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Sample records for shell turkish pistachio

  1. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means pistachio...

  2. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Putun, Ersan; Putun, Ayse E [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Adsorption of violet B by agricultural waste of soft pistachio shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, inexpensive agricultural waste pistachio sells was used for adsorption of violet B. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the pistachio shells. The morphology of pistachio shell was studied by SEM and it showed the porous structure of ...

  4. The effect of pistachio shells as a visual cue in reducing caloric consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hagan, K; Painter, J E; Honselman, C; Halvorson, A; Rhodes, K; Skwir, K

    2011-10-01

    It was hypothesized that pistachio shells left in sight as visual cues of consumption will cause individuals to consume less. A convenience sample of faculty and staff at a mid-western university (n=118) were recruited as subjects for the study. The subjects were told they were going to evaluate a variety of brands of pistachios and were surveyed at the end of each day to determine their fullness and satisfaction. The subjects were offered pistachios on their desks for an 8-h period on two separate days and were able to consume the pistachios at their leisure during that time. Subjects began each day with a sixteen ounce bowl filled with four ounces of pistachios in the shell. They were also provided with a second sixteen ounce bowl, in which they were instructed to place the empty shells from the pistachios they consumed. Every 2 h throughout the day pistachios were added in two ounce increments. In condition one, the shells remained in the bowls until the end of the day, whereas in condition two, the shell bowls were emptied every 2 h throughout the day. In condition one, subjects consumed an average of 216 calories. In condition two, subjects consumed an average of 264 calories, a difference of 48 calories. Subjects in condition one consumed significantly (p≤.05) fewer calories, yet fullness and satisfaction ratings were not significantly (p≥.05) different between conditions. Leaving pistachio shells as a visual cue to consumption may help consumers consume fewer calories. Individuals will be aware of the impact of visual cues of dietary intake on total food consumption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Removal of Nickel from Aqueous Solution by Hard-Shell Pistachios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan Shamohammadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is one of the heavy metals which commonly can be found in industrial wastewater. Many studies have been done on agricultural waste for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions. The purpose of this study is to identify hard-shell pistachios as a local attraction for removal of nickel from aqueous solution. Nickel adsorption isotherm models are studied using shell pistachios. Pistachio shell was chosen which its particle size is between 800-600 microns. The stock solution of nickel ions was prepared mixing nickel nitrate with distilled water. The results showed that the maximum absorption efficiency occurs (73.3% at pH=8. Also, it was shown that with increasing adsorbent dose, equilibrium time decreased within constant concentration. Examination of uptake isotherm models showed that models of Freundlich, BET, Radke-Praunitz, Redlich-Peterson and Sips describe data in 97% level of confidence well,  however Freundlich and Sips isotherm models has the lowest error factor 0.10597 and 0/10598 respectively and the highest correlation coefficient (0.9785. Comparison of adsorbent capacity within removal of nickel from aqueous solution shows that Pistachio shell with special absorbent surface of 1.7 m2/g and uptake capacity of 0.3984 mg/g is proper than adsorbents of Kaolinite, Bagasse, sludge-ash.

  6. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m 2 g -1 , 1038.78 m 2 g -1 and 0.375 m 3 g -1 , respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g -1 . The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: → Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. → The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. → BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m 2 /g. → Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  7. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K. Y. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, 1038.78 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.375 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g{sup -1}. The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: {yields} Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. {yields} The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. {yields} BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  8. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ting; Lua, Aik Chong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation

  9. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yang [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lua, Aik Chong [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-12-10

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation.

  10. Extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and physical and mechanical characterisation of cellulose-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Mounika; Kommineni, Ravindra

    2017-04-01

    Cellulose is an important nanoentity that have been used for the preparation of composites. The present work focuses on the extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and preparing a partially degradable nanocomposite with extracted cellulose. Physical and microstructural characteristics of nanocellulose extracted from pistachio shell powder (PSP) through various stages of chemical treatment are identified from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Later, characterized nanocellulose is reinforced in a polyester matrix to fabricate nanocellulose-based composites according to the ASTM standard. The resulting nanocellulose composite performance is evaluated in the mechanical perspective through tensile and flexural loading. SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that the process for extraction is efficient in obtaining 95% crystalline cellulose. Cellulose also showed good thermal stability with a peak thermal degradation temperature of 361 °C. Such cellulose when reinforced in a matrix material showed a noteworthy rise in tensile and flexural strengths of 43 MPa and 127 MPa, at a definite weight percent of 5%.

  11. Evaluation of aqueous and alcohol-based quaternary ammonium sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on peanut and pistachio shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEgan, Rachel; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of aqueous (aQUAT) and isopropyl alcohol-based quaternary ammonium (ipQUAT) sanitizers for reducing Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes populations on peanut and pistachio shell pieces. Inoculated nutshells were mixed with QUAT sanitizers, water, or 70% ethanol and enumerated immediately or after incubation at 30 °C for 48 h. None of the treatments had any immediate effect on Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 populations on the peanut or pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations declined immediately on the peanut and pistachio shells treated with aQUAT or ipQUAT. After incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut and pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations also increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut shells, but levels did not change on the water-treated pistachio shells and levels were just above the limit of detection on the aQUAT-treated pistachio shells. After treatment with ipQUAT and 48-h incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations decreased to or below the limit of detection on both shell types; L. monocytogenes populations remained at or below the limit of detection on both shell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of Dye (Blue 56 From Aqueous Solution via Adsorption onto Pistachio Shell: kinetic and isotherm study of removal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravanpaykar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, shells of pistachio are used as adsorbents and they have been successfully used for the removal of Blue 56, from water samples. The effect of various parameters such as: pH, amounts of adsorbents, size of adsorbent particles and contact time on removal processing were investigated. Inthisstudy Freundlichabsorptionisotherms and Langmuir were investigated. The experimental data were correlated reasonably well by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and isotherm parameters were calculated. In order to investigate the efficiency of Blue 56 adsorption on the pistachio shell, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. Themodel that hadgoodcorrelationtoattractFreundlichwas chosenasthemodel. Its kineticsfollowsthepseudosecond order reaction.

  13. Sorption studies of Sn(II) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell from different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; EI-Khouly, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of Sn(lI) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell as a solid sorbent material of particle sizes (0.5-1 mm) has been investigated from HNO 3 , H CI, HBr, NaNO 3 , Na CI, KBr and KI aqueous solutions. Before use, this substance was subjected to characterization tools including surface area, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-R diffraction. The effect of contact time, weight of the resin, acid and salt concentrations and equilibrium ph on K d values have been studied. Sorption of both elements was found to verify Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on thc sorption processes have been investigated and the thermodynamic functions δG, δH and δS have been determined. Adsorption processes have been discussed in the light of the obtained results

  14. Sorption studies of Sn(II) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell from different aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, A A [Nuclear Chemistry Dept., Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); EI-Khouly, S H [Radioisotopes and Generators Dept., Radioisotopes Prod. Division, Hot Lahoratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Sorption of Sn(lI) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell as a solid sorbent material of particle sizes (0.5-1 mm) has been investigated from HNO{sub 3}, H CI, HBr, NaNO{sub 3}, Na CI, KBr and KI aqueous solutions. Before use, this substance was subjected to characterization tools including surface area, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-R diffraction. The effect of contact time, weight of the resin, acid and salt concentrations and equilibrium ph on K{sub d} values have been studied. Sorption of both elements was found to verify Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on thc sorption processes have been investigated and the thermodynamic functions {delta}G, {delta}H and {delta}S have been determined. Adsorption processes have been discussed in the light of the obtained results.

  15. Rapid and slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell: effect of pyrolysis conditions on the product yields and characterization of the liquid product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putun, Ayse E [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470, (Turkey); Ozbay, Nurgul [Bozuyuk Vocational School, Anadolu University, Bozuyuk/Bilecik, (Turkey); Varol, Esin Apaydin; Uzun, Basak B; Ates, Fuda [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470, (Turkey)

    2006-10-30

    This study reports the experimental results for the pyrolysis of pistachio shell under different conditions in a tubular reactor under a nitrogen flow. For the different conditions of pyrolysis temperature, nitrogen flow rate and heating rate, pyrolysis temperature of 773 K gave the highest bio-oil yield with a value of 27.7% when the heating rate and carrier gas flow rate were chosen as 300 K min{sup -1} and 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. Column chromatography was applied to this bio-oil and its subfractions were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. Aliphatic subfraction was conducted to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy for further characterization. The results for the characterization show that using pistachio shell as a renewable source to produce valuable liquid products is applicable via pyrolysis. (Author)

  16. Adsorption of U(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donat, Ramazan; Erden, Kadriye Esen

    2017-01-01

    Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells an abundant and low cost natural resource in Turkey was used to prepare activated carbon by physiochemical activation and carbon dioxide (CO_2) atmosphere as the activating agents at 700 C for 2 h. The adsorption equilibrium of U(VI) from aqueous solutions on such carbon has been studied using a batch system. The parameters that affect the U(VI) adsorption, such as particle size of adsorbent, contact time, of pH of the solution, and temperature, have been investigated and conditions have also been optimized. The equilibrium data for U(VI) ions' adsorption onto activated carbon well fitted to the Langmuir equation, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 8.68 mg/g, The Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms have been applied and the data correlated well with Freundlich model and that the adsorption is physical in nature (E_a=15.46 kJ/mol). Thermodynamic parameters [ΔH_s=11.33 kJ/mol, ΔS=0.084 kJ/molK, ΔG (293.15 K)=-13.29 kJ/mol] showed the endothermic heat of adsorption and the feasibility of the process.

  17. Column Chromatography Of Co(II), Zn(II) And Eu(III) Using Pistachio Shell And Different Mobile Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pistachio shell particles (0.5-1 mm) have been applied as the stationary phase for studying the column chromatography of Co(II), Zn(II) and Eu(III) at room temperature; 26 + - 1 oC. This solid sorbent has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Its surface area and percent of swelling have been also determined. Different eluting agents have been used for eluting the sorbed elements. The elution curves have been done from which the distribution coefficients (K d ), number of theoretical plates (N) and heights equivalent to theoretical plates (H) have been determined. Column performance studies have been conducted for a representative system under certain experimented conditions and Van Deemter equation has been applied. Thermodynamic studies have been applied and thermodynamic functions ( δG 0 ,δH 0 andδ S 0 ) have been calculated for this representative system by determining K d at three different room temperatures (18, 26 and 37 + - 1o C).

  18. Column Chromatography Of Co(II), Zn(II) And Eu(III) Using Pistachio Shell And Different Mobile Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, A A [Nuclear Chemistry Department, Radioisotopes Production Division, Hot Laboratories Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-07-01

    Pistachio shell particles (0.5-1 mm) have been applied as the stationary phase for studying the column chromatography of Co(II), Zn(II) and Eu(III) at room temperature; 26{sup +}-{sup 1}oC. This solid sorbent has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Its surface area and percent of swelling have been also determined. Different eluting agents have been used for eluting the sorbed elements. The elution curves have been done from which the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), number of theoretical plates (N) and heights equivalent to theoretical plates (H) have been determined. Column performance studies have been conducted for a representative system under certain experimented conditions and Van Deemter equation has been applied. Thermodynamic studies have been applied and thermodynamic functions ( {delta}G{sup 0} ,{delta}H{sup 0} and{delta} S{sup 0}) have been calculated for this representative system by determining K{sub d} at three different room temperatures (18, 26 and 37{sup +}-{sup 1o}C)

  19. Adsorption of U(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donat, Ramazan [Pamukkale Univ., Denizli (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry; Erden, Kadriye Esen [Pamukkale Univ., Kinikli-Denizli (Turkey). Denizli Vocational School of Technical Sciences

    2017-08-01

    Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells an abundant and low cost natural resource in Turkey was used to prepare activated carbon by physiochemical activation and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) atmosphere as the activating agents at 700 C for 2 h. The adsorption equilibrium of U(VI) from aqueous solutions on such carbon has been studied using a batch system. The parameters that affect the U(VI) adsorption, such as particle size of adsorbent, contact time, of pH of the solution, and temperature, have been investigated and conditions have also been optimized. The equilibrium data for U(VI) ions' adsorption onto activated carbon well fitted to the Langmuir equation, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 8.68 mg/g, The Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms have been applied and the data correlated well with Freundlich model and that the adsorption is physical in nature (E{sub a}=15.46 kJ/mol). Thermodynamic parameters [ΔH{sub s}=11.33 kJ/mol, ΔS=0.084 kJ/molK, ΔG (293.15 K)=-13.29 kJ/mol] showed the endothermic heat of adsorption and the feasibility of the process.

  20. Artificial neural network (ANN) approach for modeling of Pb(II) adsorption from aqueous solution by Antep pistachio (Pistacia Vera L.) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Demirel, Sevgi

    2008-05-30

    A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the efficiency of Pb(II) ions removal from aqueous solution by Antep pistachio (Pistacia Vera L.) shells based on 66 experimental sets obtained in a laboratory batch study. The effect of operational parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of Pb(II) ions, initial pH, operating temperature, and contact time were studied to optimise the conditions for maximum removal of Pb(II) ions. On the basis of batch test results, optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.5, an adsorbent dosage of 1.0 g, an initial Pb(II) concentration of 30 ppm, and a temperature of 30 degrees C. Experimental results showed that a contact time of 45 min was generally sufficient to achieve equilibrium. After backpropagation (BP) training combined with principal component analysis (PCA), the ANN model was able to predict adsorption efficiency with a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at hidden layer with 11 neurons and a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) was found as the best of 11 BP algorithms with a minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.000227875. The linear regression between the network outputs and the corresponding targets were proven to be satisfactory with a correlation coefficient of about 0.936 for five model variables used in this study.

  1. Pistachio Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes food subject to recall in the United States since March 2009 related to pistachios distributed by Setton Pistachio of Terra Bella, Inc. The FDA...

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisignano, Carlo; Filocamo, Angela; Faulks, Richard M; Mandalari, Giuseppina

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial properties of polyphenol-rich fractions derived from raw shelled and roasted salted pistachios. American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), food and clinical isolates, of Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas mirabilis), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus), the yeasts Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis and the fungus Aspergillus niger were used. Pistachio extracts were active against Gram-positive bacteria with a bactericidal effect observed against L. monocytogenes (ATCC strains and food isolates), S. aureus and MRSA clinical isolates. Extracts from raw shelled pistachios were more active than those from roasted salted pistachios. The bactericidal activity of pistachio extracts could be used to help control the growth of some microorganisms in foods to improve safety and may find application as a topical treatment for S. aureus. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in different parts of pistachio fruit and effects of processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dargahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio nut as the most important agricultural export products is facing challenges trough production and conception. Toxigenic Aspergillus species are able to grow and produce dangerous mycotoxins on pistachio nut. Distribution of aflatoxin in different pistachio samples collected pre- (early splitting and healthy pistachios in orchards and post-harvest (steps in processing plants was evaluated. Aflatoxin B1 content of samples was quantified using ELISA.  Overall, high content of aflatoxin B1 in pre-harvest was observed in early splitting pistachios which were 5 times higher than healthy ones. The mean value of aflatoxin B1 content in early splitting and healthy pistachio was 10.2 and 1.8 ng/g, respectively. In processing plant, the content of aflatoxin B1 in stained, small, floater and open shell pistachios was 21, 4, 15 and 2 times higher than unstained, large, sinker and closed shell pistachios, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in samples taken from orchards and processing plants indicates pre-harvest contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, which may exacerbate by inadequate post-harvest conditions. Physical properties of contaminated pistachios may be used to reduce aflatoxin levels in pistachio bulks during or after processing. ELISA, as practical, sensitive and cheap method, may apply to determine the aflatoxin content of pistachios.

  4. Determination of pistachio drying behaviour and conditions in a solar drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Trabzon (Turkey)

    2001-07-01

    The main object of this study is to determine the drying behaviour and conditions of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples using both solar assisted and open sun drying. For each drying experiment, 100 g each of unshelled and shelled pistachio were used. The least-squares method was applied to find the drying curve equation of pistachio. During the experiments, shelf temperatures, weight loss of pistachio, moisture content of air, and distribution of solar radiation were measured; and presented depending on the drying time. Also, the mass shrinkage ratios of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples were determined, and the experimental uncertainty ratio was calculated as 15-16.5 per cent based on the experimental results. It was deduced that the shelled and unshelled pistachio samples in the solar assisted forced convection dryer were perfectly dried at temperatures of 50{+-}10degC in the time period of 6 h. Whereas, the samples in the open sun drying were not sufficiently dried at temperatures of 28{+-}4degC in the same time period. Hence, it is suggested that the pistachio samples with approximately 29.0 per cent of moisture are dried in the solar assisted convection dryer at 50{+-}10degC of temperature in the time period of approximately 6 h in order to protect from the negative climatic and environmental effects. However, it is not desirable to dry the pistachio samples in the open sun because of greater drying time, dirt, dust and harmful insects. (Author)

  5. Machine vision system for automated detection of stained pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tom C.

    1995-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to separate stained pistachio nuts, which comprise of about 5% of the California crop, from unstained nuts. The system may be used to reduce labor involved with manual grading or to remove aflatoxin contaminated product from low grade process streams. The system was tested on two different pistachio process streams: the bi- chromatic color sorter reject stream and the small nut shelling stock stream. The system had a minimum overall error rate of 14% for the bi-chromatic sorter reject stream and 15% for the small shelling stock stream.

  6. 7 CFR 983.22 - Pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pistachios. 983.22 Section 983.22 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.22 Pistachios. Pistachios means the nuts of the pistachio tree...

  7. 7 CFR 983.16 - Inshell pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell pistachios. 983.16 Section 983.16 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.16 Inshell pistachios. Inshell pistachios means pistachios that...

  8. Design, Construction and Evaluation of Wild Pistachio Sheller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The wild pistachio (Pistacia Atlantica Mutika exists in 2.4 million hectares of Iranian forest. In spite of high nutritional and medical value of this fruit, its use and processing are still performed manually. The objectives of this research are to design, to construct and to evaluate the performance of a pistachio hulling machine. The pistachio of Kerman province was chosen as the case of study. The mechanism of shelling was chosen based on the applied pressure force of two cylinders, driving and driven. The effects of input variables including revolution of driving cylinder (three levels, the gap between two cylinders (four levels and moisture content (four levels on the performance of machine (shelling efficiency, percentage of intact kernel, percentage of imperfective broken nut, percentage of dust, and percentage of unshelled nut were analyzed. The results showed that the shelling efficiency decreases with increasing the gap of two cylinders and moisture content of wild pistachio. The maximum intact kernel was obtained at moisture content of 6.61 wb %. The best performance was observed with the following conditions: the cylinders’ gap of 0.48 mm, rotational speed of the driving cylinder of 25.84 rpm and moisture content of 4.31% w.b.

  9. 7 CFR 983.7 - Certified pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified pistachios. 983.7 Section 983.7 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.7 Certified pistachios. Certified pistachios are those that meet...

  10. 7 CFR 983.30 - Substandard pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substandard pistachios. 983.30 Section 983.30... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.30 Substandard pistachios. Substandard pistachios means...

  11. Bioaccessibility of pistachio polyphenols, xanthophylls, and tocopherols during simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bisignano, Carlo; Filocamo, Angela; Chessa, Simona; Sarò, Mariagiovanna; Torre, Germana; Faulks, Richard M; Dugo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The bioaccessibility of bioactives from pistachios has not been previously evaluated. In the present study we quantified the release of polyphenols, xanthophylls (lutein), and tocopherols from pistachios (raw pistachios, roasted salted pistachios, and muffins made with raw pistachios) during simulated human digestion. A dynamic gastric model of digestion that provides a realistic and predictive simulation of the physical and chemical processing and accurately mimics the residence time and the luminal environment within the human stomach was used for the digestion studies. More than 90% of the polyphenols were released in the gastric compartment, with virtually total release in the duodenal phase. No significant differences were observed between raw shelled and roasted salted pistachio. The presence of a food matrix (muffin) decreased the bioaccessibility of protocatechuic acid (78%) and luteolin (36%). Almost 100% bioaccessibility of lutein and tocopherols was found after duodenal digestion, with no difference among the three samples. The rapid release of the assayed bioactives in the stomach maximizes the potential for absorption in the duodenum and contributes to the beneficial relation between pistachio consumption and health-related outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy and exergy analyses of solar drying process of pistachio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, A.; Kucuk, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the energy and exergy analyses of the drying process of shelled and unshelled pistachios using a solar drying cabinet. Using the first law of thermodynamics, energy analysis was carried to estimate the amounts of energy gained from solar air collectors and the ratios of energy utilization. However, exergy analysis was accomplished to determine the location, type, and magnitude of exergy losses during the solar drying process by applying the second law of thermodynamics. It was deduced that the exergy losses took place mostly in the 15th shelf where the available energy was less utilized. Moreover, the shelled and unshelled pistachios are sufficiently dried in the ranges between 40 and 60 deg. C and 37 and 62% of relative humidity at 1.23 m s -1 of drying air velocity in 6 h despite the exergy losses of 0.15-3.08 kJ kg -1

  13. Energy and exergy analyses of solar drying process of pistachio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, A [University of Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kucuk, H [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the energy and exergy analyses of the drying process of shelled and unshelled pistachios using a solar drying cabinet. Using the first law of thermodynamics, energy analysis was carried to estimate the amounts of energy gained from solar air collectors and the ratios of energy utilization. However, exergy analysis was accomplished to determine the location, type, and magnitude of exergy losses during the solar drying process by applying the second law of thermodynamics. It was deduced that the exergy losses took place mostly in the 15th shelf where the available energy was less utilized. Moreover, the shelled and unshelled pistachios are sufficiently dried in the ranges between 40 and 60{sup o}C and 37 and 62% of relative humidity at 1.23 m s{sup -1} of drying air velocity in 6 h despite the exergy losses of 0.15-3.08 kJ kg{sup -1}. (Author)

  14. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, major Kerman pistachio producing areas in CA, underscored key knowledge gaps on BMSB ecology in CA and motivated investigations on the susceptibility of pistachio nuts to BMSB feeding. Laboratory feeding trials conducted in quarantine under permit indicated that adult BMSB stylets can penetrate developing pistachio shells and associated feeding was correlated with kernel necrosis for nuts collected mid to late season (June to August 2016). Feeding damage estimates indicated that higher levels of kernel injury were associated with female BMSB when compared to feeding by male BMSB. These results suggest that there is probable risk of feeding damage to field grown pistachios from BMSB. The implications of this study for BMSB pest management in the CA pistachio system and future research directions are discussed. PMID:29117381

  15. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesús R; Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S; Gao, Yulin

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, major Kerman pistachio producing areas in CA, underscored key knowledge gaps on BMSB ecology in CA and motivated investigations on the susceptibility of pistachio nuts to BMSB feeding. Laboratory feeding trials conducted in quarantine under permit indicated that adult BMSB stylets can penetrate developing pistachio shells and associated feeding was correlated with kernel necrosis for nuts collected mid to late season (June to August 2016). Feeding damage estimates indicated that higher levels of kernel injury were associated with female BMSB when compared to feeding by male BMSB. These results suggest that there is probable risk of feeding damage to field grown pistachios from BMSB. The implications of this study for BMSB pest management in the CA pistachio system and future research directions are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. 7 CFR 983.57 - Substandard pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substandard pistachios. 983.57 Section 983.57... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.57 Substandard pistachios. The committee shall, with the...

  17. Bleaching augments lipid peroxidation products in pistachio oil and its cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistachio consumption is associated with reductions in serum cholesterol and oxidative stress due to their constituents of unsaturated fats, phytosterols, fiber, and antioxidants. Bleaching has been applied to whiten nut shells for antifungal and cosmetic purposes. However, the impact of bleaching o...

  18. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most important agricultural products of Iran and it is priced due to the quality and type. One of the significant factors of pistachio cost is its type in terms of shell. Filled split pistachio nut has the most quality and is utilized as nuts, while the closed shell type has lower cost, at the same time is economically efficient in food industry such as confectionery. Now, pistachio sorting is performed usually by human and sometimes using electromechanical apparatuses. Classification of pistachio by human is time consuming and is done with an unacceptable accuracy, on the other hand, electromechanical and electro optical apparatuses damages pistachio because the mechanism used in them while separating. So, the need to develop automated systems that could be implemented by intelligent ways is evident to increase the speed and accuracy of classification. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 samples of pistachios contains 100 Filled split, 100 Filled non-split and 100 split blank nuts ones are used. The training set consisted of 60 samples of each type of opened nuts, closed and empty opened shell nuts a total of 180 samples and the evaluation set consisted of 40 samples of each type of opened shell, closed shell and empty opened shell nuts a total of 120 samples. The principle of this study is implemented in two steps: 1 sample imaging and image processing to extract features 2 fuzzy network design based on the characteristics of data and training. To select useful features from the hypothesis, C4.5 decision tree is used. C4.5 algorithm makes a greedy top to bottom search on the hypothesis, and is made by the question what feature must be at the root of the tree. By the help of statistical methods, extracted features from the images were prioritized and the most appropriate features for classification of training set were selected. The algorithm chooses the best features as their number is minimum

  19. The Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Potential of Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Irene; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Cordaro, Marika; Siracusa, Rosalba; Bisignano, Carlo; Gugliandolo, Enrico; Carughi, Arianna; Esposito, Emanuela; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2017-08-22

    Several reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of pistachio against oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigate if polyphenols extracts from natural raw shelled pistachios (NP) or roasted salted pistachio (RP) kernels have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties at lower doses than reported previously, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by NP and RP pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR) injection in the paw. Results from the in vitro study demonstrated that pre-treatment with NP (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL) and RP (0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL) exerted a significant protection against LPS induced inflammation. Western blot analysis showed NP reduced the degradation of IκB-α, although not significantly, whereas both NP and RP decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β production in a dose-dependent way. A significant reduction of CAR-induced histological paw damage, neutrophil infiltration and nitrotyrosine formation was observed in the rats treated with NP. These data demonstrated that, at lower doses, polyphenols present in pistachios possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This may contribute toward a better understanding of the beneficial health effects associated with consumption of pistachios.

  20. Development of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2013-03-01

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. Pistachio spreads were developed using pistachio paste as the main component, icing sugar, soy protein isolate (SPI), and red palm oil (RPO), at different ratios. The highest mean scores of all the sensory attributes were depicted by spreads that were made without addition of SPI. It was found that the work of shear was 0 to 11.0 kg s for an acceptable spread. Sensory spreadability, overall texture, spreadability, and overall acceptability were negatively correlated (R > 0.83) with the work of shear of spreads. The findings indicated that the presence of RPO had a direct effect on the viscoelastic behavior of the pistachio spreads. The a values, which are related to the green color of the pistachio product ranged from 1.7 to 3.9 for spread without addition of RPO, and 4.0 to 5.3 in the presence of RPO. The development of pistachio spread would potentially increase the food uses of pistachio and introduce consumers with a healthier snack food. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Effectiveness of superheated steam for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30, and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-03-02

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of superheated steam (SHS) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and in-shell pistachios and to determine the effect of superheated steam heating on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Almonds and in-shell pistachios inoculated with four foodborne pathogens were treated with saturated steam (SS) at 100 °C and SHS at 125, 150, 175, and 200 °C for various times. Exposure of almonds and pistachios to SHS for 15 or 30s at 200 °C achieved >5l og reductions among all tested pathogens without causing significant changes in color values or texture parameters (P>0.05). For both almonds and pistachios, acid and peroxide values (PV) following SS and SHS treatment for up to 15s and 30s, respectively, were within the acceptable range (PV<1.0 meq/kg). These results show that thermal application of 200 °C SHS treatment for 15s and 30s did not affect the quality of almonds and pistachios, respectively. Therefore, SHS treatment is a very promising alternative technology for the tree nuts industry by improving inactivation of foodborne pathogens on almonds and pistachios while simultaneously reducing processing time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pistachio nut allergy: An updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Silva, Isa; Vicente, António A; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-09-19

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera) is highly appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and potential health benefits. However, this tree nut is also responsible for triggering moderate to severe IgE-mediated reactions in allergic individuals. Currently, pistachio nut allergy has gained some special attention, mainly due to its intrinsic relation with cashew nut allergy. Like for other nuts, the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy seems to be increasing at a global scale. Until now, there are five allergenic proteins officially listed for pistachio nut (Pis v 1, Pis v 2, Pis v 3, Pis v 4 and Pis v 5). Relevant data on their biochemical classification has become available, enabling establishing a correlation with the respective clinical symptoms. The establishment of an effective allergen risk assessment is a key issue for the food industry, policy makers and regulatory agencies. Thus, the availability of fast, specific and sensitive methods to detect trace amounts of allergens in processed foods is crucial. In the specific case of pistachio nut, there are some protein- and DNA-based methods for its detection/quantification in foods, which can aid to verify label information. Accordingly, all relevant research advances on this topic were summarised, updated and critically discussed in this review.

  3. Effect of pistachio nut consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Ravi R; Bansal, Manish; Mehrotra, Rahul; Yeptho, Kajal Pandya; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of regular consumption of pistachio nuts on glycemic, lipid, and oxidative stress parameters. The aim of this study was to determine its effect on vascular health, which has not been adequately studied so far. In this open label, randomized parallel-group study, 60 adults with mild dyslipidemia were randomized to lifestyle modification (LSM) alone or LSM with consumption of 80 g (in-shell) pistachios (equivalent to 40 g or 1.5 oz shelled pistachios) daily for 3 mo. Biochemical parameters, brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (BAFMD), and carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and baPWV, respectively) were measured before and after the intervention. At 3 mo, there was no change in any of the clinical or biochemical parameters in the LSM group. However, the patients in the pistachio group had a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 35.7 ± 8.8 mg/dL versus 37.8 ± 10.1 mg/dL; P = 0.04) and a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (137.2 ± 32.6 mg/dL versus 127.6 ± 34.0 mg/dL; P = 0.02), total cholesterol (TC)-to-HDL-C ratio (5.8 ± 1.3 mg/dL versus 5.3 ± 1.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001), and fasting blood sugar (88.8 ± 7.1 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 6.3 mg/dL; P = 0.05). Additionally, whereas LSM alone was associated with no improvement in BAFMD or PWV, individuals in the pistachio group had significant reduction in left baPWV (1261.7 ± 187.5 cm/sec versus 1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec; P = 0.02) and statistically nonsignificant improvement in most other parameters, including BAFMD. As a result, at 3 mo the patients in the pistachio group had lower cfPWV (770.9 ± 96.5 cm/sec versus 846.4 ± 162.0 cm/sec; P = 0.08), lower left baPWV (1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec versus 1326.3 ± 253.7 cm/sec; P = 0.05), and lower average baPWV (1208.2 ± 118.4 cm/sec versus 1295.8 ± 194.1 cm/sec; P = 0.08) compared

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic variation in Iranian Pistachios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Iran is one of the richest pistachio germplasms a few studies have been conducted on different sexes of pistachio trees, in areas where this crop emerged. To this end, 40 male and female Iranian pistachio genotypes from Feizabad region, Khorasan, Iran; were evaluated using morphological characters and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. For morphological assessments, 54 variables were considered to investigate similarities between and among the studied genotypes. Morphological data indicated relative superiority in some female genotypes (such as Sefid 1, Sefid Sabuni 2, Garmesiah, and Ghermezdorosht Z regarding characters such as halfcrackedness, the percentages of protein and fat content. 115 polymorphic bands were recorded with 92.83% average polymorphism among all primers. The total resolving power (Rp of the primers was 74.54. The range of genetic similarity varied from about 0.31 to about 0.70. Genotypes were segregated into eight groups at the similarity limit of 0.41. Results of present investigation could be helpful for strategic decisions for maintaining Iranian pistachio genotypes.

  5. Quantification and bioaccessibility of California pistachio bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The content of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenolics, and tocols in pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) has not been methodically quantified. The objective of this study was to first optimize extraction protocols for lipophilic nutrients and then quantify the content of two phenolic acids, nine flavonoids,...

  6. Opinion of Spanish Consumers on Hydrosustainable Pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Lipan, Leontina; Vázquez-Araújo, L; Barber, Xavi; Pérez-López, David; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables cultivated under controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) are called hydrosustainable (hydroSOS) products and have its own personality and are environmentally-friendly. Focus groups helped in classifying key farming, sensory, and health concepts associated with CDI-grown pistachios. Besides, focus groups also helped in stating that a logo was needed for these special foods, and that a hydroSOS index is also essential to certify that the products have been controlled by a control board. Conjoint analysis was used to check which attributes could be helpful in promoting CDI-grown pistachios among Spanish consumers in a 1st step toward the European Union (EU) market. It was clearly proved that the main silo of properties driving the attention of Spanish consumers was that related to health. The most important attributes for pistachios were "product of Spain," "rich in antioxidant," and "crunchy"; this finding was clearly related to the popularity of regional foods, the preoccupation of European consumers for their health, and the joy related to the crunchiness of toasted nuts, respectively. The use of these 3 concepts, together with the use of the hydroSOS logo, will be essential to promote hydroSOS pistachios among Spanish and EU consumers. Finally, it is important to highlight that in general Spanish consumers were willing to pay an extra amount of 1.0 euros per kg of hydroSOS pistachios. These earnings will be essential to convince Spanish farmers to implement CDI strategies and have a sustainable and environmental-friendly use of the irrigation water. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Interaction of phosphorus and pistachio green hull on some growth characteristics and nutrients in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fekri; L. Gheranjik

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and pistachio waste (raw and dry) on growth and chemical composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Badami Zarand) seedlings, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications was conducted. Treatments were three levels of P (0, 50 and 100 mg P/kg soil) and three levels of pistachio green hull (0, 3 and 6% w/w). The results showed that at the first level of P application, the 3% pistachio waste treatment increased ...

  8. Turkish delight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodford, Julian

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the opening up of the Turkish energy markets to international investment in an effort to join the European Union. The implementation of the EU's Directive on internal electricity markets, the benefits gained by globalisation, the growth in the Turkish electricity market, the control of power supply and distribution, generating capacity, the infrastructure needed to satisfy demand, moves towards privatisation, and joint venture with local companies are discussed. Estimates of Turkey's power demand, its strategic location, and foreign companies interested in the power market are considered. (uk)

  9. New microfungi records on pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pistacia L. belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae. It contains nine species and five subspecies. P. vera L. (cultivated pistachio) is the economically most important species in the genus. It has edible seeds and considerable commercial importance. Iran, the United States, Turkey and Syria are the main pistachio producers in ...

  10. Irrigation of pistachios : strategies to confront water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón-López, Maria del Carmen; Moreno, Marta Maria; Couceiro, José Francisco; Centeno, Ana; Martín-Palomo, Maria J.; Corell, Mireia; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Torrecillas, Arturo; Moriana, Alfonso; Tejero, Ivan Francisco Garcia; Zuazo, Victor Hugo Duran

    2017-01-01

    Pistachio trees are capable to be profitable under rain-fed conditions. They also have a good response to low amounts of irrigation water, so are a great candidate to be considered for water-scarcity scenarios. The pistachio tree has a singular way of alternate bearing, losing a percentage of its

  11. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  12. Mathematical modeling of thin layer drying of pistachio by using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, A [University of Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kucuk, H [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical modeling of thin layer forced and natural solar drying of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples. In order to estimate and select the suitable form of solar drying curves, eight different mathematical models, which are semi-theoretical and/or empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their coefficients of determination (r,{chi}{sup 2}), which were predicted by non-linear regression analysis using the Statistical Computer Program. It was deduced that the logarithmic model could sufficiently describe thin layer forced solar drying of shelled and unshelled pistachio, while the two term model could define thin layer natural solar drying of these products in evaluation by considering the coefficients of determination, r{sub sfsd}=0.9983, {chi}{sup 2}{sub sfsd}=2.697x10{sup -5}; r{sub ufsd}=0.9990, {chi}{sup 2}{sub ufsd}=1.639x10{sup -5} for thin layer forced solar drying and r{sub snsd}=0.9990, {chi}{sup 2}{sub snsd}=3.212x10{sup -6}; r{sub unsd}=0.9970, {chi}{sup 2}{sub unsd}=4.590x10{sup -5} for thin layer natural solar drying. (Author)

  13. Investigation of Antioxidant Capacity and Some Bioactive Compounds of Iranian Pistachio (Pistachio vera L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Edible nuts have an increasing role in human diet. Pistachio is a popular but less known kind of edible nut nevertheless it is rich in health benefiting nutrients, minerals, antioxidants and vitamins. Therefore, this study attempts to determine the antioxidants capacity, total phenolics and amount of some major elements (nitrogen, potassium, calcium and phosphorus, present in the most important Iranian pistachio nut, to enhance the health benefits, and use in breeding programs. For this reason eleven pistachio cultivars (‘Akbary’, ‘Ahmad Aghaii’, ‘Daneshmandi’, ‘Kalle Ghoochi 1’, ‘Kalle Ghoochi 2’, ‘Garmeh’, ‘Ohadi 1’, ‘Ohadi 2’, ‘Sefid’, ‘Momtaz’, and chance seedling tree ("None-grafted" as control which are grown in commercial orchards of Fayzabad (Khorasan-e-Razavi were analyzed for determination of some major elements, antioxidants capacity and total phenolics contents. The results showed that the amounts of the nutrients in 100 g kernel were within the following ranges: N 2.5-4.1 g, P 355.9-546.6 mg, K 573.6-994.9 mg and Ca 61.5-134.5 mg. Total phenolics content varied from 5.3-9.9 mg gallic acid equivalents in g fresh weight. The results also showed that the capacity of antioxidant ranged from 1.6-3.7 (mg ascorbic acid equivalents in g fresh weight. Weak correlation was observed between total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity (r2=0.3824. The result demonstrates that there is adequate variation in major elements, antioxidants capacity and total phenolics contents within pistachio cultivars and hence there is potential for improvement towards enhancing these health-promoting photochemical in this nuts.

  14. Pistachio Allergy-Prevalence and In vitro Cross-Reactivity with Other Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh; Seyed Ali Mortazavi; Mojtaba Sankian; Fakhri Shahidi; Mohsen Tehrani; Farahzad Jabbari Azad; Fatemeh Behmanesh; AbdolReza Varasteh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tree nut allergy is characterized by a high frequency of life-threatening reactions and is typically lifelong persistent. Some people with a pistachio nut allergy, which is common in the pistachio rich area of Iran, develop a hypersensitivity to other tree nuts as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy in Iran, the major pistachio cultivation region in the world. The study also addressed the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity be...

  15. Pistachio allergy-prevalence and in vitro cross-reactivity with other nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Tehrani, Mohsen; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2011-12-01

    Tree nut allergy is characterized by a high frequency of life-threatening reactions and is typically lifelong persistent. Some people with a pistachio nut allergy, which is common in the pistachio rich area of Iran, develop a hypersensitivity to other tree nuts as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy in Iran, the major pistachio cultivation region in the world. The study also addressed the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts, including almond, peanut, and cashew in pistachio allergic patients. A survey was conducted to determine whether the prevalence of pistachio allergy is affected by exposure to this nut in pistachio cultivation regions, as well as possible cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts including cashew, almond, and peanut. Inhibition Western blot and inhibition ELISA studies were conducted to assess the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and the other tree nuts. Our results revealed that the prevalence of pistachio allergy is twice as much in pistachio cultivation regions than other areas. Western blotting and inhibition ELISA presented high percentages of inhibition with pistachio and cashew, followed by almond and, to some degree, peanut which indicates different levels of allergenic cross-reactivity. The results indicate that exposure of people to pistachio significantly affects the prevalence of its allergic reactions. In addition, it was observed that, among pistachio allergic subjects, such exposure may affect the co-sensitivities with other nuts, including cashew and almond. The plant taxonomic classification of pistachio and other tree nuts does appear to predict allergenic cross-reactivity.

  16. An Investigation on In-Vessel Composting of Pistachio Residuals with Different Additions

    OpenAIRE

    M Jalili; M Mokhtari; AA Ebrahimi; F Boghri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: About 1.35×105 tons of pistachio waste are produced in annually Iran that can result in environmental problems if managed improperly. . The purpose of this study was to investigate in-vessel composting of pistachio residuals with addition of cow manure and dewatered sludge as a recycling alternative. Materials and Methods: Pistachios wastes were combined with weight ratio of 5.5:10 (dewatered sludge: pistachio waste) and weight ratio of 1:10 (Cow manure: pi...

  17. Influence of cultivar and processing on the allergenicity of pistachio nut assessed in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinction between different cultivars of pistachio nut, and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio pro...

  18. 77 FR 21841 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent production years from $0.0007 to $0.0005 per pound of assessed weight pistachios...

  19. 76 FR 34181 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...; FV11-983-1 PR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendments to... amendments to Marketing Agreement and Order No. 983, which regulates the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico, were proposed by the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee...

  20. Pistachio Allergy-Prevalence and In vitro Cross-Reactivity with Other Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that exposure of people to pistachio significantly affects the prevalence of its allergic reactions. In addition, it was observed that, among pistachio allergic subjects, such exposure may affect the co-sensitivities with other nuts, including cashew and almond. The plant taxonomic classification of pistachio and other tree nuts does appear to predict allergenic cross-reactivity.

  1. 76 FR 60361 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...; FV-983-2 IR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios... weight pistachios. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of...

  2. 75 FR 68681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio marketing order (order). The interim rule streamlined the aflatoxin sampling and testing procedures under the order's rules and regulations for pistachios to be shipped for...

  3. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 983 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0077; FV10-983-3 CR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. DATES: The...

  4. Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on composition and blood parameters of Holstein dairy cows. ... The goal of this research was to study about the effect of using pistachio hulls silage in cow's nutrition. The initial ... Key words: Dairy cattle's, milk production, pistachio by-product, silage, tannin.

  5. New definition of Regulated Deficit Irrigation phases in pistachio: more sustainable, more efficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, David; Moreno, Marta M.; Memmi, Houssem; Guerrero, Julián; Galindo, Alejandro; Centeno, Ana; Corell, Mireilla; Giron, Ignacio; José Martín-Palomo, María; Gijón, Mª Carmen; Moreno, Carmen; Torrecillas, Arturo; Moriana, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) is an irrigation methodology in which a water stress is imposed by irrigation withholding in function of fruit growth phases. The objective of this method is to found phases where water stress has no effect on yield or only a slight effect. RDI in pistachio has been demonstrated as an efficient tool to save water without negative effect on yield, or even the contrary, a slight water stress has produced pistachios more appreciated by consumers opposite to well irrigated. Phases of fruit growth are widely defined as: Phase I, from leaf out to full shell expansion; Phase II, from full shell expansion to the onset of rapid kernel growth; Phase III, from rapid growth to harvest. Water stress applied in Phase II does not affect yield. Traditionally Phase II had been considered interchangeable with shell hardening; however, recent studies have showed that shell hardening extends for two weeks from the beginning of the kernel growth. In this assay, conducted in Ciudad Real (Spain) in 2015 and 2016, different irrigation treatments were applied on a pistachio crop in order to check if shell hardening can be considered as phase II instead the previous definition. The T1 treatment consisted of water stress during the shell hardening, always trying to maintain a stem water potential (SWP) of -1.5 MPa during this phase. The T2 treatment was severely water stressed, in this case trying to maintain -2 MPa during the phase II, as previous definition. In the rest of the season, both treatments were irrigated in order to have no water stress. Additionally, a control treatment (T0), irrigated following FAO methodology, was stablished to evaluate the loss of yield. Water irrigation applied in T0 was 596 and 505 mm in 2015 and 2016, respectively. In T1, 317 and 245 mm were applied, respectively, which means an average water save about 270 mm year-1. In T2, water irrigation was 396 and 272 mm, respectively, higher amounts than in T1, which an average

  6. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seeds and skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Antonio; Martorana, Maria; Arcoraci, Teresita; Monteleone, Domenico; Giovinazzo, Corrado; Saija, Antonella

    2010-09-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.; Anacardiaceae) is native of aride zones of Central and West Asia and distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin. In Italy, a pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte (Sicily), an area around the Etna volcano, where the lava land and climate allow the production of a nut with intense green colour and aromatic taste, very appreciated in international markets. Pistachio nuts are a rich source of phenolic compounds, and have recently been ranked among the first 50 food products highest in antioxidant potential. Pistachio nuts are often used after removing the skin, which thus represents a significant by-product of pistachio industrial processing. The present study was carried out to better characterize the phenolic composition and the antioxidant activity of Bronte pistachios, with the particular aim to evaluate the differences between pistachio seeds and skins. The total content of phenolic compounds in pistachios was shown to be significantly higher in skins than in seeds. By HPLC analysis, gallic acid, catechin, eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-neohesperidoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and eriodictyol were found both in pistachio seeds than in skins; furthermore, genistein-7-O-glucoside, genistein, daidzein and apigenin appeared to be present only in pistachio seeds, while epicatechin, quercetin, naringenin, luteolin, kaempferol, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside are contained only in pistachio skins. The antioxidant activity of pistachio seeds and skins were determined by means of four different assays (DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method and TEAC assay, SOD-mimetic assay). As expected on the basis of the chemical analyses, pistachio skins have shown to possess a better activity with respect to seeds in all tests. The excellent antioxidant activity of pistachio skins can be explained by its higher content of antioxidant phenolic compounds. By HPLC-TLC analysis, gallic acid

  7. Modeling of microwave-convective drying of pistachios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad; Shafeei, Sahameh

    2010-01-01

    The microwave-convective drying of two varieties of Iranian pistachios (Khany and Abasaliy) was performed in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The drying rate curves show that first rapidly decreased and then very little reduction in moisture ratio observed with increase of drying time. A non-linear regression page model represents good agreement with experimental data with coefficient of determination and mean square of deviation as 0.9612 and 2.25 x 10 -5 for Khany and 0.9997 and 4.28 x 10 -5 for Abasaliy pistachios respectively.

  8. The Effect of Temperature and Air Velocity on Drying Kinetics of Pistachio Nuts during Roasting by using Hot Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a saltedand roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. The purpose of roasting is to promote flavour and texture changes in nuts that ultimately increase the overall palatability of the product.Roasting involves a number of physico-chemical changes, including heat exchange, chemical reactions and drying. Knowledge of desorption kinetics is essential to predict the behavior of the material during roasting process and to design roaster equipment.The main aim of this research was to evaluate suitable models for predicting moisture ratio, the effect of air temperature and velocity on the drying kinetics of pistachio nuts and obtain the effective diffusivity coefficient and activation energy in the drying process during the roasting of pistachio nuts. Materials and Methods Dried Ahmadaghaei pistachio nuts were supplied from Kashefan Kavir company (Doraj co. in Rafsanjan. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 17% salt solution for 8 minute and roasting was investigated at air temperatures of 120,130, 145, 160 and 170 °C and air velocities of 0.6, 0.88, 1.3, 1.72 and 2 ms-1. Five semi-theoretical and two empirical kinetic models were fitted to drying experimental data using nonlinear regression analysis techniques in the Curve Expert 2.2 computer program. Results and Discussion Tow-way ANOVA indicated that temperature and hot air velocity significantly affected the drying process during roasting of shelled pistachio nuts. The higher roasting temperatures and air velocities resulted in the higher drying rates. During first 10 min of roasting at constant air velocity of 1.3 ms-1, 64.5%, 70.3%, 77.1%, 83.5%, 89.7% of the moisture were removed at roasting air temperatures of 120 °C, 130 °C, 145 °C, 160 °C, 170 °C, respectively. The high regression coefficients (R2>0.996 and low reduced chi-square (χ2, mean relative

  9. Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

  10. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in X-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keagy, P.M.; Schatzki, T.F. [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (United States); Parvin, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non-destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper presents the use of film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  11. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in x-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Parvin, Bahram; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non- destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper uses film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  12. Shell Venster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.; Looijesteijn, B.; Regeer, B.; Stip, B.

    1995-03-01

    In the bi-monthly issues of 'Shell Venster' (window on Shell) attention is paid to the activities of the multinational petroleum company Shell Nederland and the Koninklijke/Shell Groep by means of non-specialist articles

  13. Sensitivities of baseline isolates and boscalid-resistant mutants of Alternaria alternata from pistachio to fluopyram, penthiopyrad, and fluxapyroxad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avenot, H.F.; Biggelaar, van den H.; Morgan, D.P.; Moral, J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Michailides, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of Alternaria alternata to boscalid, the first succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide labeled on pistachio, has become a common occurrence in California pistachio orchards and affects the performance of this fungicide. In this study, we established the baseline sensitivities

  14. Image processing for x-ray inspection of pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.

    2001-03-01

    A review is provided of image processing techniques that have been applied to the inspection of pistachio nuts using X-ray images. X-ray sensors provide non-destructive internal product detail not available from other sensors. The primary concern in this data is detecting the presence of worm infestations in nuts, since they have been linked to the presence of aflatoxin. We describe new techniques for segmentation, feature selection, selection of product categories (clusters), classifier design, etc. Specific novel results include: a new segmentation algorithm to produce images of isolated product items; preferable classifier operation (the classifier with the best probability of correct recognition Pc is not best); higher-order discrimination information is present in standard features (thus, high-order features appear useful); classifiers that use new cluster categories of samples achieve improved performance. Results are presented for X-ray images of pistachio nuts; however, all techniques have use in other product inspection applications.

  15. 76 FR 57001 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendment of Marketing Order No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 983 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0099; FV11-983-1 PR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona... pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico, and provides growers with the opportunity to vote in... Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee), which is responsible for local administration of the order...

  16. 77 FR 36119 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 983

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...; FV11-983-1 FR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Order Amending Marketing Order... amends Marketing Agreement and Order No. 983 (order), which regulates the handling of pistachios grown in... Committee for Pistachios (Committee), which is responsible for local administration of the order. The...

  17. Irradiation disinfestation and decontamination of Iranian dates and pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Z.; Sayhoon, M.; Maghsoudi, V.

    1993-07-01

    Decontamination and disinfestation effect of gamma radiation on microflora of dates and artificially infested packed dates (Mazafaty, Zard and Sayer variety) with Tribolium Confusum, Oryzaephilus Surinamensis and Ephestia Cautella in different stages studied. Treatment with 0.75 kGy dose of gamma radiation leads to complete and satisfactory insect disinfestation of dates during a storage period of 9, 20 and 35 days. This study shows that microbiological quality of Mazafaty dates can be significantly improved when they have received a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. Finally the sugar content of irradiated and unirradiated samples have compared. In this study, we have also used gamma radiation treatment for the control of microbial spoilage of pistachio nuts caused by toxigenic Aspergillus Flavus. The first sequence involved, the freshly harvested pistachio nuts inoculated with A. Flavus spores and exposed to radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a environmental chamber, set at temperature of 15-20 C at 75-80% relative humidity and stored for six months. In the second sequence during the storage period the changes in protein, lipid content of pistachio nuts have analyzed.

  18. Irradiation disinfestation and decontamination of Iranian dates and pistachio nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Z.; Sayhoon, M.; Maghsoudi, V.

    1993-01-01

    The decontamination and disinfestation effect of gamma radiation on the microflora of dates and artificially infested packed dates was studied. Treatment with 0.75 kGy dose of gamma radiation leads to complete and satisfactory insect disinfestation of dates during a storage period of 9, 20 and 35 days. This study shows that the microbiological quality of Mazafaty dates can be significantly improved when they received a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The sugar content of irradiated and unirradiated samples have been compared. In this study, we also used gamma radiation treatment for the control of microbial spoilage of pistachio nuts caused by the toxogenic Aspergillus flavus. The freshly harvested pistachio nuts were inoculated with A. flavus spores and exposed to radiation treatment, then samples were retained in an environmental chamber, set at a temperature of 15-20 C at 75-80% relative humidity and stored for six months. In the second batch during the storage period the changes in protein, lipid content of pistachio nuts were analysed. (author)

  19. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r 2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: → we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. → We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. → Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. → Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  20. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  1. First report of Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, a seed parasite of pistachio, in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Longo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik.(Hymenoptera, E urytomidae, is a new pest recently arrived in pistachio orchards in central-western Sicily (Italy. Information on the damaging effects of this seed wasp in the affected areas is provided.

  2. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  3. Septoria-like pathogens causing leaf and fruit spot of pistachio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Sarpkaya, K.; Can, C.; Erkiliç, A.

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Septoria are associated with leaf and fruit spot of pistachio (Pistacia vera), though their identity has always been confused, making identification problematic. The present study elucidates the taxonomy of the Septoria spp. associated with pistachio, and distinguishes four

  4. First report of root rot caused by Phytopythium helicoides on pistachio rootstock in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined pathogenicity of Phytopythium helicoides on UCB-1 rootstock to investigate its role in root disease and collapse observed on potted pistachio plants. Approximately 25 potted 2-year-old pistachio rootstock trees in a Kern County, CA, research plot maintained outdoors and irrigated to cont...

  5. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behgar, M [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, S; Naserian, A [Faculty of Agriculture, Excellence Center in Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 917751163, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borzoie, A; Fatollahi, H [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r{sup 2} (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: > we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. > We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. > Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. > Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  6. 76 FR 65411 - Specialty Crops; Import Regulations; Proposed Pistachio Import Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ..., or E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected] . Small businesses may request... the proposed regulations, ``pistachio'' would mean the nut of the pistachio tree, Pistachia vera.... Pages 326-359. \\5\\ Eaton, David L.; Jennifer E. Hobden; and Bruce J. Kelman. 2002. Aflatoxin in...

  7. 77 FR 51686 - Specialty Crops; Import Regulations; New Pistachio Import Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... the new regulation, ``pistachio'' means the nut of the pistachio tree, Pistachia vera, whether inshell... Order No. 983. 2002. Pages 326-359. \\5\\ Eaton, David L.; Jennifer E. Hobden; and Bruce J. Kelman. 2002..., and New Mexico. AMS is committed to complying with the E-Government Act, to promote the use of the...

  8. An input-output energy analysis in pistachio nut production: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined the energy use pattern and energy input/output analysis of pistachio nut widely grown in the South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. For this purpose, data from pistachio nut production were collected in 61 farms from ten villages by a questionnaire which was selected according to their regional properties.

  9. Economic injury level of the psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae, on Pistachio, Pistacia vera cv. Ohadi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Hassani, Mohammad; Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Izadi, Hamzeh; Shojai, Mahmoud; Basirat, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    The pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a major pest of pistachio trees, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindalis: Anacardiaceae) throughout pistachio-producing regions in Iran. Different density levels of A. pistaciae nymphs were maintained on pistachio trees by different insecticide dosages to evaluate the relationship between nymph density and yield loss (weight of 1000 nuts). Psylla nymph densities were monitored weekly by counting nymphs on pistachio terminal leaflets. There was a significant reduction in weight of 1000 nuts as seasonal averages of nymphs increased. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between nymph density and weight of 1000 nuts. The economic injury levels varied as a function of market values, management costs, insecticide efficiency and yield loss rate and ranged from 7.7 to 30.7 nymphal days per terminal leaflet, based on weight of 1000 nuts.

  10. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenic reactivity of processed cashew and pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Sanchiz, Africa; Ballesteros, Isabel; Easson, Michael; Grimm, Casey C; Dieguez, M Carmen; Linacero, Rosario; Burbano, Carmen; Maleki, Soheila J

    2018-02-15

    Cashew and pistachio allergies are considered a serious health problem. Previous studies have shown that thermal processing, pressurization and enzymatic hydrolysis may reduce the allergenic properties of food by changing the protein structure. This study assesses the allergenic properties of cashew and pistachio after thermal treatment (boiling and autoclaving), with or without pressure (autoclaving), and multiple enzymatic treatments under sonication, by SDS-PAGE, western blot and ELISA, with serum IgE of allergic individuals, and mass spectroscopy. Autoclaving and enzymatic hydrolysis under sonication separately induced a measurable reduction in the IgE binding properties of pastes made from treated cashew and pistachio nuts. These treatments were more effective with pistachio allergens. However, heat combined with enzymatic digestion was necessary to markedly lower IgE binding to cashew allergens. The findings identify highly effective simultaneous processing conditions to reduce or even abolish the allergenic potency of cashew and pistachio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for prediction of the moisture content and hardness of Pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadi Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    of determination (R2, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP and the ratio of the standard deviation of the response variable to RMSEP (known as relative performance determinant (RPD were calculated. Results and discussion: Interpretation of hyperspectral data: The results showed that the spectra of the shell, the whole kernel and the internal part of the kernel have different patterns. The internal part of thekernel had 2 peaks at 630 nm and 690 nm, while the shell and the whole kernel had 1 peak at 670 nm and 720 nm, respectively and the peak of the whole kernel was sharper than that of the shell. The highest and lowest intensities were for the internal part of the kernel and the whole kernel, respectively. The spectral slope of the internal part is higher than that of the shell and the whole kernel at 500-700 nm. The effect of different pre-processing techniques and analysis on prediction of pistachio kernels properties: In the absence of pre-processing techniques, low correlation coefficients were observed for prediction of moisture content and hardness. However, with the use of pre-processing techniques, in some models, correlation coefficient and RPD increased and the RMSEP decreased. The results revealed that ANN models would predict moisture content and textural characteristics of roasted pistachio kernels better than PLSR models. Moisture content: ANN models can predict moisture content of roasted pistachio kernels better than PLSR models. In total, PLSR models showed low RPD and R2. For all samples, RPD was lower than 1.5, indicating that the developed models do not give an accurate prediction for moisture content. The best results with ANN method were achieved using a combination of SNV, wavelet and D1 for predicting moisture content with R2 =0.907 and RMSEP=0.179. Hardness: The results indicated that ANN models can predict the hardness better than PLSR models. The best results with PLSR models were achieved using a combination of SNV, wavelet and

  12. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  13. Fungi detoxification study from pistachio by non-ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Sadighzadeh, A; Dabbagh, R.

    1998-01-01

    4,6 and 10 minutes of microwaves exposure provides and effective and relatively rapid sterilization for different purposes in medicine and food industries for example sterilization of materials which have been contaminated with Aspergillus flavus (Pcc-5004) and Aspergillus parasiticus (Pcc-5018) which are producer of Aflatoxin especially on pistachios and other dried fruits. Microwaves exposure induces a morphological modification of the cells and germicidal effects of ultrasonic waves has been attributed to gaseous cavitation. There was a significant reduction in fungal growth compared with those under the control which decreased growth with increased microwave and ultrasound exposure time

  14. Prevention and Control of Fungi Contaminated Stored Pistachio Nuts Imported to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, Lubna Saleh

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the contamination risk of the improper storage of pistachio nuts was studied in the major location of Saudi Arabia by studying the fungi associated with non and salted pistachio nuts. The infection with Aspergillus flavus and A. niger and treatment of this infection with some abiotic factors , salting and fumigation with acetic acid on the invasion and colonization were also stu ded. High percentage infection (100%) were found in salted pistachio of Maidenhead , while low infection (68.75%) was found in non salted pistachio of Jihad. Referring to the total fungal counts (9845.5 and 5681.8 CFU/g nuts) were detected on malt extract yeast agar and rose bengal agar media respectively. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were found common in all pistachio samples collected from the three locations on the two media used. The both fungi were grew at temperatures between 20 and 35 degree C, also as the relative humidity increased the fungal growth increased reached its maximum at 100% RH. Sodium chloride at 20 and 25 % completely stopped the linear of the both fungi on malt yeast extract agar medium. Application of nuts with sodium chloride was found to increased the resistance of pistachio nut to invasion and colonization by the fungi during storage. Also, the resistance to invasion was increased by increasing the doses of fumigation with acetic acid applied to the pistachio nuts reached 0% infection at the higher dose of acetic acid (60%). (author)

  15. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.

  16. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  17. Influence of processing on the allergenic properties of pistachio nut assessed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Maleki, Soheila J; Nasiraii, Leila Roozbeh; Falak, Reza; Sima, Hamid Reza; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2010-09-22

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinctions between different cultivars of pistachio nut and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio protein extracts. The influence of different processes on allergenicity was investigated using competitive inhibition ELISA and Western blotting assays. The Western blotting results of extracts from pistachio cultivars showed no marked difference among them. The IgE-binding capacity was significantly lower for the protein extract prepared from steam-roasted than from raw and dry-roasted pistachio nuts. The results of sensory evaluation analysis and hedonic rating proved no significant differences in color, taste, flavor, and overall quality of raw, roasted, and steam-roasted pistachio nut treatments. The most significant finding of the present study was the successful reduction of IgE-binding by pistachio extracts using steam-roast processing without any significant changes in sensory quality of product.

  18. Prevention and Control of Fungi Contaminated Stored Pistachio Nuts Imported to Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawar, Lubna Saleh [Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the contamination risk of the improper storage of pistachio nuts was studied in the major location of Saudi Arabia by studying the fungi associated with non and salted pistachio nuts. The infection with Aspergillus flavus and A. niger and treatment of this infection with some abiotic factors , salting and fumigation with acetic acid on the invasion and colonization were also stu ded. High percentage infection (100%) were found in salted pistachio of Maidenhead , while low infection (68.75%) was found in non salted pistachio of Jihad. Referring to the total fungal counts (9845.5 and 5681.8 CFU/g nuts) were detected on malt extract yeast agar and rose bengal agar media respectively. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were found common in all pistachio samples collected from the three locations on the two media used. The both fungi were grew at temperatures between 20 and 35 degree C, also as the relative humidity increased the fungal growth increased reached its maximum at 100% RH. Sodium chloride at 20 and 25 % completely stopped the linear of the both fungi on malt yeast extract agar medium. Application of nuts with sodium chloride was found to increased the resistance of pistachio nut to invasion and colonization by the fungi during storage. Also, the resistance to invasion was increased by increasing the doses of fumigation with acetic acid applied to the pistachio nuts reached 0% infection at the higher dose of acetic acid (60%). (author)

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Wastewater of Pistachio Processing Terminals (Case Study: Kerman city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khademi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wastewaters resulting from seasonal processing such as pistachio processing industry are one of the most important factors of environmental pollution. High concentration of pollutants are the qualitative characteristics of wastewaters that due high consumption of water and energy resources as well as high levels production of waste have a good potential to realization of projects to reduce the environmental impacts and optimizing the consumption of energy resources.The aim of this study was to determine the wastewater̛ s quality and quantity of pistachio processing terminals. Methods: this study is cross-sectional study that has been implemented from mid –September until late October (pistachio harvest season in each of the years 2012-2013-2014 in Kerman.Firstely according to field study, the characteristics and location of 20 pistachio processing terminals were determined by a GPS device. Then 8 pistachio processing terminals were selected in around of wastewater collection system. Composite sampling method with total of 72 samples was done in each year during pistachio operation. Samples were conducted from pistachio processing wastewater screen filter outlet. In each of samples BOD5, COD, TSS, pH and Total phenolic were determined. Sampling and tests were done according to water and wastewater standard methods book (20th edition. Concentration of Phenolic compounds was measured by folin ciocaltive method. The Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: the average of total produced wastewater in pistachio processing terminals in this study was 85.9m3/d. The average BOD5, COD, TSS, Total phenolic and PH were 6106, 21570, 682, 4154 (mg/L and 5.5 respectively. Conclusion: The obtained results from raw wastewater of pistachio processing terminals showed they have high BOD and COD. This is caused by presentation of priority pollutants (phenolic compounds which have high potential in pollution and toxicity for discharging any

  20. Time-Series Analysis of U.S. Pistachio Export Demand in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zijuan; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2011-01-01

    This study identifys the main factors influencing U.S. pistachio export demand in North America-i.e., to Canada and Mexico. A double-log econometric model is estimated using data for 1989-2009. The main findings indicate that Canadian GDP, U.S. walnut export prices, and food safety concerns explain the majorityof the pistachio import demand variation in Canada, wheras Iranian pistachio export prices, the real exchange rate between the Mexican peso and the U.S. dollar, and U.S. pecan export pr...

  1. Comparative life cycle assessment of pistachio, almond and apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bartzas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA, with the use of GaBi 6 software and specific related databases, of three water intensive tree cultivation systems was conducted in order to evaluate environmental impacts and energy consumption. The tree crops are traditionally cultivated in two representative areas in Greece, namely Aegina island, Attica region, for pistachios and Agia, East Thessaly region, central Greece, for apples and almonds. The impact categories considered include global warming potential (GWP, eutrophication potential (EP, acidification potential (AP and cumulative energy demand (CED. Based upon the results obtained, it is deduced that pistachios and almonds show minor differences for all impact categories considered, while apples exhibit the best environmental profile. The phases of fertilizers production, irrigation system and field management were identified as the main “hot-spots” for all crops, exhibiting the highest environmental impacts and energy consumption. A sensitivity analysis was performed to explore actions that can be considered at farm scale, such as water desalination for irrigation purposes, transition to organic production and use of renewable energy, in order to reduce water requirements and promote energy conservation, especially in semi-arid and arid Mediterranean regions which suffer from water shortage and are prone to salinization. Finally, the results of this study were compared with the results derived from other relevant LCA studies.

  2. Expanded image database of pistachio x-ray images and classification by conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Le, Lan Chau; Casasent, David P.; Weber, David

    1996-12-01

    In order to develop sorting methods for insect damaged pistachio nuts, a large data set of pistachio x-ray images (6,759 nuts) was created. Both film and linescan sensor images were acquired, nuts dissected and internal conditions coded using the U.S. Grade standards and definitions for pistachios. A subset of 1199 good and 686 insect damaged nuts was used to calculate and test discriminant functions. Statistical parameters of image histograms were evaluated for inclusion by forward stepwise discrimination. Using three variables in the discriminant function, 89% of test set nuts were correctly identified. Comparable data for 6 human subjects ranged from 67 to 92%. If the loss of good nuts is held to 1% by requiring a high probability to discard a nut as insect damaged, approximately half of the insect damage present in clean pistachio nuts may be detected and removed by x-ray inspection.

  3. Photoprotection by pistachio bioactives in a 3-dimensional human skin equivalent tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Smith, Avi; Liu, Yuntao; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Garlick, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ultraviolet (UV) light exposure can induce skin damage and aging. Antioxidants can provide protection against oxidative injury to skin via "quenching" ROS. Using a validated 3-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent (HSE) tissue model that closely mimics human skin, we examined whether pistachio antioxidants could protect HSE against UVA-induced damage. Lutein and γ-tocopherol are the predominant lipophilic antioxidants in pistachios; treatment with these compounds prior to UVA exposure protected against morphological changes to the epithelial and connective tissue compartments of HSE. Pistachio antioxidants preserved overall skin thickness and organization, as well as fibroblast morphology, in HSE exposed to UVA irradiation. However, this protection was not substantiated by the analysis of the proliferation of keratinocytes and apoptosis of fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the basis of these discordant results and extend research into the potential role of pistachio bioactives promoting skin health.

  4. Probabilistic Identification of Spin Systems and their Assignments including Coil-Helix Inference as Output (PISTACHIO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Bahrami, Arash; Wang, Liya; Assadi, Amir; Markley, John L.

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel automated strategy (PISTACHIO) for the probabilistic assignment of backbone and sidechain chemical shifts in proteins. The algorithm uses peak lists derived from various NMR experiments as input and provides as output ranked lists of assignments for all signals recognized in the input data as constituting spin systems. PISTACHIO was evaluated by comparing its performance with raw peak-picked data from 15 proteins ranging from 54 to 300 residues; the results were compared with those achieved by experts analyzing the same datasets by hand. As scored against the best available independent assignments for these proteins, the first-ranked PISTACHIO assignments were 80-100% correct for backbone signals and 75-95% correct for sidechain signals. The independent assignments benefited, in a number of cases, from structural data (e.g. from NOESY spectra) that were unavailable to PISTACHIO. Any number of datasets in any combination can serve as input. Thus PISTACHIO can be used as datasets are collected to ascertain the current extent of secure assignments, to identify residues with low assignment probability, and to suggest the types of additional data needed to remove ambiguities. The current implementation of PISTACHIO, which is available from a server on the Internet, supports input data from 15 standard double- and triple-resonance experiments. The software can readily accommodate additional types of experiments, including data from selectively labeled samples. The assignment probabilities can be carried forward and refined in subsequent steps leading to a structure. The performance of PISTACHIO showed no direct dependence on protein size, but correlated instead with data quality (completeness and signal-to-noise). PISTACHIO represents one component of a comprehensive probabilistic approach we are developing for the collection and analysis of protein NMR data

  5. Application of PistachioWaste as Organic Manure in Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahin Daneshmandi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant residuals and waste products of agricultural crops form organic fertilizer sources that are traditionally used as organic manure. From 230000 t of dry pistachios produced in 2014, more than 766000 t waste was generated and a large part was to pistachio orchards in fertile regions to be used as organic manure. This study investigated the positive and negative effects of the used of pistachio waste as organic fertilizer over two consecutive years in the form of statistical designs for compound decomposition (overtime. The results indicate that if pistachio waste accumulates without being disinfected, it is a suitable environment for the growth and activity of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. The presence of aflatoxin G2 was confirmed in the pistachio waste (0.028 μg, but this contamination did not exist in the soil of the orchard to which the pistachio waste was added. The addition of waste to soil significantly reduced the EC and pH and increased the levels of Zn, P, and K by 270%, 195%, and 89.5%, respectively, in comparison with the control. The level of B did not differ significantly at between treatments. The results suggest that adding pistachio waste to soil enriches it with elements that are directly absorbable by pistachio trees, but it is necessary for the waste to be disinfected with proper fungicides to prevent development of toxin contamination. Furthermore, to recover the decomposability of soil, application of waste to orchards with intervals of twice or three times a year is recommended.

  6. Probabilistic Identification of Spin Systems and their Assignments including Coil-Helix Inference as Output (PISTACHIO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R., E-mail: eghbalni@nmrfam.wisc.edu; Bahrami, Arash; Wang, Liya [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States); Assadi, Amir [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Mathematics Department (United States); Markley, John L [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2005-07-15

    We present a novel automated strategy (PISTACHIO) for the probabilistic assignment of backbone and sidechain chemical shifts in proteins. The algorithm uses peak lists derived from various NMR experiments as input and provides as output ranked lists of assignments for all signals recognized in the input data as constituting spin systems. PISTACHIO was evaluated by comparing its performance with raw peak-picked data from 15 proteins ranging from 54 to 300 residues; the results were compared with those achieved by experts analyzing the same datasets by hand. As scored against the best available independent assignments for these proteins, the first-ranked PISTACHIO assignments were 80-100% correct for backbone signals and 75-95% correct for sidechain signals. The independent assignments benefited, in a number of cases, from structural data (e.g. from NOESY spectra) that were unavailable to PISTACHIO. Any number of datasets in any combination can serve as input. Thus PISTACHIO can be used as datasets are collected to ascertain the current extent of secure assignments, to identify residues with low assignment probability, and to suggest the types of additional data needed to remove ambiguities. The current implementation of PISTACHIO, which is available from a server on the Internet, supports input data from 15 standard double- and triple-resonance experiments. The software can readily accommodate additional types of experiments, including data from selectively labeled samples. The assignment probabilities can be carried forward and refined in subsequent steps leading to a structure. The performance of PISTACHIO showed no direct dependence on protein size, but correlated instead with data quality (completeness and signal-to-noise). PISTACHIO represents one component of a comprehensive probabilistic approach we are developing for the collection and analysis of protein NMR data.

  7. Effect of electrostatic field on dynamic friction coefficient of pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Aghkhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Separation and grading of agricultural products from the production to supply, has notable importance. The separation can be done based on physical, electrical, magnetic, optical properties and etc. It is necessary for any development of new systems to study enough on the properties and behavior of agricultural products. Some characteristics for separation are size (length, width and thickness, hardness, shape, density, surface roughness, color, speed limit, aerodynamic properties, electrical conductivity, elasticity and coefficient of static friction point. So far, the friction properties of agricultural products used in the separating process, but the effect of electrostatic charging on static and dynamic coefficients of friction for separation had little attention. The aim of this study was to find out the interactions between electrostatic and friction properties to find a way to separate products that separation is not possible with conventional methods or not sufficiently accurate. In this paper, the separation of close and smiley pistachios by electrostatic charging was investigated. Materials and Methods: Kallehghoochi pistachio cultivar has the top rank in production in Iran. Therefore, it was used as a sample. The experimental design that used in this study, had moisture content at three levels (24.2, 14.5 and 8.1 percent, electric field intensity at three levels (zero, 4000 and 7000 V, speed of movement on the surface at three levels (1300, 2500 and 3300 mm per minute, friction surface (galvanized sheet iron, aluminum and flat rubber and pistachio type at two levels (filled splits and closed that was measured and analyzed in completely randomized factorial design. A friction measuring device (built in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad used to measure the friction force. It has a removable table that can move in two directions with adjustable speed. The test sample put into the vessel with internal dimensions of 300 × 150

  8. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Jesús R; Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, ma...

  9. Economic Investigation of Poverty and Income Distribution in Pistachio Cultivating Areas of Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sedaghat

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of poverty and income in equality are the most important subjects of social/ economic research in agriculture sector. The present study focuses on poverty and income inequality among pistachio growers in Kerman province. Absolute poverty line, relative poverty line, poverty gap and intensity were calculated. Also income distribution was investigated using Ginny coefficient, Lorenz curve and income distribution index. The statistical community was all pistachio producers in Kerman province. Data collected through personally interviewing of 200 producer, using multi-stage cluster random sampling, during 2012-2015 cropping years. The results showed that absolute poverty line for pistachio growers in Kerman province was 24000000 (10 Rials while, relative poverty line was 64922675(10 Rials, annually. Results also indicated that 30 percent of farmers were suffering from absolute poverty while, 57 percent from relative poverty. Income gap for poor pistachio growers under absolute poverty was 0.48, but for poor pistachio growers under relative poverty was 0.60. According to Lorenz curve, Ginny coefficient of 0.66 and income distribution index, it can be concluded that there is an un-fair income distribution among pistachio growers in study area. Finally supporting capital availability specially for small scale poor farmers through low interest credit, production subsidies and national development funds is suggested.

  10. Proposal of Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov., pathogenic to pistachio (Pistacia vera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblot-Ducray, Danièle; Marefat, Alireza; Gillings, Michael R; Parkinson, Neil M; Bowman, John P; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Taylor, Cathy; Facelli, Evelina; Scott, Eileen S

    2009-12-01

    Strains of Xanthomonas translucens have caused dieback in the Australian pistachio industry for the last 15 years. Such pathogenicity to a dicotyledonous woody host contrasts with that of other pathovars of X. translucens, which are characterized by their pathogenicity to monocotyledonous plant families. Further investigations, using DNA-DNA hybridization, gyrB gene sequencing and integron screening, were conducted to confirm the taxonomic status of the X. translucens pathogenic to pistachio. DNA-DNA hybridization provided a clear classification, at the species level, of the pistachio pathogen as a X. translucens. In the gyrB-based phylogeny, strains of the pistachio pathogen clustered among the X. translucens pathovars as two distinct lineages. Integron screening revealed that the cassette arrays of strains of the pistachio pathogen were different from those of other Xanthomonas species, and again distinguished two groups. Together with previously reported pathogenicity data, these results confirm that the pistachio pathogen is a new pathovar of X. translucens and allow hypotheses about its origin. The proposed name is Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov.

  11. New approach to the calculation of pistachio powder hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolipour, Hamid; Mokhtarian, Mohsen

    2016-04-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms for pistachio powder were determined by gravimetric method at temperatures of 15, 25, 35 and 40°C. A selected mathematical models were tested to determine the best suitable model to predict isotherm curve. The results show that Caurie model had the most satisfactory goodness of fit. Also, another purpose of this research was to introduce a new methodology to determine the amount of hysteresis at different temperatures by using best predictive model of isotherm curve based on definite integration method. The results demonstrated that maximum hysteresis is related to the multi-layer water (in the range of water activity 0.2-0.6) which corresponds to the capillary condensation region and this phenomenon decreases with increasing temperature.

  12. Evaluation of Freezing Damage in some Pistachio Seedling Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Afrousheh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the freezing damage in some pistachio rootstocks by ion leakage and pH changes of leaked solution. A factorial experiment was carried out in randomized block designs (RBD with three factors: Temperature (A including 4 ̊C, 0 ̊C, -2 ̊C, -4 ̊C, -6 ̊C, Time (B including 3, 12, 24h , and Rootstock (C including P. vera cv 'Badami Zarand' (V13 and 'Sarakhs' (S5, P. mutica (M1and P. atlantica (A7. For this, one-year-old seedlings were kept at these five temperatures in incubator for 2 hours. Then in the first 24 hours in three hour intervals and during four days, EC and pH in leaked solution were measured daily. After four days the seedling samples were autoclaved at temperatures 105°C for 4 minutes to destroy all cell membrane. EC and pH of remaining solution were measured again and the percentage of ionic leakage was calculated. The results showed that the best time to evaluate the pH and ionic leakage was 24 hours after incubation of samples. Based on the results, ionic leakage dramatically increased with decreasing temperatures from 0°C to -6°C, while pH of leaked solution had no significant difference in 0°C and 4°C temperature treatments. When temperature reduced from 0°C to -6°C, like ionic leakage, pH greatly reduced. So the pH of the leaked solution could be an appropriate tool to study the freezing damage of pistachio rootstocks. Based on the results of pH and ionic leakage, P. mutica and P. atlantica were the most frost tolerant and sensitive rootstocks of this experiment, respectively.

  13. Efficiency of Elite Fungicide for Control of Pistachio Gummosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moradi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Phytophthora cause crown and root rot diseases of herbaceous and woody plants. Crown and root rot of pistachio trees cause significant damages in infected orchards. The effect of foliar application with Elite (fosetyl-Al in 2 and 2.5 g/l was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The frequency of mortality, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, height, intensity of crown root colonization using CAMA-PARP medium was determined. Under greenhouse experiments, foliar application with Elite increased height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and root either in inoculation with and without Phytophthora drechsleri. The effects of Elite were more pronounced in roots, which increased the fresh and dry weight of root 1.3 and 2.5 times compared to those not sprayed with Elite, respectively. On the other hand, the application of Elite before or on the day of inoculation significantly reduced the frequency of mortality, which ranged from 35 to 90% (P ≤ 0.01. Crown and root colonization of pistachio seedling was affected by both the concentration of Elite and reduced the frequency of crown and root colonization of seedling. When fungicide and pathogen were applied at the same time, the frequency of colonization reduced to 18% and 36% for 2 and 2.5 g/l, respectively, and 43% and 60% when seedlings were treated with fungicide before P. drechsleri inoculations. The highest effect was seen in foliar application of Elite seven days before inoculation in 2.5 g/l. Further investigations have been conducted to understand the effect of Elite in infected trees as well as modeling of Elite application via soil drench, foliar application or trunk injection.

  14. Determine the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio in arid and semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Hadi; Suzuki, Rikie

    2012-11-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas of northeast Iran cover about 3.4 million ha are populated by two main tree species, the broadleaf Pistacia vera. L (pistachio) and the conifer Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos (Persian juniper). Natural stands of pistachio in Iran are not only environmentally important but genetically essential as seed sources for pistachio production in orchards. In this study, we estimated the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper forests and natural pistachio stands using remote sensing to help in the sustainable management and production of pistachio in Iran. In this research spectral reflectance are able to specify of multispectral from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) that provided by JAXA. These data included PRISM is a panchromatic radiometer with a 2.5 m spatial resolution at nadir, has one band with a wavelength of 0.52-0.77 μm and AVNIR-2 is a visible and near infrared radiometer for observing land and coastal zones with a 10 m spatial resolution at nadir, has four multispectral bands: blue (0.42-0.50 μm), green (0.52-0.60 μm), red (0.61-0.69 μm), and near infrared (0.76-0.89 μm). Total ratio vegetation index (TRVI) of optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio have been evaluated. The result of TRVI for Pistachio and juniper were (R2= 0.71 and 0.55). I hope this research can provide decision of managers to helping sustainable management for arid and semi-arid regions in Iran.

  15. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; Bouche, R.E. (R. el); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); H. de Groot (Hans); H.J. Wichers; A.E.J. Dubois; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  16. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Bouche, el R.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Groot, de H.; Wichers, H.J.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Jong, de N.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  17. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; el Bouche, R.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; de Groot, H.; Wichers, H. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment

  18. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    and a higher proportion of self-reported illness and are in higher risk of health problems and morbidity than their Danish counterparts. Furthermore, their health differences increase more by age. The research project aimed at finding possible explanations for these differences among Turkish and ethnic Danish......Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments...... elderly people by studying the every day life of elderly Turkish migrants. Methods Qualitative interviews were carried out with 12 Turkish men and 18 women aged 54-80. The interviews had a focus on their health practices and health perceptions in a life history perspective. The interviews were...

  19. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of pistachio trees in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, H.; Sarcheshmehpour, M.; Mafi, E.

    2015-07-01

    Over the growing seasons of 2011–2013, various pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cv. Fandoghi, and wild pistachio (P. atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica) trees were inspected in Iran to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with specific reference to species of Phaeoacremonium and Botryosphaeriaceae spp. Samples were collected from branches of trees exhibiting yellowing, defoliation, canker and dieback, as well as wood discoloration in cross sections. Fungal trunk pathogens were identified using morphological and cultural characteristics as well as comparisons of DNA sequence data of the ITS and TEF-1α (for Botryosphaeriaceae species) and β-tubulin gene (for Phaeoacremonium species) regions. Phaeoacremonium parasiticum was the dominant species followed by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Neofusicoccum parvum, Phaeoacremonium cinereum, Phaeoacremonium viticola and Dothiorella viticola. Pathogenicity tests were undertaken to determine the role of these species on pistachio under field conditions. Neofusicoccum parvum and Pm. aleophilum caused the longest and smallest lesions respectively. This study represents the first report on the occurrence and pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium species on P. vera cv. Fandoghi. This also represents the first report of Pleurostomophora sp. on pistachio and Pm. parasiticum and D. viticola on wild pistachio. (Author)

  20. Influence of genotype and crop year in the chemometrics of almond and pistachio oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán, Adrián; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Gómez, Ricardo; de Miguel, Concepción; Pardo, José E

    2018-04-01

    Almond and pistachio oils can be considered as interesting products to produce and commercialize owing to their health-promoting properties. However, these properties are not consistent because of the differences that appear in oils as a result of the genotype and the crop year. The analysis of these variations and their origin is decisive in ensuring the commercial future prospects of these nut oils. Although significant variability has been reported in almond and pistachio oils as a result of the crop year and the interaction between crop year and genotype, the genotype itself remains the main factor determining oil chemometrics. Oil fatty acid profile has been mainly determined by the genotype, with the exception of palmitic fatty acid in pistachio oil. However, the crop year affects the concentration of some minor components of crucial nutritional interest as total polyphenols and phytosterols. Regarding reported differences in oil, some almond and pistachio genotypes should be prioritized for oil extraction. Breeding programmes focused on the improvement of specific characteristics of almond and pistachio oils should focus on chemical parameters mainly determined by the genotype. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The effect of acoustic and solar energy on drying process of pistachios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this research, accelerated drying of pistachios under open sun by applying power ultrasound was investigated. ► No constant falling rate period of drying was observed. ► By applying the 20 kHz ultrasound about 17 W/kg, the drying period could be reduced to 4 h. - Abstract: A new approach of ultrasound-assisted sun drying was tested in this study using a flat bed as product support and two extensional piezoelectric Bolt-clamped 20 kHz transducer elements. The mono layer of moist unshelled pistachios was dried under open sun by applying 500 and 1000 W power ultrasound. The results showed that the Page model was found to be the most suitable for describing drying curve of pistachios. But, the Logarithmic model was described to satisfactorily drying curve of pistachios for open sun method when the ultrasound power was turned off. By applying the ultrasound about 17 W/kg moist pistachios in thin layer, the drying period could be reduced to 4 h

  2. Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-15

    The present study evaluated the quality of pistachio oil, as a function of irradiation, to determine the dose level causing undesirable changes to pistachio oil. Physicochemical fatty acid composition, acidity value, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and colour of pistachio oil extracted from samples treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation were determined. Gamma irradiation caused the alteration of fatty acids of pistachio oil which showed a decrease in oleic acid (C18:1) and an increase in linoleic acid (C18:2). All other fatty acids remained unaffected after irradiation. The higher used doses (2 and 3 kGy) decreased acidity value, peroxide value and iodine value, and increased specification number, with no effect on TBA value. Irradiation had a significant effect on colour values of pistachio oil. Parameters L, a and b increased at doses of 1 and 2 kGy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors affecting cadmium absorbed by pistachio kernel in calcareous soils, southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, H; Hosseinifard, S J; Hashemipour, H

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) which does not have a biological role is one of the most toxic heavy metals for organisms. This metal enters environment through industrial processes and fertilizers. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationships between absorbed Cd by pistachio kernel and some of soil physical and chemical characteristics using modeling by stepwise regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in calcareous soils in Rafsanjan region, southeast of Iran. For these purposes, 220 pistachio orchards were selected, and soil samples were taken from two depths of 0-40 and 40-80cm. Besides, fruit and leaf samples from branches with and without fruit were taken in each sampling point. The results showed that affecting factors on absorbed Cd by pistachio kernel which were obtained by regression method (pH and clay percent) were not interpretable, and considering unsuitable vales of determinant coefficient (R 2 ) and Root Mean Squares Error (RMSE), the model did not have sufficient validity. However, ANN modeling was highly accurate and reliable. Based on its results, soil available P and Zn and soil salinity were the most important factors affecting the concentration of Cd in pistachio kernel in pistachio growing areas of Rafsanjan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  5. New practical method for evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad; Tavakoli, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer with a new feasible method. → Using thermophysical properties of air and matter. → This manner could be utilized in similar dryer for other agricultural products. → Method shows the heat loss and power separately. -- Abstract: Testing a dryer is necessary to evaluate its absolute and comparative performance with other dryers. A conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer was tested by a new practical method of mass and energy equilibrium. Results showed that the average power consumption and heat loss in three tests are 62.13 and 18.99 kW, respectively. The ratio of heat loss on power consumption showed that the efficiency of practical pistachios flat plate dryer is about 69.4%.

  6. Evaluation and Comparison of Three Types of Pistachio Hullers Used in Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afzali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate different pistachio hullers and determine the proper harvest time of pistachio nuts for hulling. Three pistachio hulling machines (Helical drum, Helical- blade drum, Rubber drum at three harvest times and 15 days interval were evaluated. The hulling efficiency, percentage of damaged nuts, faulty hulled nuts and unhulled nuts were measured at each time interval. A factorial experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data were compared using analyses of variance and employing Duncan's multiple range test. The results showed that the interaction effect of hulling machine type and harvesting time on the hulling efficiency and nut damage in the outlet of hull and nut was significant at the five percent level (p

  7. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( Ppistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( Ppistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  8. New practical method for evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad [Agri Machinery Engineering, Ilam University, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Teymur [Agri Machinery Engineering, Tarbyat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer with a new feasible method. {yields} Using thermophysical properties of air and matter. {yields} This manner could be utilized in similar dryer for other agricultural products. {yields} Method shows the heat loss and power separately. -- Abstract: Testing a dryer is necessary to evaluate its absolute and comparative performance with other dryers. A conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer was tested by a new practical method of mass and energy equilibrium. Results showed that the average power consumption and heat loss in three tests are 62.13 and 18.99 kW, respectively. The ratio of heat loss on power consumption showed that the efficiency of practical pistachios flat plate dryer is about 69.4%.

  9. Neural net classification of x-ray pistachio nut data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Sipe, Michael A.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Keagy, Pamela M.; Le, Lan Chau

    1996-12-01

    Classification results for agricultural products are presented using a new neural network. This neural network inherently produces higher-order decision surfaces. It achieves this with fewer hidden layer neurons than other classifiers require. This gives better generalization. It uses new techniques to select the number of hidden layer neurons and adaptive algorithms that avoid other such ad hoc parameter selection problems; it allows selection of the best classifier parameters without the need to analyze the test set results. The agriculture case study considered is the inspection and classification of pistachio nuts using x- ray imagery. Present inspection techniques cannot provide good rejection of worm damaged nuts without rejecting too many good nuts. X-ray imagery has the potential to provide 100% inspection of such agricultural products in real time. Only preliminary results are presented, but these indicate the potential to reduce major defects to 2% of the crop with 1% of good nuts rejected. Future image processing techniques that should provide better features to improve performance and allow inspection of a larger variety of nuts are noted. These techniques and variations of them have uses in a number of other agricultural product inspection problems.

  10. Residue Levels and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Pistachio Nuts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Emami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pistachio is one of the main nutrients, not only as a strategic crop but also as a main type of nut, in Iranians’ food cycle. The aim of this study was to measure the relative safety of Iranian pistachio based on the standard pesticide’s residue limits, which should be monitored and assessed in the cultivation of pistachio in order to confirm its public health. Methods: Fifty samples of pistachios of different brands were collected from Tehran markets in 2015. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe sampling method was used in order to determine the pesticide’s residue in the pistachio nuts by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS.The method was validated with related parameters. Recovery took place at five concentration rates (n=3 ranging from 81.40% to 93.08% with the majority of RelativeStandard Deviation being lower than 20%. Limits of detection and quantification for all the pesticides were 2µg/kg and10µg/kg, respectively. The validated method seemed to be appropriate for the analysis of pesticide’s residue in pistachio nuts. Results: Identified pesticides included Fenitrothion, Carbaryl and Diazinon. Detectable pesticide’s residue existed in 10% (5 samples of the samples. Conclusion: All the results were compared with the Iran’s National Standards and the European Maximum Residue Limits. As compared to the acceptable daily intake, the calculated daily intake of each pesticide was much lower than the standard level, which could not cause any public health problem.

  11. In Vivo and in Vitro Micrografting of Pistachio, Pistacia vera L. cv. "Siirt"

    OpenAIRE

    ONAY, Ahmet; PİRİNÇ, Vedat; ADIYAMAN, Filiz; IŞIKALAN, Çiğdem; TİLKAT, Engin; BAŞARAN, Davut

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the success of in vivo and in vitro micrografts of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. "Siirt") materials are presented. The only variable tested was age (1, 5, 10, and 30-year-old trees). Ten- to 12-day-old axenic seedlings germinated in vitro or seedlings (3 to 5 months-old) grown in pots in vivo were used as rootstocks. Shoot tips collected from the four age classes of mature trees of pistachio were the source of scions. Firm contact between the scion and roots...

  12. Shell supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  13. Regression Association Analysis of Yield-Related Traits with RAPD Molecular Markers in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mirzaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pistachio (Pistacia vera, a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food. Pistacia vera often is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are also known as pistachio. These other species can be distinguished by their geographic distributions and their seeds which are much smaller and have a soft shell. Continual advances in crop improvement through plant breeding are driven by the available genetic diversity. Therefore, the recognition and measurement of such diversity is crucial to breeding programs. In the past 20 years, the major effort in plant breeding has changed from quantitative to molecular genetics with emphasis on quantitative trait loci (QTL identification and marker assisted selection (MAS. The germplasm-regression-combined association studies not only allow mapping of genes/QTLs with higher level of confidence, but also allow detection of genes/QTLs, which will otherwise escape detection in linkage-based QTL studies based on the planned populations. The development of the marker-based technology offers a fast, reliable, and easy way to perform multiple regression analysis and comprise an alternative approach to breeding in diverse species of plants. The availability of many makers and morphological traits can help to regression analysis between these markers and morphological traits. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 genotypes of Pistachio were studied and yield related traits were measured. Young well-expanded leaves were collected for DNA extraction and total genomic DNA was extracted. Genotyping was performed using 15 RAPD primers and PCR amplification products were visualized by gel electrophoresis. The reproducible RAPD fragments were scored on the basis of present (1 or absent (0 bands and a binary matrix constructed using each molecular marker. Association analysis between

  14. Why Should Bilingualized Dictionary of Turkish Be Used in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami

    2018-01-01

    The first person to learn Turkish as a foreign language is a Chinese woman writing Turkish love letters for her exiled husband in the 4th century. However, we do not know much about how this woman learned Turkish. The known history of teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language goes back to the first concrete material produced for this process. They…

  15. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celenk, O.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The

  16. Food Safety Concerns and other Factors Affecting Iran’s Pistachio Exports to EU, Australia, and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashktorab, Niloofar; Saghaian, Sayed Hossein; Shahnoushi, Naser

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of food safety concerns on Iran’s pistachio export demand was investigated. Panel data and panel cointegration analyses were used to estimate the export demand function of Iran’s pistachio nuts to the European Union (EU), Japan, and Australia for the period of 1997 to 2006 so that the relationship between factors affecting Iran’s pistachio exports can be examined. The results show the existence of long-run relationships among the variables that have a significant imp...

  17. Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ibrahim; Baltaci, Yasemin; Bagci, Cahit; Davutoglu, Vedat; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Ozer, Orhan; Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nuts have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering. We aimed to investigate effect of the Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) on blood glucose, lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidation in healthy young men living in a controlled environment. A Mediterranean diet was administered to normolipidemic 32 healthy young men (mean age 22 y, range 21-24) for 4 wk. After 4 wk, participants continued to receive the Mediterranean diet but pistachio was added for 4 wk by replacing the monounsaturated fat content constituting approximately 20% of daily caloric intake. Fasting blood samples and brachial endothelial function measurements were performed at baseline and after each diet. Compared with the Mediterranean diet, the pistachio diet decreased glucose (Ppistachio diet significantly improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation (P=0.002, 30% relative increase), decreased serum interleukin-6, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and malondialdehyde and increased superoxide dismutase (Ppistachio diet improved blood glucose level, endothelial function, and some indices of inflammation and oxidative status in healthy young men. These findings are in accordance with the idea that nuts, in particular pistachio nuts, have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering that deserve to be evaluated with prospective follow-up studies. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Sustainability of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) in Zagros forests, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza Pourreza; John D. Shaw; Hoshang Zangeneh

    2008-01-01

    Wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) is the most economically important tree species in many rural areas in the west of Iran. The species produces resin used for a wide variety of traditional uses. Because the resin can be harvested non-destructively, the trees are maintained until mortality occurs from natural causes. The result is that natural...

  19. Composition and properties of virgin pistachio oils and their by-products from different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Amador, Rosa M; Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, María Desamparados

    2018-02-01

    Pistachios (Pistacia vera) exhibit an interesting nutritional value, due to the high content of oleic acid and minor components with antioxidant and bioactive properties. This work aimed to characterize pistachio virgin oils and their partially defatted residual cakes, obtained from eight cultivars (Aegina, Avdat, Kastel, Kerman, Larnaka, Mateur, Napoletana, and Sirora). Interesting results on phenolics, tocopherols and antioxidant activity were observed, which were greatly affected by variety. Pistachio virgin oils are rich in healthy oleic acid (55-74%), phytosterols (3200-7600mg/kg) and γ-tocopherol (550-720mg/kg). A high content of phenolic compounds (8600-15000mg/kg gallic acid equivalents) and the corresponding antioxidant activities (12-46 and 155-496mmol/kg for DPPH and ORAC) of the residual cakes demonstrate their potential applications as functional ingredients and as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Moreover, virgin pistachio oils possess peculiar and pleasant sensory characteristics, contributing greater added value to the consumers compared to refined vegetable oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Catalán, Luis; Carrasco, Jaime; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego; Pardo, José

    2016-08-01

    This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non-supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt(-1) , when applied to the 15 g kg(-1) compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Survey the Effect of Pistachio Waste Composting Process with Different Treatments on Concentration of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Composting is one of the pistachio wastes management methods. In the appropriate compost production nutrients and heavy metals are determinant. The aim of this study is survey the effect of pistachio wastes composting process with different treatments on the concentration of heavy metals. Methods: In this study, during the 60-day pistachio wastes composting process with two treatments of dewatered sewage sludge and cow manure, pH, EC, carbon to nitrogen ratio, Heavy metals and nutrients indicators were studied. The results were compared with WHO and Iranian National standard. Drawing the diagrams by Excel software (Version 2007 and Statistical analysis was performed by Spss Software (version 20 at a significance level of 0.005.  Results: During the 60-day composting pH initially had downward trend and then increased. The Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and C/N ratio had downward trend and the EC, Na, K had increasing trend. Eventually, Iron, zinc, copper and manganese were less than the standard, Sodium was in Standard range and potassium was more than specified standards in the produced compost from pistachios waste with both treatments.  Conclusion: The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals and nutrients in the produced compost with both treatments were in the acceptable range. Eventually quality of produced compost with cow manure treatment due to better decomposition and greater stability was better than processed compost with dewatered sewage sludge treatment.

  2. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis.

  3. Discovery of viruses and virus-like pathogens in pistachio using high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees from the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) and orchards in California were surveyed for viruses and virus-like agents by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Analyses of 60 trees including clonal UCB-1 hybrid rootstock (P. atlantica × P. integerrima) identif...

  4. Detection of Variation in Long-Term Micropropagated Mature Pistachio via DNA-Based Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Hülya; Suzerer, Veysel; Tilkat, Engin; Onay, Ahmet; Çiftçi, Yelda Ozden

    2016-12-01

    Determination of genetic stability of in vitro-grown plantlets is needed for safe and large-scale production of mature trees. In this study, genetic variation of long-term micropropagated mature pistachio developed through direct shoot bud regeneration using apical buds (protocol A) and in vitro-derived leaves (protocol B) was assessed via DNA-based molecular markers. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were employed, and the obtained PIC values from RAPD (0.226), ISSR (0.220), and AFLP (0.241) showed that micropropagation of pistachio for different periods of time resulted in "reasonable polymorphism" among donor plant and its 18 clones. Mantel's test showed a consistence polymorphism level between marker systems based on similarity matrices. In conclusion, this is the first study on occurrence of genetic variability in long-term micropropagated mature pistachio plantlets. The obtained results clearly indicated that different marker approaches used in this study are reliable for assessing tissue culture-induced variations in long-term cultured pistachio plantlets.

  5. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Ghani; Manshoori, Azita; Goujani, Reza; Vazirinejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4) and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6), respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother's residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  6. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Razi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. METHODS This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. RESULTS The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4 and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6, respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother’s residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  7. Investigation of Fluoride Removal Efficiency from Aqueous Solution by Pistachio and Almonds Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khodadadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride and its compounds are widely used in industries and then through effluent are released into the environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Efficiency of low cost adsorbents (pistachios coal in the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions.  Methods: For the preparation of adsorbent, crust of pistachios deride, then washed with distilled water, then powder in the furnace for burning for 2 hours at temperatures of 500, 600, and 700 °C. The effect of changing pH, burning temperature of adsorbent, stirring speed, initial concentration of fluoride, retention time and adsorbent dose was studied. Concentration of fluoride measured according to standard method using spectrophotometer the data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: The results of these experiments showed that the burning adsorbent, temperature 500 ° C, PH of solution in the neutral range (pH = 7, adsorbent dose of 2 g/L for absorbing almonds and adsorbent dose of 3 g pistachio, contact time of 40 minutes for both adsorbent, initial fluoride concentration (5ppm for both absorbent without mixing, the optimal conditions for the efficiency of the absorber is as much as 90-80 percent. Discussion: According to the results, pistachio coal can be used with high efficiency for fluoride removal. 

  8. Design, development and evaluation of an online grading system for peeled pistachios equipped with machine vision technology and support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nouri-Ahmadabadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an intelligent system based on combined machine vision (MV and Support Vector Machine (SVM was developed for sorting of peeled pistachio kernels and shells. The system was composed of conveyor belt, lighting box, camera, processing unit and sorting unit. A color CCD camera was used to capture images. The images were digitalized by a capture card and transferred to a personal computer for further analysis. Initially, images were converted from RGB color space to HSV color ones. For segmentation of the acquired images, H-component in the HSV color space and Otsu thresholding method were applied. A feature vector containing 30 color features was extracted from the captured images. A feature selection method based on sensitivity analysis was carried out to select superior features. The selected features were presented to SVM classifier. Various SVM models having a different kernel function were developed and tested. The SVM model having cubic polynomial kernel function and 38 support vectors achieved the best accuracy (99.17% and then was selected to use in online decision-making unit of the system. By launching the online system, it was found that limiting factors of the system capacity were related to the hardware parts of the system (conveyor belt and pneumatic valves used in the sorting unit. The limiting factors led to a distance of 8 mm between the samples. The overall accuracy and capacity of the sorter were obtained 94.33% and 22.74 kg/h, respectively. Keywords: Pistachio kernel, Sorting, Machine vision, Sensitivity analysis, Support vector machine

  9. Greek-Turkish Crises since 1955. Implications for Greek-Turkish Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS GREEK-TURKISH CRISES SINCE 1955. IMPLICATIONS FOR GREEK-TURKISH CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by...EU, WEU) have only to gain from a Greek-Turkish rapprochement. 14. SUBJECT TERMS GrEek-Turkish RElATiONS, CRiSiS MANAgEMENT, CONfLICT management 15...crises, because the intended outcome of mediation attempts has been regional stability instead of Greek-Turkish conflict management . Power mediation

  10. Effect of pistachio consumption on plasma lipoprotein subclasses in pre-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, P; Salas-Salvadó, J; Baldrich-Mora, M; Mallol, R; Correig, X; Bulló, M

    2015-04-01

    Nuts have been demonstrated to improve several cardiovascular risk factors and the lipid profile in diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects. However, analysis of conventional serum lipid profiles does not completely explain the atherogenic risk associated with pre-diabetes. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio modifies the lipoprotein subclasses to a healthier profile in pre-diabetic subjects. Randomized cross-over clinical trial in 54 subjects with pre-diabetes. Subjects consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber and saturated fatty acids. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed to determine changes in plasma lipoprotein subclasses. Small low-density lipoprotein particles (sLDL-P) significantly decreased after pistachio consumption compared to the nut-free diet (P = 0.023). The non-high-density lipoprotein particles (non-HDL-P i.e. VLDL-P plus LDL-P) significantly decreased under the PD compared to CD (P = 0.041). The percentage of sHDL-P increased by 2.23% after the PD compared with a reduction of 0.08% after the CD (P = 0.014). Consequently, the overall size of HDL-P significantly decreased in the PD (P = 0.007). Chronic pistachio consumption could modify the lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations independently of changes in total plasma lipid profile, which may help to explain the decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with those individuals who frequently consumed nuts. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01441921. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. More pistachio nuts for improving the blood lipid profile. Systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2016-05-06

    Recent evidence suggests that regular intake of nuts may be associated with reduction of all-cause mortality, especially cardiovascular deaths. Among all types of nuts, pistachio displays the most favorable dietary composition. Therefore, we searched Medline and ISI Web of Science to identify interventional studies which evaluated changes of conventional blood lipids after replacing part of normal caloric intake with pistachio nuts in humans. Overall, 9 studies were finally included in our systematical literature review (4 randomized crossover, 3 randomized controlled and 3 prospective). In 6/9 (67%) interventional studies total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased. In all studies total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (7/7; 100%) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (6/6; 100%) decreased after replacing caloric intake with pistachio nuts for not less than 3 weeks. A significant reduction of triglycerides could only be observed in 2 out of 8 studies (25%). Even more importantly, in no interventional study the intake of pistachio nuts was associated with unfavorable changes of the lipid profile. The results of our literature search provide solid evidence that intake of pistachio nuts may exerts favorable effects on the traditional blood profile, provided that their consumption does not increase the habitual or recommended daily caloric intake. It seems also reasonable to suggest that further studies aimed to investigate the favorable effects of nuts on human diseases should distinguish between one type and the others, since the different nuts exhibit unique dietary composition and may hence produce distinctive biological effects in humans.

  12. Experimental study of pistachio drying behavior in a mixed-mode PV operated forced convection solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangiabadi, B [Univ. of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Ameri, M; Mahmoudabadi, M M [Shahid Bahonar Univ., Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    According to FAO statistics, Iran is the largest exporter of pistachios. Kerman province -south east of Iran- has approximately 200000 hectares of pistachio orchards, which provides practically 80% of whole country production of pistachios. After harvesting the pistachio, nuts must be washed to prevent staining. Therefore the nuts have almost 40% moisture content and it must be decreased to storage moisture of 6% or below. Simply decreasing in the moisture content of the products is called drying. In some areas where the environment conditions meet the minimum standard, solar drying can be an alternative approach for drying agricultural products. This work deals with the design, construction and testing a mixed-mode forced convection PV operated solar dryer. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of pal activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents in three pistachio ( Pistacia vera L. ) cultivars grafted onto three different rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Nadernejad, N.; Ahmadimoghadam, A.; Hossyinifard, J.; Poorseyedi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" ...

  14. Genome survey of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) by next generation sequencing: Development of novel SSR markers and genetic diversity in Pistacia species

    OpenAIRE

    Ziya Motalebipour, Elmira; Kafkas, Salih; Khodaeiaminjan, Mortaza; ?oban, Nergiz; G?zel, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    Background Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important nut crops in the world. There are about 11 wild species in the genus Pistacia, and they have importance as rootstock seed sources for cultivated P. vera and forest trees. Published information on the pistachio genome is limited. Therefore, a genome survey is necessary to obtain knowledge on the genome structure of pistachio by next generation sequencing. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are useful tools for germplasm cha...

  15. Population Fluctuations of Insect Predators Species Found on Almond and WildAlmond Tree Adjacent to Pistachio Orchard in Şanlıurfa

    OpenAIRE

    YANIK, Ertan

    2013-01-01

    Almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) and wild almond (Amygdalus orientalis) trees are the most abundant species adjacent to pistachio orchards of Sanliurfa province. This study focused on trees that located in the vicinity of the pistachio orchards, to determine whether these alternative habitats are a source of pistachio psilla’s (Agonoscena pistaciae Burck. and Laut.) insect predators species. For this purpose surveys were conducted to population fluctuations of insect predatory species of pist...

  16. Beneficial effect of pistachio consumption on glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation, and related metabolic risk markers: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Baldrich-Mora, Mònica; Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Bulló, Mònica

    2014-11-01

    To examine whether a pistachio-rich diet reduces the prediabetes stage and improves its metabolic risk profile. Prediabetic subjects were recruited to participate in this Spanish randomized clinical trial between 20 September 2011 and 4 February 2013. In a crossover manner, 54 subjects consumed two diets, each for 4 months: a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD) and a control diet (CD). A 2-week washout period separated study periods. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber, and saturated fatty acids. A total of 55% of the CD calories came from carbohydrates and 30% from fat, whereas for the PD, these percentages were 50 and 35%, respectively (including 57 g/day of pistachios). Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA of insulin resistance decreased significantly after the PD compared with the CD. Other cardiometabolic risk markers such as fibrinogen, oxidized LDL, and platelet factor 4 significantly decreased under the PD compared with the CD (P pistachio intervention (P pistachio consumption is emerging as a useful nutritional strategy for the prediabetic state. Data suggest that pistachios have a glucose- and insulin-lowering effect, promote a healthier metabolic profile, and reverse certain metabolic deleterious consequences of prediabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Suitable Methods in Spatial Pattern Analysis of Heterogeneous Wild Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. Woodlands in Zagros, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial pattern of trees in forests reveals how trees interact with each other and their environment. Spatial structure of trees in forest ecosystems is affected by environmental heterogeneity that leads to their heterogeneous distribution. This study was aimed to investigate the appropriate methods to analyze spatial pattern of heterogeneous wild pistachio woodlands in Zagros, Iran. A 40-ha pure stand of wild pistachio trees (Pistacia atlantica Desf. was selected in Wild Pistachio Research Forest in Fars Province for this purpose. The Kolmogrov-Smirnov test of goodness-of-fit of inhomogeneous Poisson point process showed that the distribution of wild pistachio trees was significantly heterogeneous (α=0.05. Inhomogeneous Ripley's K-, L-, and G-functions were applied beside their homogeneous forms. Inhomogeneous Ripley's K- and L-functions showed that wild pistachio trees were primarily clumped and dispersedly distributed thereafter, while g(r not only showed these results but also well expressed the detailed changes in spatial scale. The results of inappropriate homogeneous functions in the study area showed that all three functions expressed the primary clumping of the trees more than it was and their dispersed pattern as clumped. In general, it was concluded that inhomogeneous functions should be applied to analyze the spatial pattern of heterogeneous wild pistachio trees in the study area and it is recommended to develop g(r applications due to its more detailed information

  18. TURKISH TRADE POLICY AND THE EFFICIENCY OF TURKISH COTTON MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Troy G.

    1999-01-01

    Turkish cotton markets are affected by import duties, export taxes, and a range of domestic subsidies. The degree of economic inefficiency arising from these government policies is estimated through the use of two partial equilibrium models, one for the Aegean market and another for the non-Aegean market. The welfare implications of these policies are also explored.

  19. Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential aflatoxin decontaminating agent in pistachio nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahaie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the binding ability of Saccharomayces cerevisiae to aflatoxin in pistachio nuts. The obtained results indicate that S. cerevisiae has an aflatoxin surface binding ability of 40% and 70% (with initial aflatoxin concentrations of 10 and 20 ppb in the exponential phase. Acid treatments increase this ability to approximately 60% and 73% for the two concentrations of aflatoxin, respectively. Heat treatments also enhance surface binding to 55% and 75%, respectively. Binding appears to be a physical phenomenon that saturates within the first 2-3 hours of the process. The obtained results indicate that yeast immobilization for toxin reduction on aflatoxin-contaminated pistachios had no effect on qualitative characteristics, such as color, texture, and peroxide value. Yeast cells, viable or nonviable, are effective for aflatoxin binding, and this property could lead to a promising solution to aflatoxin contamination in high-risk foods.

  20. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  1. Gamma irradiation affects the total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant properties in three different persian pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa; Aalifar, Mostafa; Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (GR) on total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were investigated in three different Persian pistachio nuts at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP and DPPH methods, revealed a significant increase in the 1-2 kGy dose range. Total phenol content (TPC) revealed a similar pattern or increase in this range. However, when radiation was increased to 4 kGy, TPC in all genotypes decreased. A radiation dose of 1 kGy had no significant effect on anthocyanin content of Kale-Ghouchi (K) and Akbari (A) genotypes, while it significantly increased the anthocyanin content in the Ghazvini (G) genotype. In addition, increasing the radiation to 4 kGy significantly increased the anthocyanin content of K and G genotypes. To conclude, irradiation could increase the phenolic content, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of pistachio nuts.

  2. Monitoring of pistachio (Pistacia Vera) ripening by high field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Fabio; Avanzato, Damiano; Vaccaro, Angela; Capuani, Giorgio; Spagnoli, Mariangela; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Tzareva, Irina Nikolova; Delfini, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic profiling of pistachio (Pistacia vera) aqueous extracts from two different cultivars, namely 'Bianca' and 'Gloria', was monitored over the months from May to September employing high field NMR spectroscopy. A large number of water-soluble metabolites were assigned by means of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The change in the metabolic profiles monitored over time allowed the pistachio development to be investigated. Specific temporal trends of amino acids, sugars, organic acids and other metabolites were observed and analysed by multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. Statistical analysis showed that while in the period from May to September there were few differences between the two cultivars, the ripening rate was different.

  3. Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that pistachios can improve blood lipid profiles in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia which could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is also a widely perceived view that eating nuts can lead to body weight gain due to their high fat content. Purpose To investigate the impact of different dosages of pistachios on body weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods Ninety subjects with metabolic syndrome (consistent with 2005 International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome standard without diabetes were enrolled in three endocrinology outpatient clinics in Beijing. All subjects received dietary counseling according to the guidelines of the American Heart Association Step I diet. After a 4 week run-in, subjects were randomized to consume either the recommended daily serving of 42 g pistachios (RSG, a higher daily serving of 70 g pistachio (HSG or no pistachios (DCG for 12 weeks. Results Subjects in all three groups were matched at baseline for BMI: DCG 28.03 ± 4.3; RSG 28.12 ± 3.22; and HSG 28.01 ± 4.51 kg/m2. There were no significant changes in body weight or BMI in any groups during the study nor any change from baseline at any time point in any group. During the entire study, there were no significant differences in waist-to-hip ratio among the groups or any change from baseline in any group (DCG -0.00 ± 0.03, RSG -0.01 ± 0.02 and HSG 0.01 ± 0.04. There were no significant differences detected among groups in triglycerides, fasting glucose and 2 hour postprandial glucose following a 75 gram glucose challenge. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that glucose values 2 h after a 75 gm glucose challenge were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline values in the HSG group (-1.13 ± 2.58 mmol/L, p = 0.02, and a similar trend was noted in the RSG group (-0.77 ± 2.07 mmol/L, p = 0.06, while no

  4. Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammadi, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83% in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27% in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos, así como tocoferoles, fenoles totales y pigmentos de aceites de almendras y pistachos silvestres prensados en frío. Triglicéridos (TAG, tocoferoles y pigmentos se analizaron mediante HPLC, los ácidos grasos y esteroles mediante cromatografía de gases, y los fenoles totales espectrofotométricamente. Los principales ácidos grasos de ambas especies fueron los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico. Las especies de TAG predominantes son SLL + OLP (21,83% en el pistacho silvestre y OOO (47,27% en almendras silvestre. Feofitina a es un pigmento importante en los aceites de pistacho silvestre. No se detectó pigmentos en los aceites de almendras silvestres. Los fenoles totales fueron 57,6 mg kg-1 y 45,3 mg kg-1 en los aceites de pistacho silvestre y de almendra silvestre respectivamente.

  5. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum in controlling wilt disease of pistachio caused by Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotoohiyan Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most devastating diseases in pistachio orchards in the world including Iran. In search for an effective non-chemical strategy for the management of this disease, we evaluated the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy pistachio trees in different locations of the Kerman province of Iran against V. dahliae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Dual culture tests in the laboratory were conducted in a completely randomized design using 72 T. harzianum isolates. Twenty isolates showed the highest in vitro antagonistic activity. The results indicated that all 20 isolates were capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of V. dahliae significantly. Among them, isolates Tr8 and Tr19 were the most effective by 88.89% and 85.12% inhibition, respectively. Extracted cell free metabolites of all effective isolates also inhibited the growth of V. dahliae in the culture medium significantly. According to the results, isolates Tr4 and Tr6 inhibited fungal pathogen growth by 94.94% and 88.15% respectively, through production of non-volatile metabolites. In the evaluation of volatile metabolites, isolates Tr5 and Tr4 were the most effective by 26.27% and 24.49% growth inhibition, respectively. Based on the results of the in vitro experiments, the five most effective isolates were selected for evaluation under greenhouse conditions for their biocontrol potential in controlling Verticillium wilt of pistachio. Results of the greenhouse, (in vivo experiments were positive and indicated that the occurrence of wilt disease in plants treated with the antagonists alone or in combination with pathogenic fungus was lower than in plants inoculated with pathogen alone. The overall results of this study suggest that Trichoderma fungal antagonist may be an effective biocontrol agent for the control of Verticillium wilt of pistachio.

  6. EFFECTS OF HETEROGENIETY ON SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF WILD PISTACHIO TREES IN ZAGROS WOODLANDS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0–50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150–200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  7. Effects of Heterogeniety on Spatial Pattern Analysis of Wild Pistachio Trees in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Rezayan, F.

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g) is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions) were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0-50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150-200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  8. Rootstock effects on pistachio trees grown in Verticillium dahliae-infested soil

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Lynn; Beede, R; Kaur, S; Ferguson, L

    2004-01-01

    In a field trial in soil infested with Verticillium dahliae, we compared the yield, growth, incidence of symptoms of Verticillium wilt, and mortality of two interspecific hybrid pistachio tree rootstocks (UCBI and PGII) with the standard rootstocks: the V dahliae-resistant and susceptible Pistacia integerrima and P. atlantica, respectively. After 10 years, the trees were destructively sampled for V dahliae in the xylem at the graft union. The results indicate that trees on the (P. atlantica '...

  9. Interactions between leaf macro, micronutrients and soil properties in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoulakis, Prodromos; Chatzissavvidis, Christos; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis; Pontikis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between: (i) leaf dry matter macronutrients, micronutrients and soil chemical properties, (ii) leaf macro- and micronutrients, (iii) soil macro- and micronutrients and (iv) soil chemical properties, and soil micro- and macronutrients in 50 pistachio orchards were investigated in leaves and soils by means of regression analysis. Most of the soils were deficient in plant-available P, Zn, Mn, Fe, and B, while they were excessively supplied with Cu. Leaf analysis showed that most...

  10. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling, roasting...

  11. Cloning, Expression, Characterization, and Computational Approach for Cross-Reactivity Prediction of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Allergen from Pistachio Nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Tree nut allergy is one of the common potentially life-threatening food allergies in children and adults. Recombinant food allergens offer new perspectives to solve problems of clinical and molecular allergology in diagnosis, research, and therapy of food allergies. So far, superoxide dismutase (s has been identified as a panallergen and studied in different allergenic sources. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD has also been reported in pistachio that may cause allergic reactions in atopic subjects. The aim of this study was to describe the cloning, expression, and purification of MnSOD from pistachio nut. Methods: The pistachio MnSOD was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 using a vector pET-32b (+. A recombinant protein was purified by metal precipitation. The protein immunoreactivity was evaluated using patients' IgE binding by means of ELISA and immunoblotting assays. Results: The MnSOD gene from pistachio was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified pistachio MnSOD was recognized by IgE in 10 (40% out of the 25 sera tested. Our results also showed that this protein might trigger some cross-reactions toward IgE antibodies and thus could be considered as a panallergen. Conclusions: For the first time recombinant manganese superoxide dismutase from nut source was expressed as a possible allergen. This pistachio allergen could be a possible basis for cross-reactivity with MnSOD from other sources. KEY WORDS: cloning, cross-reaction, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD, pistachio (Pistacia vera, recombinant allergen

  12. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AYDIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigation by using pressure chamber technique at the beginning, mid and end of irrigation season. According to the results obtained from measurements, the LWP value at the beginning of the irrigation season was -3.7 MPa at noon time due to relatively high temperature for both treatments. At the time of pre-dawn and sunset, this value increased and reached to - 1.6 MPa due to relatively low temperature. In general, the LWP values during the mid of irrigation season, in the irrigated treatments, reached to almost -2.5 MPa in the non-irrigated treatment and the value was measured as -3.68 MPa.

  13. Genetic and geochemical signatures to prevent frauds and counterfeit of high-quality asparagus and pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannella, Carmela; Carucci, Francesca; Aversano, Riccardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Vingiani, Simona; Carputo, Domenico; Adamo, Paola

    2017-12-15

    A fingerprinting strategy based on genetic (simple sequence repeat) and geochemical (multielement and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio) analysis was tested to prove the geographical origin of high-quality Italian products "White Asparagus from Bassano del Grappa" and "Green Pistachio from Bronte". Genetic analysis generated many polymorphic alleles and different specific amplified fragments in both agriproducts. In addition, a core set of markers was defined. According to variability within production soils and products, potential candidate elements linking asparagus (Zn, P, Cr, Mg, B, K) and pistachio (Mn, P, Cr, Mg, Ti, B, K, Sc, S) to the production areas were identified. The Sr isotopic signature was an excellent marker when Italian asparagus was compared with literature data for Hungarian and Peruvian asparagus. This work reinforces the use of Sr isotope composition in the soil bioavailable fraction, as assessed by 1mol/L NH 4 NO 3 , to distinguish white asparagus and pistachio originating from different geographical areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of pollen grain viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in Aydin /Turkey ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunver-Dalkilic, G.; Dayi-Dogru, O.

    2011-01-01

    With this research, the viability levels, production potentials, and storage periods of pollen of naturally grown four male terebinth types (Pistacia terebinthus L.) and four male pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) grafted on terebinth trees were determined in Uzunlar Village, Aydin Province. For the aim of determining the pollen viability levels, TTC, IKI, and safranine solutions were used. The viability ratio ranged between 88.24% (safranine test) and 70.18% (TTC test) in pistachio trees, between 85.36% (IKI test) and 63.73% (safranine test) in terebinth types. The average amount of pollen within a flower resolved by hemacytometric method was changed between 135 000 and 176 250 depend on species and types. While the germination percentage of pollen of pistachio trees and terebinth types was 71% and 26%, respectively in the beginning of storage, that of pollen in the room conditions after fourth day, in the refrigerator from tenth day and in the deep freezer from second month was decreased to zero. (author)

  15. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission.

  16. Foliar Application of Arginine Improves Vegetative and Reproductive Characteristics of Bearing Pistachio Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tajabadipour

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran.  There is a unique role for amino acids in the plant response to stressful conditions, and special physiological role for Arginine (Arg compared to other amino acids.  The effects of this compound were investigated on vegetative and reproductive characters of bearing pistachio trees of ‘Ahmad-Aghaei’. The experiments were done as a factorial based on RCBD with four concentrations of Arg (0, 100, 200 and 300 µM and three spraying stages (post harvest, flower buds swollen and flowering. Based on the results, Arg improved the vegetative and reproductive characters. Arg increased length and diameter of shoot, leaf area, the number of floweringbuds, the number of nuts in cluster, fresh weight of cluster, nut splitting (% and ounce, and decreased flower buds abscission percent and blankness. Arg also significantly increased photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll in bearing pistachio trees. The best concentration of Arg was 200 µM applied of the flowering stage, but the strongest effect on the number of nut in cluster, fresh weight of cluster and blankness were observed when spraying at the flower bud swollen stage.

  17. Detection of Pistachio Aflatoxin Using Raman Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mohammadigol

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio contamination to aflatoxin has been known as a serious problem for pistachio exportation. With regards to the increasing demand for Raman spectroscopy to detect and classify different materials and also the current experimental and technical problems for measuring toxin (such as being expensive and time-consuming, the main objective of this study was to detect aflatoxin contamination in pistachio by using Raman spectroscopy technique and artificial neural networks. Three sets of samples were prepared: non-contaminated (healthy and contaminated samples with 20 and 100 ppb of the total aflatoxins (B1+B2+G1+G2. After spectral acquisition, considering to the results, spectral data were normalized and then principal components (PCs were extracted to reduce the data dimensions. For classification of the samples spectra, an artificial neural network was used with a feed forward back propagation algorithm for 4 inputs and 3 neurons in hidden layer. Mean overall accuracy was achieved to be 98 percent; therefore, non-liner Raman spectra data modeling by ANN for samples classification was successful.

  18. Determination of pollen grain viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in Aydin /Turkey ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunver-Dalkilic, G; Dayi-Dogru, O

    2011-04-15

    With this research, the viability levels, production potentials, and storage periods of pollen of naturally grown four male terebinth types (Pistacia terebinthus L.) and four male pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) grafted on terebinth trees were determined in Uzunlar Village, Aydin Province. For the aim of determining the pollen viability levels, TTC, IKI, and safranine solutions were used. The viability ratio ranged between 88.24% (safranine test) and 70.18% (TTC test) in pistachio trees, between 85.36% (IKI test) and 63.73% (safranine test) in terebinth types. The average amount of pollen within a flower resolved by hemacytometric method was changed between 135 000 and 176 250 depend on species and types. While the germination percentage of pollen of pistachio trees and terebinth types was 71% and 26%, respectively in the beginning of storage, that of pollen in the room conditions after fourth day, in the refrigerator from tenth day and in the deep freezer from second month was decreased to zero. (author)

  19. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 1 – addressing a gap in knowledge of current attractants of navel orangeworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the years various tissues of almond and pistachios have been evaluated for their ability to attract the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest to almond and pistachio orchards in California. Almond meal, which typically consists of ground almond kernels, is the current monitoring tool for n...

  20. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 2 - critical changes in emission profiles as a result of increasing the water activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent field trapping studies ground pistachio and almond mummies were reported to attract adult navel orangeworm moths, which showed a slight preference for the dry pistachio mummy matrix depending on the year evaluated. Recent work in these laboratories has demonstrated that the water activity ...

  1. Sociological analysis of contemporary Turkish political elites

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to find general characteristics of Contemporary Turkish political Elites since 1995 up to date. Social background characteristics were employed to realise the purposes. Documentary and historical research techniques were used during the study. As a result of examining the Contemporary Turkish political elites (since 1995 up to 2005) these major findings were discovered: the large majority of the Turkish parliamentary elites were well educated, male, middle aged, marrie...

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karajoli, M.; Moussa, A.; Al-Kaed, A.; Othman, I.

    1997-05-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs

  3. effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Karajoli, M.; Moussa, A.; Al-Kaed, A.

    1998-01-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs

  4. A method for the measurement of in line pistachio aflatoxin concentration based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paghaleh, Soodeh Jamali; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Bahrampour, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of pistachio nuts with aflatoxin is one of the most significant issues related to pistachio health and expert. A fast pistachio aflatoxin concentration measurement method based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is proposed. The proposed method from theoretical and experimental points of view is analyzed. In our experiments XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an Ultra Violet (UV) source (λ=308 nm) and a UV–visible (UV–vis) spectrometer is used for fluorescent emission detection. Our setup is employed to measure the concentration of different type of Aflatoxins in pistachio nuts. Measurements results obtained by the LIFS method are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. Aflatoxins concentrations are in good agreement with those are obtained by the HPLC method. The proposed laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as an in line aflatoxins concentrations measurement instrument for industrial applications. - Highlights: • XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an UV source for measurement of AFs in pistachio nuts. • Results are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. • LIFS is an online AFs concentration measurement method for industrial applications

  5. Evaluation of PAL activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents in Three Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Cultivars Grafted onto Three Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadernejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" and "Kallehghuchi" on three rootstocks (Mutica, Ahli, Sarakhs. PAL activity, phenolic compounds, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves, flowers and fruits were measured toward the selection of the most suitable and compatible rootstock/scion resistant to environmental stresses. The results showed that PAL activity was different among the cultivars and organs. A positive correlation was observed between PAL activity and phenolic compounds in the leaves and flowers of Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, suggesting that it is more resistant than the others to environmental stresses. PAL activity and total phenolics in fruits of pistachio suffered a decrease when the maturation processes began. The hulls of the pistachio fruits contained high levels of phenolic compounds especially in Mutica-Ahmadaghaii suggesting its function as a protective layer and a defense chemical against ultraviolet radiation and pathogen. Our results indicated the presence of a number of bioactive compounds in kernels with the highest amount belonging to Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, and therefore it is concluded that pistachio rootstocks may affect the antioxidant compounds in kernels.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karajoli, M; Moussa, A; Al-Kaed, A; Othman, I [Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Unit, Irradiation Plant, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1997-05-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, I; Karajoli, M; Moussa, A; Al-Kaed, A [Atomic Energy commission, Radiation Technology Unit, Damascus, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1998-03-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs.

  8. Assessing Various Aspects of Sustainability in Wheat and Pistachio Agro-ecosystems of Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Naghizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural sustainability is the ability of an agro-ecosystem to either maintain or to implement the productive characteristics and taking into consideration both the ecological-environmental and socio-economic aspects. Sustainable agriculture implies long term maintenance of natural systems, optimal production with minimum input, adequate income per farming unit, fulfillment of basic food needs, and provision for the demands and necessities of rural families and communities. All definitions of sustainable agriculture promote environmental, economic and social harmony in an effort to attain the meaning of sustainability. The purpose of this study was to develop a sustainability index for quantifying the different aspects of sustainability as economical, social, agronomical and management for wheat and pistachio production systems which are dominant systems in Kerman province. Materials and Methods In the present study all aspects of agricultural sustainability including ecological, social and economic was selected..Accordingly, the sustainability index, a set of 82 indicators for wheat and pistachio crops were designed, to collect data through questionnaires and then analyze it. Sustainability indices include socio-economic indices, fertilizer and chemicals, crops and livestock production, crop residue management, irrigation water, diversity of agricultural systems, mechanization, tillage and weed management in the main cultivation area in 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. Sustainability index was calculated using the weighting sum. Therefore the rate of contribution for each specific indicator in the final index and rating of all indicators were done from zero to its maximum rated indicators with regard to the most unfavorable situation to the most favorable indicators. After scoring each measure, the total scores of indicators is accumulated and was introduced as the final score. After designing the indicators, 295 and 234

  9. Growth and Chemical Composition of Pistachio Seedlings under Different Levels of Manganese in Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Poorbafrani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio is one of the most important crops in many regions of Iran with respect of production and export. There are more than 470000 ha of nonbearing and bearing pistachio trees mainly in Kerman province. Despite the economic importance of this crop, very little information is available on its nutritional requirements. Pistachio trees like other crops need to macro and micro nutrients. one of these elements is manganese (Mn. Manganese is an essential mineral nutrient, playing a key role in several physiological processes, particularly photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen assimilation. This element is normally supplied to the plants by soil. Therefore, soil conditions affect its availability to plants. Soils with high pH, calcareous soils, especially those with poor drainage and high organic matter, are among the soils which produce Mn-deficient plants. Calcium carbonate is the major inactivation factor of Mn in calcareous soils. The soils of Iran are predominantly calcareous in which micronutrients deficiency, including Mn, is observed due to the high pH and nutrient fixation. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of manganese application on growth and chemical composition of pistachio seedlings in some calcareous soils with different chemical and physical properties. Materials and Methods: For this purpose a greenhouse experiment was carried out as factorial (two factors including soil type and Mn levels experiment in completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were consisted of three levels of Mn (0, 10 and 20 mg Mn Kg-1 soil as Manganese sulfate and 12 different soils from Rafsanjan region in Southern Iran. Soil samples were air dried and crushed to pass through a 2-mm sieve, and some physical and chemical properties of soils such as texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic matter content, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity and iron, manganese, copper and

  10. Characterization of the Aroma-Active, Phenolic, and Lipid Profiles of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nut as Affected by the Single and Double Roasting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Kelebek, Hasim; Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Fontecha, Javier; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-09

    The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut is one of the most widely consumed edible nuts in the world. However, it is the roasting process that makes the pistachio commercially viable and valuable as it serves as the key step to improving the nut's hallmark sensory characteristics including flavor, color, and texture. Consequently, the present study explores the effects of the single-roasting and double-roasting process on the pistachio's chemical composition, specifically aroma-active compounds, polyphenols, and lipids. Results showed the total polyphenol content of increased with the roasting treatment; however, not all phenolic compounds demonstrated this behavior. With regard to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, the results indicated that roasting process results in the development of characteristics and pleasant aroma of pistachio samples due to the Maillard reaction. With regard to lipids, the pistachio roasting treatment reduced the concentration of CN38 diacylglycerides while increasing the amount of elaidic acid.

  11. Accounting Education Approach in the Context of New Turkish Commercial Code and Turkish Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards on accounting education. This study takes advantage of the survey method for gathering information and running the research analysis. For this purpose, questionnaire forms are distributed to university students personally and via the internet.This paper includes significant research questions such as “Are accounting academicians informed and knowledgeable on new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do accounting academicians integrate new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards to their lectures?”, “How does modern accounting education methodology and technology coincides with the teaching of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do universities offer mandatory and elective courses which cover the new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?” and “If such courses are offered, what are their names, percentage in the curriculum and degree of coverage?”Research contributes to the literature in several ways. Firstly, new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards are current significant topics for the accounting profession. Furthermore, the accounting education provides a basis for the implementations in public and private sector. Besides, one of the intentions of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards is to foster transparency. That is definitely a critical concept also in terms of mergers, acquisitions and investments. Stakeholders of today’s business world such as investors, shareholders, entrepreneurs, auditors and government are in need of more standardized global accounting principles Thus, revision and redesigning of accounting educations plays an important role. Emphasized points also clearly prove the necessity and functionality of this research.

  12. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the control of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production on pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahmoshteh, Fatemeh; Siciliano, Ilenia; Banani, Houda; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2017-08-02

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important nut for its economic, nutritional and health aspects but it can be contaminated by aflatoxigenic fungi in the field and during storage. Biological control could be considered as an alternative to chemical treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic capability of two Bacillus spp. both in vitro and on pistachio kernels. In in vitro conditions, both strains were able to reduce the mycelial growth and they were able to degrade the four aflatoxins during the first three days after inoculation. AFG 1 and AFG 2 were rapidly degraded within two days of incubation with the bacterial strains. No aflatoxin was found in the bacterial cell walls, permitting exclusion of mycotoxin adsorption and hypothesis of an in vitro biodegradation as a mode of action. The cultivar of pistachio most susceptible to fungal colonization was 'Ahmad-Aghaei', selected among four main Iranian cultivars. A. parasiticus was able to grow and produce aflatoxins on pistachios, but at longer inoculation periods, a natural decrease of aflatoxins was registered. Both strains were able to reduce the fungal incidence and number of spores on pistachio with a stronger effect during the first 5dpi. The effect on aflatoxin content in vivo was less pronounced than in vitro, with a maximum effect at 8dpi. At longer times, there was a contrasting effect due to the lower activity of Bacillus spp. in stationary phase and higher growth of Aspergillus species. This consideration could explain the lack of aflatoxin reduction at 12dpi. Both bacterial strains showed good antifungal activity and aflatoxin reduction in in vitro conditions and on pistachio kernels. Altogether, these results indicate that Bacillus species could be considered as potential biocontrol agents to combat toxigenic fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin contamination of nuts and agricultural crops in practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effects of salinity and Cu on total uptake of micronutrient in shoot and root of pistachio cultivars (Pistacia vera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Eskandari; V. Mozaffari

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of soil Cu and salinity levels on uptake of micronutrients by shoots and roots of pistachio seedlings, a factorial experiment was carried out as completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran, in May 2008. Treatments consisted of five salinity levels (0, 800, 1600, 2400 and 3200 mg NaCl per kg soil), four Cu levels (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg Cu per kg soil) and two pistachio cultivars (Bada...

  14. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shamshiri M.H.; Fattahi. M.

    2014-01-01

    The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus ( Glomus mosseae ) in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m -1) for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots a...

  15. Real-time, in-situ detection of volatile profiles for the prevention of aflatoxin fungal contamination in pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tiziana C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division; Chang, Allan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division; Zhou, Jenny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division

    2017-10-18

    The objective in this project is to provide a proof of concept will demonstrate the feasibility of a Raman, in-situ warning system for detecting and removing developing fungal hot spots from pistachio stockpiles and transit containers, thus decreasing human health risks and product loss as a result of contamination. The proposed project has the following goals: to calibrate the Raman fingerprinting of biomarkers, standalone and in premixed samples, to build a database with the vibrational profiles distinctive to the signatures of the bouquet emitted by the contaminated pistachios; to test the improvement in the detection of the detectable markers with enhanced Raman on a small probe.

  16. Quantity versus Quality in Turkish Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan

    This paper asserts that there have not been adequate studies about the comparative quality of Turkish universities to provide information and data for prospective students, advisors, university administrators, and policymakers. Turkey has more than 70 state and private universities. Most of these are relatively new, although Turkish higher…

  17. Concept Maps and Language: A Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci

    2003-01-01

    Concept maps are being used by an increasing number of educators in Europe and the US. This paper has four goals. First, it discusses problems in developing Novak's style concept maps in Turkish caused by linguistic differences between Turkish and English. Second, it reports the findings of a research study conducted to adapt concept maps to…

  18. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  19. In vitro lipolytic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roasted pistachio kernel and skin constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Timmers, Michael A; Xiong, Jia; Yousef, Gad; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Lila, Mary Ann

    2016-10-12

    A comprehensive phytochemical analysis was conducted on pistachios to identify the differential contributions of skin and kernel phytochemicals to in vitro bioactivity. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of skin and kernel non-polar extracts (SNP and KNP, respectively) indicated that the major components are fatty acids (696.36 and 879.70 mg g -1 ), phytosterols (16.08 and 4.28 mg g -1 ), and γ-tocopherol (304.17 and 397.10 μg g -1 ). Analysis of the skin and kernel polar extracts (SP and KP, respectively) showed that skin accumulated higher levels of phenolic compounds, especially flavan-3-ols, compared to the kernel. An (epi)catechin hexoside was the major component in SP and KP (9.8 mg g -1 and 3.3 mg g -1 , respectively). Flavan-3-ols with different degrees of polymerization were detected in SP, but only the monomers were identified in the KP. Quercetin glycosides were the major flavonols present in both SP and KP. Bioassays with 3T3L1 mouse adipocytes demonstrated that all extracts decreased lipid accumulation, with SNP demonstrating the highest activity (17% inhibition). Bioassay guided fractionation of SNP indicated that the lipolytic activity was highest in the fraction consisting of linoleic acid (20%), linolenic acid (10%), and β-sitosterol (50%). Radical scavenging assays indicated that all pistachio extracts significantly inhibited ROS, while SP was the most inhibiting to NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Gene expression profiles associated with inflammation (IL6, iNOS, and COX2) were characterized in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages after treatment with pistachio extracts. SP and KP were the most potent to inhibit the expression of COX2. The SNP had the strongest effect in decreasing non-mitochondrial oxidative burst associated with inflammatory response in macrophages.

  20. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Carla; Tesoriere, Luisa; Butera, Daniela; Fazzari, Marco; Monastero, Massimo; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2007-02-07

    Pistacia vera L. is the only species of Pistacia genus producing edible nuts. This paper investigates the antioxidant potential of a Sicilian variety of pistachio nut by chemical as well as biological assays and measured antioxidant vitamins and a number of antioxidant polyphenols in either the hydrophilic and/or the lipophilic nut extract. In accordance with the majority of foods, the total antioxidant activity, measured as a TAA test, was much higher (50-fold) in the hydrophilic than in the lipophilic extract. Substantial amounts of total phenols were measured. The hydrophilic extract inhibited dose-dependently both the metal-dependent and -independent lipid oxidation of bovine liver microsomes, and the Cu+2-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Peroxyl radical-scavenging as well as chelating activity of nut components may be suggested to explain the observed inhibition patterns. Among tocopherols, gamma-tocopherol was the only vitamin E isomer found in the lipophilic extract that did not contain any carotenoid. Vitamin C was found only in a modest amount. The hydrophilic extract was a source of polyphenol compounds among which trans-resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, and a remarkable amount of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, 3.68 and 3.40 mg per 100 g of edible nut, respectively, were evaluated. With the exception of isoflavones that appeared unmodified, the amounts of other bioactive molecules were remarkably reduced in the pistachio nut after roasting, and the total antioxidant activity decreased by about 60%. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that the Sicilian pistachio nut may be considered for its bioactive components and can effectively contribute to a healthy status.

  2. Variation of nutrients and antioxidant activity in seed and exocarp layer of some Persian pistachio genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio nuts are rich sources of nutrients which are essential for human wellbeing. In the present study we investigate the variation of oil, protein, total phenol, mineral contents, and antioxidant activity of twenty rare Persian pistachio nuts and exocarp layer. Among the 20 pistachio genotypes, in seeds Mn concentration was varied from 5.73 to 17.33 mg/kg; Fe ranged from 17 to 62.4 mg/kg; Zn varied from 6.76 to 30.3 mg/kg; Na ranged from 0.06 to 0.126%; K varied from 0.68 to 1.35%; P varied from 0.42 to 0.73%; N ranged from 2.6 to 4.29%; Mg varied from 0.11 to 0.17%, Ca varied from 0.23 to 0.47%, oil ranged from 47.94 to 57.29% and protein ranged from 16.26 to 25.5%. The G3 genotype had the highest total phenol content (35.64 mg GAEs/g and antioxidant activity (90.55% in exocarp layer and oil content in seeds (57.29%. The highest phosphorus (0.73% in exocarp layer and phenol (4.2 mg GAEs/g contents in seeds were observed in G19. According to the correlation analysis, there were a correlation between total phenol (in exocarp layer and oil contents gain with some values; these two values had a significant correlation with PC1. Cluster analysis separated the genotypes into three groups considering all measured Values.

  3. Mycoflora and Mycotoxigenic Moulds of Pistachio Nuts for Human Consumption in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Elshafie

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoflora of 75 cans of different batches and brands of pistachio nuts purchased in the Sultanate of Oman was studied. A number of fungi were isolated, with percentages of contaminated nuts [average between brands ] as follows: Aspergillus niger 14.8%, Penicillium spp. 13.6%, A flavus 9.7%, A nidulans 1.6%, and < l % for Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata , A ochraceeus and Ulocadium consortiale. Significant differences were found among the batches and brands contaminated by A flavus. A flatoxin B, was found only in one sample out of 1.5 assayed at a level of 2 ug/kg.

  4. VALUE ENGINEERING ANALYSIS APPRAISAL FOR FARM MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF PISTACHIO FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mostafaeipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Value engineering (VE has been effectively applied in many different areas. The results have been very encouraging, and many companies accept VE not only as a tool to reduce costs, but also to improve the quality of their produce and streamline their systems. This paper attempts to highlight the application of VE in agriculture, as in pistachio tree farms in Iran. It is found that by implementing VE, unnecessary cultivation costs are lowered. Many of the other factors that lead to the inefficient use of resources could be resolved. In this study, the province of Yazd Iran was studied. Unfortunately there are cases of mismanagement and problems in agriculture management; and the problems must be resolved to make the system of pistachio growing more efficient. The prime objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of value engineering and highlight its application in pistachio farms. The results suggest that it is essential to use Indian Neem pesticide, because it is economically feasible and environmentally friendly to pistachio trees.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Waarde-Ingenieurswese (WI word reeds doeltreffend toegepas op verskeie gebiede. Die resultate is sodanig bemoedigend dat maatskappye WI aanvaar as ‘n hulpmiddel vir kosteverlaging sowel as vir die verbetering van kwaliteit van opbrengs en stroombelyning van prosesse. Die artikel poog om die toepassing van WI op die landbou van Iran na vore te bring. Dit toon dat onnodige verbouingskoste verlaag word met die implementering van WI. Talle ander faktore wat ook bydra tot ondoeltreffende gebruik van hulpbronne word ook deur WI aangespreek. Die Yazd-provinsie van Iran word in die artikel bestudeer. Ten einde die verbouingsproses van pistasieneute meer doeltreffend te maak moet wanbestuur en probleme van landboubestuur aangespreek word. Die hoofdoelwit van die artikel is om die konsep van WI bekend te stel en die toepassing daarvan op pistasieboerderye uit te lig

  5. An attempt to model the probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus under non-isothermal conditions in pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldars-García, Laila; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

    2015-10-01

    Human exposure to aflatoxins in foods is of great concern. The aim of this work was to use predictive mycology as a strategy to mitigate the aflatoxin burden in pistachio nuts postharvest. The probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, isolated from pistachio nuts, under static and non-isothermal conditions was studied. Four theoretical temperature scenarios, including temperature levels observed in pistachio nuts during shipping and storage, were used. Two types of inoculum were included: a cocktail of 25 A. flavus isolates and a single isolate inoculum. Initial water activity was adjusted to 0.87. Logistic models, with temperature and time as explanatory variables, were fitted to the probability of growth and AFB1 production under a constant temperature. Subsequently, they were used to predict probabilities under non-isothermal scenarios, with levels of concordance from 90 to 100% in most of the cases. Furthermore, the presence of AFB1 in pistachio nuts could be correctly predicted in 70-81 % of the cases from a growth model developed in pistachio nuts, and in 67-81% of the cases from an AFB1 model developed in pistachio agar. The information obtained in the present work could be used by producers and processors to predict the time for AFB1 production by A. flavus on pistachio nuts during transport and storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Tufail, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg -1 up to 43600 Bq kg -1 . Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag and 125 Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  7. Generation of the volatile spiroketals conophthorin and chalcogran by fungal spores on polyunsaturated fatty acids common to almonds and pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spiroketal (E)-conophthorin has recently been reported as a semiochemical of the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest of California pistachios and almonds. Conophthorin and the isomeric spiroketal chalcogran are most commonly known as semiochemicals of several scolytid beetles. Conophthori...

  8. Accounting Education Approach in the Context of New Turkish Commercial Code and Turkish Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Cevdet Kızıl; Ayşe Tansel Çetin; Ahmed Bulunmaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards on accounting education. This study takes advantage of the survey method for gathering information and running the research analysis. For this purpose, questionnaire forms are distributed to university students personally and via the internet.This paper includes significant research questions such as “Are accounting academicians informed and knowledgeable on new Turkish commerc...

  9. Quality attributes of pistachio nuts as affected by rootstock and deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Memmi, Houssem; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Gijón-López, María del Carmen; Ciapa, Rafał; Pérez-López, David

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the influence of two regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments and three different rootstocks on the quality of pistachios was evaluated by analyzing different parameters: morphological analysis, physicochemical analysis and sensory analysis. The results obtained in terms of the choice of rootstock revealed that Pistacia atlantica had increased production yields, nut weight, mineral content, higher intensities of characteristic sensory attributes and a higher degree of consumer satisfaction, than the other rootstocks studied. Moreover, the results established that the application of RDI on pistachio cultivation had no significant influence on production yield, weight, size, colour, water activity or mineral composition. Furthermore, T1 treatment (stem water potential < -1.3 MPa) resulted in higher intensities of characteristic sensory attributes and a greater level of satisfaction among international consumers. These results confirm that the application of deficit irrigation (T1) contributes to an increase in overall product quality. Furthermore, Pistacia atlantica rootstock provided better yield and quality than the other rootstocks studied. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Strategies to reduce the apical necrosis in vitro multiplication and rooting of Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Cid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio (Pistacia sp. is one of the least exploited fruit among the main causes is the high cost of plant material by the difficulties of propagation of the species. The propagation in vitro offers great potential for the industry of this species by multiplication scale of selected clones. The aim of this study was to control the apical necrosis of outbreaks in the in vitro propagation Pistachio. From young shoots of plants of this species kept in growing houses, proceeded to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite 1% for different times. The apical and axillary buds were established in the culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 modified and supplemented with 1 mg/L Metatopolina. Different types of bottles, number and type of explants and culture media formulations for two subcultures multiplication and rooting were evaluated. Glass flask of 200 ml capacity, and line proliferates DKW medium achieved the lowest values apical necrosis. In the multiplication phase values were low in all treatments tested no statistical difference between them compared to rooting where apical necrosis reached higher values. The average DKW and prolific lines obtained lower values. MS medium modified crop, favored the number of segments rooted and DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki, 1984 the number of segments that sprouted, the latter having lower incidence of apical necrosis.

  11. Subcritical water extraction of phenolic and antioxidant constituents from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erşan, Sevcan; Güçlü Üstündağ, Özlem; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2018-07-01

    Pistachio hulls, important by-products of pistachio processing, were extracted using an environmentally friendly process with subcritical water (SCW) at a pressure of 6.9 MPa in the range of 110 and 190 °C, and a flow rate of 4 ml/min. Detailed HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n analyses allowed the identification of 49 phenolic compounds in the SCW extracts. Total gallotannin yields up to 33 g/kg were reached at 150-170 °C, where gallic acid (22.2 g/kg) and penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (9.77 g/kg) levels were 13.2- and 10.6-fold higher than those in the aqueous methanol extracts. Flavonols were also effectively extracted at 110-150 °C (4.37-5.65 g/kg), while anacardic acid recovery was poor (1.13-2.77 g/kg). Accordingly, high amounts of anacardic acids (up to 50.7 g/kg) were retained in the extraction residue, revealing that SCW extraction allowed selective extraction of gallotannins and flavonols. Antioxidant capacities ranged from 0.68 to 1.20 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g for SCW extracts increasing with temperature up 190 °C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of gamma irradiated pistachio nut (Pistacia vera l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation and storage period on quality retention of raw pistachio nut. Var. Halebi. Kernel of the pistachio nuts were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated nuts were kept at room temperature for 12 months. Used doses of irradiation significantly reduced the total bacterial plate counts (TBPCs and total fungal counts up to undetectable level (less than 10 CFU g-1. Irradiation doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation seem to be suitable for post-harvest sanitation and decontamination treatment, without significant changes in the sensorial properties (texture, odor, color and taste, chemical quality (free fatty acids and pH value or in contents of moisture, proteins, sugars, lipid, and ash, with respect to the control samples. The highest used dose (3kGy slightly decreased the fatty acid content and pH value, and treatment with higher doses (2 and 3 kGy significantly increased the total volatile nitrogen TVN.

  13. Application of Statistics to Evaluate Iranian Analytical Laboratories Proficiency: Case of Aflatoxins in Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fotouhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a proficiency testing program among limited number of local laboratories as an alternative to the IUPAC/CITAC guide on proficiency testing with a limited number of participants, specially where international schemes are not accessible. As a sample scheme we planned to determine aflatoxins (B1, G1, B2, G2, total in Iranian pistachio matrix. A part of naturally contaminated pistachio sample was tested for sufficient homogeneity by a competent laboratory and then homogenized sub-samples were distributed among participants all across the country. The median of participants’ results was selected as assigned value. Student t-test was applied to show there is no significant difference between assigned and mean values of homogeneity test results obtained by the competent laboratory. Calculated z-scores showed that 6 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B2, 5 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G2 and 6 out of 9 results in aflatoxin total were in satisfactory range. Together our studies indicate that the approach described here is highly cost efficient and applicable for quality assurance of test results when there is no access to international proficiency testing providers.

  14. Rootstock Effects on Pistachio Trees Grown in Verticillium dahliae-Infested Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, L; Beede, R; Kaur, S; Ferguson, L

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT In a field trial in soil infested with Verticillium dahliae, we compared the yield, growth, incidence of symptoms of Verticillium wilt, and mortality of two interspecific hybrid pistachio tree rootstocks (UCBI and PGII) with the standard rootstocks: the V. dahliae-resistant and susceptible Pistacia integerrima and P. atlantica, respectively. After 10 years, the trees were destructively sampled for V. dahliae in the xylem at the graft union. The results indicate that trees on the (P. atlantica 'KAC' x P. integerrima) hybrid UCBI rootstock grew and yielded as well as those on P. integerrima. Trees on the hybrid PGII yielded the least. Analysis of variance and log-linear models indicate that in soil infested with V. dahliae, three associations significantly affect pistachio nut yield. Rootstock affects scion vigor and extent of infection. Third, the extent of infection and scion vigor are inversely associated. Although trees on the P. integerrima rootstock had the highest ratings in a visual assessment of vigor, 65% were infected with V. dahliae in the trunk in the graft region compared with 73% in P. atlantica and 25% in UCBI. Thus, P. integerrima and UCBI have at least one different mechanism for resistance to V. dahliae.

  15. Effects of pistachio nut supplementation on blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Mahmoud; Heidari, Saeide; Khorramirad, Ashraf; Hozoori, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Fatemeh; Bakhtyari, Lida; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating, and often fatal disease. Dietary strategies to reduce postprandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Nuts are rich in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may reduce hyperglycemia and improve metabolism. To evaluate the effectiveness of pistachio nut supplementation on glycemic and inflammatory measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 48 diabetic patients were equally assigned to groups A and B. Patients in group A received a snack of 25 g pistachio nuts twice a day for 12 weeks and group B received a control meal without nuts. After 12 weeks of intervention, the patients had an 8-week washout. Then the groups were displaced, and group B received the same amount of pistachios for 12 weeks. With respect to the total change in variables over both phases, there was a marked decrease in HbA1c (-0.4%) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations (-16 mg/dl) in the pistachio group compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.001 for both). There was no overall significant change in BMI, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Analysis of the two phases separately showed a decrease in FBG by 14 mg/dl and in HbA1c by 0.45% in the treatment group (A) after 12 weeks, while no significant differences were seen in group B (control group). In the second phase, FBG decreased from 151.36 ± 39.22 to 137.28 ± 28.65 mg/dl (-14 mg/dl) and HbA1c decreased from 7.42 ± 0.97 to 7.15 ± 0.68 mg/dl (-0.28%, p = 0.013 and p = 0.033, respectively) in the pistachio group (B). Pistachio consumption reduced systolic blood pressure (p = 0.007), BMI (p = 0.011), and CRP (p = 0.002) in patients from the treatment groups, but not insulin resistance. Dietary consumption of pistachio nuts as a snack has beneficial effects on glycemic control, blood pressure, obesity, and inflammation markers in diabetic

  16. [Treating vaginismus in Turkish women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, V; Ruf, G D

    2009-03-01

    Vaginismus is a sexual dysfunction involving various branches of medicine, including psychiatry and gynaecology. Psychiatric help is sought in only a small proportion of cases, although it is probable that the psychopathological aetiology is more frequent than generally recognized. This article deals with the causes and psychological circumstances in four Turkish couples who presented with unconsummated marriage for 3 to 7 years. Vaginismus F52.5 to the ICD-10 is a sexual dysfunction characterised as: deep anxiety about coitus leading to extreme spasm of musculature making coitus impossible or extremely unpleasant and painful. Four Turkish couples with unconsummated marriage due to the female partners' penetration phobia were included to this study. A patient-oriented multidimensional individual treatment (combination therapy) is a cost effective, short-term (typically 10- to 12-week) treatment model for both partners. It includes some elements of cognitive behavioural therapy and systemic partner therapy which were considered not radically different from previous therapeutic strategies. Results were successful in all cases; the couples were extremely satisfied with having a normal sex life for the first time. This led to desired pregnancies and avoiding of possible breakdown of their families. The couples did well with combination behavioural therapy. This methodology is discussed in its various aspects and with a cultural background. We also emphasise the need for physicians to be mindful of cases of vaginismus requiring psychiatric intervention rather than gynaecological treatment.

  17. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  18. Perfectionism among Turkish Secondary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Camadan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze perfectionism among Turkish secondary school students. Perfectionism was compared according to the some variables like academic achievement, type of school, field (Quantitative, Verbal and Equally Weighted and gender. The study was performed with271 female and 320 male students. In this study Frost Multidimentional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS adapted into Turkish by Özbay and Mısırlı-Taşdemir (2003, was used. At the end of the study, in all subscales of perfectionism scale, there was significant variation according to student’s academic success levels. There was significant variation according to the school types in all subscales except Personal Standards subscale. While there was significant variation according to the field, in Parental Criticism and Concern over Mistakes subscales; according to gender, there was significant variation only in Doubt about Actions subscale. To not acceptnonperfect situations while trying to reach a goal may cause that students have procrastination behaviors and more anxiety. Therefore, their academic achievement may be affected negatively. With individual and group psychological counseling to perfectionist students can help them to notice their characteristics well and determine realistic goal. In this way, their academic achievement can be contributed positively

  19. Updates on Water Use of Pistachio Orchards Grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California on Saline Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Daniele; Marino, Giulia; Whiting, Michael; Sanden, Blake; Ferguson, Louise; Lampinen, Bruce; Kent, Eric; Snyder, Richard; Grattan, Stephen; Little, Cayle

    2017-04-01

    Pistachio acreage is rapidly expanding in California thanks to its economic profitability and capacity to grow and produce in salt-affected soils. Our team at University of California is updating information on actual water use (ET) of mature pistachio orchards grown on saline soils under micro-irrigation methods. Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa) and Crop Coefficients (Ka) were determined for the 2015 and 2016 crop seasons on four pistachio orchards grown in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) on grounds with increasing levels of soil-water salinity, using the residual of energy balance method with a combination of eddy covariance and surface renewal equipment. Tree canopy cover, light interception, and plant water status across the orchards were also measured and evaluated. Our preliminary results show that salinity strongly affects the tree water use, resulting in 10-30% less ET for medium to high salt-affected soils. Salinity also showed a strong effect on tree water status and light interception, as suggested by values of the Midday Stem Water Potential (ΨSWP) around 10 to 15-bar lower in salt-affected than in the control orchard, and by the intercepted Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) decreasing from 75% in the control orchard to 25% in the severely salt affected grounds. The crop coefficient values we observed in this study are lower than those commonly used for irrigation scheduling in the SJV, suggesting that pistachio growers could better tailor irrigation management to the actual site-specific orchard conditions (e.g. canopy features and soil-water salinity) if they are provided updated information. Improved irrigation practices could likely lead to significant water savings and thus improve the resource-efficiency and competitiveness of pistachio production in the SJV. Keywords: Pistacia vera L., salinity, stem water potential, surface renewal, canopy cover.

  20. A producer survey on Turkish furniture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Öğün, Emir Polat

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Management and Graduate School of Business Administration of Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 79-80. Turkish furniture industry has been growing steadily since the liberalization of Turkish economy in early 1980’s. However, the industry faces some technological and economical problems which affects the competitiveness of the firms in the global market. The major problems ...

  1. Are Turkish University Students Autonomous or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büşra Kırtık

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tried to determine Turkish learners’ attitudes, and the Turkish education system’s approach towards learner autonomy with regard to three main points: 1 whether Turkish university students are aware of learner autonomy or not 2 whether Turkish university students have the characteristics of autonomous learners (whether they are autonomous learners or not, and 3 if the Turkish education system is suitable for fostering learner autonomy or not from the viewpoint of the participants. Participants were 50 second grade learners in the English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe University (N=10, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University (N=10, and Uludag University (N=30 who had already taken courses about learner autonomy.  The data were collected by means of a questionnaire which had two Likert-scale sections and an open-ended questions section. The first Likert-scale section contained 15 characteristics of autonomous learners each of which was rated by the participants in a scale from strongly disagree to agree, from 1 to 5. In the second Likert-scale section, the participants were asked to rate the Turkish education system’s five basic elements such as school curriculums, course materials, approaches used by the teachers in classrooms, learning activities, and classroom settings. Additionally, learners’ opinions about their awareness and understanding of learner autonomy were gathered by five open ended questions. The results proposed that the participants were aware of learner autonomy, and had the characteristics of autonomous learners. On the other hand, results showed that the Turkish education system was not suitable for autonomous learners and did not foster learner autonomy. The findings suggested that the Turkish education system should be designed again in such a way to support the autonomous learners and to foster learner autonomy in all sections of the education.

  2. The many faces of Turkish Odessa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    between Turkish newcomers and various Turkic-speaking groups in the area both create different and overlapping “ecumenical communities” and actualize long-forgotten connections or marginal historical visions. These migrants also generate important links to the area through marriage and intimate relations...... with Slav women. I argue that alliances between Turkish migrants and Turkic-speaking minorities and local women not only allow them to make the city their own, but also create a distance from wider Odessan society....

  3. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Yılmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this consideration, in Abyssinia, coffee was consumed with bread; it was then pulped and brought to Yemen, and Yemeni people started to cultivate coffee. The word “kahve” in Turkish does not mean the coffee plant like its synonym in Arabic but means the beverage made by boiling. Turkish coffee is a blend of high-quality Arabic-type coffee beans, originating from Brazil and Central America and moderately roasted and ground finely. The way it is prepared differentiates Turkish coffee from others. This coffee was called Turkish coffee because of a new method of preparation invented by Turkish people where it is boiled in copper coffee pots. Turkish coffee that has spread around the world with this name has been an indispensable part of the cultural and social history of Turks.

  4. Investigating the factors that affect pistachio growers’ intention regarding prevention of aflatoxin based on the health belief model in the Sirjan rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Yazdanpanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio is a valuable export product, but its export is faced with serious challenges due to aflatoxin. Given the importance of growers’ role in the prevention of aflatoxin in pistachio, the aim of this article is investigating pistachio growers’ intention regarding prevention of aflatoxin through the health belief model. The research population consists of 330 of pistachio growers in the Sirjan city in the Kerman province. Amongst the 330 samples, 120 of them were selected through simple random sampling. A questionnaire was the research tool and its validity of the questionnaire was approved by a panel of experts. Its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients (0.7 to 0.9. Also, the results of regression analysis revealed that the variables showing guide to action were the main predictor of growers’ intention. In addition to self-efficacy and perceived barriers, this variable can predict nearly 36% of the variance of pistachio growers’ intention regarding the prevention of aflatoxin. The results could be used for policy making and planning in relation to strategies to prevent the production of aflatoxin in pistachios.

  5. Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of five pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars collected from different geographical sites of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Faezeh; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Asili, Javad; Nemati, Seyed Hossein; Rezaee, Ramin; Goumenou, Marina; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2017-09-01

    Pistachio is an important horticultural product and Iran is considered as a main pistachio producing country. Assessment of heavy metals in this export fruit is crucial for protecting public health against toxic heavy metals. The concentration of selected heavy metals in soil, water and five pistachio cultivars from four geographical regions of Iran were measured. Although none of the elements were detected in water irrigation, infield metal content in the soil had good correlation with that of pistachio. The highest amounts of Al, As, Co, Ni and Se were reported in samples collected from Sarakhs, Iran. Considering both cultivar and region effects on selected heavy metals concentration, Kaleghoochi cultivar from Sarakhs site showed the highest amount of Al, As, Ni and Se. The maximum concentration of Hg was found in Akbari cultivar collected from Damghan. In the Akbari and the Ahmad aghaei cultivars collected from Sarakhs and Damghan cultivation zones, respectively, the highest amount of Co were observed. Based on our results, the HI value for the consumers of Iranian pistachio was 0.066. It seems that the levels of heavy metals in these pistachio samples pose no risk to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design, manufacture and modeling of a mixed mode dryer for pistachio in Kerman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameri, Mehran; Zangiabadi, Bijan; Mahmoudabadi, Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    Production of high quality nuts that have toxics less than 2-2.5 ppm requires a great attention during growing and post harvest processing. Gravitational or Wagon driver using fossil fuel has been traditionally performed to dry pistachio nuts. However, using of fossil fuel is subject to the noxious effects on nuts such as burning, discoloured and various toxic fumes as well as the biological pollution. In Kerman province in south of Iran, where 60% of pistachio nuts export to all over the world, due to long period of sunshine during harvesting season, solar drying are know to be an excellence alternative to the fossil fuel. A specimen mixed-mode solar-dryer is manufactured to study the feasibility of test and to investigate optimization of the drying process in several conditions. Furthermore this designed dryer for pistachio nuts can be simply used for drying of the various agriculture products like fruits and vegetables. With this proposed multi application solar dryer, one can easily reach to acceptable moisture (7%) in a short period of time. For this system a mathematical model of dryer is also suggested here. the proposed solar dryer includes three main parts as collector, chamber and photocell. Chamber has a glassy cover that permits nut expose beam radiation directly. Collector has ability to circulate air by buoyancy forces or convey air by suction fans due to different operation conditions. Photocells prepare electromotive force for fans.National capacity of the dryer is 50Kg. The maximum temperature inside collector at the end of harvest season is 60 degree centigrade during 8-16 local time. In the mathematical modeling after fitting the drawing curves with the remaining moisture amount in the nuts and temperature per drying time, it was found that the major drop in the moisture content of the nuts occurs during the first 9 hours and then decreases gradually. The final moisture amount of the nuts was about 6% in 42 hours. The accuracy of proposed method

  7. Design, manufacture and modeling of a mixed mode dryer for pistachio in Kerman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, Mehran; Zangiabadi, Bijan; Mahmoudabadi, Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    Production of high quality nuts that have toxics less than 2-2.5 ppm requires a great attention during growing and post harvest processing. Gravitational or Wagon driver using fossil fuel has been traditionally performed to dry pistachio nuts. However, using of fossil fuel is subject to the noxious effects on nuts such as burning, discoloured and various toxic fumes as well as the biological pollution. In Kerman province in south of Iran, where 60% of pistachio nuts export to all over the world, due to long period of sunshine during harvesting season, solar drying are know to be an excellence alternative to the fossil fuel. A specimen mixed-mode solar-dryer is manufactured to study the feasibility of test and to investigate optimization of the drying process in several conditions. Furthermore this designed dryer for pistachio nuts can be simply used for drying of the various agriculture products like fruits and vegetables. With this proposed multi application solar dryer, one can easily reach to acceptable moisture (7%) in a short period of time. For this system a mathematical model of dryer is also suggested here. the proposed solar dryer includes three main parts as collector, chamber and photocell. Chamber has a glassy cover that permits nut expose beam radiation directly. Collector has ability to circulate air by buoyancy forces or convey air by suction fans due to different operation conditions. Photocells prepare electromotive force for fans.National capacity of the dryer is 50Kg. The maximum temperature inside collector at the end of harvest season is 60 degree centigrade during 8-16 local time. In the mathematical modeling after fitting the drawing curves with the remaining moisture amount in the nuts and temperature per drying time, it was found that the major drop in the moisture content of the nuts occurs during the first 9 hours and then decreases gradually. The final moisture amount of the nuts was about 6% in 42 hours. The accuracy of proposed method

  8. Evaluation of three neonicotinoid insecticides against the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae, and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirzade, Najmeh; Izadi, Hamzeh; Jalali, Mohammad Amin; Zohdi, Hadi

    2014-03-06

    The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest in pistachio orchards in Iran. Chemical control is a common method to manage this pest. Compatibility between natural enemies and pesticides is a primary concern in programs of integrated pest management of the psyllid pest. In this research, susceptibility of fifth instar nymphs of Ag. pistaciae and fourth instar larvae of the two most common predators of this pest, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Coccinella undecimpunctata aegyptiaca Reiche, to acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid was investigated. Probit analysis of concentration-mortality data was conducted to estimate the LC50 value. The results showed that thiamethoxam with an LC50 value of 56.35 mg a.i./L was more toxic to fifth instar nymphs of Ag. pistaciae in comparison to acetamiprid (60.75 mg a.i/L) and imidacloprid (138.21 mg a.i/L) . Imidacloprid with an LC50 value of 218.89 mg a.i/L compared to acetamiprid (222.65 mg a.i/L) and thiamethoxam (232.37 mg a.i/L) had more lethal effects on fourth instar larvae of Ad. bipunctata. However, on the fourth instar larvae of C. undecimpunctata aegyptica, acetamiprid with an LC50 value of 263.44 mg a.i/L was more toxic than thiamethoxam (296.62 mg a.i/L) and imidacloprid (447.82 mg a.i/L). The laboratory findings showed that the three tested insecticides were more toxic to the common pistachio psylla than to its natural predators. Thiamethoxam was the most toxic against Ag. pistaciae. However, its toxicity to the predators was lower than imidacloprid and acetamiprid. This result suggests that thiamethoxam is the best insecticide for control of Ag. pistaciae in combination with predatory lady beetles. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  9. Attitudes of Foreigners Who Learn Turkish as a Second Language towards Turkish Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    There is a very close association between language and culture. Thus, cultural values should be prioritized in language training and cultural knowledge should be concurrently instructed. Turkish culture should also be introduced to learners of Turkish as a foreign language. Therefore, it is important to determine the attitudes of learners of…

  10. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction.

  11. Internet use among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca G; Uzel, Mehtap; Ozcan, Neslihan; Avci, Ayse

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Internet use habits and problematic Internet use (PIU) in Turkish adolescents. Participants were 3,975 undergraduate students, 7.6% of whom used the Internet for more than 12 hours weekly. The Online Cognition Scale (OCS) was used. The most common purpose for using the Internet was playing games, followed by general information search. Female users mostly preferred searching for general information; male users preferred playing games (p game was violent games. While preference for strategy and fantasy role-play (FRP) games increased with age, preference for other games decreased (p games, followed by FRP, strategy, and sports and motor racing games. Computers and the Internet are useful, important inventions, but like other inventions, if used improperly, they may be harmful. Risk of harm raises concerns about who should use the Internet and computers, and where, when, and why the Internet and computers should be used.

  12. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-01-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  13. [Effects of salt stress on germination and in vitro growth of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmahioul, Benamar; Daguin, Florence; Kaid-Harche, Meriem

    2009-08-01

    In order to study the salinity tolerance of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), embryos developed from mature seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro and subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0, 42.8, 85.5, 171.1 and 256.6 mM) for 30 days. The results showed that in vitro germination of embryonic axes was not affected by the salt concentration. However, the germinated embryo survival rates decreased from 100% for the control to 62.9% for the highest salt concentration (256.6 mM). In addition, the plantlet growth (length of aerial and root parts, number of leaf produced per embryo, as well as the production of total fresh and dry matter for both aerial parts and roots) showed significant differences according the various salt concentrations.

  14. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  15. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, Umit [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  16. Genome survey of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) by next generation sequencing: Development of novel SSR markers and genetic diversity in Pistacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziya Motalebipour, Elmira; Kafkas, Salih; Khodaeiaminjan, Mortaza; Çoban, Nergiz; Gözel, Hatice

    2016-12-07

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important nut crops in the world. There are about 11 wild species in the genus Pistacia, and they have importance as rootstock seed sources for cultivated P. vera and forest trees. Published information on the pistachio genome is limited. Therefore, a genome survey is necessary to obtain knowledge on the genome structure of pistachio by next generation sequencing. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are useful tools for germplasm characterization, genetic diversity analysis, and genetic linkage mapping, and may help to elucidate genetic relationships among pistachio cultivars and species. To explore the genome structure of pistachio, a genome survey was performed using the Illumina platform at approximately 40× coverage depth in the P. vera cv. Siirt. The K-mer analysis indicated that pistachio has a genome that is about 600 Mb in size and is highly heterozygous. The assembly of 26.77 Gb Illumina data produced 27,069 scaffolds at N50 = 3.4 kb with a total of 513.5 Mb. A total of 59,280 SSR motifs were detected with a frequency of 8.67 kb. A total of 206 SSRs were used to characterize 24 P. vera cultivars and 20 wild Pistacia genotypes (four genotypes from each five wild Pistacia species) belonging to P. atlantica, P. integerrima, P. chinenesis, P. terebinthus, and P. lentiscus genotypes. Overall 135 SSR loci amplified in all 44 cultivars and genotypes, 41 were polymorphic in six Pistacia species. The novel SSR loci developed from cultivated pistachio were highly transferable to wild Pistacia species. The results from a genome survey of pistachio suggest that the genome size of pistachio is about 600 Mb with a high heterozygosity rate. This information will help to design whole genome sequencing strategies for pistachio. The newly developed novel polymorphic SSRs in this study may help germplasm characterization, genetic diversity, and genetic linkage mapping studies in the genus Pistacia.

  17. E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

  18. CHAPTER FOUR LİBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS:

    OpenAIRE

    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin

    2002-01-01

    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  19. Questioning the Scholarly Discussion around Decentralization in Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Soner Onder

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of Turkish Republic till date, Turkish Education System (TES) has been steered by a handful of politicians and civil servants, who enjoy maximum centralized authority. Over the years, therefore, centralized management has repeatedly been blamed for the deadlocks hampering progress in the TES. Turkish scholars often seem to find…

  20. Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafi, S.; Penjweini, R.; Becker, K.; Kratky, K. W.; Dodt, H.-U.

    2010-09-01

    When moulds are illuminated by visible electromagnetic-EM radiations, several effects on nucleus materials and nucleotides can be detected. These effects have a significant influence on mould generation or destruction. This paper presents the effects and implications of a red diode laser beam (660 nm), a second-harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser emitting green beam (532 nm), or the combination of both, on the eradication of Pistachio mould fungus. Incident doses (ID) of both beams are kept identical throughout the experiment. The absorption spectrums of irradiated mouldy samples and the bright-greenish-yellow-fluorescence (BGYF) of fungus occurring in mould texture due to electronic excitation are investigated. We found that a combination of a green and a red laser beam with an ID of 0.5 J/cm2 provides the optimal effects on Pistachio mould fungus eradication.

  1. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (Ppistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  2. Investigation of the Potential Market and Estimation of WTP for Insurance of Pistachio Tree Trunk (Case Study Rafsanjan-Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Baniasadi, Mostafa; Yazdani, Saeed; Salami, Habib Allah

    2013-01-01

    Capacity of garden productions in Iran is such that is accounted as a country that produces thirteen garden products in the world but despite excellent condition in Iran for producing garden products, natural disasters damage production of fruits in the country therefore farmers incur a loss. Pistachio tree has been in danger of destruction and dryness. Thus, in order to reduce loss incurred on trees, it is necessary to insure the tree. This study is aimed to investigate ...

  3. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.

    2009-01-01

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 deg. C at a heating rate of 40 deg. C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management.

  4. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Dept., 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 C at a heating rate of 40 C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management. (author)

  5. Effect of pistachio consumption on the modulation of urinary gut microbiota-related metabolites in prediabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Cañueto, Daniel; Giardina, Simona; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Cañellas, Nicolau; Correig, Xavier; Bulló, Mònica

    2017-07-01

    The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NRM) was performed to determine changes in 24-h urine metabolites. Significant changes in urine metabolites according to the different intervention periods were found in uni- and multivariate analysis. Score plot of the first two components of the multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis (ML-PLS-DA) showed a clear separation of the intervention periods. Three metabolites related with gut microbiota metabolism (i.e., hippurate, p-cresol sulfate and dimethylamine) were found decreased in PD compared with CD (Ppistachio consumption may modulate some urinary metabolites related to gut microbiota metabolism and the TCA cycle; all associated with metabolic derangements associated with insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular and morphological identification of  pistachio armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininaveh, Fatemeh; Nozari, Jamasb; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Hosseininaveh, Vahid

    2016-12-01

    Members of the family Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) can be devastating pests that suck parenchyma cell contents from crops and cause severe damage to pistachio trees (Pistacia vera L.). The current research collected and characterized diaspidid species from pistachio orchards in Kerman province, Iran, according to their morphological and molecular features. Lepidosaphes pistaciae Archangelskaya, Suturaspis davatchi (Balachowsky & Kaussari) and Melanaspis inopinata (Leonardi) are redescribed and a new species, Melanaspis pistaciae Hosseininaveh & Kaydan sp. n., is described. Phylogenetic trees based on molecular analysis of COI and 28S rDNA fragments placed all the species in separated clades and confirmed M. pistaciae as a new taxon which is concluded by morphological differences. Molecular analysis suggests non-monophyly of the populations of each species. Melanaspis pistaciae sp. n. has spread to most cultivated pistachio areas in Iran and has probably been misidentified as M. inopinata in the past. Further investigation of the biology of this species may lead to development of more effective approaches for controlling this pest.

  7. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective effect of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seed and skin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, Maria; Arcoraci, Teresita; Rizza, Luisa; Cristani, Mariateresa; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Saija, Antonina; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nuts are a rich source of phenolic compounds, known for their high antioxidant activity, and contained not only in the seeds but also in the skin. A pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte, Sicily, Italy. The purpose of our study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of two polyphenol-rich extracts from skins (TP) and decorticated seeds (SP) of Bronte pistachios, and to verify the potential use of these extracts for topical photoprotective products. Chemical analysis showed that the TP and SP extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds, but the TP extract is about ten times richer in phenols than the SP extract, being anthocyanins the most abundant compounds found in the TP extract. Both these extracts, and especially the TP extract, possess good radical scavenger/antioxidant properties, as shown in a series of in vitro assays carried out using homogenous and non-homogenous chemical environment. Furthermore both the TP extract and, although at a lower degree, the SP extract reduce, when topically applied, UV-B-induced skin erythema in human volunteers. These findings suggest that extracts from Bronte TP and SP could be successfully employed as photoprotective ingredients in topical cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the nutraceutical, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of ripe pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Every year tons of pistachio hulls are separated and eliminated, as waste products, from pistachio seeds. In this study the hulls of ripe pistachios were extracted with two organic solvents (ethanol and methanol) and characterized for phenolic composition, antioxidant power and cytoprotective activity. RP-HPLC-DAD-FLU separation enabled us to identify 20 derivatives, including and by far the most abundant gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, naringin, eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and catechin. Methanol extraction gave the highest yields for all classes of compounds and presented a higher scavenging activity in all the antioxidant assays performed. The same was found for cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. These findings highlight the strong antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of the extract components, and illustrate how a waste product can be used as a source of nutraceuticals to employ in manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychometric properties of Frustration Discomfort Scale in a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Harrington, Neil

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties of the Frustration Discomfort Scale for Turkish college students. The Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to a sample of 171 (98 women, 73 men) Turkish college students. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis yielded fit index values demonstrating viability of the four-dimensional solution as in the original. Findings also revealed that, as predicted, the Discomfort Intolerance subscale of Turkish FDS was most strongly correlated with procrastination. Overall results provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale for use in a Turkish population.

  10. Personality traits of Turkish handgun license applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Salih; Can, Serdar S; Yabanoglu, Ihsan

    2012-10-01

    Several theories have sought to explain the motivations for handgun possession and the relationship with personality. Perception of handguns also has cultural variations. The aim of the study is to evaluate handgun license applicants' personality profiles. 109 handgun license applicants were included in the study. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) scores of the applicants were recorded. Scores were compared with Turkish and American normative data for the Inventory. The study group had significantly lower subscores on novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and higher subscores on reward dependence and persistence compared to Turkish norms and significantly lower subscores on novelty seeking, reward dependence, and self-directedness compared to American norms. Results indicate that Turkish handgun license applicants' personality features are more similar to American norms.

  11. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  12. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  13. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  14. [Strengthening of social participation of Turkish seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Jennifer; Stupp, Barbara

    2018-05-04

    Traditional municipal services are not successful at reaching Turkish seniors. Compared to native Germans Turkish seniors have a lower social participation. Do native language groups hosted by a German organization promote the social participation of Turkish seniors? How does social participation take place in the ZWAR networks (between work and retirement; a project to strengthen social participation of seniors) and which factors promote or reduce social participation? Qualitative structuring content analysis of two group discussions, which were based on guided interviews. The social participation of Turkish-speaking seniors was strengthened on three levels: (1) through regular meetings of the Turkish ethnic group social relationships were promoted and German language skills and other skills were improved. Through mutual sharing and understanding of the stressors specific to migration, emotional support was provided. The sharing of mutual cultural and linguistic backgrounds created a sense of community and meetings were perceived as an antidote to migrants' exhausting lives in German society. (2) At the organizational level, participation was promoted through extensive group events. Regardless of their cultural background all participants identified as equal ZWAR members. The ZWAR project functioned as an umbrella organization for participation in the intercultural context. (3) Participation in community events created contacts with community stakeholders and fostered volunteer work. Hence, participants were able to use their skills, and therefore broaden their horizons. Turkish ZWAR networks promoted the social participation of members because integration with their ethnic group reduced access barriers, broadened members' scopes of action, and created new opportunities for participation.

  15. CONTEMPORARY USAGE OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH MOTIFS IN PRODUCT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Gumuser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the traditional Turkish motifs and its relations among present industrial designs. Traditional Turkish motifs played a very important role in 16th century onwards. The arts of the Ottoman Empire were used because of their symbolic meanings and unique styles. When we examine these motifs we encounter; Tiger Stripe, Three Spot (Çintemani, Rumi, Hatayi, Penç, Cloud, Crescent, Star, Crown, Hyacinth, Tulip and Carnation motifs. Nowadays, Turkish designers have begun to use these traditional Turkish motifs in their designs so as to create differences and awareness in the world design. The examples of these industrial designs, using the Turkish motifs, have survived and have Ottoman heritage and historical value. In this study, the Turkish motifs will be examined along with their focus on contemporary Turkish industrial designs used today.

  16. The effects of a pressure extraction system on quality the parameters of different virgin pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Larnaka oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo, J. E.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pistachios are a good source for oil extraction as they are rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive components like polyphenols and phenolic compounds. The yield and quality parameters of the oil extracted from four batches of pistachios with different sizes were analyzed. Two different pressure systems (screw press and hydraulic press were used for oil extraction. The yield was higher when the screw press was used, especially when the highest quality pistachios (larger pistachios were used to extract the oil (40 ± 2.12%. With the hydraulic press, the yield was around 30% for all pistachio types. The color of the oils extracted with the screw press was darker than the oil extracted with the hydraulic press in all types of pistachios used. No significant differences were found in the acidity, K270, and K232 values when high quality pistachios were used. When lower quality pistachios (smaller pistachios were used, the values of these three parameters increased in comparison with larger pistachios. On the other hand, oil samples from lower quality pistachios obtained by the screw press showed the highest values. The oxidative stability was higher in the samples of oil from high quality pistachios, with no differences in regard to the extraction system. When lower quality pistachios were used, the oxidative stability was significantly lower.El pistacho es una magnífica fuente de aceite, puesto que a su alto contenido en materia grasa se añaden una elevada proporción de ácidos grasos insaturados y otros compuestos bioactivos como los polifenoles o los compuestos fenólicos. Se ha analizado el rendimiento y los parámetros de calidad del aceite extraído de cuatro tipos de pistacho de diferente calidad, usando dos tipos de prensas (hidráulica y de tornillo. El rendimiento de la extracción fue mayor cuando se empleó la prensa de tornillo, especialmente cuando los pistachos de mayor calidad (pistachos más grandes se emplearon para

  17. Bibliometric Profile of Turkish Journal of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Al

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Journal of Psychology has been indexed by the Social Science Citation Index since 1995. This study examines the Turkish Journal of Psychology and bibliometric features of its articles.  The research carried out covers 118 articles between the years 1995-2005.  The following research ques- tions have been addressed: 1 What are the subjects of the articles? 2 Is multi- ple authorship a prevalent feature of the articles? 3 What are the institutional affiliations of the authors of the articles? 4 What are the common characteris- tics of the cited articles? 5 Which types of sources (journal articles, mono- graphs, etc. get cited more often in the articles? 6 What are the most frequent- ly cited journals in the TJP? 7 Does the distribution of citations to journals fit Bradford's Law of Scattering? 8 Is there a relationship between the impact fac- tors of journals and the number of citations they get? 9 What is the rate of lit- erature obsolescence in psychology? 10 With regard to impact factor, what is the position of the TJP? Almost all of the articles were written in Turkish. The important part of the contributors was affiliated with Hacettepe, Ankara and the Middle East Technical universities. This research showed that 57% of articles (67 articles published in Turkish Journal of Psychology received no citations remaining 43% (51 articles were cited 135 times. The author self-citation ratio was 34%. In addition, journal self-citation ratio was 41%. Journals received 69% of all cita- tions in the Turkish Journal of Psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Turkish Journal of Psychology, Child Development, Developmental Psychology and Psychological Bulletin were among the most frequently cited journals. Articles that appeared in the top 18 journals received 33% of all citations. The half-life of sources cited in the Turkish Journal of Psychology was ten years. According to the impact factor rank, the Turkish Journal of

  18. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  19. Slavic borrowings in modern Turkish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Slavic borrowings in standard Turkish language Material for this paper was excerpted from the Dictionary of Turkish Standard Language (TDK Turküe Sozluk. Excerpted data which count just about 100 words were treated within lexical-semantic groups, also with pointing to certain inconsistencies in the lexicographic treatment: some words are not marked as Slavic (e.g. kumpir, som, pogrom; after some lexemes wrong etymon is stated (e.g. kopek and some of them are left without an etymon (e.g. bocuk, gocuk.

  20. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Detection and Quantification Using a Murine Monoclonal Antibody-Based Direct Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Chhabra, Guneet S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2015-10-21

    A commercially available direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (BioFront Technologies, Tallahassee, FL, USA) using murine anti-pistachio monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as capture and detection antibodies was evaluated. The assay was sensitive (limit of detection = 0.09 ± 0.02 ppm full fat pistachio, linear detection range = 0.5-36 ppm, 50% maximum signal concentration = 7.9 ± 0.7 ppm), reproducible (intra- and inter-assay variability pistachio seeds subjected to autoclaving (121 °C, 15 psi, 15, 30 min), blanching (100 °C, 5, 10 min), frying (191 °C, 1 min), microwaving (500, 1000 W, 3 min), and dry roasting (140 °C, 30 min; 168 °C, 12 min). No cross-reactivity was observed in 156 food matrices, each tested at 100,000 ppm, suggesting the ELISA to be pistachio specific. The pistachio recovery ranges for spiked (10 ppm) and incurred (10-50000 ppm) food matrices were 93.1-125.6% and 35.7-112.2%, respectively. The assay did not register any false-positive or -negative results among the tested commercial and laboratory prepared samples.

  1. Risk assessment of exposure to aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A through consumption of different Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars collected from four geographical regions of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Faezeh; Rezaee, Ramin; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Asili, Javad; Nemati, Seyed Hossein; Goumenou, Marina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Shirani, Kobra; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2018-07-01

    Iran is one of the main suppliers of pistachio for the European market accounting for over 90% of its demands; hence, efficient analytical methods are required for detection of mycotoxins contamination in pistachio kernels before exporting them. In this study, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in five pistachio cultivars collected from four sites of Iran, were measured by HPLC. Based on the results, risk assessment for AFB1 and OTA residues was done. The highest mean concentrations of AFB1 and OTA were found in Ahmad-aghaei (4.33 and 2.19 ng/g, respectively) and Akbari (4.08 and 1.943 ng/g, respectively) cultivars from Rafsanjan, Iran. Even the highest concentrations of AFB1 and OTA in analyzed samples were lower than the corresponding maximum limits set by EU authorities. The hazard index (HI) value for consumers of Iranian pistachio is below one. It could be concluded that consumption of pistachio cultivated in these regions poses no health risk of mycotoxins exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward the definition of a carbon budget model: seasonal variation and temperature effect on respiration rate of vegetative and reproductive organs of pistachio trees (Pistacia vera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco P; Barone, Ettore; La Mantia, Michele; Caruso, Tiziano

    2009-09-01

    This study, as a preliminary step toward the definition of a carbon budget model for pistachio trees (Pistacia vera L.), aimed at estimating and evaluating the dynamics of respiration of vegetative and reproductive organs of pistachio tree. Trials were performed in 2005 in a commercial orchard located in Sicily (370 m a.s.l.) on five bearing 20-year-old pistachio trees of cv. Bianca grafted onto Pistachio terebinthus L. Growth analyses and respiration measurements were done on vegetative (leaf) and reproductive (infructescence) organs during the entire growing season (April-September) at biweekly intervals. Results suggested that the respiration rates of pistachio reproductive and vegetative organs were related to their developmental stage. Both for leaf and for infructescence, the highest values were observed during the earlier stages of growth corresponding to the phases of most intense organ growth. The sensitivity of respiration activity to temperature changes, measured by Q(10), showed an increase throughout the transition from immature to mature leaves, as well as during fruit development. The data collected were also used to estimate the seasonal carbon loss by respiration activity for a single leaf and a single infructescence. The amount of carbon lost by respiration was affected by short-term temperature patterns, organ developmental stage and tissue function.

  3. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  4. Pistachio (Pistacia vera seed oil composition: geographic situation and variety effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahed, T.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at characterizing four Tunisian pistachio cultivations (Pistacia vera from the Mateur (North, Nabeul (North-East, Kairouan (Middle and Sfax (Middle- East regions and two varieties, Mateur and Ohadi, considering fatty acid composition and main lipid class contents (polar lipids, diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids in ripe seeds. Lipid classes were separated using thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were analyzed by gas chromatography. Oleic acid (C18:1 Δ9 was the major fatty acid for all samples; those of the Mateur region (the northern region differed significantly with the lowest content in C18:1 (54.2 % of total fatty acids and the highest in C18:2 (24.1 %. The total amount of fatty acids (TFA in the seeds of Ohadi variety was significantly lower than that of the Mateur variety from the Sfax region. Triacylglycerols were most abundant in pistachio seeds from Nabeul (98.5% of total glycerolipids.Este estudio tiene como objetivo caracterizar cuatro cultivos de pistacho (Pistacia vera de Túnez, de las regiones de Mateur (Norte, Nabeul (Nordeste, Kairouan (Centro y Sfax (Centro-Este y dos variedades, Mateur and Ohadi, considerando la composición en ácidos grasos y de lípidos mayoritarios (lípidos polares, diglicéridos, triglicéridos y ácidos grasos libres de semillas maduras. Los lípidos se separaron mediante cromatografía en capa fina, y los ésteres metílicos de los ácidos grasos (FAMEs se analizaron por cromatografía de gases. El ácido oleico (C18:1 Δ9 fue el mayoritario en todas las muestras; las de la región de Mateur (Norte fueron significativamente distintas, presentando el contenido más bajo de C18:1 (54.2 % del total de ácidos grasos y más alto de C18:2 (24.1 %. La cantidad total de ácidos grasos (TFA en las semillas de la variedad Ohadi fue significativamente más bajo que el de la variedad Mateur de la región de Sfax. Los triglicéridos fueron

  5. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells

  6. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  7. Turkish Student Teachers' Concerns about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Yezdan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching concerns of Turkish student teachers and how these concerns differ among year groups within the teacher education programme. Data were collected from 339 student teachers using the Teacher Concerns Checklist. Analysis of the data, including both descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis…

  8. Turkish Primary School Pupils' Views on Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bahri

    2010-01-01

    Teachers meet with unwanted behavior when they are acting as facilitators of the learning process and they resort to certain tactics to deal with them. One of these tactics is punishment. This study aimed to identify the views held by Turkish primary school pupils on punishment. According to the results of the study, pupils were punished for…

  9. Eurimages and Turkish cinema: history, identity, culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yılmazok, L.

    2012-01-01

    Out of the new sources for financing films that emerged in the post-1990 Turkish cinema, Eurimages is the only non-domestic, supra-national one wherein support decisions are taken by the representatives of various member states. Eurimages was established as a part of the framework of the Council of

  10. Turkish Adaptation of the Gratitude Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Asuman; Oguz Duran, Nagihan

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Although the study of gratitude in psychology has a very short history, the findings of several studies underline the role of gratitude in enhancing individual well-being. Therefore, it is important to be able to assess levels of individual gratitude in counseling and research settings. Since, in the Turkish literature, no…

  11. A. Davutoglu's Ideology of Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the ideology of turkish foreign policy is analyzed, elaborated and successfully put into practice by the former Minister for Foreign Affairs, and nowadays by prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu. Foreign policy strategy of Davutoglu represents set of the interconnected theoretical (the flexible approach; consistency and systematic approach; new diplomatic style and practical principles directed on increase of a role of the Turkish state on international scene - balance between democracy and safety; “zero of problems with neighbours”; preventive and priority peace diplomacy; multidimensional foreign policy; rhythmical diplomacy. Each of principles possesses certain properties and characteristics which have always been presented as a certain purpose which is necessary for reaching Turkey in the difficult international environment. Undoubtedly, A. Davutoglu's ideology has brought the huge contribution to activization and expansion of foreign policy of Turkey last decade. The merit of Davutoglu consists that it has cardinally changed the approach of the Turkish state to the foreign policy which was based earlier on such postulate - “the best friend of a Turk is a Turk”. However the destructive events which have passed and occurring today as in the Turkish state (terrorism strengthening, instability of political system, and also in region of the Middle East - civil war in Syria, deterioration of relations with Russia, Greece, Syria, Iran and Iraq have called into question a number of positions of the concept of Davutoglu in this connection in article some attention to the critic of its approach is paid also.

  12. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyurt, Secil

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth investigation of Turkish primary school students' perceptions of geography. Gender differences in students' perceptions of geography were investigated, including definitions of geography and its field of study. The findings showed that "landforms," "our geographical regions/Turkey,"…

  13. Cyberbullying and Victimisation among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Yavuz; Eristi, Bahadir

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of cyberbullying and victimisation among Turkish university students at a state college of education. A personal information form and 56 scaled items were administered to 254 students. Items addressing cyberbullying victimisation were adopted from a recent study, whereas parallel cyberbullying items were…

  14. Views of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers and Their Managers Related to Professional and Organizational Socialization Processes of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet; Arslan, M. Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Turkish effectively and successfully is one of the main functions of all the teaching phases of Turkish education system. In secondary education, this duty mostly depends on Turkish Language and Literature teachers. The aim of the research named "Socialization of Turkish Language and Literature teachers" is to evaluate the…

  15. Tolerance of Mycorrhiza infected pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedling to drought stress under glasshouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, H; Saeidi-Sar, S; Afshari, H; Abdel-Wahhab, M A

    2012-05-01

    The influence of Glomus etunicatum colonization on plant growth and drought tolerance of 3-month-old Pistacia vera seedlings in potted culture was studied in two different water treatments. The arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculation and plant growth (including plant shoot and root weight, leaf area, and total chlorophyll) were higher for well-watered than for water-stressed plants. The growth of AM-treated seedlings was higher than non-AM-treatment regardless of water status. P, K, Zn and Cu contents in AM-treated shoots were greater than those in non-AM shoots under well-watered conditions and drought stress. N and Ca content were higher under drought stress, while AM symbiosis did not affect the Mg content. The contents of soluble sugars, proteins, flavonoid and proline were higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal-treated plants under the whole water regime. AM colonization increased the activities of peroxidase enzyme in treatments, but did not affect the catalase activity in shoots and roots under well-watered conditions and drought stress. We conclude that AM colonization improved the drought tolerance of P. vera seedlings by increasing the accumulation of osmotic adjustment compounds, nutritional and antioxidant enzyme activity. It appears that AM formation enhanced the drought tolerance of pistachio plants, which increased host biomass and plant growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) gum: a potent inhibitor of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehitoglu, M Hilal; Han, Hatice; Kalin, Pınar; Gülçin, İlhami; Ozkan, Ali; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, in order to evaluate antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of Pistachio gum (P-Gum), different bioanalytical methods such as DPPH(•) scavenging activity, DMPD(•+) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, reducing ability Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation, Cuprac and FRAP assays, O2(•-) scavenging by riboflavin-methionine-illuminate system and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities by 2,2'-bipyridyl reagent were performed separately. P-Gum inhibited 54.2% linoleic acid peroxidation at 10 µg/ml concentration. On the other hand, BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and trolox, pure antioxidant compounds, indicated inhibition of 80.3%, 73.5%, 36.2% and 72.0% on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, all of sample had an effective DPPH(•), DMPD(•+) and O2(•-) scavenging, Fe(3+) reducing power by Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation and FRAP assay, Cu(2+) reducing ability by Cuprac method and Fe(2+) chelating activities.

  17. Modeling of convective drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels in a fixed bed drying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbay Asım

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels (PKs with initial moisture content of 32.4% (w.b was investigated as a function of drying conditions in a fixed bed drying system. The drying experiments were carried out at different temperatures of drying air (40, 60 and 80°C and air velocities (0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 m/s. Several experiments were performed in terms of mass of PKs (15g and 30g using a constant air velocity of 0.075 m/s. The fit quality of models was evaluated using the determination coefficient (R2, sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE. Among the selected models, the Midilli et al model was found to be the best models for describing the drying behavior of PKs. The activation energies were calculated as 29.2 kJ/mol and effective diffusivity values were calculated between 1.38 and 4.94x10-10 m2/s depending on air temperatures.

  18. Preparing two-dimensional microporous carbon from Pistachio nutshell with high areal capacitance as supercapacitor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiandong; Gao, Qiuming; Zhang, Yunlu; Tan, Yanli; Tian, Weiqian; Zhu, Lihua; Jiang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) porous carbon AC-SPN-3 possessing of amazing high micropore volume ratio of 83% and large surface area of about 1069 m2 g-1 is high-yield obtained by pyrolysis of natural waste Pistachio nutshells with KOH activation. The AC-SPN-3 has a curved 2D lamellar morphology with the thickness of each slice about 200 nm. The porous carbon is consists of highly interconnected uniform pores with the median pore diameter of about 0.76 nm, which could potentially improve the performance by maximizing the electrode surface area accessible to the typical electrolyte ions (such as TEA+, diameter = ~0.68 nm). Electrochemical analyses show that AC-SPN-3 has significantly large areal capacitance of 29.3/20.1 μF cm-2 and high energy density of 10/39 Wh kg-1 at power of 52/286 kW kg-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte and 1 M TEABF4 in EC-DEC (1:1) organic electrolyte system, respectively.

  19. Pistachio hull water-soluble polysaccharides as a novel prebiotic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Alavijeh, Safoura; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Hashmi, Sarwar

    2018-02-01

    We isolated and characterized pistachio hull polysaccharides (PHP). The PHP was a heteropolysaccharide mainly contained 75.50% (w/w) total sugar and 9.51% (w/w) uronic acid. As determined by GPC analysis, the polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 3.71×10 6 D (83.2%) was the most dominant fraction. Moreover, HPLC analysis indicated that PHP was predominantly composed of xylose, glucose, arabinose, and fructose with a molar ratio of 1.00:2.50:19.67:28.81. FT-IR and NMR analysis also confirmed the results obtained by HPLC and characterized preliminary structure features of the PHP. Functional properties of the PHP including water holding capacity (WHC: 2.44±0.05g water/g DM), and oil holding capacity (OHC: 11.53±0.04g oil/g DM) were significant compared to inulin used as reference prebiotic (pPHP remained 94.37% undigested in the simulated digestion process and stimulated the growth of L. plantarum PTCC 1896 and L. rhamnosus GG and increased the acetate, propionate and butyrate production over inulin in vitro. Totally, the PHP showed a considerable prebiotic capability and high WHC, OHC suggesting that the PHP is a potent pharmaceutical with good technological properties which can be used in food and drug industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability and dynamic rheological characterization of spread developed based on pistachio oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousazadeh, Morad; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; HadiNezhad, Mehri; Rahmati, Naghmeh

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of formulation variables (pistachio oil (PO, 7.5 and 15%, w/w), Cocoa butter (CB, 7.5 and 15%, w/w), xanthan gum (XG, 0 and 0.3%, w/w), and distillated monoglyceride (DMG, 0.5 and 1%, w/w)) on the rheological properties and emulsion stability of spreads. Power law and Herschel-Bulkley models were used for modeling shear-thinning behavior of samples. The power law model was found to describe the flow behavior of spreads better than Herschel-Bulkley model. All the rheological properties were increased by adding XG to the spreads whereas increasing PO content caused to decrease them. The DMG had positive effect on apparent viscosity and elastic behavior but had negative effect on viscose behavior. Apparent viscosity was increased by adding CB while rheological modules were not significantly (p DMG improved stability of emulsion. The best spread formulation with optimum rheological properties was 15% PO, 7.5% CB, 0.3% XG and 1% DMG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molluscan shell colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T

    2017-05-01

    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Nuclear shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    de-Shalit, Amos; Massey, H S W

    1963-01-01

    Nuclear Shell Theory is a comprehensive textbook dealing with modern methods of the nuclear shell model. This book deals with the mathematical theory of a system of Fermions in a central field. It is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the single particle shell model. The second part focuses on the tensor algebra, two-particle systems. The last part covers three or more particle systems. Chapters on wave functions in a central field, tensor fields, and the m-Scheme are also presented. Physicists, graduate students, and teachers of nuclear physics will find the book invaluable.

  3. Shell Buckling Knockdown Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment #: 07-010-E, was established in March of 2007 by the NESC in...

  4. Shells and Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  5. Turkish Political Market and the Perception of Political Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Polat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the Turkish political market and determine where and how Turkish political parties are perceived by voters. The study uses a two-dimensional map to determine the voter perceptions of the parties in the Turkish political market based on a survey questionnaire applied to 400 young voters. It also investigates whether there are any major differences in the perception of parties in the political space based on voter ideologies. The study finds that young voters have clear perceptions of the positions of Turkish parties. It also finds that voter perceptions of parties vary based on voters’ ideological positions.

  6. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.S., E-mail: Lam@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: yyao@umich.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  7. PARENTING AND SOCIAL ROLES IN TURKISH TRADITIONAL FAMILIES: ISSUES AND CHOICES IN PARENTING FOR TURKISH EXPATRIATE FAMILIES LIVING IN BUCHAREST

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ECIRLI

    2012-01-01

    This article looks into the issues and challenges of parenting in Turkish families upholding traditional values that live in Bucharest, the capital of Romania. Based on theoretical mainstreams on parenting and the structure of Turkish families, a qualitative research was designed with two aims. The first was to describe the issues and choices in parenting for Turkish expatriate families living in a foreign country. The second was to find out to which of the three ideal-types of families accor...

  8. Turkish Independence War and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru‑Nicolae Cucu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the First World War, the Ottoman Empire collapsed and the Great Powers came to take the control of its territories. Having a strategic position at the southern gate of Europe, all of Turkish lands were very important for the First World War winners, both to secure European borders and to develop the trade between Europe and Middle East. On the other side, under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk command, a new Turkey with a strong nationalist way decided to fight for emancipating. Winning the war with the Great Powers not only in a military way, but also from a diplomatic perspective, the new Turkey became a modern regional power, having institutions and laws that assured its prosperity and security. Taking into consideration the independence war evolution, this paper wants also to show the diplomatic capability of Turkish leaders to balance between powers involved in the region.

  9. Determination of Natamycin in Turkish Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Bilgic Alkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing RP-HPLC method for determination of natamycin in Turkish yoghurt. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C8 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 µm with a mobile phase of methanol : water : acetic acid (12 : 8 : 1 v/v/v, at 1 mL/min flow rate with a detection of 303 nm. Natamycin was spiked into handmade yoghurt samples and used for validation. The method has been fully validated according to ISO 9233-2, 2007 (IDF 140-2, 2007. It was successfully applied to determination of 28 different Turkish yoghurt products. Findings dealing with the presence of natamycin in cheese samples are presented.

  10. Reform in Turkish Elementary Mathematics Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    BABADOĞAN, Cem; OLKUN, Sinan

    2006-01-01

    Disappointed from such major international studies as TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS andsome internal indicators such as national university entrance examination, the Turkish Ministry ofNational Education initiated a massive reform movement in education. These reforms includedeveloping new curricula for both elementary and secondary education and developing teachercompetencies. The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of the elementary schoolmathematics curriculum, which is a part of the ref...

  11. REVIEW OF TURKISH SCIENTIFIC TEXTS ON TEACHING TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil İŞERİ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The functions of the scientific texts under the informative text type are referring to the results of a research, reinterpreting certain research results, or reaching original results. When literature reviewed, it is observed that although the studies for creating scientific text have increased recently, it seems that the desired outcome is not achieved. In addition to teaching Turkish as a mother tongue, teaching it as a foreign language has also started to gain importance. For this reason, it is necessary to carry out such studies in order to increase the productivity in the field of teaching Turkish to foreigners. The aim of the study is to determine the orientations related to the rhetorical arrangement of the scientific texts on teaching of Turkish as a foreign language, which are included in the textbooks of the International Training and Education of Turkish Language Congresses as a full text and to evaluate these texts in terms of their specific functions. Findings and determinations revealed in the study are based on a corpus comprised of a total of 64 texts included in proceedings books, written in Turkish and related to teaching Turkish to foreigners. The study is structured by qualitative research method. The data were obtained by qualitative data collection techniques through document scanning and were examined within the framework of the scientific text criteria specified by Huber and Uzun (2001. Two out of 64 articles in the sample of the study revealed that none of the expected functional steps in the introduction, main and final sections were found. No work has been found that covers all of the functional steps in the introduction, main and final sections.

  12. Investigating and modeling the pyrolysis kinetic of leaves and stems of pistachio trees for biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ostad Hoseini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The lignocelluloses materials have high potential for producing various types of biofuels. These materials include various parts of plants, especially leaves and stems that are left without a specific usage after annual pruning. These residues can be used through slow or fast pyrolysis process for production of liquid and gaseous biofuels. The slow pyrolysis is taking place at temperatures below 500°C while fast pyrolysis process takes place at a temperature above 700°C. Various studies on production of biofuels from plant residues have shown that the temperature, heating rate and the resident time of pyrolysis process are the main factors that affect the final product quality. At present time, in Iran, there are more than 360 thousands hectares of pistachio growing fields which annually produce over 215 thousands metric tons residues which are mainly leaves and stems. The main objective of this study was to measure the heating properties of the powders prepared from the leaves and the stem of pistachio trees. These properties include higher heating value (HHV, lower heating value (LHV and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the powders. Then the powders were separately pyrolysed and the kinetic of the pyrolysis process for producing charcoal from them was investigated. Materials and Methods In this research, leaves and stems of pistachio trees were initially analyzed to determine their chemical constituents including moisture content, volatile compounds, carbon (C, hydrogen (H, nitrogen (N, sulfur (S and oxygen (O content. Using these constituents the height heating value and low heating value for the leaves and the stems were determined. The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the powders was made to select a proper heating temperature for pyrolysis of the powders. In each experiment about 10 g of powder powders were pyrolyzed to produce char. Based on TGA results, the pyrolysis experiments were performed at 350, 400, 450 and

  13. FAIR PLAY I N TURKISH SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail TEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We can say that we start hearing term of fair play since last 30 years in our country. While it is a sportive term it also represents respectfulness toward all mutual rights, symbol of being just and honest also we can determine it as basic moral values wh ich needs to be practise. Expression and teaching of Fair play fact starts with family and it needs to be thought as a life discipline which should appear in society. Term of Fair play isn‟t only an organizing term for sportive interrelations it also ne eds to be taken as a cultural fact. It is a way of life. Term of Fair play is a way of thinking and acting so it is is above all of sport branches. It is behaviors and emotions which are accepted as conditions of being a perfect human being by Turkish society. Purpose of this study is to investigate perspective of Turkish society toward Fair play and find lived / real fair play events to set as sample. Term of Fair play, cultural values among Turkish society and real Fair play events had been studied carefully within the theorical scope. This research is a theorical study. Screening the resources used as method for this study. Tried to investigate works, articles and researches had been done about this field and interpret the facts which can be acc epted as sample for Fair play.

  14. Inhibition of the Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Contamination on Pistachio Nut by Fengycin and Surfactin-Producing Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Farzaneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the treatment of pistachio nuts by Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1, a promising isolate to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, caused to reduce the growth of Aspergillus flavus R5 and AFB1 content on pistachio nuts. Fluorescence probes revealed that the cell free supernatant fluid from UTBSP1 affects spore viability considerably. Using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method, 10 fractions were separated and collected from methanol extract of cell free supernatant fluid. Two fractions showed inhibition zones against A. flavus. Mass spectrometric analysis of the both antifungal fractions revealed a high similarity between these anti-A. flavus compounds and cyclic-lipopeptides of surfactin, and fengycin families. Coproduction of surfactin and fengycin acted in a synergistic manner and consequently caused a strong antifungal activity against A. flavus R5. There was a positive significant correlation between the reduction of A. flavus growth and the reduction of AFB1 contamination on pistachio nut by UTBSP1. The results indicated that fengycin and surfactin-producing B. subtilis UTBSP1 can potentially reduce A. flavus growth and AFB1 content in pistachio nut.

  15. Effects of pistachio nuts on body composition, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a 24-wk, randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Saluja, Shelza

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pistachio nuts as an adjunct to diet and exercise on body composition, metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters in Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. In this 24-wk randomized control trial, 60 individuals with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to either pistachio (intervention group) or control group (diet as per weight and physical activity profile, modulated according to dietary guidelines for Asian Indians) after 3 wk of a diet and exercise run in. In the first group, unsalted pistachios (20% energy) were given daily. A standard diet and exercise protocol was followed for both groups. Body weight, waist circumference (WC), magnetic resonance imaging estimation of intraabdominal adipose tissue and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, free fatty acids (FFAs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, leptin, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were assessed before and after the intervention. Statistically significant improvement in mean values for various parameters in the intervention group compared with control group were as follows: WC (P pistachios leads to beneficial effects on the cardiometabolic profile of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Semiochemicals to monitor insect pests – future opportunities for an effective host plant volatile blend to attract navel orangeworm in pistachio orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) has been a major insect pest of California tree nut orchards for the past five decades. In particular, almond and pistachio orchards suffer major annual economic damage due to both physical and associated fungal damage caused by navel orangeworm larvae. Un...

  17. Phenotypic variation among trees in a population of a Pistacia atlantica X P. integerrima cross sold as UCB-1 rootstock for grafting P. vera (pistachio) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    UCB-1 is widely used in California as a pistachio rootstock because of its Verticillium resistance, salt and cold tolerance, and vigor. It can grow in most locations in California. However, significant variation exists in the phenotypic performance of trees grafted to seedling UCB-1 rootstocks. In J...

  18. Phenolic and triterpenoid composition and inhibition of α-amylase of pistachio kernels (Pistacia vera L.) as affected by rootstock and irrigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Pérez-López, David; Burgos-Hernández, Armando; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2018-09-30

    The current water scarcity forces farmers to adopt new irrigation strategies to save water without jeopardizing the fruit yield and quality. In this study, the influence of 3 regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments and 3 rootstocks on the functional quality of pistachios were studied. The functional parameters studied included, polyphenols, triterpenoids, and inhibition of α-amylase. The results showed that P. terebinthus and P. atlantica rootstocks led to pistachio kernels with higher contents of polyphenols and triterpenoids (mainly betulinic acid with 111 and 102 µg g -1 , respectively) than pistachios obtained using P. integerrima rootstock (81 µg g -1 ). On the other hand, the use of moderate RDI (T1 treatment) increased the total content of polyphenols (∼10%), quercetin-O-galloyl-hexoside (∼15%), keampferol-3-O-glucoside (∼19%), and polymeric procyanidins (∼20%), as compared to the control trees, resulting in pistachios with a better functional profile, lower economic cost and with a lesser environmental impact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensory and instrumental texture assessment of roasted pistachio nut/kernel by partial least square (PLS) regression analysis: effect of roasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; Razavi, Seyed M A; Taghizadeh, Masoud; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Roasting is an important step in the processing of pistachio nuts. The effect of hot air roasting temperature (90, 120 and 150 °C), time (20, 35 and 50 min) and air velocity (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s) on textural and sensory characteristics of pistachio nuts and kernels were investigated. The results showed that increasing the roasting temperature decreased the fracture force (82-25.54 N), instrumental hardness (82.76-37.59 N), apparent modulus of elasticity (47-21.22 N/s), compressive energy (280.73-101.18 N.s) and increased amount of bitterness (1-2.5) and the hardness score (6-8.40) of pistachio kernels. Higher roasting time improved the flavor of samples. The results of the consumer test showed that the roasted pistachio kernels have good acceptability for flavor (score 5.83-8.40), color (score 7.20-8.40) and hardness (score 6-8.40) acceptance. Moreover, Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis of instrumental and sensory data provided important information for the correlation of objective and subjective properties. The univariate analysis showed that over 93.87 % of the variation in sensory hardness and almost 87 % of the variation in sensory acceptability could be explained by instrumental texture properties.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria with Plant Growth Promoting Activity and Biocontrol Potential from Wild Pistachio Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminani, Faegheh; Harighi, Behrouz

    2018-06-01

    In this study, samples were collected from the leaves and stems of healthy wild Pistachio trees ( Pistacia atlantica L.) from various locations of Baneh and Marivan regions, Iran. In total, 61 endophytic bacteria were isolated and grouped according to phenotypic properties. Ten selected isolates from each group were further identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the results, isolates were identified as bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas , Stenotrophomonas , Bacillus , Pantoea and Serratia genus. The ability of these isolates was evaluated to phytohormone production such as auxin and gibberellin, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, protease and hydrogen cyanide production. All strains were able to produce the plant growth hormone auxin and gibberellin in different amounts. The majority of strains were able to solubilize phosphate. The results of atmospheric nitrogen fixation ability, protease and siderophore production were varied among strains. Only Ba66 could produce a low amount of hydrogen cyanide. The results of biocontrol assay showed that Pb78 and Sp15 strains had the highest and lowest inhibition effects on bacterial plant pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Pss20 and Pseudomonas tolaasii Pt18 under in vitro condition. Pb3, Pb24 and Pb71 strains significantly promote root formation on carrot slices. To our knowledge this is the first report of the isolation of endophytic bacterial strains belonging to Pantoea , Bacillus , Pseudomonas , Serratia and Stenotrophomonas genus from wild pistachio trees with plant growth promoting potential and biocontrol activity.

  1. Determination of roasted pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) key odorants by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, Laura; Vera, Luciano; Guasch, Josep; Busto, Olga; Mestres, Montserrat

    2011-03-23

    Key odorants in roasted pistachio nuts have been determined for the first time. Two different pistachio varieties (Fandooghi and Kerman) have been analyzed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). The aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA) applied have revealed 46 and 41 odor-active regions with a flavor dilution (FD) factor≥64 for the Fandooghi and the Kerman varieties, respectively, and 39 of them were related to precisely identified compounds. These included esters, pyrazines, aldehydes, acids, furans, and phenols. The results show that the Fandooghi variety presents, not only more odor-active regions but also higher FD factors than the Kerman variety that can lead to the conclusion that the first variety has a richer aromatic profile than the second one. The descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that the roasted, chocolate/coffee, and nutty attributes were rated significantly higher in the Fandooghi variety, whereas the green attribute was significantly higher in the Kerman one.

  2. Evaluation of special, functional and structural diversity of weeds community in pistachios (Pistacia vera L. orchards of Bardaskan County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Elahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To study weed species diversity and community structure in pistachio (Pistacia vera L. orchards in 33 orchards of 12 villages an investigation was conducted in Bardaskan County, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran during 2008-2009. Weed population sampling was conducted in a w shape method using 1m² quadrate. The results showed that the weeds of pistachio orchards were belonging to 15 families and 44 species. dicotyledons (31 species were more than monocotyledons (13 species. Such as in this community, weed species of C3, C4, annual and perennial were 26, 18, 28 and 13, respectively. The majority of weed species were belonging to the plant families of chenopodiceae (9 species and poaceae (12 species amongst dicotyledons and monocotyledons, respectively. the most important species of monocotyledon annual weeds were including Echinochloa crus-gali, Digitaria sanguinlis, Setaria viridis and perennial weeds were including Cyperus routundus, Cynodon dactylon and convolvulus arvensis. Weed species were grouped in seven clusters for density average, frequency and uniformity (similarity 75 percent whereas in eight clusters for relative density average, relative frequency and relative uniformity (similarity 75 percent. Amplitude changes of Shannon-winter diversity index were between 2.3 and 0.16 and of Simpson dominant index were between 0.97 and 0.17. The difference among indices of biodiversity and dominant clusters were relative to scale and type of management practices.

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity of Tunisian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenni, K; Aouadi, M; Chatti, K; Salhi-Hannachi, A

    2016-10-17

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers preferentially amplify open reading frames and were used to study the genetic diversity of Tunisian pistachio. In the present study, 43 Pistacia vera accessions were screened using seven SRAP primer pairs. A total of 78 markers was revealed (95.12%) with an average polymorphic information content of 0.850. The results suggest that there is strong genetic differentiation, which characterizes the local resources (G ST = 0.307). High gene flow (N m = 1.127) among groups was explained by the exchange of plant material among regions. Analysis of molecular variance revealed significant differences within groups and showed that 73.88% of the total genetic diversity occurred within groups, whereas the remaining 26.12% occurred among groups. Bayesian clustering and principal component analysis identified three pools, El Guettar, Pollenizers, and the rest of the pistachios belonging to the Gabès, Kasserine, and Sfax localities. Bayesian analysis revealed that El Guettar and male genotypes were assigned with more than 80% probability. The BayeScan method proposed that locus 59 (F13-R9) could be used in the development of sex-linked SCAR markers from SRAP since it is a commonly detected locus in comparisons involving the Pollenizers group. This is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in Tunisian germplasm of P. vera. Such information will be useful to define conservation strategies and improvement programs for this species.

  4. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices.

  5. Effects of salicylic acid on Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B₁ accumulation in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahirad, Sima; Zaare-Nahandi, Fariborz; Mohammadi, Nilufar; Alizadeh-Salteh, Saeedeh; Safaie, Naser

    2014-07-01

    One of the most important saprophytic infections in fresh pistachio fruits after harvesting is Aspergillus flavus colonization, which significantly reduces fruit quality. Salicylic acid plays a crucial role in plant tissues and has a suppression effect on some fungi. The inhibitory effect of salicylic acid on the growth of A. flavus was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For this purpose, seven concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 mmol L(-1)) of salicylic acid were used in both experiments. Also, aflatoxin B1 contents of the samples were analysed using immunoaffinity chromatography. The results obtained from in vitro experiments showed that salicylic acid significantly reduced Aspergillus growth at all concentrations, and at 9 mmol L(-1) growth was completely suppressed. In vivo evaluation showed relatively high levels of inhibition, though the intact treated fruits as compared with the injured treated fruits demonstrated higher inhibitory effects. Regarding the inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on the control of A. flavus contamination, its application on pistachio fruits after harvesting could be a promising approach to control the fungus infection and reduce aflatoxin production in treated fruits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria with Plant Growth Promoting Activity and Biocontrol Potential from Wild Pistachio Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminani, Faegheh; Harighi, Behrouz

    2018-01-01

    In this study, samples were collected from the leaves and stems of healthy wild Pistachio trees (Pistacia atlantica L.) from various locations of Baneh and Marivan regions, Iran. In total, 61 endophytic bacteria were isolated and grouped according to phenotypic properties. Ten selected isolates from each group were further identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the results, isolates were identified as bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Pantoea and Serratia genus. The ability of these isolates was evaluated to phytohormone production such as auxin and gibberellin, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, protease and hydrogen cyanide production. All strains were able to produce the plant growth hormone auxin and gibberellin in different amounts. The majority of strains were able to solubilize phosphate. The results of atmospheric nitrogen fixation ability, protease and siderophore production were varied among strains. Only Ba66 could produce a low amount of hydrogen cyanide. The results of biocontrol assay showed that Pb78 and Sp15 strains had the highest and lowest inhibition effects on bacterial plant pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Pss20 and Pseudomonas tolaasii Pt18 under in vitro condition. Pb3, Pb24 and Pb71 strains significantly promote root formation on carrot slices. To our knowledge this is the first report of the isolation of endophytic bacterial strains belonging to Pantoea, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Stenotrophomonas genus from wild pistachio trees with plant growth promoting potential and biocontrol activity. PMID:29887777

  7. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshiri M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots and leaves were increased by increasing salt stress. The highest concentrations of proline in leaves and roots were recorded in Abareqi rootstock while the lowest concentration was observed in Sarakhs. In general, a negative relationship was obtained between proline and methylglyoxal concentrations in both tissues especially at two highest levels of salinity. A very strong relationship between salinity and measured biochemical markers were found. The level of both biomarkers were reduced in both tissues and in all rootstocks as the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Root colonization percentage was declined as the effect of salinity in Abareqi and Bane baghi and not in Sarakhs.

  8. Effect of treating alfalfa silage with pistachio by-products extract on Saanen dairy goats performance and microbial nitrogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-08-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p pistachio by-products tannins. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. The Effect of Nitrogen Application on Boron Toxicity Reduction in Pistachio (Pistacia vera cv. Badami-Zarand Saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    babak motesharezadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Boron is one of the seven essential microelements for the natural growth of plants. The toxicity of this element occurs in arid and semi-arid regions, which is because of its high level in soils and the irrigation water of mentioned regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen application on boron toxicity tolerance in pistachio, Badami-Zarand variety. The effects of three nitrogen levels (0, 250, and 350 mg/kg of soil on the reduction of toxicity due to the three levels of boron (0, 15, and 30 mg/kg of soil were examined in Badami-Zarandi variety of pistachio under greenhouse conditions. After 7 months from sowing the seeds, pistachio seedlings were harvested and desired traits were measured. The results showed that by increasing boron application level, boron concentration in the shoot and root of seedlings increased whereas their dry weight decreased. Using of nitrogen reduced the negative effects of boron on the dry weight and led to increase dry weight and decrease boron concentration in the shoot and root of pistachio, Badami variety. Nitrogen application at the levels of 250 and 350 mg N per kg of soil reduced boron uptake in shoots by reinforcing plant vegetative system and increasing chlorophyll content by 13.5% and 30.2%, respectively and finally led to diluted boron concentration in the plant (dilution effect and reduced the effects of boron toxicity. Hence, optimized nitrogen application is suggested as one of the management methods in controlling Boron toxicity under these conditions. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out. Soil sampling was done in 0-30 cm depth in a zeekzack way from a pistachio garden that located in mahmoodiye area in Rafsanjan. The soil sample was air-dried and passed through a 2mm sieve. The soil chemical and physical properties were measured. In this study, badami-zarand cultivar seed

  10. Dyson shells: a retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert J.

    2001-08-01

    More than 40 years have passed since Freeman Dyson suggested that advanced technological civilizations are likely to dismantle planets in their solar systems to harvest all of the energy their stars wastefully radiate into space. Clearly this was an idea that was ahead of its time. Since that time, dozens of SETI searches have been conducted and almost all of them have focused their attention on stars which by definition cannot be the advanced civilizations that Dyson envisioned. I will review the data that created the confusion between Dyson spheres and Dyson shells. The sources that disprove Dyson spheres while still allowing Dyson shells will be discussed. The use of outmoded ideas that have biased the few searches for Dyson Shells that have occurred will be pointed out. An update of the concept of Dyson shells to include our current knowledge of biotechnology, nanotechnology and computer science will be explored. Finally, an approach to setting limits on the abundance of Dyson shells in our galaxy using existing optical astronomical data and future optical satellites will be proposed.

  11. A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Beverage, “Shalgam”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Coskun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shalgam is a traditional Turkish beverage produced by lactic acid fermentation. Shalgam is also sold in markets in some European cities. In shalgam production, bulgur flour (formed during the crushing process, it is the part that remains under the sieve after breaking the outer shells of boiled dried wheat for processing, salt, water, purple carrot, turnip, and sometimes red beet is used. The traditional method of production can take 10–12 days. Commercial production takes 4–5 days. Shalgam is a probiotic food and a good source of nutrients. It helps regulate the pH of the digestive system. It contains β-carotene, group B vitamins, calcium, potassium, and iron. People also use it as a medicine because of its antiseptic agents. Shalgam consumption should be increased and become worldwide.

  12. Photoluminescence of Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Başevirgen, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    The purple-colored unique gem material is only found in the Harmancık (Bursa) region of the western Anatolia (Turkey). Therefore, it is specially called “Turkish purple jade or turkiyenite” on the worldwide gem market. Even though its jadeite implication is the principal constituent, the material cannot be considered as a single jadeite mineral since other implications are quartz, orthoclase, epidote, chloritoid and phlogopite minerals. Even if the analytical methods are used to characterize and identify the Turkish purple jade samples in detail, the luminescence spectra, especially photoluminescence features regarding to composite mineral implications of the material are important because of the existence the numerous characteristic broad and intensive luminescence bands in the samples. We can state that the UV-irradiation luminescence centers as photoluminescence (PL) are due to the overall signals in the Turkish purple jade samples. Accordingly, the distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 743, 717, 698, 484, 465 and 442 nm in PL-2D (counter diagram and sections) and PL-3D (sequence spectra) ranging between 300 and 900 nm of wavelengths, and between 220 and 340 K of temperatures are observed. Finally, photoluminescence features of the heterogeneous-structured material cannot be simply attributed to any chemical impurities, since the jade mass has numerous heterogeneous mineral constituents instead of a single jadeite mineral. Six different mineral implications and chemical impurities in the material composition display complex and individual all kind of luminescence features. Therefore, photoluminescence as well as radioluminescence, cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra provide positive identification regarding to the provenance (geographic origin) of the original Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite). - Highlights: ► The purple-colored gem material is only found in the Harmancık-Bursa region of Turkey. ► Material is called “Turkish purple

  13. Ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elders, L.A.M.; Burdorf, A.; Öry, F.G.

    2004-01-01

    The number of native Dutch and Turkish workers receiving a permanent disability pension in the Netherlands is still rising. To assess ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders, a retrospective study was conducted within a large scaffolding company. Medical files for

  14. Ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); F.G. Öry; L.A.M. Elders (Leo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe number of native Dutch and Turkish workers receiving a permanent disability pension in the Netherlands is still rising. To assess ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders, a retrospective study was conducted within a large

  15. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on one such Turkish complementary school in .... various educational services that lead to achieving certain goals .... languages, together with the issue of differences of quality of .... challenge of “tackling underachievement” of Turkish Speaking ..... Cape schools and implications for school leadership.

  16. "Turkish Modernization," Democracy, and Education: An Analysis from Dewey's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Seckin

    2009-01-01

    Dewey is an important representative of the libertarian education movement, which has its roots based on the values of the enlightenment. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between "Turkish modernization" and education from Dewey's perspective. In the paper, the place and effect of Dewey in the Turkish pedagogical vision was…

  17. New Technologies in Maritime Education and Training, Turkish Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Oral; Demirel, Ergun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce new technologies and approaches in the maritime education and training (MET) and Turkish experiment/acquisitions/contributions including some analysis which may be helpful for the future studies on this subject. As an example of such an effort, Turkish experiment/contribution on seafaring officer education…

  18. Secularity and religiosity: keystones of Turkish national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Olyunin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to many experts Turkish National Federation experiences crisis of its national identity. The article concerns the problem of secular and religious balance in Turkish nationalism. Special attention is attached to Turkey as a project and Turkey as a process, war factor in a birth of the nation, national idea reproduction, Islam nationalization and nationalism Islamisation.

  19. Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

  20. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…

  1. A characterization of verb use in Turkish agrammatic narrative speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bamyacı, Elif; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of narrative-speech production and the use of verbs in Turkish agrammatic speakers (n = 10) compared to non-brain-damaged controls (n = 10). To elicit narrative-speech samples, personal interviews and storytelling tasks were conducted. Turkish has a large

  2. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  3. US and Turkish preschoolers' observational knowledge of astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçkes, Mesut; McCormick Smith, Mandy; Cabe Trundle, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to describe and compare US and Turkish children's observational knowledge of the day and night cycle and to identify similarities predicted by framework theory. Fifty-six (27 US and 29 Turkish) young children (ages 48-60 months) participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were individually conducted, digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method. The results demonstrate that preschoolers from the two cultures are able to make comparable informal observations of the sky, and their observational knowledge includes many similarities, with one exception, as predicted by framework theory. US children were more likely to perform better than the Turkish children on the question about the time of observation for the moon. Although science concepts and skills are better represented in US early childhood education programs than the Turkish program, the results suggest that this advantage did not translate into performance differences between US and Turkish children.

  4. Opinions of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers on the Curriculum of Turkish Literature Course Based on the Constructivist Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to collect the opinions of Turkish Language and Literature teachers at secondary schools about the Curriculum of the Turkish Literature Course based on the constructivist learning theory. To this end, the descriptive method was employed to collect teacher opinions. Structured interview was used as a data…

  5. The Place of Digital Marketing on Turkish Small Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Karatum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, technology develops rapidly and continuously and it affects every aspect of our lives. Marketing concept has been affected by these developments. What we want from marketing and reaching in an increasingly virtualized world is to be a lot faster than the past. Also, new marketing channels have emerged as well. Turkish small businesses, the building blocks of Turkish economy, have the chance of addressing the marketing problems and solving the problems with the digital marketing channels. Small businesses have time and cash money limitations and this restricts their development. It is aimed to inform Turkish small businesses about Turkish population’s digital channel usage and the benefits of using digital marketing channels. As a result, digital marketing is going to improve the speed of renewal process of the Turkish small businesses and competition between them will improve the economy of Turkey. In the 21st century, technology develops rapidly and continuously and it affects every aspect of our lives. Marketing concept has been affected by these developments. What we want from marketing and reaching in an increasingly virtualized world is to be a lot faster than the past. Also, new marketing channels have emerged as well. Turkish small businesses, the building blocks of Turkish economy, have the chance of addressing the marketing problems and solving the problems with the digital marketing channels. Small businesses have time and cash money limitations and this restricts their development. It is aimed to inform Turkish small businesses about Turkish population’s digital channel usage and the benefits of using digital marketing channels. As a result, digital marketing is going to improve the speed of renewal process of the Turkish small businesses and competition between them will improve the economy of Turkey.

  6. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  7. Turkish putsch through the eyes of Turkish people: image of the failed coup estimated by Turkish media in July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamedov Zaur Imalverdi oglu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Turkish media on the subject of the coup in 2016. The reviewed materials were published in the first two weeks after the coup attempt, and these most clearly convey the atmosphere of those days. The purpose of this study is to examine the formation of public opinion in connection with the coup in Turkey. The uniqueness of the work lies in the fact that almost all types of mass media were involved in the analysis: television, press, popular sites.

  8. The Evaluation of the Effect of Multiwall Carbon Nano Tube (MWCNT) on In Vitro Proliferation and Shoot Tip Necrosis of Pistachio Rootstock UCB-1 (Pistacia integrima × P. atlantica)

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrzad Aghasi Kermani; Hossein Hokmabadi; Marzieh Ghanbari Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    UCB-1 (Pistacia atlantica × P. integrima) is a commercial rootstock for pistachio in some pistachio plantations across the world. This rootstock is very new in Iran and recently, it has been used commercially in some plantations due to its high growth. Propagation of this rootstock by tissue culture results in many limitations such as shoot tip necrosis (STN) and a low proliferation rate. Therefore, any process that leads to improve the proliferation rate and feature will be used in commercia...

  9. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  10. Stability of charged thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  11. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  12. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  13. Ritual Change in a Turkish Alevi Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McElwain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a documentation and analysis of change in ritual in the village of Sarilar, on the west bank of the Euphrates River near Yavuseli, Gaziantep. The research problem posed was identification of ritual change within the consultants' memory and some tentative ways of situating such change within the socio-economic context. The mysticism of the dervish lodge remains as a certain life attitude along with the new views of modernization that have been so well inculcated. Although modernization, at least in the Turkish Alevi context, tends to conflict with the mystical experience of the Bektashi dervish in some areas, a democratized inner core remains.

  14. Turkish Petroleum Corporation: Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A brief account of the generating electrical energy and building the most suitable generation facility activities carried out by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, Ankara during the period January 2005 to December 2005 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: 1) Our vision 2) Goals and objectives, strategies 3) Who we are 4) Board of directors 5) Domestic exploration and production activities 6) International exploration and production activities 7) Innovations in technology 8) Occupational safety and environmental protection 9) TPAO services 10) TPAO district Managements 11) Finance etc

  15. Genetic diversity of disease-associated loci in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Sefayet; Cesuroglu, Tomris; Karaca, Mehmet; Erge, Sema; Polimanti, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Many consortia and international projects have investigated the human genetic variation of a large number of ethno-geographic groups. However, populations with peculiar genetic features, such as the Turkish population, are still absent in publically available datasets. To explore the genetic predisposition to health-related traits of the Turkish population, we analyzed 34 genes associated with different health-related traits (for example, lipid metabolism, cardio-vascular diseases, hormone metabolism, cellular detoxification, aging and energy metabolism). We observed relevant differences between the Turkish population and populations with non-European ancestries (that is, Africa and East Asia) in some of the investigated genes (that is, AGT, APOE, CYP1B1, GNB3, IL10, IL6, LIPC and PON1). As most complex traits are highly polygenic, we developed polygenic scores associated with different health-related traits to explore the genetic diversity of the Turkish population with respect to other human groups. This approach showed significant differences between the Turkish population and populations with non-European ancestries, as well as between Turkish and Northern European individuals. This last finding is in agreement with the genetic structure of European and Middle East populations, and may also agree with epidemiological evidences about the health disparities of Turkish communities in Northern European countries.

  16. Chemical composition and the nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (in situ degradation and in vitro gas production techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bakhshizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (PE was evaluated by in situ and in vitro techniques. Chemical analysis indicated that PE was high in crude protein (11.30% and low in neutral detergent fiber (26.20%. Total phenols, total tannins, condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins contents in PE were 8.29%, 4.48%, 0.49% and 3.79%, respectively. Ruminal dry matter and crude protein degradation after 48 hr incubation were 75.21% and 82.52%, respectively. The gas production volume at 48 hr for PE was 122.47 mL g-1DM. As a whole, adding polyethylene glycol (PEG to PE increased (p < 0.05 gas production volumes, organic matter digestibility and the metabolizable energy that illustrated inhibitory effect of phenolics on rumen microbial fermentation and the positive influence of PEG on digestion PE. The results showed that PE possessed potentials to being used as feed supplements.

  17. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  18. Chemical composition and the nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (in situ degradation and in vitro gas production techniques).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshizadeh, Somayeh; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Janmohammadi, Hossein; Alijani, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (PE) was evaluated by in situ and in vitro techniques. Chemical analysis indicated that PE was high in crude protein (11.30%) and low in neutral detergent fiber (26.20%). Total phenols, total tannins, condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins contents in PE were 8.29%, 4.48%, 0.49% and 3.79%, respectively. Ruminal dry matter and crude protein degradation after 48 hr incubation were 75.21% and 82.52%, respectively. The gas production volume at 48 hr for PE was 122.47 mL g(-1)DM. As a whole, adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) to PE increased (p gas production volumes, organic matter digestibility and the metabolizable energy that illustrated inhibitory effect of phenolics on rumen microbial fermentation and the positive influence of PEG on digestion PE. The results showed that PE possessed potentials to being used as feed supplements.

  19. "Reflections of the Loss of Rumeli on the Turkish Poetry"

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Losing the land of Rumeli has had significant reflections on the Turkish poetry. Poets such as Rıza Tevfik, Mehmet kif, Aka Gündüz, Arif Nihat, etc. wrote poems on how much the sudden loss of Rumeli, which had long been under the Turkish rule, influenced the feelings of the Turkish people quite negatively. They harshly criticized the negligence and the incompetence of the rulers which accelerated the loss of the land during the Balkan War. One can easily observe the dramatic style in such po...

  20. Reflections of the Loss of Rumeli on the Turkish Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Losing the land of Rumeli has had significant reflections on the Turkish poetry. Poets such as Rıza Tevfik, Mehmet Âkif, Aka Gündüz, Arif Nihat, etc. wrote poems on how much the sudden loss of Rumeli, which had long been under the Turkish rule, influenced the feelings of the Turkish people quite negatively. They harshly criticized the negligence and the incompetence of the rulers which accelerated the loss of the land during the Balkan War. One can easily observe the dramatic style in such p...

  1. Gender equality or patriarchal dividend: Structural change in Turkish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Elizabeth; Badir, Aysel

    2008-06-01

    Turkey is attempting to join the European Union and is facing pressure to eliminate many forms of discrimination, including discrimination based on gender. In keeping with these aims, in early 2007 the Turkish government changed the law to permit Turkish men to become nurses. Given that Turkey is a highly patriarchal society and that occupational segregation by sex is a persistent feature, it is important to examine the potential outcome of the legislative changes. The aim of this paper is to explore the paradoxical potential for Turkish female nurses to experience increased discrimination in a system that is restructured by legislation to be non-discriminatory.

  2. The Attitude of Students Who Are Native Speakers of Turkish in England towards Turkish Lessons Based on Their Demographic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazik Müge TEKİN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mother tongue education (or instruction plays quite a significant role in individual students’ success in both social and academic areas. A qualified mother tongue education is crucial in ensuring those students become successful adults in their later life and adopt their own culture and identities. From time to time, there might be students who have mother tongue medium education along with those who have other languages as the medium of instruction. Among those bilingual students there are children of Turkish citizens who immigrated to Western Europe as workers. Mother tongue education is a necessity for bilingual individuals to protect their identities, to adopt to the society they already live in and to learn the language used in that very society much more easily. This makes it more important for the bilingual Turkish children living in foreign countries to receive mother tongue education. In this vein, the attitudes of Turkish students, who live in England, towards the Turkish language class are examined. 105 Turkish students between 11 and 18 years enrolled in Wisdom and Namık Kemal Turkish School in the UK were requested to fill in a questionnaire. Based on their responses, their opinions about the Turkish language class were evaluated.

  3. Cytotoxic Effects and Anti-Angiogenesis Potential of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Hulls against MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifaddinipour, Maryam; Farghadani, Reyhaneh; Namvar, Farideh; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2018-01-05

    Pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) hulls (PVLH) represents a significant by-product of industrial pistachio processing that contains high amounta of phenolic and flavonoid compounds known to act as antioxidants. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic potentials of PVLH extracts. The cytotoxic effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water PVLH extracts toward human colon cancer (HT-29 and HCT-116), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), lung adenocarcinoma (H23), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), and normal fibroblast (BJ-5ta) cells were assessed using a MTT cell viability assay. Apoptosis induction was evaluated through the different nuclear staining assays and confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. Anti-angiogenic activities were also determined using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. PVLH ethyl acetate extracts (PVLH-EAE) demonstrated a suppressive effect with an IC 50 value of 21.20 ± 1.35, 23.00 ± 1.2 and 25.15 ± 1.85 µg/mL against MCF-7, HT-29 and HCT-116, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Morphological assessment and flow cytometry analysis showed the potential of PVLH-EAE to induce apoptosis. PVLH-EAE at the highest concentration demonstrated significant inhibition of angiogenesis as comparing with control group. Also the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in treated MCF-7 cells. Thus, the apoptosis induction and angiogenesis potential of PVLH-EAE make it to be the most suitable for further cancer research study to deal with selective antitumor active substances to human cancers especially breast cancer.

  4. Study of Tannin- degrading bacteria isolated from Pistachio soft hulls and feces of goat feeding on it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tahmourespour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tannins (tannic acid are toxic, high molecular weight and water- soluble polyphenols that are present in many plants such as pistachio and its by- products. Wide ranges of microorganisms including bacteria tolerate tannin and degrade it. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize tannin- tolerant bacteria from pistachio soft hulls (P- SH and feces of goat before and after feeding on this by- product as tannin rich diet. Materials and methods: Tannin tolerant bacteria were isolated from enrichment cultures of samples in medium containing tannic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. Tannin hydrolyzing ability of isolates was confirmed by observation of clear zones around the colonies. The increasing concentrations of tannin on minimal salt medium (MSM agar plates were used to test the maximum tolerable concentrations (MTCs. Furthermore, in the supplemented media tannin concentrations were measured by bovine serum albumin (BSA precipitation assay during time intervals. Results: Tannin- degrading bacterial population of P- SH was about only 10.3% of total population. More than 50 percent of tannin degrading strains were isolated from goat feces after grazing on tannin rich diet. Isolated bacteria were Gram- negative and positive rod species belonging to Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Escherichia and Enterobacter genera. Among the isolated bacteria 71.4% could tolerate the concentration of 64 g/l of tannin in their media while only 7.2% were able to tolerate the maximum tannin concentration of 16 g/l. Bacterial isolates of goat feces could degrade tannin more than 72% after 72 h of incubation. In the case of soft P- SH isolates, the biodegradation percentage was between 17- 75%. Discussion and conclusion: Feeding of tannin rich diet induced a shift in digestive system microbial profile with increased population of tannin tolerant bacteria. The ability of isolated strains provides novel insights for the role they can

  5. Effects of land conversion from native shrub to pistachio orchard on soil erodibility in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Gundogan, Recep; Dindaroglu, Turgay; Kara, Zekeriya

    2017-10-29

    Land-use change through degrading natural vegetation for agricultural production adversely affects many of soil properties particularly organic carbon content of soils. The native shrub land and grassland of Gaziantep-Adiyaman plateau that is an important pistachio growing eco-region have been cleared to convert into pistachio orchard for the last 50 to 60 years. In this study, the effects of conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural uses on soil erodibility have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from surface of agricultural fields and adjacent natural vegetation areas, and samples were analyzed for some soil erodibility indices such as dispersion ratio (DR), erosion ratio (ER), structural stability index (SSI), Henin's instability index (I s ), and aggregate size distribution after wet sieving (AggSD). According to the statistical evaluation, these two areas were found as different from each other in terms of erosion indices except for I s index (P < 0.001 for DR and ER or P < 0.01 for SSI). In addition, native shrub land and converted land to agriculture were found different in terms of AggSD in all aggregate size groups. As a contrary to expectations, correlation tests showed that there were no any interaction between soil organic carbon and measured erodibility indices in two areas. In addition, significant relationships were determined between measured variables and soil textural fractions as statistical. These obtaining findings were attributed to changing of textural component distribution and initial aggregate size distribution results from land-use change in the study area. Study results were explained about hierarchical aggregate formation mechanism.

  6. Assessment of phenolic profile and antioxidant power of five pistachio (Pistacia vera cultivars collected from four geographical regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Taghizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, the levels and antioxidant activities of some secondary metabolites isolated from five pistachio (Pistacia veracultivars collected from four different geographical regions of Iran, were studied. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic compounds levels were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was determined as AlCl3 complex and expressed as mg of quercetin equivalents (QE/g dry extract and total proantocyanidins content was expressed as mg of catechin equivalents (CA/g dry extract. In order to evaluated the antioxidant activity of the compounds, DPPH and FRAP assays were used. Results: The highest level of total phenols (156.42 mg GA/g DE, total flavonoids (130.94 mg QE/g DE and total proantocyanidins (152.816 mg CA/g DE were obtained in Akbari cultivar from Rafsanjan, followed by Badami-e-sefid and Ahmad aghaei. The lowest amount of total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and total proanthocyanidin content (TPrAC were found in Badami-e-sefid from Feizabad (128.140 mg GA/g DE, 93.176 mg QE/g DE and 118.870 mg CA/g DE, respectively. Also, a positive correlation (r2=0.9834 was found between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: Pistachio increased their phytochemical compounds to contrast with abiotic stress. Our data could be useful for introducing special characteristics to the plants, and can be considered when planning a new breeding program or choosing a specific cultivar for a particular use.

  7. Effects of mating disruption treatments on navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) sexual communication and damage in almonds and pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments in 2003 examined the effects of different ways of dispensing the principal sex pheromone component on sexual communication among and crop damage by the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Nonpareil almonds and pistachios. A third experiment in 2004 compared the effect on navel orangeworm damage to several almond varieties using one of these dispensing systems by itself or with phosmet, phosmet alone, and an untreated control. Additional data are presented estimating release rates from timed aerosol release devices (PuffersNOW, Suterra LLC, Bend, OR) and hand-applied membrane dispensers. In 2003, puffers placed peripherally around 16-ha blocks, evenly spaced Puffers, and hand-applied dispensers reduced males captured in virgin-baited traps by > or = 95% and mating in sentinel females by > or = 69%, with evenly placed Puffers showing greater reduction of males captured and females mated compared with the other dispensing systems. Mating disruption with gridded Puffers or hand-applied devices in almonds resulted in an approximately 37% reduction of navel orangeworm damage (not significant), whereas peripheral Puffers resulted in a 16% reduction of navel orangeworm damage to almonds. In pistachios neither peripheral nor gridded Puffers reduced navel orangeworm damage, whereas insecticide reduced damage by 56%. In 2004, Puffers alone, insecticide alone, and both in combination significantly reduced navel orangeworm damage in Nonpareil almonds. In other, later harvested varieties, the insecticide treatments reduced damage, whereas the mating disruption treatment alone did not. We discuss application of these findings to management of navel orangeworm in these two crops.

  8. Assessment of phenolic profile and antioxidant power of five pistachio (Pistacia vera) cultivars collected from four geographical regions of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Faezeh; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Asili, Javad; Nemati, Seyed Hossein; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the levels and antioxidant activities of some secondary metabolites isolated from five pistachio ( Pistacia vera ) cultivars collected from four different geographical regions of Iran, were studied. Total phenolic compounds levels were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was determined as AlCl 3 complex and expressed as mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry extract and total proantocyanidins content was expressed as mg of catechin equivalents (CA)/g dry extract. In order to evaluated the antioxidant activity of the compounds, DPPH and FRAP assays were used. The highest level of total phenols (156.42 mg GA/g DE), total flavonoids (130.94 mg QE/g DE) and total proantocyanidins (152.816 mg CA/g DE) were obtained in Akbari cultivar from Rafsanjan, followed by Badami-e-sefid and Ahmad aghaei. The lowest amount of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total proanthocyanidin content (TPrAC) were found in Badami-e-sefid from Feizabad (128.140 mg GA/g DE, 93.176 mg QE/g DE and 118.870 mg CA/g DE, respectively). Also, a positive correlation (r 2 =0.9834) was found between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds. Pistachio increased their phytochemical compounds to contrast with abiotic stress. Our data could be useful for introducing special characteristics to the plants, and can be considered when planning a new breeding program or choosing a specific cultivar for a particular use.

  9. Adult urethral stricture: practice of Turkish urologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Mehmet; Sertkaya, Zulfu; Koca, Orhan; Calıskan, Selahattin; Kutluhan, Musab Ali; Karaman, Muhammet Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate national practice patterns in the treatment of male anterior urethral strictures among Turkish urologists. Materials and Methods: A survey form including 12 questions prepared to determine active Turkish urologists' approach to diagnosis and treatment of the adult urethral stricture (US) were filled out. Based on the survey results, the institutions which 218 urologists work and their years of expertise, methods they used for diagnosis and treatment, whether or not they perform open urethroplasty and timing of open urethroplasty were investigated. Results: Optic internal urethrotomy and dilatation are the most commonly used minimal invasive procedures in treatment of US with the ratios of 93.5% and 63.3% respectively. On the other hand it was seen that urethroplasty was a less commonly used procedure, compared to minimal invasive techniques, with the ratio of 36.7%. Survey results showed us that the number of US cases observed and open urethroplasty procedures performed increases with increasing years of professional experience. Conclusions: As a method demanding special surgical experience and known as a time-consuming and challenging procedure, open urethroplasty will be able to take a greater part in current urological practice with the help of theoretical education and practical courses given by specific centers and experienced authors. PMID:27256189

  10. Adult urethral stricture: practice of Turkish urologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akyuz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate national practice patterns in the treatment of male anterior urethral strictures among Turkish urologists. Materials and Methods: A survey form including 12 questions prepared to determine active Turkish urologists' approach to diagnosis and treatment of the adult urethral stricture (US were filled out. Based on the survey results, the institutions which 218 urologists work and their years of expertise, methods they used for diagnosis and treatment, whether or not they perform open urethroplasty and timing of open urethroplasty were investigated. Results: Optic internal urethrotomy and dilatation are the most commonly used minimal invasive procedures in treatment of US with the ratios of 93.5% and 63.3% respectively. On the other hand it was seen that urethroplasty was a less commonly used procedure, compared to minimal invasive techniques, with the ratio of 36.7%. Survey results showed us that the number of US cases observed and open urethroplasty procedures performed increases with increasing years of professional experience. Conclusions: As a method demanding special surgical experience and known as a time-consuming and challenging procedure, open urethroplasty will be able to take a greater part in current urological practice with the help of theoretical education and practical courses given by specific centers and experienced authors.

  11. Internal control activities in small Turkish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Bilgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present major outcomes from an empirical study concerning internal control activities in small Turkish companies, as to propose the improvement guidelines. Methods of analysis and synthesis, descriptive statistics, and statistical comparison were used. The collected data was processed with the help of the SPSS software. Тhe study is limited to organizations based in the European part of Turkey. Most of them operate in areas around large cities, such as Istanbul, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Tekirdağ. They employ on average 19-20 people and have a turnover of about TRY 3 million (≈€715,000, https://sdw.ecb.europa.eu on average. The survey concentrates mainly on small family businesses, which have been present on the market for more than ten years, with managers of good education and other characteristics that presuppose availability of internal control systems. The research results were used to compile main points of a SWOT analysis, as a part of the broader effort to help modernizing the internal control system in Turkish small businesses.

  12. Investigation of Turkish marbles as shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atasoy, H.; Tarcan, G.; Doekmen, S.

    1992-01-01

    The natural Turkish marbles, especially Usak Green (UG), Aegean Purple (AP), and Marmara White (MW) were tested as shielding materials using standard gamma sources such as Co-60, Cs-137 and Eu-152. The experiment showed that UG, AP and MW are very effective shields against gamma-rays. The result for this experiment is that the gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of UG, AP and MW are almost equal for the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 1.4 MeV. Also, the elemental compositions of the natural UG, AP and MW marbles have been determined by fast and thermal neutron activation analysis and fourteen elements including Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, V, Ti, Mn, Fe, La, Ba and Sc have been found using the gamma spectroscopic method. The range of element contents of all Turkish marbles are remarkably different, but most of the elements are common such as Ca, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg, Si. (orig.)

  13. Current snapshot of the Turkish ESCO market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, Ugur; Okay, Esin; Okay, Nesrin

    2013-01-01

    Turkey's Energy Efficiency Law (EEL), enacted in 2007, had been expected to transform the energy policies in government and private sectors, and offer opportunities for, then-impending, Turkish Energy Service Company (ESCO) market. Yet, the communiqué of the EEL related to ESCOs was released only recently in July 2012. In this work, we review the current status of the ESCO market in Turkey. We provide an outlook through the recent legal communiqué and present barriers, enabling factors, and opportunities, supported by country's financial and economic facts. ESCO-financing mechanism prevailing and the sources of financing in the country are also mentioned. The communiqué on ESCOs fits well in the chain of regulatory attempts to increase Turkey's competitiveness in the global markets. However, we anticipate that some of its principles and procedures to be enforced may be deterrent for small-scale candidate ESCOs and may slow down the expected development of the Turkish ESCO market. Otherwise, the communiqué should lead restructuring of a stronger ESCO market in Turkey. - Highlights: • We review the current status of the ESCO market in Turkey. • We give outlook through the recent communiqué on ESCOs. • We provide view through financial and economic facts. • We present barriers, enabling factors, and suggestions

  14. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  15. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is one of the main problems which limits crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid areas such as Iran. Iran is the most important producer of pistachio in the world. However, its performance is low in many areas. Most pistachio plantations are irrigated with saline water and with low quality (28. On the other hand, nitrogen is a dynamic element which is a constituent of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and Enzymes and it has a vital role in plant physiology, growth, chlorophyll formation and production of fruit and seeds (34. Gibberellic acid is known as phytohormon which varied physiological responses in plants under stress. acid gibberellic increases the photosynthesis and growth under stress and impact on the physiology and metabolism of plant (29. Based on previous studies, production and activity of plant hormones are affected by natural factors and plant nutrient requirements and the nitrogen has an important influence on production and transmission of acid gibberellic plant shoot. Therefore, in this study the effect of acid gibberellic and nitrogen on some characteristics of physiology parameters and micronutrient pistachio seedlings (Cv. Qazvini under saline conditions was studied. Materials and methods: Experiment under greenhouse condition and factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse agriculture college, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments consisted of three levels of salinity (0, 1000 and 2000 mg of sodium chloride per kg of soil, three levels of nitrogen (0, 75 and 150 mg per kg of ammonium nitrate source and three acid gibberellic levels (0, 250 and 500 mg per liter. Adequate soil with little available salinity conditions was collected from the top 30-cm layer of a pistachio-culture region of Kerman province. After air drying and ground through passing a 2 mm sieve, some of the physical-chemical properties of this soil include pH (7

  16. Migration and reproductive behavior in Turkish migrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Nauck, Bernhard

    1987-01-01

    Migration and reproductive behavior in Turkish migrant families : a situational explanation. - In: Growth and progress in cross-cultural psychology / ed. by Cigdem Kagitcibasi. - Lisse u.a. : Swets & Zeitlinger, 1987. - S. 336- 345

  17. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    3The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of ... Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the caprine PRNP .... Sampling localities, sample size (n) and sex of Turkish native goat breeds.

  18. A Qualitative Analysis of the Turkish Gendarmerie Assignment Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soylemez, Kadir

    2005-01-01

    ...; this number increases to 43 million (65% of the population) in the summer months. This study is an organizational analysis of the current assignment process of the Turkish General Command of the Gendarmerie...

  19. Missing data analysis and homogeneity test for Turkish precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the monthly and annual total precipitation records at stations operated by Turkish ... used in regional studies; the number of stations representing the area and the quality of the data are also very ..... Water Resources Management 22: 823–841.

  20. Invisible Barriers: The Loneliness of School Principals at Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    x

    2016-11-10

    Nov 10, 2016 ... Keywords: barriers; loneliness at work; school principals; Turkish elementary ... competencies as they face the challenges of their position (Howard & Mallory, 2008). ..... of the participants was female and six of them were.

  1. Turkish Air Force's Experiences in Chemical Material Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taskiran, Huseyin

    2002-01-01

    .... In addition, it analyzes the chemical material acquisition from business perspective. Due to operating in different environments, the Turkish Air Force and the private sector have different objectives in the acquisition of chemical materials...

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Turkish version of Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ (Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Altan Atalay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Most of the studies that examine cognitive vulnerability tend to focus on cognitive vulnerability for depression and explain anxiety through its intersection with depression. Looming Cognitive Style (LCS was suggested as a cognitive vulnerability model that is specific for anxiety. According to the model, people who have looming vulnerability tend to evaluate the threats coming from the environment as more overwhelming than they actually are and are constantly hypervigilant to the threat cues that may come from the environment. This pattern plays an important role in both generation and maintenance of anxiety disorders. A two-factor looming vulnerability scale was developed to assess looming cognitive style and the present study aims to adapt the scale into Turkish and examine its psychometric characteristics. Method: The sample is composed of 657 university students between the ages of 18 and 29. The participants were administered LMSQ-R as well as scales that assess anxiety, depression, and worry. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis results supported the original factor structure of the scale providing two distinct, but correlated factors as social and physical looming. In addition to that, total score and subscale scores had moderate to high correlations with other study variables and reliability scores appearing close to the original form provides support for the reliability of the scale. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the LMSQ-R is a reliable and valid scale that can be used with Turkish population.

  3. Psychometric evaluation of Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale with Turkish college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cahit; Tansey, Timothy N; Melekoglu, Macid; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Chan, Fong

    2017-12-20

    The Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (T-PSS-10) measures the extent to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement structure of T-PSS-10. Two-hundred and thirty-five Turkish university students (93 men and 142 women) completed the T-PSS-10, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the General Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), and the Inventory of Common Problems (ICP). Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that a one-factor model did not fit the data, whereas a two-factor correlated model (stress related self-efficacy beliefs, stress related feelings of helplessness) provided a better fit between the model and the data. Significant moderate correlations were found for the stress-related self-efficacy beliefs and stress-related feelings of helplessness factors with depression, anxiety, academic difficulty, relationship problems and health problems. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for the stress-related self-efficacy beliefs and stress-related feelings of helplessness factors were 0.68 and 0.85, respectively. This study provided support for the reliability and validity of T-PSS-10 suggesting that it can be used as a screening instrument by health professionals working with Turkish college students.

  4. Physiology of Hibernating Larvae of the Pistachio Twig Borer, Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), Collected from Akbari Cultivar of Pistacia vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Moharramipour, S; Behroozi Moghadam, E

    2017-02-01

    The pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), a key pest of pistachio trees, is a monovoltine pest living inside the feeding tunnel of pistachio twigs for almost 10 months in a year and overwinters there as last instar larvae. In this study, we measured some physiological parameters of overwintering field collected larvae of the pest. There were no changes in trehalose, glucose, and myo-inositol contents, but there were differences in the levels of total simple sugar and glycogen during overwintering. Total sugar content at the beginning of overwintering (October) was at the lowest level (24.13 mg/g body weight) and reached to the highest level (55.22 mg/g fresh body weight) in November whereas glycogen content was at the highest level (44.05 mg/g fresh body weight) in October and decreased to 18.42 mg/g fresh body weight in November. Decrease in lipid content during the overwintering period was not significant. The highest and lowest levels of protein content were recorded in January and February, respectively. Supercooling points (SCP) of the overwintering larvae were stable and low (ranged between -17.80 and -25.10°C) throughout the cold season and no larva survived after SCP determination. The lowest cold hardiness (60 and 0.0% survival following exposure to -10 and -20°C/24 h, respectively) was observed for in November-collected larvae. Overwintering larvae of the pistachio twig borer rely mostly on maintaining the high supercooling capacity throughout the overwintering to avoid freezing of their body fluid.

  5. Usefulness Of Derivative Instruments In Emerging Markets: Turkish Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Saatcioglu; Iskender Karagul; Ara G. Volkan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of derivative markets, definitions of derivative investment instruments, development of global derivative markets and the applicability of derivative markets in Turkey, given their economic value added to the Turkish economy. Readers will acquire insight into investing in various investment instruments and hedging against risk. Turkish derivative markets will be described, supportive statistical data will be presented, and readers will be introduced to the de...

  6. The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish Coffees

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Funda; Selvi, Nigar; Kıpçak, Seyhun; Özdemir, Özgül; Piskin, Mehmet; Moroydor Derun, Emek

    2015-01-01

    The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish CoffeesCoffee is one of the most popular drinks across the world and its enormous commercial and social importance is obvious. Coffee has become the essential consumption matter and one of the rituals of many societies for several years.Turkish people's first confrontation with it dates back to 16th century, in Ottoman era. Since then, because of the differences in terms of preparation and presentation styles, the coffee has been n...

  7. Seigniorage Revenue and Inflation Tax in Turkish economy

    OpenAIRE

    doğru, bülent

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to test the implication of optimal seigniorage theory that in the long run higher tax rates are associated with higher inflation rates and higher nominal interest rates. For this purpose, we examine the long run relationship between nominal interest rates, inflation and tax revenue using time series dataset for Turkish Economy for the period 1980-2011. We estimate the Mankiw’s (1987) optimal seigniorage model for Turkish Economy with the cointegration and vector erro...

  8. The Interethnic and Interreligious Values in Turkish and Crimean Legends

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiia Zherdieva

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines interethnic and interreligious values in Turkish and Crimean folk legends. The folklore of both Crimea and Turkey has a multicultural background, which makes both corpuses of texts suitable for research. In the course of the study, a wide range of published Turkish and Crimean legends were reviewed and analysed. There are two deeply-rooted tendencies in the studied legends. First of all, the interethnic and interreligious relationships can be described as ghastly an...

  9. The Place of Digital Marketing on Turkish Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Serhat Karatum

    2017-01-01

    In the 21st century, technology develops rapidly and continuously and it affects every aspect of our lives. Marketing concept has been affected by these developments. What we want from marketing and reaching in an increasingly virtualized world is to be a lot faster than the past. Also, new marketing channels have emerged as well. Turkish small businesses, the building blocks of Turkish economy, have the chance of addressing the marketing problems and solving the problems with the digital mar...

  10. Conflict within the Turkish foreign policy decision making mechanism:

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz, Mustafa; Oguz, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of Turkish foreign policy decision making in a theoretical model and argues that Turkish foreign policy is a product of negotiation and compromises among various foreign policy making actors. Theoretical foundation is built on decision units framework advanced by Margaret G. Herman. It applies this framework to two cases and four decision occasions to investigate who made foreign policy decisions and how this influenced foreign policy of Turkey. The first case...

  11. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  12. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  13. Cross-reactivity of antibodies with phenolic compounds in pistachios during quantification of ochratoxin A by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Meldrum, Alexander D; Rivera, Nicholas; Ryu, Dojin

    2014-10-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a nephrotoxic mycotoxin, naturally occurs in wide range of agricultural commodities. Typical screening of OTA involves various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a rich source of phenolic compounds that may result in a false positive due to structural similarities to OTA. The present study investigated the cross-reactivity profiles of phenolic compounds using two commercial ELISA test kits. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to confirm the concentration of OTA in the pistachio samples and compared with the results obtained from ELISA. When the degree of interaction and 50 % inhibitory concentration of phenolic compounds were determined, the cross-reactivity showed a pattern similar to that observed with the commercial ELSIA kits, although quantitatively different. In addition, the degree of interaction increased with the increasing concentration of phenolic compounds. The ELISA value had stronger correlations with the content of total phenolic compound, gallic acid, and catechin (R(2) = 0.757, 0.732, and 0.729, respectively) compared with epicatechin (R(2) = 0.590). These results suggest that phenolic compounds in pistachio skins may cross-react with the OTA antibody and lead to a false positive or to an overestimation of OTA concentration in ELISA-based tests.

  14. Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Red and Green Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Hulls (Exo- and Mesocarp) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-(HR)-MS(n).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erşan, Sevcan; Güçlü Üstündağ, Özlem; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-07-06

    Phenolic constituents of the nonlignified red and green pistachio hulls (exo- and mesocarp) were assessed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) as well as by HR-MS. A total of 66 compounds was identified in the respective aqueous methanolic extracts. Among them, gallic acid, monogalloyl glucoside, monogalloyl quinic acid, penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, hexagalloyl hexose, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, and (17:1)-, (13:0)-, and (13:1)-anacardic acids were detected at highest signal intensity. The main difference between red and green hulls was the presence of anthocyanins in the former ones. Differently galloylated hydrolyzable tannins, anthocyanins, and minor anacardic acids were identified for the first time. Pistachio hulls were thus shown to be a source of structurally diverse and potentially bioactive phenolic compounds. They therefore represent a valuable byproduct of pistachio processing having potential for further utilization as raw material for the recovery of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and chemical products.

  15. Impacts of water stress, environment and rootstock on the diurnal behaviour of stem water potential and leaf conductance in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmi, H.; Couceiro, J.F.; Gijón, C.; Pérez-López, D.

    2016-01-01

    Little information is available on the diurnal behaviour of water potential and leaf conductance on pistachio trees despite their relevance to fine tune irrigation strategies. Mature pistachio trees were subject to simultaneous measurements of stem water potential (Ψx) and leaf conductance (gl) during the day, at three important periods of the irrigation season. Trees were grown on three different rootstocks and water regimes. An initial baseline relating Ψx to air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is presented for irrigation scheduling in pistachio. Ψx was closely correlated with VPD but with a different fit according to the degree of water stress. No evidence of the variation of Ψx in relation to the phenology of the tree was observed. Furthermore, midday Ψx showed more accuracy to indicate a situation of water stress than predawn water potential. Under well irrigated conditions, gl was positively correlated with VPD during stage II of growth reaching its peak when VPD reached its maximum value (around 4 kPa). This behaviour changed during stage III of fruit growth suggesting a reliance of stomatal behaviour to the phenological stage independently to the tree water status. The levels of water stress reached were translated in a slow recovery of tree water status and leaf conductance (more than 40 days). Regarding rootstocks, P. integerrima showed little adaptation to water shortage compared to the two other rootstocks under the studied conditions. (Author)

  16. The Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Suggests the Arrest of Recombination in the Largest Heteropycnotic Pair HC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Campoy, Pedro J; Robles, Francisca; Schwarzacher, Trude; Ruiz Rejón, Carmelo; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents the first molecular cytogenetic characterization of the strictly dioecious pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.). The karyotype was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for 5S and 45S rDNAs, and the pistachio specific satellite DNAs PIVE-40, and PIVE-180, together with DAPI-staining. PIVE-180 has a monomeric unit of 176-178 bp and high sequence homology between family members; PIVE-40 has a 43 bp consensus monomeric unit, and is most likely arranged in higher order repeats (HORs) of two units. The P. vera genome is highly heterochromatic, and prominent DAPI positive blocks are detected in most chromosomes. Despite the difficulty in classifying chromosomes according to morphology, 10 out of 15 pairs (2n = 30) could be distinguished by their unique banding patterns using a combination of FISH probes. Significantly, the largest pair, designated HC1, is strongly heteropycnotic, shows differential condensation, and has massive enrichment in PIVE-40 repeats. There are two types of HC1 chromosomes (type-I and type-II) with differing PIVE-40 hybridization signal. Only type-I/II heterozygotes and type-I homozygotes individuals were found. We speculate that the differentiation between the two HC1 chromosomes is due to suppression of homologous recombination at meiosis, reinforced by the presence of PIVE-40 HORs and differences in PIVE-40 abundance. This would be compatible with a ZW sex-determination system in the pistachio tree.

  17. Impacts of water stress, environment and rootstock on the diurnal behaviour of stem water potential and leaf conductance in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssem Memmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the diurnal behaviour of water potential and leaf conductance on pistachio trees despite their relevance to fine tune irrigation strategies. Mature pistachio trees were subject to simultaneous measurements of stem water potential (Ψx and leaf conductance (gl during the day, at three important periods of the irrigation season. Trees were grown on three different rootstocks and water regimes. An initial baseline relating Ψx to air vapor pressure deficit (VPD is presented for irrigation scheduling in pistachio. Ψx was closely correlated with VPD but with a different fit according to the degree of water stress. No evidence of the variation of Ψx in relation to the phenology of the tree was observed. Furthermore, midday Ψx showed more accuracy to indicate a situation of water stress than predawn water potential. Under well irrigated conditions, gl was positively correlated with VPD during stage II of growth reaching its peak when VPD reached its maximum value (around 4 kPa. This behaviour changed during stage III of fruit growth suggesting a reliance of stomatal behaviour to the phenological stage independently to the tree water status. The levels of water stress reached were translated in a slow recovery of tree water status and leaf conductance (more than 40 days. Regarding rootstocks, P. integerrima showed little adaptation to water shortage compared to the two other rootstocks under the studied conditions.

  18. Fast UPLC/PDA determination of squalene in Sicilian P.D.O. pistachio from Bronte: Optimization of oil extraction method and analytical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Andrea; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Di Stefano, Vita; Capocchiano, Valentina; Mangano, Valentina; Saija, Emanuele; Pellizzeri, Vito; Casale, Katia Erminia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-04-15

    A fast reversed-phase UPLC method was developed for squalene determination in Sicilian pistachio samples that entry in the European register of the products with P.D.O. In the present study the SPE procedure was optimized for the squalene extraction prior to the UPLC/PDA analysis. The precision of the full analytical procedure was satisfactory and the mean recoveries were 92.8±0.3% and 96.6±0.1% for 25 and 50mgL -1 level of addition, respectively. Selected chromatographic conditions allowed a very fast squalene determination; in fact it was well separated in ∼0.54min with good resolution. Squalene was detected in all the pistachio samples analyzed and the levels ranged from 55.45-226.34mgkg -1 . Comparing our results with those of other studies it emerges that squalene contents in P.D.O. Sicilian pistachio samples, generally, were higher than those measured for other samples of different geographic origins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Suggests the Arrest of Recombination in the Largest Heteropycnotic Pair HC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Sola-Campoy

    Full Text Available This paper represents the first molecular cytogenetic characterization of the strictly dioecious pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.. The karyotype was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with probes for 5S and 45S rDNAs, and the pistachio specific satellite DNAs PIVE-40, and PIVE-180, together with DAPI-staining. PIVE-180 has a monomeric unit of 176-178 bp and high sequence homology between family members; PIVE-40 has a 43 bp consensus monomeric unit, and is most likely arranged in higher order repeats (HORs of two units. The P. vera genome is highly heterochromatic, and prominent DAPI positive blocks are detected in most chromosomes. Despite the difficulty in classifying chromosomes according to morphology, 10 out of 15 pairs (2n = 30 could be distinguished by their unique banding patterns using a combination of FISH probes. Significantly, the largest pair, designated HC1, is strongly heteropycnotic, shows differential condensation, and has massive enrichment in PIVE-40 repeats. There are two types of HC1 chromosomes (type-I and type-II with differing PIVE-40 hybridization signal. Only type-I/II heterozygotes and type-I homozygotes individuals were found. We speculate that the differentiation between the two HC1 chromosomes is due to suppression of homologous recombination at meiosis, reinforced by the presence of PIVE-40 HORs and differences in PIVE-40 abundance. This would be compatible with a ZW sex-determination system in the pistachio tree.

  20. A Comprehensive Study on the Effect of Roasting and Frying on Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Almonds, Pine, Cashew, and Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Ali Ghazzawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to evaluate the effects of frying and roasting on nuts. Frying and roasting were performed according to the local Jordanian home-made cuisine, and the nuts under experiment were raw almonds, pine, cashew, and pistachio. Nuts samples were roasted at 110°C for 16 minutes and fried at 175°C for 2.5 minutes. The results show that both roasting and frying of nuts did not affect the flavonoids content except for roasted pistachios where significant rise of flavonoids content was detected. Total phenolic content showed no significant differences except for pine nuts in which it increased significantly in both roasting and frying. Oxidative stability, presented by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, was significantly different in all nuts except for pistachio nuts that have shown no differences. Fatty acids profile, presented by saturated fatty acids (SFA, oleic acid (OL, and essential fatty acids (EFA, was affected significantly by roasting and frying, especially for SFA in almonds and pine nuts and α-linoleic acid (ALA contents of pine. In conclusion, the effects of roasting and frying on the aforementioned nuts species were positive for fatty acids profile and antioxidants activity.

  1. Impacts of water stress, environment and rootstock on the diurnal behaviour of stem water potential and leaf conductance in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmi, H.; Couceiro, J.F.; Gijón, C.; Pérez-López, D.

    2016-11-01

    Little information is available on the diurnal behaviour of water potential and leaf conductance on pistachio trees despite their relevance to fine tune irrigation strategies. Mature pistachio trees were subject to simultaneous measurements of stem water potential (Ψx) and leaf conductance (gl) during the day, at three important periods of the irrigation season. Trees were grown on three different rootstocks and water regimes. An initial baseline relating Ψx to air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is presented for irrigation scheduling in pistachio. Ψx was closely correlated with VPD but with a different fit according to the degree of water stress. No evidence of the variation of Ψx in relation to the phenology of the tree was observed. Furthermore, midday Ψx showed more accuracy to indicate a situation of water stress than predawn water potential. Under well irrigated conditions, gl was positively correlated with VPD during stage II of growth reaching its peak when VPD reached its maximum value (around 4 kPa). This behaviour changed during stage III of fruit growth suggesting a reliance of stomatal behaviour to the phenological stage independently to the tree water status. The levels of water stress reached were translated in a slow recovery of tree water status and leaf conductance (more than 40 days). Regarding rootstocks, P. integerrima showed little adaptation to water shortage compared to the two other rootstocks under the studied conditions. (Author)

  2. An Analysis on Reading Texts in Teaching Turkish to Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem İŞCAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the four basic language skills, reading has a great importance in teaching Turkish to foreigners. It is required to develop reading skills to develop vocabulary. There have been some problems in teaching Turkish as second language. These problems are generally related to difference in alphabet, inadequacy of the sources used in teaching Turkish, methods and techniques used and the texts used. The basic sources used in teaching Turkish to foreigners are texts. This study aims at determination of the opinions of students in Gaziosmanpaşa University and Ondokuz Mayıs University Turkish Education and Application Center (TOMER concerning Turkish reading texts. General browsing method was used in the study. The questionnaire comprising of 24 items was applied to 25 students in beginner level and 7 students in advanced level. With this study, it is foreseen to arrange the texts being the key stone according to the wishes of and in compliance with the levels of students; giving importance to pre-reading, reading and post-reading activities and including questions with short-answer about the text as well as questions to develop high level skills.

  3. Comparison of arch forms between Turkish and North American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A. Celebi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological differences in the mandibular arches of Turkish and North American white subjects. Methods: The sample included 132 Turkish (34 Class I, 58 Class II, and 40 Class III and 160 North American (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of patients' mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for each tooth based on mandibular tooth thickness data. Four linear and two proportional measurements were taken. The subjects were grouped according to arch form types (tapered, ovoid and square in order to have frequency distribution compared between ethnic groups in each Angle classification. Results: The Turkish group showed significantly lower molar depth and more significant molar width-depth (W/D ratio in all three Angle classifications. On the other hand, the Turkish group also showed a significantly larger intercanine width in Class III malocclusion and intermolar width in Class II malocclusion. The most frequent arch forms seen were the ovoid arch form in the Turkish group and the tapered form in the white group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that when treating Turkish patients, one should expect to use preformed ovoid arch form orthodontic wires in a significant percentage of patients.

  4. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Seismic analysis of axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jospin, R.J.; Toledo, E.M.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells subjected to multiple support excitation are studied. The shells are spatialy discretized by the finite element method and in order to obtain estimates for the maximum values of displacements and stresses the response spectrum tecnique is used. Finally, some numerical results are presented and discussed in the case of a shell of revolution with vertical symmetry axis, subjected to seismic ground motions in the horizontal, vertical and rocking directions. (Author) [pt

  6. Creep analysis of orthotropic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, V.K.; Ghosh, A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of creep analysis of orthotropic cylindrical shells subjected to axisymmetric loads has been developed. A general study of creep behaviour of cylindrical shells subjected to a uniform internal pressure has been conducted for a wide range of values of anisotropy coefficients and creep law exponent. Analysis includes determination of stress re-distribution, strain rates, stationary state stresses. Application of reference stress technique has been extended to analysis of shells. (author)

  7. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  8. MARKET CONCENTRATION IN TURKISH JOURNALISM SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEM KALÇA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Concentration is a situation in which market structure of a sector is controlled by a few firms. At the present time, many analyzing methods such as Herfindahl-Hirschman and N-Firm Concentration Indexes are used to determine market structure.According to market concentration indexes, higher concentration level means more monopolistic market structure, lower concentration level means more full competitive market structure. In this study concentration levels of media groups in Turkish journalism sector within the scope of traditional journalism and internet journalism was analyzed via N-Firm Concentration and H-H Indexes. As a result of the study, it’s seen that first four biggest media groups have monopolistic competition in internet journalism sector,and oligopol structure in traditional journalism sector. According to H-H index analyze, there is monopolistic competition in the sector.

  9. EMOTION BASED ANALYSIS OF TURKISH CUSTOMER OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kahya-Ozyirmidokuz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Firms should manage their customer feedback so they can adapt to rapid changes in the environment. They have to interact with their customers to understand them and to turn their opinions into useful knowledge. Understanding customers' feelings about a product gives firmS competitive advantage through continuous market monitoring. They can thus generate improving strategies about the system to change perceptions that drive the behaviours of the customers. Firms can view their customers' happiness as a key tool for decision-making. This study calculates online product happiness by using the average emotional valence values of customer opinions. We analyse Turkish opinions about a product over a period of 3 months. We find the averages of the online emotional valence values of the product per month. We also determined the increase in happiness over time. According to the opinion valence values, we found the relations between the documents.

  10. Ethics in Turkish nursing education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgülü, Refia Selma; Dinç, Leyla

    2007-11-01

    This descriptive study investigated the current status of ethics instruction in Turkish nursing education programs. The sample for this study comprised 39 nursing schools, which represented 51% of all nursing schools in Turkey. Data were collected through a postal questionnaire. The results revealed that 18 of these nursing schools incorporated an ethics course into undergraduate and three into graduate level programs. Most of the educators focused on the basic concepts of ethics, deontological theory, ethical principles, ethical problems in health care, patient rights and codes of ethics for nurses. More than half of the educators believed that students' theoretical knowledge of ethics is applied to their clinical experiences. The teaching methods used included discussion in class, lectures, case studies, small group discussion, dramatization and demonstration. Assessment was carried out by means of written essays and written examinations.

  11. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS OFFERED IN TURKISH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengül CETINTAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n this study, the departments of philology and teaching, which take place in higher education programs in Turkey and give education in foreign language, have been examined. 23 different languages are offered to philology students who wants to attend to faculty of literature. Students can prefer classical languages besides modern languages. However, English, German, French, Arabic and Japanese are offered to the students of teaching department. To teach another foreign language, pedagogical formation is also required.This study focuses on the departments of German Language Teaching and German Language and Literature. From this point, the place and the importance of other philology and foreign language teaching departments in Turkish higher education have been examined.

  12. Workplace violence: a study of Turkish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Serpil; Bozkurt, Veysel; Bayram, Nuran; Yildiz, Selver; Aytac, Mustafa; Akinci, Fusun Sokullu; Bilgel, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to address the experience of workplace violence of Turkish workers from different sectors and to investigate the impact of the exposed violence on their psychological well-being. Data were collected anonymously with printed questionnaires from the volunteer participants and depended on self-reporting. The response rate was 79.0% (1708/2161). The prevalence of workplace violence was found to be 44.8%. The most common type was verbal violence together with mobbing (bullying). Victims of physical violence were mostly males, whereas females were found to be victims of verbal, psychological and sexual violence. Most cases did not result in legal action and the victims remained silent. Psychological well-being of exposed workers in terms of depression, anxiety and stress seemed to deteriorate. Workplace violence remains a silent epidemic in Turkey. Preventive measures against workplace violence and social support for violated workers do not exist.

  13. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  14. News impact for Turkish food prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Chadwick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric volatility is a widely encountered concept particularly in financial series. It refers to the case that “bad news” generates more volatility than “good news” of equal magnitude. In an inflationary environment “bad news” is disclosed as increasing inflation that is expected to generate higher volatility. The present article examines whether unexpected price changes affect the volatility of prices asymmetrically for 90 retail food items of the Turkish consumer price index. These 90 food items have a weight of approximately 20 percent in headline consumer price index (CPI. We employ exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (EGARCH model to extract asymmetric volatility, using monthly data between January 2003 and January 2017. Our results reveal that volatility of food prices respond asymmetrically to unexpected price shocks for 62 percent of the retail food items.

  15. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  16. The significance of music in teaching Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyzan Göher Vural

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The whole history of teaching foreign languages is, in a way, a search for the best methodologies of doing so. Methods of teaching can be seen as systems providing the optimal ways of getting basic knowledge of a foreign language for students. The existing wide variety of methods suggests the choice of those most efficient for particular individuals. Each of the methodologies used relies on a number of theoretical underpinnings. This article advances proposals on using music in teaching Turkish as a foreign language, based on the principles of suggestopedia — the psychology of positive teaching developed by G. Lozanov. It is claimed that suggestopedia helps students learn a foreign language 3 to 5 times faster than those who rely on traditional methods of study. Suggestopedia makes colloquial dialogues in a foreign language be pronounced and/or listened to in the same way as music, and music is used as a facilitating and motivating factor, without lyrics. However, teaching based on suggestopedia alone will not suffice, since in the classical form it is limited by adult audiences and small ones to boot. Other peculiarities of students and groups also have to be accounted for, such as their linguistic background: if their first language is a Turkic one, they can be expected to learn Turkish faster, since they are already familiar with the melodic mode of the language. It can nevertheless be postulated that the use of songs in language learning helps develop such skills as vocabulary, rules of grammar and correct pronunciation. Songs facilitate teaching new words, grammatical rules, learning direction, layout, numbers and demonstrative adjectives. This is both useful and interesting for all categories of learners, children as well as adults.

  17. Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon; Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matla, P.

    2012-05-15

    Three articles address subjects concerning the annual race with highly energy efficient cars: the Shell Eco-Marathon. [Dutch] In 3 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan de ontwerpen voor de jaarlijkse race met superzuinige auto's, de Shell Eco-Marathon.

  18. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: a Turkish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykiri-Acma, H; Yaman, S

    2008-11-01

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA up to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (Rmax), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (T(R-max)), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, Rmax, and T(R-max), were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  19. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: A Turkish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykirl-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA tip to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (R{sub max}), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (TR{sub max}), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, R{sub max} and TR{sub max}, were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  20. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiles, C.

    1984-01-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10 0 . We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo

  1. Pistachio oil (Pistacia vera L. cv. Uzun): Characterization of key odorants in a representative aromatic extract by GC-MS-olfactometry and phenolic profile by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2018-02-01

    Volatile, aroma-active, and phenolic compounds of pistachio oil obtained from cv. Uzun were investigated in the current study. To obtain a representative aromatic extract, three of the most widely used extraction methods were compared using a representative test; the solvent-assisted flavour extraction (SAFE) aromatic extract from pistachio oil was found to be the most representative. A total of 50 aroma compounds were determined in pistachio oil and it was found that terpenes, aldehydes, and alcohols were the most abundant volatile compounds. Applying GC-MS-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) resulted in a total of 14 aroma-active areas being detected in the extract of pistachio oil. In the phenolic fraction obtained by the LC-ESI-MS/MS method, a total of 12 phenolic compounds was found in the pistachio oil, of which seven compounds were reported for the first time. Eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside and protocatechuic acid were the most dominant phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. NEGATIVE CURRENCY-RISK-EXPOSURE FOR TURKISH EQUITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore J. Terregrossa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency-risk-exposure is an issue for Turkish equities, from two different angles: internationaltrade and foreign-portfolio-investment. The likely effect is positive for the former, and negative for the latter aspect. Consequently, the overall or net effect on equity value depends on which of these aspects of currency-risk-exposure has the greater impact. The present empirical analysis estimates currency risk of Turkish equities within a multi-factor regression setting, utilizing the framework of the Security Market Plane (SMP model. The SMP model embodies a conditional relation among three variables: beta, realized excess market-return, and expected excess portfolio-return. The SMP empirical framework is extended to include a currency-risk-factor in the present analysis. The currency-risk-factor is specified as the excess return to holding foreign currency (€; $, relative to holding domestic currency (Turkish Lira. The SMP-related factor is the cross-product term of beta and realized excess market-return (β it rMt . A regression of realized excess portfolio-returns against the corresponding currency-risk-factor and cross product-term (β it rMt finds that the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis generally have overall negative currency-risk-exposure; suggesting that unexpected currency depreciation generally leads to lower values for Turkish stocks (and portfolios of Turkish stocks. Thus, after accounting for the SMP-related interaction-effect between beta and realized excess marketreturn, currency risk is found to command a premium for the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis.

  3. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  4. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    A general formalism for the dynamics of nonrotating cylindrical thin-shell wormholes is developed. The time evolution of the throat is explicitly obtained for thin-shell wormholes whose metric has the form associated with local cosmic strings. It is found that the throat collapses to zero radius, remains static, or expands forever, depending only on the sign of its initial velocity

  5. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, P.

    2007-01-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  6. Conventional shell model: some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallieres, M.; Pan, X.W.; Feng, D.H.; Novoselsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some important issues in shell-model calculations related to the effective interactions used in different regions of the periodic table; in particular the quality of different interactions is discussed, as well as the mass dependence of the interactions. Mention is made of the recently developed Drexel University shell-model (DUSM). (orig.)

  7. Expert system development (ESD) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  8. Teacher Opinions on the Implementation of Values Education in Teaching Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Abdulkadir

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the realization levels of values education implementations in teaching Turkish by taking the opinions of Turkish teachers. The sample of this study conducted in the survey model comprises 108 Turkish teachers employed at different secondary schools in Erzurum, Bayburt, Gümüshane and Trabzon in the Spring…

  9. Dynamic centering of liquid shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamopoulos, J.A.; Brown, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The moderate-amplitude axisymmetric oscillations of an inviscid liquid shell surrounding an incompressible gas bubble are calculated by a multiple-time-scale expansion for initial deformations composed of two-lobed perturbations of the shell and a displacement of the bubble from the center of mass of the liquid. Two types of small-amplitude motion are identified and lead to very different nonlinear dynamic interactions, as described by the results valid up to second order in the amplitude of the initial deformation. In the ''bubble mode,'' the oscillations of the captive bubble and the liquid shell are exactly in phase and the bubble vibrates about its initial eccentric location. The bubble moves toward the center of the drop when the shell is perturbed into a ''sloshing mode'' of oscillation where both interfaces move out of phase. These results explain the centering of liquid shells observed in several experiments

  10. Financial Policies of Turkish Industrial Companies during the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Gokce Adas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Latest global financial crisis that shrank the credit market affected the companies’ financial policies since the credit contraction led the firms to rely more on their own resources rather than external financing. The expectation during such crises is more equity issues along with less borrowing. In economic literature there are some evidence supporting this fact for developed countries. As an emerging country Turkey’s case is different than that of advanced countries. The era commenced with Lehman turmoil by passed Turkish economy in the first years due to the solid, strong and healthy banking sector due to the measurements taken after 2001 banking crisis of Turkey. Therefore, international lenders did not hesitate directing their funds to Turkish banks. As a result, Turkish companies did not suffer in financing their investments through bank loans. Moreover, the growth policy of Turkey based on current account deficit supported Turkish economy and in turn the firms due to the abundance of liquidity after the peak of the crisis. In this work we examined 164 industrial firms that are traded on Borsa Istanbul to see if there happened to be a shift in their financing preferences during the recent global crisis. We found that the importance of borrowing had not decreased and that contradicts the expectations. As of equity issues, before and after 2009 no radical change has been observed. In 2009 where the crisis hit worst Turkish economy leading a 4.7% GDP decrease, the equity issues were doubled.

  11. Reliability and validity of the Incontinence Quiz-Turkish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Kerime C; Çıtak Karakaya, İlkim; Tunalı, Nur; Karakaya, Mehmet G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Incontinence Quiz, which was developed by Branch et al. (1994), to assess women's knowledge of and attitudes toward urinary incontinence. Comprehensibility of the Turkish version of the 14-item Incontinence Quiz, which was prepared following translation-back translation procedures, was tested on a pilot group of eight women, and its internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were assessed in 150 women who attended the gynecology clinics of three hospitals in İçel, Turkey. Physical and sociodemographic characteristics and presence of incontinence complaints were also recorded. Data were analyzed at the 0.05 alpha level, using SPSS version 22. The scale had good reliability and validity. The internal reliability coefficient (Cronbach α) was 0.80, test-retest correlation coefficients were 0.83-0.94; and with regard to construct validity, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient was 0.76 and Barlett sphericity test was 562.777 (P = 0.000). Turkish version of the Incontinence Quiz had a four-factor structure, with Eigenvalues ranging from 1.17 to 4.08. The Incontinence Quiz-Turkish version is a highly comprehensible, reliable and valid scale, which may be used to assess Turkish-speaking women's knowledge of and attitudes toward urinary incontinence. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. A Turkish study of medical student learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaca, S; Gulpinar, M

    2011-12-01

    A good understanding of the learning styles of students is necessary for optimizing the quality of the learning process. There are few studies in Turkey on the subject of the learning characteristics of medical students. The aim of this study was to define the learning patterns of Turkish medical students based on the Turkish version of Vermunts Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS). The Turkish version of the ILS was developed and administered to 532 medical students. Learning patterns were investigated using factor analysis. Internal consistencies of scales ranged from 0.43 to 0.80. The Turkish version of the ILS identified four learning styles among medical students. In comparing the pre-clinical and clinical phases of medical students related to mental models of learning, statistically significant differences (p learning characteristics: lack of regulation; certificate; self-test and ambivalent orientation; intake of knowledge; and use of knowledge. The Turkish version of the ILS can be used to identify learning styles of medical students. Our findings indicate an intermediate position for our students on a teacher-regulated to student-regulated learning continuum. A variety of teaching methods and learning activities should be provided in medical schools in order to address the range of learning styles.

  13. Serbs in education during the Turkish government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present opportunities cultural educational social policy and the Serbian people during the Turkish government. The intention is also to investigate the extent and level of education - literacy through the process of learning, reading, writing and acquiring new knowledge. The paper will also be discussed and the impact of other counters and their schools (Russia, Germany, Greece on the entire educational system in Serbia in the Serbian education period. Legal regulation and development of spiritual awareness and desire for literacy, will also find its place in this paper. Based on all the foregoing, it follows that the literacy during the Ottoman rule was very limited, and that the small number and percentage of population of certain social groups (nobility, clergy. There fore education was meager and insignificant, that and that, as concept, was reduced to literacy. Also, the church was the meeting place of all those who strove for literacy, and together with the monasteries of the first and only school in which they were taught reading and writing. During the First Serbian Uprising, except churches, the need for some kind of education begins to have, and government or authority which forms a first and basic institution of society. Looking at the wider development of literacy in Serbia can be concluded that education had its ups and downs, which are periodically changed depending on the social and political conditionally. Thus, at the close of the Middle Ages to the territorial possession of Despot Stefan Lazarevic (1389-1427 and its owner George Brankovic (1427-1456, with constant theats to the Turkish conquest occurred one interesting moment. Thjere is still an independent country, and despite the double vassalage to Turkey and Hungary, has seen a tumultuous economy and education rise, which was also the basis for the rise of Serbia culture. In the Serbian despots then we come to real cult of art and education, as earlier

  14. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance in Commercial Cultivars Seedlings and Native Genotypes of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. under Controlled Conditions in Rafssanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Iran, main pistachio cultivation areas are located in the edge of desert. The major problem of these areas is the salinity of soil and irrigation water, which affects the growth and performance of plants and reduce yield. Material and methods: In the present study, the effects of salinity on growth characteristics and mineral contents of seedlings of seven pistachio cultivars and three genotypes (Akbari, Ahmad-Aghaei, Kaleh-Ghoochi, Fandoghi, Badami, Ebrahimi, Seyfadini and G1, G2 and G3 genotypes were evaluated. The study was conducted in split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replications. The main plots were salinity levels of the irrigation water (0.6, 15 and 30 dS/m by adding sodium chloride to tap water, and the sub plots were the pistachio cultivars. After germination of seeds in the lab, the seedlings were transplanted into new vases in the greenhouse. At 3rd leaf stage, the salinity treatments were imposed for a period of four months. At the end of the experiment, all samples were collected for growth and cation contents of shoots and roots and data were analyzed by analysis of variance and correlation method, using SAS statistical software and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test was employed at probability level of 5%. Results and discussions: The results showed that increasing salinity levels reduced stem, root and leaf dry weight as well as stem height and diameter. Salinity also caused a reduction in leaf number and leaf area. At the salinity level of 30 dS/m, dry weights of root and leaf decreased by more than 70%. The length and diameter of seedlings were decreased by 17.2 % and 37.9 % under the mentioned condition. According to the measured growth characteristics, Akbari and Kaleh-Ghoochi, considered as fast growing cultivars, while G3 genotype and Seyfoddini cultivar were considered as slow growing cultivars. By increasing salinity, sodium and calcium concentrations in root, stem and leaf

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the extraction yield, antioxidant, and antityrosinase activities of pistachio green hull extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory of non-irradiated and irradiated pistachio green hull (PGH) extracts were investigated. After irradiation of PGH by different doses of gamma ray (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy), their phenolic compounds were extracted by water. Antioxidant activities of extracts were examined by DPPH• and FRAP methods. The results showed that irradiation not only do not have negative effects on antioxidant activity but also it can increase the amount of total phenolic compounds of water extract in comparison with non-irradiated sample. Water extract of irradiated PGH at the dose of 30 kGy, showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH° test with EC50 equal to 289.0 ± 1.2 μg/ml. Irradiated (30 kGy) and non-irradiated water extracts had the highest antityrosinase activities with IC50 of 10.8 ± 1.1 and 11.9 ± 1.2 μg phenolic/ml, respectively. In addition, it was found that the water extract of irradiated PGH can prevent enzymatic browning in sliced raw potatoes. According to the antityrosinase potential of PGH extract, it may be suggested as an antibrowning agent in some foodstuffs or cosmetic products.

  16. Isolation of high quality RNA from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) and other woody plants high in secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Rajaei, Saideh; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The quality and quantity of RNA are critical for successful downstream transcriptome-based studies such as microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA isolation from woody plants, such as Pistacia vera, with very high amounts of polyphenols and polysaccharides is an enormous challenge. Here, we describe a highly efficient protocol that overcomes the limitations posed by poor quality and low yield of isolated RNA from pistachio and various recalcitrant woody plants. The key factors that resulted in a yield of 150 μg of high quality RNA per 200 mg of plant tissue include the elimination of phenol from the extraction buffer, raising the concentration of β-mercaptoethanol, long time incubation at 65 °C, and nucleic acid precipitation with optimized volume of NaCl and isopropyl alcohol. Also, the A260/A280 and A260/A230 of extracted RNA were about 1.9-2.1and 2.2-2.3, respectively, revealing the high purity. Since the isolated RNA passed highly stringent quality control standards for sensitive reactions, including RNA sequencing and real-time PCR, it can be considered as a reliable and cost-effective method for RNA extraction from woody plants.

  17. Field and Laboratory Investigation of USS3 Ultrasonic Sensors Capability for Non-contact Measurement of Pistachio Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Maghsoudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic canopy characterization to determine structural properties is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used sensors for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To achieve this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage distance and to the effects of interference with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results showed that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions was 0.64 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduced the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations was 3.19 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error was ±14.65 cm. When adjacent sensors were placed apart by 60 cm, the average error became 6.73 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in pistachio garden conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and can, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture.

  18. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  19. The Effect of Polyamine Applications on Root Enhancement of Pistachio Seedling Rootstocks of ‘Badamy-E- Riz’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sedaghat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia vera cv Badami-e-Riz is the most important and popular rootstock in Iran, which tolerate salinity soil and phytophthora fungi but its root is less affected. In addition this rootstock is susceptible to excessive B and water deficient. This rootstock has a taproot rooting system without any lateral root. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various concentrations and application methods of polyamines on root regeneration of transplanted bare-rooted ‘Badami-e-Riz’ pistachio rootstocks.The result showed that spermidine at concentration of 2 mM as foliar application method significantly enhanced root length and root diameter in ‘Badami-e-Riz’. Furthermore, the fresh weight of root was increased by 4 mM spermidine by foliar application and 2 mM spermidine by interaction of root tip cut and root dip method, significantly increased dry weight of root and root number in ‘Badami-e-Riz’. Besides, by the use of these chemicals, the survival percentage of seedlings was maintained in higher value. Results suggested that polyamine application was effective to increase lateral root formation and improved root regeneration. Therefore, it would be useful to help the survival of seedlings following transplanting.

  20. Molluscan shell evolution with review of shell calcification hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furuhashi, T.; Schwarzinger, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Smrž, Miloslav; Beran, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 3 (2009), s. 351-371 ISSN 1096-4959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mollusca * shell * biomineralization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2009

  1. Penetration strategies of Turkish corporations in Kosovo’s market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan VARDARI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments and increasing competition in recent years have prevented companies from producing and selling only in domestic markets, but also causing their foreign resources and investments to be directed to foreign markets. In this case, once businesses decide to join a particular market, they have to decide which is the best way to penetrate there. Turkish multinational corporations, which have been spreading all over the world with their investments, have conquered world markets with their exports, initiatives and acquisitions, they have entered in foreign markets in various forms and have a significant share in world trade volume with their successful investments. From this point of view, this study examines the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets especially in Kosovo and the impact that those companies have had in the development of the Kosovo economy and the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets.

  2. The Dictionary of Authors and Poets in Turkish Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Akkılık

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author of this work, Hikmet Altınkaynak, is a graduate of İstanbul University's Faculty of Letters. He is a critic of contemporary literary history as well as the social trends that comprise it. He has hosted literary discussion programs on television and radio, and has worked as a journalist and as a journal editor, manager, writer, and publisher. Altınkaynak's work has been included in numerous journals and course texts.  He is currently an Instructor of Turkish language at Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul. His project, "The Dictionary of Authors and Poets in Turkish Literature" is much more than a simple dictionary.  It can be considered an encyclopedia, guidebook, or a general source of information.  Regardless of what one calls it, this work is an unequaled treasure of thirteen centuries of Turkish literary history, and includes entries on approximately 1400 poets and writers.

  3. Turkish EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of English as a Lingua Franca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görsev İnceçay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the perceptions of; (1 Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language teachers about ELF, (2 Turkish EFL teachers and teacher educators about the role of ELF on language teacher education. Data came from a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A hundred Turkish EFL teachers working at two universities in Istanbul responded to the questionnaire. Ten randomly selected EFL teachers and 10 teacher educators working in language teacher education departments of two universities were interviewed to elicit their views about the role of ELF in language teacher education. Findings of the study revealed a number of important results and implications for the field

  4. Cognitive testing in non-demented Turkish immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T. Rune; Vogel, Asmus M.; Gade, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Nielsen, T. R. Vogel, A., Gade, A. & Waldemar, G. (2012). Cognitive testing in healthy Turkish immigrants - comparison of the RUDAS and the MMSE. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 455-460. Methods for culturally and linguistically appropriate cognitive testing of elderly minority populations...... are lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to compare performance on the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in Turkish immigrants in Denmark and determine the impact of demographic and health-related variables on test performance. A sample...... of non-demented community-dwelling Turkish immigrants was recruited from the greater Copenhagen area. All participants completed a structured interview regarding demographic, physical and mental health status, as well as measures of depression and acculturation, and cognitive testing with the RUDAS...

  5. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  6. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  7. Psychological problems of Turkish migrants in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, P T

    1981-04-01

    The path of adjustment for Turkish migrants--young and old, male and female--to a highly industralized Western society is a difficult one fraught with parlous conditions over which they have little control, largely because of Germany attitudes toward and treatment of Gastarbeiter in general and Turks in particular. Holding other variables constant, the psychological problems discerned as unique to Turkish Gastarbeiter are on the rise. These problems are of such a dimension that they clearly show the urgent need for Germans, the German government and its agencies, the Turkish government, and mental health professionals to come to grips with the existing situation. A program should be devised that (1) prepares the Turks for their new life before emigration; (2) educate the host country to lessen prejudice and heighten appreciation of the alien culture.

  8. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  9. The Historical Development of the Turkish Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray GÖÇ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to give information about historical development of Turkish intelligence especially from last periods of ottoman to nowadays. It has studied the effects on services in stage of history and has given information about roles played by them in forming of today’s community structure. This study contains information about a-thousand-year effect of a sequence began by secret service of ottoman and continued by union and progress, MAH (national labor service, JİTEM (gendarmes intelligence and anti terror unit, ÖHD (special operations department and MİT (national intelligence service over Anatolia lands, besides some resources such as book, magazine and article, in this study, there is an interview of Mehmet ELKATMIŞ who is the president of Susurluk commission of investigation and has several studies on this subject, of Şamil Tayyar who is the deputy of justice and development party (Ak Party and of journalist Nasuhi Güngür on this subject. The study examines. On the other hand, the problem that intelligence services give maneuver stepping out of line of law to the state. Could the state try to adopt illegality as a principle on behalf of its continuity by means of intelligence services, could it be possible? Or, could intelligence services perform unconventional behaviors occasionally by saying “in the name of the state”? These questions have been examined.

  10. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Ozcan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or to the housewife’s love and affection for her husband and children, since sweets and desserts are important elements of Turkish cuisine. However, the consciousnesses of nutrition and healthy eating, due to rapid change in popular life style and dietary patterns, has contributed to the increased interest in traditional foods with potential health benefits, with increased uncertainty for dessert consumption. Dairy desserts are extensively consumed due to their nutritive and sensoric characteristics. Some of traditional dairy desserts are Mustafakemalpasa, Gullac, Kazandibi, Hosmerim and Tavukgogsu, which are mainly made from milk or fresh cheese, and the current paper discusses their manufacturing processes and composition.

  11. Turkish nuclear program: a frustrated ambition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has launched an ambitious program for the construction of 3 plants involving a total of 12 reactors. Only the Akkuyu and the Sinop projects have been materialized by 2 international agreements. The Akkuyu project will benefit from Russian technology and financing while the Sinop project will rely on a Franco-Japanese technology: the ATMEA reactor. In the eighties there were previous projects on the same sites but they failed due to the lack of financing. Today's economic policy of the Turkish government relies on the construction of big infrastructures in the sectors of transport, defense and energy and nuclear plants are an integral part of it. Turkey's nuclear programme faces various challenges of different types: the seismic risk is very high, the regulation body is consistent for research reactors but not for power plants, there is a lack of trained people in nuclear sciences and engineering, contracts stipulate that local company should be involved in the construction but the industrial sector lacks enterprises that have been certified for working in the nuclear sector, nuclear controversy is emerging in Turkey and diplomatic difficulties with Russia concerning Syria conflict jeopardizes the project. (A.C.)

  12. Turkish version of the Academic Motivation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Gürhan

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the college version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) into Turkish. The participants were 797 college students (437 men, 360 women) with a mean age of 20.1 yr. A seven-factor model of the scale, as well as alternative models (five-, three-, two-, and one-factor models) were investigated and compared through confirmatory factor analysis. The seven-factor model demonstrated adequate fit to the data. The fit indices obtained from the five-factor model were acceptable also. Hancock's coefficient H values and test-retest correlation coefficients of the subscales indicated that reliability of the scale was adequate except for the identified regulation subscale. The CFA conducted for the groups of men and women produced more acceptable fit indices values for men than women, but women obtained significantly higher scores from the AMS subscales. Correlations among the seven subscales partially supported the simplex pattern which claims that the neighboring subscales should have stronger positive correlations than the non-neighboring subscales and that the subscales which are the farthest apart should have the strongest negative relationships.

  13. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  14. E-LEARNING TURKISH LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GEORGALAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several modules of the website has been measured, examined and analyzed. The research was carried out between the years 2010- 2011 and included the analysis of several million clicks. The results show particular attitudes, habits and preferences throughout the e-learning process. There is a preference of users to exercises against theory. Fast cross-link exercises are preferred to slower “fill in” ones. During the weekends, visitors tend to use less e-learning facilities and select more light activities than the rest days of the week. Society trends and fashions like TV serials have a serious impact to the number of people who decide to learn a new foreign language, in particular Turkish. There is a strong preference of the audience to use online TV against online radio facilities for language practice. The subjects that Greek learners of Turkish language spend more time are verbs conjugation and vocabulary learning. They focus on elementary grammar subjects like the Alphabet, the numbers and the formation of plural. Finally, they try to learn the syntax of Turkish language through sentence structure puzzles and give priority to special grammar issues like noun compounds that are not present in Greek language.

  15. Turkish Image in The Works of Juan Goytisolo

    OpenAIRE

    SARI SEO LECOQ, Kübra

    2016-01-01

    Inthis article we aim to analize how is perceived Turkey and Turkish people bythe West during the historical process in the non-fictional writings of JuanGoytisolo, who is one of the contemporary writers of Spain. The interest of JuanGoytisolo for Turkish and Islamic World is well-known. However, this positiveattention has never been an obstacle for a realistic approach. The books ofGoytisolo that we incorporated by reference when we were preparing this articleare ‘Estambul Otomano’, ‘Cronica...

  16. Is political risk still an issue for Turkish stock market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Günay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the effects of internal political risk on the Turkish stock market in the period of 2001–2014. Empirical analyses are conducted through various methods to obtain breaks and regimes in the return volatilities of the BIST100 index. According to the results, while the number of breaks has increased in recent years, the risk level of recent periods is significantly lower than the early regimes, and the risk level trend for all regimes show a negative slope. In conclusion, the Turkish stock market responds to political events, but according to our results, not as significantly as in the past.

  17. Polymeric proanthocyanidins from Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut extract inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, C; Allegra, M; Angileri, F; Pintaudi, A M; Livrea, M A; Tesoriere, L

    2012-04-01

    Positive effects of pistachio nut consumption on plasma inflammatory biomarkers have been described; however, little is known about molecular events associated with these effects. We studied the anti-inflammatory activity of a hydrophilic extract from Sicilian Pistacia L. (HPE) in a macrophage model and investigated bioactive components relevant to the observed effects. HPE oligomer/polymer proanthocyanidin fractions were isolated by adsorbance chromatography, and components quantified as anthocyanidins after acidic hydrolysis. Isoflavones were measured by gradient elution HPLC analysis. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were pre-incubated with either HPE (1- to 20-mg fresh nut equivalents) or its isolated components for 1 h, then washed before stimulating with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. Cell viability and parameters associated with Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were assayed according to established methods including ELISA, Western blot, or cytofluorimetric analysis. HPE suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production and inducible NO-synthase levels dose dependently, whereas inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and decreased cyclo-oxygenase-2 content, the lower the HPE amount the higher the effect. Cytotoxic effects were not observed. HPE also caused a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species and interfered with the NF-κB activation. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, but not isoflavones, at a concentration comparable with their content in HPE, inhibited NO, PGE2, and TNF-α formation, as well as activation of IκB-α. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins showed only minor effects. Our results provide molecular evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of pistachio nut and indicate polymeric proanthocyanidins as the bioactive components. The mechanism may involve the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. Potential effects associated with pistachio nut consumption are discussed in terms of the

  18. Molecular characterization of the rDNA-ITS sequence and a PCR diagnostic technique for Pileolaria terebinthi, the cause of pistachio rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein ALAEI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of the most important pistachio rust (caused by Pileolaria terebinthi (DC. Cast.,, which causes disease on Beneh (Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica (Fisch. & Mey. Rech. F and Kasoor (Pistacia khinjuk Stocks., were collected from herbarium specimens and pistachio fields at the Pistachio Research Institute in Rafsanjan, Iran. The complete sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 (rDNA ITS from the samples were determined and analysed. In general, very little rDNA ITS sequence variation was observed between rDNA ITS sequences of P. terebinthi samples. The length of the PCR fragments was 621 bp (for ITS1F-ITS4 and 1177 bp (for ITS1F-rust1, and consisted of 67 bp at the 3 ́ end of 18S rDNA, 93 bp of ITS1 region, 154 bp of 5.8S rDNA, 246 bp of the ITS2 region, 57 bp (for ITS1F-ITS4 and 613 bp (for ITS1F-rust1 at the 5 ́ end of the 28S rDNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs of the rDNA-ITS region were used to identify Pileolaria terebinthi. Three strong bands of 105, 134 and 381 bp and five bands of 105, 134, 200, 301 and 437 bp are observed for the fragment of “ITS1F-ITS4” and “ITS1F-rust1”, respectively. A PCR-RFLP diagnostic technique provided effective identification of the species by a unique pattern with the specific restriction enzyme XapI (ApoI.

  19. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  20. Patterning of the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-08-01

    Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits. The similarity and diversity of turtles allows research into how changes in development create evolutionary novelty, interacting modules, and adaptive physiology and anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  2. A genome-wide transcriptome map of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) provides novel insights into salinity-related genes and marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzzam Jazi, Maryam; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Ebrahimi, Mansour; De Moro, Gianluca; Botanga, Christopher

    2017-08-17

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important commercial nut crops worldwide. It is a salt-tolerant and long-lived tree, with the largest cultivation area in Iran. Climate change and subsequent increased soil salt content have adversely affected the pistachio yield in recent years. However, the lack of genomic/global transcriptomic sequences on P. vera impedes comprehensive researches at the molecular level. Hence, whole transcriptome sequencing is required to gain insight into functional genes and pathways in response to salt stress. RNA sequencing of a pooled sample representing 24 different tissues of two pistachio cultivars with contrasting salinity tolerance under control and salt treatment by Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform resulted in 368,953,262 clean 100 bp paired-ends reads (90 Gb). Following creating several assemblies and assessing their quality from multiple perspectives, we found that using the annotation-based metrics together with the length-based parameters allows an improved assessment of the transcriptome assembly quality, compared to the solely use of the length-based parameters. The generated assembly by Trinity was adopted for functional annotation and subsequent analyses. In total, 29,119 contigs annotated against all of five public databases, including NR, UniProt, TAIR10, KOG and InterProScan. Among 279 KEGG pathways supported by our assembly, we further examined the pathways involved in the plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling as well as those to be contributed to secondary metabolite biosynthesis due to their importance under salinity stress. In total, 11,337 SSRs were also identified, which the most abundant being dinucleotide repeats. Besides, 13,097 transcripts as candidate stress-responsive genes were identified. Expression of some of these genes experimentally validated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) that further confirmed the accuracy of the assembly. From this analysis, the contrasting expression pattern

  3. An Input–Output Energy and Economical Analysis of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Production Systems in County of Zarand, Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R Amiri Deh Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. is one of the most important export crops of Iran which has an important role in non-petroleum exports and has over $800 million benefit per year. However, production of this crop faces many problems in main production centers, especially in energy efficiency and productivity. The pistachio is a native crop of Iran and Syria. The major producers of pistachio are Iran 55%, America 20%, Turkey 10%, Syria 9% and the other countries with 6%. Iran is the major producer of pistachio in the world with more than 60 % of global exports. Kerman Province with more than 270,000 ha under cultivation produces 77 percent of this crop. Moreover, Zarand county with more than 45,000 ha under cultivation plays a major role in the production of pistachio. Energy flow is one of the topics of agro-ecology in the world and energy output to input ratio is calculated in various agro-ecosystems. One of the indicators of agricultural development is energy flow. So, different studies in the world have been done to evaluate the energy efficiency in the agro-ecosystems. Studies on apricot (Armeniaca vulgris Lam. showed that energy efficiency can increase with appropriate management practices with minimum dependence on non-renewable energies. Energy consumption is divided into two parts in agriculture: direct and indirect energy. Direct energy is the fuel, machinery, electricity, energy required for cooling, heating, and lighting. Indirect energy includes the energy used in the production of fertilizers, seed production, machinery, and pesticides. Energy efficiency is an important factor in increasing productivity, especially in agricultural economy of developing countries. Although, many studies have been carried out on energy consumption in the agricultural systems, the analysis of the energy input required to produce pistachio is very low. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to determine the input and output energy

  4. Virgin Mary’s Importance in Islam and its Reflection on Classical Turkish Literature and Turkish Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhekim Koçin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The language used by a poet or an author in a literary work in verse or prose, and the way he uses idioms, proverbs and literary arts in that language indicate the success of his art. The achievement of author in this matter makes him well known in the country where he lives. However, the topic choice is as important as an artist’s language skills. That’s why poets and authors prefer universal subjects such as love, death, religion, religious personalities (like prophets, saints, etc. and humanity (man's way of living and right to live in their works. If artists produce universal subjects with a clear language, a fluent wording and a strong story line, this achievement makes them famous both nationally and internationally. This fact can also be applied to the literature of any nation. Literary works containing local subjects cannot take their place in the world’s literary history. Classical Turkish literature (Ottoman Period Turkish Literature is extremely rich in subject matter. The period in which Classical Turkish Literature continued its existence was the period when the Ottoman state dominated large geographical regions in Asia, Europe and Africa. Accordingly, the lifestyles, beliefs, traditions and customs of people from different religions, races and cultures living in these geographies; in other words, the issues that are important to these people were also reflected in the literature produced in this period. The subject of this article Virgin Mary is an important religious and a historical personality primarily for the Ottoman state’s Christians and Muslim subjects as well as those who weren’t the subjects of Ottoman Empire. In this article, first how Virgin Mary took part in the two most important sources of Classical Turkish literature, Koran and the hadiths will be summarized. Secondly, Virgin Mary’s place in Classical Turkish literature and the vocabulary and concepts that Turkish language gained through Virgin Mary will

  5. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2012-09-04

    This paper constitutes the first steps in our work concerning isogeometric shell analysis. An isogeometric shell model of the Reissner-Mindlin type is introduced and a study of its accuracy in the classical pinched cylinder benchmark problem presented. In contrast to earlier works [1,2,3,4], the formulation is based on a shell model where the displacement, strain and stress fields are defined in terms of a curvilinear coordinate system arising from the NURBS description of the shell middle surface. The isogeometric shell formulation is implemented using the PetIGA and igakit software packages developed by the authors. The igakit package is a Python package used to generate NURBS representations of geometries that can be utilised by the PetIGA finite element framework. The latter utilises data structures and routines of the portable, extensible toolkit for scientific computation (PETSc), [5,6]. The current shell implementation is valid for static, linear problems only, but the software package is well suited for future extensions to geometrically and materially nonlinear regime as well as to dynamic problems. The accuracy of the approach in the pinched cylinder benchmark problem and present comparisons against the h-version of the finite element method with bilinear elements. Quadratic, cubic and quartic NURBS discretizations are compared against the isoparametric bilinear discretization introduced in [7]. The results show that the quadratic and cubic NURBS approximations exhibit notably slower convergence under uniform mesh refinement as the thickness decreases but the quartic approximation converges relatively quickly within the standard variational framework. The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  6. Creep buckling of shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the characteristics of LMFBR primary piping components (thin-walled, low pressure, high temperature), the designer must guard against creep buckling as a potential failure mode for certain critical regions, such as elbows, where structural flexibility and inelastic response may combine to concentrate deformation and cause instability. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, through its elevated temperature Code Case 1592 (Section III, Division 1) provides design rules for Class 1 components aimed at preventing creep buckling during the design life. A similar set of rules is being developed for Class 2 and 3 components at this time. One of the original concepts behind the creep buckling rules was that the variability in creep properties (especially due to the effects of prior heat treatment), the uncertainty about initial imperfections, and the lack of confirmed accuracy of design analysis meant that conservatism would be difficult to assure. As a result, a factor of ten on service life was required (i.e. analysis must show that, under service conditions that extrapolate the life of the component by ten times, creep buckling does not occur). Two obvious problems with this approach are that: first, the creep behavior must also be extrapolated (since most creep experiments are terminated at a small fraction of the design life, extrapolation of creep data is already an issue, irrespective of the creep buckling question); second the nonlinear creep analysis, which is very nearly prohibitively expensive for design life histograms, becomes even more costly. Analytical results for an aluminum cylindrical shell subjected to axial loads at elevated temperatures are used to examine the supposed equivalence of two types of time-dependent buckling safety factors - a factor of ten on service life and a factor of 1.5 on loading

  7. Product quality optimization in an integrated biorefinery: Conversion of pistachio nutshell biomass to biofuels and activated biochars via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Işıtan, Seçil; Ceylan, Selim; Topcu, Yıldıray; Hintz, Chloe; Tefft, Juliann; Chellappa, Thiago; Guo, Jicheng; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis temperature key variable in manipulating biofuel quality. • Pyrolysis temperature does not impact activated biochar surface area. • Activation temperature key variable to optimize surface area of pistachio biochar. • Statistical model accurately predicts surface area of biochar, especially above 600 m"2/g. - Abstract: An economically viable transition to a renewable, sustainable energy future hinges on the ability to simultaneously produce multiple high value products from biomass precursors. Though there is considerable literature on the thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels and biochars, there are few holistic examinations that seek to understand trade-offs between biofuel quality and the associated pyrolysis conditions on activated carbons made from the resulting biochars. Using an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis, this study probes the impact of pyrolysis and activation temperature on surface areas and pore volumes for 28 carbon dioxide-activated carbons. Activation temperature has the largest single impact of any other variable; increasing the temperature from 800 to 900 °C leads to an increase in surface area of more than 300 m"2/g. Contrary to some prior results, pyrolysis temperature has minimal effect on the resulting surface area and pore volume, suggesting that optimizing the temperature at which biofuels are extracted will have little impact on carbon dioxide-activated carbons. Increasing pyrolysis temperature increases methane formation but decreases gaseous hydrocarbons. Bio-oil obtained at lower pyrolysis temperatures shows fewer oxygenated compounds, indicating a greater stability, but higher pyrolysis temperatures maximize production of key biorefinery intermediaries such as furans. By analyzing data in such a holistic manner, it may be possible to optimize the production of biofuels and activated carbons from biomass by minimizing the amount of raw materials and energy necessary to maximize

  8. Connected languages : Effects of intensifying contact between Turkish and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirçay, Derya

    2017-01-01

    In today’s globalized world movement of people, information and knowledge is made easier each passing day. Thus, isolated, monolingual communities are rare in the modern world. This dissertation looks into bilinguals’ use of their languages within the community of Turkish-Dutch speakers in the

  9. Effect of altitude on fatty acid composition in Turkish hazelnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of fatty acid composition in Delisava, Yomra, Sivri and Karayaglı Turkish hazelnut varieties with altitude. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography (GC) equiped with flame ionisation detector (FID) after obtained fatty acid methyl esters from crude ...

  10. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  11. Turkish Parents' Perceptions of Their Involvement in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdener, Mehmet Akif

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement has an influence on children's educational engagement during the elementary years. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of rural Turkish parents about their involvement in schooling with elementary school students based on Epstein's (1995) six types of parental involvement (parenting, communicating,…

  12. Turkish Geography Student Teachers' Concerns towards the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Adem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the levels of concern of Turkish geography student teachers towards the teaching profession. The study was conducted with 293 geography student teachers who are enrolled in the last class of the Geography Student Teachers Program of the Faculties of Education and enrolled in a Non-Thesis Master's Degree…

  13. Everyday urban public space : Turkish immigrant women's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünlü Yücesoy, E.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the use, experience, and appropriation of everyday urban public spaces by Turkish immigrant women living in Enschede, the Netherlands. Based on the two premises of conceptualizing the urban public space as a social construct and of valorizing users as social actors, the main

  14. Ethnic identity and acculturation of Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, R.; Bender, M.; Chasiotis, A.; van de Vijver, A.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated associations of ethnic identity, acculturation orientations, and acculturation outcomes (psychological well-being and socio-cultural adjustment) in a sample of 279 Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents through self-reports and parent reports. This group has a long history of discrimination

  15. The Adaptation of Academic Motivation Scale to Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaguven, M. Hulya Unal

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the psychometric evidence of Turkish form of the Academic Motivation Scale. The scale was based on the tenets of self-determination theory. It was designed to assess an individual's academic motivation if intrinsically or extrinsically driven with 28 questions. University form of the scale was translated into Turkish…

  16. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    In these diseases, a neuronal glycoprotein known as prion protein PrPC ... sheep or goats in Turkey, but the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) does not .... Turkish goat breeds was approximately 6.3%, which is a low starting point for ...

  17. Turkish Music Genre Classification using Audio and Lyrics Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder ÇOBAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Music Information Retrieval (MIR has become a popular research area in recent years. In this context, researchers have developed music information systems to find solutions for such major problems as automatic playlist creation, hit song detection, and music genre or mood classification. Meta-data information, lyrics, or melodic content of music are used as feature resource in previous works. However, lyrics do not often used in MIR systems and the number of works in this field is not enough especially for Turkish. In this paper, firstly, we have extended our previously created Turkish MIR (TMIR dataset, which comprises of Turkish lyrics, by including the audio file of each song. Secondly, we have investigated the effect of using audio and textual features together or separately on automatic Music Genre Classification (MGC. We have extracted textual features from lyrics using different feature extraction models such as word2vec and traditional Bag of Words. We have conducted our experiments on Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm and analysed the impact of feature selection and different feature groups on MGC. We have considered lyrics based MGC as a text classification task and also investigated the effect of term weighting method. Experimental results show that textual features can also be effective as well as audio features for Turkish MGC, especially when a supervised term weighting method is employed. We have achieved the highest success rate as 99,12\\% by using both audio and textual features together.

  18. Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…

  19. Lexical inferencing: perceptions and actual behaviours of Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine Turkish English as a Foreign Language Learners' (EFL) handling of unknown words while reading English texts. The study also examines the relationship between these learners' perceptions and actual practices in the employment of knowledge sources while trying to guess the ...

  20. Turkish Students' Conceptions about the Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepni, Salih; Keles, Esra

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the Turkish students' understanding level of electric circuits consisting of two bulbs and one battery was investigated by using open-ended questions. Two-hundred fifty students, whose ages range from 11 to 22, were chosen from five different groups at primary, secondary and university levels in Trabzon in Turkey. In analyzing…

  1. Adaptation of Sport Brand Personality Scale to Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgüt, Ilyas; Özbal, Ayse Feray

    2018-01-01

    Validity and reliability of Turkish form of sport brand personality scale, which was developed by Mitsis and Leckie (2016), was presented in this study. Scale was designed to reflect the impact of individuals' favorite athletes on them in other words the strength of the role model factor. In study, participants were tried to reach through an…

  2. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  3. Many Lives of Women Rectors at Turkish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Suzan; Gümüseli, Ali Ilker

    2017-01-01

    Women at Turkish Universities do not have the same level of representation as rectors as they have academics at the higher education. It is vital to have women, as one of the genders which comprises the community, at the higher education management as rectors to ensure the gender equality in Turkey. As well as the traditional roles assigned to…

  4. Ethical Issues in Turkish Sport Media: Perceptions of Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of professional football players on the obedience of the Turkish Sport Media to journalistic ethical codes. ... It was determined that the ethical codes, namely gossip, private life and honesty are frequently violated, and the ethical codes, namely newsgathering and ...

  5. Invisible Barriers: The Loneliness of School Principals at Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological insight is the notion that all participants agreed on and emphasised when asked to offer a definition of loneliness at schools. Participants also agreed on the fact that the organisational climate at Turkish schools represented the most significant reason for principals' loneliness at work. The school principals that ...

  6. Character Strengths Are Prominent as Mate Preferences of Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth Michelle; Pearce, Amy R.; Khramtsova, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed the traits and characteristics that Turkish students deem most important in a long-term romantic partner. We collected quantitative and qualitative data on characteristics desired in romantic partners from students attending Bahçesehir Üniversitesi in Istanbul, Turkey. Like our previous cross-cultural studies conducted in…

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of Turkish endodontists towards digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed. Questionnaires were given to a sample of endodontists and PhD students in endodontics who attended the 11th International Congress of the Turkish Endodontic Society in Istanbul in 2012. Following the congress, the same questionnaires were ...

  8. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  9. Stress and Life Satisfaction of Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cahit; Tansey, Timothy N.; Melekoglu, Macid; Çakiroglu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perceived stress and life satisfaction of Turkish college students. The "Satisfaction with Life Scale" (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), the "Perceived Stress Scale" (Cohen & Williamson, 1988), and a brief demographic questionnaire were administered to 235 college…

  10. Career Decision-Making Difficulties of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanli, Feride

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are (1) to adapt the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) to Turkish high school students and (2) to examine gender differences, grade differences, and differences between "decided" and "undecided" students. The sample consisted of 2509 adolescent students. The results showed that…

  11. Parental beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever in Turkish primary care. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... problem in pediatric age and is one of the most common reasons parents seek medical attention. ... Parents with a child with fever aged between 0 and 14 years were interviewed.

  12. The Quest for Turkish Scholarships: African Students, Transformation and Hopefulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2018-01-01

    on qualitative data collected through interviews, focus groups and discussions with African students in Istanbul, Turkey, this paper finds that the activities as well as the meaning making of African students towards existing Turkish educational and scholarship opportunities, remain essential in understanding...

  13. Eating Attitudes and Their Psychological Correlates among Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Asci, F. Hulya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gul

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the…

  14. Cyberbullying in Turkish Middle Schools: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Harun

    2011-01-01

    This study explored Turkish students' experience of cyberbullying and their use of social networking tools. A total of 756 7th-grade students participated from eight different middle schools in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. A 15-item questionnaire was used in a classroom environment to collect data. Results revealed that male students were…

  15. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  16. Turkish Metalinguistic Awareness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisoglu, Behice

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a useful, valid and reliable measurement tool that will help teacher candidates determine their Turkish metalinguistic awareness. During the development of the scale, a pool of items was created by scanning the relevant literature and examining other awareness scales. The materials prepared were re-examined…

  17. Cyber Bullying @ Schools: What Do Turkish Adolescents Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Cigdem; Yildirim, Ali; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Cyber bullying is an emerging form of peer bullying, becoming prominent especially over the past decade. The aim of this study was to investigate through interviews the perceptions of Turkish high school students about cyber bullying. The sample consisted of six male and one female high school students all aged 15 years who identified as being…

  18. Dutch business opportunities in the Turkish biodiesel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Elbersen, H.W.; Yilmaz, G.

    2009-01-01

    To research possibilities for Dutch businesses to be involved in the Turkish biodiesel sector, a short literature study and unstructured interviews with sector stakeholders were performed. Turkey is interested to develop its biofuel sector particularly to improve its security of energy supply, more

  19. Turkish Primary School Teachers' Opinions about Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the most important topics in a mathematics education. Through problem posing, students gain mathematical abilities and concepts and teachers can evaluate their students and arrange adequate learning environments. The aim of the present study is to investigate Turkish primary school teachers' opinions about problem posing…

  20. Nature Connectedness and Landscape Preferences of Turkish Preservice Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Simge; Olgan, Refika; Yilmaztekin, Elif Öztürk

    2016-01-01

    The current paper had two aims, first to investigate Turkish pre-service preschool teachers' perceptions of different kinds of landscapes that can be used to achieve their educational goals, their ideas about the characteristics of these settings, and the contribution to children's education, the resource needs, motivations, and barriers they…

  1. Building Technology Transfer Capacity in Turkish Universities: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga, Marina; Temel, Serdal; Ar, Ilker Murat; Yesilay, Rustem Baris; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

    2016-01-01

    University technology transfer has been receiving significant government funding since 2012. Results of this major investment are now expected by the Turkish government and society, not only in terms of better teaching and research performance, but also of new jobs, new products and services, enhanced regional development and contribution to…

  2. Parenting Styles and Life Satisfaction of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perception of satisfaction from various life domains according to gender and parenting styles among 562 Turkish adolescents [53.2% girls; Mean (M) age = 14.1, Standard Deviation (SD) = 0.85]. The participants completed the multidimensional students' life satisfaction scale and the parenting style inventory. The…

  3. Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet

    The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wellness and Self-Esteem among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz-Duran, Nagihan; Tezer, Esin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the differences among 465 Turkish first year university students regarding overall wellness and four of its dimensions (cognitive emotional wellness-CEW, relational wellness-RW, life goal-LG, and physical wellness-PW) in terms of self-esteem levels and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Rosenberg…

  5. Attachment Styles and Self-Image in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Fusun Cuhadaroglu; Tuzun, Zeynep; Pehlivanturk, Berna; Unal, Fatih; Gokler, Bahar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the attachment styles and the relation of these styles to the self-image in Turkish adolescents. The study included 378 adolescents (196 females and 182 males) from high schools with different socioeconomic status (SES) who were administered Relationship Scale Questionnaires and Offer Self-Image…

  6. Teacher Self-Efficacy According to Turkish Cypriot Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, Cemil; Ozbas, Serap

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the self-efficacy of Turkish Cypriot science teachers working at high schools in Northern Cyprus. The study sample was 200 science teachers who participated in the survey. The Teacher Self-Efficacy (TSE) Scale was used as a data source. It was observed that the science teachers' efficacy beliefs about student engagement in…

  7. 7 CFR 51.2540 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2540 General. (a) Compliance with the provisions of.... (b) These standards are applicable to pistachio nuts in the shell which may be in a natural, dyed...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2542 - U.S. Artificially Opened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2542 U.S. Artificially Opened. “U.S. Artificially Opened” consists of artificially opened pistachio nuts in the shell which meet...

  9. Determination of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and spirotetramat and their relevant metabolites in pistachio using modified QuEChERS combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Mohammad; Noorbakhsh, Roya; Shafieyan, Hooshang; Ramezani, Mohammadkazem

    2018-02-01

    A QuEChERS based methodology was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and spirotetramat and their relevant metabolites in pistachio by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. First, sample extraction was done with MeCN:citrate buffer:NaHCO 3 followed by phase separation with the addition of MgSO 4 :NaCl. The supernatant was then cleaned by a primary-secondary amine (PSA), GCB, and MgSO 4 . The proposed method provides a linearity in the range of 5-200µgL -1 , and the linear regression coefficients were higher than 0.99. LOD and LOQ were obtained to be 2 and 5µgkg -1 for the studied insecticides, respectively, with the exception of imidacloprid-olefin (5 and 10µgkg -1 ). Acceptable recoveries (91-110%) were obtained for all the analytes with good intra- and inter-precisions (0.4≥RSD ≤11.0). The method was then used for the pistachio samples collected from a field trial to estimate the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in next step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Spatial Distribution of Trees on Density Estimation by Nearest Individual Sampling Method: Case Studies in Zagros Wild Pistachio Woodlands and Simulated Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Distance methods and their estimators of density may have biased measurements unless the studied stand of trees has a random spatial pattern. This study aimed at assessing the effect of spatial arrangement of wild pistachio trees on the results of density estimation by using the nearest individual sampling method in Zagros woodlands, Iran, and applying a correction factor based on the spatial pattern of trees. A 45 ha clumped stand of wild pistachio trees was selected in Zagros woodlands and two random and dispersed stands with similar density and area were simulated. Distances from the nearest individual and neighbour at 40 sample points in a 100 × 100 m grid were measured in the three stands. The results showed that the nearest individual method with Batcheler estimator could not calculate density correctly in all stands. However, applying the correction factor based on the spatial pattern of the trees, density was measured with no significant difference in terms of the real density of the stands. This study showed that considering the spatial arrangement of trees can improve the results of the nearest individual method with Batcheler estimator in density measurement.

  11. Physical and chemical properties of soils under some wild Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf) canopies in a semi-arid ecosystem, southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owliaie, Hamidreza

    2010-05-01

    Pistacia atlantica Desf. is one of the most important wild species in Zagros forests which is of high economical and environmental value. Sustainability of these forests primarily depends on soil quality and water availability. Study the relationships between trees and soil is one of the basic factors in management and planning of forests. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the effect of tree species on soil physical and chemical properties in a semi-arid region (Kohgilouye Province) in the southwestern part of Iran. The experimental design was a factorial 4×2 (4 depths and 2 distances) in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Soil samples (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm depth) were taken from beneath the tree crowns and adjacent open areas. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The results showed that wild pistachio canopy increased mostly organic carbon, hydraulic conductivity, total N, SP, available K+, P (olsen), EC, EDTA extractable Fe2+ and Mn2+, while bulk density, CCE and DTPA extractable Cu2+ were decreased. Pistachio canopy had no significant effect on soil texture, Zn2+ and pH.

  12. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-11-30

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells.

  13. Investigating the Capability of IRS-P6-LISS IV Satellite Image for Pistachio Forests Density Mapping (case Study: Northeast of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, F.; Darvishsefat, A. A.; Zargham, N.

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the capability of satellite images for Pistachio forests density mapping, IRS-P6-LISS IV data were analyzed in an area of 500 ha in Iran. After geometric correction, suitable training areas were determined based on fieldwork. Suitable spectral transformations like NDVI, PVI and PCA were performed. A ground truth map included of 34 plots (each plot 1 ha) were prepared. Hard and soft supervised classifications were performed with 5 density classes (0-5%, 5-10%, 10-15%, 15-20% and > 20%). Because of low separability of classes, some classes were merged and classifications were repeated with 3 classes. Finally, the highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70% and 0.44, respectively, were obtained with three classes (0-5%, 5-20%, and > 20%) by fuzzy classifier. Considering the low kappa value obtained, it could be concluded that the result of the classification was not desirable. Therefore, this approach is not appropriate for operational mapping of these valuable Pistachio forests.

  14. The Synergist Effect of The Henna Plant, Lawsonia alba on Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Against Third Larval Instar of Pistachio Leaf Borer, Ocneria terebinthina Strg. (Lep.: Lymanteriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sheibani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocneria terebinthina Strg. (Lep.: Lymanteriidae is a leaf borer pest in pistachio orchard. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki alone and in combination with henna powder was investigated on third larval instar of O. terebinthina under laboratory conditions. Bioassay was carried out using spray technique on pistachio offshoot. Probit analysis of concentration-mortality data was conducted to estimate the LC50 value. The LC50 value of B. thuringiensis on third instar of larvae was estimated as 2817.30 ppm. The synergist effect of henna powder on efficacy of B. thuringiensis was also evaluated. Three concentrations of henna powder were combined with minimum lethal dose of B. thuringiensis against third larval instar. The results revealed that the henna powder had synergist effect on B. thuringiensis. The combination of B. thuringiensis and henna powder (6000 ppm caused 80.68% mortality, whereas B. thuringiensis alone caused 15.91% mortality. Our results suggested that henna powder can increase the efficacy of B. thuringiensis in controlling O. terebinthina in pest integrated management.

  15. Foam shell project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 μm thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D 2 or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE

  16. The evolution of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Degnan, Bernard M

    2018-05-01

    Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains. Outside a few conserved genes, such as carbonic anhydrase, a so-called "biomineralization toolkit" has yet to be discovered. Despite this, a common suite of protein domains, which are often associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity, appear to have been independently and often uniquely co-opted into the mantle secretomes of different species. The evolvability of the mantle secretome provides a molecular explanation for the evolution and diversity of molluscan shells. These genomic processes are likely to underlie the evolution of other animal biominerals, including coral and echinoderm skeletons. This article is categorized under: Comparative Development and Evolution > Regulation of Organ Diversity Comparative Development and Evolution > Evolutionary Novelties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Creep buckling of shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Hagihara, Seiya

    2015-01-01

    The present article contains a review of the literatures on the creep buckling of shell structures published from late 1950's to recent years. In this article, the creep buckling studies on circular cylindrical shells, spherical shells, partial cylindrical shells and other shells are reviewed in addition to creep buckling criteria. Creep buckling is categorized into two types. One is the creep buckling due to quasi-static instability, in which the critical time for creep buckling is determined by tracing a creep deformation versus time curve. The other is the creep buckling due to kinetic instability, in which the critical time can be determined by examining the shape of total potential energy in the vicinity of a quasi-static equilibrium state. Bifurcation buckling and snap-through buckling during creep deformation belong to this type of creep buckling. A few detailed descriptions are given to the bifurcation and snap-through type of creep buckling based on the present authors' works. (author)

  18. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert

    2001-09-03

    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  19. Dominant thermogravimetric signatures of lignin in cashew shell as compared to cashew shell cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangil, Sandip

    2014-03-01

    Dominant thermogravimetric signatures related to lignin were observed in cashew shell as compared to these signatures in cashew shell cake. The phenomenon of weakening of lignin from cashew shell to cashew shell cake was explained on the basis of changes in the activation energies. The pertinent temperature regimes responsible for the release of different constituents of both the bio-materials were identified and compared. The activation energies of cashew shell and cashew shell cake were compared using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. Thermogravimetric profiling of cashew shell and cashew shell cake indicated that these were different kinds of bio-materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.; Dean, D.J.; Langanke, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; the resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, the thermal and rotational behavior of rare-earth and γ-soft nuclei, and the calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. (orig.)