells, forming rosette-like glandular structures, admixed with abundant necrotic debris. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) by immunohistochemistry. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the mass was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma.

  6. Intermittent bradyarrhythmia in a Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Melanie S; Smith, Julie A; Strickland, Keith N; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-03-01

    A clinically normal 2-year-old Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) was found to have periodic second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block with variable nodal conductions while anesthetized with isoflurane during a thermal-support research project. Arrhythmias were observed on 5 successive weekly electrocardiograms. A complete cardiac evaluation, including a diagnostic electrocardiogram, revealed intermittent bradyarrhythmias ranging from a 2:1 to a 7:1 second-degree AV block, with concurrent hypotensive episodes during the nodal blocks. Results of a complete blood cell count, plasma biochemical profile, blood gas analysis, and atropine-response test, as well as radiography and auscultation, revealed no obvious cause for the arrhythmias. Echocardiography demonstrated cardiac wall thickness, chamber size, and systolic function similar to other psittacine birds. On return to the colony, the parrot continued to be outwardly asymptomatic despite the dramatic conduction disturbances. Although cardiac arrhythmias, including second-degree AV block, have been widely reported in birds, the wide variation of nodal conductions, the intermittent nature, and an arrhythmia with a 7:1 second-degree AV block that spontaneously reverts to normal as seen in this case have not been well documented in parrots.

  7. Electrocardiographic parameters in captive, clinically healthy, Amazona ochrocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Guerrero S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To stablish the electrocardiographic parameters of individuals of the species Amazona ochrocephala, from the Unidad de Rescate y Rehabilitacion de Animales Silvestres at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Materials and methods. The electrocardiographic examination was performed under inhaled anesthesia with isoflurane. Leads I, II, III, aVL, aVR and aVF were measured. Results. Electrocardiographic parameters obtained in Lead II. P wave Duration: 0.015-0.044 s, P wave amplitude: 0.031 to 0.6 mv, R wave duration: 0.015-0.022 s, amplitude R: 0.034-0.038 mv, S wave Duration: 0.019- 0.042 s, amplitude S: 0.194-0.815 mv, T wave Duration: 0.025-0.064 s, T-wave amplitude: 0.010 to 0.5 mv, PQ Duration: 0.021-0.076 s, QRS Duration: 0.036-0.068 s, QT Duration: 0.070-0.015 s, RR Duration: 0.104-0.324 s, EEM: -111° to -80°, FC: 240-600 ppm. Conclusions. The results showed different values for amplitude and duration of the P, R and T waves in comparison to those obtained in other studies. However, they were similar for heart rate, MEA and duration of the PQ/R, QT and QRS segments.

  8. Protein requirements for Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofi, A C; Sanfilippo, L F; de-Oliveira, L D; do Amaral, P P; Prada, F

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein requirements for hand-rearing Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Forty hatchlings were fed semi-purified diets containing one of four (as-fed basis) protein levels: 13%, 18%, 23% and 28%. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with the initial weight of the nestling as the blocking factor and 10 parrots per protein level. Regression analysis was used to determine relationships between protein level and biometric measurements. The data indicated that 13% crude protein supported nestling growth with 18% being the minimum tested level required for maximum development. The optimal protein concentration for maximum weight gain was 24.4% (p = 0.08; r(2) = 0.25), tail length 23.7% (p = 0.09; r(2) = 0.19), wing length 23.0% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.17), tarsus length 21.3% (p = 0.06; r(2) = 0.10) and tarsus width 21.4% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.09). Tarsus measurements were larger in males (p < 0.05), indicating that sex must be considered when studying developing psittacines. These results were obtained using a highly digestible protein and a diet with moderate metabolizable energy levels.

  9. WAVS radiation shielding references and assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-07

    At ITER, the confluence of a high radiation environment and the requirement for high performance imaging for plasma and plasma-facing surface diagnosis will necessitate extensive application of radiation shielding. Recommended here is a dual-layer shield design composed of lead for gamma attenuation, surrounded by a fire-resistant polyehtylene doped with a thermal neutron absorber for neutron shielding.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, P.S.; Albuquerque, G.R.; da Silva, V.M.F.; Martin, A.R.; Marvulo, M.F.V.; Souza, S.L.P.; Ragozo, A.M.A.; Nascimento, C.C.; Gennari, S.M.; Dubey, J.P.; Silva, J.C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefe, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT >= 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with ...

  11. Laccomimus xikrin sp. nov. and new records of other species of Laccomimus Toledo & Michat, 2015 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Laccophilinae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rafael Benzi; Ferreira, Nelson

    2016-08-18

    The genus Laccomimus Toledo & Michat, 2015 was recently erected for small drop-shape Dytiscidae beetles commonly found in Tropical South America associated with lentic waters. In the present paper a new species, Laccomimus xikrin sp. nov., is described and illustrated. New records from Brazil are presented for Laccomimus alvarengi Toledo & Michat, 2015 from Amazonas state, L. bordoni Toledo & Michat, 2015 from São Paulo state and L. variegatus Toledo & Michat, 2015 from Pará state.

  12. Neutronic design of MYRRHA reactor hall shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Yurdunaz; Stankovskiy, Alexey; Eynde, Gert Van den

    2017-09-01

    The lateral shielding of a 600 MeV proton linear accelerator beam line in the MYRRHA reactor hall has been assessed using neutronic calculations by the MCNPX code complemented with analytical predictions. Continuous beam losses were considered to define the required shielding thickness that meets the requirements for the dose rate limits. Required shielding thicknesses were investigated from the viewpoint of accidental full beam loss as well as beam loss on collimator. The results confirm that the required shielding thicknesses are highly sensitive to the spatial shape of the beam and strongly divergent beam losses. Therefore shielding barrier should be designed according to the more conservative assumptions.

  13. The urban area, a center of agrobiodiversity in the Negro River region (Amazonas, Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Emperaire

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite its isolation from land communications networks and colonization frontiers, the regions of the Upper and Middle Negro River are characterized by increasing connectivity between rural or forest areas, pertaining to communities, and urban areas, i.e. small towns along the river. Population movement between these two poles, on a temporary or permanent basis, results in expanded periurban agriculture, in the context of new social and ecological arrangements. A comparative approach is proposed to cultivated plants diversity, based on a sample of 14 and 18 families in these urban and forest contexts. Relations among the diversity of managed spaces, biological diversity and social networks involved in access to phytogenetic resources were analyzed. The analysis shows a recomposition of agricultural systems with high crop diversity, at times higher than in the context of forests, albeit subject to more system vulnerability due to reduced fallow periods and available manual labor. In urban areas, traditional agricultural resource management strategies are combined with another objective, farmed lands access. This analysis also points out the need for reflection about the conservation of a biocultural heritage.

  14. Aves Linnaeus, 1758: New records for the Jaú National Park, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, R. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of some eight years of fieldwork, 469 bird species have been recorded at the Jaú National Park bythe year 2002. Fieldwork conducted between 2000 and 2008 added 12 species to the list, including Myrmotherula klagesi,Cephalopterus ornatus, Campylorhamphus procurvoides, Venilinornis cassini, Pteroglossus aracari, Todirostrum pictum,Monasa atra, Porphyrio martinica, and Percnostola rufifrons which were restricted to fluvial islands of Rio Negro. All newrecords belong to species which are either little known, have very low natural densities, are patchily distributed or arevagrants.

  15. LBA-ECO CD-08 Carbon Isotopes in Belowground Carbon Pools, Amazonas and Para, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains carbon isotope signatures from soil organic matter collected from the following sites: the forests of the ZF-2 INPA reserve...

  16. LBA-ECO CD-08 Carbon Isotopes in Belowground Carbon Pools, Amazonas and Para, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains carbon isotope signatures from soil organic matter collected from the following sites: the forests of the ZF-2 INPA reserve approximately 80...

  17. LBA-ECO LC-05 Biomass and Soil Properties of Fragmented Forests, Amazonas, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports (1) total aboveground dry biomass based on detailed estimates of all live and dead plant material, (2) results from repeated surveys...

  18. Studies on Lejeuneaceae subfam. Ptychanthoideae (Hepaticae) IV. Verdoornianthus, a new Genus from Amazonas, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The new Amazonian liverwort genus Verdoornianthus is considered to be a specialized derivative of the widespread tropical genus Archilejeunea. Differences are the absence of innovations, the dull, suberect leaves, the tristratose rhizoid pad and the larger size of the lobule of the female bracts in

  19. Fatal stroke after Bothrops snakebite in the Amazonas state, Brazil: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Oliveira, Sâmella; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana Aparecida; Alves, Eliane Campos; de Lima Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; de Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Fan, Hui Wen; Moura-da-Silva, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2017-11-01

    Bothrops atrox is the snake responsible for the majority of snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon. Patients generally evolve to local manifestations such as edema, pain and ecchymoses. Systemic effects of B. atrox venom are usually restricted to blood incoagulability and spontaneous bleeding. However, in a few cases, bleeding in the central nervous system may occur, which can lead to sequels and deaths. Here, we report a case of a 59 year-old woman who presented edema, pain and ecchymoses on the right foot, headache, nausea, diarrhea, hypertension and blood incoagulability after the bite by Bothrops snake in the Brazilian Amazon. This case evolved with stroke resulting in death despite the antivenom and conservative therapy employed. In addition, we were able to identify the presence of venom in the patient's brain tissue after death. Direct action of toxins present in the snake's venom in the induction of systemic hemorrhage allied to blood incoagulability and hypertension presented by the patient could be involved in the mechanism of stroke in this case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimalarial plants used by indigenous people of the Upper Rio Negro in Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kffuri, Carolina Weber; Lopes, Moisés Ahkʉtó; Ming, Lin Chau; Odonne, Guillaume; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira

    2016-02-03

    This is the first intercultural report of antimalarial plants in this region. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used against malaria by indigenous people in the Upper Rio Negro region and to review the literature on antimalarial activity and traditional use of the cited species. Participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and ethnobotanical walks were conducted with 89 informants in five indigenous communities between April 2010 and November 2013 to obtain information on the use of medicinal plants against malaria. We reviewed academic databases for papers published in scientific journals up to January 2014 in order to find works on ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, and antimalarial activity of the species cited. Forty-six plant species belonging to 24 families are mentioned. Fabaceae (17.4%), Arecaceae (13.0%) and Euphorbiaceae (6.5%) account together for 36.9% of these species. Only seven plant species showed a relatively high consensus. Among the plant parts, barks (34.0%) and roots (28.0%) were the most widely used. Of the 46 species cited, 18 (39.1%) have already been studied for their antimalarial properties according to the literature, and 26 species (56.5%) have no laboratory essays on antimalarial activity. Local traditional knowledge of the use of antimalarials is still widespread in indigenous communities of the Upper Rio Negro, where 46 plants species used against malaria were recorded. Our studies highlight promising new plants for future studies: Glycidendron amazonicum, Heteropsis tenuispadix, Monopteryx uaucu, Phenakospermum guianensis, Pouteria ucuqui, Sagotia brachysepala and notably Aspidosperma schultesii, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Euterpe catinga, E. precatoria, Physalis angulata, Cocos nucifera and Swartzia argentea with high-use consensus. Experimental validation of these remedies may help in developing new drugs for malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cases distribution of leptospirosis in City of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Michele Silva de; Silva, Luciete Almeida; Lima, Kátia Maria da Silva; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by microorganisms of the genus Leptospira that affects several species of animals, including the human beings. The study described the confirmed cases of leptospirosis in Manaus, from 2000 to 2010. A descriptive study based on secondary data analysis of Secretaria Municipal de Saúde (SEMSA), Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação SINAN and Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM) analyzing the variables: age group, gender, clinical aspects and geographic area and lethality. Were reported 665 cases of leptospirosis, 339 were confirmed and 35 (10.3%) died. The largest number of cases occurred in May (16.8%), March (13.3%) and April (11.4%), a period of intense rainfall. The city areas with the greatest occurrence of the disease were South (26.6%), West (23.5%) and East (19.7%), areas of the greatest precariousness socio-environment. The largest number of cases, including deaths, occurred in the age group from 14 to 44.9 years (74%), being that 291 (85.8%) were male and 48 (14.1%) females. The most frequent symptoms were fever, myalgia, headache and jaundice. In relation to the social conditions were identified low education, poor housing, absence of sanitation and low income. In Manaus, despite the implementation of the Social and Environmental Program of Igarapés of Manaus (PROSAMIM), there are still areas that need a proper urbanization and improvements in socio-environmental conditions, reducing the level of exposure of the human beings that living in these locations.

  2. Absence of HTLV-1/2 infection and dermatological diseases in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Leny Nascimento da Motta; Moraes, Márcia Poinho Encarnação de; Tamegão-Lopes, Bruna; Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues de; Machado, Paulo Roberto de Lima; Mira, Marcelo Távora; Talhari, Sinésio

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) infection is heterogeneous across different populations. We tested the hypothesis that HTLV-1/2 infection occurs more often in dermatological patients. A total of 1,091 patients from a tropical dermatology clinic were tested for HTLV-1/2. In parallel, 6865 first-time blood donors from the same geographic area were screened for HTLV-1/2; HTLV-1/2 positive blood donors underwent dermatological examinations. The prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in first-time blood donors was 0.14%. No co-occurrence of HTLV-1/2 infection and dermatological conditions was observed. Our results challenge the hypothesis that HTLV-1/2 infection occurs more often in dermatological patients.

  3. [Cost of illness attributable to environmental factors in the city of Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcilio Sandro de; Sacramento, Daniel Souza; Hurtado-Guerrero, José Camilo; Ortiz, Ramon Arigoni; Fenner, André Luiz Dutra

    2014-02-01

    The study estimated the cost of illness attributable to environmental factors in the city of Manaus between the years 1998 to 2009. The causes of hospitalization were grouped based on studies of the Global Burden of Disease and Comparative Risk Assessment of the World Health Organization. The value was estimated by the sum of (i) hospital spending on treatment of diseases directly attributable to environmental factors, and (ii) the costs of lost workdays resulting from the stay in hospital estimated on the basis of the average earnings of Manaus workers. The data were further calibrated taking into account the coverage of the population with private health insurance. The cost of illness, considering the values corrected by the General Market Price Index for the year 2009 was estimated at R$ 286,852,666.97, of which cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections of the lower airways and diarrheal diseases are responsible for 78.6% of these values. Of the fractions attributable to environmental factors, cardiovascular diseases account for 16% (CI: 7-23%), respiratory infections and respiratory infections of the lower airways for 41% (CI: 32-47%), and diarrhea for 94% (CI: 84-98%) of the global burden of disease.

  4. LiDAR and DTM Data from Forested Land Near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides LiDAR point clouds and digital terrain models (DTM) from surveys over the K34 tower site in the Cuieiras Biological Reserve, over forest...

  5. LBA-ECO LC-05 Biomass and Soil Properties of Fragmented Forests, Amazonas, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports (1) total aboveground dry biomass based on detailed estimates of all live and dead plant material, (2) results from repeated surveys of...

  6. LBA-ECO ND-04 Termite Mound and Soil Characterization, Amazonas, Brazil: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of a comprehensive study of mound building termites at the Embrapa research station in the Distrito Agropecuario da SUFRAMA,...

  7. LBA-ECO ND-04 Termite Mound and Soil Characterization, Amazonas, Brazil: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of a comprehensive study of mound building termites at the Embrapa research station in the Distrito Agropecuario da...

  8. LBA-ECO TG-10 Fire Emission Factors in Mato Grosso, Para, and Amazonas, Brazil: 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides derived emission factors (EFs), reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg), for PM10 (particulate matter...

  9. LBA-ECO TG-10 Fire Emission Factors in Mato Grosso, Para, and Amazonas, Brazil: 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides derived emission factors (EFs), reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg), for PM10 (particulate matter up to 10...

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of endangered Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis): two control region copies in parrot species of the Amazona genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Hajduk, Kacper; Kosowska, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    Amazona barbadensis is an endangered species of parrot living in northern coastal Venezuela and in several Caribbean islands. In this study, we sequenced full mitochondrial genome of the considered species. The total length of the mitogenome was 18,983 bp and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, duplicated control region, and degenerate copies of ND6 and tRNA (Glu) genes. High degree of identity between two copies of control region suggests their coincident evolution and functionality. Comparative analysis of both the control region sequences from four Amazona species revealed their 89.1% identity over a region of 1300 bp and indicates the presence of distinctive parts of two control region copies.

  11. ATLAS Award for Shield Supplier

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS technical coordinator Dr. Marzio Nessi presents the ATLAS supplier award to Vojtech Novotny, Director General of Skoda Hute.On 3 November, the ATLAS experiment honoured one of its suppliers, Skoda Hute s.r.o., of Plzen, Czech Republic, for their work on the detector's forward shielding elements. These huge and very massive cylinders surround the beampipe at either end of the detector to block stray particles from interfering with the ATLAS's muon chambers. For the shields, Skoda Hute produced 10 cast iron pieces with a total weight of 780 tonnes at a cost of 1.4 million CHF. Although there are many iron foundries in the CERN member states, there are only a limited number that can produce castings of the necessary size: the large pieces range in weight from 59 to 89 tonnes and are up to 1.5 metres thick.The forward shielding was designed by the ATLAS Technical Coordination in close collaboration with the ATLAS groups from the Czech Technical University and Charles University in Prague. The Czech groups a...

  12. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus gattii VGII from indoor dust from typical wooden houses in the deep Amazonas of the Rio Negro basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Santos, Fábio; Barbosa, Gláucia Gonçalves; Trilles, Luciana; Nishikawa, Marília Martins; Wanke, Bodo; Meyer, Wieland; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a human fungal infection of significant mortality and morbidity, especially in the meningoencephalitis form. Cryptococcosis is distributed worldwide and its agents, C. neoformans and C. gattii, present eight major molecular types-VNI-VNIV and VGI-VGIV respectively. The primary cryptococcosis caused by molecular type VGII (serotype B, MAT alpha) prevails in immunocompetent patients in the North and Northeast of Brazil, revealing an endemic regional pattern to this molecular type. Since 1999, C. gattii VGII has been involved in an ongoing outbreak in Canada, and is expanding to the Northwest of the United States, two temperate regions. Exposure to propagules dispersed in the environment, related to various organic substrates, mainly decomposing wood in and around dwellings, initiates the infection process. The present study investigated the presence of the agents of cryptococcosis in dust from dwellings in the upper Rio Negro, municipality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in Amazonas state. Indoor dust was collected from 51 houses, diluted and plated on bird seed agar. Dark brown colonies were identified phenotypically, and genotypically by URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The mating type was identified using pheromone-specific primers. Three of the 51 houses were positive for C. gattii molecular type VGII, MATα and MATa, showing a high prevalence of this agent. MLST studies identified eight subtypes, VGIIb (ST7), VGIIa (ST20), (ST5) and 5 new subtypes unique to the region. For the first time in the state of Amazonas, C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa were isolated from the environment and correlates with endemic cryptococcosis in this state. This is the first description of MLST subtypes on environmental isolates in the Brazilian Amazon, indicating domiciliary dust as a potential source for human infection with different subtypes of C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa.

  13. Clinical and epidemiological profile of cutaneous malignant melanomas in two referral institutions in the city of Manaus, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Fabiano Bandeira; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Delfino, Ana Carolina Guimaraes; Chirano, Carlos Alberto; Damasceno, Silvana de Albuquerque Silva

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge on the frequency and clinical and pathological characteristics of cutaneous melanoma in the different geographical regions of Brazil is important in evaluating the magnitude of the problem and in directing healthcare actions appropriately. The present study reviewed data from 55 cases of cutaneous melanoma in patients treated at two healthcare institutions in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Rates were higher in brown-skinned males and in individuals of 70-80 years of age. Lesions were most commonly located on the lower limbs, were of the acral lentiginous melanoma type and at advanced stages of the disease, with Breslow thickness > 1 mm and Clark level V.

  14. Dynamic rotating-shield brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunlong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Yang, Wenjun [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To present dynamic rotating shield brachytherapy (D-RSBT), a novel form of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with electronic brachytherapy source, where the radiation shield is capable of changing emission angles during the radiation delivery process.Methods: A D-RSBT system uses two layers of independently rotating tungsten alloy shields, each with a 180° azimuthal emission angle. The D-RSBT planning is separated into two stages: anchor plan optimization and optimal sequencing. In the anchor plan optimization, anchor plans are generated by maximizing the D{sub 90} for the high-risk clinical-tumor-volume (HR-CTV) assuming a fixed azimuthal emission angle of 11.25°. In the optimal sequencing, treatment plans that most closely approximate the anchor plans under the delivery-time constraint will be efficiently computed. Treatment plans for five cervical cancer patients were generated for D-RSBT, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT), and {sup 192}Ir-based intracavitary brachytherapy with supplementary interstitial brachytherapy (IS + ICBT) assuming five treatment fractions. External beam radiotherapy doses of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy each were accounted for. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated such that the D{sub 2cc} of the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached its tolerance equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α/β= 3 Gy) of 75 Gy, 75 Gy, or 90 Gy, respectively.Results: For the patients considered, IS + ICBT had an average total dwell time of 5.7 minutes/fraction (min/fx) assuming a 10 Ci{sup 192}Ir source, and the average HR-CTV D{sub 90} was 78.9 Gy. In order to match the HR-CTV D{sub 90} of IS + ICBT, D-RSBT required an average of 10.1 min/fx more delivery time, and S-RSBT required 6.7 min/fx more. If an additional 20 min/fx of delivery time is allowed beyond that of the IS + ICBT case, D-RSBT and S-RSBT increased the HR-CTV D{sub 90} above IS + ICBT by an average of 16.3 Gy and 9.1 Gy, respectively

  15. Radiation shielding concrete made of Basalt aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajali, S; Yousef, S; Kanbour, M; Naoum, B

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the fact that Basalt is a widespread type of rock, there is very little available information on using it as aggregates for concrete radiation shielding. This paper investigates the possibility of using Basalt for the aforementioned purpose. The results have shown that Basalt could be used successfully for preparing radiation shielding concrete, but some attention should be paid to the choice of the suitable types of Basalt and for the neutron activation problem that could arise in the concrete shield.

  16. The ORNL-SNAP shielding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynatt, F. R.; Clifford, C. E.; Muckenthaler, F. J.; Gritzner, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The effort in the ORNL-SNAP shielding program is directed toward the development and verification of computer codes using numerical solutions to the transport equation for the design of optimized radiation shields for SNAP power systems. A brief discussion is given for the major areas of the SNAP shielding program, which are cross-section development, transport code development, and integral experiments. Detailed results are presented for the integral experiments utilizing the TSF-SNAP reactor. Calculated results are compared with experiments for neutron and gamma-ray spectra from the bare reactor and as transmitted through slab shields.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELD AND SPACER CONSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the heterogeneous, graphite moderated, fluid cooled type and shielding and spacing plugs for the coolant channels thereof are reported. In this design, the coolant passages extend horizontally through the moderator structure, accommodating the fuel elements in abutting end-to-end relationship, and have access openings through the outer shield at one face of the reactor to facilitate loading of the fuel elements. In the outer ends of the channels which extend through the shields are provided spacers and shielding plugs designed to offer minimal reslstance to coolant fluid flow while preventing emanation of harmful radiation through the access openings when closed between loadings.

  18. Geological evolution of the center-southern portion of the Guyana shield based on the geochemical, geochronological and isotopic studies of paleoproterozoic granitoids from southeastern Roraima, Brazil; Evolucao geologica da porcao centro-sul do escudo das Guianas com base no estudo geoquimico, geocronologico e isotopico dos granitoides paleoproterozoicos do sudeste de Roraima, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Marcelo Esteves

    2006-07-01

    This study focuses the granitoids of center-southern portion of Guyana Shield, southeastern Roraima, Brazil. The region is characterized by two tectonic-stratigraphic domains, named as Central Guyana (GCD) and Uatuma-Anaua (UAD) and located probably in the limits of geochronological provinces (e.g. Ventuari-Tapajos or Tapajos-Parima, Central Amazonian and Maroni-Itacaiunas or Transamazon). The aim this doctoral thesis is to provide new petrological and lithostratigraphic constraints on the granitoid rocks and contribute to a better understanding of the origin and geo dynamic evolution of Guyana Shield. The GCD is only locally studied near to the UAD boundary, and new geological data and two single zircon Pb-evaporation ages in mylonitic biotite granodiorite (1.89 Ga) and foliated hastingsite-biotite granite (1.72 Ga) are presented. These ages of the protholiths contrast with the lithostratigraphic picture in the other areas of Cd (1.96-1.93 Ga). Regional mapping, petrography, geochemistry and zircon geochronology carried out in the Urad have showed widespread Paleoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitic magmatism. These granitoid rocks are distributed into several magmatic associations with different Paleoproterozoic (1.97-1.89 Ga) ages, structural and geochemical affinities. Detailed mapping, petrographic and geochronological studies have distinguished two main sub domains in the UAD. In the northern UAD, the high-K calc-alkaline Martins Pereira (1.97 Ga) and Serra Dourada S-type granites (1.96 Ga) are affected by NE-SW and E-W ductile dextral shear-zones, showing coexistence of magmatic and deformational fabrics related to heterogeneous deformation. Inliers of basement (2.03 Ga) crop out northeast of this area, and are formed by meta volcano-sedimentary sequence (Cauarane Group) and TTG-like calc-alkaline association (Anaua Complex). Xenoliths of meta diorites (Anaua Complex) and para gneisses (Cauarane Group) reinforce the intrusive character of Martins Pereira

  19. Continuous electrodeionization through electrostatic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermentzis, Konstantinos [Technological Educational Institute, T.E.I. of Kavala, General Department of Sciences, Laboratory of Chemical Technology, Agios Loucas, 65404 Kavala (Greece)], E-mail: demerz@otenet.gr

    2008-02-15

    We report a new continuous electrodeionization cell with electrostatically shielded concentrate compartments or electrochemical Faraday cages formed by porous electronically and ionically conductive media, instead of permselective ion exchange membranes. Due to local elimination of the applied electric field within the compartments, they electrostatically retain the incoming ions and act as 'electrostatic ion pumps' or 'ion traps' and therefore concentrate compartments. The porous media are chemically and thermally stable. Electrodeionization or electrodialysis cells containing such concentrate compartments in place of ion exchange membranes can be used to regenerate ion exchange resins and produce deionized water, to purify industrial effluents and desalinate brackish or seawater. The cells can work by polarity reversal without any negative impact to the deionization process. Because the electronically and ionically active media constituting the electrostatically shielded concentrate compartments are not permselective and coions are not repelled but can be swept by the migrating counterions, the cells are not affected by the known membrane associated limitations, such as concentration polarization or scaling and show an increased current efficiency.

  20. Solar photovoltaic electrification in the Alto Rio Solimoes, State of Amazonas, Brazil; Energizacao solar fotovoltaica na regiao do alto Rio Solimoes no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos Alexandre dos Santos [Amazonas Univ., Manaus (Brazil). Nucleo de Eficiencia Energetica]. E-mail: nefen_ua@objetivomao.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents preliminary results of the project entitled 'Solar Photovoltaic Electrification of Four Isolated Communities in the Area of High Solimoes', financed by the Ministry of Science and Technology/CNPq through the Humid Tropical Program. The following aspects are highlighted in this work: the strategy of implementation of solar electrification that allowed to know the socio-cultural mechanisms of the community avoiding the rejection of the technology and the smallest alteration of the traditional processes of work; the contribution of the technologies in the process of the community's organization and also for the development of this; the process of domain of the technological knowledge from the part of the community; the economic comparison between the electrification with photovoltaic systems and gasoline electric generators in schools and community centers and the problems verified for the use, administration and diffusion of photovoltaic systems. (author)

  1. Acidez potencial pelo método do pH SMP no Estado do Amazonas Potential acidity by pH SMP method in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir um modelo matemático que estime o H+Al a partir do pH SMP medido em água e em solução de CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. Foram utilizadas 246 amostras de solo provenientes de diversas localidades. Mesmo apresentando menor coeficiente da correlação (r = 0,89*, a equação H+Al = 30,646 - 3,848pH SMP obtida em H2O foi mais eficiente que a obtida em solução CaCl2 (H+Al = 30,155 - 3,834pH SMP, r = 0,91*, a qual subestima os valores da acidez potencial.The objective of this work was to determine a mathematic model that estimates the potential acidity with pH SMP measured in water and in solution of CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1. Two hundred and forty six soil samples from several localities were utilized. Despite presenting a lower correlation coefficient (r = 0.89*, the equation H+Al = 30.646 - 3.848pH SMP, obtained in H2O, was more efficient than in the CaCl2 solution (H+Al = 30.155 -3.834pH SMP, r = 0.91*, since this last one underestimates the values of the potential acidity.

  2. Etnografia e manejo de recursos naturais pelos índios Deni, Amazonas, Brasil Ethnography and natural resources management by the Deni Indians, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Pezzuti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available São raros os estudos envolvendo o uso múltiplo de recursos naturais por populações amazônicas. Este trabalho apresenta um panorama de como os índios Deni, habitantes da região de interflúvio entre dois dos maiores afluentes de água branca da bacia amazônica, os rios Juruá e Purus, utilizam dos recursos disponíveis em seu território. Os Deni são, atualmente, índios que vivem da exploração de recursos da terra firme e de regiões alagadas. São um misto de horticultores e caçadores/coletores, que utilizam toda a sua área para a obtenção de recursos para subsistência. Como regra, deslocam periodicamente seus assentamentos, evitando o esgotamento local de recursos, e provocando a modificação local do ambiente. Esta alteração aumenta temporariamente a disponibilidade de alimento. Áreas com aldeias, pomares e roçados abandonados, por sua vez, tornam-se locais onde se concentram inúmeros recursos da flora e da fauna, posteriormente explorados. O impacto provocado por este sistema é aparentemente mínimo. Os Deni estão contextualizados na periferia de um sistema capitalista, onde a única fonte de renda para adquirir bens que são hoje considerados pelos índios como indispensáveis para sua sobrevivência são os recursos naturais. Estes são e continuarão sendo explorados de maneira a produzir um excedente a ser comercializado para a obtenção de uma série de produtos industrializados, independentemente das opiniões externas. É sobre este patamar que devemos avaliar a sustentabilidade do atual manejo da área.Studies concerning the use of multiple natural resources by Amazonian indians are scarce. This work presents a portrait of how the Deni Indians, inhabitants of an area between two of the most important white-water rivers of the Amazon basin (Juruá and Purus Rivers, exploit natural resources in their territory. The Deni exploit both the upland and floodplain forests. They are a mix of horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers, using their whole territory to obtain what they need to live. As a rule, they move their settlements periodically, avoiding local resource depletion. The Deni modify the landscape at a local level, causing an increase in resource availability. Abandoned villages, fruit orchards and crops are places where floristic and faunistic resources concentrate and are systematically exploited. The impacts of such management are apparently minimal. For the Deni society natural resources are the only way to get goods for survival, but it is inserted in the periphery of a capitalist system which exploits and will continue to exploit natural resources in order to produce a surplus for the acquisition of industrialized products, independently of external judgements. This should be the starting point to evaluate sustainability in this local management system.

  3. O Boi-Bumbá de Parintins, Amazonas: breve história e etnografia da festa Boi-Bumbá in Parintins, Amazonas: a brief history and ethnography of the festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O festival dos Bois-Bumbás de Parintins (AM alcançou nos últimos anos dimensões massivas, conjugando, de modo inesperado e criativo, padrões e temas culturais tradicionais a procedimentos e abordagens modernizantes. É hoje uma das grandes manifestações populares do Norte do Brasil, atraindo milhares de pessoas não só de Manaus (a capital do estado e cidades próximas, como de diversas partes do país. O artigo analisa-o a partir de uma perspectiva antropológica, centrada no estudo dos rituais. Tece considerações sobre o estudo e a história do folguedo no Brasil. Empreende uma etnografia do festival, situando-o no contexto da região amazônica e examinando a trajetória percorrida desde sua criação aos dias atuais. Sugere, finalmente, a interpretação do Bumbá como um novo nativismo que, ao valorizar as raízes regionais indígenas, afirma positivamente uma identidade cultural cabocla.In recent years, the Boi-Bumbá festival in Parintins, in the state of Amazonas, has reached massive proportions. In surprising and creative ways, the festival mixes traditional cultural patterns and themes together with modernizing procedures and approaches. It has now become a major expression of popular culture in North Brazil, drawing thousands of people not only from the state capital of Manaus and nearby cities but also from all over the country. The article analyzes the Boi-Bumbá from an anthropological perspective, centered on the study of rituals and including observations on the study and history of folguedo in Brazil. Looking from an ethnographic angle, the article situates the festival in the context of the Amazon and examines the road taken from its creation to today. In conclusion, the Bumbá is interpreted as a new nativism that serves as a positive affirmation of cabocla cultural identity by valuing indigenous regional roots.

  4. Add-On Shielding for Unshielded Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, J. C.; Billitti, J. W.; Tallon, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Fabrication sequence used to produce compact shields slipped into place from free ends of wires already soldered into connectors at other ends. Single shields are formed into harnesses by connecting grounding jumpers. Technique is especially useful for small diameter wire attached to microminiature connectors.

  5. Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Metzger, Bert Clayton

    2013-05-28

    A thermal neutron shield comprising concrete with a high percentage of the element Boron. The concrete is least 54% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of Boron loaded concrete which includes enriching the concrete mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.

  6. Artificial Dielectric Shields for Integrated Transmission Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.; Rejaei, B.; Zhuang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel shielding method for on-chip transmission lines built on conductive silicon substrates. The shield consists of an artificial dielectric with a very high in-plane dielectric constant, built from two patterned metal layers isolated by a very thin dielectric film. Inserted below an

  7. Infrared shield facilitates optical pyrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbrenner, F. F.; Illg, W.

    1965-01-01

    Water-cooled shield facilitates optical pyrometer high temperature measurements of small sheet metal specimens subjected to tensile stress in fatigue tests. The shield excludes direct or reflected radiation from one face of the specimen and permits viewing of the infrared radiation only.

  8. How Concentration Shields Against Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Marsh, John E

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we outline our view of how concentration shields against distraction. We argue that higher levels of concentration make people less susceptible to distraction for two reasons. One reason is that the undesired processing of the background environment is reduced. For example, when people play a difficult video game, as opposed to an easy game, they are less likely to notice what people in the background are saying. The other reason is that the locus of attention becomes more steadfast. For example, when people are watching an entertaining episode of their favorite television series, as opposed to a less absorbing show, attention is less likely to be diverted away from the screen by a ringing telephone. The theoretical underpinnings of this perspective, and potential implications for applied settings, are addressed.

  9. Radiation Shielding Systems Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin (Inventor); McKay, Christoper P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A system for shielding personnel and/or equipment from radiation particles. In one embodiment, a first substrate is connected to a first array or perpendicularly oriented metal-like fingers, and a second, electrically conducting substrate has an array of carbon nanostructure (CNS) fingers, coated with an electro-active polymer extending toward, but spaced apart from, the first substrate fingers. An electric current and electric charge discharge and dissipation system, connected to the second substrate, receives a current and/or voltage pulse initially generated when the first substrate receives incident radiation. In another embodiment, an array of CNSs is immersed in a first layer of hydrogen-rich polymers and in a second layer of metal-like material. In another embodiment, a one- or two-dimensional assembly of fibers containing CNSs embedded in a metal-like matrix serves as a radiation-protective fabric or body covering.

  10. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  11. The use of nipple shields: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Chow

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A nipple shield is a breastfeeding aid with a nipple-shaped shield that is positioned over the nipple and areola prior to nursing. Nipple shields are usually recommended to mothers with flat nipples or in cases in which there is a failure of the baby to effectively latch onto the breast within the first two days postpartum. The use of nipple shields is a controversial topic in the field of lactation. Its use has been an issue in the clinical literature since some older studies discovered reduced breast milk transfer when using nipple shields, while more recent studies reported successful breastfeeding outcomes. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence and outcomes with nipple shield use. Methods: A literature search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, EMBASE Classic, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINAHL. The primary endpoint was any breastfeeding outcome following nipple shield use. Secondary endpoints included the reasons for nipple shield use and the average/median length of use. For the analysis, we examined the effect of nipple shield use on physiological responses, premature infants, mothers’ experiences, and health professionals’ experiences. Results: The literature search yielded 261 articles, 14 of which were included in this review. Of these 14 articles, three reported on physiological responses, two reported on premature infants, eight reported on mothers’ experiences, and one reported on health professionals’ experiences. Conclusion: Through examining the use of nipple shields, further insight is provided on the advantages and disadvantages of this practice, thus allowing clinicians and researchers to address improvements on areas that will benefit mothers and infants the most.

  12. Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas: policy and institutional treatment of a disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickardt, Julio Cesar; Xerez, Luena Matheus de

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the historical aspects of the policies for controlling Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas from the second half of the nineteenth century until the dismantling of this model in 1978. We present the historical changes in the local institutions and policies, and their relationship with national policies. The history and policies related to Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas are analyzed through the following institutions: Umirisal, the Oswaldo Cruz Dispensary, the Paricatuba Leprosarium, the Antônio Aleixo Colony, and the Gustavo Capanema Preventorium. We seek to show that these institutions cared for the people who suffered from Hansen's disease and those related to them, and were also responsible for carrying out the policies for fighting and controlling the disease.

  13. [Factors associated with fulfillment of growth and development monitoring for children Amazonas, Loreto and Pasco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Achuy, Elena; Huamán-Espino, Lucio; Aparco, Juan Pablo; Pillaca, Jenny; Gutiérrez, César

    2016-06-01

    To identify the factors associated with growth and development monitoring (CRED) fulfillment for children Amazonas, Loreto, and Pasco, Peru between January and December 2012. A paired case-control study was performed. A case was the child who did not complete 11 of the CRED checks until the age of 11 months and, as a control, that child with 11 CRED checks with the same age. The correlation among factors with CRED fulfillment was determined using the McNemar test (p Amazonas, the opposite effect was observed (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.41-0.81). The factors related to CRED fulfillment in children <1 year of age varied among regions. One of the main identified obstacles is the multiple functions that must be performed by professionals working in CRED, owing to which, child care opportunities are lost. Hence, adequate staffing must be ensured while instilling ever-present proper patient treatment.

  14. Laimosemion leticia (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), a new species from the upper Rio Amazonas, Southern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdesalici, Stefano

    2016-03-02

    Laimosemion leticia is described from the Rio Tacana drainage, upper Rio Amazonas basin, Southern Colombia. The new species was found in a shallow swamp within a tropical rainforest in the vicinity of Leticia, capital of the department of Amazonas and southernmost municipality of Colombia. This miniature species is considered to be a member of the Owiyeye subgenus, which is diagnosed by a unique frontal squamation. Laimosemion leticia can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the unique colour pattern on the unpaired fins. The new species appears related to L. jauaperi, L. uatuman and L. ubim due to the similar flank colour pattern in males, but is easy distinguished by coloration of the unpaired fins and morphological characters.

  15. Microsatellite loci for tucumã of Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum) and amplification in other Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Santiago L Ferreyra; de Macêdo, Jeferson L Vasconcelos; Lopes, Maria T Gomes; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara M; da Silva, Perla Pimentel; Saulo-Machado, Antonio C; Veasey, Elizabeth Ann

    2012-12-01

    Microsatellite loci were developed for tucumã of Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum), and cross-species amplification was performed in six other Arecaceae, to investigate genetic diversity and population structure and to provide support for natural populations management. • Fourteen microsatellite loci were isolated from a microsatellite-enriched genomic library and used to characterize two wild populations of tucumã of Amazonas (Manaus and Manicoré cities). The investigated loci displayed high polymorphism for both A. aculeatum populations, with a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.498. Amplification rates ranging from 50% to 93% were found for four Astrocaryum species and two additional species of Arecaceae. • The information derived from the microsatellite markers developed here provides significant gains in conserved allelic richness and supports the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies for the Amazonian tucumã.

  16. Ocorrência de Badnavirus em frutos de bananeira no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Torres Brioso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção brasileira de bananas atende principalmente ao mercado interno, no entanto, em função de problemas fitossanitários, a produtividade dos bananais, principalmente no Estado do Amazonas é extremamente baixa. Recentemente, foi constatada no Estado do Amazonas a ocorrência de lesões necróticas de formato irregular, nos frutos de plantas híbridas tetraploides 'FHIA 01', 'FHIA 18', 'BRS Caprichosa', 'BRS Garantida', 'Preciosa' e 'Pacovan Ken' depreciando-os completamente para a comercialização. Através de PCR, utilizando-se dos primers BADNA 1A e BADNA 4 foi detectada a presença de Badnavirus correlacionada com a estirpe BSV-BR1, e com o Banana streak Uganda B vírus. Esta é a primeira vez em que se relatam tais sintomas em frutos associados à Badnavirus, no País.

  17. A survey of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Oestroidea) in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region (Brazilian Amazon)

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, Eduardo; Marinho, Marco Antonio Tonus; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fauna of blowflies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) in three localities of primary Amazon forest coverage in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region was assessed. A total of 5066 blowflies were collected, with Chloroprocta idiodea being the most abundant species (66.3%). A difference in species richness between the localities ZF2 and Novo Airão was observed. Comparison among sampled sites revealed no considerable variation in fauna composition, except for the species Eumesembr...

  18. Improved Metal-Polymeric Laminate Radiation Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed Phase I program, a multifunctional lightweight radiation shield composite will be developed and fabricated. This structural radiation shielding will...

  19. Foam-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Radiation Shields Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New and innovative lightweight radiation shielding materials are needed to protect humans in future manned exploration vehicles. Radiation shielding materials are...

  20. Radiation shield for operator under radiation circumference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Tadahiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Omori, Tetsu; Mizuochi, Akira

    1997-11-18

    A radiation shield for an upper half of a man`s body comprises a synthetic resin clothing, a rubber plate or a composite member of them formed into a bag. The bag is formed three dimensionally in the form of an open in front vest. A radiation shielding bag for the lower half of a man`s body is formed into three dimensionally in the form of open in front half trousers. A water injection port for injecting water as shielding liquid and a gas exhaust port are formed to each of the bags. Upon operation under radiation circumstance, the water injection ports and the gas exhaustion ports are opened, and shielding liquid is injected from the water injection ports to the bag so that the shielding liquid shields radiation rays. After closing the water injection ports and the gas exhaustion ports, an operator wears and buttons up the radiation shield of the upper half and the lower half to protect radiation exposure from the front, back and the side of a man. (I.N.)

  1. Development of neutron shielding material for cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najima, K.; Ohta, H.; Ishihara, N. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago Research and Development Center, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuoka, T.; Kuri, S.; Ohsono, K.; Hode, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works, Kobe (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Since 1980's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd (MHI) has established transport and storage cask design 'MSF series' which makes higher payload and reliability for long term storage. MSF series transport and storage cask uses new-developed neutron shielding material. This neutron shielding material has been developed for improving durability under high condition for long term. Since epoxy resin contains a lot of hydrogen and is comparatively resistant to heat, many casks employ epoxy base neutron shielding material. However, if the epoxy base neutron shielding material is used under high temperature condition for a long time, the material deteriorates and the moisture contained in it is released. The loss of moisture is in the range of several percents under more than 150 C. For this reason, our purpose was to develop a high durability epoxy base neutron shielding material which has the same self-fire-extinction property, high hydrogen content and so on as conventional. According to the long-time heating test, the weight loss of this new neutron shielding material after 5000 hours heating has been lower than 0.04% at 150 C and 0.35% at 170 C. A thermal test was also performed: a specimen of neutron shielding material covered with stainless steel was inserted in a furnace under condition of 800 C temperature for 30 minutes then was left to cool down in ambient conditions. The external view of the test piece shows that only a thin layer was carbonized.

  2. Extraterrestrial Regolith Derived Atmospheric Entry Heat Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASAs technical challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase, frictional interaction with the planetary atmosphere causes a heat build-up to occur on the spacecraft, which will rapidly destroy it if a heat shield is not used. However, the heat shield incurs a mass penalty because it must be launched from Earth with the spacecraft, thus consuming a lot of precious propellant. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project investigated an approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. In this paper, we will describe three types of in situ fabrication methods for heat shields and the testing performed to determine feasibility of this approach.

  3. PWR upper/lower internals shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homyk, W.A. [Indian Point Station, Buchanan, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    During refueling of a nuclear power plant, the reactor upper internals must be removed from the reactor vessel to permit transfer of the fuel. The upper internals are stored in the flooded reactor cavity. Refueling personnel working in containment at a number of nuclear stations typically receive radiation exposure from a portion of the highly contaminated upper intervals package which extends above the normal water level of the refueling pool. This same issue exists with reactor lower internals withdrawn for inservice inspection activities. One solution to this problem is to provide adequate shielding of the unimmersed portion. The use of lead sheets or blankets for shielding of the protruding components would be time consuming and require more effort for installation since the shielding mass would need to be transported to a support structure over the refueling pool. A preferable approach is to use the existing shielding mass of the refueling pool water. A method of shielding was devised which would use a vacuum pump to draw refueling pool water into an inverted canister suspended over the upper internals to provide shielding from the normally exposed components. During the Spring 1993 refueling of Indian Point 2 (IP2), a prototype shield device was demonstrated. This shield consists of a cylindrical tank open at the bottom that is suspended over the refueling pool with I-beams. The lower lip of the tank is two feet below normal pool level. After installation, the air width of the natural shielding provided by the existing pool water. This paper describes the design, development, testing and demonstration of the prototype device.

  4. Description of the puparium of Hermetia pulchra (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Luz, José Roberto; Godoi, Fabio Siqueira Pitaluga DE; Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda

    2016-12-07

    The puparium of Hermetia pulchra is described, based on a single specimen reared in laboratory under controlled conditions until the emergence of an adult female. The puparium of H. pulchra was compared with puparium of H. illucens and some differential features were indicated. A checklist of the Brazilian species of the genus Hermetia is included, with new distributional records for H. pulchra in the Brazilian States of Bahia and Distrito Federal. Hermetia sphecodes is recorded for the first time for Brazil (State of Amazonas).

  5. Molecular epidemiology of β-lactamase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Manaus, AM, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, William Antunes; Ferreira, Cristina Motta; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza Vasconcelos, Waldemara; de Souza Gomes, Jairo; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Pinto; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa

    2013-06-01

    We report new sequence types of 14 penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae, isolated from sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Manaus, Brazil. They were characterized by WI/WII/WIII groups, susceptibility testing and Multi-Antigen Sequencing Typing/Mutilocus Sequence Typing protocols. Twelve were classified as WII/III and 2 as WI and were presented resistance to penicillin and tetracycline. New alleles for por and AroE genes and novel sequence types were identified, revealing molecular characteristics not described previously. ST1590 is the common ancestor after eBURST analysis, and these findings represent an important contribution of molecular epidemiology approach in gonococci's research in Amazonas.

  6. A new species of Microcaecilia (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae) from the Guianan region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Adriano O; Hoogmoed, Marinus S

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of Microcaecilia from the Guianan region of Brazil, based on a series of eight specimens from the states of Pará and Amazonas. Microcaecilia marvaleewakeae sp. nov. is very similar to M. taylori, but differs from it in having more primary annuli, more secondary grooves, and more secondary grooves that completely encircle the body. The new species also seems to have a relatively shorter and thinner head than M. taylori, but additional specimens of the new species are necessary to check this. A brief discussion of the taxonomy of M. taylori is presented.

  7. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  8. Intraplate Seismicity in Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Uski, Marja

    2017-04-01

    Fennoscandian Shield is situated in a seismically quiet intraplate setting in northern Europe. Based on a subset of the most recent earthquake data (2000-2012), most of the earthquakes (80%) occur in the upper crust down to 17 km in depth, a minority (19%) in the middle crust (17-31 km) and only a few in the lower crust 31-45 km (1%). The seismogenic layer is less than 30 km in depth and has a rather uniform thickness across Fennoscandian Shield. Reflection profiles suggest only few of the outcropping deformation zones penetrate the upper-middle crustal layer boundary and even fewer reach the lower crust. We suggest that the middle to lower crustal boundary may add compositional and rheological constraints to the depth extent of the seismogenic zone The orientation of the overall maximum horizontal stress field in northern Europe is WNW-ESE to NW-SE. The current strain rates are rather low and thus cannot produce new structures but rather reactivate old structures where stress overcomes fault friction. Pre-existing deformation zones that are optimally oriented in the present stress field can potentially be reactivated. The deformation zones were analysed for their length and azimuth and they were assigned a potential reactivation type (reverse, normal or strike slip) based solely on their azimuth. The earthquakes in the seismically most active area, close to Skellefteå, Sweden along the western coast of the Gulf of Bothnia and its north-easterly continuation, appear to cluster around the shoreline and along post-glacial faults, which are mostly oriented optimally for reverse or strike slip faulting. The seismically active Kuusamo area in Finland is transacted by wealth of deformation zones all trending in directions optimal for reactivation. The fault plane solutions of the most recent moderate size surprise earthquakes (Sveg 15.9.2014 Ml 4.4, Bothnian Bay 19.3.2016 Ml 4.1) suggest strike slip movement in optimally oriented for strike slip faulting according to

  9. Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Ephydridae) from Brazil with an emphasis on the faunas from the states of Parana and Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco de Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-10

    With more than 200 species worldwide, Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy is the largest genus of the family Ephydridae (Diptera). However, knowledge of this genus is much reduced in Brazil and throughout the Neotropical Region, where only 8 species are known, including one from Brazil (H. xanthocera Cresson). The objective of this study is to review the species of Hydrellia from Brazil, with an emphasis on the faunas of Paraná and Rio de Janeiro states. Six new species are described: H. bocaiuvensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m), H. longiseta sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m),H. vilelai sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°16.6'S, 48°58.5'W, 770 m), H. simplex sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m) e H. schneiderae sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú (25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m), H. similis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m). Seven new registers are recorded: H. agitator (Pará), H. apalachee (Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. calverti (Amazonas and Paraná), H. cavator (Rio de Janeiro), H. tibialis (Amazonas, Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. vulgaris (Paraná, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro), H. wirthi (Pará, Paraná and Santa Catarina). Together with H. xanthocera, Hydrellia now includes 14 species from Brazil.

  10. Population genetic structure of the blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae: Aves) based on nuclear microsatellite loci: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, K C E; Seixas, G H F; Berkunsky, I; Collevatti, R G; Caparroz, R

    2008-09-09

    The blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) is a widely distributed Neotropical parrot and one of the most captured parrots in nature to supply the illegal trade of wild animals. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the genetic structure of A. aestiva to identify management units and support conservation planning and to verified if A. aestiva populations have undergone a recent bottleneck due to habitat loss and capture for the pet trade. The genetic structure was accessed by analyzing six microsatellite loci in 74 individuals of A. aestiva, including samples from the two subspecies (A. a. aestiva and A. a. xanthopteryx), from five populations: four in Brazil and one in Argentina. A significant genetic differentiation (theta = 0.007, p = 0.005) could be detected only between the most distant populations, Tocantins and Argentina, localized at the northeast and southwest limits of the sample sites, respectively. There was no evidence of inbreeding within or between populations, suggesting random mating among individuals. These results suggest a clinal distribution of genetic variability, as observed for variation in plumage color of the two A. aestiva subspecies. Bottleneck analysis did not show a recent reduction in population size. Thus, for the management and conservation of the species, the populations from Argentina and Tocantins should be considered as different management units, and the other populations from the center of the geographical distribution as another management unit.

  11. A industria do turismo: pespectiva de desenvolvimento para o Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Arc Ribeiro, Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation on the tourism industry as a sustainable alternative for the Amazonian men, with a domestic and international retrospective on the market. In Brazil, globalization allied to technological advance of the communication come to the meet a large consumption associated to the opening of new frontier and the strongthening of International Institutions like United Nations Organization and Non Government Organizations (NG'S with also a large flux of available forreign funds for investments. As a model of recently discoverede exotic sights the Amazon region has show outstanding opportunities providing the visitor with a unique natural scene. Their ecosystems diversity of habitats, species and the socio cultural diversity could be one of the sustainable ways for its population, as long as, quality service, cultural and enviromental preservation were associated with

  12. A industria do turismo: Pespectiva de desenvolvimento para o Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D\\u0092Arc Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation on the tourism industry as a sustainable alternative for the Amazonian men, with a domestic and international retrospective on the market. In Brazil, globalization allied to technological advance of the communication come to the meet a large consumption associated to the opening of new frontier and the strongthening of International Institutions like United Nations Organization and Non Government Organizations (NG’S with also a large flux of available forreign funds for investments. As a model of recently discoverede exotic sights the Amazon region has show outstanding opportunities providing the visitor with a unique natural scene. Their ecosystems diversity of habitats, species and the socio cultural diversity could be one of the sustainable ways for its population, as long as, quality service, cultural and enviromental preservation were associated with.

  13. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed a ceramic composite material system that is more effective for shielding both GCR and SPE than aluminum. The composite...

  14. Thermal Shield and Reactor Structure Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, A.R.

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this report is to present reactor structure and thermal shield temperature data taken during P-3 and P-5 cycles and compare them with design calculations in order to predict temperatures at higher power levels.

  15. Shielded ADR Magnets For Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II program will concentrate on manufacturing of qualified low-current, light-weight, 10K ADR magnets for space application. Shielded ADR solenoidal magnets...

  16. Additional shielding in front of M2

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, B

    2013-01-01

    This note presents studies on possibilities to improve the shielding in front of M2 in order to reduce occupancy of the hottest areas of the Muon System and to mitigate the dead-time problem. Two places for installing additional shielding have been considered: behind HCAL, in place of the PMTs and their bases for the readout, and inside ECAL, in place of the innermost modules of the calorimeter. Studies on the additional shielding inside ECAL have been done for the complementarity of the research rather than for practical purpose due negative effects on the physics. Various studies have been carried out and different configurations of shielding in terms of dimensions and materials have been tested using MC simulations. Moreover the correlation between hits was studied by analysing angles of the tracks passing through M2.

  17. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned...

  18. Shielded ADR Magnets For Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important consideration of the use of superconducting magnets in ADR applications is shielding of the other instruments in the vicinity of the superconducting...

  19. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  20. Heat shielding: a task for youngsters

    OpenAIRE

    Starks, Philip T.; Johnson, Rebecca N.; Adam J. Siegel; Meridith M. Decelle

    2005-01-01

    Heat shielding is a recently identified mechanism used by worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) to help maintain constant hive temperatures. Only workers perform this behavior; in our experiment, drones actively avoided heated hive regions. Observations of marked day-old cohorts within broodcomb regions indicate that heat shielding is performed by young bees to preferentially protect advanced stage larvae and pupae. As expected, the number of heat-shielders significantly increased with both the ...

  1. In-beam background suppression shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, V.; Cai, Xiao Xiao; DiJulio, D. D.

    2015-01-01

    , which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative...... to the background suppression. This shielding configuration has been worked into a beam line model using Geant4. We study particularly the advantages of single crystal sapphire and silicon blocks....

  2. Natureza e civilização: os painéis decorativos do Salão Nobre do Teatro Amazonas Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lima Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os painéis decorativos do salão nobre do Teatro Amazonas singularizam-se em relação ao restante da iconografia que decora o edifício, inaugurado em 1896. Na ocasião, as capitais do Pará e do Amazonas, enriquecidas pela economia gomífera, passaram por significativas transformações no tecido urbano e nas formas de sociabilidade, projetando-se nacional e internacionalmente. O artigo procura identificar paralelos entre as representações paisagísticas da natureza amazônica que decoram o salão nobre do edifício, a construção da cidade moderna e os usos sociais do Teatro Amazonas, símbolo do período e emblema da elite enriquecida que se afirmava no cenário regional e nacional. O Teatro Amazonas ocupou o centro da vida social da época, e em seu salão nobre ocorreram verdadeiros rituais de 'civilização' em que os convidados - brasileiros ou estrangeiros - tinham como cenário privilegiado a natureza amazônica representada nos painéis parietais decorativos.The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  3. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera of the Guiana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A. Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp. and Suriname (136 spp. rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  4. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera) of the Guiana Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Dominic A.; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Wilson, Megan M.; Ware, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics. PMID:25684997

  5. Monomorphic and polymorphic enzyme genetic markers of the Waiãpi Indians of Amapá and of inhabitants of Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr A. Mestriner

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred nineteen Waiãpi Indians and 348 inhabitants of Manaus, Amazonas, were tested using nine enzyme genetic systems in the first population and two in the second. The Waiãpi showed some marked differences compared to South American Indian averages in ACP*A (1% vs. 14 ± 9%, GLO1*1 (9% vs. 30 ± 14% and ESD*1 (99.6% vs. 70 ± 17%, while ESD*1 and CA2*1 prevalences in the Manaus population were within the range previously found in the northern region of Brazil (ESD*1: 85% vs. 80-94%; CA2*1: 98% vs. 89-99.8%. The almost identical frequencies obtained for these two markers in this population, when the sample was subdivided according to skin color, suggest that such morphological classifications have little value in this region. Genetic distances between the Waiãpi and other tribes, obtained using these and other genetic markers, showed good parallelism with the geographical distances which separate these Indians from the other groups considered.Um total de 119 índios Waiãpi e 348 habitantes de Manaus, Amazonas, foram testados usando nove sistemas genéticos enzimáticos na primeira população e dois na segunda. Os Waiãpi mostraram algumas diferenças marcantes quanto às médias dos indígenas sul-americanos em ACP*A (1% vs. 14 ± 9%, GLO1*1 (9% vs. 30 ± 14% e ESD*1 (99,6% vs. 70 ± 17%, enquanto as prevalências de ESD*1 e CA2*1 na população de Manaus mostraram-se dentro do intervalo encontrado previamente na região norte do Brasil (ESD*1: 85% vs. 80-94%; CA2*1: 98% vs. 89-99.8%. As freqüências quase idênticas obtidas para esses dois marcadores nesta população, quando a amostra foi subdividida de acordo com a cor da pele, sugerem que tais classificações morfológicas têm pouco valor nesta região. Distâncias genéticas entre os Waiãpi e outras tribos, obtidas usando esses e outros marcadores genéticos, mostraram bom paralelismo com as distâncias geográficas que separam esses índios dos outros grupos considerados.

  6. Numerical Models for the Study of Electromagnetic Shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Monica

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents 2D and 3D models for the study of electromagnetic shielding of a coil. The magnetic fields are computed for defining the shielding effectiveness. Parametrized numerical studies were performed in order to established the influence of shield thickness and height on magnetic field in certain points located in the exterior of coil – shield setup and on induced power within the shield.

  7. Cratons and orogenic belts of the Brazilian Shield and their contained gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Leó A.; Delgado, Inácio

    2001-07-01

    The Brazilian Shield extends over much of South America to the east of the Andean Chain, and is partly covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. The three major tectonic units (older than 900 Ma) of the shield are the Amazon, São Francisco, and Rio de la Plata Cratons, whereas rocks of the Neoproterozoic (900-550 Ma) Brasiliano Cycle belts surround the cratons in the eastern half of Brazil. Paleoarchean rocks occur as small cratonic nuclei in northeastern Brazil, but the cratons contain voluminous 3.0-2.6-Ga granitic and greenstone belts and a large volume of Paleoproterozoic rocks. Late Mesoproterozoic belts (~1.2 Ga) occur in the western and northwestern Amazon Craton and possibly in northeastern Brazil. There are voluminous Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic intrusive and volcanic rocks in the Amazon Craton. Belts of reworked crust are common, but the Amazon Craton grew to the north and west mainly during accretionary orogens. The Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle belts contain 5% of juvenile crust in central and southern Brazil, but are dominantly derived from reworking of older crust. It is possible that the cratons were continuous in a super-continent during the Mesoproterozoic prior to the Brasiliano Cycle. Gold deposits are concentrated in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes, including the Carajás and Quadrilátero Ferrífero gold provinces of the Amazon and São Francisco Cratons, respectively, but some also occur in younger terranes. Recent alluvial gold deposits and supergene deposits in the weathering zone are widespread in Brazil.

  8. Situação das indústrias madeireiras do Estado do Amazonas em 2000 Lumber industries situation in 2000 in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Araújo Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da baixa atividade de usos do solo no Estado, a produção de madeira não é sustentável. Isso é causado, principalmente, pela falta de infra-estrutura dos órgãos responsáveis para monitorar os planos de manejo florestal e de corte raso para agricultura e pecuária. Este estudo apresenta análise de alguns fatores de produção, industrialização e comercialização da indústria madeireira do Estado do Amazonas, visando viabilizar diagnóstico do setor florestal. Essas informações possibilitam o estabelecimento de políticas florestais para a região. Fez-se a definição das zonas de produção, onde os principais municípios produtores de serrados foram Manaus, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru e Parintins; e de compensados e laminados foram Manaus e Itacoatiara. Após essa definição os dados foram coletados diretamente nas indústrias, através de questionários e entrevistas para coletar as seguintes informações: principais espécies consumidas, produtividade das indústrias, origem da matéria-prima, transporte, qualificação de pessoal e treinamento, principais problemas tecnológicos e exportação. Em 2000, a produção estadual foi de 323.400m³ de madeira em toras. Mais de 50 espécies diferentes são usadas nas serrarias, das quais 16 representaram 80% do volume total, sendo as 5 espécies (louro inhamui,angelim pedra,amapá,assacu e maçaranduba contribuíram com 49,34% do consumo total; quanto as indústrias de compensado e laminado estas usaram, 17 espécies onde as 5 principais (muiratinga, sumaúma, copaíba, assacu e amapá representaram 62,71% do consumo total.Também foram coletados dados complementares junto ao IBAMA, SUFRAMA, SEFAZ e IBGE.Despite low land activities, hardwood production is not sustainable. This is caused mainly by the lack of infrastructure on the part of the responsible organs that monitor forest management plans and clear cutting for pasture and agriculture. This study dealt with forest

  9. Efeitos sedativos da associação de Cetamina e Midazolam administrados pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaio (Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda H. Bitencourt

    Full Text Available A falta de protocolos de sedação seguros para uso em papagaios na literatura demonstra a necessidade de conhecer os anestésicos que são eficazes nestes animais. Devido a pouca massa muscular desta espécie, notou-se a necessidade de estudar outra via de administração, menos invasiva e dolorosa ao animal, como a via intranasal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos sedativos e a viabilidade da administração intranasal, em comparação à via intramuscular, de 15mg/kg de Cetamina e 1mg/kg de Midazolam. Foram utilizados 14 papagaios das espécies Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea, de ambos os sexos, adultos, peso médio de 388,5±29,1g. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: intramuscular (IM, n=7 e intranasal (IN, n=7. No grupo intramuscular, a administração dos anestésicos foi realizada nos músculos peitorais, utilizando seringas de insulina e no grupo intranasal, com auxílio de uma micropipeta. Avaliou-se o período de latência, tempo de duração, qualidade de sedação, e o tempo de recuperação total. A média para o período de latência no grupo IM foi de 6,13±2,02 minutos e no grupo IN de 4,84±2,37 minutos. Já para o tempo de duração da sedação no grupo IM a média foi de 35,81±29,56 e no grupo IN de 24,52±14,83 minutos. Ambas as vias promoveram sedação adequada, pois a média do escore da qualidade de sedação obtida pelo grupo IM foi 2±1,5 e pelo grupo IN 1,28±1,1. O tempo de recuperação total no grupo IM foi de 27,04±11,69 e no grupo IN de 17,67±11,64 minutos. Apesar do grupo IN ter apresentado os menores tempos de período de latência, duração e de recuperação total e ter obtido melhor escore na qualidade de sedação, não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicam que a administração de 15 mg/kg de cetamina e 1mg/kg de midazolam pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaios (Amazona aestiva e

  10. Sedative Effects of Intranasal Midazolam Administration in Wild Caught Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Débora P H; de Araújo, Nayone L L C; Raposo, Ana Cláudia S; Filho, Emanoel F Martins; Vieira, João Victor R; Oriá, Arianne P

    2017-09-01

    Safe and effective sedation protocols are important for chemical restraint of birds in clinical and diagnostic procedures, such as clinical evaluations, radiographic positioning, and blood collection. These protocols may reduce stress and ease the management of wild-caught birds, which are susceptible to injury or death when exposed to stressful situations. We compare the sedative effect of intranasal midazolam in wild-caught blue-fronted (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged (Amazona amazonica) Amazon parrots. Ten adult parrots of each species (n = 20), of unknown sex, weighing 0.337 ± 0.04 (blue-fronted) and 0.390 ± 0.03 kg (orange-winged), kg were used. Midazolam (2 mg/kg) was administered intranasally and the total volume of the drug was divided equally between the 2 nostrils. Onset time and total sedation time were assessed. Satisfactory sedation for clinical evaluation was induced in all birds. Onset time and total sedation times were similar in both species: 5.36 ± 1.16 and 25.40 ± 5.72 minutes, respectively, for blue-fronted Amazons and 5.09 ± 0.89 and 27.10 ± 3.73 minutes, respectively, for orange-winged Amazons. A total of 15 animals showed absence of vocalization, with moderate muscle relaxation and wing movement upon handling, and 2 animals presented with lateral recumbence, with intense muscle relaxation and no wing movement, requiring no restraint. Three blue-fronted Amazons had no effective sedation. Intranasally administered midazolam at a dose of 2 mg/kg effectively promoted sedative effects with a short latency time and fast recovery in wild-caught parrots.

  11. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  12. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma in a Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Anusha Hemamali; Izawa, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Denda, Yuki; Seto, Eiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-11-01

    A 9-year-old male Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) with a history of anorexia and vomiting died of a liver tumor. The tumor consisted of neoplastic cells with hepatocellular and cholangiocellular differentiations and their intermingled areas. Neoplastic hepatocytes showed islands or trabecular growth with vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm. Cells showing biliary differentiation formed ducts or tubules lined by cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive epithelia, accompanied by desmoplasia consisting of myofibroblasts reacting to α-smooth muscle actin and desmin. The tumor was diagnosed as a combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, which is very rare in the avian.

  13. O comércio peruano em Benjamin Constant no Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Sandro Nascimento Souza; Universidade Federal do Amazonas - UFAM; José Aldemir Oliveira; Universidade Federal do Amazonas

    2015-01-01

     O objetivo deste artigo é a análise das dinâmicas do comércio desenvolvido pelos imigrantes peruanos na cidade de Benjamin Constant, localizada no oeste do estado do Amazonas, precisamente na tríplice fronteira (Brasil, Peru e Colômbia), com um mercado composto por imigrantes de origem rural e urbana, que ganham a vida como comerciantes formais (hotelaria, restaurante, salão de beleza, autopeças, mercadinhos, lojas de vestuário), comerciantes informais (pequenas tabernas de eletrônicos impor...

  14. Atrofia nutricional e nanismo nutricional em escolares de Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Enrique Gainette-Prates; Fernanda Soare-da-Costa; Ana Lúcia Garcia-Torres

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo tuvo como propósito evaluar la prevalencia de atrofia nutricional y enanismo nutricional en estudiantes, de 6 a 11 años de edad, de escuelas públicas de Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brasil. Fue realizado un estudio transversal en que fueron evaluados 340 estudiantes a través de datos antropométricos (peso y altura). Se utilizó los índices altura/edad y peso/edad basados en el score-z. Los estudiantes con altura/edad inferior a -2 desviación estándar fueron clasificados con atrofia nutri...

  15. Mycobacterium marinum infection in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, David E; Bemis, David A; Garner, Michael M

    2012-12-01

    A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was presented with a granuloma involving the proximal rhinotheca and extending into the rostral sinuses. Mycobacterium marinum was diagnosed based on results of biopsy and culture. Treatment was initiated with clarithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol, but the bird died 4 months after the onset of antimicrobial therapy. Additional granulomas were found in the left lung and liver on postmortem examination. Mycobacterial isolation on postmortem samples was unsuccessful. This is the first report of Mycobacterium marinum in a bird.

  16. Learning generalization in problem solving by a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2008-10-01

    Pepperberg (The Alex studies: cognitive and communicative abilities of gray parrots. Harvard University Press, Cambridge;1999) showed that some of the complex cognitive capabilities found in primates are also present in psittacine birds. Through the replication of an experiment performed with cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) by Hauser et al. (Anim Behav 57:565-582; 1999), we examined a blue-fronted parrot's (Amazona aestiva) ability to generalize the solution of a particular problem in new but similar cases. Our results show that, at least when it comes to solving this particular problem, our parrot subject exhibited learning generalization capabilities resembling the tamarins'.

  17. Botanical identification of native species most important of dairy basins Molinopampa, Pomacochas and Leymebamba, Amazonas, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Oliva; Carmen Oliva; Diórman Rojas; Mario Oliva; Antonio Morales

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación fue realizar la identificación botánica de especies nativas de pastos que predominan en las tres principales cuencas ganaderas del departamento de Amazonas (Perú): Molinopampa, Pomacochas y Leymebamba. Para seleccionar once especies se realizó una encuesta a 293 ganaderos distribuidos de manera estratificada en las tres cuencas. La metodología empleada consistió en realizar un examen y reconocimiento de los caracteres morfológicos de orden cua...

  18. Botanical identification of native species most important of dairy basins Molinopampa, Pomacochas and Leymebamba, Amazonas, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Oliva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was conducted botanical identification of native grass species that predominate in the three major livestock department of Amazonas basins (Peru: Molinopampa, Pomacochas and Leymebamba. To select eleven species were surveyed 293 farmers distributed stratified manner in the three basins. The methodology consisted of an examination and recognition of morphological characters of qualitative and quantitative in each of the specimens with the help of laboratory equipment, and then formulates a database order. After identifying each specimen proceeds to develop a database of structural and phenological characteristics. Also, comparisons are made with collections of specimens in herbaria national and foreign herbaria.

  19. Shielding Structures for Interplanetary Human Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracino, Emanuele; Lobascio, Cesare

    2012-07-01

    Since the end of Apollo missions, human spaceflight has been limited to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), inside the protective magnetic field of the Earth, because astronauts are, to the largest degree, protected from the harsh radiation environment of the interplanetary space. However, this situation will change when space exploration missions beyond LEO will become the real challenge of the human exploration program. The feasibility of these missions in the solar system is thus strongly connected to the capability to mitigate the radiation-induced biological effects on the crew during the journey and the permanence on the intended planet surface. Inside the International Space Station (ISS), the volumes in which the crew spends most of the time, namely the crew quarters are the only parts that implement dedicated additional radiation shielding made of polyethylene tiles designed for mitigating SPE effects. Furthermore, specific radiation shielding materials are often added to the described configuration to shield crew quarters or the entire habitat example of these materials are polyethylene, liquid hydrogen, etc. but, increasing the size of the exploration vehicles to bring humans beyond LEO, and without the magnetosphere protection, such approach is unsustainable because the mass involved is a huge limiting factor with the actual launcher engine technology. Moreover, shielding against GCR with materials that have a low probability of nuclear interactions and in parallel a high ionizing energy loss is not always the best solution. In particular there is the risk to increase the LET of ions arriving at the spacecraft shell, increasing their Radio-Biological Effectiveness. Besides, the production of secondary nuclei by projectile and target fragmentation is an important issue when performing an engineering assessment of materials to be used for radiation shielding. The goal of this work is to analyze different shielding solutions to increase as much as possible the

  20. Analytic Ballistic Performance Model of Whipple Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Bjorkman, M. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Ryan, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The dual-wall, Whipple shield is the shield of choice for lightweight, long-duration flight. The shield uses an initial sacrificial wall to initiate fragmentation and melt an impacting threat that expands over a void before hitting a subsequent shield wall of a critical component. The key parameters to this type of shield are the rear wall and its mass which stops the debris, as well as the minimum shock wave strength generated by the threat particle impact of the sacrificial wall and the amount of room that is available for expansion. Ensuring the shock wave strength is sufficiently high to achieve large scale fragmentation/melt of the threat particle enables the expansion of the threat and reduces the momentum flux of the debris on the rear wall. Three key factors in the shock wave strength achieved are the thickness of the sacrificial wall relative to the characteristic dimension of the impacting particle, the density and material cohesion contrast of the sacrificial wall relative to the threat particle and the impact speed. The mass of the rear wall and the sacrificial wall are desirable to minimize for launch costs making it important to have an understanding of the effects of density contrast and impact speed. An analytic model is developed here, to describe the influence of these three key factors. In addition this paper develops a description of a fourth key parameter related to fragmentation and its role in establishing the onset of projectile expansion.

  1. Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. De

    2003-02-24

    One potential failure mechanism for titanium and its alloys under repository conditions is via the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. The resulting decreased ductility and fracture toughness may lead to brittle mechanical fracture called hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) or hydrogen embrittlement. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, HIC may be a problem since the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this scientific analysis and modeling activity is to evaluate whether the drip shield will fail by HIC or not under repository conditions within 10,000 years of emplacement. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) addresses features, events, and processes related to hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield. REV 00 of this AMR served as a feed to ''Waste Package Degradation Process Model Report'' and was developed in accordance with the activity section ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' of the development plan entitled ''Analysis and Model Reports to Support Waste Package PMR'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This AMR, prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Materials Data Analyses and Modeling'' (BSC 2002), is to feed the License Application.

  2. Analysis of Shield Construction in Spherical Weathered Granite Development Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Quan; Li, Peigang; Gong, Shuhua

    2018-01-01

    The distribution of spherical weathered bodies (commonly known as "boulder") in the granite development area directly affects the shield construction of urban rail transit engineering. This paper is based on the case of shield construction of granite globular development area in Southern China area, the parameter control in shield machine selection and shield advancing during the shield tunneling in this special geological environment is analyzed. And it is suggested that shield machine should be selected for shield construction of granite spherical weathered zone. Driving speed, cutter torque, shield machine thrust, the amount of penetration and the speed of the cutter head of shield machine should be controlled when driving the boulder formation, in order to achieve smooth excavation and reduce the disturbance to the formation.

  3. Spatiotemporal Analysis of AIDS Incidence Among Adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Nunes, Altacilio Aparecido; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2016-01-01

    AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and, currently, the overall prevalence rate of HIV infection in Brazil is 0.5% among men and 0.3% among women. To evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of AIDS in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and their components income, education and life expectancy. This ecological study evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of standardized incidence ratio of AIDS among adults in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with HDI by using a Bayesian analysis, considering the Brazilian Federal Units as units of analysis. The proposed statistical model allows obtaining a standardized incidence ratio (SIR, adjusted by gender and age). Among the men, our results show higher incidence rates in the States of the Southern regions as well as in the state of Amazonas (Northern Brazil). In females, we found other patterns for SIR, with higher incidence rates in the states of Rio de Janeiro (Southeast region), Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (both in Southern region). Among men it was observed as an expressive association between the SIR values and the overall HDI and income and education components, but it was observed to have an inverse association with the life expectancy component. Among women, it is noted that the SIR values are associated with the overall HDI and the education components only at the beginning of the studied period. AIDS remains a major public health problem in Brazil, mainly in the southern and southeastern regions of the country. Considering its association with HDI, it is noted that the disease still remains related to the pattern observed in the early years of the studied period, at least in the more developed regions of Brazil. This certainly happened because of the chronicity of the disease, thus affecting people with good socioeconomic status.

  4. Electromagnetic Shielding Efficiency Measurement of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dřínovský, J.; Kejík, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the shielding efficiency measurements of construction composite materials. This contribution describes an alternative test method of these measurements by using the measurement circular flange. The measured results and parameters of coaxial test flange are also discussed. The measurement circular flange is described by measured scattering parameters in the frequency range from 9 kHz up to 1 GHz. The accuracy of the used shielding efficiency measurement method was checked by brass calibration ring. The suitability of the coaxial test setup was also checked by measurements on the EMC test chamber. This data was compared with the measured data on the real EMC chamber. The whole measurement of shielding efficiency was controlled by the program which runs on a personal computer. This program was created in the VEE Pro environment produced by © Agilent Technology.

  5. Accelerator shielding experts meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen years after its first CERN edition, the Shielding Aspects of Accelerator, Targets and Irradiation Facility (SATIF) conference was held again here from 2-4 June. Now at its 10th edition, SATIF10 brought together experts from all over the world to discuss issues related to the shielding techniques. They set out the scene for an improved collaboration and discussed novel shielding solutions.   This was the most attended meeting of the series with more than 65 participants from 34 institutions and 14 countries. “We welcomed experts from many different laboratories around the world. We come from different contexts but we face similar problems. In this year’s session, among other things, we discussed ways for improving the effectiveness of calculations versus real data, as well as experimental solutions to investigate the damage that radiation produces on various materials and the electronics”, says Marco Silari, Chair of the conference and member of the DGS/RP gro...

  6. Progress of the ITER Thermal Shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Namil, E-mail: namil.her@iter.org [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Hick, Robby; Le Barbier, Robin; Arzoumanian, Terenig; Choi, Chang-Ho; Sborchia, Carlo [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Chung, Wooho; Nam, Kwanwoo; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Gyoung-O. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Youngkil; Lim, Kisuk [SFA Engineering Corporation, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 10060 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Design improvement of the ITER Thermal Shields was introduced. • Design of TS manifold and TS instrumentation were summarized. • Produced main material of the TS (SS304LN) was summarized. • Status of the VVTS manufacturing and the inspection requirements were summarized. - Abstract: The role of the ITER Thermal Shields (TS) is to minimize the radiation heat load from the warm components such as vacuum vessel and cryostat to magnet operating at 4.5 K. The final design of TS was completed in 2013 and manufacturing of the vacuum vessel thermal shield (VVTS) is now on-going. This paper describes the development status of the TS in particular the design improvements, the fabrication and the requirements.

  7. Self-Shielding Of Transmission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Christos [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The use of shielding to contend with noise or harmful EMI/EMR energy is not a new concept. An inevitable trade that must be made for shielding is physical space and weight. Space was often not as much of a painful design trade in older larger systems as they are in today’s smaller systems. Today we are packing in an exponentially growing number of functionality within the same or smaller volumes. As systems become smaller and space within systems become more restricted, the implementation of shielding becomes more problematic. Often, space that was used to design a more mechanically robust component must be used for shielding. As the system gets smaller and space is at more of a premium, the trades starts to result in defects, designs with inadequate margin in other performance areas, and designs that are sensitive to manufacturing variability. With these challenges in mind, it would be ideal to maximize attenuation of harmful fields as they inevitably couple onto transmission lines without the use of traditional shielding. Dr. Tom Van Doren proposed a design concept for transmission lines to a class of engineers while visiting New Mexico. This design concept works by maximizing Electric field (E) and Magnetic Field (H) field containment between operating transmission lines to achieve what he called “Self-Shielding”. By making the geometric centroid of the outgoing current coincident with the return current, maximum field containment is achieved. The reciprocal should be true as well, resulting in greater attenuation of incident fields. Figure’s 1(a)-1(b) are examples of designs where the current centroids are coincident. Coax cables are good examples of transmission lines with co-located centroids but they demonstrate excellent field attenuation for other reasons and can’t be used to test this design concept. Figure 1(b) is a flex circuit design that demonstrate the implementation of self-shielding vs a standard conductor layout.

  8. A study on the shielding element using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Goo [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this research, we simulated the elementary star shielding ability using Monte Carlo simulation to apply medical radiation shielding sheet which can replace existing lead. In the selection of elements, mainly elements and metal elements having a large atomic number, which are known to have high shielding performance, recently, various composite materials have improved shielding performance, so that weight reduction, processability, In consideration of activity etc., 21 elements were selected. The simulation tools were utilized Monte Carlo method. As a result of simulating the shielding performance by each element, it was estimated that the shielding ratio is the highest at 98.82% and 98.44% for tungsten and gold.

  9. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING SHIELD WALL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Padula

    2000-01-13

    The scope of this analysis is to estimate the shielding wall, ceiling or equivalent door thicknesses that will be required in the Waste Handling Building to maintain the radiation doses to personnel within acceptable limits. The shielding thickness calculated is the minimum required to meet administrative limits, and not necessarily what will be recommended for the final design. The preliminary evaluations will identify the areas which have the greatest impact on mechanical and facility design concepts. The objective is to provide the design teams with the necessary information to assure an efficient and effective design.

  10. Experimental realization of open magnetic shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C.; Chen, S.; Pang, T.; Qu, T.-M.

    2017-05-01

    The detection of extremely low magnetic fields has various applications in the area of fundamental research, medical diagnosis, and industry. Extracting the valuable signals from noises often requires magnetic shielding facilities. We demonstrated directly from Maxwell's equations that specifically designed superconductor coils can exactly shield the magnetic field to an extremely low value. We experimentally confirmed this effect in the frequency spectrum of 0.01-10 000 Hz and improved the electromagnetic environment in a hospital, a leading hospital in magnetocardiograph study in China.

  11. Novel Concepts for Radiation Shielding Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    It is critical that safety factors be maximized with respect to long duration, extraterrestrial space flight. Any significant improvement in radiation protection will be critical in ensuring the safety of crew and hardware on such missions. The project goal is to study novel concepts for radiation shielding materials that can be used for long-duration space missions. As part of this project we will investigate the use of thin films for the evaluation of a containment system that can retain liquid hydrogen and provide the necessary hydrogen density for effective shielding.

  12. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  13. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical smears of sexually active women in Manaus-AM, Brazil, by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.

  14. Cárie dentária e necessidade de tratamento odontológico entre os índios Baniwa do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas Dental caries and need for dental care among the Baniwa Indians, Rio Negro, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Clemente Gomes Carneiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas epidemiológicas em comunidades indígenas no Brasil têm evidenciado forte relação entre a deterioração da saúde bucal e o consumo de itens industrializados (e do açúcar refinado em particular, aliados à precariedade da atenção odontológica. Este estudo abordou a população Baniwa do pólo-base de Tunuí-Cachoeira, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil. Foi realizado inquérito transversal sobre as condições de saúde bucal, de acordo com critérios da OMS. Foram observadas as condições dentárias e a necessidade de tratamento, examinando-se 590 indivíduos (49,2% da população > 2 anos. A média de dentes atacados pela doença cárie foi 6,0, 8,2 e 22,1 nas faixas etárias 12-14, 15-19 e mais de 50 anos, respectivamente. O maior valor de ceo-d (5,3 foi encontrado na idade de 5 anos. Do total de pessoas examinadas, 73,6% apresentaram alguma necessidade de tratamento cirúrgico-restaurador. Os indivíduos entre 15-19 anos apresentam as mais elevadas freqüências de restaurações. O CPO-D da população Baniwa é elevado, o que deve estar relacionado a processos recentes de mudanças socioeconômicas, particularmente na dieta. Enfatiza-se a necessidade de ampliação da atenção à saúde bucal, considerando-se a complexidade da questão sociocultural dos povos indígenas.Epidemiologic research conducted with Indian communities in Brazil has shown strong correlation between the deterioration of their oral health and the consumption of industrial products, sugar in particular, added to the lack of structure of oral health care. This study was carried out among the Baniwa Indians from the Tunuí-Cachoeira region, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Northwestern Amazon, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted according to the criteria established by the WHO, focusing on dental caries and need for dental treatment. A total of 590 individuals were examined (49.2% of the population older than 2 years. The mean numbers

  15. Plasma protein concentrations of the young and adult Amazona brasiliensis parrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Elizabeth Moreira Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis is an endangered species of the Psittacine family, and for which various data are important for a comprehensive preservation plan. Data about plasma protein gel electrophoresis of Amazon parrot blood are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma protein concentrations and concentrations of major protein bands in blood of young and adult Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis. Materials and Methods. Blood samples from eight young and eight adult healthy free-living parrots were obtained. Plasma protein concentration and fractions were determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare variables. Results and Conclusions. Six major protein bands with the following molecular weights were identified by SDS-PAGE: 170 kDa, 117 kDa, 85 kDa (putative ovotransferrin, 60 kDa, 45 kDa and 23 kDa. Adult parrots had significantly higher concentrations of total proteins, albumin and other proteins with similar mobility (around 60 kDa. Young birds had significantly higher levels of 23kDa proteins. The concentration of putative ovotransferrin (85 kDa was not different between young and adult parrots. Plasma protein gel electrophoresis patterns in Red-tailed Amazon parrots are similar between young and adult animals, but specific protein bands differ in their absolute concentrations. This finding should be taken into consideration when clinical pathology data are analysed.

  16. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  17. RadShield: semiautomated shielding design using a floor plan driven graphical user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Matthew C; Wu, Dee H; Yang, Kai; Rutel, Isaac B

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to introduce and describe the development of RadShield, a Java-based graphical user interface (GUI), which provides a base design that uniquely performs thorough, spatially distributed calculations at many points and reports the maximum air-kerma rate and barrier thickness for each barrier pursuant to NCRP Report 147 methodology. Semiautomated shielding design calculations are validated by two approaches: a geometry-based approach and a manual approach. A series of geometry-based equations were derived giv-ing the maximum air-kerma rate magnitude and location through a first derivative root finding approach. The second approach consisted of comparing RadShield results with those found by manual shielding design by an American Board of Radiology (ABR)-certified medical physicist for two clinical room situations: two adjacent catheterization labs, and a radiographic and fluoroscopic (R&F) exam room. RadShield's efficacy in finding the maximum air-kerma rate was compared against the geometry-based approach and the overall shielding recommendations by RadShield were compared against the medical physicist's shielding results. Percentage errors between the geometry-based approach and RadShield's approach in finding the magnitude and location of the maximum air-kerma rate was within 0.00124% and 14 mm. RadShield's barrier thickness calculations were found to be within 0.156 mm lead (Pb) and 0.150 mm lead (Pb) for the adjacent catheteriza-tion labs and R&F room examples, respectively. However, within the R&F room example, differences in locating the most sensitive calculation point on the floor plan for one of the barriers was not considered in the medical physicist's calculation and was revealed by the RadShield calculations. RadShield is shown to accurately find the maximum values of air-kerma rate and barrier thickness using NCRP Report 147 methodology. Visual inspection alone of the 2D X-ray exam distribution by a medical physicist may not

  18. Parasites of Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Fernandes de Melo

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6% and cestodeRaillietina sp. (2.4%. A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots andRaillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus(Synhimantus rectus (100% and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%. In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita andRaillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential.

  19. Parasites of Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Cristiane Maria Fernandes de; Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Dantas, Antônio Flávio Medeiros; Wagner, Paulo Guilherme Carniel; Febrônio, Andrei Brum

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes) necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6%) and cestode Raillietina sp. (2.4%). A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots and Raillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus (Synhimantus) rectus (100%) and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%). In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita and Raillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential.

  20. Shielding Effectiveness Measurements using a Reverberation Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Bergsma, J.G.; Bergsma, Hans; van Etten, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Shielding effectiveness measurements have been performed using a reverberation chamber. The reverberation chamber methodology as we1l as the measurement setup is described and some results are given. Samples include glass reinforced plastic panels, aluminum panels with many holes, wire mesh, among

  1. SHIELD: Observations of Three Candidate Interacting Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruvolo, Elizabeth; Miazzo, Masao; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Salzer, John Joseph; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Elson, Edward C.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Leisman, Luke; Ott, Juergen; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Van Sistine, Angela; Warren, Steven R.

    Abstract:The “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength study of local volume low-mass galaxies. Using the now-complete Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) source catalog, 82 systems are identified that meet distance, line width, and HI flux criteria for being gas-rich,

  2. The Tower Shielding Facility: Its glorious past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1997-05-07

    The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) is the only reactor facility in the US that was designed and built for radiation-shielding studies in which both the reactor source and shield samples could be raised into the air to allow measurements to be made without interference from ground scattering or other spurious effects. The TSF proved its usefulness as many different programs were successfully completed. It became active in work for the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power, Defense Nuclear Agency, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, the Gas-Cooled and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor programs, and the Japanese-American Shielding Program of Experimental Research, just to mention a few of the more extensive ones. The history of the TSF as presented in this report describes the various experiments that were performed using the different reactors. The experiments are categorized as to the programs which they supported and placed in corresponding chapters. The experiments are described in modest detail, along with their purpose when appropriate. Discussion of the results is minimal, but references are given to more extensive topical reports.

  3. Design and analysis of ITER shield blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmori, Junji; Hatano, Toshihisa; Ezato, Kouichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-12-01

    This report includes electromagnetic analyses for ITER shielding blanket modules, fabrication methods for the blanket modules and the back plate, the design and the fabrication methods for port limiter have been investigated. Studies on the runaway electron impact for Be armor have been also performed. (J.P.N.)

  4. MPACT Subgroup Self-Shielding Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimpson, Shane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yuxuan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Recent developments to improve the efficiency of the MOC solvers in MPACT have yielded effective kernels that loop over several energy groups at once, rather that looping over one group at a time. These kernels have produced roughly a 2x speedup on the MOC sweeping time during eigenvalue calculation. However, the self-shielding subgroup calculation had not been reevaluated to take advantage of these new kernels, which typically requires substantial solve time. The improvements covered in this report start by integrating the multigroup kernel concepts into the subgroup calculation, which are then used as the basis for further extensions. The next improvement that is covered is what is currently being termed as “Lumped Parameter MOC”. Because the subgroup calculation is a purely fixed source problem and multiple sweeps are performed only to update the boundary angular fluxes, the sweep procedure can be condensed to allow for the instantaneous propagation of the flux across a spatial domain, without the need to sweep along all segments in a ray. Once the boundary angular fluxes are considered to be converged, an additional sweep that will tally the scalar flux is completed. The last improvement that is investigated is the possible reduction of the number of azimuthal angles per octant in the shielding sweep. Typically 16 azimuthal angles per octant are used for self-shielding and eigenvalue calculations, but it is possible that the self-shielding sweeps are less sensitive to the number of angles than the full eigenvalue calculation.

  5. AB INITIO STUDY, INVESTIGATION OF NMR SHIELDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Ab initio study, investigation of NMR shielding tensors, NBO and vibrational frequency. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2010, 24(2). 231. Gas phase results. In order to study mechanism of the reactions, structure corresponding to reactants, transition states and products were optimized in level of theory. Figure 1 shows the ...

  6. Software Tools for Measuring and Calculating Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tesny, Neal

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation and the analysis of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse response of shielded enclosures require the availability of software tools able to acquire data and calculate shielding effectiveness...

  7. Summary of Prometheus Radiation Shielding Nuclear Design Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Stephens

    2006-01-13

    This report transmits a summary of radiation shielding nuclear design studies performed to support the Prometheus project. Together, the enclosures and references associated with this document describe NRPCT (KAPL & Bettis) shielding nuclear design analyses done for the project.

  8. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, D T [comp.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ingersoll, J K [comp.; Tec-Com, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone , a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory.

  9. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  10. Updating the theoretical analysis of the weak gravitational shielding experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Modanese, G

    1996-01-01

    The most recent data about the weak gravitational shielding produced recently through a levitating and rotating HTC superconducting disk show a very weak dependence of the shielding value ($\\sim 1 \\%$) on the height above the disk. We show that whilst this behaviour is incompatible with an intuitive vectorial picture of the shielding, it is consistently explained by our theoretical model. The expulsive force observed at the border of the shielded zone is due to energy conservation.

  11. 30 CFR 56.14213 - Ventilation and shielding for welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation and shielding for welding. 56.14213... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14213 Ventilation and shielding for welding. (a) Welding operations shall be shielded when performed at locations where arc flash could be hazardous to...

  12. Advanced materials and design for electromagnetic interference shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the role of EMI shielding in EMC design, this book introduces the design guidelines, materials selection, characterization methodology, manufacturing technology, and future potential of EMI shielding. It covers an array of issues in advanced shielding materials and design solutions, including enclosures and composites.

  13. Spherical warm shield design for infrared imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-09-01

    The F-number matching is the primary means to suppress stray radiation for infrared imaging systems. However, it is difficult to achieve exact F-number matching, owing to the restriction from detectors, or multiple F-number design. Hence, an additional shield is required to block the certain thermal radiation. Typical shield is called flat warm shield, which is flat and operates at room temperature. For flat warm shield, it cannot suppress stray radiation while achieving F-number matching. To overcome the restriction, a spherical reflective warm shield is required. First of all, the detailed theory of spherical warm shield design is developed on basis of the principle that stray radiation cannot directly reach the infrared focal plane array. According to the theory developed above, a polished spherical warm shield, whose radius is 18 mm, is designed to match an F/2 infrared detector with an F/4 infrared imaging system. Then, the performance and alignment errors of the designed spherical warm shield are analyzed by simulation. Finally, a contrast experiment between the designed spherical warm shield and two differently processed flat warm shields is performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the designed spherical warm shield cannot only achieve F-number matching but suppress stray radiation sufficiently. Besides, it is demonstrated that the theory of spherical warm shield design developed in this paper is valid and can be employed by arbitrary infrared imaging systems.

  14. Physical analysis of the shielding capacity for a lightweight apron designed for shielding low intensity scattering X-rays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Seon Chil; Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Jeon, Byeong Kyou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a lightweight apron that will be used for shielding low intensity radiation in medical imaging radiography room and to apply it to a custom-made effective shielding...

  15. Eficiência de armadilhas de queda (pitfall traps em amostragens de anfíbios e répteis no Brasil Effectiveness of pitfall traps for sampling amphibians and reptiles in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Zanini Cechin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of pitfall traps associated with drift fences to capture amphibians and reptiles in three field studies, in Rio Grande do Sul (extreme southern Brazil, São Paulo (São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, and Amazonas (Amazonas, northern Brazil is described. At Santa Maria, a total of 2040 amphibians and reptiles were caught in 30 pitfalls (200 L, with drift fence during 18 months of study (capture efficiencies of 3.78 amphibians and reptiles/pitfall/month and 0.14 snake/pitfall/month. At Itirapina, São Paulo, 1262 amphibians and reptiles were obtained in 72 pitfalls (100 L, with drift fence during six months (capture efficiencies of 11,9 amphibians and reptiles/pitfall/month and 0,38 snake/pitfall/month. At Rio Pitinga, Amazonas, over 600 amphibians and reptiles were caught in 50 pitfalls (100-150 L, with drift fence during three months (capture efficiencies of ca. 4.00 amphibians and reptiles/pitfall/month and 0.87 snake/pitfall/month. Capture efficiencies of 1.25 to ~3.92 amphibians and reptiles/pitfall/month were obtained in four other unpublished studies made by other authors in Brazil, all of them using 20-35 L traps, either with or without drift fences. Higher capture efficiencies for snakes were obtained in those studies in which larger containers (100-200 L were used. The results presented here indicate that pitfall traps are extremely useful to sample amphibians and reptiles in Brazil, especially anurans and lizards. From these results, it is possible to preview the capture of 125 to 1200 amphibians and reptiles with 100 pitfalls during one month, regardless of the size of the pitfalls and sampling design of the trap arrays. The main advantages and disadvantages of the method and detailed guidelines on how to design, install, and use the traps is discussed.

  16. Hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B virus infection in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas state, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Filippo Villa, Diana; Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Payares, Edra; Montes, Neyla; de la Hoz, Fernando; Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Correa, Gonzalo; Navas, Maria-Cristina

    2015-10-24

    In Colombia, cases of Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection have been officially described since 1985 mainly in Amerindian population from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (North Caribbean Coast), Uraba (North West), and Amazon (South East). The last official report of a clinical case of HDV infection in Colombia was registered in 2005. The aims of this study were to identify cases of HDV and/or Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in asymptomatic Amerindians from Amazonas state, South East Colombia, and to describe the circulating viral genotypes in this population. The study population was recruited in 19 Amerindian communities in the Amazonas state. Individuals over 18 years old were screened by rapid test for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg). Blood samples obtained from individuals positives for HBsAg in the rapid-test assay were analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HDV IgM/IgG by ELISA. The detection of HBV DNA and HDV RNA was performed by PCR amplification. The viral genotype was determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 23/861 individuals were positive for HBsAg detection by rapid test. Serological and/or molecular markers of HDV infection were demonstrated in 43.5 % (10/23) of samples from Amerindians. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the exclusive circulation of HBV subgenotype F1b of and HDV 3 in this population. A high frequency of HBV/HDV infection was found in Amerindian population from Amazonas State, Colombia (43.5 %, 10/23). Nine cases were identified in a population of 861 asymptomatic Amerindian individuals; one symptomatic case (with diagnosis of end-stage hepatic disease) was also identified in the study. The circulation of HDV 3 and HBV subgenotype F1b suggests a constant flow of these viral genotypes as a result of the interaction of the Amerindian populations from Amazon basin. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether HBV subgenotype F1b is the prevalent in the population from South East region in Colombia.

  17. Shielding of Electronic Systems against Transient Electromagnetic Interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herlemann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to protect electronic systems against the effects of transient electromagnetic interferences, shields made of electrically conductive material can be used. The subject of this paper is an electrically conductive textile. When applying the shield, a reliable measure is needed in order to determine the effectiveness of the shield to protect against electromagnetic pulses. For this purpose, a time domain measurement technique is presented using double exponential pulses. With these pulses, the susceptibility of an operating electronic device with and without the shield is determined. As a criterion of quality of a shield, the breakdown failure rate found in both cases is compared.

  18. Potential Polymeric Sphere Construction Materials for a Spacecraft Electrostatic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Smith, Trent; Williams, Martha; Youngquist, Robert; Mendell, Wendell

    2006-01-01

    An electrostatic shielding concept for spacecraft radiation protection under NASA s Exploration Systems Research and Technology Program was evaluated for its effectiveness and feasibility. The proposed shield design is reminiscent of a classic quadrupole with positively and negatively charged spheres surrounding the spacecraft. The project addressed materials, shield configuration, power supply, and compared its effectiveness to that of a passive shield. The report herein concerns the identification of commercially available materials that could be used in sphere fabrication. It was found that several materials were needed to potentially construct the spheres for an electrostatic shield operating at 300 MV.

  19. Hepatic hemosiderosis in red-spectacled Amazons (Amazona pretrei) and correlation with nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Larissa Quinto; Strefezzi, Ricardo de Francisco; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Trindade, Michele Martins; Fighera, Rafael Almeida; Kommers, Glaucia Denise; Lovato, Maristela

    2010-12-01

    Alimentary habits of free-living Psittaciformes vary significantly among different species. Amazona pretrei is under risk of extinction and has very specific free-living dietary habits, which are based on Paraná pine seeds. Hemosiderosis is a pathologic process characterized by intracellular accumulation of iron without other evident lesions. It is associated with increased prevalence of infections, neoplasms, and hepatopathies. The purpose of this study was to quantify hepatic hemosiderin deposits in captive A. pretrei and verify their association with nutritional parameters. Liver samples were processed for histopathology and stained with Prussian blue. The sections were analyzed by computerized morphometry to quantify the hepatic hemosiderin deposits. The hepatic hemosiderosis rates showed positive correlation with age and time in captivity. These results suggest that the menus and commercial rations for Psittacidae must be carefully revised.

  20. Conservación del Loro Vinoso (Amazona vinacea) en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia, José M.; Cockle, Kristina L.

    2012-01-01

    El Loro Vinoso (Amazona vinacea) es endémico de la Selva Atlántica y es una de las aves más amenazadas de Argentina. Ha desaparecido en gran parte de su distribución en Misiones y hoy ocupa principalmente el centro-este de la provincia, en una zona donde predominan poblados y actividades de agricultura y ganadería. Se piensa que su declinación se debe a la pérdida de hábitat y la persecución directa, especialmente la captura de los pichones para convertirlos en mascotas. En base a ocho años d...

  1. Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas (BASE-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Setzer, A.; Ward, D.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Menzel, P.; Pereira, M. C.; Rasmussen, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements of the trace gas and particulate matter emissions due to biomass burning during deforestation and grassland fires in South America, conducted as part of the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas in September 1989. Field observations by an instrumented aircraft were used to estimate concentrations of O3, CO2, CO, CH4, and particulate matter. Fires were observed from satellite imagery, and the smoke optical thickness, particle size, and profiles of the extinction coefficient were measured from the aircraft and from the ground. Four smoke plumes were sampled, three vertical profiles were measured, and extensive ground measurements of smoke optical characteristics were carried out for different smoke types. The simultaneous measurements of the trace gases, smoke particles, and the distribution of fires were used to correlate biomass burning with the elevated levels of ozone.

  2. Systemic candidosis and concomitant aspergillosis and zygomycosis in two Amazon parakeets (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Jensen, H E

    1998-01-01

    Systemic candidosis and concomitant aspergillosis and zygomycosis were diagnosed immunohistochemically in two Amazon parakeets (Amazona aestiva). In the bird with systemic candidosis, subacute necrotic lesions were present in the lung and the gastrointestinal tract, whereas chronic giant cell-containing granulomas were located in the liver, heart, spleen and on the serosal lining of the small intestine. Although the lesions in the liver, heart and spleen most likely developed as a result of haematogenous spread, the granulomas on the serosal surface may have developed after a local transmural intestinal invasion. In the second bird, aspergillosis and zygomycosis were restricted to the lung, whereas some zygomycetes were found in the air sacs as well as in the heart and kidneys. In all organs the zygomycotic lesions were dominated by thrombosing vasculitis, supporting haematogenous dissemination.

  3. Evaluation of Personal Shields Used in Selected Radiology Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Salmanvandi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate personal shields in radiation departments of hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods First, the information related to 109 personal shields was recorded and evaluated by imaging equipment. Afterwards, the equivalent lead thickness (ELT of 62 personal shields was assessed, using dosimeter and standard lead layers at 100 kVp. Results In this study, 109 personal shields were assessed in terms of tears, holes and cracks. The results showed that 18 shields were damaged. Moreover, ELT was evaluated in 62 shields. As the results indicated, ELT was unacceptable in 8 personal shields and lower than expected in 9 shields. Conclusion According to the results, 16.5% of personal shields had defects (tears, holes and cracks and 13% of them were unacceptable in terms of ELT and needed to be replaced. Therefore, regular quality control of personal shields and evaluation of new shields are necessary at any radiation department.

  4. Radiation shielding analyses for JT-60SU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Neyatani, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Ishida, S.; Ashida, S.; Sawamura, H.; Tominaga, M.; Nishimura, K. [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Radiation shielding analyses were done for JT-60 Super Upgrade (JT-60SU) of JAERI in Japan, and are reported here. From a viewpoint of the operation and the maintenance, it is important how accurately to evaluate the nuclear heating rate in the superconducting magnet and the activation of components around the vacuum vessel by irradiation of fusion neutrons. A boot-strapped calculation step was applied to the analyses to reduce the redundancy of the conservative in the results. The nuclear heating rate in the superconducting magnets and the maximum {gamma}-ray dose rate one month after shutdown in the cryostat were within the design limits of 2 mW/cc and 10 {mu}Sv/hr, respectively, in the nuclear shielding for a D-D neutron production rate of 1x10{sup 18} s{sup -1}. (author)

  5. EMC Test Report Electrodynamic Dust Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Lynne M.; Boyette, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the Electromagnetic Interference E M I evaluation performed on the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) which is part of the MISSE-X System under the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. Measurements are performed to document the emissions environment associated with the EDS units. The purpose of this report is to collect all information needed to reproduce the testing performed on the Electrodynamic Dust Shield units, document data gathered during testing, and present the results. This document presents information unique to the measurements performed on the Bioculture Express Rack payload; using test methods prepared to meet SSP 30238 requirements. It includes the information necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer per work order number 1037104. The information presented herein should only be used to meet the requirements for which it was prepared.

  6. Thermoforming plastic in lead shield construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, M E; Chow, C H; Loyd, M D

    1989-09-01

    Radiation treatments using low energy X-rays or electrons frequently require a final field defining shield to be placed on the patient's skin. A custom made lead cut-out is used to provide a close fit to a particular patient's surface contours. We have developed a procedure which utilizes POLYFORM thermoplastic to obtain a negative mold of the patient instead of the traditional plaster bandage or dental impression gel. The Polyform is softened in warm water, molded carefully over the patient's surface, and is removed when "set" or hardened, usually within five minutes. Then lead sheet cut-outs can be formed within this negative. For shielding cut-outs requiring thicker lead sheet, a positive is made from dental stone using this Polyform negative. We have found this procedure to be neat, fast and comfortable for both patient and the dosimetrist.

  7. Thermoforming plastic in lead shield construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, M.E.; Chow, C.H.; Loyd, M.D. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Radiation treatments using low energy X-rays or electrons frequently require a final field defining shield to be placed on the patient's skin. A custom made lead cut-out is used to provide a close fit to a particular patient's surface contours. We have developed a procedure which utilizes POLYFORM thermoplastic to obtain a negative mold of the patient instead of the traditional plaster bandage or dental impression gel. The Polyform is softened in warm water, molded carefully over the patient's surface, and is removed when set or hardened, usually within five minutes. Then lead sheet cut-outs can be formed within this negative. For shielding cut-outs requiring thicker lead sheet, a positive is made from dental stone using this Polyform negative. We have found this procedure to be neat, fast and comfortable for both patient and the dosimetrist.

  8. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  9. A mística do Pirarucu: pesca, ethos e paisagem em comunidades rurais do baixo Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sérgio S. Murrieta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma análise das práticas e significados que permeiam a pesca do pirarucu nas comunidades rurais da Ilha de Ituqui, no Baixo Amazonas, Pará. O pirarucu é o maior peixe de escamas da Amazônia e também um valioso produto de mercado devido ao seu papel privilegiado na culinária local. A pesca do Pirarucu é uma das atividades mais antigas no Baixo Amazonas, remontando a tempos pré-coloniais. Para os pescadores que habitam a ilha de Ituqui, a captura do pirarucu pode representar não apenas o retorno econômico garantido de uma jornada de trabalho, como também revestir-se de uma série de significados e vivências ontologicamente estruturadas no dia-a-dia e na identidade dos pescadores. Conflitos sociais e disputas pessoais são intensificadas ou reduzidas, afeições são confirmadas e laços sociais refeitos através das práticas e encontros vivenciados durante uma viagem de pesca aos lagos próximos. Além da prática em si, tais viagens tornam-se referências mnemônicas e afetivas da paisagem, do evento de captura e do próprio sentido de lugar; resultando numa unidade processual conectada a muitas esferas pessoais e sociais de significado, as quais são de difícil compartimentalização. No meio de tantos aspectos motivadores, disputas e pescarias "irracionais" acontecem em Ituqui. Locais de pescaria são possessivamente guardados e "fronteiras territoriais" sutilmente estabelecidas entre comunidades e famílias. O direito ao recurso e, por extensão, aos significados e emoções que ele incorpora, torna-se um luxo ferozmente protegido por alguns. O decréscimo da população de pirarucus, as novas tecnologias de pesca, a alta demanda do mercado pelo peixe e a "mística" que ainda permeia a captura do animal colocaram muitos pescadores num dilema em que a sobrevivência desta atividade parece colidir com o que os desenvolvimentistas e ambientalistas chamam de "racionalidade" da conservação.This article aims to

  10. New applications and developments in the neutron shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğur, Fatma Aysun

    2017-09-01

    Shielding neutrons involve three steps that are slowing neutrons, absorption of neutrons, and impregnation of gamma rays. Neutrons slow down with thermal energy by hydrogen, water, paraffin, plastic. Hydrogenated materials are also very effective for the absorption of neutrons. Gamma rays are produced by neutron (radiation) retention on the neutron shield, inelastic scattering, and degradation of activation products. If a source emits gamma rays at various energies, high-energy gamma rays sometimes specify shielding requirements. Multipurpose Materials for Neutron Shields; Concrete, especially with barium mixed in, can slow and absorb the neutrons, and shield the gamma rays. Plastic with boron is also a good multipurpose shielding material. In this study; new applications and developments in the area of neutron shielding will be discussed in terms of different materials.

  11. Characterization of hepatitis B virus in Amerindian children and mothers from Amazonas State, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos Mario; de La Hoz, Fernando; Porras, Alexandra; di Filippo, Diana; Choconta-Piraquive, Luz Angela; Payares, Edra; Montes, Neyla; Navas, Maria-Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In the 1980's a highly effective and safe vaccine against HBV was developed, although breakthrough infection still occasionally occurs because of the emergence of escape mutants. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and escape mutants in children and their mothers in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas State, Southern Colombia. Blood specimens collected from children and mothers belonging to 37 Amerindian communities in Amazonas state, were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc using ELISA. The partial region containing the S ORF was amplified by nested PCR, and amplicons were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis was performed using the MEGA 5.05 software. Forty-six children (46/1275, 3.6%) and one hundred and seventy-seven mothers (177/572, 30.9%) were tested positive for the anti-HBc serological marker. Among them, 190 samples were tested for viral genome detection; 8.3% (2/31) serum samples obtained from children and 3.1% (5/159) from mothers were positive for the ORF S PCR. The predominant HBV genotype in the study population was F, subgenotype F1b; in addition, subgenotype F1a and genotype A were also characterized. Two HBV escape mutants were identified, G145R, reported worldwide, and W156*; this stop codon was identified in a child with occult HBV infection. Other mutations were found, L109R and G130E, located in critical positions of the HBsAg sequence. This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotype F, subgenotypes F1b and F1a, and genotype A in Amerindian communities and for the first time escape mutants in Colombia. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the frequency and the epidemiological impact of the escape mutants in the country.

  12. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    .... There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O...

  13. Eggs viability of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae under different environmental and storage conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Soares-Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract The viability of Aedes aegypti eggs was assessed in the Amazon region. The eggs were maintained under different conditions: indoors (insectarium and outdoors (natural environment, as well as in different storage types (plastic cup, paper envelope, plastic bag for different days. Egg viability was measured as the mean of hatchings observed from egg-bearing sheets of filter paper immersed in water, using three sheets randomly selected from each storage type and at both sites. There were significant differences in the viability of Ae. aegypti eggs with respect to the location (F=30.40; DF=1; P<0.0001, storage type (F=17.66; DF=2; P<0.0001, and time of storage (F=49.56; DF=9; P<0.0001. The interaction between storage site versus storage type was also significant (F=15.96; DF=2; P<0.0001. A higher hatching mean was observed for the eggs kept in the insectarium than for those outdoors (32.38 versus 7.46. Hatching rates of egg batches stored for 12 to 61 days ranged between 84 and 90%. A reduction was observed between 89 and 118 days, with values of 63 and 48%, respectively. With respect to type of storage, mean egg hatching was higher for the eggs in plastic cups (44.46. It was concluded that the viability of the eggs of Ae. aegypti in the Amazon region remains high up to 4 months, after which it declines drastically, although in this study hatching occurred for up to 8 months in very low percentages.

  14. Malaria at Humaita county, Amazonas state, Brazil: XVII — immune response in patients with Plasmodium falciparum according to gametocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Alves Meira

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available In August 1983 the Authors studied 36 patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 14 normal individuals born in Humaita region who had never had malaria, had no spleen enlargement and had negative parasitemia as well as passive hemagglutination. Medical histories were obtained and complete physical examination were performed in all of them just as blood tests, parasite density and lymphocyte typing. The lymphocytes were separated and then frozen in liquid nitrogen for later typing by rosette formation. The patients were divided in two groups according to the presence (13 patients or abscence (23 patients of gametocytes before treatment. Severe malaria was predominant in the group without gametocytes. The results showed a decrease in the T-cell numbers in Plasmodium falciparum acute malaria patients both with or without gametocytes before the treatment, while B-cell numbers were normal only in the patients with gametocytes. These observations as like as those previously reported by the Authors, permit to associate the presence of gametocytes in peripheral blood and normal number of B-cells in patients with mild Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  15. Association of TNF -1031 C/C as a potential protection marker for leprosy development in Amazonas state patients, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, G A V; Ramasawmy, R; Boechat, A L; Morais, A C; Carvalho, B K S; Sousa, K B A; Souza, V C; Cunha, M G S; Barletta-Naveca, R H; Santos, M P; Naveca, F G

    2015-03-01

    Polymorphisms present in the TNF promoter region has shown to influence the gene transcription. Leprosy displays different clinical manifestations according to the immune responses of the individual infected with Mycobacterium leprae. In this study, we evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) -238 G/A (rs361525), -308 G/A (rs1800629), -857 C/T (rs1799724), -863 A/C (rs1800630) and -1031 T/C (rs1799964) in the promoter region of the TNF to see whether these SNPs influence host-susceptibility to leprosy and the different clinical manifestation. Nucleotide sequencing was performed with DNA samples from 108 leprosy patients and 253 control subjects. An association between -1031 C/C genotype and protection from leprosy was observed when leprosy patients were compared to controls (OR 0.11; 95% CI=0.01-0.82; p=0.012). The -857 C/T genotype may be associated with susceptibility to leprosy (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.09-3.00; p=0.028). Similar genotype and allele frequencies for the SNPs -308 G/A and -238 G/A were observed between leprosy patients and control subjects. Altogether, TNF polymorphisms in the promoter region may be predictive of leprosy outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. LBA-ECO CD-06 Carbon Cycling in Rivers in Amazonas and Acre, Brazil: 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides measured and calculated variables describing the carbon pools in river waters, CO2 respired from the water and total amount of CO2...

  17. LBA-ECO CD-02 C and N Isotopes in Leaves and Atmospheric CO2, Amazonas, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports delta 13C/12C results for leaf tissues and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), delta 15N/14N ratios for leaf tissue, and leaf carbon and nitrogen...

  18. Eggs viability of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae) under different environmental and storage conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Pinheiro, V C; Dasso-Pinheiro, W; Trindade-Bezerra, J M; Tadei, W P

    2017-01-01

    The viability of Aedes aegypti eggs was assessed in the Amazon region. The eggs were maintained under different conditions: indoors (insectarium) and outdoors (natural environment), as well as in different storage types (plastic cup, paper envelope, plastic bag) for different days. Egg viability was measured as the mean of hatchings observed from egg-bearing sheets of filter paper immersed in water, using three sheets randomly selected from each storage type and at both sites. There were significant differences in the viability of Ae. aegypti eggs with respect to the location (F=30.40; DF=1; P<0.0001), storage type (F=17.66; DF=2; P<0.0001), and time of storage (F=49.56; DF=9; P<0.0001). The interaction between storage site versus storage type was also significant (F=15.96; DF=2; P<0.0001). A higher hatching mean was observed for the eggs kept in the insectarium than for those outdoors (32.38 versus 7.46). Hatching rates of egg batches stored for 12 to 61 days ranged between 84 and 90%. A reduction was observed between 89 and 118 days, with values of 63 and 48%, respectively. With respect to type of storage, mean egg hatching was higher for the eggs in plastic cups (44.46). It was concluded that the viability of the eggs of Ae. aegypti in the Amazon region remains high up to 4 months, after which it declines drastically, although in this study hatching occurred for up to 8 months in very low percentages.

  19. LBA-ECO CD-06 Carbon Cycling in Rivers in Amazonas and Acre, Brazil: 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measured and calculated variables describing the carbon pools in river waters, CO2 respired from the water and total amount of CO2 evaded,...

  20. Polymorphisms in the TOLLIP Gene Influence Susceptibility to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania guyanensis in the Amazonas State of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Felipe Jules; da Silva, Luan Diego Oliveira; Mesquita, Tirza Gabrielle; Pinheiro, Suzana Kanawati; Vital, Wonei de Seixas; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Talhari, Sinésio; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath

    2015-01-01

    The clinical outcome to Leishmania-infection is determined by the individual adaptive immune T helper cell responses and their interactions with parasitized host cells. An early development of a proinflammatory immune response (Th1 response) is necessary for Leishmania-infection resolution. The Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) regulates human Toll-like receptors signaling pathways by down regulating the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducing the ant-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Polymorphisms in the TOLLIP gene are associated with infectious diseases. The polymorphisms rs5743899 and rs3750920 in the TOLLIP gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in 631 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by L. guyanensis and 530 individuals with no history of leishmaniasis. The G and T alleles of the rs5743899 and rs3750920 were more common in patients with CL than in healthy individuals (P = 2.6 x10(-8) ; odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [ 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.0] and P = 1.9 x10(-8) ; OR, 1.6 [95% CI 1.4-1.9] respectively). The r2 and D' linkage disequilibrium between the two polymorphisms are 0.05 and 0.473 with a confidence bounds of 0.37 to 0.57 respectively. The two polymorphisms are independently associated with an increased risk of developing CL.

  1. [Factors associated with TB/HIV coinfection: evidence from notification data in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, 2001-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Evela da Silva; Saraceni, Valeria; Souza, Alexandra Brito de; Magno, Regma da Silva; Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2017-06-12

    Tuberculosis (TB) in persons living with HIV (PLHIV) is the leading infectious cause of AIDS-related death. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection, evaluate notification of the two diseases over time by probabilistic database linkage, and identify factors associated with AIDS and TB notifications. Prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection was 7.7%. The group of PLHIV with subsequent TB diagnosis was the most representative, despite available preventive measures. Underreporting of TB among AIDS cases was 35%, and 19.6% of TB cases could have been reported as AIDS. For AIDS cases with mention of TB, living in the state capital showed 75% greater odds of being reported to the Tuberculosis Notification System (SINAN-TB), and having died increased the odds of reporting by 40%. Of TB cases with mention of HIV, brown skin color, age 25 to 39 years, living in the state capital, and having evolved to death were associated with higher odds of reporting to the AIDS Notification System. Periodic linkage of these databases can be a powerful tool for programs to decrease underreporting.

  2. LBA-ECO CD-02 C and N Isotopes in Leaves and Atmospheric CO2, Amazonas, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports delta 13C/12C results for leaf tissues and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), delta 15N/14N ratios for leaf tissue, and leaf carbon...

  3. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria isolated from hematologic patients in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cristina Motta; Ferreira, William Antunes; Almeida, Nayanne Cristina Oliveira da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2011-07-01

    Antibiotic therapy in hematologic patients, often weak and susceptible to a wide range of infections, particularly nosocomial infections derived from long hospitalization periods, is a challenging issue. This paper presents ESBL-producing strains isolated from such hematologic patients treated at the Amazon Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation (HEMOAM) in the Brazilian Amazon Region to identify the ESBL genes carried by them as well as the susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents using the E-test method. A total of 146 clinical samples were obtained from July 2007 to August 2008, when 17 gram-negative strains were isolated in our institution. The most frequent isolates confirmed by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing were E. coli (8/17), Serratia spp. (3/17) and B.cepacia (2/17). All gram-negative strains were tested for extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases (ESBLs), where: (12/17) strains carried ESBL; among these, (8/12) isolates carried bla TEM, bla CTX-M, bla OXA , bla SHV genes, (1/12) bla TEM gene and (3/12) bla TEM, bla CTX-M, bla OXA genes. Antibiotic resistance was found in (15/17) of the isolates for tetracycline, (12/17) for ciprofloxacin, (1/17) resistance for cefoxitin and chloramphenicol, (1/17) for amikacin and (3/17) cefepime. This research showed the presence of gram-negative ESBL-producing bacteria infecting hematologic patients in HEMOAM. These strains carried the bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M and bla OXA genes and were resistant to different antibiotics used in the treatment. This finding was based on a period of 13 months, during which clinical samples from specific populations were obtained. Therefore, caution is required when generalizing the results that must be based on posological orientations and new breakpoints for disk diffusion and microdilution published by CLSI 2010.

  4. LBA-ECO CD-08 Radiocarbon Dating of Tree Ages in Amazonas, Acre, and Para in Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the ages and growth rates of trees determined by radiocarbon dating (14C) in three Amazonia forests. Tree samples were collected from permanent...

  5. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in handmade type cheese coagulum marketed in the city of Manaus-Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Simone de Nazaré Melo; Costa, Cristóvão Alves da

    2003-01-01

    A ocorrência de Listeria sp. em queijo artesanal tipo coalho comercializado na cidade de Manaus foi estudada. No período de março a maio de 1998 foram coletadas 58 amostras do produto em feiras e mercados localizados em seis zonas da cidade de Manaus. Em duas amostras de queijo foram identificadas duas espécies de Listeria: L. monocytogenes e L. innocua. A primeira espécie é reconhecidamente patogênica para o ser humano. Os resultados apresentados demonstraram haver risco de transmissão de en...

  6. Chemotherapeutic Studies on Schistosomiasis and Clinical Epidemiological and Immunological Studies on Malaria in Amazonas, Brazil, Along the Ituxi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    many fascinating studies due to their important role as plant pollinators. Both males and females provide valuable pollination services in their...antianofelica di Fiumicino (1919) con speciale riguardo alla biologia degli Anopeli Ed Agli Anofeli infetti. Ann. Igiene 30, Suplemento 85. 118 * 23. Siegel, S

  7. LBA-ECO CD-08 Radiocarbon Dating of Tree Ages in Amazonas, Acre, and Para in Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the ages and growth rates of trees determined by radiocarbon dating (14C) in three Amazonia forests. Tree samples were collected from...

  8. Deployable Debris Shields For Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Cour-Palais, Burton G.; Crews, Jeanne

    1993-01-01

    Multilayer shields made of lightweight sheet materials deployed from proposed Space Station Freedom for additional protection against orbiting debris. Deployment mechanism attached at each location on exterior where extra protection needed. Equipment withdraws layer of material from storage in manner similar to unfurling sail or extending window shade. Number of layers deployed depends on required degree of protection, and could be as large as five.

  9. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatelatos Ion E.; Vasilopoulou Theodora; Batistoni Paola; Obryk Barbara; Popovichev Sergey; Naish Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The ...

  10. Active shielding model for hyperbolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryaben'kii, Victor S.; Utyuzhnikov, Sergei V.

    2006-12-01

    The problem of active shielding (AS) in application to hyperbolic equations is analysed. According to the problem, two domains effecting each other via distributed source terms are considered. It is required to implement additional sources nearby the common boundary of the domains in order to "isolate" one domain from the action of the other domain. It is important to note that the total field of the original sources is only known. In the paper, the theory of difference potentials is applied to the system of hyperbolic equations for the first time. It allows one to obtain a one-layer AS not requiring any additional computations. Local one-layer and two-layer AS sources are obtained for an arbitrary hyperbolic system. The solution does not require either the knowledge of the Green's function or the specific characteristics of the sources and medium. The optimal one-layer AS solution is derived in the case of free space. In particular, the results are applicable to the system of acoustics equations. The questions related to a practical realization including the mutual situation of the primary and secondary sources, as well as the measurement point, are discussed. The active noise shielding can be realized via a one-layer source term requiring the measurements only at one layer nearby the domain shielded.

  11. Active Muon Shield - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, Victoria; Rawlings, T

    2015-01-01

    This report summarises the initial design study which was carried out for the SHiP magnetic muon shield – which is proposed to consist of a 40m beamline of seven magnets generating a 1.8T By field over defined cross-section. This is intended to sweep unwanted muons off the beamline to prevent them reaching the detector. The magnetic shield is an alternative to a passive tungsten shield. This work was carried out in three sections. Initially the magnets were considered in isolation to establish whether they were theoretically feasible to build and the impact of the iron yoke shape and material was considered. Next the beamline was considered as a whole; this included issues such as the impact of neighbouring magnets and the hadrons stopper, and also building a model of the complete beamline whose magnetic fields could be exported for use in particle modelling. Finally, some consideration was given to the manufacture and operational issues, including costs.

  12. An attenuation Layer for Electromagnetic Shielding in X- Band Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida Zaroushani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled exposure to X-band frequency leads to health damage. One of the principles of radiation protection is shielding. But, conventional shielding materials have disadvantages. Therefore, studies of novel materials, as an alternative to conventional shielding materials, are required to obtain new electromagnetic shielding material. Therefore, this study investigated the electromagnetic shielding of two component epoxy thermosetting resin for the X - band frequency with workplace approach. Two components of epoxy resin mixed according to manufacturing instruction with the weight ratio that was 100:10 .Epoxy plates fabricated in three different thicknesses (2, 4 and 6mm and shielding effectiveness measured by Vector Network Analyzer. Then, shielding effectiveness measured by the scattering parameters.The results showed that 6mm thickness of epoxy had the highest and 2mm had the lowest average of shielding effectiveness in X-band frequency that is 4.48 and 1.9 dB, respectively. Also, shielding effectiveness increased by increasing the thickness. But this increasing is useful up to 4mm. Percentage shielding effectiveness of attenuation for 6, 4 and 2mm thicknesses is 64.35%, 63.31% and 35.40%. Also, attenuation values for 4mm and 6mm thicknesses at 8.53 GHz and 8.52 GHz frequency are 77.15% and 82.95%, respectively, and can be used as favourite shields for the above frequency. 4mm-Epoxy is a suitable candidate for shielding application in X-band frequency range but, in the lower section, 6mm thickness is recommended. Finely, the shielding matrix can be used for selecting the proper thickness for electromagnetic shielding in X- Band frequency.

  13. Snakebites as a largely neglected problem in the Brazilian Amazon: highlights of the epidemiological trends in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Esaú Samuel; Sampaio, Vanderson; Sachett, Jaqueline; Castro, Daniel Barros de; Noronha, Maria das Dores Nogueira; Lozano, Jorge Luis López; Muniz, Emiro; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Envenoming snakebites are thought to be a particularly important threat to public health worldwide, especially in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. The true magnitude of the public health threat posed by snakebites is unknown, making it difficult for public health officials to optimize prevention and treatment. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to gather data on snakebite epidemiology in the Amazon region and describe a case series of snakebites from epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas (1974-2012). Only 11 articles regarding snakebites were found. In the State of Amazonas, information regarding incidents involving snakes is scarce. Historical trends show an increasing number of cases after the second half of the 1980s. Snakebites predominated among adults (20-39 years old; 38%), in the male gender (78.9%) and in those living in rural areas (85.6%). The predominant snake envenomation type was bothropic. The incidence reported by the epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas, reaching up to 200 cases/100,000 inhabitants in some areas, is among the highest annual snakebite incidence rates of any region in the world. The majority of the cases were reported in the rainy season with a case-fatality rate of 0.6%. Snakebite envenomation is a great disease burden in the State of Amazonas, representing a challenge for future investigations, including approaches to estimating incidence under-notification and case-fatality rates as well as the factors related to severity and disabilities.

  14. Interpretaciones físicas del escalamiento espacial de crecientes en la cuenca del río Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Villegas, Juan Fernando; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2008-01-01

    Se investigan las propiedades de escalamiento espacial de las funciones de distribución de probablidad (FDP) de las crecientes anuales, en términos de los cuantiles probabilistico, usando el área de la cuenca como parámetro de escala, en la cuenca del río Amazonas y dentro de sus cinco subcuencas principales: Solimoes, Madeira, Negro, tapajos y Xingu.

  15. A new species of Ituglanis from the Rio Xingu Basin, Brazil, and the evolution of pelvic fin loss in trichomycterid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datovo, Aléssio

    2014-04-22

    A new species of the trichomycterid catfish genus Ituglanis is described from the Rio Curuá, Rio Xingu basin, Rio Amazonas drainage, Brazil. Ituglanis apteryx, new species, is promptly distinguished from congeners, except some specimens of I. parahybae (Eigenmann), by the absence of pelvic fins, girdle, and muscles. The new species differs from I. parahybae in the pattern of the cephalic laterosensory system; the absence of a posterior cranial fontanel; the presence of an epural; and the number of branchiostegal rays, ribs, and vertebrae. Ituglanis apteryx is one among the several trichomycterids lacking pelvic fins. Analysis reveals that pelvic fin loss independently evolved several times during the trichomycterid radiation.

  16. SU-F-I-71: Fetal Protection During Fluoroscopy: To Shield Or Not to Shield?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S; Vanderhoek, M [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Lead aprons are routinely used to shield the fetus from radiation during fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) involving pregnant patients. When placed in the primary beam, lead aprons often reduce image quality and increase fluoroscopic radiation output, which can adversely affect fetal dose. The purpose of this work is to identify an effective and practical method to reduce fetal dose without affecting image quality. Methods: A pregnant patient equivalent abdominal phantom is set on the table along with an image quality test object (CIRS model 903) representing patient anatomy of interest. An ion chamber is positioned at the x-ray beam entrance to the phantom, which is used to estimate the relative fetal dose. For three protective methods, image quality and fetal dose measurements are compared to baseline (no protection):1. Lead apron shielding the entire abdomen; 2. Lead apron shielding part of the abdomen, including the fetus; 3. Narrow collimation such that fetus is excluded from the primary beam. Results: With lead shielding the entire abdomen, the dose is reduced by 80% relative to baseline along with a drastic deterioration of image quality. With lead shielding only the fetus, the dose is reduced by 65% along with complete preservation of image quality, since the image quality test object is not shielded. However, narrow collimation results in 90% dose reduction and a slight improvement of image quality relative to baseline. Conclusion: The use of narrow collimation to protect the fetus during FGI is a simple and highly effective method that simultaneously reduces fetal dose and maintains sufficient image quality. Lead aprons are not as effective at fetal dose reduction, and if placed improperly, they can severely degrade image quality. Future work aims to investigate a wider variety of fluoroscopy systems to confirm these results across many different system geometries.

  17. The Casiquiare river acts as a corridor between the Amazonas and Orinoco river basins: biogeographic analysis of the genus Cichla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S C; Nunes, M; Montaña, C G; Farias, I P; Ortí, G; Lovejoy, N R

    2010-03-01

    The Casiquiare River is a unique biogeographic corridor between the Orinoco and Amazonas basins. We investigated the importance of this connection for Neotropical fishes using peacock cichlids (Cichla spp.) as a model system. We tested whether the Casiquiare provides a conduit for gene flow between contemporary populations, and investigated the origin of biogeographic distributions that span the Casiquiare. Using sequences from the mitochondrial control region of three focal species (C. temensis, C. monoculus, and C. orinocensis) whose distributions include the Amazonas, Orinoco, and Casiquiare, we constructed maximum likelihood phylograms of haplotypes and analyzed the populations under an isolation-with-migration coalescent model. Our analyses suggest that populations of all three species have experienced some degree of gene flow via the Casiquiare. We also generated a mitochondrial genealogy of all Cichla species using >2000 bp and performed a dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA) to reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus. This analysis, when combined with the intraspecific results, supports two instances of dispersal from the Amazonas to the Orinoco. Thus, our results support the idea that the Casiquiare connection is important across temporal scales, facilitating both gene flow and the dispersal and range expansion of species.

  18. Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Joel Michael

    Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical

  19. Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces in Brazil assessed with simple sequence repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions. PMID:21637653

  20. Structural monitoring of metro infrastructure during shield tunneling construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L; Ye, X W; Ming, G; Dong, X B

    2014-01-01

    Shield tunneling construction of metro infrastructure will continuously disturb the soils. The ground surface will be subjected to uplift or subsidence due to the deep excavation and the extrusion and consolidation of the soils. Implementation of the simultaneous monitoring with the shield tunnel construction will provide an effective reference in controlling the shield driving, while how to design and implement a safe, economic, and effective structural monitoring system for metro infrastructure is of great importance and necessity. This paper presents the general architecture of the shield construction of metro tunnels as well as the procedure of the artificial ground freezing construction of the metro-tunnel cross-passages. The design principles for metro infrastructure monitoring of the shield tunnel intervals in the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are introduced. The detailed monitoring items and the specified alarming indices for construction monitoring of the shield tunneling are addressed, and the measured settlement variations at different monitoring locations are also presented.