WorldWideScience

Sample records for shelf ocs central

  1. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  2. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    2013-08-23

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... Supplemental EIS will update the environmental and socioeconomic analyses in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas... Area Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM...

  3. 78 FR 36571 - North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official...

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [MMAA104000] North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official Protraction Diagram (OPDs) AGENCY... OPDs. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that effective with this publication two NAD 83-based OCS...

  4. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    2010-11-24

    ... Environmental Studies Program (ESP) and environmental aspects of the offshore energy and marine minerals... oceanography, as well as studies of the social and economic impacts of OCS energy and marine minerals... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer...

  5. 77 FR 24734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology...

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [Docket No. BOEM-2012-0011] Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of an...

  6. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    2011-04-12

    ... No. BOEM-2011-0008] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind lease in the area offshore... a Request for Interest (RFI) in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21653). Bluewater Wind...

  7. 76 FR 14681 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    2011-03-17

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0063] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Request for Interest (RFI) in Commercial Wind Energy... (BOEMRE) is reopening the comment period on the RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore...

  8. 75 FR 68824 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maryland-Request...

    2010-11-09

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0038] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Interior. ACTION: RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore Maryland, and Invitation for Comments from... construction of a wind energy project(s) on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Maryland. The BOEMRE...

  9. 77 FR 47877 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine...

    2012-08-10

    ... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine; Request for Interest... Request for a Commercial OCS Wind Lease, Request for Interest, and Request for Public Comment SUMMARY: The... (Statoil NA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2) solicit public input regarding the proposal, its potential...

  10. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 3. Detailed methodology

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume, Detailed Methodology Review, presents a discussion of the methods considered and used to estimate the impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development on coastal recreation in California. The purpose is to provide the Minerals Management Service with data and methods to improve their ability to analyze the socio-economic impacts of OCS development. Chapter II provides a review of previous attempts to evaluate the effects of OCS development and of oil spills on coastal recreation. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and presents the rationale for the methodology selection made. Chapter III presents a detailed discussion of the methods actually used in the study. The volume contains the bibliography for the entire study.

  11. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 1. Executive summary

    1987-04-01

    The study was intended to provide the Mineral Management Service (MMS) with an analytical tool to evaluate possible economic impacts from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development. In particular, the study was designed to provide MMS staff who work on lease sale Energy Impact Statements with an objective technique for estimating the impacts to coastal communities from events that might occur as a result of lease sales: oil spills, onshore construction, and construction of platforms offshore. The project had several specific objectives: (1) provide profiles of 1982 socio-economic conditions in coastal communities, including an analysis of the relative importance of the tourist industry in each coastal county; (2) develop a methodology for determining the effects of OCS development on coastal recreation; and recommend mitigation measure that may reduce the negative effect of OCS development on coastal recreation using gravity and economic effects models.

  12. Oil-Spill Analysis: Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sales, Eastern Planning Area, 2003-2007 and Gulfwide OCS Program, 2003-2042

    2002-09-01

    The Federal Government plans to offer U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) for oil and gas leasing. This report summarizes results of that analysis, the objective of which was to estimate the risk of oil-spill contact to sensitive offshore and onshore environmental resources and socioeconomic features from oil spills accidentally occurring from the OCS activities.

  13. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    2011-05-27

    ... Point Hope et al., v. Salazar, No. 1:08-cv-00004-RRB (D. Alaska)]. The sale was conducted in February... Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of...: BOEMRE announces the availability of a Revised Draft SEIS, OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea...

  14. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    2011-01-26

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0075] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and requests submission of indications of competitive... received two nominations of proposed lease areas: One from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and...

  15. 78 FR 8190 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina...

    2013-02-05

    ...] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina--Call for... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Offshore North Carolina (Call), published on December 13, 2012 (77 FR 7204). DATES: BOEM must receive your nomination describing your interest in obtaining a commercial wind lease...

  16. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    2010-04-26

    ... Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware--Request for Interest (RFI... proposal. In June 2008, Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC announced that it signed a 25-year power purchase agreement with Delmarva Power to sell up to 200 megawatts (MW) of power to the utility from an offshore wind...

  17. 76 FR 50245 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    2011-08-12

    ... (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact... sale's incremental contribution to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources... Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the...

  18. BLM/OCS Southern California Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Baseline Studies

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data in this file were produced by Science Applications, Inc., prime contractor on the Bureau of Land Management/Outer Continental Shelf - Southern California...

  19. BLM/OCS South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) Project Sediment Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Texas Outer Continental Shelf Project (STOCS) conducted by the University of Texas and the USGS with funding from BLM/NOAA. The USGS produced geochemical...

  20. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    2013-07-16

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... 248; Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233/CPA 231 Supplemental EIS). The...

  1. 78 FR 27427 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Geological and Geophysical Exploration Activities in the Gulf of...

    2013-05-10

    ... timeframe. The activities considered within this PEIS are associated with GOM OCS oil and gas exploration... and NMFS as the PEIS is developed. Background: A variety of G&G techniques are used to characterize... surveys are conducted to: (1) Obtain data for hydrocarbon exploration and production; (2) aid in siting...

  2. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 5. Program logic manual

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume is the Programmer's Manual. It covers: a system overview, attractiveness component of gravity model, trip-distribution component of gravity model, economic-effects model, and the consumer-surplus model. The project sought to determine the impact of Outer Continental Shelf development on recreation and tourism.

  3. 78 FR 64242 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning...

    2013-10-28

    ... (NOA) of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Public Meetings. SUMMARY: BOEM... Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012- 2017 WPA/CPA Multisale EIS) and in the Gulf of Mexico... Lease Sale 231, Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233...

  4. 78 FR 59968 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Oregon...

    2013-09-30

    ... technical and financial qualifications can be found at: http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program... submissions of indications of interest in obtaining a commercial lease for wind energy development on the OCS... area described in this notice, the potential environmental consequences of wind energy development in...

  5. 78 FR 760 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore New...

    2013-01-04

    ... technical and financial qualifications can be found at: http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program... lease for wind energy development on the OCS offshore New York for the area identified in this notice... project to supply the Long Island and New York City region with renewable energy, consistent with New York...

  6. 76 FR 70156 - Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017

    2011-11-10

    ... Analysis for the OCS 5-Year Program 2012-2017: Theory and Methodology (BOEM 050-2011), a paper containing a..., which remain the two areas of highest resource potential and interest, the Proposed Program schedules..., and setting the fiscal terms and conditions by individual lease sale, based on a current assessment of...

  7. 78 FR 21969 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    2013-04-12

    .... ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012-2017 Multisale EIS), completed in July 2012, in... to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources. The oil and gas resource...

  8. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 4. User's manual

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. The project sought to determine the impact of Outer Continental Shelf development on recreation and tourism in California. This volume is the User's Guide. It includes the following topics: Introduction and Summary Guide; Input Data Files; Gravity Model Programs; Economic Effects Model Programs; Consumer Surplus Model Programs; References; and Appendices.

  9. Sonograph patterns of the central western continental shelf of India

    Rao, P.S.

    knolls. A transition zone with tonal variations is present between 40 and 60 m water depth. Ground-truth data sediment and rock distribution maps indicate depositional (inner shelf), nondepositional or erosional (outer shelf) environments and a...

  10. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India

    Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    -262 255 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in the Netherlands Letter Section Submerged Reef Systems on the Central Western Continental Shelf of India K.H. VORA and F. ALMEIDA National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403... 004 (India) (Revision accepted October 26, 1989) Abstract Vora, K.H. and Almeida, F., 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 91: 255-262. Echosounding and sidescan sonar data from the western...

  11. BLM/OCS Ecological Investigations of Petroleum Production Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Investigations of Petroleum Production Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico Project was conducted by Texas A and M University under contract to...

  12. Direct impacts of outer continental shelf activities on wetland loss in the central Gulf of Mexico

    Baumann, R.H.; Turner, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The direct impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) development on recent wetland loss in the northern Gulf of Mexico were quantified using aerial imagery, field surveys, and literature review. The total direct impacts accounted for an estimated 25.6 percent of total net wetland loss within the Louisiana portion of the study area from 1955/56 to 1978. Of the total direct impacts of 73,905 ha, OCS-related activities accounted for 11,589-13,631 ha of the wetland loss during the same time interval. Although this is a substantial areal loss, it represents only 4.0-4.7 percent of the total Louisiana wetland loss from 1955/56 to 1978, and 15.7-18.4 percent of direct impacts. Direct impacts from OCS pipelines averages 2.49 ha/km, lower than published guidelines, and totaled 12,012 ha. Lowest impacts are for backfilled pipelines in the Chenier Plain of western Louisiana and for small young pipeline canals does not appear to be an important factor for total new wetland loss in the coastal zone because few pipelines are open to navigation and, for the examples found, the impact width was not significantly different than for open pipelines closed to navigation. Navigation channels account for a minimum of 16,902 ha of habitat change. Direct impacts per unit length of navigation channel average 20 times greater than pipelines

  13. OCS National Compendium

    Gould, G.J.; Karpas, R.M.; Slitor, D.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Minerals Management Service's (MMS) Outer Continental Shelf Information Program (OCSIP) is responsible for making available to affected coastal States, local governments, and other interested parties data and information related to the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Program. Since its establishment through Section 26 of the OCS Lands Act (OCSLA) Amendments of 1978, OCSIP has prepared regional summary reports, updates, and indexes on leasing, exploration, development, and production activities to fulfill the mandates of the OCSLA Amendments. The OCSIP receives many requests for out-of-print summary reports, updates, and indexes. The purpose of the OCS National Compendium is to consolidate these historical data and to present the data on an OCS-wide and regional scale. The single-volume approach allows the reader access to historical information and facilitates regional comparisons. The fold-out chart in the front of this publication provides the reader with a timeline (January 1988--November 1990) of events since publication of the last Compendium. Some of the events are directly related to the 5-year Oil and Gas Program, whereas others may or may not have an effect on the program. A predominantly graphic format is used in the report so that the large accumulation of data can be more readily comprehended. In some cases, it is not possible to update information through October 21, 1990, because of the nature of the data. For example, production data normally lags 3 months. 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  14. 77 FR 2991 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas...

    2012-01-20

    ... circumstances and information arising from, among other things, the Deepwater Horizon event. This Final... Supplemental EIS and in consideration of the Deepwater Horizon event, including scientific journals; interviews... resources and socioeconomic factors. This analysis considers both routine activities and accidental events...

  15. 78 FR 9731 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    2013-02-11

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Multisale FEIS). Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations... the NEPA process. The Multisale FEIS evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic impacts for CPA... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental...

  16. 75 FR 69122 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    2010-11-10

    ... focus on updating the baseline conditions and potential environmental effects of oil and natural gas.... Comments Public meetings will be held in locations near these areas in early to mid November 2010. The...

  17. 78 FR 9420 - Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 227

    2013-02-08

    ... less than 400 meters. $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or... less than 400 meters, and $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters... leases in 0 to less than 400 meters of water depth completed to a drilling depth of 20,000 feet TVD SS or...

  18. 75 FR 6874 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Central Planning Area (CPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    2010-02-12

    ... for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters. Blocks in 400 to less than 800... resulting from this lease sale. Leases in water depths of 400 meters to less than 800 meters will be offered... still may require the full 10-year term. In both the 400-800 and 800-1,600 meter cases, the lease...

  19. 77 FR 29683 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Sale; 216/222

    2012-05-18

    ... than 400 meters of water depth completed to a drilling depth of 20,000 feet TVD SS or deeper may... are specified as (1) less than 400 meters and (2) 400 meters or more. Successful Bidders: BOEM... summarized in the following table: [[Page 29686

  20. Seismic stratigraphy and late Quaternary shelf history, south-central Monterey Bay, California

    Chin, J.L.; Clifton, H.E.; Mullins, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    The south-central Monterey Bay shelf is a high-energy, wave-dominated, tectonically active coastal region on the central California continental margin. A prominent feature of this shelf is a sediment lobe off the mouth of the Salinas River that has surface expression. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles reveal that an angular unconformity (Quaternary?) underlies the entire shelf and separates undeformed strata above it from deformed strata below it. The Salinas River lobe is a convex bulge on the shelf covering an area of approximately 72 km2 in water depths from 10 to 90 m. It reaches a maximum thickness of 35 m about 2.5 km seaward of the river mouth and thins in all directions away from this point. Adjacent shelf areas are characterized by only a thin (2 to 5 m thick) and uniform veneer of sediment. Acoustic stratigraphy of the lobe is complex and is characterized by at least three unconformity-bounded depositional sequences. Acoustically, these sequences are relatively well bedded. Acoustic foresets occur within the intermediate sequence and dip seaward at 0.7?? to 2.0??. Comparison with sedimentary sequences in uplifted onshore Pleistocene marine-terrace deposits of the Monterey Bay area, which were presumably formed in a similar setting under similar processes, suggests that a general interpretation can be formulated for seismic stratigraphic patterns. Depositional sequences are interpreted to represent shallowing-upwards progradational sequences of marine to nonmarine coastal deposits formed during interglacial highstands and/or during early stages of falling sea level. Acoustic foresets within the intermediate sequence are evidence of seaward progradation. Acoustic unconformities that separate depositional sequences are interpreted as having formed largely by shoreface planation and may be the only record of the intervening transgressions. The internal stratigraphy of the Salinas River lobe thus suggests that at least several late Quaternary

  1. Seafloor classification using artificial neural network architecture from central western continental shelf of India

    Mahale, Vasudev; Chakraborty, Bishwajit; Navelkar, Gajanan S.; Prabhu Desai, R. G.

    2005-04-01

    Seafloor classification studies are carried out at the central western continental shelf of India employing two frequency normal incidence single beam echo-sounder backscatter data. Echo waveform data from different seafloor sediment areas are utilized for present study. Three artificial neural network (ANN) architectures, e.g., Self-Organization Feature Maps (SOFM), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) are applied for seafloor classifications. In case of MLP, features are extracted from the received echo signal, on the basis of which, classification is carried out. In the case of the SOFM, a simple moving average echo waveform pre-processing technique is found to yield excellent classification results. Finally, LVQ, which is known as ANN of hybrid architecture is found to be the efficient seafloor classifier especially from the point of view of the real-time application. The simultaneously acquired sediment sample, multi-beam bathymetry and side scan sonar and echo waveform based seafloor classifications results are indicative of the depositional (inner shelf), non-depositional or erosion (outer shelf) environment and combination of both in the transition zone. [Work supported by DIT.

  2. Temporal and cross-shelf distribution of ichthyoplankton in the central Cantabrian Sea

    Rodriguez, J. M.

    2008-09-01

    Environmental variables have been measured and sampling for ichthyoplankton has been conducted monthly, since April 2001, at three stations, located at the inner (1), middle (2) and outer (3) shelf of the central Cantabrian Sea. This paper presents the results of the study of the ichthyoplankton collected from July 2001 to June 2004. Fish larvae from 99 species, belonging to 37 families, were identified. Families with higher number of species were Gadidae, Sparidae and Labridae. The larval fish assemblage was dominated by pelagic fish species, with Sardina pilchardus, as the most abundant. There was a pronounced spring peak in larval abundance, dominated by S. pilchardus. A smaller peak, dominated by S. pilchardus and Micromesistius poutassou, was recorded in late winter at Stns 2 and 3. This pattern was evident for the three-year study. Results also indicate that this study was limited to the coastal larval fish assemblage inhabiting the central Cantabrian Sea shelf. This assemblage was temporally structured into other three assemblages: winter, late winter-spring and summer-autumn. Temperature was apparently a key factor in larval fish assemblage succession. In a scenario of global warming, this study constitutes a basis to evaluating the ongoing changes in the pelagic coastal ecosystem of the central Cantabrian Sea.

  3. Surface-water radon-222 distribution along the west-central Florida shelf

    Smith, C.G.; Robbins, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009 and August 2009, the spatial distribution of radon-222 in surface water was mapped along the west-central Florida shelf as collaboration between the Response of Florida Shelf Ecosystems to Climate Change project and a U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Research Fellowship project. This report summarizes the surface distribution of radon-222 from two cruises and evaluates potential physical controls on radon-222 fluxes. Radon-222 is an inert gas produced overwhelmingly in sediment and has a short half-life of 3.8 days; activities in surface water ranged between 30 and 170 becquerels per cubic meter. Overall, radon-222 activities were enriched in nearshore surface waters relative to offshore waters. Dilution in offshore waters is expected to be the cause of the low offshore activities. While thermal stratification of the water column during the August survey may explain higher radon-222 activities relative to the February survey, radon-222 activity and integrated surface-water inventories decreased exponentially from the shoreline during both cruises. By estimating radon-222 evasion by wind from nearby buoy data and accounting for internal production from dissolved radium-226, its radiogenic long-lived parent, a simple one-dimensional model was implemented to determine the role that offshore mixing, benthic influx, and decay have on the distribution of excess radon-222 inventories along the west Florida shelf. For multiple statistically based boundary condition scenarios (first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum radon-222 inshore of 5 kilometers), the cross-shelf mixing rates and average nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates varied from 100.38 to 10-3.4 square kilometers per day and 0.00 to 1.70 centimeters per day, respectively. This dataset and modeling provide the first attempt to assess cross-shelf mixing and SGD on such a large spatial scale. Such estimates help scale up SGD rates that are often made at 1- to 10-meter

  4. Trace elements from the Central Pacific Mexican Shelf: Geochemical associations and anthropogenic influences

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, A. J.; Morales-Blake, A. R.; González-Chavarín, I.; Hernández-Becerril, D.; Alonso-Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez-Palacio, M. C.; Sánchez-González, A.; Magallanes-Ordóñez, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    Baselines for major and trace elements were determined from surface sediment samples from sites located along the Central Pacific Mexican Shelf (CPMS; 16.7-20.45° N). This study area is next to the biggest harbours in Mexico, for example touristic (Puerto Vallarta and Acapulco), touristic and industrial (Manzanillo), and industrial harbours (Lázaro Cárdenas). The industrial harbours have been expanding, transporting tonnes of materials to Asia and North and South America. Oceanographic campaigns were conducted to obtain sediment from depths ranging from 56 to 159 m. The grain size was predominately fine fraction (determined for the sediments. Arsenic is enriched in the CPMS; the Normalized Enrichment Factor average (NEFAV) for As is NEFAV = 8 ± 7. However the ratio between As and Cs indicates a natural origin in the most of the sites. Cadmium, Mo, and Ag were significantly correlated with Corg enhanced precipitation of sulfide-reactive metals. Moreover, an anthropogenic influence was detected for Hg (NEFAV = 4.3 ± 1.5) and Ag (NEFAV = 8.5 ± 2.6) in the shelf near the heavily industrialized harbour of Lázaro Cárdenas.

  5. Historical polycyclic aromatic and petrogenic hydrocarbon loading in Northern Central Gulf of Mexico shelf sediments.

    Overton, E B; Ashton, B M; Miles, M S

    2004-10-01

    The distribution of selected hydrocarbons within ten dated sediment cores taken from the Mississippi River Bight off coastal Louisiana suggests a chronic contaminant loading from several sources including the river itself, oil and gas exploration in the central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf area, and natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps. Data were grouped as either total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which were indicative of pyrogenic PAH's; or estimated total hopanes (indicative of petrogenic hydrocarbons). The total PAH concentrations and estimated total hopanes begin increasing above background levels (approximately 200 ng g(-1)) after the 1950s. The distribution of these hydrocarbons and hopanes within the dated sediment cores suggests that the Mississippi River is a regional source of pyrogenic PAH's, and that the hopanes are from natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps, oil and gas exploration in the GOM, or both.

  6. Distribution patterns and enrichment of lead, zinc and copper in surface sediments of the central Portuguese shelf and upper slope

    Jesus, C.C.; de Stigter, H.; Miranda, P.; Oliveira, A.; Rocha, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic patterns of Cu, Pb and Zn enrichment on the Lisbon-Setúbal-Sines continental shelf and upper slope (central Portuguese margin) were studied in this paper to gain insight into current pathways of trace metal dispersal. Our study is based on the analysis of elemental concentrations and

  7. Controls on reef development and the terrigenous-carbonate interface on a shallow shelf, Nicaragua (Central America)

    Roberts, H. H.; Murray, S. P.

    1983-06-01

    Marine geology and physical oceanographic data collected during two field projects (˜4 months) on the Caribbean shelf of Nicaragua indicate a surprising dominance of carbonate deposition and reef growth on a shelf that is receiving an abnormally large volume of terrigenous sediments. High rainfall rates (˜400 500 cm/year), coupled with a warm tropical climate, encourage rapid denudation of the country's central volcanic highland and transport of large volumes of terrigenous sediment and fresh water to the coast. Estimates suggest that three times more fresh water and fifteen times more sediment are introduced per unit length of coastline than on the east coast of the United States. Distribution of the terrigenous facies, development of carbonate sediment suites, and the location and quality of viable reefs are strongly controlled by the dynamic interaction near the coasts of highly turbid fresh to brackish water effluents from thirteen rivers with clear marine waters of the shelf. Oceanic water from the central Caribbean drift current intersects the shelf and moves slowely in a dominant northwest direction toward the Yucatan Channel. A sluggish secondary gyre moves to the south toward Costa Rica. In contrast, the turbid coastal water is deflected to the south in response to density gradients, surface water slopes, and momentum supplied by the steady northeast trade winds. A distinct two-layered flow is commonly present in the sediment-rich coastal boundary zone, which is typically 10 20 km wide. The low-salinity upper layer is frictionally uncoupled from the ambient shelf water and therefore can expand out of the normally coherent coastal boundary zone during periods of abnormal flooding or times when instability is introduced into the northeast trades. Reef distribution, abruptness of the terrigenous-carbonate interface, and general shelf morphology reflect the long-term dynamic structure of the shelf waters. A smooth-bottomed ramp of siliciclastic sands to

  8. A modeling experiment on the grounding of an ice shelf in the central Arctic Ocean during MIS 6

    Jakobsson, M.; Siegert, M.; Paton, M.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution chirp sonar subbottom profiles from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean, acquired from the Swedish icebreaker Oden in 1996, revealed large-scale erosion of the ridge crest down to depths of 1000 m below present sea level [Jakobsson, 1999]. Subsequent acoustic mapping during the SCICEX nuclear submarine expedition in 1999 showed glacial fluting at the deepest eroded areas and subparallel ice scours from 950 m water depth to the shallowest parts of the ridge crest [Polyak et al., 2001]. The directions of the mapped glaciogenic bed-forms and the redeposition of eroded material on the Amerasian side of the ridge indicate ice flow from the Barents-Kara Sea area. Core studies revealed that sediment drape the eroded areas from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5 and, thus, it was proposed that the major erosional event took place during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 [Jakobsson et al., 2001]. Glacial geological evidence suggests strongly that the Late Saalian (MIS 6) ice sheet margin reached the shelf break of the Barents-Kara Sea [Svendsen et al. in press] and this gives us two possible ways to explain the ice erosional features on the Lomonosov Ridge. One is the grounding of a floating ice shelf and the other is the scouring from large deep tabular iceberg. Here we apply numerical ice sheet modeling to test the hypothesis that an ice shelf emanating from the Barents/Kara seas grounded across part of the Lomonsov Ridge and caused the extensive erosion down to a depth of around 1000 m below present sea level. A series of model experiments was undertaken in which the ice shelf mass balance (surface accumulation and basal melting) and ice shelf strain rates were adjusted. Grounding of the Lomonosov Ridge was not achieved when the ice shelf strain rate was 0.005 yr-1 (i.e. a free flowing ice shelf). However this model produced two interesting findings. First, with basal melt rates of up to 50 cm yr-1 an ice shelf grew from the St. Anna Trough ice stream

  9. Regional tectonic trends on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and central west coast of India

    Ramana, M.V.

    Satellite imagery and offshore magnetic data were analysed to correlate regional tectonic elements on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and the adjacent Deccan plateau. Three statistically important lineament trends N-S, WNW-ESE and ENE...

  10. Composition and daytime vertical distribution of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Central Cantabrian Sea shelf, during summer: An Eulerian study

    Rodriguez, J. M.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Lopez-Urrutia, A.; Nogueira, E.

    2011-09-01

    During summer, wind driven coastal upwelling dominates in the Central Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay). Nevertheless, atmospheric forcing is highly variable and wind pulses may cause noticeable and fast hydrographic responses in the shelf region. In this paper, the composition and vertical distribution of the summer ichthyoplankton assemblage during the daytime at a fixed station, located on the Central Cantabrian Sea shelf, are documented. Also, the impact of a short-time scale hydrographic event on the abundance and structure of the larval fish assemblage is examined. Significant small-scale temporal hydrographic variability was observed. Currents showed changes in speed and direction and significant changes in thermocline depth were also observed. A total of 34 taxa of fish larvae were identified. Engraulis encrasicolus eggs and larvae of the shelf-dwelling species Trachurus trachurus, Capros aper and E. encrasicolus dominated the ichthyoplankton assemblage. The distribution of E. encrasicolus eggs and fish larvae was vertically structured. E. encrasicolus egg concentration increased exponentially towards the surface. Fish larvae showed a subsurface peak of concentration and their vertical distribution was not conditioned by thermocline depths. The short term hydrographic event did not affect the vertical distribution of fish larvae but it accounted for significant temporal changes in larval fish assemblage structure and abundance. Results suggest that temperature and light intensity are important factors in the vertical distribution of fish larvae. They also indicate that the temporal monitoring of the larval fish assemblage in this region requires multiple sampling sites.

  11. Competition and performance in OCS oil and gas lease sales and lease development, 1954-1969

    Mead, Walter J.; Sorensen, Philip Edward

    1980-01-01

    The oil and gas resources of the Outer Continental Shelf represent one of America's largest publicly-owned assets. Through 1978, OCS oil and gas leases had yielded \\$40.5 billion in gross production value and produced over \\$28.3 billion in direct revenue to the federal government.Policies and procedures for managing the oil and gas resources of the OCS were established by Congress in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act of 1953. The Department of Interior was given the central responsibility for carrying out this management role in the 1953 Act; this responsibility has been re-established in the 1978 Amendments to the OCS Lands Act. As stated in the 1978 legislation, the goals of OCS management are to:...preserve, protect and develop oil and natural gas resources in a manner which is consistent with the need (A) to make such resources available to meet the Nation's energy needs as rapidly as possible... (C) to insure the public a fair and equitable return on the resources of the Outer Continental Shelf, and (D) to preserve and maintain free enterprise competition.As part of its continuing effort to monitor the effectiveness of federal policies relating to OCS oil and gas resources, the Conservation Division of U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Interior, has sponsored the research which is the basis for the present report. The objectives of the research have been to determine the extent to which the historical policies of OCS management have resulted in achievement of the goals set forth by Congress in the section quoted above.

  12. Some aberrant foraminifera from the shelf sediments of central east coast of India

    Setty, M.G.A; Almeida, F.

    A rich foraminiferal outer shelf assemblage has yielded some aberrant forms in the case of @iUvigerina@@ sp. @iSiphonoperta@@ sp., and @iNodosaria@@ sp. The aberration is (1) in the development of two terminal apertures with parallel necks...

  13. Temperature, salinity, radioisotopes, sediments, and other data from Phase II Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Monitoring Program in the Santa Maria Basin, California from 21 Oct 1986 to 08 Mar 1987 (NODC Accession 8900198)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of the data collected for the California Phase II OCS Monitoring Program of the Santa Maria Basin by Dr. Hyland from Battelle Ocean Science and...

  14. Stratigraphic framework of sediment-starved sand ridges on a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner shelf; west-central Florida

    Edwards, J.H.; Harrison, S.E.; Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.; Twichell, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles and vibracores have revealed that an inner shelf, sand-ridge field has developed over the past few thousand years situated on an elevated, broad bedrock terrace. This terrace extends seaward of a major headland associated with the modern barrier-island coastline of west-central Florida. The overall geologic setting is a low-energy, sediment-starved, mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner continental shelf supporting a thin sedimentary veneer. This veneer is arranged in a series of subparallel, shore-oblique, and to a minor extent, shore-parallel sand ridges. Seven major facies are present beneath the ridges, including a basal Neogene limestone gravel facies and a blue-green clay facies indicative of dominantly authigenic sedimentation. A major sequence boundary separates these older units from Holocene age, organic-rich mud facies (marsh), which grades upward into a muddy sand facies (lagoon or shallow open shelf/seagrass meadows). Cores reveal that the muddy shelf facies is either in sharp contact or grades upward into a shelly sand facies (ravinement or sudden termination of seagrass meadows). The shelly sand facies grades upward to a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies, which forms the sand ridges themselves. This mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies differs from the sediment on the beach and shoreface, suggesting insignificant sediment exchange between the offshore ridges and the modern coastline. Additionally, the lack of early Holocene, pre-ridge facies in the troughs between the ridges suggests that the ridges themselves do not migrate laterally extensively. Radiocarbon dating has indicated that these sand ridges can form relatively quickly (???1.3 ka) on relatively low-energy inner shelves once open-marine conditions are available, and that frequent, high-energy, storm-dominated conditions are not necessarily required. We suggest that the two inner shelf depositional models presented (open-shelf vs. migrating barrier-island) may

  15. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density off central California - Oceanic season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Oc0_mass.shp)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oc0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of 76 species...

  16. Five-minute grid of marine bird density off central California - Oceanic season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Oc0_dens.shp)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oc0_dens is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that contain the overall, combined densities (birds/sq km), of 76 species...

  17. Mitochondrial DNA reveals regional and interregional importance of the central Mediterranean African shelf for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta

    Paolo Casale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide north African continental shelf in the central Mediterranean is known to be one of the few important areas in the basin for loggerhead turtles in the neritic stage. In order to assess the origin of these turtles, sequences of the mtDNA control region were obtained from 70 turtles caught by bottom trawlers in the area, and compared with known sequences from turtles from Mediterranean and Atlantic nesting sites. Five haplotypes were identified (Haplotype diversity = 0.262; nucleotide diversity = 5.4×10-3. Specific haplotypes indicate contributions from distant rookeries such as Turkey and the Atlantic, which shows that Atlantic turtles entering the Mediterranean while in the oceanic phase use at least one Mediterranean continental shelf as a neritic foraging ground. A new haplotype and another one previously found only in foraging areas, highlight the genetic information gaps for nesting sites, which undermine powerful mixed stock analyses. Despite these limitations, the results reveal the regional importance of the study area as a neritic foraging ground for turtles that are probably from most of the Mediterranean nesting aggregates. Therefore, reducing turtle mortality resulting from the high fishing effort in the area should be regarded as key for Mediterranean turtle conservation and is also possibly important for Atlantic populations.

  18. The west-central Florida inner shelf and coastal system: A geologic conceptual overview and introduction to the special issue

    Hine, A.C.; Brooks, G.R.; Davis, R.A.; Duncan, D.S.; Locker, S.D.; Twichell, D.C.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview for this special publication on the geologic framework of the inner shelf and coastal zone of west-central Florida. This is a significant geologic setting in that it lies at the center of an ancient carbonate platform facing an enormous ramp that has exerted large-scale control on coastal geomorphology, the availability of sediments, and the level of wave energy. In order to understand the Holocene geologic history of this depositional system, a regional study defined by natural boundaries (north end of a barrier island to the apex of a headland) was undertaken by a group of government and university coastal geologists using a wide variety of laboratory and field techniques. It is the purpose of this introductory paper to define the character of this coastal/inner shelf system, provide a historical geologic perspective and background of environmental information, define the overall database, present the collective objectives of this regional study, and very briefly present the main aspects of each contribution. Specific conclusions are presented at the end of each paper composing this volume. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. OCS in He droplets

    Grebenev, V.

    2000-06-01

    Phenomenon of superfluidity of para-hydrogen (pH{sub 2}){sub 1-17} and helium {sup 4}He{sub 1-7000} systems doped with an OCS chromophore molecule was investigated in this work. The study of such systems became possible after the development of the depletion spectroscopy technique in helium droplets. The droplets can be easily created and doped with up to 100 particles such as OCS, para-hydrogen or ortho-hydrogen molecules and {sup 4}He atoms. The measured infrared depletion spectra give the information about the temperature of the droplets and their aggregate state. The depletion spectrum of OCS in pure {sup 4}He droplets was comprehensively studied. The rovibrational OCS spectrum shows well resolved narrow lines. The spectrum is shifted to the red relative to the corresponding gas phase spectrum and the rotational constant of OCS in {sup 4}He droplet is three times smaller than that for free molecule. Different models of OCS rotation in the helium environment were discussed. It was shown that the shapes of the rovibrational lines are defined mainly by inhomogeneous broadening due to the droplet size distribution. The sub-rotational structure of the OCS rovibrational lines was revealed in microwave-infrared double resonance experiments. This structure arises due to the interaction of the OCS with the He environment. However, the information obtained in the experiments was not enough to understand the nature of this interaction. (orig.)

  20. Macrobenthic zonation caused by the oxygen minimum zone on the shelf and slope off central Chile

    Gallardo, V. A.; Palma, M.; Carrasco, F. D.; Gutiérrez, D.; Levin, L. A.; Cañete, J. I.

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between macrobenthic (⩾300 μm) zonation and the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ: O 2Chile. Four study sites were sampled during March-April 1999 for abiotic factors, macrofaunal density, biomass, mean individual size, and diversity. Within the OMZ (122-206 m), the macrofaunal density was high (16,478-21,381 individuals m -2) and 69-89% of the organisms were soft-bodied. Density was highest (21,381 individuals m -2), biomass lowest (16.95 g wet weight m -2), and individual size smallest (0.07 mg C individuals -1) at the shelf break site (206 m). Polychaete worms made up 71% of the total abundance, crustaceans 16%, and mollusks only 2%. Total abundance beneath the OMZ (mid-slope site, ˜840 m) was 49% crustaceans and 43% polychaetes. Although existing literature originally led to the hypothesis that both diversity and biomass within the OMZ would be lower than beneath the OMZ, in the present study this was only true for diversity. Biomass distribution, on the other hand, was concave along the depth gradient; the highest values were near the upper edge of (122 m) and beneath (840 m) the OMZ. Indices of the macrofaunal community structure varied in relation to bottom-water oxygen concentration, chlorophyll- a, phaeopigments, and sulfide concentration, but not in relation to grain size, C, N, mud, porosity, redox potential, a bottom-water temperature.

  1. Late-Pleistocene evolution of the continental shelf of central Israel, a case study from Hadera

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Dix, Justin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Golan, Arik; Sivan, Dorit

    2016-05-01

    Sea-level fluctuations are a dominant mechanism that control coastal environmental changes through time. This is especially the case for the successive regressions and transgressions over the last interglacial cycle, which have shaped the deposition, preservation and erosion patterns of unconsolidated sediments currently submerged on continental shelves. The current study focuses on creating an integrated marine and terrestrial geophysical and litho-stratigraphic framework of the coastal zone of Hadera, north-central Israel. This research presents a case study, investigating the changing sedimentological units in the study area. Analysis suggest these represent various coastal environments and were deposited during times of lower than present sea level and during the later stages of the Holocene transgression. A multi-disciplinary approach was applied by compiling existing elevation raster grids, bathymetric charts, one hundred lithological borehole data-sets, and a 110 km-long sub-bottom geophysical survey. Based on seismic stratigraphic analysis, observed geometries, and reflective appearances, six bounding surfaces and seven seismic units were identified and characterized. These seismic units have been correlated with the available borehole data to produce a chronologically constrained lithostratigraphy for the area. This approach allowed us to propose a relationship between the lithological units and sea-level change and thus enable the reconstruction of Hadera coastal evolution over the last 100 ka. This reconstruction suggests that the stratigraphy is dominated by lowstand aeolian and fluvial terrestrial environments, subsequently transgressed during the Holocene. The results of this study provide a valuable framework for future national strategic shallow-water infrastructure construction and also for the possible locations of past human settlements in relation to coastal evolution through time.

  2. Late-Pleistocene evolution of the East Mediterranean shallow continental shelf of north-central Israel

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Dix, Justin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Bookman, Revital; Roskin, Joel; Bialik, Or; Golan, Arik; Sivan, Dorit

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level fluctuations are a dominant and dynamic mechanism that control coastal environmental through time. This is especially the case for the successive regressions and transgressions over the last interglacial cycle, which have shaped the deposition, preservation and erosion patterns of unconsolidated sediments currently submerged on continental shelves. The current study focuses on an integrated high-resolution marine and terrestrial litho-stratigraphic and geophysical framework of the north-central Mediterranean coastal zone of Israel. The interpretation enabled the reconstruction of the coastal evolution over the last ˜130 ka. A multi-disciplinary approach was applied by compiling existing elevation raster grids, bathymetric charts, detailed lithological borehole data-sets, a dense 110 km long sub-bottom geophysical survey and seven continuous boreholes sediment records. Based on seismic stratigraphic analysis, observed geometries, and reflective appearances, six bounding surfaces and seven seismic units were identified and characterized. Meanwhile, the chronostratigraphy of the terrestrial side was constructed through integration of magnetic susceptibility, sedimentological and geochemical analysis with 17 new OSL ages. The seismic units were correlated with the available terrestrial borehole data and then associated to the retrieved terrestrial chronostratigraphy to produce a 4D reconstruction model of the paleo-landscape. The entire unconsolidated sequence overlies a calcareous aeolianite (locally named Kurkar unit) dated from ˜131 - ˜104 ka, which represents the top of the last interglacial cycle dune sediments. The lower unconsolidated unit consists of a red silty loam dated to ˜71 ka. This Red-Paleosol unit is overlaid by a dark brown clayey silty loam This Brown-Paleosol unit dates to ˜58 - ˜36 ka and is overlaid by a dark silty clay wetland deposit dated to ˜21 - ˜10 ka. The wetland unit is topped by a quartz sand dated to ˜6.6 - 0.1 ka

  3. Variability of the flow field in the inner shelf along the central east coast of India during April, 1989

    Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.; Sadhuram, Y.

    Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 15, No. 2/3, pp. 241-253, 1995 Copyright © 1994 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0278-4343/95 $9.50 + 0.00 0278-4343(94)E0005-7 Variability of the flow field in the inner shelf along.... Continental Shelf Research, 11,295-319. LAFOND E. C. (1957) Oceanographic studies in the Bay of Bengal. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, B46, 1-46, LEE T. N., L. P. ATKINSON and R. LEGECKIS (1981) Detailed observations of a Gulf stream spin...

  4. An assessment of the effects on seabirds of a possible oil exploration at the shelf outside Central Norway out to 1o East

    Strand, K.-B.; Bustnes, J.O.; Kroglund, R.T.; Oestnes, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report gives the results of an assessment of the effects on seabirds of possible petroleum exploration at the shelf outside Central-Norway out to 1 o East. By combining oil spill simulations with the valued ecosystem components, i.e. seabirds, their distribution, and their vulnerability indexes, the relative index values for the direct effects of oil spills were calculated. For the purpose, the analysis system SIMPACT was used. On the basis of these results and other relevant considerations, recommendations for limiting a possible drilling activity are given. 85 refs., 49 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these

  6. Seismic reflection and vibracoring studies of the continental shelf offshore central and western Long Island, New York

    Kelly, W.M.; Albanese, J.R.; Coch, N.K.; Harsch, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ridge-and-swale topography on the continental shelf south of Fire Island, New York, is characterized by northeast-trending linear shoals that are shore attached and shore oblique on the inner shelf and isolated and shore parallel on the middle shelf. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that the ridges and swales occur independent of, and are not controlled by, the presence of internal structures (for example, filled tidal inlet channels, paleobarrier strata) or underlying structure (for example, high-relief Cretaceous unconformity). Grab samples of surficial sediments on the shelf south of Fire Island average 98% sand. Locally, benthic fauna increase silt and clay content through fecal pellet production or increase the content of gravel-size material by contribution of their fragmented shell remains. Surficial sand on the ridges is unimodal at 0.33 mm (medium sand, about 50 mesh), and surficial sand in troughs is bimodal at 0.33 mm and 0.15 mm (fine sand, about 100 mesh). In addition to seismic studies, 26 vibracores were recovered from the continental shelf in state and federal waters from south of Rockaway and Long Beaches, Long Island, New York. Stratigraphic and sedimentological data gleaned from these cores were used to outline the geologic framework in the study area. A variety of sedimentary features were noted in the cores, including burrow-mottled sections of sand in a finer silty-sand, rhythmic lamination of sand and silty-sand that reflect cyclic changes in sediment transport, layers of shell hash and shells that probably represent tempestites, and changes from dark color to light color in the sediments that probably represent changes in the oxidation-reduction conditions in the area with time. The stratigraphic units identified are an upper, generally oxidized, nearshore facies, an underlying fine- to medium-sand and silty-clay unit considered to be an estuarine facies, and a lower, coarse-grained deeply oxidized, cross-laminated pre

  7. Effects of temperature and salt on the shelf quality of cured ...

    The effects of different drying temperatures (60oC, 75oC, 90oC, 105oC, 120oC) and salting, on the preservation and shelf life of smoked Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus caught from the upper reaches of the Cross River was studied. Freshly caught fishes with weight ranges of 150-230g were randomly sorted into two batches, ...

  8. Contribution of phytoplankton and benthic microalgae to inner shelf sediments of the north-central Gulf of Mexico

    Grippo, M. A.; Fleeger, J. W.; Rabalais, N. N.; Condrey, R.; Carman, K. R.

    2010-03-01

    Marine sediment may contain both settled phytoplankton and benthic microalgae (BMA). In river-dominated, shallow continental shelf systems, spatial, and temporal heterogeneity in sediment type and water-column characteristics (e.g., turbidity and primary productivity) may promote spatial variation in the relative contribution of these two sources to the sediment organic matter pool available to benthic consumers. Here we use photosynthetic pigment analysis and microscopic examination of sediment microalgae to investigate how the biomass, composition, and degradation state of sediment-associated microalgae vary along the Louisiana (USA) inner shelf, a region strongly influenced by the Mississippi River. Three sandy shoals and surrounding muddy sediments with depths ranging from 4 to 20 m were sampled in April, August, and October 2007. Pigment composition suggested that sediment microalgae were primarily diatoms at all locations. We found no significant differences in sediment chlorophyll a concentrations (8-77 mg m -2) at the shoal and off-shoal stations. Epipelic pennate diatoms (considered indicative of BMA) made up a significantly greater proportion of sediment diatoms at sandy (50-98%) compared to more silty off-shoal stations (16-56%). The percentage of centric diatoms (indicators of settled phytoplankton) in the sediment was highest in August. Sediment total pheopigment concentrations on sandy stations (40 mg m -2), suggesting differences in sediment microalgal degradation state. These observations suggest that BMA predominate in shallow sandy sediments and that phytodetritus predominates at muddy stations. Our results also suggest that the relative proportion of phytodetritus in the benthos was highest where phytoplankton biomass in the overlying water was greatest, independent of sediment type. The high biomass of BMA found on shoals suggests that benthic primary production on sandy sediments represents a potentially significant local source of sediment

  9. Terrigenous material supply to the Peruvian central continental shelf (Pisco, 14° S) during the last 1000 years: paleoclimatic implications

    Briceño-Zuluaga, Francisco Javier; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Caquineau, Sandrine; Cardich, Jorge; Salvatteci, Renato; Gutierrez, Dimitri; Ortlieb, Luc; Velazco, Federico; Boucher, Hugues; Machado, Carine

    2016-03-01

    In the eastern Pacific, lithogenic input to the ocean responds to variations in the atmospheric and oceanic system and their teleconnections over different timescales. Atmospheric (e.g., wind fields), hydrological (e.g., fresh water plumes) and oceanic (e.g., currents) conditions determine the transport mode and the amount of lithogenic material transported from the continent to the continental shelf. Here, we present the grain size distribution of a composite record of two laminated sediment cores retrieved from the Peruvian continental shelf that record the last ˜ 1000 years at a sub-decadal to centennial time-series resolution. We propose novel grain size indicators of wind intensity and fluvial input that allow reconstructing the oceanic-atmospheric variability modulated by sub-decadal to centennial changes in climatic conditions. Four grain size modes were identified. Two are linked to aeolian inputs (M3: ˜ 54; M4: ˜ 91 µm on average), the third is interpreted as a marker of sediment discharge (M2: ˜ 10 µm on average), and the last is without an associated origin (M1: ˜ 3 µm). The coarsest components (M3 and M4) dominated during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Current Warm Period (CWP) periods, suggesting that aeolian transport increased as a consequence of surface wind stress intensification. In contrast, M2 displays an opposite behavior, exhibiting an increase in fluvial terrigenous input during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in response to more humid conditions associated with El Niño-like conditions. Comparison with other South American paleoclimate records indicates that the observed changes are driven by interactions between meridional displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Subtropical High (SPSH) and Walker circulation at decadal and centennial timescales.

  10. Terrigeneous material supply to the Peruvian central continental shelf (Pisco 14° S) during the last 1100 yr: paleoclimatic implications

    Briceño Zuluaga, F.; Sifeddine, A.; Caquineau, S.; Cardich, J.; Salvatteci, R.; Gutierrez, D.; Ortlieb, L.; Velazco, F.; Boucher, H.; Machado, C.

    2015-07-01

    In the Eastern Pacific, lithogenic input to the ocean is a response of the atmospheric and ocean system variability and their teleconnections over different timescales. Atmospheric (e.g., wind fields, precipitation), hydrological (e.g., fresh water plumes) and oceanic (e.g., currents) conditions determine the transport mode and the amount of lithogenic material transported from the continent to the continental shelf. Here, we present the grain size distribution of a composite record of two laminated sediment cores retrieved in the Peruvian continental shelf, covering the last ~1100 yr at sub-decadal to centennial time-series resolution. We then discuss the paleo-environmental significance and the climatic mechanisms involved. Four grain size modes were identified. Two are linked to aeolian inputs (M3: 53.0 μm and M4: 90.8 μm on average), the third is interpreted as a marker of sediment discharge (M2: 9.4 μm on average), and the last is without an associated origin (M1: ~3 μm). The coarsest components (M3 and M4) dominated during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) periods, suggesting that aeolian transport increased as consequence of wind stress intensification. In contrast, M2 displays an opposite behavior, exhibiting an increase in fluvial terrigenous input during the Little Ice Age (LIA), in response to more humid conditions. Comparison with other South American paleoclimate records indicates that the observed changes are driven by interactions between meridional displacement of the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and of the South Pacific Sub-tropical High (SPSH) at decadal and centennial time scales.

  11. Asteroidea de la plataforma continental de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, coleccionados durante los viajes del N/Oc. "prof. W. Besnard" para el proyecto Rio Grande do Sul Asteroidea of the continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil, collected during the cruises of the R/V "prof. W. Besnard" for the project Rio Grande do Sul

    Carlos J Carrera-Rodríguez

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 - La hidrología del área estudiada, entre las latitudes 29º y 34ºS, es muy compleja y esta influenciada por aguas tropicales traídas por la Corriente de Brasil, por aguas subantarticas traídas por la Corriente de las Malvinas, por las aguas del estuario del Rio de La Plata y por la presencia cercana de la Convergencia Subtropical. 2 - Las aguas que cubren la plataforma continental del Estado de Rio Grande do Sul pueden clasificarse como Aguas Costeras de Influencia Tropical (ACIT, Aguas del Talud Continental (AT y Aguas Costeras de Influencia Subantártica (ACISA originadas casi exclusivamente por procesos de mezcla. 3 - En otoño e invierno es mayor la influencia de las ACISA, AT y las aguas del estuario del Rio de La Plata sobretodo en la región septentrional del área estudiada; ocurren inversiones de temperatura y predominan los procesos de mezcla sobre los de interacción océano-aire. 4 - En primavera y verano es mayor la influencia de las ACIT; predominan los procesos de interacción océano-aire sobre los de mezcla y se encuentra evidencia sugiriendo la ocurrencia de resurgencias en varios puntos. 5 - Los procesos hidrográficos del área estudiada varían estacionalmente y ademas anualmente según las condiciones meteorológicas reinantes. 6 - La fauna de Asteroidea de Rio Grande do Sul comprende cinco ordenes, nueve familias, 15 géneros y 24 especies. 7 - El área estudiada tiene una fauna de asteroideos principalmente tropical y subtropical pero incluye elementos subantárticos y antárticos. Los primeros se encuentran sobretodo al norte del paralelo de 31ºS mientras que los segundos ocurren principalmente al sur de ese paralelo. Constituye esto evidencia adicional a la hipótesis de que el área estudiada comprende dos regiones hidrográficas con su división aproximada en el paralelo 31ºS. 8 - Se reportan ocho nuevas ocurrencias: Labidiaster radiosus Lutken, Luidla clathrata (Say, Marginaster pectinatus Perrier

  12. Benthic faunal assemblages from the Holocene middle shelf of the South Evoikos Gulf, central Greece, and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Asimina Louvari, Markella; Tsourou, Theodora; Drinia, Hara; Anastasakis, George

    2013-04-01

    South Evoikos Gulf is an elongate, WNW - ESE trending basin, 60 km long and 15 km wide. Its floor slopes towards the south-east where the basin connects with the Aegean Sea across a 55 m deep sill. The hydrographic network of the area is characterized by Asopos river the small Lilas River and some other ephemeral streams. A sedimentary record spanning the last 13000 calyr BP was recovered at N 38°12'23.1228" E 24°8'14.2404", water depth 70 m, in this gulf. A total of 52 samples from the lower half of the core were quantitatively analyzed for micropalaeontological (benthic foraminifera and ostracods) study in order to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions. This work contributes to the evaluation of the modern environmental problems in South Evoikos Gulf (hypoxia, ecosystem changes, subaquatic vegetation die-off, metal pollution) within the context of the palaeoenvironmental record. In the investigated core, the benthic microfaunal assemblages indicate a marine coastal environment with a gradual transition from a circalittoral to an infralittoral restricted environment. The basal part of the record is characterized by Haynesina depressula Assemblage, which is composed of Haynesina depressula, Textularia agglutinans and Bulimina aculeata.The abundance of Haynesina depressula could be associated with normal marine conditions, but always with periodic brackish water influence. The species composed this assemblage, which are almost all typically infaunal, characterize sediments with a high or medium-high muddy fraction, rich in organic matter available for the organisms that live within the sediment, and low salinity bottom water. Samples from the upper unit of the core indicate a nearshore, inner-shelf facies less than 50 m deep. Common inner-shelf species in these samples include Ammonia beccarii together with Bulimina marginata (Sgarrella & Moncharmont Zei, 1993). The highest abundance of A. beccarii is found between 15 and 20 m water-depth in samples with

  13. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  14. 15 CFR 930.73 - OCS plan.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OCS plan. 930.73 Section 930.73...) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.73 OCS plan. (a) The term “OCS plan” means any plan... described in detail in OCS plans approved by the Secretary of the Interior or designee prior to management...

  15. Sublinear absorption in OCS gas

    Bogani, F.; Querzoli, R.; Ernst, K.

    1988-01-01

    Sublinear absorption in OCS gas has been experimentally studied in detail by means of an optoacustic technique and transmission measurements. The best fit of the results is obtained by a phenomenological model, that considers the process as the sum of one-and two-photon absorptions

  16. Competitive bidding for OCS leases and environmental risk

    Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years, the role of environment has become increasingly contentious in the process of competitive bidding for exploration and development rights of offshore petroleum leases in the outer continental shelf (OCS). Although an extensive literature exists on OCS leasing per se, relatively little work focuses on the role of environmental factors. This paper examines the effect on environmental risk on the number of firms (or joint ventures) entering bids for a given tract, which relates to the effective competition for the tracts. The next section outlines a theoretical model of bidding behavior under environmental risk. The third section presents the data used to estimate the model. The fourth section gives empirical results of an analysis of Sale No. 42, conducted in 1979 for Georges Bank in the North Atlantic. The last section provides concluding remarks

  17. Foraminifera eco-biostratigraphy of the southern Evoikos outer shelf, central Aegean Sea, during MIS 5 to present

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Kontakiotis, George; Psychogiou, Maria; Anastasakis, George

    2016-09-01

    The South Evoikos Basin is a marginal basin in the Aegean Sea which receives little terrigenous supply and its sedimentation is dominated by hemipelagic processes. Late Quaternary benthic and planktonic foraminifera from core PAG-155 are investigated in order to understand their response to the glacial-interglacial cycles in this region. The quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with accelerator mass spectrometry (14C-AMS) radiocarbon date measurements, provide an integrated chrono-stratigraphic time framework over the last 90 ka (time interval between late Marine Isotopic Stages 5 and 1; MIS5-MIS1). The temporary appearance and disappearance as well as several abundance peaks in the quantitative distribution of selected climate-sensitive planktonic species allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents, useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognized in the Mediterranean records and used for large-scale correlations. The established bio-ecozonation scheme allows a detailed palaecological reconstruction for the late Pleistocene archive in the central Aegean, and furthermore provides a notable contribution for palaeoclimatic studies, facilitating intercorrelations between various oceanographic basins. The quantitative analyses of benthic foraminifera identify four distinct assemblages, namely Biofacies: Elphidium spp., Haynesina spp. Biofacies, characterized by neritic species, dominated during the transition from MIS 5 to MIS 4; Cassidulina laevigata/carinata Biofacies dominated till 42 ka (transgressive trend from MIS 4 to MIS 3); Bulimina gibba Biofacies dominated from 42 ka to 9.5 ka (extensive regression MIS 3,2 through lowstand and early transgression; beginning of MIS 1); Bulimina marginata, Uvigerina spp. Biofacies dominated from 9.5 ka to the present (late transgression through early highstand; MIS 1)., This study showed that the South Evoikos Basin which is characterized by its critical depths and

  18. Oil-spill risk analysis: Central and western Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf, Lease Sales 139 and 141. Final report

    Johnson, W.R.; Lear, E.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf lands in the Gulf of Mexico for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. The report summarizes results of an oil spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 139 and 141

  19. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    Polanco, S.; Behera, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants

  20. Dissolved iron in the Arctic shelf seas and surface waters of the central Arctic Ocean : Impact of Arctic river water and ice-melt

    Klunder, M. B.; Bauch, D.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H. J. W.; van Heuven, S.; Ober, S.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved (10 nM) in the bottom waters of the Laptev Sea shelf may be attributed to either sediment resuspension, sinking of brine or regeneration of DFe in the lower layers. A significant correlation (R-2 = 0.60) between salinity and DFe is observed. Using delta O-18, salinity,

  1. Geologic and operational summary, COST No. 1 well, Georges Bank area, North Atlantic OCS

    Amato, Roger V.; Bebout, John W.

    1980-01-01

    The first Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well on the U.S. North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) was drilled by Ocean Production Company between April 6 and July 26, 1976, and designated the COST No. G-l. Geological and engineering data obtained from this deep well in the Georges Bank Basin were used by the 31 participating companies and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluating the petroleum potential and possible drilling problems in the U.S. North Atlantic OCS area in preparation for Lease Sale 42 held on December 18, 1979.

  2. State information needs related to onshore and nearshore effects of OCS petroleum development

    Williams, D.C.; Stang, P.R.; Hyde, B.

    1977-01-01

    The United States currently has underway a program to develop tracts on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for their petroleum resources that can have significant impact on and near the shore. The potentially affected States bordering the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico have expressed serious concerns about the availability and adequacy of the information they need to make planning and management decisions about onshore activities and impacts related to OCS petroleum development. This report discusses state policies, major concerns, organization, planning approaches and relation to other state planning efforts.

  3. Shelf Life Extension of Toasted Groundnuts through the Application ...

    The use of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate edible coatings containing 20% glycerol in extending the shelf life of toasted groundnut during ambient (27 ± 1oC) storage for 14 days was studied. Chemical indices of oxidative rancidity and sensory parameters were evaluated using standard procedures. Moisture ...

  4. Geochemistry of trace metals in shelf sediments affected by seasonal and permanent low oxygen conditions off central Chile, SE Pacific (˜36°S)

    Muñoz, Praxedes; Dezileau, Laurent; Cardenas, Lissette; Sellanes, Javier; Lange, Carina B.; Inostroza, Jorge; Muratli, Jesse; Salamanca, Marco A.

    2012-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, U, Co, Ni, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn), total organic carbon (TOC) and C and N stable isotope signatures (δ 13C and δ 15N) were determined in short sediments cores from the inner and outer shelf off Concepción, Chile (˜36°S). The objectives were to establish the effect of environmental conditions on trace metal distributions at two shelf sites, one affected by seasonal oxygenation and the other by permanent low oxygen conditions due to the presence of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We evaluate trace metals as proxies of past changes in primary productivity and the bottom water oxygen regime. Concentrations of pore water sulfides and NH4+ were also measured as indicators of the main diagenetic pathways at each site. Our results for the inner shelf (seasonal suboxia) suggest that the oxidative state of the sediments responds to seasonal pulses of organic matter and that seasonal oxygenation develops during high and low primary productivity in the water column. Here, positive fluxes (to the water column) estimated from pore water concentrations of several elements were observed (Ba, Co, Ni, Fe and Mn). The less reduced environment at this site produces authigenic enrichment of Cu associated with the formation of oxides in the oxic surface sediment layer, and the reduction of U within deeper sediment sections occur consistently with negative estimated pore water fluxes. In the outer shelf sediments (permanent suboxia, OMZ site), negative fluxes (to the sediment) were estimated for all elements, but these sediments showed authigenic enrichments only for Cd, Cu and U. The short oxygenation period during the winter season did not affect the accumulation of these metals on the shelf. The distribution of Cu, Cd and U have been preserved within the sediments and the authigenic accumulation rates estimated showed a decrease from the deep sections of the core to the surface sediments. This could be explained by a gradual decrease in the strength of the OMZ in the

  5. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    2013-10-02

    ... Area offer greater resource potential, while minimizing potential conflicts with environmental.... Existing Information An extensive Environmental Studies Program, including environmental, social, and... limiting conflicts with environmentally sensitive areas and subsistence use by making certain...

  6. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    2013-09-27

    ... resource potential, while minimizing potential conflicts with environmental subsistence considerations... extensive Environmental Studies Program, including environmental, social, and economic studies in the... while limiting conflicts with environmentally sensitive areas and subsistence use by making certain...

  7. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    2012-03-27

    ...), environmental, biological, archaeological, and socioeconomic conditions or potential conflicts, or other..., and development; --Identify potential environmental effects and potential use conflicts; --Develop the.... 6. Existing Information: An extensive environmental, social, and economic Studies Program has been...

  8. Centennial and Extreme Climate Variability in the Last 1500 Year from the Belize Central Shelf Lagoon (Central America): Successive Droughts and Floods Linked to the Demise of the Mayan Civilization

    Droxler, A. W.; Agar Cetin, A.; Bentley, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the last 1500 yr precipitation record archived in the mixed carbonate/siliciclastic sediments accumulated in the Belize Central Shelf Lagoon, part of the Yucatan Peninsula eastern continental margin, proximal to the land areas where the Mayan Civilization thrived and then abruptly collapsed. This study is mainly based upon the detailed analyses of cores, BZE-RH-SVC-58 and 68, retrieved in 30 and 19 m of water depth from Elbow Caye Lagoon and English Caye Channel, respectively. The core timeframe is well-constrained by AMS radiocarbon dating of benthic foraminifera, Quinqueloculina. Carbonate content was determined by carbonate bomb, particle size fractions with a Malvern Master Sizer 2000 particle size analyzer, and element (Ti, Si, K, Fe, Al, Ca, and Sr) counts via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The variations of elements such as Ti and K counts, and Ti/Al in these two cores have recorded, in the past past 1500 years, the weathering rate variations of the adjacent Maya Mountain, defining alternating periods of high precipitation and droughts, linked to large climate fluctuations and extreme events, highly influenced by the ITCZ latitudinal migration. The CE 800-900 century just preceding the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), characterized by unusually low Ti counts and Ti/Al, is interpreted to represent a time of low precipitation and resulting severe droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula, contemporaneous with the Mayan Terminal Classic Collapse. High Ti counts and Ti/Al, although highly variable, during the MCA (CE 900-1350) are interpreted as an unusually warm period characterized by two 100-to-250 years-long intervals of higher precipitation when the number of tropical cyclones peaked. These two intervals of high precipitation during the MCA are separated by a century (CE 1000 -1100) of severe droughts and low tropical storm frequency coinciding with the collapse of Chichen Itza (CE 1040-1100). The Little Ice Age (CE 1350-1850), several centuries

  9. 75 FR 17156 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Western Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 215 (2010...

    2010-04-05

    ... environmental assessment (EA) for proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas Lease Sale... Environmental Impact Statement; Volumes I and II (Multisale EIS, OCS EIS/EA MMS 2007-018) and in the Gulf of...; Western Planning Area Sales 210, 215, and 218--Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...

  10. Assessment of the U.S. outer continental shelf environmental studies program. 1. Physical oceanography. Final report

    1990-01-01

    Federal responsibility for oil and gas development on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) resides with the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The DOI's Environmental Studies Program (ESP) is the program through which MMS conducts environmental studies on the OCS and collects information to prepare environmental impact statements (EISs). It appeared to MMS in 1986 that the time was ripe to assess the status of the present program and to explore the needs for future studies. MMS requested an evaluation of the adequacy and applicability of ESP studies, a review of the general state of knowledge in the appropriate disciplines, and recommendations for future studies. Three panels were established, one of which, the Physical Oceanography Panel, investigated the physical oceanographic aspects of the ESP, the subject of the report, which is the first of three in a series. In reviewing the ESP's physical oceanography program, the panel evaluated the quality and relevance of studies carried out in waters under federal control, which extend from the limits of state jurisdictions (3-12 miles offshore) and include the central and outer continental shelf waters and the continental slope

  11. Pendugaan Umur Simpan Benih Kedelai Menggunakan Metode Accelerated Shelf-life Testing (ASLT

    Suci Rahmi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the shelf-life of soybean seed using Accelerated Shelf-life Testing (ASLT model. Seed germination was used as parameter to predict the shelf-life of soybean seed. ASLT method was performed using five different temperature treatments 35oC, 40oC, 45oC, 50oC, and 55oC respectively with 80 % Relative Humidity (RH. Another parameter measured in identifying decrease of soybean seed quality was moisture content. The results showed that moisture content of soybean seed during storage at all temperatures was increased. On the other hand, the seed germination decreased during period of accelerated storage. Based on data from decreasing soybean seed germination, the estimated shelf-life of seeds stored at room temperature of 25oC was 431 days or 14.3 months and 160 days or 5.3 months when stored on 300C.

  12. Summer composition and distribution of the jellyfish (Cnidaria: Medusozoa in the shelf area off the central Mexican Pacific Composición y distribución de las medusas (Cnidaria: Medusozoa en la plataforma continental central del Pacifico mexicano

    Lourdes Segura-Puertas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition, distribution, and abundance of the jellyfish community of a shelf area of the Mexican tropical Pacific were surveyed during August 1988. Zooplankton samples were collected along transects on the outer and inner sectors of the continental shelf to determine the structure of the jellyfish community and its variation in this area during the rainy season. A total of 23 species were recorded, with Aglaura hemistoma, Solmundella bitentaculata, Liriope tetraphylla, Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhopalonema velatum being the most abundant. The total abundance of medusae and of the most abundant species was statistically independent of depth and distance to the coast. Hence, the total jellyfish abundance of the most abundant species, and Shannon's Diversity index had a uniform distribution in both the inner and the outer shelf; furthermore, neritic-oceanic forms and oceanic species occurred indistinctly over the entire continental shelf. On the outer shelf A. hemistoma and S. bitentaculata were most abundant; the former species, together with L. tetraphylla, weakly characterized the inner shelf jellyfish community. The narrowness of the shelf, the wide distribution of the most abundant forms, and the possible effect of local advective processes from the oceanic zone masked a definite gradient across the shelf. Three species have not been recorded previously in the Mexican Pacific: Amphinema dinema (Péron and Lesueur, 1810, Sarsia coccometra Bigelow, 1909, and Clytia mccradyi (Brooks, 1888. The finding of A. dinema is the first in the Eastern Pacific.Se estudió la composición, distribución y abundancia de la comunidad de medusas de la plataforma continental en el Pacífico mexicano durante agosto 1988. Las muestras de zooplancton provienen de transectos en las zonas externa e interna de la plataforma para determinar la estructura de la comunidad de medusas y su variación durante la época de lluvias. Se identificaron 23 especies; las m

  13. 77 FR 52353 - Right-of-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy...

    2012-08-29

    ... of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy Development AGENCY... would be used to issue Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) renewable energy right-of-way (ROW) grants in order... renewable energy, but does not constitute a project easement. The ability of an ROW grantee to install such...

  14. 76 FR 48861 - Notice of Issuance of Final Outer Continental Shelf Air Permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation

    2011-08-09

    ... Continental Shelf Air Permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... final Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) air permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Anadarko). The permit... Petroleum Corporation regarding the project. EPA carefully reviewed each of the comments submitted and...

  15. Might generic OCs create contraceptive price war?

    1987-02-01

    Genora 1/35 and 1/50, the 1st generic oral contraceptives (OCs) in the world, are now being marketed in the US. Clinicians interviewed by "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) offer differing opinions as to what this new OC may mean in the marketplace. Products of Rugby Laboratories, the pills are copy products of Ortho Pharmaceutical's ON 1/35 and ON 1/50 formulations. Most clinicians believe that Genora's success or failure in the OC market depends on its eventual retail price. The price difference of $3-$4 may be sufficiently substantial for retailers to charge less for the generic OCs. If that is the case, many doctors may prescribe a pill which will save their patients $4/month. Dr. Mildred Hanson, a Minneapolis gynecologist/obstetrician, feels any cost savings from Genora will have a significant impact on the OC market. She suggests that the less expensive OCs will catch the attention of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and the business of women who participate in such health plans. Yet James Burns, director of family planning services for the Hartford City Health Department, thinks that even a full-scale retail price war won't have much effect from a clinic standpoint. He reports that clinics are able to obtain contraceptive supplies rather inexpensively through the contracting system. Hanson also expressed doubt over the potential popularity of Genora 1/50 as clinical concerns about the effects of combined OCs on serum lipid levels and carbohydrate metabolism have resulted in a nationwide push toward OCs containing less than 50 micrograms of estrogen. He indicated concern that declines in pharmaceutical house products from pricing competition with generic pills might have a negative impact on contraceptive research and development. Dick Haskitt, director of business planning for Syntex Laboratories, Inc., who will produce the OCs for Rugby, reports that their market research shows that people are very interested in having a generic OC available

  16. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  17. PENENTUAN UMUR SIMPAN MINUMAN FUNGSIONAL SARI AKAR ALANG – ALANG DENGAN METODE ACCELERATED SHELF LIFE TESTING (ASLT (Studi Kasus di UKM “R.ROVIT” Batu - Malang

    Hesti Anagari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the shelf life of reed roots extracts beverages with Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT method based on Arrhenius model, the model equations to express the relationship of temperature on the level of product damage. Determining shelf life by using the Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT is done by speeding up the process of degradation or reaction in the experiment, namely raising the storage temperature on some level temperature above room temperature, thus speeding up analysis time shelf life. ASLT method used in determining the shelf-life reed roots extracts beverage using the parameter values of acidity (pH and color (brightness. reed roots extracts beverage stored for 35 days, at a temperature of 20oC, 30oC and 40oC. From the Arrhenius model calculations with values obtained Ea (activation energy for the parameters pH value of 9010.68 cal/mol, while the color parameters (brightness of 4110.16 cal/mol, then the parameters used as the basis for determining the shelf life of reed roots extracts beverage is a parameter that has the smallest activation energy value, ie parameter color value (brightness. Shelf life of reed roots extracts beverage estimated  for 44 days at 27oC and 41 days at 30oC.

  18. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  19. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  20. Fugitive hydrocarbon emissions from pacific OCS facilities. Volume 1. Final report

    1992-01-01

    In January 1989, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) conducted a study using the latest approved methods for emission screening and sampling solely on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel in order to determine platform emission rates more representative of that region. The study was designed and reviewed throughout its conduct by a Quality Review Board (QRB) composed of air resource agencies and industry. Representatives from the Tri-county Air Pollution Control Districts and the MMS actively participated at these meetings. Some participants expressed concerns about some of the methods used and the study results. ABB's thorough responses to these questions and comments were submitted to all reviewers before the printing of the final report, and are contained in appendices of the study final report now available to the public. The results of the MMS study show that the average emission factors for the Pacific OCS oil and gas facilities measured in 1989 are 3.5 times lower than those Pacific OCS facilities sampled in the 1979 API/Rockwell study, and 7.8 times lower than the Gulf of Mexico OCS facilities sampled in the same 1979 study. Efforts to determine the quantitative effect of inspection and maintenance programs on controlling emissions were inconclusive

  1. Fate and effects of nearshore discharges of OCS produced waters. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    Rabalais, N.N.; McKee, B.A.; Reed, D.J.; Means, J.C.

    1991-06-01

    While the number of facilities that discharge OCS produced waters into coastal environments of Louisiana are few in number, they account for large volumes, individually and collectively. Of the 15 facilities which discharge OCS-generated produced water into coastal environments of Louisiana (as of February 1990), 10 discharges in seven areas were studied. The discharge volumes of the study areas range from 3,000 to 106,000/bbl.d. The receiving environments for these effluents are varied, but include the shallow, nearshore continental shelf; high energy, freshwater distributaries of the Mississippi River delta; and brackish and saline coastal environments with moderately to poorly flushed waters. All study areas are within the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. The study expanded on the initial assessment of Boesch and Rabalais (1989a) with increased temporal and spatial studies of three areas, additional study sites including an abandoned discharge, and additional analytical and field observations

  2. Analysis of the permitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) thelack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  3. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Modified Atmosphere Packaging Beef Shelf Life Studies

    Rini Ariani Basyamfar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The combination of O2, CO2, and low concentrations of CO in CO-MAP has repeatedly been shown to increase the shelf-life of red meat products. Concentrations of CO2 of 30% has been shown to slow microbial growth while O2 preserves the natural color of red meat. The addition of low concentrations of CO (<0.4% preserves the color stability of the meat while allowing for lower levels of O2 which reduces the oxidative spoilage of the product. Shelf-life extension of 5 to 10 days above traditional MAP has been seen with CO-MAP technologies. The addition of active/smart films such as antimicrobial films and/or the combination of irradiation further extends the shelf-life of red meat. Undetectable levels of E. coli at storage temperatures as high as 10oC at 28 days have been shown with CO-MAP and irradiation.

  5. 76 FR 30184 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Interim Policy Leasing for Marine...

    2011-05-24

    ... Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.... On June 11, 2010 Florida Atlantic University's (FAU) Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement [Docket...

  6. 77 FR 5545 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore...

    2012-02-03

    ... development of the offshore wind energy industry, offshore wind energy projects, and associated supply chain... to chart a path forward to provide for reliable energy supplies at reasonable rates and increase the..., including endangered leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempi) and green...

  7. 77 FR 30551 - Commercial Renewable Energy Transmission on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode...

    2012-05-23

    ... transmission grid on the Rhode Island mainland to Block Island. Deepwater Wind proposes to connect an onshore... Island LLC (Deepwater Wind) Transmission System (BITS) proposal submitted to the Bureau of Ocean Energy... electrical power from Deepwater Wind's proposed 30 megawatt (MW) offshore wind energy project located in...

  8. 78 FR 45965 - Research Lease on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia, Request for Competitive...

    2013-07-30

    ... Atlantic Wind One (ATLW1), as described in the following section. Relationship of the DMME Proposal to the...'s Virginia Intergovernmental Task Force and is intended to balance the protection of environmentally sensitive areas and minimize space-use conflicts while maximizing the area available for commercial offshore...

  9. 75 FR 82055 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    2010-12-29

    ... Island and BOEMRE/Massachusetts Renewable Energy Task Forces in moving forward with renewable energy... of Gay Head (Aquinnah), the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, and representatives from the towns of Tisbury... interest invalid. In that case, BOEMRE would not move forward with your indication of interest submitted in...

  10. 77 FR 19321 - Geological and Geophysical Exploration on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Geological and Geophysical... Statement (PEIS) to evaluate potential environmental effects of multiple Geological and Geophysical (G&G... limited to, seismic surveys, sidescan-sonar surveys, electromagnetic surveys, geological and geochemical...

  11. 75 FR 52546 - Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...

    2010-08-26

    ... through the Director of the BOEM. The SC will review the relevance of the research and data being produced..., September 15, the Committee will meet in discipline breakout sessions (i.e., biology/ecology, physical... business. The meetings are open to the public. Approximately 30 visitors can be accommodated on a first...

  12. 76 FR 23331 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    2011-04-26

    ... and data being produced to meet BOEMRE scientific information needs for decision making and may...., biology/ecology, physical sciences, and social sciences) to review the specific studies plans of the... continue with Committee business. The meetings are open to the public. Approximately 40 visitors can be...

  13. 77 FR 4056 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    2012-01-26

    ... Hotel in Reston, Virginia. The meeting will serve as a venue to introduce the newest members of the.... ADDRESSES: Reston Sheraton Hotel, 11810 Sunrise Valley Drive Reston, Virginia, 20191, telephone (703) 620... Budget's Circular A-63, Revised. Dated: January 23, 2012. Alan Thornhill, Chief Environmental Officer...

  14. 77 FR 75656 - Research Lease for Renewable Energy on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia...

    2012-12-21

    ..., its potential environmental consequences, and the use of the area in which the proposed project would..., including wind velocities, water levels, waves, and bird and bat activities, to support the future... DMME research project and any potential impacts that the project may have. BOEM will consider comments...

  15. 76 FR 79206 - Commercial Renewable Energy Transmission on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Mid...

    2011-12-21

    ...-circuit, high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line that would collect power generated by wind...-voltage alternating current into HVDC using voltage sourced converters. Each offshore converter platform... transmission grid at up to seven locations where AWC terrestrial converter stations would convert the HVDC...

  16. Matrix association effects on hydrodynamic sorting and degradation of terrestrial organic matter during cross-shelf transport in the Laptev and East Siberian shelf seas

    Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor; Dudarev, Oleg; Andersson, August; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2016-03-01

    This study seeks an improved understanding of how matrix association affects the redistribution and degradation of terrigenous organic carbon (TerrOC) during cross-shelf transport in the Siberian margin. Sediments were collected at increasing distance from two river outlets (Lena and Kolyma Rivers) and one coastal region affected by erosion. Samples were fractionated according to density, size, and settling velocity. The chemical composition in each fraction was characterized using elemental analyses and terrigenous biomarkers. In addition, a dual-carbon-isotope mixing model (δ13C and Δ14C) was used to quantify the relative TerrOC contributions from active layer (Topsoil) and Pleistocene Ice Complex Deposits (ICD). Results indicate that physical properties of particles exert first-order control on the redistribution of different TerrOC pools. Because of its coarse nature, plant debris is hydraulically retained in the coastal region. With increasing distance from the coast, the OC is mainly associated with fine/ultrafine mineral particles. Furthermore, biomarkers indicate that the selective transport of fine-grained sediment results in mobilizing high-molecular weight (HMW) lipid-rich, diagenetically altered TerrOC while lignin-rich, less degraded TerrOC is retained near the coast. The loading (µg/m2) of lignin and HMW wax lipids on the fine/ultrafine fraction drastically decreases with increasing distance from the coast (98% and 90%, respectively), which indicates extensive degradation during cross-shelf transport. Topsoil-C degrades more readily (90 ± 3.5%) compared to the ICD-C (60 ± 11%) during transport. Altogether, our results indicate that TerrOC is highly reactive and its accelerated remobilization from thawing permafrost followed by cross-shelf transport will likely represent a positive feedback to climate warming.

  17. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  18. Effect of storage temperature on shelf-life of yogurt-like product from ...

    However, the protein content (3.20%) and carbohydrate content (3.15%) were lower than values of (3.51%) and (11.12%) respectively for dairy yogurt. Soy yogurt had significantly lower acceptability (P ≤ 0.05) than the dairy yogurt. Shelf life study was carried out at room temperature (27±3oC) and refrigeration temperature ...

  19. Variations in organic carbon fluxes from Long Island Sound to the Continental Shelf

    Vlahos, P.; Whitney, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Organic carbon balances for the Long Island Sound estuary over the years 2009-2012 are presented to assess the particulate and dissolved organic carbon contributions of the estuary to the adjacent shelf waters with respect to the Delaware and Chesapeake. Observations were coupled to a hydrodynamic model (ROMS) for both seasonal and annual estimates. During stratified summer periods, LIS was consistently a net exporter of OC to the continental shelf. LIS annual net carbon export however, varied with river flow. The heterotrophic or autotrophic nature of LIS also shifted seasonally and inter-annually. During the mass balance analysis period LIS ranged between net OC import from the continental shelf and heterotrophy in the lowest river flow year (2012) and net export of OC and autotrophy in the highest flow year (2011). Analysis suggests that LIS switches from net OC import to export when the annual river inputs exceed 19 km3 yr-1. Applying these thresholds to the annual river flow record suggests that net import occurred in 15% of the last 20 years and that LIS usually is a net exporter of OC (85%). Annually averaged LIS carbon export values based on river flow conditions over the last 20 yr are estimated at 56 ± 64 x 106 km3 yr-1. Analysis also suggests that LIS shifts from net heterotrophic to net autotrophic when annual river flow exceeds 26 km3 yr-1 (35% of the last 20 yr). Net heterotrophic conditions are most common, representing 65% of the last 20 yr.

  20. Sources of organic carbon in the Portuguese continental shelf sediments during the Holocene period

    Burdloff, D.; Araujo, M.F.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Mendes, I.; Monge Soares, A.M.; Dias, J.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Organic C (OC) and total N (TN) concentrations, and stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C) in muddy deposit sediments of the Northern and Southern Portuguese continental shelf were used to identify sources of fine-sized organic matter ( 13 C ranging, respectively, from 8.5 to 21 and from -22.4 per mille to -27 per mille ). Intense supplies to the Guadiana continental shelf of fine terrigenous particles during the Younger-Dryas Event are closely linked with higher OC/TN values and lower δ 13 C ratios. During the postglacial transgression phase, an increasing contribution of marine supplies (up to 80%) occurred. Higher δ 13 C (up to -22.4 per mille ) values and low OC/TN ratios (down to 8.5) are found as the sea level approaches the current one. The Upper Holocene records emphasize the return to enhanced terrestrial supplies except for the Little Climatic Optimum between the 11th and 15th centuries AD. This climatic event is especially obvious in the three cores as a return to marine production and a decrease in terrestrial sediment supply to the continental shelf. The return to a cooling event, the Little Ice Age, between the 15th and 19th centuries AD, is mirrored by decreased terrigenous supplies in core KSGX 57. Gradually increasing sedimentation in estuaries, as well as formation of coastal dune fields, have been hypothesized on the basis of increasing δ 13 C and decreasing OC, TN and OC/TN values

  1. 18 CFR 284.303 - OCS blanket certificates.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OCS blanket certificates. 284.303 Section 284.303 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Pipelines on Behalf of Others § 284.303 OCS blanket certificates. Every OCS pipeline [as that term is...

  2. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Georges Bank. Final report

    1991-01-01

    Georges Bank, a large, shallow marine bank with important fishery resources and possibly important oil and gas resources, lies east of Massachusetts in the territorial waters of both the United States and Canada. The Department of the Interior has planned since 1974 to lease parts of the north Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS)--including part of Georges Bank--for oil and gas exploration. As a result of public concern about the environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. OCS, Congress declared a moratorium on drilling on Georges Bank and an area to the southwest. The report--by the NRC's Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program and its panels on physical oceanography, ecology, and socioeconomics--reviews the adequacy of information bearing on the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the Georges Bank sale area

  3. PERKIRAAN UMUR SIMPAN KACANG RENDAH LEMAK DILAPISI DENGAN CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE MENGGUNAKAN METODE ACCELERATED SHELF-LIFE TEST (ASLT

    Yudi Pranoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Shelf-life Prediction of Partially Defatted Peanut Coated with Carboxymethyl Cellulose Using Accelerated Shelf-Life Test (ASLT Method Yudi Pranoto, Djagal Wiseso Marseno, Haryadi ABSTRAK Produk kacang tanah goreng rendah lemak yang dibuat dengan mengurangi kandungan minyaknya sebagian sebelumpenggorengan diketahui memiliki umur simpan yang relatif pendek dan mudah tengik apabila dibandingkan dengankacang goreng biasa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperpanjang umur simpannya dengan melakukan pelapisan(coating pada kacang goreng rendah lemak menggunakan carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC dengan penyemprotan.Umur simpan ditentukan menggunakan metode Accelerated Shelf-Life Test (ASLT dengan model Arrhenius. Pengujiandilakukan pada suhu 25oC, 35 oC dan 45oC hingga 15 hari untuk melihat tingkat oksidasi melalui bilangan thiobarbituricacid (TBA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode ASLT dapat dipakai untuk memperkirakan umur simpankacang goreng rendah lemak yang kerusakan utamanya disebabkan oleh reaksi oksidasi. Umur simpan kacang rendahlemak tanpa pelapisan (kontrol adalah selama 34 hari dan yang dilapisi CMC adalah selama 52 hari. Pelapisan ediblecoating pada kacang goreng rendah lemak mampu memperpanjang umur simpan hingga 18 hari dengan perannyadalam menekan reaksi ketengikan.Kata kunci: Kacang rendah lemak, umur simpan, pelapisan, CMC, ASLT ABSTRACT Partially deffated peanut product made by reducing partial oil content before frying is known to have short shelf-lifeand easily rancid in comparison to regular friend peanut. This project was aimed to extend its shelf-life by introducingcoating on fried partially defatted peanut with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC by spraying. Shelf-life was determinedusing Accelerated Shelf-Life Test (ASLT with Arrhenius model. Experiment was conducted at temperature of 25 oC,35 oC and 45oC until 15 days to follow oxidation level through thiobarbituric acid (TBA value. Results showed thatASLT method could be used to

  4. The Hydraulic Project Włocławek: Design, Studies, Construction and Operation

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hydraulic Project Włocławek was commissioned in 1970 as the first barrage of the Lower Vistula Cascade (LVC. The purpose of the LVC was to create an important source of hydro-energy and inland navigation route connecting central Poland with the port city of Gdańsk. Along the Lower Vistula (LV important cities and industrial centres are located. The Włocławek project still remains the only barrage on the LV thus creating a number of problems. The paper presents the basic hydrological and hydraulic data for the Vistula river, and describes the Włocławek project, hydraulic model investigations conducted in the design phase, the construction of the project and the main problems, attendant on its use, including the winter flood of 1982 in the upper part of the Włocławek reservoir. The paper ends with conclusions on project construction and exploitation. The next barrage downstream from Włocławek is proposed.

  5. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  6. On the differences between 1.5oC and 2oC of global warming

    King, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Paris Agreement of 2015 has resulted in a drive to limit global warming to 2oC with an aim for a lower 1.5oC target. It is therefore vital that we understand some of the differences we would expect between these two levels of global warming. My research uses coupled climate model projections to investigate where and for what variables we can differentiate between worlds of 1.5oC and 2oC global warming. I place a particular focus on climate extremes and population exposure to those extremes. I have found that there are perceptible benefits in limiting global warming to 1.5oC as opposed to 2oC through reduced frequency and intensity of heat extremes, both over land and in ocean areas where thermal stress on coral has resulted in bleaching. Differences in high and low precipitation extremes between the 1.5oC and 2oC global warming levels are projected for some regions. I have also examined how "scalable" changes from the 1.5oC to 2oC level are. In areas of the world such as Eastern China I find that changes in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations will influence the level of change projected at 1.5oC and 2oC, such that past warming is likely to be a poor indicator of future changes. Overall, my research finds clear benefits to limiting global warming to 1.5oC relative to higher levels.

  7. Availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) among public and private health facilities in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Sikder, Shegufta S; Labrique, Alain B; Ali, Hasmot; Hanif, Abu A M; Klemm, Rolf D W; Mehra, Sucheta; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-31

    public facilities. Although EmOC availability and readiness was higher among the surveyed seven most commonly visited private clinics, public facilities appeared to be more affordable for C-section and more geographically accessible. Strategies to retain anesthesiologists and surgeons, such as non-financial incentives, are needed to improve EmOC provision in the public sector. Centralized blood banks are recommended to streamline safe blood acquisition for obstetric surgeries.

  8. 7 CFR 43.105 - Operating characteristics (OC) curves.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating characteristics (OC) curves. 43.105 Section 43.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR SAMPLING PLANS Sampling Plans § 43.105 Operating characteristics (OC...

  9. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  10. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  11. Geologic and operational summary, COST No. G-2 well, Georges Bank area, North Atlantic OCS

    Amato, Roger V.; Simonis, Edvardas K.

    1980-01-01

    The Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) No. G-2 well is the second deep well to be drilled in the Georges Bank Basin and the third in a series of COST wells on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The G-2 was drilled by Ocean Production Company, acting as the operator for 19 participating companies between January 6 and August 30, 1977. The semisubmersible rig Ocean Victory was used to drill the well to a depth of 21,874 feet at a location 132 statute miles east-southeast of Nantucket Island in 272 feet of water. An earlier deep Stratigraphic test, the COST No. G-l well, was drilled 42 statute miles west of the G-2 well, to a depth of 16,071 feet in 1976 (fig. 1). Geological and engineering data obtained from the well were used by companies and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluating the petroleum potential and possible drilling problems in the U.S. North Atlantic OCS area in preparation for lease sale 42 held on December 18, 1979. The Stratigraphic test was intentionally drilled away from any potential petroleum-bearing feature, but in a block bordering several tracts that were included in the sale area.

  12. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Florida and California

    1989-01-01

    The environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) have been studied and debated for many years. The issues derive from the complexity of coastal and offshore marine processes and ecosystems, human socio-economic systems, and interactions with OCS oil and gas development activities. On Feb. 9, 1989, President Bush announced his decision to postpone leasing for OCS areas off southwestern Florida (sale 116, part 2), northern California (sale 91), and southern California (sale 95). At the same time, the President created a cabinet-level task force to review the environmental concerns for these three OCS areas, and he also requested independent advice from the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC was asked to assess the adequacy of the available scientific and technical information on estimated hydrocarbon resources and potential environmental effects for the three specified areas. The report, by the OCS Committee and its three panels dealing with ecology, physical oceanography, and socioeconomics, reviews the adequacy of information bearing upon the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the three sale areas

  13. Assessment of MODIS-Aqua chlorophyll-a algorithms in coastal and shelf waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Tilstone, Gavin H.; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Miller, Peter I.; Ashraf, P. Muhamed; Kumar, T. Srinivasa; Suresh, T.; Ragavan, B. R.; Menon, Harilal B.

    2013-08-01

    The use of ocean colour remote sensing to facilitate the monitoring of phytoplankton biomass in coastal waters is hampered by the high variability in absorption and scattering from substances other than phytoplankton. The eastern Arabian Sea coastal shelf is influenced by river run-off, winter convection and monsoon upwelling. Bio-optical parameters were measured along this coast from March 2009 to June 2011, to characterise the optical water type and validate three Chlorophyll-a (Chla) algorithms applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aqua (MODIS-Aqua) data against in situ measurements. Ocean Colour 3 band ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM) and Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chla algorithms were evaluated. OC3M performed better than GSM and GIOP in all regions and overall, was within 11% of in situ Chla. GSM was within 24% of in situ Chla and GIOP on average was 55% lower. OC3M was less affected by errors in remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ) and by spectral variations in absorption coefficient (aCDOM(λ)) of coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM) and total suspended matter (TSM) compared to the other algorithms. A nine year Chla time series from 2002 to 2011 was generated to assess regional differences between OC3M and GSM. This showed that in the north eastern shelf, maximum Chla occurred during the winter monsoon from December to February, where GSM consistently gave higher Chla compared to OC3M. In the south eastern shelf, maximum Chla occurred in June to July during the summer monsoon upwelling, and OC3M yielded higher Chla compared to GSM. OC3M currently provides the most accurate Chla estimates for the eastern Arabian Sea coastal waters.

  14. Sensory and Shelf-life evaluation of a Food Multi-Mix formulated for ...

    and smell , and a four –face hedonic scale representing very good , good , bad and very bad. The shelf-life of the FMM at room temperature , 25oC , for a period of 28 days was ... The children had preference for sweet snack items.The total aerobic plate count in the FMM tested over a period of 28 days were below log 4/ g .

  15. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)], E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel [DMJM International (Cansult Maunsell/AECOM Ltd.), Consultant of Gardens Sector Projects, Alain Municipality and Eastern Emirates, P.O. Box 1419, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)], E-mail: abdul79jaleel@yahoo.co.in

    2009-09-15

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 {sup o}C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  16. Distribution and dispersal of clay minerals on the western continental shelf of India

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Rao, V.P

    off the Gulf of Kutch; (2) the montmorillonite-rich zone off the Gulf of Cambay; (3) a transition zone on the central parts of the shelf; and (4) a relatively montmorillonite poor-gibbsite province on the southwestern part of the shelf. Source...

  17. New Jersey shallow shelf

    Expedition 313 Scientists; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    to key horizons in wells drilled into the adjacent coastal plain suggest the clinoform structures investigated during Expedition 313 were deposited during times of oscillations in global sea level; however, this needs to be determined with much greater certainty. The age, lithofacies, and core-log......Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 to the New Jersey Shallow Shelf off the east coast of the United States is the third IODP expedition to use a mission-specific platform. It was conducted by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO......) between 30 April and 17 July 2009, with additional support from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). There were three objectives: (1) date late Paleogene–Neogene depositional sequences and compare ages of unconformable surfaces that divide these sequences with times of sea...

  18. The O.C.: Our Guide to ALA in Anaheim

    Hardstark, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    For those who grew up in Orange County (O.C.), Disneyland is the metaphoric morsel of food that gets stuck between the teeth of someone one does not like. While D-land is a must-see for millions of visitors each year, there is much more to Anaheim. Although O.C. is portrayed on numerous reality TV shows as a mecca for rich white people with…

  19. Environmental studies results: 1973-1992. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    Wilson, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Environmental Studies Program was initiated in 1973 under the Bureau of Land Management by the Secretary of the Interior. The Purpose of the program was to conduct studies needed to predict, assess and manage impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments of the OCS and nearshore areas that may be affected by oil and gas activities. The narrative summary updates the version printed in 1986, which covered studies managed by the MMS in the Atlantic OCS region between 1973 and 1985. Descriptions of the study results are divided into the following categories: baseline studies and environmental inventories, biology/ecology, drill site monitoring, endangered species, geology/chemistry, oil spill studies, physical oceanography/meteorology, and social and economic studies. Results of each major type of study are subdivided into North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, South Atlantic, and multiregional studies in chronological sequence

  20. Field-free molecular orientation of nonadiabatically aligned OCS

    Sonoda, Kotaro; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Hasegawa, Hirokazu

    2018-02-01

    We investigate an enhancement of the orientation of OCS molecules by irradiating them with a near IR (ω) ultrashort laser pulse for alignment followed by another ultrashort laser pulse for orientation, which is synthesized by a phase-locked coherent superposition of the near IR laser pulse and its second harmonic (2ω). On the basis of the asymmetry in the ejection direction of S3+ fragment ions generated by the Coulomb explosion of multiply charged OCS, we show that the extent of the orientation of OCS is significantly enhanced when the delay between the alignment pulse and the orientation pulse is a quarter or three quarters of the rotational period. The recorded enhanced orientation was interpreted well by a numerical simulation of the temporal evolution of a rotational wave packet prepared by the alignment and orientation pulses.

  1. Surface and Subsurface Meltwater Ponding and Refreezing on the Bach Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Willis, I.; Haggard, E.; Benedek, C. L.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Banwell, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing concern about the stability and fate of Antarctic ice shelves, as four major ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula have completely disintegrated since the 1950s. Their collapse has been linked to the southward movement of the -9 oC mean annual temperature isotherm. The proximal causes of ice shelf instability are not fully known, but an increase in surface melting leading to water ponding and ice flexure, fracture and calving has been implicated. Close to the recently collapsed Wilkins Ice Shelf, the Bach Ice Shelf (72°S 72°W) may be at risk from break up in the near future. Here, we document the changing surface hydrology of the Bach Ice Shelf between 2001 and 2017 using Landsat 7 & 8 imagery. Extensive surface water is identified across the Bach Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers. Two types of drainage system are observed, drainage into firn via simple stream networks and drainage into the ocean via more complex networks. There are differences between the surface hydrology on the ice shelf and the tributary glaciers, as well as variations within and between summer seasons linked to surface air temperature fluctuations. We also document the changing subsurface hydrology of the ice shelf between 2014 and 2017 using Sentinel 1 A/B SAR imagery. Forty-five subsurface features are identified and analysed for their patterns and temporal evolution. Fourteen of the features show similar characteristics to previously-identified buried lakes and some occur in areas associated with surface lakes in previous years. The buried lakes show seasonal variability in area and surface backscatter, which varies with surface air temperature, and are consistent with the presence, enlargement and contraction of liquid water bodies. Buried lakes are an overlooked source of water loading on ice shelves, which may contribute to ice shelf flexure and potential fracture.

  2. Sedimentation on the Valencia Continental Shelf: Preliminary results

    Maldonado, Andres; Swift, Donald J. P.; Young, Robert A.; Han, Gregory; Nittrouer, Charles A.; DeMaster, David J.; Rey, Jorge; Palomo, Carlos; Acosta, Juan; Ballester, A.; Castellvi, J.

    1983-10-01

    Preliminary analysis of data collected during the course of a cooperative Spanish-United States investigation of the Valencia Shelf (western Mediterranean) reveals a storm-dominated, mud-accumulating sedimentary regime. Calcareous mud is accumulating seaward of a narrow band of shoreface sand and gravel. On the outer shelf the mud is enriched by a pelagic calcareous component. Preliminary 210Pb data from vertical profiles of box cores yield nominal accumulation rates from 2.6 mm y -1 near the Ebro Delta to 1.3 mm y -1 on the southern portion of the Valencia Shelf. Storm-current winnowing has resulted in the development of a biogenic lag sand over the mid-shelf mud in the northern part of the study area. Piston cores reveal a basal Holocene sand and gravel facies similar to that presently seen on the inner shelf. Upward-fining sequences on the central and outer shelf are inferred to result from the landward shift of lithotopes during the course of the Holocene transgression. These sequences are locally repeated, perhaps as the consequence of brief, local interludes of coastal progradation. Application of a diagnostic circulation model suggests that intense, downwelling coastal flows occur during winter northeastern storms. Storm activity has induced erosional shoreface retreat during the course of the Holocene transgression and has generated by this means the basal coarse facies observed in the piston cores. In the central part of the study area seaward of the Albufera Lagoon, the mud blanket thins to a layer several centimeters thick which is draped over a thickened (10 m) basal sand. The basal sand is molded into northwest trending ridges. The data are not sufficient to determine whether these are overstepped barriers, or submarine sand ridges formed by storm flows during the shoreface retreat process.

  3. Macromolecular composition of terrestrial and marine organic matter in sediments across the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Sparkes, Robert B.; Doğrul Selver, Ayça; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P.; Haghipour, Negar; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Talbot, Helen M.; van Dongen, Bart E.

    2016-10-01

    Mobilisation of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC) from permafrost environments in eastern Siberia has the potential to deliver significant amounts of carbon to the Arctic Ocean, via both fluvial and coastal erosion. Eroded terrOC can be degraded during offshore transport or deposited across the wide East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). Most studies of terrOC on the ESAS have concentrated on solvent-extractable organic matter, but this represents only a small proportion of the total terrOC load. In this study we have used pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GCMS) to study all major groups of macromolecular components of the terrOC; this is the first time that this technique has been applied to the ESAS. This has shown that there is a strong offshore trend from terrestrial phenols, aromatics and cyclopentenones to marine pyridines. There is good agreement between proportion phenols measured using py-GCMS and independent quantification of lignin phenol concentrations (r2 = 0.67, p radiocarbon data for bulk OC (14COC) which, when coupled with previous measurements, allows us to produce the most comprehensive 14COC map of the ESAS to date. Combining the 14COC and py-GCMS data suggests that the aromatics group of compounds is likely sourced from old, aged terrOC, in contrast to the phenols group, which is likely sourced from modern woody material. We propose that an index of the relative proportions of phenols and pyridines can be used as a novel terrestrial vs. marine proxy measurement for macromolecular organic matter. Principal component analysis found that various terrestrial vs. marine proxies show different patterns across the ESAS, and it shows that multiple river-ocean transects of surface sediments transition from river-dominated to coastal-erosion-dominated to marine-dominated signatures.

  4. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. The input from these sources aided in the identification of significant issues, possible alternatives to the proposed actions, and potential mitigating measures

  5. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. This volume, Volume 2, reports on impacts from Sales 142 and 143

  6. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  7. A cautionary tale of interpreting O-C diagrams

    Skarka, M.; Liska, J.; Dreveny, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Z CVn, an RR Lyrae star that shows long-term cyclic variations of its pulsation period. A possible explanation suggested from the shape of the O-C diagram is the light travel-time effect, which we thoroughly examine. We used original photometric and spectroscop...

  8. 75 FR 25291 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220

    2010-05-07

    ... 27 at Elizabeth City State University Fine Arts Complex in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. These..., 1201 Elmwood Park Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70123-2394, telephone (504) 736-3233. SUPPLEMENTARY... period and made announcements in a press release and other media. On January 7, 2009, MMS published a...

  9. 78 FR 14116 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Eastern Planning Area (EPA) Lease Sale 225...

    2013-03-04

    ... a limited number of paper copies. In keeping with the Department of the Interior's mission to.... However, if you require a paper copy, BOEM will provide one upon request if copies are still available. 1...:00 p.m. EDT; Panama City Beach, Florida: Wednesday, March 27, 2013, Wyndham Bay Point Resort, 4114...

  10. 75 FR 16833 - Preliminary Revised 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2007-2012

    2010-04-02

    ... sensitivity analysis is expanded, it is important to remember that the Secretary's decisions are not based on... study will summarize what information is available, where knowledge gaps exist, and what research is... commenters to focus on the expanded relative environmental sensitivity analysis and the Secretary's revisions...

  11. 78 FR 65705 - Request for Comments on the Annual Progress Report on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and...

    2013-11-01

    ... comments submitted by mail or through its Internet submission system. Please submit your comments using... not be considered. BOEM will not consider anonymous comments. BOEM will make available for inspection... Confidential Information.'' Internet: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Under the tab...

  12. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 2. Final report and case studies

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is comprised of five volumes. The volume presents the study conclusions, summarizes the methodology used (more detail is found in Volume 3), discusses four case study applications of the model, and contains profiles of coastal communities in an Appendix.

  13. 76 FR 22139 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    2011-04-20

    ... EIS and the 2009-2012 SEIS and to consider the Deepwater Horizon event. This Draft SEIS provides... activities and accidental events, including a possible large-scale event, associated with the proposed WPA...

  14. 77 FR 67394 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    2012-11-09

    ... information in light of the Deepwater Horizon event. This Draft Supplemental EIS provides updates on the... consideration of the Deepwater Horizon event, reviewing scientific journals, available scientific data, and... impacts of routine activities and accidental events, and the proposed lease sales' incremental...

  15. 77 FR 41448 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Final Five Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas...

    2012-07-13

    ... President and Congress. After a period of at least 60 days from the date it was submitted to the President... (3 areas off Alaska and 3 areas in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM)). Maps A and B show the areas proposed... not under congressional moratorium pursuant to the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (GOMESA...

  16. 78 FR 45557 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    2013-07-29

    ... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (WPA 233/ CPA 231 Supplemental EIS). WPA Lease Sale 233, scheduled... EIS evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic impacts for WPA Lease Sale 233. SUPPLEMENTARY... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [MMAA104000] Gulf of Mexico, Outer...

  17. 77 FR 68147 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease...

    2012-11-15

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Multisale FEIS). Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations... NEPA process. The Multisale FEIS evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic impacts for WPA Lease... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental...

  18. 75 FR 22623 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220 and Geological and...

    2010-04-29

    ... (canceling the Sale); (3) implementing appropriate restrictions on oil and gas activities based on... during scoping help us form the content of the EIS and are summarized for Departmental decisionmakers... City State University Fine Arts Complex, 1704 Weeksville Road, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909...

  19. 76 FR 51383 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode Island and...

    2011-08-18

    ... Rhode Island and Massachusetts recognizes the benefits of collaborating in the evaluation and potential... appropriate; (3) A preliminary schedule of proposed activities, including those leading to commercial...

  20. 76 FR 70478 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    2011-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer... studies, NEPA analysis, resource evaluation, economic analysis, and renewable energy. BSEE is responsible... Program AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA...

  1. 78 FR 45558 - Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    2013-07-29

    ... meters Initial period 0 to $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths less than 400 meters $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper BOEM will... specified minimum bid of $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths less than 400 meters...

  2. 77 FR 65408 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    2012-10-26

    ... leases in depths less than 400 meters with an initial period longer than 5 years, royalty rates, minimum... $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of less than 400 meters. $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper. Rental Rates Annual rental...

  3. 76 FR 70473 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    2011-11-14

    ... period of the lease term for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters, (2) the minimum bonus bid has increased for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper, (3) no deepwater... meters and (2) 400 meters or more. Successful Bidders: The BOEM requires each company that has been...

  4. 77 FR 24980 - Record of Decision for Authorizing the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand Resources in the...

    2012-04-26

    ... storm-induced wave impacts and coastal erosion. In the Congressionally-authorized Martin County HSDR... (OCSLA) (43 U.S.C. 1337(k)(2)). Under OCSLA, BOEM can convey, on a noncompetitive basis, the rights to...

  5. 76 FR 19122 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Authorizing the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand Resources...

    2011-04-06

    ... a technical partner for NASA. The PEIS assessed the physical, biological, and social/human impacts... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Record of... Protection Program AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior...

  6. Water masses of Visakhapatnam shelf

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.

    The T-S relationships of shelf waters off Visakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal are studied for the different seasons with the data collected during February 1979 to January 1981. The T-S relationships indicate distinct characteristics of the water...

  7. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    crucial role in the formation of oceanic deep water responsible for ocean/continental shelf exchange of organic carbon, suspended material and dissolved gases around Antarctica. In this context, this work presents the analysis of the 1997, 2001 and 2003 high-resolution surveys carried out in the western Ross Sea near Cape Adare, where the HSSW flows down the continental slope. The second study area was investigated during the 1998 survey of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research of the CLIMA Project, in order to follow the ISW overflow path at the shelf break in the central Ross Sea. A 3D primitive equation model was also implemented as a first step in the construction of a high-resolution process study model to explore the dynamical constraints involved in the downslope motion.

  8. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  9. Influence of gamma irradiation and low temperature storage on the quality and shelf life of squid (Doryteuthis sibogae

    Manjanaik, B.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation is considered as an efficient method for the reduction of microorganisms in food. It has been used to improve the safety and shelf life of food products. The present investigation is aimed at studying the influence of gamma irradiation (3 and 5 kGy and subsequent storage at refrigeration temperature (4oC on the chemical, microbial qualities and extended shelf life of squid (Doryteuthis sibogae. The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N and trimethyl amine nitrogen values (TMA-N of the irradiated squid samples significantly decreased in comparison with the control (non-irradiated stored at 4oC. The thiobarbituric acid values for the irradiated squid was significantly lower than of the non-irradiated samples stored at 4oC (p<0.05. The pH value of the squid was affected significantly by both, irradiation dose and storage temperature (p<0.05. The total microbial load for the non-irradiated squid samples was higher than those of irradiated samples at 4oC temperature. The results revealed that the combination of irradiation and refrigerated storage resulted in a significant reduction of microbial growth and stabilized the biochemical characteristics of squid.

  10. Endmembers of Ice Shelf Melt

    Boghosian, A.; Child, S. F.; Kingslake, J.; Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Alexandrov, O.; McMichael, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of surface melt on ice shelves have defined a spectrum of meltwater behavior. On one end the storage of meltwater in persistent surface ponds can trigger ice shelf collapse as in the 2002 event leading to the disintegration of the Larsen B Ice Shelf. On the other, meltwater export by rivers can stabilize an ice shelf as was recently shown on the Nansen Ice Shelf. We explore this dichotomy by quantifying the partitioning between stored and transported water on two glaciers adjacent to floating ice shelves, Nimrod (Antarctica) and Peterman (Greenland). We analyze optical satellite imagery (LANDSAT, WorldView), airborne imagery (Operation IceBridge, Trimetrogon Aerial Phototography), satellite radar (Sentinel-1), and digital elevation models (DEMs) to categorize surface meltwater fate and map the evolution of ice shelf hydrology and topographic features through time. On the floating Peterman Glacier tongue a sizable river exports water to the ocean. The surface hydrology of Nimrod Glacier, geometrically similar to Peterman but with ten times shallower surface slope, is dominated by storage in surface lakes. In contrast, the Nansen has the same surface slope as Nimrod but transports water through surface rivers. Slope alone is not the sole control on ice shelf hydrology. It is essential to track the storage and transport volumes for each of these systems. To estimate water storage and transport we analyze high resolution (40 cm - 2 m) modern and historical DEMs. We produce historical (1957 onwards) DEMs with structure-from-motion photogrammetry. The DEMs are used to constrain water storage potential estimates of observed basins and water routing/transport potential. We quantify the total volume of water stored seasonally and interannually. We use the normalize difference water index to map meltwater extent, and estimate lake water depth from optical data. We also consider the role of stored water in subsurface aquifers in recharging surface water after

  11. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Shobita Rao, M. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P., E-mail: spchawla@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 {sup o}C for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 {sup o}C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  12. Speedup and fracturing of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    T. O. Holt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available George VI Ice Shelf (GVIIS is located on the Antarctic Peninsula, a region where several ice shelves have undergone rapid breakup in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming. We use a combination of optical (Landsat, radar (ERS 1/2 SAR and laser altimetry (GLAS datasets to examine the response of GVIIS to environmental change and to offer an assessment on its future stability. The spatial and structural changes of GVIIS (ca. 1973 to ca. 2010 are mapped and surface velocities are calculated at different time periods (InSAR and optical feature tracking from 1989 to 2009 to document changes in the ice shelf's flow regime. Surface elevation changes are recorded between 2003 and 2008 using repeat track ICESat acquisitions. We note an increase in fracture extent and distribution at the south ice front, ice-shelf acceleration towards both the north and south ice fronts and spatially varied negative surface elevation change throughout, with greater variations observed towards the central and southern regions of the ice shelf. We propose that whilst GVIIS is in no imminent danger of collapse, it is vulnerable to ongoing atmospheric and oceanic warming and is more susceptible to breakup along its southern margin in ice preconditioned for further retreat.

  13. IR photodissociation spectroscopy of (OCS){sub n}{sup +} and (OCS){sub n}{sup −} cluster ions: Similarity and dissimilarity in the structure of CO{sub 2}, OCS, and CS{sub 2} cluster ions

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya, E-mail: y-inokuchi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Ebata, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-06-07

    Infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra of (OCS){sub n}{sup +} and (OCS){sub n}{sup −} (n = 2–6) cluster ions are measured in the 1000–2300 cm{sup −1} region; these clusters show strong CO stretching vibrations in this region. For (OCS){sub 2}{sup +} and (OCS){sub 2}{sup −}, we utilize the messenger technique by attaching an Ar atom to measure their IR spectra. The IRPD spectrum of (OCS){sub 2}{sup +}Ar shows two bands at 2095 and 2120 cm{sup −1}. On the basis of quantum chemical calculations, these bands are assigned to a C{sub 2} isomer of (OCS){sub 2}{sup +}, in which an intermolecular semi-covalent bond is formed between the sulfur ends of the two OCS components by the charge resonance interaction, and the positive charge is delocalized over the dimer. The (OCS){sub n}{sup +} (n = 3–6) cluster ions show a few bands assignable to “solvent” OCS molecules in the 2000–2080 cm{sup −1} region, in addition to the bands due to the (OCS){sub 2}{sup +} ion core at ∼2090 and ∼2120 cm{sup −1}, suggesting that the dimer ion core is kept in (OCS){sub 3–6}{sup +}. For the (OCS){sub n}{sup −} cluster anions, the IRPD spectra indicate the coexistence of a few isomers with an OCS{sup −} or (OCS){sub 2}{sup −} anion core over the cluster range of n = 2–6. The (OCS){sub 2}{sup −}Ar anion displays two strong bands at 1674 and 1994 cm{sup −1}. These bands can be assigned to a C{sub s} isomer with an OCS{sup −} anion core. For the n = 2–4 anions, this OCS{sup −} anion core form is dominant. In addition to the bands of the OCS{sup −} core isomer, we found another band at ∼1740 cm{sup −1}, which can be assigned to isomers having an (OCS){sub 2}{sup −} ion core; this dimer core has C{sub 2} symmetry and {sup 2}A electronic state. The IRPD spectra of the n = 3–6 anions show two IR bands at ∼1660 and ∼2020 cm{sup −1}. The intensity of the latter component relative to that of the former one becomes stronger and stronger with

  14. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya) in chilling storage

    GULLIAN-KLANIAN,Mariel; SÁNCHEZ-SOLÍS,María José; TERRATS-PRECIAT,Montserrat; DELGADILLO-DÍAZ,Mariana; ARANDA,Javier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC) and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines). A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g) were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The h...

  15. Sorting and degradation of permafrost-derived organic carbon during across-shelf transport in the Laptev and East Siberian shelves

    Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor; Dudarev, Oleg; Andersson, August; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-04-01

    The flux of permafrost-derived organic carbon to the vast Siberian marginal seas has been receiving growing attention because its magnitude is expected to considerably increase due to changes in both river discharge and coastal permafrost stability. To what extent this relocated terrigenous organic carbon (TerrOC) pool will affect climate and biogeochemistry is currently unknown but it will largely depend on its reactivity in the marine environment. This study seeks an improved mechanistic understanding of TerrOC cycling during across-shelf transport in the vast East Siberian Arctic Seas (ESAS). Surface sediments were collected in both river-dominated and coastal erosion-dominated regions as well as at increasing distances from the shore. The organic composition in different density, size and settling velocity fractions was characterized using bulk parameters (δ13C and Δ14C) and terrigenous biomarkers including CuO-derived reaction products (lignin phenols and cutin acids) and solvent extractable HMW lipids (n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols and n-alkanes). Key insights were gained by understanding how different TerrOC pools, operationally defined at bulk and molecular level, are distributed among different density, size and settling velocity fractions and how they change over the margin in relative concentration and composition. Our results show that the partitioning and mobility of TerrOC pools is intimately linked to density and size of particles. A large fraction of TerrOC entering the margin is associated with large, lignin-rich plant fragments which are hydrodynamically retained in coastal sediments. The across-shelf transport of TerrOC occurs primarily in the form of mineral-bound OC through the preferential mobilization of fine lithogenic particles rich in HMW lipids. Despite the mineral-association, noticeable decrease of TerrOC was observed at molecular and bulk level which indicates extensive degradation during transport across the margin. Altogether our

  16. La estrategia del océano azul para emprendedores

    Tula Mendoza Farro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los emprendedores deben tener presente que no siempre la planeación garantiza el logro de los objetivos, sin embargo sin planes es difícil alcanzar metas (1. Alfred Chandler J. define que “la estrategia es la determinación de los objetivos y planes a largo plazo de la empresa, las acciones a emprender y la asignación de recursos necesarios para lograr esto...” (2. Michael Porter sostiene que “la empresa sin estrategia está dispuesta a intentar cualquier cosa” (3. C.K. Prahalad dice que “si queremos escapar de la atracción gravitacional del pasado tenemos que ser capaces de replantear nuestras propias ortodoxias. Debemos volver a generar nuestras estrategias esenciales y replantear nuestras creencias fundamentales sobre cómo vamos a competir” (4. Peter Drucker, en tanto, considera que “la estrategia de la organización es la respuesta a dos preguntas: ¿qué es nuestro negocio? y ¿qué debería ser?” (5. Las concepciones de estrategia en la empresa son diversas, pero todas coinciden en la enorme trascendencia que tiene para la gestión empresarial. Los modelos de estrategia, del mismo modo esencial para la gestión, también son distintos, pero suelen variar en función de la búsqueda de mejores resultados. Un emergente y expectante modelo es hoy la estrategia del océano azul, que alienta la innovación en la apertura de mercados y deja de lado la competencia como modelo estratégico. La estrategia del océano azul, formulada por W. Chan Kim y Renée Mauborgne en su gran best seller del mismo nombre (6, sostiene que las empresas si quieren ser exitosas pueden hacerlo explorando nuevos mercados, nuevas oportunidades y a través de la innovación en valor (innovación con utilidad, precio y costo, sin preocuparse en la competencia. Es un modelo de “no competencia”, de búsqueda de nuevas oportunidades, de intactos escenarios, de aguas tranquilas e inexploradas que simbolizan el océano azul, y que precisamente es una

  17. Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales 171, 174, 177, and 180 - Western Planning Area. Final environmental impact statement

    1998-05-01

    The Minerals Management Service proposes to hold annual oil and gas lease sales in the Western Planning Area (WPA) of the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The proposed actions are the Western Gulf sales scheduled in the Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program: 1997-2002 (Sale 171 in 1998, Sale 174 in 1999, Sale 177 in 2000, and Sale 180 in 2001). This environmental impact statement (EIS) serves as a decision document for proposed Sale 171. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, identification of the alternatives, description of the affected environment, and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions, alternatives, and associated activities, including proposed mitigating measures and their potential effects. Potential contributions to cumulative impacts resulting from activities associated with the proposed actions are also analyzed. Each of the proposed actions will offer for lease all unleased blocks in the Western Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico OCS, with the exclusion of the East and West Flower Garden Banks (Blocks A-375 and A-398 in the High Island Area, East Addition, South Extension) and three blocks used for Naval mine warfare testing and training (Blocks 793, 799, and 816 in the Mustang Island Area). Additionally, discussions between the United States and Mexico regarding tracts beyond the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone are ongoing and may result in the deferral of those tracts for Sale 171 (approximately 277 tracts) in the open-quotes Northern Portion of the Western Gapclose quotes (Figure 1-1). Additional copies of this EIS and the referenced visuals may be obtained from the MMS, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, Public Information Office (MS 5034), 1201 Elmwood Park Boulevard, New Orleans, Louisiana 70123-2394, or by telephone at I-800-200-GULF

  18. Vacuolating encephalitis in mice infected by human coronavirus OC43

    Jacomy, Helene; Talbot, Pierre J.

    2003-01-01

    Involvement of viruses in human neurodegenerative diseases and the underlying pathologic mechanisms remain generally unclear. Human respiratory coronaviruses (HCoV) can infect neural cells, persist in human brain, and activate myelin-reactive T cells. As a means of understanding the human infection, we characterized in vivo the neurotropic and neuroinvasive properties of HCoV-OC43 through the development of an experimental animal model. Virus inoculation of 21-day postnatal C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice led to a generalized infection of the whole CNS, demonstrating HCoV-OC43 neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence. This acute infection targeted neurons, which underwent vacuolation and degeneration while infected regions presented strong microglial reactivity and inflammatory reactions. Damage to the CNS was not immunologically mediated and microglial reactivity was instead a consequence of direct virus-mediated neuronal injury. Although this acute encephalitis appears generally similar to that induced by murine coronaviruses, an important difference rests in the prominent spongiform-like degeneration that could trigger neuropathology in surviving animals

  19. The weeding handbook a shelf-by-shelf guide

    Vnuk, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    "No! We can't rid of that!" Vnuk, author of the popular "Weeding Tips" column on Booklist Online, is here to show you that yes, you can. A library is an ever-changing organism; when done the right way, weeding helps a library thrive by focusing its resources on those parts of the collection that are the most useful to its users. Her handbook takes the guesswork out of this delicate but necessary process, giving public and school library staff the knowledge and the confidence to effectively weed any collection, of any size. Going through the proverbial stacks shelf by shelf, Vnuk: Explains why weeding is important for a healthy library, demonstrating that a vibrant collection leads to robust circulation, which in turn affects library budgets Walks readers through a library's shelves by Dewey area, with recommended weeding criteria and call-outs in each area for the different considerations of large collections and smaller collections Features a chapter addressing reference, media, magazines and newspapers, e-b...

  20. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities. Pacific update: August 1987 - November 1989

    Slitor, Douglas L.; Wiese, Jeffrey D.; Karpas, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    This Pacific Update focuses on the geology and petroleum potential of the Central California and Washington-Oregon OCS Planning Areas. This report discusses the following topics: offshore oil and gas resources of the Pacific region; project-specific developments and status; and magnitude and timing of offshore developments. (CBS)

  1. On the shelf life of pharmaceutical products.

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Ireland, Charles; Liu, Oscar; Lyapustina, Svetlana; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Sandell, Dennis; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter; Tougas, Terrence

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes new terminology that distinguishes between different concepts involved in the discussion of the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Such comprehensive and common language is currently lacking from various guidelines, which confuses implementation and impedes comparisons of different methodologies. The five new terms that are necessary for a coherent discussion of shelf life are: true shelf life, estimated shelf life, supported shelf life, maximum shelf life, and labeled shelf life. These concepts are already in use, but not named as such. The article discusses various levels of "product" on which different stakeholders tend to focus (e.g., a single-dosage unit, a batch, a production process, etc.). The article also highlights a key missing element in the discussion of shelf life-a Quality Statement, which defines the quality standard for all key stakeholders. Arguments are presented that for regulatory and statistical reasons the true product shelf life should be defined in terms of a suitably small quantile (e.g., fifth) of the distribution of batch shelf lives. The choice of quantile translates to an upper bound on the probability that a randomly selected batch will be nonconforming when tested at the storage time defined by the labeled shelf life. For this strategy, a random-batch model is required. This approach, unlike a fixed-batch model, allows estimation of both within- and between-batch variability, and allows inferences to be made about the entire production process. This work was conducted by the Stability Shelf Life Working Group of the Product Quality Research Institute.

  2. Swell propagation across a wide continental shelf

    Hendrickson, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of wave refraction and damping on swell propagation across a wide continental shelf were examined with data from a transect of bottom pressure recorders extending from the beach to the shelf break near Duck, North Carolina. The observations generally show weak variations in swell energy across the shelf during benign conditions, in qualitative agreement with predictions of a spectral refraction model. Although the predicted ray trajectories are quite sensitive to the irregular she...

  3. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  4. Biological, physical and chemical properties at the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Muelbert, José H.; Acha, Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes; Guerrero, Raúl; Reta, Raúl; Braga, Elisabete S.; Garcia, Virginia M. T.; Berasategui, Alejandro; Gomez-Erache, Mónica; Ramírez, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    The physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf were previously described. However, only scarce data on the biology of the front is available in the literature. The main goal of this paper is to describe the physical, chemical and biological properties of the STSF found in winter 2003 and summer 2004. A cross-section was established at the historically determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled in winter and seven in summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations where water samples from selected depths were filtered for nutrient determination. Surface samples were taken for chlorophyll a (Chl- a) determination and plankton net tows carried out above and below the pycnocline. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner-shelf salinity front and that the STSF was located on the mid-shelf. The low salinity waters in the inner-shelf indicated a strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (72 μM), suspended matter (45 mg l -1), phosphate (2.70 μM) and low nitrate (1.0 μM) levels. Total dissolved nitrogen was relatively high (22.98 μM), probably due to the elevated levels of organic compound contribution close to the continental margin. Surface Chl -a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 8.0 mg m -3 were registered, to offshore waters. Towards the open ocean, high subsurface nutrients values were observed, probably associated to South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW). Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton abundance followed the same trend; three different groups associated to the inner-, mid- and outer-shelf region were identified. During summer, diluted waters extended over the shelf to join the STSF in the upper layer; the concentration of inorganic nutrients decreased in shallow waters; however, high values were observed between 40 and 60 m and in deep offshore waters. Surface Chl -a ranged 0.07-1.5 mg m -3

  5. Circumpolar Deep Water transport and current structure at the Amundsen Sea shelf break

    Assmann, Karen M.; Wåhlin, Anna K.; Heywood, Karen J.; Jenkins, Adrian; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an increasing rate over the past decades. Ocean heat transport to the ice-ocean interface has been identified as an important contributor to this mass loss and the role it plays in ice sheet stability makes it crucial to understand its drivers in order to make accurate future projections of global sea level. While processes closer to the ice-ocean interface modulate this heat transport, its ultimate source is located in the deep basin off the continental shelf as a core of relatively warm, salty water underlying a colder, fresher shallow surface layer. To reach the marine terminating glaciers and the base of floating ice shelves, this warm, salty water mass must cross the bathymetric obstacle of the shelf break. Glacial troughs that intersect the Amundsen shelf break and deepen southwards towards the ice shelf fronts have been shown to play an important role in transporting warm, salty Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) towards the ice shelves. North of the shelf break, circulation in the Amundsen Sea occupies an intermediate regime between the eastward Antarctic Circumpolar Current that impinges on the shelf break in the Bellingshausen Sea and the westward southern limb of the Ross Gyre that follows the shelf break in the Ross Sea. Hydrographic and mooring observations and numerical model results at the mouth of the central shelf break trough leading to Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers show a westward wind-driven shelf break current overlying an eastward undercurrent that turns onto the shelf in the trough. It is thought that the existence of the latter feature facilitates the on-shelf transport of CDW. A less clearly defined shelf break depression further west acts as the main pathway for CDW to Dotson and eastern Getz Ice shelves. Model results indicate that a similar eastward undercurrent exists here driving the on-shelf transport of CDW. Two moorings on the upper slope east of the trough entrance show a

  6. Design and Implementation of O/C relay using Microprocessor

    Dr.Abdul-Sattar H. Jasim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design and implementation of a versatile digital overcurrent (O/C relay using a single microprocessor. The relay is implemented by a combination of a look-up table and a counter. The software development and hardware testing are done using a microcomputer module based on a 8-bit microprocessor. The digital processing of measured currents enables a separate setting of operating values selection of all types of inverse or constant time characteristics overcurrent protection. This protection provides reasonably fast tripping, even at terminal close to the power source were the most serve faults can occur excluding the transient condition. So this method has an excellent compromise between accuracy hardware and speed

  7. Immunoscintigraphy of ovarian carcinoma using OC 125 monoclonal antibody

    Park, Sang Yoon

    1990-03-01

    Immunoscintigraphy (ISG) with I-131 labeled OC 125 F (ab')2 fragments was studied in 7 patients for primary diagnosis and follow up of ovarian cancer. Total body planar photoscans with a scintillation camera were performed three to seven days after antibody application and results were compared with operation and/or computed tomography (CT) examination. By the region of interest technique, the tumor to background ratio was calaulated in vivo. Results are as follows. 1) The sensitivity of ISG and CT for detection of 14 tumor sites which were confirmed with histopathology were 100 % and 57.1 % and the sensitivity for the detection of omental metastasis were 100 % and 20 % respectively. 2) There were no correlation between the serum CA 125 levels and tumor to background antibody uptake ratio. 3) Tumor to background antibody uptake ratio were progressively increased from day 3 to day 7. (author)

  8. JSpOC Mission System Application Development Environment

    Luce, R.; Reele, P.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Golf, B.

    2012-09-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is the program of record tasked with replacing the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities by the end of FY2015 as well as providing additional Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Command and Control (C2) capabilities post-FY2015. To meet the legacy replacement goal, the JMS program is maturing a government Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) infrastructure that supports the integration of mission applications while acquiring mature industry and government mission applications. Future capabilities required by the JSpOC after 2015 will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new SSA data sources. To support the post FY2015 efforts, the JMS program is partnering with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to build a JMS application development environment. The purpose of this environment is to: 1) empower the research & development community, through access to relevant tools and data, to accelerate technology development, 2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to the developer community, 3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and 4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. The application development environment will consist of both unclassified and classified environments that can be accessed over common networks (including the Internet) to provide software developers, scientists, and engineers everything they need (e.g., building block JMS services, modeling and simulation tools, relevant test scenarios, documentation, data sources, user priorities/requirements, and SOA integration tools) to develop and test mission applications. The developed applications will be exercised in these

  9. Macromolecular composition of terrestrial and marine organic matter in sediments across the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    R. B. Sparkes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobilisation of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC from permafrost environments in eastern Siberia has the potential to deliver significant amounts of carbon to the Arctic Ocean, via both fluvial and coastal erosion. Eroded terrOC can be degraded during offshore transport or deposited across the wide East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS. Most studies of terrOC on the ESAS have concentrated on solvent-extractable organic matter, but this represents only a small proportion of the total terrOC load. In this study we have used pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (py-GCMS to study all major groups of macromolecular components of the terrOC; this is the first time that this technique has been applied to the ESAS. This has shown that there is a strong offshore trend from terrestrial phenols, aromatics and cyclopentenones to marine pyridines. There is good agreement between proportion phenols measured using py-GCMS and independent quantification of lignin phenol concentrations (r2 = 0.67, p < 0.01, n = 24. Furfurals, thought to represent carbohydrates, show no offshore trend and are likely found in both marine and terrestrial organic matter. We have also collected new radiocarbon data for bulk OC (14COC which, when coupled with previous measurements, allows us to produce the most comprehensive 14COC map of the ESAS to date. Combining the 14COC and py-GCMS data suggests that the aromatics group of compounds is likely sourced from old, aged terrOC, in contrast to the phenols group, which is likely sourced from modern woody material. We propose that an index of the relative proportions of phenols and pyridines can be used as a novel terrestrial vs. marine proxy measurement for macromolecular organic matter. Principal component analysis found that various terrestrial vs. marine proxies show different patterns across the ESAS, and it shows that multiple river–ocean transects of surface sediments transition from river-dominated to

  10. The Effect of Hurricane Lili on the Distribution of Organic Matter in the Inner Louisiana Shelf (Gulf of Mexico, USA)

    Clinton, R.; Goni, M. A.; Gisewhite, R.; Monacci, N.; Gordon, E.; Allison, M.; Kineke, G.

    2004-12-01

    Suspended particles and surface sediments were collected from the inner shelf of the Louisiana central coast following the passage of Hurricane Lili. The elemental and stable isotopic data of these samples were compared to those determined prior to the hurricane. A week after the storm passage, turbidity levels and total suspended sediment concentrations were not that different from pre-storm values, suggesting most of the suspended sediments must have settled soon after the storm passage. Particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/L to over 2.0 mg/L, with the highest concentrations measured near the seabed and in the inshore portions of the study area. In these locations, suspended particles displayed high POC/Chlorophyll ratios (POC/Chl of 400 to 4,000) and relatively elevated POC/particulate nitrogen ratios (POC/PN of 10 to 14) that indicated their source was locally resuspended seabed sediments. Relatively low POC/Chl (~200) and POC:PN (~7) ratios consistent with significant contributions from phytoplankton were measured only in the surface waters of the most offshore locations. Post hurricane sediment deposition resulted in a storm layer that ranged from 0.5 to 19 cm in thickness. The storm layer was generally composed of silty clays with a coarser, somewhat sandy 1-2 cm basal layer. These storm deposits were characterized by relatively high SA and OC contents. Similarities in the characteristics of the organic matter before and after reinforce the hypothesis that the source of the storm deposits was the finer fraction of locally resuspended seabed sediments, with little evidence for allochthonous land-derived inputs.

  11. Menstrual cyclicity post OC withdrawal in PCOS: Use of non-hormonal options.

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Arora, Arpita; Pahuja, Isha; Sharma, Neera; Pant, Shubhi

    2016-08-01

    There is no data on menstrual cyclicity post oral contraceptive (OC) withdrawal with nonhormonal options in PCOS patients. OC could affect obesity, insulin and gonadotropins factors integral to pathogenesis of PCOS, thereby adversely affecting the HPG axis. Menstrual cycles of PCOS patients were retrospectively studied post OCP. Patients developing regular versus irregular cycles post OC were compared. Forty-eight PCOS patients were followed for an average of 1.9 years post OC. Thirty-six (75%) achieved regular cycles over a period of one year with other nonhormonal options like spironolactone and metformin. Seven patients required no treatment. Patients who continued to have irregular cycles had a longer pre OC cycle length (p PCOS may not require any treatment post OC.

  12. Thermal-Conductivity Studies of Macro-porous Polymer-Derived SiOC Ceramics

    Qiu, L.; Li, Y. M.; Zheng, X. H.; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W.; Wu, J. Q.; Xu, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional reticular macro-porous SiOC ceramics structure, made of spherical agglomerates, has been thermally characterized using a freestanding sensor-based method. The effective thermal conductivity of the macro-porous SiOC ceramics, including the effects of voids, is found to be to at room temperature, comparable with that of alumina aerogel or carbon aerogel. These results suggest that SiOC ceramics hold great promise as a thermal insulation material for use at high temperatures. The measured results further reveal that the effective thermal conductivity is limited by the low solid-phase volume fraction for the SiOC series processed at the same conditions. For SiOC ceramics processed under different pyrolysis temperatures, the contact condition between neighboring particles in the SiOC networks is another key factor influencing the effective thermal conductivity.

  13. How fast is the Patagonian shelf-break acidifying?

    Orselli, Iole B. M.; Kerr, Rodrigo; Ito, Rosane G.; Tavano, Virginia M.; Mendes, Carlos Rafael B.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic carbon (Cant) concentration is determined according to the TrOCA method, from carbonate system data and hydrographic parameters collected during two consecutive spring cruises (2007 and 2008) in the Argentinean Patagonian shelf-break zone between 36°S and 50°S. Cant has intruded the water column until intermediate depths, with no Cant below 1000 m, in the deeper waters (i.e., North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water) of the Northern sector of the study area (i.e., North of 38°S). The higher Cant concentration is observed in Subantarctic Shelf Water in the Southern region, whereas in the Northern sector both Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water are equally affected by Cant intrusion. The Antarctic Intermediate Water represents the depth-limit achieved by Cant penetration, reinforcing the role that this water mass plays as an important vehicle to transport Cant to the oceans interior. The estimated Cant average (± method precision) is 46.6 ± 5.3 μmol kg- 1, considering the full depth of the water column. The ocean acidification state (ΔpH) shows an average (± standard deviation) of - 0.11 ± 0.05, thus, indicating an annual pH reduction of - 0.0010 yr- 1 since the Industrial Revolution (c.a. 1750). The degree of aragonite saturation is lowered towards undersaturation levels of calcite. The Patagonian shelf and shelf-break zones-a strong CO2 sink region in the global ocean-are likely a key area for Cant intrusion in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Zooplankton from the shelf watrs off the west coast of India

    Nair, V.R.; Peter, G.

    Zooplankton in the shelf waters of India from Dabhol to Tuticorin was studied during the 17th cruise of R.V. Gaveshani in March 1977. Biomass values were relatively high in the central zone between Mangalore and Alleppey. In the region between...

  15. Cytoarchitecture of the human lateral occipital cortex: mapping of two extrastriate areas hOc4la and hOc4lp.

    Malikovic, Aleksandar; Amunts, Katrin; Schleicher, Axel; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Kujovic, Milenko; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Eickhoff, Simon B; Zilles, Karl

    2016-05-01

    The microstructural correlates of the functional segregation of the human lateral occipital cortex are largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the cytoarchitecture of this region in ten human post-mortem brains using an observer-independent and statistically testable parcellation method to define the position and extent of areas in the lateral occipital cortex. Two new cytoarchitectonic areas were found: an anterior area hOc4la and a posterior area hOc4lp. hOc4la was located behind the anterior occipital sulcus in rostral and ventral portions of this region where it occupies the anterior third of the middle and inferior lateral occipital gyri. hOc4lp was found in caudal and dorsal portions of this region where it extends along the superior and middle lateral occipital gyri. The cytoarchitectonic areas were registered to 3D reconstructions of the corresponding brains, which were subsequently spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute reference space. Continuous probabilistic maps of both areas based on the analysis of ten brains were generated to characterize their inter-subject variability in location and size. The maps of hOc4la and hOc4lp were then used as seeds for meta-analytic connectivity modeling and quantitative functional decoding to identify their co-activation patterns and assignment to functional domains. Convergent evidence from their location, topography, size, functional domains and connectivity indicates that hOc4la and hOc4lp are the potential anatomical correlates of the functionally defined lateral occipital areas LO-1 and LO-2.

  16. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS measured remotely by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry

    G. C. Toon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric OCS abundances have been retrieved from infrared spectra measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL MkIV Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectrometer during 24 balloon flights and during nearly 1100 days of ground-based observations since 1985. Our spectral fitting approach uses broad windows to enhance the precision and robustness of the retrievals. Since OCS has a vertical profile similar in shape to that of N2O, and since tropospheric N2O is very stable, we reference the OCS observations to those of N2O, measured simultaneously in the same air mass, to remove the effects of stratospheric transport, allowing a clearer assessment of secular changes in OCS. Balloon measurements reveal less than 5 % change in stratospheric OCS amounts over the past 25 years. Ground-based measurements reveal a springtime peak of tropospheric OCS, followed by a rapid early-summer decrease, similar to the behavior of CO2. This results in a peak-to-peak seasonal cycle of 5–6 % of the total OCS column at northern mid-latitudes. In the long-term tropospheric OCS record, a 5 % decrease is seen from 1990 to 2002, followed by a 5 % increase from 2003 to 2012.

  17. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  18. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  19. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  20. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  1. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    Bett, R.; Watts, M.F.; Plested, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications

  2. Tidal Mixing at the Shelf Break

    Hogg, Nelson; Legg, Sonya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study mixing forced by tidal flow over sudden changes in topographic slope such as near the shelf-break, using high-resolution nonhydrostatic numerical simulations employing the MIT gem...

  3. Radurisation of broilers for shelf life extension

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization is discussed as a method for the shelf life extension of refrigerated chicken carcasses. One of the advantages is that radurization eliminates potential food pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella in the chicken carcasses. Materials and methods for the radurization of chicken are discussed. The objective of the investigation was to determine the influence of different irradiation doses and storage conditions on the microbiological shelf life and organoleptic quality of fresh broilers

  4. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting

    Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

  5. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  6. Evaluating Current Practices in Shelf Life Estimation.

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Huynh-Ba, Kim; LeBlond, David; Liu, Oscar; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Rajagopalan, Radhika; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter

    2018-02-01

    The current International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) methods for determining the supported shelf life of a drug product, described in ICH guidance documents Q1A and Q1E, are evaluated in this paper. To support this evaluation, an industry data set is used which is comprised of 26 individual stability batches of a common drug product where most batches are measured over a 24 month storage period. Using randomly sampled sets of 3 or 6 batches from the industry data set, the current ICH methods are assessed from three perspectives. First, the distributional properties of the supported shelf lives are summarized and compared to the distributional properties of the true shelf lives associated with the industry data set, assuming the industry data set represents a finite population of drug product batches for discussion purposes. Second, the results of the ICH "poolability" tests for model selection are summarized and the separate shelf life distributions from the possible alternative models are compared. Finally, the ICH methods are evaluated in terms of their ability to manage risk. Shelf life estimates that are too long result in an unacceptable percentage of nonconforming batches at expiry while those that are too short put the manufacturer at risk of possibly having to prematurely discard safe and efficacious drug product. Based on the analysis of the industry data set, the ICH-recommended approach did not produce supported shelf lives that effectively managed risk. Alternative approaches are required.

  7. Outer Continental Shelf Stratigraphic Development and Sand Resource Potential: Integration of New and Legacy Geologic Datasets

    Hughes, M.; Harris, S.; Luciano, K. E.; Alexander, C. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Following the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the U.S. Atlantic coast in 2012 the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), in cooperation with state partners, instituted several regional offshore resource studies for the near outer continental shelf (OCS) on the US East Coast. This study focuses on a portion of this region, offshore of South Carolina and Georgia, with a primary goal of identifying beach renourishment sands and wind-tower placement locations, and creating a conceptual model of the evolution of the shelf in these areas. New and previously collected data are being used to identify sediment distribution patterns, paleolandscapes, sand resources for beach renourishment projects, and feasible locations for offshore wind installations. New chirp subbottom profiler data ( 1000 km), sidescan sonar data ( 7900km2), magnetometer data ( 1700 km), and multibeam bathymetry data ( 430km2) have been processed and interpreted at the University of Charleston using SonarWiz7, QPS-Qimera and QPS-Fledermaus software suites. Areas of focus for the Atlantic Sand Assessment Program (ASAP) data collection along the SC and GA coast are located within the 3 to 8 nautical mile (nm) OCS offshore of (North to South) Little River, Cape Romain, Folly Beach, Hilton Head, Wassaw, Ossabaw, Jekyll, St. Simons, and Cumberland islands. Ravinement, pre-Holocene, and other seismic surfaces, along with internal geometries, were mapped in these distinctly different tidal and wave regimes. Holocene sediment thickness gradually increases to the south with several sediment wedges in excess of 40 meters thickness. Where mapped, subsurface paleochannels/valleys were identified and analyzed for their orientation and complexity, as well as their size and distribution. These paleochannels are more numerous and increasingly complex in the southern survey areas. The channels are possibly related to transgressive channeling, Pleistocene low-stand river channeling, and braided stream formation during

  8. Characterization of the terrigenous organic matter distribution in the bottom sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan; Vonk, Jorien; Sánchez-García, Laura

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a Mediterranean sea with exceptionally large shelves that account for approximately 50% of the total area of the enclosed ocean. Accordingly, the inorganic and organic character of the sediments both on the shelves and in the basins of the Arctic Ocean strongly reflect a pervasive influence from the surrounding land/thawing permafrost (Macdonald et al., 2008). The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is an enormous, shallow shelf that receives most of its particulate supply from coastal erosion A notable characteristic of the ESAS is an extremely large gradient of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters from Long Strait/Wrangell Island to the Lena River Delta that corresponds to geographically critical contrasts in the Arctic system where the Pacific and local shelf waters interact over the shelf (Semiletov et al., 2005). ESAS is clearly important region for storing and processing material that derives from the land and the sea. Here we synthesize the lithological and biogochemical data obtained in the ESAS by Laboratory of Arctic studies POI in cooperation with the IARC and SU during the last 10 years (1999-2009). Highest organic carbon (OC) concentrations in the surface sediment (up to 4w/w%) was found near mouths of major rivers (Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Alaseya, Kolyma), and near highly eroded coast (1-2 w/w %). .However, sedimentation over the major portion of shallow ESAS is dominated by coastal erosion not riverine runoff. It has been shown that contribution of terrestrial organic carbon (CTOM) is up to 100% in areas strongly impacted by coastal erosion. Lowest OC values (~0.1-0.5 w/w %) were found in the relic sediments of shoals (e.g. Semenovskaya, Vasilevskaya, and Diomid). New detail maps of distribution of sediment OC, CTOM, and C/N are considered along with the sediment sizing and mineralogical data. This multi-year study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russian NSF), FEBRAS, NOAA, NSF, Wallenberg Foundation

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  10. Polynya dynamics and associated atmospheric forcing at the Ronne Ice Shelf

    Ebner, Lars; Heinemann, Günther

    2014-05-01

    The Ronne Ice Shelf is known as one of the most active regions of polynya developments around the Antarctic continent. Low temperatures are prevailing throughout the whole year, particularly in winter. It is generally recognized that polynya formations are primarily forced by offshore winds and secondarily by ocean currents. Many authors have addressed this issue previously at the Ross Ice Shelf and Adélie Coast and connected polynya dynamics to strong katabatic surge events. Such investigations of atmospheric dynamics and simultaneous polynya occurrence are still severely underrepresented for the southwestern part of the Weddell Sea and especially for the Ronne Ice Shelf. Due to the very flat terrain gradients of the ice shelf katabatic winds are of minor importance in that area. Other atmospheric processes must therefore play a crucial role for polynya developments at the Ronne Ice Shelf. High-resolution simulations have been carried out for the Weddell Sea region using the non-hydrostatic NWP model COSMO from the German Meteorological Service (DWD). For the austral autumn and winter (March to August) 2008 daily forecast simulations were conducted with the consideration of daily sea-ice coverage deduced from the passive microwave system AMSR-E. These simulations are used to analyze the synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric dynamics of the Weddell Sea region and find linkages to polynya occurrence at the Ronne Ice Shelf. For that reason, the relation between the surface wind speed, the synoptic pressure gradient in the free atmosphere and polynya area is investigated. Seven significant polynya events are identified for the simulation period, three in the autumn and four in the winter season. It can be shown that in almost all cases synoptic cyclones are the primary polynya forcing systems. In most cases the timely interaction of several passing cyclones in the northern and central Weddell Sea leads to maintenance of a strong synoptic pressure gradient above the

  11. The evolving instability of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers

    Khazendar, Ala; Borstad, Christopher P.; Scheuchl, Bernd; Rignot, Eric; Seroussi, Helene

    2015-06-01

    Following the 2002 disintegration of the northern and central parts of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, the tributary glaciers of the southern surviving part initially appeared relatively unchanged and hence assumed to be buttressed sufficiently by the remnant ice shelf. Here, we modify this perception with observations from IceBridge altimetry and InSAR-inferred ice flow speeds. Our analyses show that the surfaces of Leppard and Flask glaciers directly upstream from their grounding lines lowered by 15 to 20 m in the period 2002-2011. The thinning appears to be dynamic as the flow of both glaciers and the remnant ice shelf accelerated in the same period. Flask Glacier started accelerating even before the 2002 disintegration, increasing its flow speed by ∼55% between 1997 and 2012. Starbuck Glacier meanwhile did not change much. We hypothesize that the different evolutions of the three glaciers are related to their dissimilar bed topographies and degrees of grounding. We apply numerical modeling and data assimilation that show these changes to be accompanied by a reduction in the buttressing afforded by the remnant ice shelf, a weakening of the shear zones between its flow units and an increase in its fracture. The fast flowing northwestern part of the remnant ice shelf exhibits increasing fragmentation, while the stagnant southeastern part seems to be prone to the formation of large rifts, some of which we show have delimited successive calving events. A large rift only 12 km downstream from the grounding line is currently traversing the stagnant part of the ice shelf, defining the likely front of the next large calving event. We propose that the flow acceleration, ice front retreat and enhanced fracture of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf presage its approaching demise.

  12. Interannual variability of surface and bottom sediment transport on the Laptev Sea shelf during summer

    C. Wegner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sediment transport dynamics were studied during ice-free conditions under different atmospheric circulation regimes on the Laptev Sea shelf (Siberian Arctic. To study the interannual variability of suspended particulate matter (SPM dynamics and their coupling with the variability in surface river water distribution on the Laptev Sea shelf, detailed oceanographic, optical (turbidity and Ocean Color satellite data, and hydrochemical (nutrients, SPM, stable oxygen isotopes process studies were carried out continuously during the summers of 2007 and 2008. Thus, for the first time SPM and nutrient variations on the Laptev Sea shelf under different atmospheric forcing and the implications for the turbidity and transparency of the water column can be presented.

    The data indicate a clear link between different surface distributions of riverine waters and the SPM transport dynamics within the entire water column. The summer of 2007 was dominated by shoreward winds and an eastward transport of riverine surface waters. The surface SPM concentration on the southeastern inner shelf was elevated, which led to decreased transmissivity and increased light absorption. Surface SPM concentrations in the central and northern Laptev Sea were comparatively low. However, the SPM transport and concentration within the bottom nepheloid layer increased considerably on the entire eastern shelf. The summer of 2008 was dominated by offshore winds and northward transport of the river plume. The surface SPM transport was enhanced and extended onto the mid-shelf, whereas the bottom SPM transport and concentration was diminished. This study suggests that the SPM concentration and transport, in both the surface and bottom nepheloid layers, are associated with the distribution of riverine surface waters which are linked to the atmospheric circulation patterns over the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean during the open water season. A continuing trend toward

  13. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  14. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the

  15. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the

  16. Theory vs. experiment for molecular clusters: Spectra of OCS trimers and tetramers

    Evangelisti, Luca [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” University of Bologna, Via Selmi 2, Bologna 40126 (Italy); Perez, Cristobal; Seifert, Nathan A.; Pate, Brooks H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Dehghany, M.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive North West, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); McKellar, A. R. W. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-14

    All singly substituted {sup 13}C, {sup 18}O, and {sup 34}S isotopomers of the previously known OCS trimer are observed in natural abundance in a broad-band spectrum measured with a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The complete substitution structure thus obtained critically tests (and confirms) the common assumption that monomers tend to retain their free structure in a weakly bound cluster. A new OCS trimer isomer is also observed, and its structure is determined to be barrel-shaped but with the monomers all approximately aligned, in contrast to the original trimer which is barrel-shaped with two monomers aligned and one anti-aligned. An OCS tetramer spectrum is assigned for the first time, and the tetramer structure resembles an original trimer with an OCS monomer added at the end with two sulfur atoms. Infrared spectra observed in the region of the OCS ν{sub 1} fundamental (≈2060 cm{sup −1}) are assigned to the same OCS tetramer, and another infrared band is tentatively assigned to a different tetramer isomer. The experimental results are compared and contrasted with theoretical predictions from the literature and from new cluster calculations which use an accurate OCS pair potential and assume pairwise additivity.

  17. Tunneling Characteristics Depending on Schottky Barriers and Diffusion Current in SiOC.

    Oh, Teresa; Kim, Chy Hyung

    2016-02-01

    To obtain a diffusion current in SiOC, the aluminum doped zinc oxide films were deposited on SiOC/Si wafer by a RF magnetron sputtering. All the X-ray patterns of the SiOC films showed amorphous phases. The level of binding energy of Si atoms will lead to an additional potential modulation by long range Coulombic and covalent interactions with oxygen ions. The growth of the AZO film was affected by the characteristics of SiOC, resulting in similar trends in XPS spectra and a shift to higher AZO lattice d values than the original AZO d values in XRD analyses. The charges trapped by the defects at the interlayer between AZO and SiOC films induced the decreased mobility of carriers. In the absence of trap charges, AZO grown on SiOC film such as the sample prepared at O2 = 25 or 30 sccm, which has low charge carrier concentration and high mobility, showed high mobility in an ambipolar characteristic of oxide semiconductor due to the tunneling effect and diffusion current. The structural matching of an interface between AZO and amorphous SiOC enhanced the height of Schottky Barrier (SB), and then the mobility was increased by the tunneling effect from band to band through the high SB.

  18. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  19. Mechanisms of TL for production of the 230 {sup o}C peak in natural sodalite

    Cano, Nilo F., E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.b [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Blak, Ana R. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ayala-Arenas, Jorge S. [Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Watanabe, Shigueo [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) peak in natural sodalite near 230 {sup o}C, which appears only after submitted to thermal treatments and to gamma irradiation, has been studied in parallel with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum appearing under the same procedure. This study revealed a full correlation between the 230 {sup o}C TL peak and the eleven hyperfine lines from EPR spectrum. In both case, the centers disappear at the same temperature and are restored after gamma irradiation. A complete model for the 230 {sup o}C TL peak is presented and discussed. In addition to the correlation and TL model, specific characteristics of the TL peaks are described.

  20. Distinguishing between old and modern permafrost sources in the northeast Siberian land-shelf system with compound-specific δ2H analysis

    Vonk, Jorien E.; Tesi, Tommaso; Bröder, Lisa; Holmstrand, Henry; Hugelius, Gustaf; Andersson, August; Dudarev, Oleg; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-08-01

    these two sources. We tested this molecular δ2H tracer along with another source-distinguishing approach, dual-carbon (δ13C-Δ14C) isotope composition of bulk OC, for a surface sediment transect in the Laptev Sea. Results show that general offshore patterns along the shelf-slope transect are similar, but the source apportionment between the approaches vary, which may highlight the advantages of either. This study indicates that the application of δ2H leaf wax values has potential to serve as a complementary quantitative measure of the source and differential fate of OC thawed out from different permafrost compartments.

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A3OC-2ZLWD [Confc[Archive

    Full Text Available 1A3OC-2ZLWD 1A3O 2ZLW C D -VLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGEYGAEALERMFLSFPT...R VQLSGEEKAAVLALWDKVN--EEEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFDSFGDLSNPGAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLHSFGEGVHHLDNLKGTFAALSEL.../index> 2ZLW D 2ZLWD

  2. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  3. Seasonal and interannual cross-shelf transport over the Texas and Louisiana continental shelf

    Thyng, Kristen M.; Hetland, Robert D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical drifters are tracked in a hydrodynamic simulation of circulation over the Texas-Louisiana shelf to analyze patterns in cross-shelf transport of materials. While the important forcing mechanisms in the region (wind, river, and deep eddies) and associated flow patterns are known, the resultant material transport is less well understood. The primary metric used in the calculations is the percent of drifters released within a region that cross the 100 m isobath. Results of the analysis indicate that, averaged over the eleven years of the simulation, there are two regions on the shelf - over the Texas shelf during winter, and over the Louisiana shelf in summer - with increased seasonal probability for offshore transport. Among the two other distinct regions, the big bend region in Texas has increased probability for onshore transport, and the Mississippi Delta region has an increase in offshore transport, for both seasons. Some of these regions of offshore transport have marked interannual variability. This interannual variability is correlated to interannual changes in forcing conditions. Winter transport off of the Texas shelf is correlated with winter mean wind direction, with more northerly winds enhancing offshore transport; summer transport off the Louisiana shelf is correlated with Mississippi River discharge.

  4. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  5. Poole-Frenkel behavior in amorphous oxide thin-film transistors prepared on SiOC

    Oh, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The electron behavior in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) depends on the polar characteristics of SiOC, which is used as a gate dielectric. The properties of the interface between the semiconductor and SiOC were defined by using a Schottky contact with a low potential barrier and Poole-Frenkel contacts with a high potential barrier. The leakage current of SiOC, which was used as a gate insulator, decreased at the Poole-Frenkel contacts because of the high potential barrier. The ambipolar properties in the field effect transistor were observed to depend on the various characteristics of SiOC, which ranged from its behaving as an ideal insulator or as a material with a high dielectric constant. The resistance of the a-IGZO channel changed from positive to negative at SiOC, which had the lowest polarity. As to the conduction due to the diffusion current, the mobility increased with increasing carrier concentrations. However, the drift carrier conduction was related to the reduced mobility at higher carrier concentrations. The performance of the transistors was enhanced by the tunneling and the diffusion currents Rather than by the drift current caused by trapping. The Schottky contact and the Poole-Frenkel (PF) contacts at an interface between the IGZO channel and the SiOC were defined according to the heights of potential barriers caused by the depletion layer. The leakage current was very low about 10 -12 A at SiOC with PF contacts because of the height of potential barrier was double that with a Schottky contact because the tunneling conductance due to the diffusion current originated from the PF contacts of non-polar SiOC.

  6. Poole-Frenkel behavior in amorphous oxide thin-film transistors prepared on SiOC

    Oh, Teresa [Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electron behavior in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) depends on the polar characteristics of SiOC, which is used as a gate dielectric. The properties of the interface between the semiconductor and SiOC were defined by using a Schottky contact with a low potential barrier and Poole-Frenkel contacts with a high potential barrier. The leakage current of SiOC, which was used as a gate insulator, decreased at the Poole-Frenkel contacts because of the high potential barrier. The ambipolar properties in the field effect transistor were observed to depend on the various characteristics of SiOC, which ranged from its behaving as an ideal insulator or as a material with a high dielectric constant. The resistance of the a-IGZO channel changed from positive to negative at SiOC, which had the lowest polarity. As to the conduction due to the diffusion current, the mobility increased with increasing carrier concentrations. However, the drift carrier conduction was related to the reduced mobility at higher carrier concentrations. The performance of the transistors was enhanced by the tunneling and the diffusion currents Rather than by the drift current caused by trapping. The Schottky contact and the Poole-Frenkel (PF) contacts at an interface between the IGZO channel and the SiOC were defined according to the heights of potential barriers caused by the depletion layer. The leakage current was very low about 10{sup -12} A at SiOC with PF contacts because of the height of potential barrier was double that with a Schottky contact because the tunneling conductance due to the diffusion current originated from the PF contacts of non-polar SiOC.

  7. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between soils and atmosphere under various CO2 concentrations

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Behrendt, Thomas; Yi, Zhigang; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    A new continuous integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer and an automated soil chamber system were used to investigate the exchange processes of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between soils and the atmosphere under laboratory conditions. The exchange patterns of OCS between soils and the atmosphere were found to be highly dependent on soil moisture and ambient CO2 concentration. With increasing soil moisture, OCS exchange ranged from emission under dry conditions to an uptake within an optimum moisture range, followed again by emission at high soil moisture. Elevated CO2 was found to have a significant impact on the exchange rate and direction as tested with several soils. There is a clear tendency toward a release of OCS at higher CO2 levels (up to 7600 ppm), which are typical for the upper few centimeters within soils. At high soil moisture, the release of OCS increased sharply. Measurements after chloroform vapor application show that there is a biotic component to the observed OCS exchange. Furthermore, soil treatment with the fungi inhibitor nystatin showed that fungi might be the dominant OCS consumers in the soils we examined. We discuss the influence of soil moisture and elevated CO2 on the OCS exchange as a change in the activity of microbial communities. Physical factors such as diffusivity that are governed by soil moisture also play a role. Comparing KM values of the enzymes to projected soil water CO2 concentrations showed that competitive inhibition is unlikely for carbonic anhydrase and PEPCO but might occur for RubisCO at higher CO2 concentrations.

  8. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    This study provides an integrated analysis of exchanges of water, salt and heat between the north-western Black Sea shelf and the deep basin. Three contributing physical mechanisms are quantified, namely: Ekman drift, transport by mesoscale eddies at the edge of the NW Black Sea shelf and non-local cascading assisted by the rim current and mesoscale eddies. The semi-enclosed nature of the Black Sea together with its unique combination of an extensive shelf area in the North West and the deep central part make it sensitive to natural variations of fluxes, including the fluxes between the biologically productive shelf and predominantly anoxic deep sea. Exchanges between the shelf and deep sea play an important role in forming the balance of waters, nutrients and pollution within the coastal areas, and hence the level of human-induced eutrophication of coastal waters (MSFD Descriptor 5). In this study we analyse physical mechanisms and quantify shelf-deep sea exchange processes in the Black Sea sector using the NEMO ocean circulation model. The model is configured and optimized taking into account specific features of the Black Sea, and validated against in-situ and satellite observations. The study uses NEMO-BLS24 numerical model which is based on the NEMO codebase v3.2.1 with amendments introduced by the UK Met Office. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1/24×1/24° and a hybrid s-on-top-of-z vertical coordinate system with a total of 33 layers. The horizontal viscosity/diffusivity operator is rotated to reduce the contamination of vertical diffusion/viscosity by large values of their horizontal counterparts. The bathymetry is processed from ETOPO5 and capped to 1550m. Atmospheric forcing for the period 1989-2012 is given by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2. For comparison, the NCEP atmospheric forcing also used for 2005. The climatological runoff from 8 major rivers is included. We run the model individually for 24 calendar years without data assimilation. For

  9. A retrospective analysis of trace metals, C, N and diatom remnants in sediments from the Mississippi River delta shelf

    Turner, R. Eugene; Milan, C.S.; Rabalais, N.N.

    2004-01-01

    The development of oil and gas recovery offshore of the Mississippi River delta began in shallow water in the 1950s, expanded into deeper waters, and peaked in the 1990s. This area of the outer continental shelf (OCS) is the historical and present location of >90% of all US OCS oil and gas production and reserves. The juxtaposition of its 4000 producing platforms, recovering $10 billion yr -1 of oil, gas and produced water in the same area where about 28% of the US fisheries catch (by weight) is made and near 40% of the US coastal wetlands, makes this an area worth monitoring for regional pollutant loading. This loading may come from several sources, including sources related to OCS development, but also from the Mississippi River watershed. In this context, any contaminant loading on this shelf may be neither detectable nor significant against a background of climatic or biological variability. We examined the sedimentary record for indicators of industrial byproducts from OCS oil and gas development and of industrial products entering via the Mississippi River, primarily using vanadium (V) and barium (Ba) concentrations normalized for aluminum (Al). Barium is primarily used in drilling muds in the form of barite, whereas V is an important strengthening component of metal alloys, including steel. The fluctuations in the accumulation of Ba, but not V, were coincidental with the presumed use of barite. The fluctuations in V concentration in the sediments were coincidental with the national consumption of V. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sediments fluctuate coincidentally with V, not Ba, thus indicating that the dominant source of these trace metals in offshore sediments were derived from riverine sources, and were not primarily from in situ industrial processes releasing them on the shelf. This is not to suggest that local site-specific contamination is not a significant management or health concern. The low oxygen (hypoxia; ≤2 mg l -1

  10. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, east coast of India

    Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    The Holocene sea level changes in the shelf areas off Visakhapatnam was studied from sediment distribution pattern and shallow seismic profiling. Morphological features on the shelf indicate a Late Pleistocene regression down to about -130 m below...

  11. Food packaging and shelf life: a practical guide

    Robertson, Gordon L

    2010-01-01

    .... Food Packaging and Shelf Life: A Practical Guide provides package developers with the information they need to specify just the right amount of protective packaging to maintain food quality and maximize shelf life...

  12. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  13. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  14. Magnetic surveys of the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Rao, T.C.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    shelf. Quantitative estimates made for the anomalies over the inner shelf using the graphical method and by computing the analytical signal suggest the existence of a fault in the nearshore region and a possible zone of heavy mineral concentration off...

  15. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  16. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    ... of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye-area cosmetics is more limited than for other products. Because of repeated microbial exposure during use by the consumer and the risk of eye infections, some industry experts recommend replacing mascara 3 months after purchase. ...

  17. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  18. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  19. Temporal variability of the Circumpolar Deep Water inflow onto the Ross Sea continental shelf

    Castagno, Pasquale; Falco, Pierpaolo; Dinniman, Michael S.; Spezie, Giancarlo; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-02-01

    The intrusion of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is the primary source of heat, salt and nutrients onto Antarctica's continental shelves and plays a major role in the shelf physical and biological processes. Different studies have analyzed the processes responsible for the transport of CDW across the Ross Sea shelf break, but until now, there are no continuous observations that investigate the timing of the intrusions. Also, few works have focused on the effect of the tides that control these intrusions. In the Ross Sea, the CDW intrudes onto the shelf in several locations, but mostly along the troughs. We use hydrographic observations and a mooring placed on the outer shelf in the middle of the Drygalski Trough in order to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of CDW inflow onto the shelf. Our data span from 2004 to the beginning of 2014. In the Drygalski Trough, the CDW enters as a 150 m thick layer between 250 and 400 m, and moves upward towards the south. At the mooring location, about 50 km from the shelf break, two main CDW cores can be observed: one on the east side of the trough spreading along the west slope of Mawson Bank from about 200 m to the bottom and the other one in the central-west side from 200 m to about 350 m depth. A signature of this lighter and relatively warm water is detected by the instruments on the mooring at bottom of the Drygalski Trough. High frequency periodic CDW intrusion at the bottom of the trough is related to the diurnal and spring/neap tidal cycles. At lower frequency, a seasonal variability of the CDW intrusion is noticed. A strong inflow of CDW is observed every year at the end of December, while the CDW inflow is at its seasonal minimum during the beginning of the austral fall. In addition an interannual variability is also evident. A change of the CDW intrusion before and after 2010 is observed.

  20. Size Effect Studies of the Creep Behaviour of 20MnMoNi55 at Temperatures from 700 {sup o}C to 900 {sup o}C

    Krompholz, K.; Groth, E.; Kalkhof, D

    2000-11-01

    One of the objectives of the REVISA project (REactor Vessel Integrity in Severe Accidents) is to assess size and scale effects in plastic flow and failure. This includes an experimental programme devoted to characterising the influence of specimen size, strain rate, and strain gradients at various temperatures. One of the materials selected was the forged reactor pressure vessel material 20 MnMoNi 55, material number 1.6310 (heat number 69906). Among others, a size effect study of the creep response of this material was performed, using geometrically similar smooth specimens with 5 mm and 20 mm diameter. The tests were done under constant load in an inert atmosphere at 700 {sup o}C, 800 {sup o}C, and 900 {sup o}C, close to and within the phase transformation regime. The mechanical stresses varied from 10 MPa to 30 MPa, depending on temperature. Prior to creep testing the temperature and time dependence of scale oxidation as well as the temperature regime of the phase transformation was determined. The creep tests were supplemented by metallographical investigations.The test results are presented in form of creep curves strain versus time from which characteristic creep data were determined as a function of the stress level at given temperatures. The characteristic data are the times to 5% and 15% strain and to rupture, the secondary (minimum) creep rate, the elongation at fracture within the gauge length, the type of fracture and the area reduction after fracture. From metallographical investigations the austenitic phase contents at different temperatures could be estimated. From these data also the parameters of the regression calculation (e.g. Norton's creep law) were obtained. The evaluation revealed that the creep curves and characteristic data are size dependent of varying degree, depending on the stress and temperature level, but the size influence cannot be related to corrosion or orientation effects or to macroscopic heterogeneity (position effect) of

  1. Oregon OCS seafloor mapping: Selected lease blocks relevant to renewable energy

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Hemery, Lenaïg G.; Henkel, Sarah K.

    2017-05-23

    In 2014 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) entered into Intra-agency agreement M13PG00037 to map an area of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) off of Coos Bay, Oregon, under consideration for development of a floating wind energy farm. The BOEM requires seafloor mapping and site characterization studies in order to evaluate the impact of seafloor and sub-seafloor conditions on the installation, operation, and structural integrity of proposed renewable energy projects, as well as to assess the potential effects of construction and operations on archaeological resources. The mission of the USGS is to provide geologic, topographic, and hydrologic information that contributes to the wise management of the Nation's natural resources and that promotes the health, safety, and well being of the people. This information consists of maps, databases, and descriptions and analyses of the water, energy, and mineral resources, land surface, underlying geologic structure, and dynamic processes of the earth.For the Oregon OCS study, the USGS acquired multibeam echo sounder and seafloor video data surrounding the proposed development site, which is 95 km2 in area and 15 miles offshore from Coos Bay. The development site had been surveyed by Solmar Hydro Inc. in 2013 under a contract with WindFloat Pacific. The USGS subsequently produced a bathymetry digital elevation model and a backscatter intensity grid that were merged with existing data collected by the contractor. The merged grids were published along with visual observations of benthic geo-habitat from the video data in an associated USGS data release (Cochrane and others, 2015).This report includes the results of analysis of the video data conducted by Oregon State University and the geo-habitat interpretation of the multibeam echo sounder (MBES) data conducted by the USGS. MBES data was published in Cochrane and others (2015). Interpretive data associated with this

  2. Trophic Ecology and Movement Patters of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) off the Western North Atlantic Coastal and Continental Shelf Waters

    Sancho, G.; Edman, R.; Frazier, B.; Bubley, W.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the trophic dynamics and habitat utilization of apex predators is central to inferring their influence on different marine landscapes and to help design effective management plans for these animals. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are abundant in shelf and offshore Gulf Stream waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean, and based on movements from individuals captured in Florida and Bahamas, seem to avoid coastal and shelf waters off South Carolina and Georgia. This contradicts reports of tiger sharks regularly being caught nearshore by anglers in these states, indicating that separate sub-populations may exist in the western North Atlantic. In the present study we captured Tiger Sharks in coastal waters off South Carolina in 2014 and 2015 in order to describe their movement patterns through acoustic and satellite tagging, and trophic dynamics through stable isotope analyses. Movement data show that these tiger sharks repeatedly visit particular inshore areas and mainly travel over the continental shelf, but rarely venture offshore beyond the continental shelf edge. Ongoing C and N stable isotope analyses of muscle, blood and skin tissues from adult and juvenile tiger sharks, as well as from potential prey species and primary producers, will help determine if their diets are based on inshore, shelf or offshore based food webs. Tiger sharks exploiting nearshore environments and shelf waters have much higher probabilities of interacting with humans than individuals occupying far offshore Gulf Stream habitats.

  3. Shelf life prediction of canned fried-rice using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) arrhenius method

    Kurniadi, M.; Bintang, R.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Nursiwi, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Susanto, A.; Angwar, M.; Triwiyono; Frediansyah, A.

    2017-12-01

    Research on shelf-life prediction of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius model has been conducted. The aim of this research to predict shelf life of canned-fried rice products. Lethality value of 121°C for 15 and 20 minutes and Total Plate count methods are used to determine time and temperatures of sterilization process.Various storage temperatures of ASLT Arrhenius method were 35, 45 and 55°C during 35days. Rancidity is one of the derivation quality of canned fried rice. In this research, sample of canned fried rice is tested using rancidity value (TBA). TBA value was used as parameter which be measured once a week periodically. The use of can for fried rice without any chemical preservative is one of the advantage of the product, additionaly the use of physicalproperties such as temperature and pressure during its process can extend the shelf life and reduce the microbial contamination. The same research has never done before for fried rice as ready to eat meal. The result showed that the optimum conditions of sterilization process were 121°C,15 minutes with total plate count number of 9,3 × 101 CFU/ml. Lethality value of canned fried rice at 121°C,15 minutes was 3.63 minutes. The calculated Shelf-life of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius method was 10.3 months.

  4. Variations in the OM/OC ratio of urban organic aerosol next to a major roadway.

    Brown, Steven G; Lee, Taehyoung; Roberts, Paul T; Collett, Jeffrey L

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the organic matter/organic carbon (OM/OC) ratio in ambient particulate matter (PM) is critical to achieve mass closure in routine PM measurements, to assess the sources of and the degree of chemical processing organic aerosol particles have undergone, and to relate ambient pollutant concentrations to health effects. Of particular interest is how the OM/OC ratio varies in the urban environment, where strong spatial and temporal gradients in source emissions are common. We provide results of near-roadway high-time-resolution PM1 OM concentration and OM/OC ratio observations during January 2008 at Fyfe Elementary School in Las Vegas, NV, 18 m from the U.S. 95 freeway soundwall, measured with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The average OM/OC ratio was 1.54 (+/- 0.20 standard deviation), typical of environments with a low amount of secondary aerosol formation. The 2-min average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.17 and 2.67, and daily average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.44 and 1.73. The ratios were highest during periods of low OM concentrations and generally low during periods of high OM concentrations. OM/OC ratios were low (1.52 +/- 0.14, on average) during the morning rush hour (average OM = 2.4 microg/m3), when vehicular emissions dominate this near-road measurement site. The ratios were slightly lower (1.46 +/- 0.10) in the evening (average OM = 6.3 microg/m3), when a combination of vehicular and fresh residential biomass burning emissions was typically present during times with temperature inversions. The hourly averaged OM/OC ratio peaked at 1.66 at midday. OM concentrations were similar regardless of whether the monitoring site was downwind or upwind of the adjacent freeway throughout the day, though they were higher during stagnant conditions (wind speed < 0.5 m/sec). The OM/OC ratio generally varied more with time of day than with wind direction and speed.

  5. Potential impacts of OCS oil and gas activities on fisheries. Volume 2. Annotated bibliography for OCS oil and gas impact studies. Final report

    Tear, L.M.

    1989-10-01

    The volume is the second of two volumes to the final report, Potential Impacts of OCS Oil and Gas Activities on Fisheries. The volume presents an annotated bibliography of published and grey literature related to OCS oil and gas activity impacts of finfish and shellfish in marine and estuaring waters. The studies presented in the bibliography include those related to the following pollutants or impact-causing activities: Rig/reef effects, Drilling discharges (muds or cuttings), Oil (petroleum hydrocarbons), Trace metals, Produced water, Habitat alteration, Debris, Rig placement (avoidance), Pipelines, and Socioeconomic effects. The studies are listed alphabetically by the primary author's last name. An index is provided to help the reader identify studies related to a specific impact

  6. Shelf evolution along a transpressive transform margin, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Dartnell, Peter; Ritchie, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution bathymetric and seismic reflection data provide new insights for understanding the post–Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 21 ka) evolution of the ∼120-km-long Santa Barbara shelf, located within a transpressive segment of the transform continental margin of western North America. The goal is to determine how rising sea level, sediment supply, and tectonics combine to control shelf geomorphology and history. Morpho­logic, stratigraphic, and structural data highlight regional variability and support division of the shelf into three domains. (1) The eastern Santa Barbara shelf is south of and in the hanging wall of the blind south-dipping Oak Ridge fault. The broad gently dipping shelf has a convex-upward shape resulting from thick post-LGM sediment (mean = 24.7 m) derived from the Santa Clara River. (2) The ∼5–8-km-wide Ventura Basin obliquely crosses the shelf and forms an asymmetric trough with thick post-LGM sediment fill (mean = 30.4 m) derived from the Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers. The basin is between and in the footwalls of the Oak Ridge fault to the south and the blind north-dipping Pitas Point fault to the north. (3) The central and western Santa Barbara shelf is located north of and in the hanging wall of the North Channel–Pitas Point fault system. The concave-up shape of the shelf results from folding, marine erosion, and the relative lack of post-LGM sediment cover (mean = 3.8 m). Sediment is derived from small steep coastal watersheds and largely stored in the Gaviota bar and other nearshore mouth bars. Three distinct upper slope morphologies result from a mix of progradation and submarine landsliding.Ages and rates of deformation are derived from a local sea-level-rise model that incorporates an inferred LGM shoreline angle and the LGM wave-cut platform. Post-LGM slip rates on the offshore Oak Ridge fault are a mini­mum of 0.7 ± 0.1 mm/yr. Slip rates on the Pitas Point fault system are a minimum of 2.3 ± 0.3 mm

  7. 76 FR 71595 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Eastern Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales for Years 2012-2017

    2011-11-18

    ... Information Service, 5301 Shawnee Road, Springfield, Virginia 22312, or by telephone: (703) 605-6000 or (800... in the Lloyd Ridge and Henderson areas; it is immediately south of the Sale 224 Area. For more...

  8. Temporal and spatial variability of zooplankton on the Faroe shelf in spring 1997-2016

    Jacobsen, Sólvá; Gaard, Eilif; Larsen, Karin Margretha Húsgarð; Eliasen, Sólvá Káradóttir; Hátún, Hjálmar

    2018-01-01

    Zooplankton availability during spring and summer determines the growth and survival of first-feeding fish larvae, and thus impacts the recruitment to both fish prey species and commercial fish stocks. On the Faroe shelf, however, the relative importance of oceanic versus neritic zooplankton species has hitherto not been well understood. In this study, spatio-temporal variability in zooplankton community structure and size spectra on the Faroe shelf is investigated using observations from late April during the period 1997-2016. The main objective was to explore which environmental variables influence the zooplankton community structure in early spring. The zooplankton community in the permanently well mixed central shelf inside the tidal front consists of a mixture of neritic, cosmopolitan and oceanic species. In this region, redundancy analyses showed that chlorophyll concentration had a positive effect on abundance of neritic copepods and meroplankton as well as all zooplankton abundance variability of these species shows increased production around 2000 and 2008-2009. The highest zooplankton abundance, mainly consisting of Calanus finmarchicus, is however observed off-shore from the tidal front, especially on the western side of the Faroe Plateau. A shift in C. finmarchicus phenology occurred around 2007, resulting in earlier reproduction of this species, and this variability could not be explained by the employed regional environmental parameters. Our results indicate that the Faroe shelf biological production is more dependent on the local primary production and neritic zooplankton species than on the large oceanic C. finmarchicus stock.

  9. Microgreens: Production, shelf life, and bioactive components.

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Mir, Mohammad Maqbool

    2017-08-13

    Microgreens are emerging specialty food products which are gaining popularity and increased attention nowadays. They are young and tender cotyledonary leafy greens that are found in a pleasing palette of colors, textures, and flavors. Microgreens are a new class of edible vegetables harvested when first leaves have fully expanded and before true leaves have emerged. They are gaining popularity as a new culinary ingredient. They are used to enhance salads or as edible garnishes to embellish a wide variety of other dishes. Common microgreens are grown mainly from mustard, cabbage, radish, buckwheat, lettuce, spinach, etc. The consumption of microgreens has nowadays increased due to higher concentrations of bioactive components such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants than mature greens, which are important for human health. However, they typically have a short shelf life due to rapid product deterioration. This review aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality, potential bioactive compounds, and shelf life of microgreens for proper management of this specialty produce.

  10. Relationships between Charpy impact shelf energies and upper shelf Ksub(IC) values for reactor pressure vessel steels

    Witt, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Charpy shelf data and lower bound estimates of Ksub(IC) shelf data for the same steels and test temperatures are given. Included are some typical reactor pressure vessel steels as well as some less tough or degraded steels. The data were evaluated with shelf estimates of Ksub(IC) up to and exceeding 550 MPa√m. It is shown that the high shelf fracture toughness representative of tough reactor pressure vessel steels may be obtained from a knowledge of the Charpy shelf energies. The toughness transition may be obtained either by testing small fracture toughness specimens or by Charpy energy indexing. (U.K.)

  11. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  12. Regional geochemical baselines for Portuguese shelf sediments

    Mil-Homens, M.; Stevens, R.L.; Cato, I.; Abrantes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from the DGM-INETI archive data set have been examined for sediments collected during the 1970s from 267 sites on the Portuguese shelf. Due to the differences in the oceanographic and sedimentological settings between western and Algarve coasts, the archive data set is split in two segments. For both shelf segments, regional geochemical baselines (RGB) are defined using aluminium as a reference element. Seabed samples recovered in 2002 from four distinct areas of the Portuguese shelf are superimposed on these models to identify and compare possible metal enrichments relative to the natural distribution. Metal enrichments associated with anthropogenic influences are identified in three samples collected nearby the Tejo River and are characterised by the highest enrichment factors (EF; EF Pb Zn < 4). EF values close to 1 suggest a largely natural origin for metal distributions in sediments from the other areas included in the study. - Background metal concentrations and their natural variability must be established before assessing anthropogenic impacts

  13. Geological Sulfur Isotopes Indicate Elevated OCS in the Archean Atmosphere, Solving the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological re......-rich, reducing Archean atmosphere. The radiative forcing, due to this level of OCS, is able to resolve the faint young sun paradox. Further, the decline of atmospheric OCS may have caused the late Archean glaciation....

  14. ISOTERMI SORPSI AIR DAN ANALISIS UMUR SIMPAN IKAN KAYU TONGKOL (Euthynnus affinis DARI ACEH [Moisture Sorption Isotherm and Shelf Life Analysis of Dried Tongkol (Euthynnus affinis from Aceh

    Rita Hayati1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol dried fish (Ikan Kayu Tongkol is lumps of less salted dried fish usually used as popular ingredient for some traditional fish dishes in Aceh as well as in Malaysia. In Japan it is further processed into Katsou-bushi for preparation of special soup. The objective of this research was to find out water relation parameters in the less salted dried fish as related to shelf life, characteristic changes during storage and estimate analysis of its expired date. Dried fish samples were equilibrated in 15 levels of RH at 28oC and their equilibrium moisture contents were determined.Moisture sorption isotherm derived from the correlation of equilibrium moisture content data indicated a typical sigmoidal curve implying 3 regions of water adsorption. The water sorption regions accounted for three fractions of bound water as analyzed using three different mathematical models. The first water fraction ranged 0 - 5.95 %, the second 5.95 - 17.52 % and the third fraction ranged 17.52 - 91.12 % dry basis, equivalent to 0 - 5.6 %, 5.6 - 14.9 % and 14.9 - 47.4 % wet basis respectively. Storage simulation experiment in two packaging materials as carried out at 30oC and 90 % RH resulted shelf life of 2749 days (91 months in the packaging of plastic impregnated allumunium and 1204 days (40 months in plastic packaging. These very long shelf life was due to the added salt in the produt which increased Mc as high as 46.9 % to cause mold growth. This estimate analysis of shelf life using the mathematical model of Labuza (1984 is one of the appropriate methods to determining expired date of dry food products.

  15. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control center focused on executing the Space Control mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE) to ensure freedom of action of United States (US) space assets, while preventing adversary use of space against the US. To accomplish this, the JSpOC tasks a network of space surveillance sensors to collect Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data on resident space objects (RSOs) in near earth and deep space orbits. SSA involves the ingestion of data sources and use of algorithms and tools to build, maintain, and disseminate situational awareness of RSOs in space. On the heels of emergent and complex threats to space assets, the JSpOC's capabilities are limited by legacy systems and CONOPs. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) aims to consolidate SSA efforts across US agencies, international partners, and commercial partners. The JMS program is intended to deliver a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) based infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to remove the current barriers to JSpOC operations. JMS has been partitioned into several developmental increments. Increment 1, completed and operational in early 2013, and Increment 2, which is expected to be completed in 2016, will replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. In 2017 JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources. Most importantly, Increment 3 is uniquely postured to evolve the JSpOC into the centralized and authoritative source for all Space Control applications by using its SOA to aggregate information and capabilities from across the community. To achieve this goal, Scitor Corporation has supported the JMS Program Office as it has entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed

  16. Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    . [Keywords: Tidal propagation, Mumbai high, Global tidal model, Shelf model, Central west coast of India] Introduction In coastal regions, tides play an important role in determining circulation and hydrography. Barotropic tides coming from the open... with increase in the width of the shelf. Materials and Methods Global tidal models Schwiderski5 used a hydrodynamic interpolation technique to determine the amplitude and phase of tidal constituents of global ocean. Since the availability of satellite...

  17. [Characteristics and sources apportionment of OC and EC in PM1.1 from Nanjing].

    Jiang, Wen-juan; Guo, Zhao-bing; Liu, Feng-ling; Rui, Mao-ling; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Gang; Guo, Zi-yan

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations of OC and EC in PM1.1 collected from Nanshi (NS) and Nanhua (NH) in 2011 were analyzed using DRI Model 2001A Thermal Optical Carbon Analyzer. In addition, source apportionment was simultaneously evaluated. The results showed that the annual average concentrations of OC and EC in PM1.1 were 10. 10 μg x m(-3) and 2.52 μg x m(-3) in NS area, and 11.22 μg x m(-3) and 3.12 μg x m(-3) in NH area, respectively. This result indicated that OC and EC pollution in NH was more serious than that in NS area. Meanwhile, the concentrations of OC and EC in winter and spring were obviously higher compared to those in summer in these two sampling sites, which was mainly ascribed to the increased coal combustion and the unfavorable emission condition of air pollutants in summer and spring. We noted that the SOC/TOC value was the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. In addition, the SOC concentration was observed to show a positive correlation with ozone concentrations, which indicated that the photochemical reaction was a main way of SOC formation in autumn.

  18. Updated O-C Diagrams for Several Bright HW Vir Binaries Observed with the Evryscope

    Corcoran, Kyle A.; Barlow, Brad; Corbett, Hank; Fors, Octavi; Howard, Ward S.; Law, Nicholas; Ratzloff, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    HW Vir systems are eclipsing, post-common-envelope binaries consisting of a hot subdwarf star and a cooler M dwarf or brown dwarf companion. They show a strong reflection effect and have characteristically short orbital periods of only a few hours, allowing observers to detect multiple eclipses per night. Observed minus calculated (O-C) studies allow one to measure miniscule variations in the orbital periods of these systems by comparing observed eclipse timings to a calculated ephemeris. This technique is useful for detecting period changes due to secular evolution of the binary, gravitational wave emission, or reflex motion from an orbiting circumbinary object. Numerous eclipse timings obtained over several years are vital to the proper interpretation and analysis of O-C diagrams. The Evryscope – an array of twenty-four individual telescopes built by UNC and deployed on Cerro Tololo – images the entire Southern sky once every two minutes, producing an insurmountable amount of data for objects brighter than 16th magnitude. The cadence with which Evryscope exposes makes it an unparalleled tool for O-C analyses of HW Vir binaries; it will catalogue thousands of eclipses over the next several years. Here we present updated O-C diagrams for several HW Vir binaries using recent measurements from the Evryscope. We also use observations of AA Dor, an incredibly stable astrophysical clock, to characterize the accuracy of the Evryscope’s timestamps.

  19. Infrared Spectroscopy of Two Isomers of the OCS-CS_{2} Complex

    Oliaee, J. N.; Dehghany, M.; Afshari, Mahin; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2009-06-01

    A second isomer of OCS-CS_{2} complex, with a nonplanar cross-shaped structure, has been studied for the first time by analysing an infrared band in the region of the OCS stretching vibration (2062 cm^{-1}). This isomer has C_{s} symmetry and the observed band consists of purely c-type rotational transitions. The ground state rotational parameters are found to be A=0.07306 cm^{-1}, B=0.03325 cm^{-1} and C=0.02879 cm^{-1}, in good agreement with a previous semi-empirical calculation. In addition, a hybrid band with a- and b-type rotational transitions has been assigned to be due to the known planar form of OCS-CS_{2}, as previously studied by microwave spectroscopy. The spectra were recorded using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer to probe a pulsed supersonic jet expansion. Calculations indicate that the planar isomer of OCS-CS_{2} is the lowest in energy, in contrast to CO_{2}-CS_{2} where the crossed form is believed to be the lowest. J. J. Newby, M. M. Serafin, R. A. Peebles and S. A. Peebles, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 487 (2005). C. C. Dutton, D. A. Dows, R. Eikey, S. Evans and R. A. Beaudet, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6904 (1998).

  20. Development and evaluation of oral Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QOL-OC).

    Nie, Min; Liu, Chang; Pan, Yi-Chen; Jiang, Chen-Xi; Li, Bao-Ru; Yu, Xi-Jie; Wu, Xin-Yu; Zheng, Shu-Ning

    2018-05-03

    In this study scales and items for the Oral Cancer Quality-of-life Questionnaire (QOL-OC) were designed and the instrument was evaluated. The QOL-OC was developed and modified using the international definition of quality of life (QOL) promulgated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and analysis of the precedent measuring instruments. The contents of each item were determined in the context of the specific characteristics of oral cancer. Two hundred thirteen oral cancer patients were asked to complete both the EORTC core quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLC-C30) and the QOL-OC. Data collected was used to conduct factor analysis, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Questionnaire compliance was relatively high. Fourteen of the 213 subjects accepted the same tests after 24 to 48 h demonstrating a high test-retest reliability for all five scales. Overall internal consistency surpasses 0.8. The outcome of the factor analysis coincides substantially with our theoretical conception. Each item shows a higher correlation coefficient within its own scale than the others which indicates high construct validity. QOL-OC demonstrates fairly good statistical reliability, validity, and feasibility. However, further tests and modification are needed to ensure its applicability to the quality-of-life assessment of Chinese oral cancer patients.

  1. Laser-induced field-free alignment of the OCS molecule

    Loriot, V; Tzallas, P; Benis, E P; Hertz, E; Lavorel, B; Charalambidis, D; Faucher, O

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical alignment of jet-cooled OCS molecules induced by a short laser pulse. The alignment is measured through the orientational contribution of the optical Kerr effect using a second weak laser pulse as a probe. Maximum alignment is observed at conditions close to saturation of ionization. The results are analysed with a quantum mechanical model solving for the rotational dynamics

  2. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of SiOC-Carbon Nanotube Composite Coatings

    Bhandavat, Romil; Cologna, Marco; Raj, Rishi; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-02-01

    Rechargeable battery anodes made from crystalline Si-based nanostructures have been shown to possess high experimental first cycle capacities (3000 mAh/g), but face challenges in sustaining these capacities beyond initial cycles mainly due to large volume expansion (400 percent) and chemical degradation (pulverization). Polymer-derived ceramic SiOC due to its high thermodynamic stability and nano domain structure could present a viable alternative. Additionally, functionalization of SiOC with carbon nanotubes could result in increased electronic and ionic conductivities in the ceramic. Here, we demonstrate synthesis and electrochemical characterization of SiOC-CNT composite coatings for use in Li-ion battery anode. Materials characterization performed using electron microscopy, Infrared (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests non-covalent functionalization of CNT with oxygen moieties in SiOC. Sustained battery capacities of over 700 mAh/g and first cycle columbic efficiencies of about 75 percent were achieved. Future work will involve determination of lithium ion intercalation sites characterized by electron microscopy whereas cyclic voltammetry analysis will access the sequential change in anode chemistry.

  3. Photodissociation of OCS: Deviations between theory and experiment, and the importance of higher order correlation effects

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2014-01-01

    The photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) was investigated theoretically in a series of studies by Schmidt and co-workers. Initial studies [J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, G. C. McBane, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys.136, 131101 (2012);J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, G. C. McBane, and R. Schinke...

  4. Multi-state analysis of the OCS ultraviolet absorption including vibrational structure

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; McBane, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The first absorption band of OCS (carbonyl sulfide) is analyzed using potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moment functions of the lowest four singlet and the lowest four triplet states. Excitation of the 2 (1)A' state is predominant except at very low photon energies. It is shown that...

  5. 33 CFR 135.103 - Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil.

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Levy of Fees § 135.103 Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil. (a) A fee of $.03 per... paragraph (a) of this section applies whenever the unobligated Fund balance is less than $200,000,000. (d...

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  7. Quantification of amine functional groups and their influence on OM/OC in the IMPROVE network

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Takahama, Satoshi; Dillner, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we developed a method using FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression to measure the four most abundant organic functional groups, aliphatic C-H, alcohol OH, carboxylic acid OH and carbonyl C=O, in atmospheric particulate matter. These functional groups are summed to estimate organic matter (OM) while the carbon from the functional groups is summed to estimate organic carbon (OC). With this method, OM and OM/OC can be estimated for each sample rather than relying on one assumed value to convert OC measurements to OM. This study continues the development of the FT-IR and PLS method for estimating OM and OM/OC by including the amine functional group. Amines are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and come from motor vehicle exhaust, animal husbandry, biomass burning, and vegetation among other sources. In this study, calibration standards for amines are produced by aerosolizing individual amine compounds and collecting them on PTFE filters using an IMPROVE sampler, thereby mimicking the filter media and collection geometry of ambient standards. The moles of amine functional group on each standard and a narrow range of amine-specific wavenumbers in the FT-IR spectra (wavenumber range 1 550-1 500 cm-1) are used to develop a PLS calibration model. The PLS model is validated using three methods: prediction of a set of laboratory standards not included in the model, a peak height analysis and a PLS model with a broader wavenumber range. The model is then applied to the ambient samples collected throughout 2013 from 16 IMPROVE sites in the USA. Urban sites have higher amine concentrations than most rural sites, but amine functional groups account for a lower fraction of OM at urban sites. Amine concentrations, contributions to OM and seasonality vary by site and sample. Amine has a small impact on the annual average OM/OC for urban sites, but for some rural sites including amine in the OM/OC calculations increased OM/OC by 0.1 or more.

  8. Export of a Winter Shelf Phytoplankton Bloom at the Shelf Margin of Long Bay (South Atlantic Bight, USA)

    Nelson, J.; Seim, H.; Edwards, C. R.; Lockhart, S.; Moore, T.; Robertson, C. Y.; Amft, J.

    2016-02-01

    A winter 2012 field study off Long Bay (seaward of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina) investigated exchange processes along the shelf margin. Topics addressed included mechanisms of nutrient input (upper slope to outer shelf), phytoplankton blooms and community characteristics (mid-to-outer shelf), and possible export of shelf bloom material (transport to and across the shelf break to the upper slope). Observations utilized three moorings (mid-shelf, shelf break, upper slope), two gliders and ship operations (repeat cruises with profiling, water sampling and towed body surveys) along with satellite SST and ocean color imagery and near-by NOAA buoy records. Here we focus on the late January to early February period, when a mid-shelf bloom of Phaeocystis globosa (which forms large gelatinous colonies) was transported to the shelf break. The presence of Phaeocystis colonies resulted in strong spiking in chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence profiles. A partitioning approach was adapted to estimate chl in colonies (spikes) and small forms (baseline signal) and to account for an apparent difference in measured in vivo fluorescence per unit chl (lower in colonies). Up to 40-50% of chl in the bloom (surface to bottom on the mid-shelf) was estimated to be in the colonies. In late January, there a pronounced seaward slumping of relatively dense mid-shelf water along the bottom under warmer surface water derived from the inshore edge of a broad jet of Gulf Stream water flowing southwestward along the upper slope. We describe the evolution of this event and the conditions which set up this mechanism for episodic near-bed transport of fresh bloom material produced on the shelf to the upper slope off Long Bay. Down-slope transport may have been enhanced in this case by the high phytoplankton biomass in gelatinous colonies, which appeared to be settling in the water column on the shelf prior to the transport event.

  9. Variation in the OC locus of Acinetobacter baumannii genomes predicts extensive structural diversity in the lipooligosaccharide.

    Johanna J Kenyon

    Full Text Available Lipooligosaccharide (LOS is a complex surface structure that is linked to many pathogenic properties of Acinetobacter baumannii. In A. baumannii, the genes responsible for the synthesis of the outer core (OC component of the LOS are located between ilvE and aspS. The content of the OC locus is usually variable within a species, and examination of 6 complete and 227 draft A. baumannii genome sequences available in GenBank non-redundant and Whole Genome Shotgun databases revealed nine distinct new types, OCL4-OCL12, in addition to the three known ones. The twelve gene clusters fell into two distinct groups, designated Group A and Group B, based on similarities in the genes present. OCL6 (Group B was unique in that it included genes for the synthesis of L-Rhamnosep. Genetic exchange of the different configurations between strains has occurred as some OC forms were found in several different sequence types (STs. OCL1 (Group A was the most widely distributed being present in 18 STs, and OCL6 was found in 16 STs. Variation within clones was also observed, with more than one OC locus type found in the two globally disseminated clones, GC1 and GC2, that include the majority of multiply antibiotic resistant isolates. OCL1 was the most abundant gene cluster in both GC1 and GC2 genomes but GC1 isolates also carried OCL2, OCL3 or OCL5, and OCL3 was also present in GC2. As replacement of the OC locus in the major global clones indicates the presence of sub-lineages, a PCR typing scheme was developed to rapidly distinguish Group A and Group B types, and to distinguish the specific forms found in GC1 and GC2 isolates.

  10. Glacial morphology and depositional sequences of the Antarctic Continental Shelf

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a simple model for the unusual depositional sequences and morphology of the Antarctic continental shelf. It considers the regional stratal geometry and the reversed morphology to be principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the ice grounding line. The model offers several guidelines for stratigraphic interpretation of the Antarctic shelf and a Northern Hemisphere shelf, both of which were subject to many glacial advances and retreats. -Authors

  11. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Chemotrophic Ecosystem Beneath the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Leventer, A.; Domack, E.; Ishman, S.; Sylva, S.; Willmott, V.; Huber, B.; Padman, L.

    2005-12-01

    The first living chemotrophic ecosystem in the Southern Ocean was discovered in a region of the seafloor previously occupied by the Larsen-B Ice Shelf. A towed video survey documents an ecosystem characterized by a bottom-draping white mat that appears similar to mats of Begiattoa, hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria, and bivalves, 20-30 cm large, similar to vesicomyid clams commonly found at cold seeps. The carbon source is unknown; three potential sources are hypothesized. First, thermogenically-produced methane may occur as the marine shales of this region are similar to hydrocarbon-bearing rocks to the north in Patagonia. The site occurs in an 850 m deep glacially eroded trough located along the contact between Mesozoic-Tertiary crystalline basement and Cretaceous-Tertiary marine rocks; decreased overburden could have induced upward fluid flow. Also possible is the dissociation of methane hydrates, a process that might have occurred as a result of warming oceanic bottom waters. This possibility will be discussed in light of the distribution of early diagenetic ikaite in the region. Third, the possibility of a biogenic methane source will be discussed. A microstratigraphic model for the features observed at the vent sites will be presented; the system is comprised of mud mounds with central vents and surrounding mud flow channels. A series of still image mosaics record the dynamic behavior of the system, which appears to demonstrate episodic venting. These images show the spatial relationship between more and less active sites, as reflected in the superposition of several episodes of mud flow activity and the formation of mud channels. In addition, detailed microscale features of the bathymetry of the site will be presented, placing the community within the context of glacial geomorphologic features. The Larsen-B Ice Shelf persisted through the entire Holocene, limiting carbon influx from a photosynthetic source. Tidal modeling of both pre and post breakup

  13. Cyclonic entrainment of preconditioned shelf waters into a frontal eddy

    Everett, J. D.; Macdonald, H.; Baird, M. E.; Humphries, J.; Roughan, M.; Suthers, I. M.

    2015-02-01

    The volume transport of nutrient-rich continental shelf water into a cyclonic frontal eddy (entrainment) was examined from satellite observations, a Slocum glider and numerical simulation outputs. Within the frontal eddy, parcels of water with temperature/salinity signatures of the continental shelf (18-19°C and >35.5, respectively) were recorded. The distribution of patches of shelf water observed within the eddy was consistent with the spiral pattern shown within the numerical simulations. A numerical dye tracer experiment showed that the surface waters (≤50 m depth) of the frontal eddy are almost entirely (≥95%) shelf waters. Particle tracking experiments showed that water was drawn into the eddy from over 4° of latitude (30-34.5°S). Consistent with the glider observations, the modeled particles entrained into the eddy sunk relative to their initial position. Particles released south of 33°S, where the waters are cooler and denser, sunk 34 m deeper than their release position. Distance to the shelf was a critical factor in determining the volume of shelf water entrained into the eddy. Entrainment reduced to 0.23 Sv when the eddy was furthest from the shelf, compared to 0.61 Sv when the eddy was within 10 km of the shelf. From a biological perspective, quantifying the entrainment of shelf water into frontal eddies is important, as it is thought to play a significant role in providing an offshore nursery habitat for coastally spawned larval fish.

  14. Shelf life prediction of apple brownies using accelerated method

    Pulungan, M. H.; Sukmana, A. D.; Dewi, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life of apple brownies. Shelf life was determined with Accelerated Shelf Life Testing method and Arrhenius equation. Experiment was conducted at 25, 35, and 45°C for 30 days. Every five days, the sample was analysed for free fatty acid (FFA), water activity (Aw), and organoleptic acceptance (flavour, aroma, and texture). The shelf life of the apple brownies based on FFA were 110, 54, and 28 days at temperature of 25, 35, and 45°C, respectively.

  15. Clay mineral distribution on tropical shelf: an example from the western shelf of India

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of RV Gaveshani were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral content. The distribution of total clay ( 4 mu fraction...

  16. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  17. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  18. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Przhemenetskaya, V F

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  19. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  20. Quantum cascade laser spectroscopy of OCS isotopologues in 4He nanodroplets: A test of adiabatic following for a heavy rotor

    Faulkner, Ty; Miller, Isaac; Raston, Paul L.

    2018-01-01

    We report high-resolution infrared spectra of OCS isotopologues embedded in helium nanodroplets that were recorded with a newly built spectrometer. For the normal isotopologue, we observed the relatively weak third bending overtone band, in addition to new high J transitions in the C-O stretching fundamental, which has previously been investigated by diode laser spectroscopy [S. Grebenev et al., J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4485 (2000)]. Similar to the gas phase, the overtone band is (only) 45 cm-1 higher in energy than the fundamental, and this leads to additional broadening due to rapid vibrational relaxation that is accompanied by the creation of real/virtual phonon excitations. We also observed spectra in the C-O stretching fundamental for several minor isotopologues of OCS, including 18OCS, O13CS, and OC33S, in addition to some new peaks for OC34S. A rovibrational analysis allowed for determination of the moment of inertia of helium (ΔIHe) that couples to the rotation of OCS for each isotopologue. In the context of the adiabatic following approximation, the helium density structure that follows the rotation of OCS should essentially remain unchanged between the isotopologues, i.e., there should be no dependence of ΔIHe on the gas phase moment of inertia of OCS (IG). While this behavior was expected for the "heavy" OCS rotor investigated here, we instead found an approximately linear 1:1 relation between ΔIHe and IG, which suggests partial breakdown of the adiabatic following approximation, making OCS the heaviest molecule for which evidence for this effect has been obtained.

  1. OC10 - Inter-rater agreement of the Paediatric Early Warning Score tools used in the central Denmark region

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Vebert Olesen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    through simultaneous blinded PEWS assessment on the same patients by two nurses. Fleiss' kappa was utilized to determine the level of agreement among the raters. CONCLUSION: With a paucity of published reliability testing studies, this research attempts to address identified research gaps and will thus...

  2. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  3. Fracture response of SiOC based composites on dynamic loading

    Halasová, Martina; Černý, Martin; Strachota, Adam; Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 11 (2015), s. 1547-1554 ISSN 0021-9983 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/2445 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : SiOC glass * basalt reinforcement * woven fabric * impact strength * energy consumption * fracture surface Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (USMH-B); CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 1.242, year: 2015

  4. Drug kinetics release from Eudragit – Tenofovir@SiOC tablets

    Tamayo, A., E-mail: aitanath@icv.csic.es [Ceramics and Glass Institute, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Mazo, M.A. [Ceramics and Glass Institute, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Veiga, M.D.; Ruiz-Caro, R.; Notario-Pérez, F. [Dpt. Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Rubio, J. [Ceramics and Glass Institute, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    A novel drug release system has been obtained in form of tablets from Eudragit® RS and tenofovir loaded on porous silicon oxycarbide glasses (SiOC). Active carbon (AC) and mesoporous silica (MCM-41) have also been used for comparative purposes. The porous silicon oxycarbide presents a bimodal mesopore size distribution that is maintained after functionalization with amino groups. We have studied the adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium when the materials are loaded with tenofovir and, in all cases, pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm have been revealed as the most representative models describing the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. Besides, the tenofovir adsorption on these materials turns out to be a favorable process. In vitro release of tenofovir has been studied in simulated vaginal medium by applying different release models. Continuous tenofovir release for > 20 days has been obtained for the SiOC material functionalized with amine groups. We concluded that the drug release occurs in two steps that involve a drug diffusion step through the material pores and diffusion through the swollen polymer. The interactions between the tenofovir drug and de amine groups of the functionalized silicon oxycarbide also play an important role in the release process. - Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodinamic parameters of the adsorption of tenofovir on porous substrates have been obtained. • Sustained release of TFV for > 20 days in SVF when it is supported on SiOC and manufactured as Eudragit®RS-containing tablets. • Release described by a two-step process involving diffusion through SiOC matrix and subsequent diffusion through the polymer.

  5. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study)

    Dinger, Juergen C; Bardenheuer, Kristina; Assmann, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d) was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne). However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral...

  6. Additional studies of competition and performance in OCS oil and gas sales, 1954-1975

    Mead, Walter J.; Sorensen, Philip Edward

    1980-01-01

    Economic rent is commonly defined in economics as any payment to a factor of production in excess of the minimum necessary to engage it in production. In the case of OCS lands owned by the federal government, the minimum supply price necessary to induce the federal government to lease production rights would be the costs of establishing and administering lease contracts. Assuming, for the sake of simplicity, that these costs are small enough to be ignored in the analysis, all payments to the federal government for use of OCS lands are forms of economic rent. An ideal leasing system should transfer the full amount of economic rent implicit in OCS resources to the federal government. Whether such a complete transfer of economic rent occurs depends upon the conditions of competition in the market for OCS leases. The principal means for capturing economic rent under the bidding system employed by the federal government over the years 1954-1969 are the bonus paid by the highest bidder and a royalty payment which has historically been fixed at 16 2/3 percent of gross production value. Of less importance is an annual rental payment, usually about \\$3.00 per acre, which is paid as long as a tract under lease is not producing.In the sections which follow, major factors affecting the capture of economic rent by the federal government are discussed and data are presented which demonstrate the importance of the different means used. In computing the amounts of economic rent captured by the federal government, the discounted cash flow technique is employed. This requires selection of an appropriate discount rate, in contrast to the internal rate of return analysis used in Part I, above.

  7. Total hemispherical emissivity of pre-oxidized and un-oxidized Zr-2.5Nb pressure-tube materials at 600 {sup o}C to 1000 {sup o}C under vacuum

    Fong, R.W.L.; Paine, M.; Nitheanandan, T., E-mail: randy.fong@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    The emissivity of pre-oxidized and un-oxidized pressure-tube specimens has been measured at high temperatures under vacuum. The emissivity values of un-oxidized tube specimens decreased only slightly from 0.34 at 600 {sup o}C to 0.30 at 800 {sup o}C and changed gradually to 0.25 at 1000 {sup o}C. In comparison, the emissivity of pre-oxidized pressure-tube specimens decreased drastically from 0.70 at 600 {sup o}C to 0.35 at 800 {sup o}C, and gradually decreased to 0.25 at 1000 {sup o}C. The oxide layer of the pre-oxidized tube specimens dissolved into the metal matrix when heated to 700 {sup o}C and higher. Using these results, 2 linear correlations were obtained for emissivity with the oxide thickness measured by scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis. (author)

  8. Effect of Gamma Radiations on the Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry Fruit of the Uttrakhand Region

    Sharma, Prianka; Rastogi, Meetu

    2016-08-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiations on the quality and shelf life of strawberries. The aim of this study was to evaluate gamma radiation doses in range of 0.3- 1.5 kGy. The irradiated strawberries were stored in ambient (temperature 25 +- 2oC, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (3 +-1oC, RH 80%) conditions. In samples treated with dose 1.2-1.5 kGy no decay was recorded up to 9 days of ambient conditions. Under refrigerated conditions, strawberry samples of unirradiated and irradiated in the range of 0.3-0.9 kGy started decaying after 14 days of storage. No decay was observed in the samples treated with 1.2-1.5 kGy up to 28 days of refrigerated storage. Dose of 1.2 kGy was significantly effective in reducing the weight loss and in maintaining the higher overall acceptability under both the storage conditions compared to the other treatments. This dose also proved effective in retention of significantly higher levels of total sugars compared to the other treatments. Thus, it was established that irradiating strawberries with dose of 1.2 kGy can prove beneficial in facilitating the marketing of the fruit to distant places other than the local markets, thereby benefiting the growers.

  9. DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR RETAIL SHELF SPACE OPTIMIZATION

    B. RAMASESHAN; N. R. ACHUTHAN; R. COLLINSON

    2008-01-01

    Efficient allocation of shelf space and product assortment can significantly improve a retailer's profitability. This paper addresses the problem from the perspective of an independent franchise retailer. A Category Management Decision Support Tool (CMDST) is proposed that efficiently generates optimal shelf space allocations and product assortments by using the existing scarce resources, resulting in increased profitability. CMDST utilizes two practical integrated category management models ...

  10. Environmental controls on micro fracture processes in shelf ice

    Sammonds, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The recent retreat and collapse of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula has been associated with regional atmospheric warming, oceanic warming, increased summer melt and shelf flexure. Although the cause of collapse is a matter of active discussion, the process is that of fracture of a creep-brittle material, close to its melting point. The environmental controls on how fracturing initiates, at a micro-scale, strongly determine the macroscopic disintegration of ice shelves. In particular the shelf temperature profile controls the plasticity of the ice shelf; the densification of shelf ice due to melting and re-freezing affects the crack tip stress intensity; the accretion of marine ice at the bottom of the shelf imposes a thermal/mechanical discontinuity; saline environments control crack tip stress corrosion; cyclic loading promotes sub-critical crack propagation. These strong environmental controls on shelf ice fracture means that assessing shelf stability is a non-deterministic problem. How these factors may be parameterized in ice shelf models, through the use of fracture mechanisms maps, is discussed. The findings are discussed in relation to the stability of Larsen C.

  11. The Statoil/Hydro fusion in a continental shelf perspective

    Osmundsen, Petter

    2007-01-01

    The article analysis the consequences of the Statoil/Hydro merger on the development on the Norwegian continental shelf. Various indicators of results of the market power the merger are presented and the effects of reduced competition on the markets are discussed. The advantages of the merger on the activities on the shelf are analyzed. (tk)

  12. Damage reduces shelf-life of sweetpotato during marketing | Mtunda ...

    Damage reduces shelf-life of sweetpotato during marketing. ... K. Mtunda, D. Chilosa, E. Rwiza, M. Kilima, H. Kiozya, R. Munisi, R. Kapinga, D. Rees. Abstract. Although sweetpotato is primarily grown for home consumption, marketing is becoming increasingly important, and in this case, short shelf-life of the roots is a major ...

  13. State of the soft bottoms of the continental shelf

    Guzman Alvis, Angela I; Solano, Oscar David

    2002-01-01

    The presented information, it is based on studies carried out on the continental shelf of the Colombian Caribbean, mainly in the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the Magdalena and Guajira departments in the last ten years. A diagnostic is done of the soft bottoms of the Colombian continental shelf

  14. Geochemistry of sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India

    Mascarenhas, A.; Paropkari, A.L.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The bulk and partition geochemistry of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Cu have been investigated in sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India. The results show that (1) the bulk geochemistry varies from one shelf unit to the other, (2) all...

  15. Shelf-life dating of shelf-stable strawberry juice based on survival analysis of consumer acceptance information.

    Buvé, Carolien; Van Bedts, Tine; Haenen, Annelien; Kebede, Biniam; Braekers, Roel; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann; Grauwet, Tara

    2018-07-01

    Accurate shelf-life dating of food products is crucial for consumers and industries. Therefore, in this study we applied a science-based approach for shelf-life assessment, including accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT), acceptability testing and the screening of analytical attributes for fast shelf-life predictions. Shelf-stable strawberry juice was selected as a case study. Ambient storage (20 °C) had no effect on the aroma-based acceptance of strawberry juice. The colour-based acceptability decreased during storage under ambient and accelerated (28-42 °C) conditions. The application of survival analysis showed that the colour-based shelf-life was reached in the early stages of storage (≤11 weeks) and that the shelf-life was shortened at higher temperatures. None of the selected attributes (a * and ΔE * value, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content) is an ideal analytical marker for shelf-life predictions in the investigated temperature range (20-42 °C). Nevertheless, an overall analytical cut-off value over the whole temperature range can be selected. Colour changes of strawberry juice during storage are shelf-life limiting. Combining ASLT with acceptability testing allowed to gain faster insight into the change in colour-based acceptability and to perform shelf-life predictions relying on scientific data. An analytical marker is a convenient tool for shelf-life predictions in the context of ASLT. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Multi-shelf domestic solar dryer

    Singh, Parm Pal; Singh, Sukhmeet; Dhaliwal, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The solar dryer described in this paper can be used for drying various products at home under hygienic conditions with the self guarantee of adulteration free product. This solar dryer is of multi-shelf design, consisting of three perforated trays arranged one above the other. The drying air flows through the product by natural circulation. One of its novel features is variable inclination to capture more solar energy in different seasons. Another novel feature is the option to dry product under shade or without shade as per requirement. The rate of drying is uniform in all the trays due to heating of the air by solar energy in between the trays. The maximum stagnation temperature of this solar dryer was found to be 100 deg. C in the month of November at Ludhiana (31 o N). The moisture evaporation on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd drying day for drying fenugreek leaves was 0.23, 0.18 and 0.038 kg/m 2 h. To overcome the problem of reduction in efficiency on the second and third drying day, a semi-continuous mode of loading has been investigated, in which the efficiency remains almost the same on all drying days. The drying rate in the dryer was more than double that in open shade drying. Moreover, the final moisture content of the product was low enough (7.3% wb) for grinding it to a powder form and for good shelf life (1 year). An uncertainty analysis was performed, and the uncertainty in the efficiency was found to be 1.35%. An economic analysis was performed by three methods. The cost of drying fenugreek leaves in the domestic solar dryer turned out to be about 60% of that in an electric dryer. The cumulative present worth of the savings are much higher (18,316 Rupees) than the capital cost of the dryer (1600 Rupees). The payback period is also very low (<2 years) as compared to the life of the dryer (20 years), so the dryer will dry product free of cost during almost its entire life period. The quality and shelf life of the dried products are comparable to those of

  17. Operating Cooperatively (OC sensor for highly specific recognition of nucleic acids.

    Evan M Cornett

    Full Text Available Molecular Beacon (MB probes have been extensively used for nucleic acid analysis because of their ability to produce fluorescent signal in solution instantly after hybridization. The indirect binding of MB probe to a target analyte offers several advantages, including: improved genotyping accuracy and the possibility to analyse folded nucleic acids. Here we report on a new design for MB-based sensor, called 'Operating Cooperatively' (OC, which takes advantage of indirect binding of MB probe to a target analyte. The sensor consists of two unmodified DNA strands, which hybridize to a universal MB probe and a nucleic acid analyte to form a fluorescent complex. OC sensors were designed to analyze two human SNPs and E. coli 16S rRNA. High specificity of the approach was demonstrated by the detection of true analyte in over 100 times excess amount of single base substituted analytes. Taking into account the flexibility in the design and the simplicity in optimization, we conclude that OC sensors may become versatile and efficient tools for instant DNA and RNA analysis in homogeneous solution.

  18. Uncertainty Analysis of OC5-DeepCwind Floating Semisubmersible Offshore Wind Test Campaign: Preprint

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This paper examines how to assess the uncertainty levels for test measurements of the Offshore Code Comparison, Continued, with Correlation (OC5)-DeepCwind floating offshore wind system, examined within the OC5 project. The goal of the OC5 project was to validate the accuracy of ultimate and fatigue load estimates from a numerical model of the floating semisubmersible using data measured during scaled tank testing of the system under wind and wave loading. The examination of uncertainty was done after the test, and it was found that the limited amount of data available did not allow for an acceptable uncertainty assessment. Therefore, this paper instead qualitatively examines the sources of uncertainty associated with this test to start a discussion of how to assess uncertainty for these types of experiments and to summarize what should be done during future testing to acquire the information needed for a proper uncertainty assessment. Foremost, future validation campaigns should initiate numerical modeling before testing to guide the test campaign, which should include a rigorous assessment of uncertainty, and perform validation during testing to ensure that the tests address all of the validation needs.

  19. Glacigenic landforms and sediments of the Western Irish Shelf

    McCarron, Stephen; Monteys, Xavier; Toms, Lee

    2013-04-01

    Vibrocoring of possible glacigenic landforms identified from high resolution bathymetric coverage of the Irish Shelf by the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) has provided several clusters of short (<3m) cores that, due to a regional post-glacial erosional event, comprise last glacial age stratigraphies. In addition, new shallow seismic data and sedimentological information from across the Western Irish Shelf provide new insights into aspects of the nature, timing and pattern of shelf occupation by grounded lobate extensions of the last Irish Ice Sheet. Restricted chronological control of deglacial sequences in several cores indicates that northern parts of the western mid-shelf (south of a prominent outer Donegal Bay ridge) were ice free by ~24 ka B.P., and that ice had also probably retreated from outer shelf positions (as far west as the Porcupine Bank) at or before this time.

  20. The surface climatology of the Ross Ice Shelf Antarctica.

    Costanza, Carol A; Lazzara, Matthew A; Keller, Linda M; Cassano, John J

    2016-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS) project has been making meteorological surface observations on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) for approximately 30 years. This network offers the most continuous set of routine measurements of surface meteorological variables in this region. The Ross Island area is excluded from this study. The surface climate of the RIS is described using the AWS measurements. Temperature, pressure, and wind data are analysed on daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual time periods for 13 AWS across the RIS. The AWS are separated into three representative regions - central, coastal, and the area along the Transantarctic Mountains - in order to describe specific characteristics of sections of the RIS. The climatology describes general characteristics of the region and significant changes over time. The central AWS experiences the coldest mean temperature, and the lowest resultant wind speed. These AWSs also experience the coldest potential temperatures with a minimum of 209.3 K at Gill AWS. The AWS along the Transantarctic Mountains experiences the warmest mean temperature, the highest mean sea-level pressure, and the highest mean resultant wind speed. Finally, the coastal AWS experiences the lowest mean pressure. Climate indices (MEI, SAM, and SAO) are compared to temperature and pressure data of four of the AWS with the longest observation periods, and significant correlation is found for most AWS in sea-level pressure and temperature. This climatology study highlights characteristics that influence the climate of the RIS, and the challenges of maintaining a long-term Antarctic AWS network. Results from this effort are essential for the broader Antarctic meteorology community for future research.

  1. Coastal currents and mass transport of surface sediments over the shelf regions of Monterey Bay, California

    Wolf, S.C.

    1970-01-01

    In Monterey Bay, the highest concentrations of medium and fine sands occur nearshore between ten and thirty fathoms. Silt and clay accumulate in greater depths. Contours of median diameter roughly parallel the isobaths. Fine-grained materials are supplied to the bay region from erosion of cliffs which partly surround Monterey Bay, from sediment laden river discharge, and from continual reworking of widespread Pleistocene and Recent sea floor sediments. These sediments in turn are picked up by coastal currents and distributed over the shelf regions by present day current regimes. Studies of bottom currents over the shelf regions and in Monterey Canyon have revealed patterns which vary with seasonal changes. Current patterns during August and September exhibit remarkable symmetry about the axis of Monterey Submarine Canyon. Central Shelf currents north and south of Monterey Canyon flowed northwest at an average rate of 0.2 knots and south at 0.3 knots respectively. On the North Shelf between January and March currents flowed east to southeast at 0.3-0.5 knots with mirror image patterns above the South Shelf during the same period. Irregular current flow in the canyon indicates a complex current structure with frequent shifts in counterclockwise and clockwise direction over very short periods of time. Bottom topography of the canyon complex often causes localization of canyon currents. One particular observation at a depth of 51 fathoms indicated up-canyon flow at a rate of 0.2 knots. Most of the observed currents are related to seasonal variations, upwelling, ocean swell patterns, and to changes in the California and Davidson currents. Changes in current regimes are reflected in the patterns of sediment distribution and transport. Sediment transport is chiefly parallel to the isobaths, particularly on the North and South Shelf regions. Complex dispersal patterns are observed near Monterey Canyon and Moss Landing Harbor jetties. Longshore currents move sediments

  2. Radium variability produced by shelf-water transport and mixing in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Reid, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface western Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations of both isotopes during March 1976 were approx. 22 to 26% greater than those observed during February 1973. It is shown that analytical differences cannot account for this increase. Consideration of radium levels in the western Caribbean Sea indicates that there must be an internal source of radium that has a significant but temporally variable influence on near-surface radium concentrations in the western Gulf. Comparisons of radium, salinity, and temperature data from 1973 and 1976 provide evidence that advective transport and mixing of radium-rich shelf water with the interior water column of the western basin is responsible for the variability. By plotting 228 Ra vs 226 Ra from this region, estimates of the apparent shelf-water component in the upper water column can be made. The results indicate 36% over the northern slope, 10 to 18% in the central western Gulf, and 3 to 7% over Campeche Bank. In addition to explaining observed short-term variations of radium in this region, this information should be useful for environmental impact assessments concerned with industrial discharges on the northern shelf. (author)

  3. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton distribution on the southern Brazilian shelf: an overview

    Rubens M. Lopes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The southern Brazilian coast is the major fishery ground for the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis, a species responsible for up to 40% of marine fish catches in the region. Fish spawning and recruitment are locally influenced by seasonal advection of nutrient-rich waters from both inshore and offshore sources. Plankton communities are otherwise controlled by regenerative processes related to the oligotrophic nature of the Tropical Water from the Brazil Current. As recorded in other continental margins, zooplankton species diversity increases towards outer shelf and open ocean waters. Peaks of zooplankton biomass and ichthyoplankton abundance are frequent on the inner shelf, either at upwelling sites or off large estuarine systems. However, meandering features of the Brazil Current provide an additional mechanism of upward motion of the cold and nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water, increasing phyto- and zooplankton biomass and production on mid- and outer shelves. Cold neritic waters originating off Argentina, and subtropical waters from the Subtropical Convergence exert a strong seasonal influence on zooplankton and ichthyoplankton distribution towards more southern areas. This brief review highlights the need for further experimental studies on zooplankton life cycle strategies in order to understand the major processes controlling food web dynamics in this shelf ecosystem.

  4. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  5. Trace metal fronts in European shelf waters

    Kremling, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Hebrides shelf edge area is characterized by strong horizontal salinity gradients (fronts) which mark the boundary between Scottish coastal and oceanic waters. The results presented here, obtained in summer 1981 on a transect between the open north Atlantic and the German Bight, confirm that the hydrographical front is accompanied by dramatic increases in inorganic nutrients (phosphate, silicate) and dissolved trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Mn, and 226 Ra. These data (together with measurements from North Sea regions) suggest that the trace metals are mobilized from partly reduced (organic-rich) sediments and vertically mixed into the surface waters. The regional variations evident from the transect are interpreted as being the result of the hydrography prevailing in waters around the British Isles. (author)

  6. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  7. The Asymmetric Continental Shelf Wave in Response to the Synoptic Wind Burst in a Semienclosed Double-Shelf Basin

    Qu, Lixin; Lin, Xiaopei; Hetland, Robert D.; Guo, Jingsong

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the asymmetric structure of continental shelf wave in a semienclosed double-shelf basin, such as the Yellow Sea. Supported by in situ observations and realistic numerical simulations, it is found that in the Yellow Sea, the shelf wave response to the synoptic wind forcing does not match the mathematically symmetric solution of classic double-shelf wave theory, but rather exhibits a westward shift. To study the formation mechanism of this asymmetric structure, an idealized model was used and two sets of experiments were conducted. The results confirm that the asymmetric structure is due to the existence of a topographic waveguide connecting both shelves. For a semienclosed basin, such as the Yellow Sea, a connection at the end of the basin eliminates the potential vorticity barrier between the two shelves and hence plays a role as a connecting waveguide for shelf waves. This waveguide enables the shelf wave to propagate from one shelf to the other shelf and produces the asymmetric response in sea level and upwind flow evolutions.

  8. Continuous In-situ Measurements of Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) and Carbon Dioxide Isotopes to Constrain Ecosystem Carbon and Water Exchanges

    Rastogi, B.; Still, C. J.; Noone, D. C.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Whelan, M.; Lai, C. T.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Gupta, M.; Leen, J. B.; Huang, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control the terrestrial exchange of carbon and water are critical for examining the role of forested ecosystems in changing climates. A small but increasing number of studies have identified Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) as a potential tracer for photosynthesis. OCS is hydrolyzed by an irreversible reaction in leaf mesophyll cells that is catalyzed by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase. Leaf- level field and greenhouse studies indicate that OCS uptake is controlled by stomatal activity and that the ratio of OCS and CO2 uptake is reasonably constant. Existing studies on ecosystem OCS exchange have been based on laboratory measurements or short field campaigns and therefore little information on OCS exchange in a natural ecosystem over longer timescales is available. The objective of this study is to further assess the stability of OCS as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis in an active forested ecosystem and also to assess its utility for constraining transpiration, since both fluxes are mediated by canopy stomatal conductance. An off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer (Los Gatos Research Inc.) was deployed at the Wind River Experimental Forest in Washington (45.8205°N, 121.9519°W). Canopy air was sampled from four heights as well as the soil to measure vertical gradients of OCS within the canopy, and OCS exchange between the forest and the atmosphere for the growing season. Here we take advantage of simultaneous measurements of the stable isotopologues of H2O and CO2 at corresponding heights as well as NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) from eddy covariance measurements to compare GPP (Gross Primary Production) and transpiration estimates from a variety of independent techniques. Our findings also seek to allow assessment of the environmental and ecophysicological controls on evapotranspiration rates, which are projected to change in coming decades, and are otherwise poorly constrained.

  9. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study

    Assmann Anita

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne. However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs. The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC is designed to investigate the short- and long-term safety of the new regimen in a population which is representative for the typical user of oral contraceptives. Methods/Design A large, prospective, controlled, non-interventional, long-term cohort study with active surveillance of the study participants has been chosen to ensure reliable and valid results. More than 2,000 gynecologists in the US and 5 European countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden will recruit more than 80,000 OC users. The two to five year follow-up of these women will result in at least 220,000 documented women-years. The main clinical outcomes of interest for the follow-up are deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. Secondary objectives are general safety, effectiveness and drug utilization pattern of DRSP/EE 24d, return to fertility after stop of OC use, as well as the baseline risk for users of individual OC formulations. Because of the non-interference character of this study, potential participants (first-time users or switchers are informed about the study only after the decision regarding prescription of a new OC. There are no specific medical inclusion or exclusion criteria. Study participation is voluntary and a written informed consent is required. After the baseline questionnaire, follow-up questionnaires will be mailed to the participants every 6 months for up to 5 years after

  10. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study).

    Dinger, Juergen C; Bardenheuer, Kristina; Assmann, Anita

    2009-11-18

    A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d) was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne). However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC) is designed to investigate the short- and long-term safety of the new regimen in a population which is representative for the typical user of oral contraceptives. A large, prospective, controlled, non-interventional, long-term cohort study with active surveillance of the study participants has been chosen to ensure reliable and valid results. More than 2,000 gynecologists in the US and 5 European countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden) will recruit more than 80,000 OC users. The two to five year follow-up of these women will result in at least 220,000 documented women-years. The main clinical outcomes of interest for the follow-up are deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. Secondary objectives are general safety, effectiveness and drug utilization pattern of DRSP/EE 24d, return to fertility after stop of OC use, as well as the baseline risk for users of individual OC formulations. Because of the non-interference character of this study, potential participants (first-time users or switchers) are informed about the study only after the decision regarding prescription of a new OC. There are no specific medical inclusion or exclusion criteria. Study participation is voluntary and a written informed consent is required. After the baseline questionnaire, follow-up questionnaires will be mailed to the participants every 6 months for up to 5 years after baseline. Self-reported serious adverse events

  11. Lack of cross-shelf transport of sediments on the western margin of India: Evidence from clay mineralogy

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.

    transported long distances along the shelf, cross-shelf transport appears to be minimal. Confirmatory evidence of qualitative differences in outer and inner shelf clays is provided by sediment trap clay mineralogy on the outer shelf. Clay bound pollutant...

  12. Coastal ocean transport patterns in the central Southern California Bight

    Noble, M.A.; Rosenberger, K.J.; Hamilton, P.; Xu, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, several large programs that monitor currents and transport patterns for periods from a few months to a few years were conducted by a consortium of university, federal, state, and municipal agencies in the central Southern California Bight, a heavily urbanized section of the coastal ocean off the west coast of the United States encompassing Santa Monica Bay, San Pedro Bay, and the Palos Verdes shelf. These programs were designed in part to determine how alongshelf and cross-shelf currents move sediments, pollutants, and suspended material through the region. Analysis of the data sets showed that the current patterns in this portion of the Bight have distinct changes in frequency and amplitude with location, in part because the topography of the shelf and upper slope varies rapidly over small spatial scales. However, because the mean, subtidal, and tidal-current patterns in any particular location were reasonably stable with time, one could determine a regional pattern for these current fields in the central Southern California Bight even though measurements at the various locations were obtained at different times. In particular, because the mean near-surface flows over the San Pedro and Palos Verdes shelves are divergent, near-surface waters from the upper slope tend to carry suspended material onto the shelf in the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. Water and suspended material are also carried off the shelf by the mean and subtidal flow fields in places where the orientation of the shelf break changes abruptly. The barotropic tidal currents in the central Southern California Bight flow primarily alongshore, but they have pronounced amplitude variations over relatively small changes in alongshelf location that are not totally predicted by numerical tidal models. Nonlinear internal tides and internal bores at tidal frequencies are oriented more across the shelf. They do not have a uniform transport direction, since they move fine sediment

  13. Assessing the fitness-for-purpose of satellite multi-mission ocean color climate data records: A protocol applied to OC-CCI chlorophyll-a data.

    Mélin, F; Vantrepotte, V; Chuprin, A; Grant, M; Jackson, T; Sathyendranath, S

    2017-12-15

    In this work, trend estimates are used as indicators to compare the multi-annual variability of different satellite chlorophyll- a (Chl a ) data and to assess the fitness-for-purpose of multi-mission Chl a products as climate data records (CDR). Under the assumption that single-mission products are free from spurious temporal artifacts and can be used as benchmark time series, multi-mission CDRs should reproduce the main trend patterns observed by single-mission series when computed over their respective periods. This study introduces and applies quantitative metrics to compare trend distributions from different data records. First, contingency matrices compare the trend diagnostics associated with two satellite products when expressed in binary categories such as existence, significance and signs of trends. Contingency matrices can be further summarized by metrics such as Cohen's κ index that rates the overall agreement between the two distributions of diagnostics. A more quantitative measure of the discrepancies between trends is provided by the distributions of differences between trend slopes. Thirdly, maps of the level of significance P of a t -test quantifying the degree to which two trend estimates differ provide a statistical, spatially-resolved, evaluation. The proposed methodology is applied to the multi-mission Ocean Colour-Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) Chl a data. The agreement between trend distributions associated with OC-CCI data and single-mission products usually appears as good as when single-mission products are compared. As the period of analysis is extended beyond 2012 to 2015, the level of agreement tends to be degraded, which might be at least partly due to the aging of the MODIS sensor on-board Aqua. On the other hand, the trends displayed by the OC-CCI series over the short period 2012-2015 are very consistent with those observed with VIIRS. These results overall suggest that the OC-CCI Chl a data can be used for multi-annual time

  14. Polar Epsilon MODIS and Fused MODIS / RADARSAT MetOc Products for National Defence and Domestic Security

    2006-03-01

    contexte L’état de la mer influe sur le rendement des armes et des capteurs navals, des navires et du personnel à bord ; par conséquent, les...canadiennes (voir le tableau qui suit) en étendant les capacités des produits océanographiques opérationnels de MetOc Halifax jusque dans les eaux...relativement aux applications MetOc des capteurs multispectraux à bord d’engins spatiaux. La stratégie révisée tiendrait compte i) des capteurs exploités par

  15. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    S. Berger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB, i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique – based on satellite observations – to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation. Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from −14.7 to 8.6 m a−1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a−1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks. However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite

  16. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g-1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g-1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g-1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g-1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however, in the

  17. Neural Network Modeling to Predict Shelf Life of Greenhouse Lettuce

    Wei-Chin Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse-grown butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. can potentially be stored for 21 days at constant 0°C. When storage temperature was increased to 5°C or 10°C, shelf life was shortened to 14 or 10 days, respectively, in our previous observations. Also, commercial shelf life of 7 to 10 days is common, due to postharvest temperature fluctuations. The objective of this study was to establish neural network (NN models to predict the remaining shelf life (RSL under fluctuating postharvest temperatures. A box of 12 - 24 lettuce heads constituted a sample unit. The end of the shelf life of each head was determined when it showed initial signs of decay or yellowing. Air temperatures inside a shipping box were recorded. Daily average temperatures in storage and averaged shelf life of each box were used as inputs, and the RSL was modeled as an output. An R2 of 0.57 could be observed when a simple NN structure was employed. Since the "future" (or remaining storage temperatures were unavailable at the time of making a prediction, a second NN model was introduced to accommodate a range of future temperatures and associated shelf lives. Using such 2-stage NN models, an R2 of 0.61 could be achieved for predicting RSL. This study indicated that NN modeling has potential for cold chain quality control and shelf life prediction.

  18. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  19. The exchange of inorganic carbon on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is an area that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds and resulting cross-shelf Ekman transport. Downwelling carries inorganic carbon and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world oceans. Upwelling carries water high in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of inorganic carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore and cross-shelf transport of inorganic carbon is quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf is analyzed and the resulting influence on the carbonate system, including the saturation state of aragonite and pH levels, is investigated. TA and δ18O are used to examine water mass distributions in the study area and analyze the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key in order to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and to provide a basis for understanding how its role will respond to the aforementioned changes in the regional marine system.

  20. Modeling the nitrogen fluxes in the Black Sea using a 3D coupledhydrodynamical-biogeochemical model: transport versus biogeochemicalprocesses, exchanges across the shelf break and comparison of the shelf anddeep sea ecodynamics

    M. Grégoire

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-compartment biogeochemical model of nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity has been coupled with a 3D general circulation model in an enclosed environment (the Black Sea so as to quantify and compare, on a seasonal and annual scale, the typical internal biogeochemical functioning of the shelf and of the deep sea as well as to estimate the nitrogen and water exchanges at the shelf break. Model results indicate that the annual nitrogen net export to the deep sea roughly corresponds to the annual load of nitrogen discharged by the rivers on the shelf. The model estimated vertically integrated gross annual primary production is 130gCm-2yr-1 for the whole basin, 220gCm-2yr-1 for the shelf and 40gCm-2yr-1 for the central basin. In agreement with sediment trap observations, model results indicate a rapid and efficient recycling of particulate organic matter in the sub-oxic portion of the water column (60-80m of the open sea. More than 95% of the PON produced in the euphotic layer is recycled in the upper 100m of the water column, 87% in the upper 80 m and 67% in the euphotic layer. The model estimates the annual export of POC towards the anoxic layer to 4 1010molyr-1. This POC is definitely lost for the system and represents 2% of the annual primary production of the open sea.

  1. The effect of Hurricane Lili on the distribution of organic matter along the inner Louisiana shelf (Gulf of Mexico, USA)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Gordon, Elizabeth S.; Monacci, Natalie M.; Clinton, Rebecca; Gisewhite, Rachel; Allison, Mead A.; Kineke, Gail

    2006-11-01

    On October 3, 2002 Hurricane Lili made landfall on a previously studied region of the inner Louisiana shelf as a Category 2 storm with winds over 160 km/h. A week after the hurricane, major impacts of the storm were not evident in the water column except for the lower than expected inshore salinities (˜12 psu) for this time of year, which was characterized by low river discharge. Turbidity profiles were typical of those measured during previous investigations with suspended sediment concentrations >75 mg/L at inshore stations and <50 mg/L in surface waters and offshore. The implication is that the sediments resuspended during the hurricane settled soon after the storm passage. Water column particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations ranged from 0.1 to over 2.0 mg/L, with the highest concentrations measured near the seabed and in the inshore portions of the study area. Suspended particles were characterized by low organic matter content (%POC of 0.5-2 wt%), low chlorophyll:POC ratios (Chl:POC<4 mg/g) and moderately elevated POC:particulate nitrogen ratios (POC:PN of 10-14 mol/mol), all suggesting their source was locally resuspended seabed sediment rather than from algal biomass or land-derived vascular plant detritus. Post hurricane sediment deposition throughout the study area resulted in a storm layer that ranged from <0.5 to 20 cm in thickness. In most locations sediment accumulation ranged from 3 to 10 cm. The storm deposits were generally composed of silty clays with a coarser, somewhat sandy 1-2 cm basal layer. Surface sediments from the storm layer were characterized by relatively high mineral surface areas (SA of 30-50 m 2/g) and elevated OC contents (%OC of 1.0-2.0%). The dispersal of fine sediments following the hurricane resulted in marked changes in the SA and %OC values of surface sediments from offshore locations, which prior to the storm contained coarser, organic-poor particles (SA of 5-15 m 2/g and %OC of 0.2-0.6%). The OC:SA and OC:N ratios

  2. Maximizing Shelf Life of Paneer-A Review.

    Goyal, Sumit; Goyal, Gyanendra Kumar

    2016-06-10

    Paneer resembling soft cheese is a well-known heat- and acid-coagulated milk product. It is very popular in the Indian subcontinent and has appeared in the western and Middle East markets. The shelf life of paneer is quite low and it loses freshness after two to three days when stored under refrigeration. Various preservation techniques, including chemical additives, packaging, thermal processing, and low-temperature storage, have been proposed by researchers for enhancing its shelf life. The use of antimicrobial additives is not preferred because of perceived toxicity risks. Modified atmosphere packaging has been recommended as one of the best techniques for maximizing the shelf life of paneer.

  3. Shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurisation

    Niemand, J.G.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The article discusses the shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurization. In order to assess the potential of this process on the South African market, a detailed investigation was carried out to determine the shelf-life extension under local conditions. The following aspects were investigated; 1) reduction of bacterial numbers at different radurisation doses; 2) influence of storage temperature on shelf-life and 3) the elimination of Salmonella. Organoleptic testing was carried out on poultry radurised to doses of 3, 5, 7,5 and 10 kGy as well as on non-radurised controls

  4. Shelf break circulation in the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    Niebauer, H.J.; Roberts, J.; Royer, T.C.

    1981-05-20

    Current observations from a mooring on the continental shelf near the shelf break in the Gulf of Alaska, with supporting hydrographic and metorological data, are discussed for the period 1976 to March 1977. The described features suggest strong influence by the cyclonic Alaska Gyre for the periods April--June 1976 and October 1976 to March 1977. From July--September 1976 there is evidence of current veering and rotation. It is hypothesized that these current fluctuations are eddies which are important in mixing processes across the shelf.

  5. Ultrasensitive Analyzer for Realtime, In-Situ Airborne and Terrestrial Measurements of OCS, CO2, and CO, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) will employ its patented mid-infrared Off-Axis ICOS technique to develop a compact carbonyl sulfide (OCS), carbon...

  6. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  7. Sc2O@Cs(126339)-C92: Di-scandium oxide cluster encapsulated into a large fullerene cage

    Gu, Yong-Xin; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Li, De-Huai; Zhao, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2018-04-01

    The geometric, electronic structure and thermodynamic stability of Sc2O@C92 has been characterized by using hybrid density functional theory calculations combined with statistical thermodynamic analyses. Results indicate that the isolated pentagon rule (IPR) isomers Sc2O@Cs(126339)-C92, Sc2O@C1(126367)-C92 and Sc2O@C1(126390)-C92 are favorable. Noteworthy, it is the first time to declare that fullerene isomer Cs(126339)-C92 could be considered as the suitable cage to encapsulate metallic cluster. The electronic properties of these three isomers were performed with frontier molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO) analyses and bond order calculations. Finally, 13C NMR and UV-vis-NIR spectra were simulated to provide valuable information for future experiments.

  8. Inter-comparison of NIOSH and IMPROVE protocols for OC and EC determination: implications for inter-protocol data conversion

    Wu, Cheng; Huang, X. H. Hilda; Ng, Wai Man; Griffith, Stephen M.; Zhen Yu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are operationally defined by analytical methods. As a result, OC and EC measurements are protocol dependent, leading to uncertainties in their quantification. In this study, more than 1300 Hong Kong samples were analyzed using both National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) thermal optical transmittance (TOT) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) thermal optical reflectance (TOR) protocols to explore the cause of EC disagreement between the two protocols. EC discrepancy mainly (83 %) arises from a difference in peak inert mode temperature, which determines the allocation of OC4NSH, while the rest (17 %) is attributed to a difference in the optical method (transmittance vs. reflectance) applied for the charring correction. Evidence shows that the magnitude of the EC discrepancy is positively correlated with the intensity of the biomass burning signal, whereby biomass burning increases the fraction of OC4NSH and widens the disagreement in the inter-protocol EC determination. It is also found that the EC discrepancy is positively correlated with the abundance of metal oxide in the samples. Two approaches (M1 and M2) that translate NIOSH TOT OC and EC data into IMPROVE TOR OC and EC data are proposed. M1 uses direct relationship between ECNSH_TOT and ECIMP_TOR for reconstruction: M1 : ECIMP_TOR = a × ECNSH_TOT + b; while M2 deconstructs ECIMP_TOR into several terms based on analysis principles and applies regression only on the unknown terms: M2 : ECIMP_TOR = AECNSH + OC4NSH - (a × PCNSH_TOR + b), where AECNSH, apparent EC by the NIOSH protocol, is the carbon that evolves in the He-O2 analysis stage, OC4NSH is the carbon that evolves at the fourth temperature step of the pure helium analysis stage of NIOSH, and PCNSH_TOR is the pyrolyzed carbon as determined by the NIOSH protocol. The implementation of M1 to all urban site data (without considering seasonal specificity

  9. Cryolithozone of Western Arctic shelf of Russia

    Kholmyanskii, Mikhail; Vladimirov, Maksim; Snopova, Ekaterina; Kartashev, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new original version of the structure of the cryolithozone of west Arctic seas of Russia. In contrast to variants of construction of sections and maps based on thermodynamic modeling, the authors have used electrometric, seismic, and thermal data including their own profile measurements by near-field transient electromagnetic technique and seismic profile observations by reflection method. As a result, we defined the spatial characteristics of cryolithozone and managed to differentiate it to several layers, different both in structure and formation time. We confirmed once again that the spatial boundary of cryolithozone, type and thickness of permafrost, chilled rocks and thawed ground are primarily determined by tectonic and oceanographic regimes of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent land in different geological epochs. Permafrost formed on the land in times of cold weather, turn to submarine during flooding and overlap, in the case of the sea transgression, by marine sediments accumulating in the period of warming. We have been able to establish a clear link between the permafrost thickness and the geomorphological structure of the area. This can be explained by the distribution of thermodynamic flows that change the temperature state of previously formed permafrost rocks. Formation in the outer parts of the shelf which took place at ancient conversion stage can be characterized by the structure: • permafrost table - consists of rocks, where the sea water with a temperature below 0 °C has replaced the melted ice; • middle horizon - composed of undisturbed rocks, and the rocks chilled through the lower sieving underlay; As a result of the interpretation and analysis of all the available data, the authors created a map of types of cryolithozone of the Western Arctic shelf of Russia. The following distribution areas are marked on the map: • single-layer cryolithozone (composed of sediments upper Pleistocene and Holocene); • monosyllabic relict

  10. Photodissociation of OCS: deviations between theory and experiment, and the importance of higher order correlation effects.

    Schmidt, J A; Olsen, J M H

    2014-11-14

    The photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) was investigated theoretically in a series of studies by Schmidt and co-workers. Initial studies [J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, G. C. McBane, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 131101 (2012); J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, G. C. McBane, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 054313 (2012)] found photodissociation in the first UV-band to occur mainly by excitation of the 2(1)A' (A) excited state. However, in a later study [G. C. McBane, J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 094314 (2013)] it was found that a significant fraction of photodissociation must occur by excitation of 1(1)A″ (B) excited state to explain the product angular distribution. The branching between excitation of the A and B excited states is determined by the magnitude of the transition dipole moment vectors in the Franck-Condon region. This study examines the sensitivity of these quantities to changes in the employed electronic structure methodology. This study benchmarks the methodology employed in previous studies against highly correlated electronic structure methods (CC3 and MRAQCC) and provide evidence in support of the picture of the OCS photodissociation process presented in [G. C. McBane, J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 094314 (2013)] showing that excitation of A and B electronic states both contribute significantly to the first UV absorption band of OCS. In addition, this study presents evidence in support of the assertion that the A state potential energy surface employed in previous studies underestimates the energy at highly bent geometries (γ ∼ 70°) leading to overestimated rotational energy in the product CO.

  11. Kinetic of the Oxygen Control System (OCS) for stagnant lead-bismuth systems

    Lefhalm, C.H.; Knebel, J.U.; Mack, K.J.

    2001-09-01

    Within the framework of the HGF strategy fund project 99/16 ''Thermalhydraulic and Material Specific Investigations into the Realization of an accelerator driven system (ADS) to Transmute Minor Actinides'' at the institute for nuclear and energy technology (IKET) investigations on the cooling of thermally high-loaded surfaces with liquid lead bismuth (Pb-Bi) are carried out. To operate a Pb-Bi loop safety, for example in order to cool a spallation target or a blanket of an accelerator driven system (ADS), the control of the oxygen concentration within the liquid metal is an inalienable prerequisite to prevent or minimize corrosion at the structure material. In this report the kinetic behaviour of the oxygen control system (OCS), which was developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, is examined. The OCS controls the chemical potential of oxygen in the liquid metal by regulating the oxygen content in the gas phase which flows over the free surface of the liquid metal. In this work the experimental facility KOCOS (kinetics of oxygen control system) in the karlsruhe lead laboratory (KALLA) was built. A physical diffusion model was utilised and extended to describe the exchange of oxygen between the gas and the liquid metal. The theoretical calculations are in very good agreement to the experimental findings. The OCS allows to control reversibly the oxygen concentration in the liquid metal. According to the observed kinetics of the process one can extrapolate that the control of large volumes, as they are necessary to operate an ADS demonstrator, is possible. Therefore, further experiments in liquid metal loop systems are suggested. (orig.)

  12. Photodissociation of OCS: Deviations between theory and experiment, and the importance of higher order correlation effects

    Schmidt, J. A.; Olsen, J. M. H.

    2014-01-01

    The photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) was investigated theoretically in a series of studies by Schmidt and co-workers. Initial studies [J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, G. C. McBane, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 131101 (2012); J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, G. C. McBane, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 054313 (2012)] found photodissociation in the first UV-band to occur mainly by excitation of the 2 1 A ′ (A) excited state. However, in a later study [G. C. McBane, J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 094314 (2013)] it was found that a significant fraction of photodissociation must occur by excitation of 1 1 A ″ (B) excited state to explain the product angular distribution. The branching between excitation of the A and B excited states is determined by the magnitude of the transition dipole moment vectors in the Franck-Condon region. This study examines the sensitivity of these quantities to changes in the employed electronic structure methodology. This study benchmarks the methodology employed in previous studies against highly correlated electronic structure methods (CC3 and MRAQCC) and provide evidence in support of the picture of the OCS photodissociation process presented in [G. C. McBane, J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 094314 (2013)] showing that excitation of A and B electronic states both contribute significantly to the first UV absorption band of OCS. In addition, this study presents evidence in support of the assertion that the A state potential energy surface employed in previous studies underestimates the energy at highly bent geometries (γ ∼ 70°) leading to overestimated rotational energy in the product CO

  13. Male imitations : a look at gender performance and the representation of masculinity in The O.C.

    Tenden, Per Aubrey Bugge

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines teen soap The O.C. s representation of gender and masculinity. The study employs a social constructivist view of gender, particularly inspired by Judith Butler s work. Moreover, theories on masculinity, masquerade and melodrama, feminist theory and the work of Camille Paglia also make up important theoretical groundwork which this thesis rests on. The main question I structure my thesis around is how gender and masculinity are represented in The O.C through the characters...

  14. Trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) within an Arctic marine food web from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas

    Hoekstra, P.F.; O'Hara, T.M.; Fisk, A.T.; Borgaa, K.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    The trophic status and biomagnification of persistent OCs within the near-shore Beaufort-Chukchi Seas food web from Barrow, AK is discussed. - Stable isotope values (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) and concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined to evaluate the near-shore marine trophic status of biota and biomagnification of OCs from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas (1999-2000) near Barrow, AK. The biota examined included zooplankton (Calanus spp.), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), along with marine mammals, including bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). The isotopically derived trophic position of biota from the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas marine food web, avian fauna excluded, is similar to other coastal food webs in the Arctic. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals were significantly greater than in fish and corresponded with determined trophic level. In general, OCs with the greatest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were those either formed due to biotransformation (e.g. p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane) or considered recalcitrant (e.g. β-HCH, 2,4,5-Cl substituted PCBs) in most biota, whereas concentrations of OCs that are considered to be readily eliminated (e.g. γ-HCH) did not correlate with trophic level. Differences in physical-chemical properties of OCs, feeding strategy and possible biotransformation were reflected in the variable biomagnification between fish and marine mammals. The FWMFs in the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas region were consistent with reported values in the Canadian Arctic and temperate food webs, but were statistically different than FWMFs from the Barents and White Seas, indicating that the spatial variability of OC contamination in top-level marine Arctic predators is

  15. Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) and Pelargonic Acid Vanillylamide (PAVA or Nonivamide) Hand-Held Devices

    2007-05-01

    observation time was too late to observe any effect , or the rabbit is not a good model for the skin irritating effect of PAVA. In an irritation study...exposures to OC, including effects on the skin of workers handling chili peppers, did not report any cases of sensitization (Stopford, 2004). This...Capsaicinoids No studies evaluating GI tract effects were identified for PAVA. Ingestion of OC (in the context of natural pepper products, such as chili

  16. Charge Accumulation in LDPE and XLPE Conditioned at 80oC under Reduced Pressure

    Fleming, Robert J.; Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim T.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of thermal conditioning, under reduced pressure, on space accumulation in planar LDPE and XLPE samples under DC stress, have been investigated. The samples were conditioned prior to voltage application by being held at 80oC for 2-3 days in short circuit at rotary pump pressure. Some...... were then cooled to room temperature over a period of at least 6hr, still under rotary pump pressure and in short circuit, while others were cooled to room temperature in less than 1.5hr in the laboratory air. DC fields of 18kV/mm were then applied at room temperature, and space charge accumulation...

  17. New Insights into Understanding Irreversible and Reversible Lithium Storage within SiOC and SiCN Ceramics

    Magdalena Graczyk-Zajac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Within this work we define structural properties of the silicon carbonitride (SiCN and silicon oxycarbide (SiOC ceramics which determine the reversible and irreversible lithium storage capacities, long cycling stability and define the major differences in the lithium storage in SiCN and SiOC. For both ceramics, we correlate the first cycle lithiation or delithiation capacity and cycling stability with the amount of SiCN/SiOC matrix or free carbon phase, respectively. The first cycle lithiation and delithiation capacities of SiOC materials do not depend on the amount of free carbon, while for SiCN the capacity increases with the amount of carbon to reach a threshold value at ~50% of carbon phase. Replacing oxygen with nitrogen renders the mixed bond Si-tetrahedra unable to sequester lithium. Lithium is more attracted by oxygen in the SiOC network due to the more ionic character of Si-O bonds. This brings about very high initial lithiation capacities, even at low carbon content. If oxygen is replaced by nitrogen, the ceramic network becomes less attractive for lithium ions due to the more covalent character of Si-N bonds and lower electron density on the nitrogen atom. This explains the significant difference in electrochemical behavior which is observed for carbon-poor SiCN and SiOC materials.

  18. New Insights into Understanding Irreversible and Reversible Lithium Storage within SiOC and SiCN Ceramics.

    Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Reinold, Lukas Mirko; Kaspar, Jan; Sasikumar, Pradeep Vallachira Warriam; Soraru, Gian-Domenico; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-02-24

    Within this work we define structural properties of the silicon carbonitride (SiCN) and silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) ceramics which determine the reversible and irreversible lithium storage capacities, long cycling stability and define the major differences in the lithium storage in SiCN and SiOC. For both ceramics, we correlate the first cycle lithiation or delithiation capacity and cycling stability with the amount of SiCN/SiOC matrix or free carbon phase, respectively. The first cycle lithiation and delithiation capacities of SiOC materials do not depend on the amount of free carbon, while for SiCN the capacity increases with the amount of carbon to reach a threshold value at ~50% of carbon phase. Replacing oxygen with nitrogen renders the mixed bond Si-tetrahedra unable to sequester lithium. Lithium is more attracted by oxygen in the SiOC network due to the more ionic character of Si-O bonds. This brings about very high initial lithiation capacities, even at low carbon content. If oxygen is replaced by nitrogen, the ceramic network becomes less attractive for lithium ions due to the more covalent character of Si-N bonds and lower electron density on the nitrogen atom. This explains the significant difference in electrochemical behavior which is observed for carbon-poor SiCN and SiOC materials.

  19. Atomistic Origins of High Capacity and High Structural Stability of Polymer-Derived SiOC Anode Materials.

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Kejie

    2017-10-11

    Capacity and structural stability are often mutually exclusive properties of electrodes in Li-ion batteries (LIBs): a gain in capacity is usually accompanied by the undesired large volumetric change of the host material upon lithiation. Polymer-derived ceramics, such as silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) of hybrid Si-O-C bonds, show an exceptional combination of high capacity and superior structural stability. We investigate the atomistic origins of the unique chemomechanical performance of carbon-rich SiOC using the first-principles theoretical approach. The atomic model of SiOC is composed of continuous Si-O-C units caged by a graphene-like cellular network and percolated nanovoids. The segregated sp 2 carbon network serves as the backbone to maintain the structural stability of the lattice. Li insertion is first absorbed at the nanovoid sites, and then it is accommodated by the SiOC tetrahedral units, excess C atoms, and topological defects at the edge of or within the segregated carbon network. SiOC expands up to 22% in volumetric strain at the fully lithiated capacity of 1230 mA h/g. We examine in great detail the evolution of the microscopic features of the SiOC molecule in the course of Li reactions. The first-principles modeling provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical properties of Si-based glass ceramics for their application in LIBs.

  20. Long-term intensive management increased carbon occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) in bamboo forest soils

    Huang, Zhang-Ting; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Chang, Scott X.; Song, Zhao-Liang; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Guo-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Carbon (C) occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) is highly stable at millennium scale and its accumulation in soils can help increase long-term C sequestration. Here, we report that soil PhytOC storage significantly increased with increasing duration under intensive management (mulching and fertilization) in Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) plantations. The PhytOC storage in 0-40 cm soil layer in bamboo plantations increased by 217 Mg C ha-1, 20 years after being converted from paddy fields. The PhytOC accumulated at 79 kg C ha-1 yr-1, a rate far exceeding the global mean long-term soil C accumulation rate of 24 kg C ha-1 yr-1 reported in the literature. Approximately 86% of the increased PhytOC came from the large amount of mulch applied. Our data clearly demonstrate the decadal scale management effect on PhytOC accumulation, suggesting that heavy mulching is a potential method for increasing long-term organic C storage in soils for mitigating global climate change.

  1. Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) as a proxy for GPP: Complications derived from studies on the impact of CO2, soil humidity and sterilization on the OCS exchange between soils and atmosphere

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Behrendt, Thomas; Yi, Zhigang; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide is discussed to be used as a proxy for gross primary productivity (GPP) of forest ecosystems. However, soils may interfere. Soils play an important role in budgeting global and local carbonyl sulfide (OCS) fluxes, yet the available data on the uptake and emission behavior of soils in conjunction with environmental factors is limited. The work of many authors has shown that the OCS exchange of soils depends on various factors, such as soil type, atmospheric OCS concentrations, temperature or soil water content (Kesselmeier et al., J. Geophys. Res., 104, No. D9, 11577-11584, 1999; Van Diest & Kesselmeier, Biogeosciences, 5, 475-483, 2008; Masyek et al., PNAS, 111, No 25, 9064-9069, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1319132111, 2014; Whelan and Rhew, J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosciences., 120, 54-62, doi: 10.1002/2014JG002661, 2015) and the light dependent and obviously abiotic OCS production as reported by Whelan and Rhew (2015). To get a better constraint on the impact of some environmental factors on the OCS exchange of soils we used a new laser based integrated cavity output spectroscopy instrument (LGR COS/CO Analyzer Model 907-0028, Los Gatos, Mountain View, California, USA) in conjunction with an automated soil chamber system (as described in Behrendt et al, Biogeosciences, 11, 5463-5492, doi: 10.5194/bg-11-5463-2014, 2014). The OCS exchange of various soils under the full range of possible soil humidity and various CO2 mixing ratios was examined. Additionally OCS exchange of chloroform sterilized subsamples was compared to their live counterparts to illuminate the influence of microorganisms. Results were quite heterogeneous between different soils. With few exceptions, all examined soils show dependence between OCS exchange and soil humidity, usually with strongest uptake at a certain humidity range and less uptake or even emission at higher and lower humidity. Differences in CO2 mixing ratio also clearly impacts on OCS exchange, but trends for different soils

  2. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  3. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  4. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  5. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  6. Biodegradable Long Shelf Life Food Packaging Material, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long shelf life food packaging is a critical to maintaining the crew's well being in NASA's manned missions to the mars. Not only does the packaging have to offer an...

  7. Gypsum crystals in the inner shelf sediments off Maharashtra, India

    Hashimi, N.H.; Ambre, N.V.

    Gypsum crystals have been found in the inner shelf silty clay/clayey silt off the Maharashtra Coast between Vengurla and Bombay. Generally these occur as euhedral single or twinned crystals of selenite. Very often shells are found embedded within...

  8. The Effectiveness of Light Shelf in Tropical Urban Context

    Binarti Floriberta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Light shelf was developed to create uniform indoor illuminance. However, in hot climates the unshaded clerestory above the shelf transmits high solar heat gain. In dense urban context, these advantages and disadvantages might vary regarding the context and position of the fenestration. This study employed an integrated energy simulation software to investigate the effectiveness of light shelf application in a tropical urban context in terms of building energy consumption. Radiance and EnergyPlus based simulations performed the effects of urban canyon aspect ratio and external surface albedo on the daylighting performances, space cooling load, as well as the lighting energy consumption of the building equipped with lightshelves in 2 humid tropical cities. Comparison of the energy performances of 3 fenestration systems, i.e. fenestration without any shading device, with overhangs, and with light shelves, yielded some recommendations concerning the best application of light shelf on the certain floor levels and aspect ratio of the urban context.

  9. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L ...

    Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) Fruit as Influenced by ... evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on postharvest storage of mango. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  10. Sediments of the western continental shelf of India - Environmental significance

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    The degree of fragmentation and colour of the skeletal fragments, colouration in benthic foraminifers have been studied in surficial sediment samples collected from forty stations from the continental shelf region between Ratnagiri in the south...

  11. Shelf life study on Nuclear Malaysia biofertilizer products

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate solubilising bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are biofertilizer microorganisms known to increase crop yields. It is important to prepare suitable sterile carriers or substrates for these microorganisms into biofertilizer products with long shelf life. Optimum storage conditions, especially storage temperature is needed to improve shelf life of the products. Isolates of two phosphate solubilising bacteria (AP1 and AP3) and one plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (AP2) have been developed into biofertilizer products in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NuclearMalaysia). These isolates were inoculated into a compost-based carrier, sterilised by gamma irradiation at 50 kGy, from MINTec-SINAGAMA, Nuclear Malaysia. Biofertilizer products kept at low temperatures (9 ± 2 degree C) showed better shelf life (storage for six months) as compared to those stored at room temperatures (28 ± 2 degree C). Further observation of the shelf life is still in progress. (Author)

  12. Application of inversion techniques on marine magnetic data: Andaman shelf

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Murty, G.P.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Rao, M.M.M.; Narayana, S.L.

    with optimisation procedure of iteration modelling. The depths derived from these methods match well with the acoustic basement mapped by seismic reflection survey across the Andaman shelf. The interpretation by these methods demonstrates the rapid utility in virgin...

  13. Extension of Space Food Shelf Life Through Hurdle Approach

    Cooper, M. R.; Sirmons, T. A.; Froio-Blumsack, D.; Mohr, L.; Young, M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    The processed and prepackaged space food system is the main source of crew nutrition, and hence central to astronaut health and performance. Unfortunately, space food quality and nutrition degrade to unacceptable levels in two to three years with current food stabilization technologies. Future exploration missions will require a food system that remains safe, acceptable and nutritious through five years of storage within vehicle resource constraints. The potential of stabilization technologies (alternative storage temperatures, processing, formulation, ingredient source, packaging, and preparation procedures), when combined in hurdle approach, to mitigate quality and nutritional degradation is being assessed. Sixteen representative foods from the International Space Station food system were chosen for production and analysis and will be evaluated initially and at one, three, and five years with potential for analysis at seven years if necessary. Analysis includes changes in color, texture, nutrition, sensory quality, and rehydration ratio when applicable. The food samples will be stored at -20 C, 4 C, and 21 C. Select food samples will also be evaluated at -80 C to determine the impacts of ultra-cold storage after one and five years. Packaging film barrier properties and mechanical integrity will be assessed before and after processing and storage. At the study conclusion, if tested hurdles are adequate, formulation, processing, and storage combinations will be uniquely identified for processed food matrices to achieve a five-year shelf life. This study will provide one of the most comprehensive investigations of long duration food stability ever completed, and the achievement of extended food system stability will have profound impacts to health and performance for spaceflight crews and for relief efforts and military applications on Earth.

  14. Oceanographic controls on sedimentary and geochemical facies on the Peru outer shelf and upper slope

    Arthur, Michael A.; Dean, Walter E.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of organic matter in surface sediments deposited under an intense oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) on the Peru margin were mapped and studied in samples from deck-deployed box cores and push cores acquired by submersible on two east-west transects spanning depths of 75 to 1,000 meters (m) at 12°S and 13.5°S. On the basis of sampling and analyses of the top 1–2 centimeters (cm) of available cores, three main belts of sediments were identified on each transect with increasing depth: (1) muds rich in organic carbon (OC); (2) authigenic phosphatic mineral crusts and pavements; and (3) glaucony facies.Sediments rich in OC on the 12°S transect were mainly located on the outer shelf and upper slope (150–350 m), but they occurred in much shallower water (approximately 100 m) on the 13.5°S transect. The organic matter is almost entirely marine as confirmed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis and isotopic composition of OC. Concentrations of OC are highest (up to 18 percent) in sediments within the OMZ where dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are Peru margin can only become buried and incorporated into the geologic record once bottom currents slacken sufficiently to allow fine-grained sediment to accumulate.Glaucony-rich surface sediments, relatively undiluted by other components, were found mainly in deeper water on the 13.5°S transect (750 m to at least 1,067 m). These sediments consist almost entirely of sand-size glaucony pellets. These widespread glaucony sands formed in place and were then concentrated and reworked by strong currents that winnowed away the fine-grained matrix. Although the glaucony occurs in sand-size pellets, the pellets are made up of aggregates of authigenic, platy, micaceous clay minerals. Glaucony is predominantly a potassium (K), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg) aluminosilicate with an approximate formula of (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2. The glaucony on the 13.5°S transect forms by alteration of one or more

  15. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    2010-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.207-3 Marking material to show extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as...

  16. 41 CFR 102-36.455 - How do we report excess shelf-life items?

    2010-07-01

    ... shelf-life items? 102-36.455 Section 102-36.455 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.455 How do we report excess shelf-life items? You must identify the property as shelf...

  17. Sensory shelf life of mantecoso cheese using accelerated testing

    Sánchez-González, Jesús A.; Pérez, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to estimate sensory shelf life of "huacariz" and "cefop" mantecoso cheese, vacuum packaging: "cefop" and packaging to the atmospheric pressure: "huacariz"; brands marketed in Cajamarca, using accelerated shelf life testing. For this purpose, "huacariz" cheese was stored at 20, 28, 35 y 40 °C, while it was set at 20, 28, 35 °C storage for "cefop" cheese, performing acceptability sensory tests according to time storage with both 41 consumers constants. The results f...

  18. Dimers of fluorinated methanes with carbonyl sulfide: the rotational spectrum and structure of difluoromethane-OCS.

    Serafin, Michal M; Peebles, Sean A

    2008-12-11

    The pure rotational spectra of four isotopologues of the difluoromethane-carbonyl sulfide dimer have been measured in the 5-15 GHz region with use of pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The complex was determined to possess an ab plane of symmetry with a center of mass separation of 3.41(2) A and dipole moment components mu(a) = 1.1386(18) D, mu(b) = 0.4840(63) D, mu(total) = 1.2372(41) D. Experimental planar moments indicate that the two fluorine atoms straddle the symmetry plane while one of the C-H bonds of the difluoromethane monomer is aligned to interact with the oxygen atom of the OCS molecule. The assignment of the rotational spectrum for this dimer completes the experimental studies of the series of dimers involving fluorinated methanes (HCF(3), H(2)CF(2), and H(3)CF) complexed with OCS and makes possible a comparison of properties within this series.

  19. Mon Océan & Moi : Network and Teamwork to Better Connect People, Science and Education

    Scheurle, C.

    2016-02-01

    The project « mon océan & moi » can be described as a platform hosting several outreach activities. Some of these address non-scientific audiences in an international/national context and are specifically developed to reach out into school environments. The multidisciplinary team composed of senior and early-career scientists, science communicators and facilitators, school teachers and educators etc. shares common objectives based on (net-)work in a participatory way, so as to propose science-based dissemination with a long-term vision as well as to stimulate critical thinking, ideas and exchanges. Within this context, Internet is certainly an extremely useful tool accompanying the manifold efforts to "best" inform and communicate with the targeted audiences. However, it remains challenging to create opportunities for dialogue at the interface of science and education … and to encourage this dialogue to carry on. « mon océan & moi » covers a few successful outreach activities ("adopt a float" and "MEDITES") that involve scientists and teachers as well as students from universities and schools. Encouraged by the local school authority, these activities aim at different educational levels and suggest a continuous "workflow" combined with specific events (such as training courses, science fairs) during which particular contributions are highlighted. As their approach principally favors teamwork, the most positive outcome observed has been the creation of partnerships truly connecting the people …

  20. O-C analysis of the pulsating subdwarf B star PG 1219 + 534

    Otani, Tomomi; Stone-Martinez, Alexander; Oswalt, Terry D.; Morello, Claudia; Moss, Adam; Singh, Dana; Sampson, Kenneth; DeAbreu, Caila; Khan, Aliyah; Seepersad, Austin; Shaikh, Mehvesh; Wilson, Linda

    2017-01-01

    PG 1219 + 534 (KY Uma) is a subdwarf B pulsating star with multiple periodicities between 120 - 175 s. So far, the most promising theory for the origin of subdwarf B (sdB) stars is that they result from binary mass transfer near the Helium Flash stage of evolution. The observations of PG 1219 +534 reported here are part of our program to constrain this evolutional theory by searching for companions and determining orbital separations around sdB pulsators using the Observed-minus-Calculated (O-C) method. A star’s position in space will wobble due to the gravitational forces of any companion or planet. If the star emits a periodic signal like pulsations, its orbital motion around the system’s center of mass causes periodic changes in the light pulse arrival times. PG 1219 + 534 was monitored for 90 hours during 2010-1 and 2016 using the 0.9m SARA-KP telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), Arizona, and the 0.8 m Ortega telescope at Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne. In this poster we present our time-series photometry and O-C analysis of this data.

  1. Upwelling intensity modulates N2O concentrations over the western Indian shelf

    Sudheesh, V.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Sudharma, K.V.; Naik, H.; Shenoy, D.M.; Sudhakar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Pacific Ocean (off central Chile and Peru) have been identified as ‘‘hot spots’’ of N2O production with N2O saturations up to 8250% and 2426–12,244%, respectively [Naqvi et al., 2005; Cornejo et al., 2007; Ar�evalo-Mart�ınez et al., 2015]. The N2O flux per... Peru. (ETSP) 7.6–986 27–1825 Ar�evalo-Mart�ınez et al. [2015] Off central Chile (ETSP) 6.7–59 245 (30 m) 29.8–195 Cornejo et al. [2007] 5.1–30.1 206 (40 m) 27.7–42.9 Farias et al. [2009] Oman shelf 9.7–24.7 48.8 (50 m) N.G. Naqvi et al. [2010] Eastern...

  2. Influence of Late Paleozoic Gondwana glaciations on the depositional evolution of the northern Pangean shelf, North Greenland, Svalbard and the Barents Sea

    Stemmerik, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Outcrop and subsurface data from the central northern margin of the Pangean shelf in North Greenland, Svalbard, and the Norwegian Barents Sea record the depositional response of a Northern Hemisphere subtropical shelf to Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (Bashkirian-Sakmarian) Gondwana glaciations....... The dominant motif is that of meters to tens of meters of exposure-capped cycles of carbonates, mixed carbonates, and siliciclastics and, in older stratigraphic levels, siliciclastics and gypsum. Halitegypsum-carbonate cycles developed in deeper, isolated basins. Individual cycles of carbonate and mixed...

  3. Extended sorption partitioning models for pesticide leaching risk assessments: Can we improve upon the k{sub oc} concept?

    Jarvis, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas.jarvis@slu.se

    2016-01-01

    Models used to assess leaching of pesticides to groundwater still rely on the sorption k{sub oc} value, even though its limitations have been known for several decades, especially for soils of low organic carbon content (i.e. subsoils). This is mainly because the general applicability of any improved model approach that is also simple enough to use for regulatory purposes has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to test and compare alternative models of sorption that could be useful in pesticide risk assessment and management. To this end, a database containing the results of batch sorption experiments for pesticides was compiled from published studies in the literature, which placed at least as much emphasis on measurements in subsoil horizons as in topsoil. The database includes 785 data entries from 34 different published studies and for 21 different active substances. Overall, the apparent k{sub oc} value, k{sub oc(app)}, roughly doubled as the soil organic carbon content decreased by a factor of ten. Nevertheless, in nearly half of the individual datasets, a constant k{sub oc} value proved to be an adequate model. Further analysis showed that significant increases in k{sub oc(app)} in subsoil were found primarily for the more weakly adsorbing compounds (k{sub oc} values < ca. 100–200 L kg{sup −1}) and that sorption to clay in loamy and clayey-textured subsoil horizons was the main cause. Tests with the MACRO model demonstrated that sorption to clay minerals may significantly affect the outcome of regulatory exposure and risk assessments for leaching to groundwater. The k{sub oc} concept currently used in leaching models should therefore be replaced by an alternative approach that gives a more realistic representation of pesticide sorption in subsoil. The two alternative models tested in this study appear to have widespread applicability and are also simple enough to parameterize for this purpose. - Highlights: • A database was collated

  4. Note On The Ross Sea Shelf Water Downflow Processes (antarctica)

    Bergamasco, A.; Defendi, V.; Spezie, G.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.

    In the framework of the CLIMA Project of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica, three different experimental data sets were acquired along the continental shelf break; two of them (in 1997 and 2001) close to Cape Adare, the 1998 one in the middle of the Ross Sea (i.e. 75 S, 177 W). The investigations were chosen in order to explore the downslope flow of the bottom waters produced in the Ross Sea, namely the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, the densest water mass of the southern ocean coming from its formation site in the polynya region in Terra Nova bay), and the Ice Shelf Water (ISW, originated below the Ross Ice Shelf and outflowing northward). Both bottom waters spill over the shelf edge and mix with the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) contributing to the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW). Interpreting temperature, salinity and density maps in terms of cascading processes, both HSSW and ISW overflows are evidenced during, respectively, 1997 and 1998. During the 2001 acquisition there is no presence of HSSW along the shelf break, nevertheless distribution captures the evidence of a downslope flow process.

  5. Technology transfer equipment qualification methodology for shelf life determination

    Anderson, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Discussions with a number of Nuclear Utilities revealed that equipment qualified for 10 to 40 years in the harsh environment of the plant was being assigned shelf lives of only 5 to 10 years in the benign environment of the warehouse, and then the materials were being trashed. One safety-related equipment supplier was assigning a 10-year qualified life, from date of shipment, with no recognition of the difference in the aging rate in the plant vs. that in the warehouse. Many suppliers assign shelf lives based on product warranty considerations rather than actual product degradation. An EPRI program was initiated to evaluate the methods used to assign shelf lives and to adapt the Arrhenius methodology, used in equipment qualification, to assign technically justifiable shelf lives. Temperature is the main factor controlling shelf life; however, atmospheric pressure, humidity, ultraviolet light, ozone and other atmospheric contaminants were also considered. A list of 70 representative materials was addressed in the program. All of these were found to have shelf lives of 14 years to greater than 60 years, except for 19 items. For 18 of these items, there was no data available except for the manufacturer's recommendation

  6. Shelf life of packaged bakery goods--a review.

    Galić, K; Curić, D; Gabrić, D

    2009-05-01

    Packaging requirements for fresh bakery goods are often minimal as many of the products are for immediate consumption. However, packaging can be an important factor in extending the shelf life of other cereal-based goods (toast, frozen products, biscuits, cakes, pastas). Some amount of the texture changes and flavor loss manifest over the shelf life of a soft-baked good can usually be minimized or delayed by effective use of packaging materials. The gains in the extension of shelf life will be application specific. It is recognized that defining the shelf life of a food is a difficult task and is an area of intense research for food product development scientists (food technologists, microbiologists, packaging experts). Proper application of chemical kinetic principles to food quality loss allows for efficiently designing appropriate shelf-life tests and maximizing the useful information that can be obtained from the resulting data. In the development of any new food product including reformulating, change of packaging, or storage/distribution condition (to penetrate into a new market), one important aspect is the knowledge of shelf life.

  7. Accelerated Shelf Life Testing of Jackfruit Extract Powder

    Enny Hawani Loebis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jackfruit is a potential tropical fruit as raw material for food industry. Jackfruit could be processed by co-crystallization technique to extend its shelf life and increase its value. This research was conducted to study and to determine the shelf life of jackfruit powder extract. Shelf life test is conducted using variety of treatments such as: anti-caking types and temperature storage. The results showed that the shelf life of the jackfruit extract powder using anti-caking of magnesium oxide (MO, magnesium carbonate (MC, dan magnesium silicate (MS, which is store in the temperature of 27°C, were: 8.06, 5.42, and 5.5 months respectively. The variation of anti-caking type was significantly affect the product shelf life.  The effect of storage temperature on the product shelf life is more significant for the product using anti-caking MO compared with product using anti-caking MC and MS.

  8. Geochemistry of sediments of the western Canadian continental shelf

    Macdonald, R. W.; Pedersen, T. F.

    1991-08-01

    Few chemical data exist for the sedimentary environment off the Canadian west coast. Here we define the chemical nature of the shelf sediments by examining the important sources of material (natural and anthropogenic) to the region and processes relevant to diagenesis. Slightly more data exist for the continental shelf to the south (Washington) and north (Alaska), however it is clear that the sedimentary environment of these neighbouring shelves differs importantly from the Canadian portion. The British Columbia shelf receives little modern terrigenous detritus due mainly to isolation from terrestrial sediment sources by fiords, inland seas, or bypassing by shelf canyons. The chemical state of the sediments depends on the rate of supply of material, the energy of the depositional or erosional environment and the organic and inorganic composition of the material. These features in concert with bottom water characteristics control the redox state. Although no basins hosting continuous depositional records for the Holocene on the open British Columbia shelf have been identified or studied in a manner described by BUCKLEY ( Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1099-1122), some coastal embayments and fiords provide valuable historical records of post-glacial sedimentation. Such environments will prove to be increasingly useful in future studies of changes in regional climate and in establishing the chronology of natural disasters and anthropogenic impacts. Recommendations are given for a variety of research projects that would help us to understand better both chemical interactions at the seabed and Late Quaternary depositional history.

  9. Estimation of shelf life of wikau maombo brownies cake using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) method with Arrhenius model

    Wahyuni, S.; Holilah; Asranudin; Noviyanti

    2018-02-01

    The shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour was predicted by ASLT method through the Arrhenius model. The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour. The storage temperature of brownies cake was carried out at 20°C, 30°C and 45°C. The results showed that TBA (Thio Barbaturic Acid) number of brownies cake decreased as the storage temperature increase. Brownies stored at 20°C and 30°C were overgrown with mold on the storage time of six days. Brownies product (WT0 and WT1) had shelf life at 40°C approximately six and fourteen days, respectively. Brownies made from wikau maombo and wheat flour (WT1) was the best product with had the longest of shelf life about fourteen days.

  10. Understanding Ice Shelf Basal Melting Using Convergent ICEPOD Data Sets: ROSETTA-Ice Study of Ross Ice Shelf

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Fricker, H. A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.

    2017-12-01

    The future stability of the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica will be susceptible to increases in both surface and basal melt as the atmosphere and ocean warm. The ROSETTA-Ice program is targeted at using the ICEPOD airborne technology to produce new constraints on Ross Ice Shelf, the underlying ocean, bathymetry, and geologic setting, using radar sounding, gravimetry and laser altimetry. This convergent approach to studying the ice-shelf and basal processes enables us to develop an understanding of the fundamental controls on ice-shelf evolution. This work leverages the stratigraphy of the ice shelf, which is detected as individual reflectors by the shallow-ice radar and is often associated with surface scour, form close to the grounding line or pinning points on the ice shelf. Surface accumulation on the ice shelf buries these reflectors as the ice flows towards the calving front. This distinctive stratigraphy can be traced across the ice shelf for the major East Antarctic outlet glaciers and West Antarctic ice streams. Changes in the ice thickness below these reflectors are a result of strain and basal melting and freezing. Correcting the estimated thickness changes for strain using RIGGS strain measurements, we can develop decadal-resolution flowline distributions of basal melt. Close to East Antarctica elevated melt-rates (>1 m/yr) are found 60-100 km from the calving front. On the West Antarctic side high melt rates primarily develop within 10 km of the calving front. The East Antarctic side of Ross Ice Shelf is dominated by melt driven by saline water masses that develop in Ross Sea polynyas, while the melting on the West Antarctic side next to Hayes Bank is associated with modified Continental Deep Water transported along the continental shelf. The two sides of Ross Ice Shelf experience differing basal melt in part due to the duality in the underlying geologic structure: the East Antarctic side consists of relatively dense crust, with low amplitude

  11. MMS trims proposed schedule for OCS oil and gas lease sales

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Interior Department has proposed only 18 Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease sales in its new 5 year schedule. Eleven of the sales are in the Gulf of Mexico, one off the east Coast, none off the West Coast, and six off Alaska. Congress has 60 days in which to reject the 5 year lease sale plan but is not expected to. An earlier draft plan called for 23 sales. The Minerals Management Service, which administers the offshore leasing program, the the new schedule emphasizes leasing of gas prone areas

  12. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  13. Modern shelf ice, equatorial Aeolis Quadrangle, Mars

    Brakenridge, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological evolution of Aeolis Quadrangle, I have encountered evidence suggesting that near surface ice exists at low latitudes and was formed by partial or complete freezing of an inland sea. The area of interest is centered at approximately -2 deg, 196 deg. As seen in a suite of Viking Orbiter frames obtained at a range of approximately 600 km, the plains surface at this location is very lightly cratered or uncratered, and it is thus of late Amazonian age. Extant topographic data indicate that the Amazonian plains at this location occupy a trough whose surface lies at least 1000 m below the Mars datum. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. In either case, the thin (a few meters at most) high albedo, low thermal inertia cover of aeolian materials was instrumental in allowing ice preservation, and at least the lower portions of this dust cover may be cemented by water ice. Detailed mapping using Viking stereopairs and quantitative comparisons to terrestrial shelf ice geometries are underway.

  14. Nominal Device Support for ATCA Shelf Manager

    Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, Antonio J.N.; Combo, Alvaro M.; Cruz, Nuno; Correia, Carlos M.B.A.; Goncalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Miguel [Centro de Instrumentacao, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    The ATCA standard specifies a mandatory Shelf Manager (ShM) unit which is a key element for the system operation. It includes the Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC) which monitors the system health, retrieves inventory information and controls the Field Replaceable Units (FRUs). These elements enable the intelligent health monitoring, providing high-availability and safety operation, ensuring the correct system operation. For critical systems like ones of tokamak ITER these features are mandatory to support the long pulse operation. The Nominal Device Support (NDS) was designed and developed for the ITER CODAC Core System (CCS), which will be the responsible for plant Instrumentation and Control (I and C), supervising and monitoring on ITER. It generalizes the Enhanced Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) device support interface for Data Acquisition (DAQ) and timing devices. However the support for health management features and ATCA ShM are not yet provided. This paper presents the implementation and test of a NDS for the ATCA ShM, using the ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) prototype environment. This prototype is fully compatible with the ITER CCS and uses the EPICS Channel Access (CA) protocol as the interface with the Plant Operation Network (PON). The implemented solution running in an EPICS Input / Output Controller (IOC) provides Process Variables (PV) to the PON network with the system information. These PVs can be used for control and monitoring by all CA clients, such as EPICS user interface clients and alarm systems. The results are presented, demonstrating the fully integration and the usability of this solution. (authors)

  15. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with realistic continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-04-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that uses a plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere, the age distribution of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to reconstruct realistic ocean bathymetry based on parameterized relationships of present-day variables that can be applied to global oceans in the geologic past, and to isolate locations where anomalous processes such as mantle convection may affect bathymetry. Parameters of the plate cooling model are combined with ocean crustal age to calculate depth-to-basement. To the depth-to-basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are parameterized using modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and Central Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth-to-basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  16. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with generalized continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that combines a standard plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere based on the age of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus generalized shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to develop a methodology for reconstructing ocean bathymetry in the geologic past that includes heterogeneous continental margins in addition to abyssal ocean floor. First, the plate cooling model is applied to maps of ocean crustal age to calculate depth to basement. To the depth to basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A three-parameter continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Parameters of the shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are determined from modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and central Atlantic, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth to basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  17. Distinguishing between old and modern permafrost sources in the northeast Siberian land–shelf system with compound-specific δ2H analysis

    J. E. Vonk

    2017-08-01

    thus serve as endmembers to distinguish between these two sources. We tested this molecular δ2H tracer along with another source-distinguishing approach, dual-carbon (δ13C–Δ14C isotope composition of bulk OC, for a surface sediment transect in the Laptev Sea. Results show that general offshore patterns along the shelf-slope transect are similar, but the source apportionment between the approaches vary, which may highlight the advantages of either. This study indicates that the application of δ2H leaf wax values has potential to serve as a complementary quantitative measure of the source and differential fate of OC thawed out from different permafrost compartments.

  18. The FOODBANCS project: Introduction and sinking fluxes of organic carbon, chlorophyll- a and phytodetritus on the western Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf

    Smith, Craig R.; Mincks, Sarah; DeMaster, David J.

    2008-11-01

    The impact of the highly seasonal Antarctic primary production cycle on shelf benthic ecosystems remains poorly evaluated. Here we describe a times-series research project on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf designed to evaluate the seafloor deposition, and subsequent ecological and biogeochemical impacts, of the summer phytoplankton bloom along a transect crossing the Antarctic shelf near Anvers Island. During this project, entitled Food for Benthos on the Antarctic Continental Shelf (FOODBANCS), we deployed replicate sediment traps 150-170 m above the seafloor (total water-column depth of 590 m) on the central shelf from December 1999 to March 2001, recovering trap samples every 3-4 months. In addition, we used a seafloor time-lapse camera system, as well as video surveys conducted at 3-4 months intervals, to monitor the presence and accumulation of phytodetritus at the sediment-water interface. The fluxes of particulate organic carbon and chlorophyll- a into sediment traps (binned over 3-4 month intervals) showed patterns consistent with seasonal variability, with average summer fluxes during the first year exceeding winter fluxes by a factor of ˜2-3. However, inter-annual variability in summer fluxes was even greater than seasonal variability, with 4-10-fold differences in the flux of organic carbon and chlorophyll- a between the summer seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. Phytodetrital accumulation at the shelf floor also exhibited intense inter-annual variability, with no visible phytodetritus from essentially December 1999 to November 2000, followed by pulsed accumulation of 1-2 cm of phytodetritus over a ˜30,000 km 2 shelf area by March 2001. Comparisons with other studies suggest that the levels of inter-annual variability we observed are typical of the Antarctic shelf over decadal time scales. We conclude that fluxes of particulate organic carbon, chlorophyll- a and phytodetritus to WAP-shelf sediments vary intensely on seasonal to inter

  19. Duality of Ross Ice Shelf systems: crustal boundary, ice sheet processes and ocean circulation from ROSETTA-Ice surveys

    Tinto, K. J.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Das, I.; Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Siegfried, M. R.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Bathymetry beneath Antarctic ice shelves controls sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation and has a major influence on the stability and dynamics of the ice sheets. Beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, the sea-floor bathymetry is a product of both tectonics and glacial processes, and is influenced by the processes it controls. New aerogeophysical surveys have revealed a fundamental crustal boundary bisecting the Ross Ice Shelf and imparting a duality to the Ross Ice Shelf systems, encompassing bathymetry, ocean circulation and ice flow history. The ROSETTA-Ice surveys were designed to increase the resolution of Ross Ice Shelf mapping from the 55 km RIGGS survey of the 1970s to a 10 km survey grid, flown over three years from New York Air National Guard LC130s. Radar, LiDAR, gravity and magnetic instruments provide a top to bottom profile of the ice shelf and the underlying seafloor, with 20 km resolution achieved in the first two survey seasons (2015 and 2016). ALAMO ocean-profiling floats deployed in the 2016 season are measuring the temperature and salinity of water entering and exiting the sub-ice water cavity. A significant east-west contrast in the character of the magnetic and gravity fields reveals that the lithospheric boundary between East and West Antarctica exists not at the base of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), as previously thought, but 300 km further east. The newly-identified boundary spatially coincides with the southward extension of the Central High, a rib of shallow basement identified in the Ross Sea. The East Antarctic side is characterized by lower amplitude magnetic anomalies and denser TAM-type lithosphere compared to the West Antarctic side. The crustal structure imparts a fundamental duality on the overlying ice and ocean, with deeper bathymetry and thinner ice on the East Antarctic side creating a larger sub-ice cavity for ocean circulation. The West Antarctic side has a shallower seabed, more restricted ocean access and a more complex history of

  20. Radiation stress and mean drift in continental shelf waves

    Weber, Jan Erik H.; Drivdal, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E̅̅ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S̅11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio S̅11/E̅ depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of latter depends on ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deepwater drilling accidents.

  1. Feedback Limiting the Coastal Response to Irregularities in Shelf Bathymetry

    List, J. H.; Benedet, L.

    2007-12-01

    Observations and engineering studies have shown that non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry can influence longshore sediment transport gradients and create patterns of shoreline change. One classic example is from Grand Isle, Louisiana, where two offshore borrow pits caused two zones of shoreline accretion landward of the pits. In addition to anthropogenic cases, many natural situations exist in which irregularities in coastal planform are thought to result from offshore shoals or depressions. Recent studies using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D have successfully simulated the observed nearshore erosion and accretion patterns landward of an inner shelf borrow pit. An analysis of the momentum balance in a steady-state simulation has demonstrated that both alongshore pressure gradients (due to alongshore variations in wave setup) and radiation stress gradients (terms relevant to alongshore forcing) are important for forcing the initial pattern of nearshore sedimentation in response to the borrow pit. The response of the coast to non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry appears to be limited, however, because observed shoreline undulations are often rather subtle. (An exception may exist in the case of a very high angle wave climate.) Therefore, feedbacks in processes must exist such that growth of the shoreline salient itself modifies the transport processes in a way that limits further growth (assuming the perturbation in inner shelf bathymetry itself remains unchanged). Examination of the Delft3D momentum balance for an inner shelf pit test case demonstrates that after a certain degree of morphologic development the forcing associated with the well-known shoreline smoothing process (a.k.a., diffusion) counteracts the forcing associated with the inner shelf pit, producing a negative feedback which arrests further growth of the shoreline salient. These results provide insights into the physical processes that control shoreline changes behind inner shelf bathymetric anomalies (i

  2. Measurements of Schottky barrier at the low-k SiOC:H/Cu interface using vacuum ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy

    Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Zheng, H.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, S. W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Lin, Y.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chen, C.-C. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Nishi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    The band alignment between copper interconnects and their low-k interlayer dielectrics is critical to understanding the fundamental mechanisms involved in electrical leakage in low-k/Cu interconnects. In this work, vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoemission spectroscopy is utilized to determine the potential of the Schottky barrier present at low-k a-SiOC:H/Cu interfaces. By examining the photoemission spectra before and after VUV exposure of a low-k a-SiOC:H (k = 3.3) thin film fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition on a polished Cu substrate, it was found that photons with energies of 4.9 eV or greater can deplete accumulated charge in a-SiOC:H films, while VUV photons with energies of 4.7 eV or less, did not have this effect. These critical values were identified to relate the electric potential of the interface barrier between the a-SiOC:H and the Cu layers. Using this method, the Schottky barrier at the low-k a-SiOC:H (k = 3.3)/Cu interface was determined to be 4.8 ± 0.1 eV.

  3. Distinct high molecular weight organic compound (HMW-OC) types in aerosol particles collected at a coastal urban site

    Dall'Osto, M.; Healy, R. M.; Wenger, J. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Harrison, Roy M.; Beddows, D. C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Organic oligomers were discovered in laboratory-generated atmospheric aerosol over a decade ago. However, evidence for the presence of oligomers in ambient aerosols is scarce and mechanisms for their formation have yet to be fully elucidated. In this work, three unique aerosol particle types internally mixed with High molecular weight organic compounds (HMW-OC) species - likely oligomers - were detected in ambient air using single particle Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) in Cork (Ireland) during winter 2009. These particle types can be described as follows: (1) HMW-OCs rich in organic nitrogen - possibly containing nitrocatechols and nitroguaiacols - originating from primary emissions of biomass burning particles during evening times; (2) HMW-OCs internally mixed with nitric acid, occurring in stagnant conditions during night time; and (3) HMW-OCs internally mixed with sea salt, likely formed via photochemical reactions during day time. The study exemplifies the power of methodologies capable of monitoring the simultaneous formation of organic and inorganic particle-phase reaction products. Primary emissions and atmospheric aging of different types of HMW-OC contributes to aerosol with a range of acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties, which can have different impacts on climate and health.

  4. Functional expression of a proton-coupled organic cation (H+/OC antiporter in human brain capillary endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, a human blood–brain barrier model

    Shimomura Keita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the molecular basis and transport function of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB is important for not only understanding human cerebral physiology, but also development of new central nervous system (CNS-acting drugs. However, few studies have been done using human brain capillary endothelial cells, because human brain materials are difficult to obtain. The purpose of this study is to clarify the functional expression of a proton-coupled organic cation (H+/OC antiporter in human brain capillary endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, which has been recently developed as an in vitro human BBB model. Methods Diphenhydramine, [3H]pyrilamine and oxycodone were used as cationic drugs that proved to be H+/OC antiporter substrates. The in vitro uptake experiments by hCMEC/D3 cells were carried out under several conditions. Results Diphenhydramine and [3H]pyrilamine were both transported into hCMEC/D3 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with Km values of 59 μM and 19 μM, respectively. Each inhibited uptake of the other in a competitive manner, suggesting that a common mechanism is involved in their transport. The diphenhydramine uptake was significantly inhibited by amantadine and quinidine, but not tetraethylammonium and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (substrates for well-known organic cation transporters. The uptake was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors, but was insensitive to extracellular sodium and membrane potential. Further, the uptake was increased by extracellular alkalization and intracellular acidification. These transport properties are completely consistent with those of previously characterized H+/OC antiporter in rat BBB. Conclusions The present results suggest that H+/OC antiporter is functionally expressed in hCMEC/D3 cells.

  5. Possible signatures of nuclear-molecular formation in O+C systems

    Tighe, R.J.; Kolata, J.J.; Belbot, M.; Aguilera, E.F.

    1993-01-01

    The interplay between the elastic, quasielastic, and fusion reaction channels at energies from just above to well below the Coulomb barrier is investigated for O+C systems. Elastic-scattering and quasielastic-scattering angular distributions were measured using the kinematic coincidence technique. Fusion yields were obtained by direct detection of the evaporation residues using a time-of-flight energy spectrometer, at energies from just above to well below the Coulomb barrier. The fusion yields differ significantly from previous work, but the present measurements give barrier parameters consistent with systematics. Comparisons with two-center shell model and coupled-channels predictions show possible indications of nuclear-molecular formation in the elastic, inelastic, and single-neutron transfer channels

  6. Internacional : el Pacífico. Océano del siglo XXI (Coyuntura)

    Salgado Tamayo, Wilma

    1997-01-01

    El impresionante crecimiento económico de los países del Pacífico asiático en los últimos veinte años, que contrasta con el lento crecimiento de los países industrializados, ha llevado a muchos autores a sostener que el centro de gravedad de la economía mundial se está desplazando desde la Cuenca del Atlántico hacia la Cuenca del Pacífico y en ese sentido convertirse en el Océano del Siglo XXI. Un análisis más detallado, muestra sin embargo que en la Cuenca del Pacifico confluyen países y reg...

  7. OC3—Benchmark Exercise of Aero-elastic Offshore Wind Turbine Codes

    Passon, P.; Kühn, M.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Camp, T.; Larsen, T. J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper introduces the work content and status of the first international investigation and verification of aero-elastic codes for offshore wind turbines as performed by the "Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration"(OC3) within the "IEA Wind Annex XXIII - Subtask 2". An overview is given on the state-of-the-art of the concerned offshore wind turbine simulation codes. Exemplary results of benchmark simulations from the first phase of the project are presented and discussed while subsequent phases are introduced. Furthermore, the paper discusses areas where differences between the codes have been identified and the sources of those differences, such as the differing theories implemented into the individual codes. Finally, further research and code development needs are presented based on the latest findings from the current state of the project.

  8. 450 {sup o}C isothermal section of the Fe-Zn-Si ternary phase diagram

    Su, Xuping [Inst. of Materials Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan Univ., Xiangtan, Hunan (China); Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tang, Nai-Yong [Cominco Ltd., Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Toguri, J.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The 450 {sup o}C isothermal section of the Fe-Zn-Si ternary phase diagram has been determined experimentally using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry. The focus of the work has been concentrated on the Zn-rich corner which is relevant to general galvanizing. The present study has confirmed the existence of the equilibrium state between the liquid, the {zeta} phase and the FeSi phase. This three phase equilibrium state prevents the equilibrium between the liquid and the {delta} phase suggested by some researchers. Experimental results indicate that Si solubility in all four binary Zn-Fe compounds is limited. The Fe solubility in molten Zn was found to decrease with increasing Si content in the melt. The liquid phase boundary was determined using a model based phenomenological approach. (author)

  9. Size effect studies on smooth tensile specimens at room temperature and 400 {sup o}C

    Krompholz, K.; Kamber, J.; Groth, E.; Kalkhof, D

    2000-06-15

    One of the objectives of the REVISA project (REactor Vessel Integrity in Severe Accidents) is to assess the size effect related to deformation and failure models as well as material data under quasistatic and dynamic conditions in homogeneous and non-homogeneous states of strain. For these investigations the reactor pressure vessel material 20 MnMoNi 55 was selected. It was subjected to a size effect study on smooth scaled tensile specimens of three sizes. Two strain rates (2*10{sup -5}/s and 10{sup -3}/s) and two temperatures (room temperature and 400 {sup o}C) were selected. The investigations are aimed at a support for a gradient plasticity approach to size effects. Test on the small specimens (diameters 3 and 9 mm) were performed at an electromechanical test machine, while the large specimens (diameter 30 mm) had to be tested at a servohydraulical closed loop test machine with a force capacity of 1000 kN.

  10. On the dating of você, ocê and senhorita

    Odete Pereira da Silva Menon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the date when a word first appeared in the language is not only helpful for linguistic dating purposes. This information is important because it can guide studies about the actuation problem and evaluation stages (WEINREICH; LABOV; HERZOG, 1968 of linguistic changes. The present study is an attempt to locate, historically and socially, the behavior of forms to address the interlocutor, using more grammaticalized variants of the pronoun (honorific form vossa mercê, first in Portugal (você — you, en English then in Brazil (você and ocê/cê — contracted forms of você , correcting, updating and fixing the appearance dates of these occurrences. By referring to literature authors born between the 17th Century and the beginning of the 20th Century it was also possible to anticipate by half a century the dating of the noun senhorita (Eng. mistress, maybe an indicator of a new statute for women.

  11. Synthesis of SiOC:H nanoparticles by electrical discharge in hexamethyldisilazane and water

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2017-07-25

    Nanoparticles have unique properties and are useful in many applications. Efficient synthesis of high yields of nanoparticles remains a challenge. Here, we synthesized SiOC:H, a low-dielectric-constant material, by electrical discharge at the interface of hexamethyldisilazane and water. The nanoparticle production rate of our technique was ∼17 mg per minute. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to characterize the synthesized material. Heating the nanoparticles to 500 °C for 2 h released hydrogen from CHx groups and evaporated volatile compounds. Our method to produce high yields of low-dielectric-constant nanoparticles for microelectronic applications is promising.

  12. Diversité et succession des protistes dans l'océan Arctique

    Terrado, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    L'Arctique est la région du globe où le réchauffement climatique est le plus prononcé. L'étude de la diversité des microorganismes, leur dynamique de communauté et les facteurs environnementaux qui agissent sur eux s'avèrent donc importants pour comprendre comment ces communautés vont réagir à des changements environnementaux. Cette thèse explore la diversité des protistes et leur dynamique dans l'océan Arctique sur une échelle temporelle ainsi que spatiale. La méthodologie utilisée dans cett...

  13. High-harmonic spectroscopy of oriented OCS molecules: emission of even and odd harmonics.

    Kraus, P M; Rupenyan, A; Wörner, H J

    2012-12-07

    We study the emission of even and odd high-harmonic orders from oriented OCS molecules. We use an intense, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse superimposed with its phase-controlled second harmonic field to impulsively align and orient a dense sample of molecules from which we subsequently generate high-order harmonics. The even harmonics appear around the full revivals of the rotational dynamics. We demonstrate perfect coherent control over their intensity through the subcycle delay of the two-color fields. The odd harmonics are insensitive to the degree of orientation, but modulate with the degree of axis alignment, in agreement with calculated photorecombination dipole moments. We further compare the shape of the even and odd harmonic spectra with our calculations and determine the degree of orientation.

  14. Synthesis of SiOC:H nanoparticles by electrical discharge in hexamethyldisilazane and water

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Abdul Halim, Rasha; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles have unique properties and are useful in many applications. Efficient synthesis of high yields of nanoparticles remains a challenge. Here, we synthesized SiOC:H, a low-dielectric-constant material, by electrical discharge at the interface of hexamethyldisilazane and water. The nanoparticle production rate of our technique was ∼17 mg per minute. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to characterize the synthesized material. Heating the nanoparticles to 500 °C for 2 h released hydrogen from CHx groups and evaporated volatile compounds. Our method to produce high yields of low-dielectric-constant nanoparticles for microelectronic applications is promising.

  15. Phase space bottlenecks: A comparison of quantum and classical intramolecular dynamics for collinear OCS

    Gibson, L.L.; Schatz, G.C.; Ratner, M.A.; Davis, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    We compare quantum and classical mechanics for a collinear model of OCS at an energy (20 000 cm -1 ) where Davis [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1016 (1985)] had previously found that phase space bottlenecks associated with golden mean tori inhibit classical flow between different chaotic regions in phase space. Accurate quantum eigenfunctions for this two mode system are found by diagonalizing a large basis of complex Gaussian functions, and these are then used to study the evolution of wave packets which have 20 000 cm -1 average energies. By examining phase space (Husimi) distributions associated with the wave functions, we conclude that these golden mean tori do indeed act as bottlenecks which constrain the wave packets to evolve within one (or a combination of) regions. The golden mean tori do not completely determine the boundaries between regions, however. Bottlenecks associated with resonance trapping and with separatrix formation are also involved. The analysis of the Husimi distributions also indicates that each exact eigenstate is nearly always associated with just one region, and because of this, superpositions of eigenstates that are localized within a region remain localized in that region at all times. This last result differs from the classical picture at this energy where flow across the bottlenecks occurs with a 2--4 ps lifetime. Since the classical phase space area through which flux must pass to cross the bottlenecks is small compared to h for OCS, the observed difference between quantum and classical dynamics is not surprising. Examination of the time development of normal mode energies indicates little or no energy flow quantum mechanically for wave packet initial conditions

  16. Time Series of Transport and Currents on the Chukchi Shelf: 2010 - 2015

    Stabeno, P. J.; Ladd, C. A.; Mordy, C. W.; Sullivan, M. E.

    2016-02-01

    Starting in 2010, NOAA/EcoFOCI in partnership with BOEM, has measured currents and water properties at multiple mooring sites on the Chukchi shelf and slope. Observations began at three sites (C1, C2, C3) off Icy Cape in 2010 and expanded in 2013 to include three sites around Barrow Canyon and two sites northeast of Hanna Shoal. In 2014, a mooring was deployed on the slope (1000 m) northeast of Hanna Shoal. A near-continuous velocity record exists at C2 from August 2010 - September 2015. These velocity data are combined with 40 satellite-tracked drifter trajectories (drogue depth 30 m) and hydrographic transects (2010 - 2015) to examine flow patterns and transport on the eastern Chukchi shelf. Six primary hydrographic transects extending from Pt. Hope (DBO3) to Barrow Canyon (DBO5) were occupied most years. Transport past Icy Cape accounts for 40% of the transport through Bering Strait. Maximum monthly-mean transport (>0.8 Sv) is in July with low interannual variability, while the lowest monthly transports are in December - April with high interannual variability. Currents are significantly correlated with alongshore winds. Satellite-tracked drifters deployed near Bering Strait show onshelf flow at Central Channel. Drifters deployed along the Icy Cape line are transported northeastward, converging to a narrow flow, and mainly exit the shelf through Barrow Canyon. The drifters then travel westward along the slope. In summer, drifters and hydrographic sections delineate the pathways of the nutrient-poor Alaska Coastal Current, and the nutrient-rich water to the west (Bering Sea water and Anadyr water). These data were collected mainly as part of three BOEM funded projects (CHAOZ, CHAOZ-Extension and ArcWEST).

  17. Reconstructing the trophic history of the Black Sea shelf

    Yunev, Oleg; Velikova, Violeta; Carstensen, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    In the last 50 years the Black Sea has undergone large changes driven by increasing anthropogenic pressures. We estimated the integrated annual primary production (APP) for different shelf regions during the early eutrophication phase (1963-1976) using chlorophyll a and winter nitrate concentrations as proxy observations of primary production to describe its seasonal variation. For comparison, APP was estimated during the period when eutrophication peaked (1985-1992). In the early eutrophication period APP was estimated at 64-89 g C m-2 yr-1 for most part of the shelf, except the shelf part influenced by the Danube River (the shallow waters off the Romanian and Bulgarian coasts) where APP was ∼126 g C m-2 yr-1. In these two different shelf parts, APP increased to 138-190 and 266-318 g C m-2 yr-1 during the peak eutrophication period. These spatial differences are attributed to the large nutrient inputs from the Danube River. The APP estimates provide new insight into the eutrophication history of the Black Sea shelf, documenting stronger signs of eutrophiction than observed in other enclosed seas such as the Baltic Sea. Since the peak eutrophication period APP is estimated to have decreased by approximately 15-20%.

  18. Effect of III-nitride polarization on V{sub OC} in p-i-n and MQW solar cells

    Namkoong, Gon; Boland, Patrick; Foe, Kurniawan; Latimer, Kevin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Applied Research Center, 12050 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bae, Si-Young; Shim, Jae-Phil; Lee, Dong-Seon [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seong-Ran [Korea Photonics Technology Institute, 971-35, Wolchul-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-779 (Korea, Republic of); Doolittle, W. Alan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We performed detailed studies of the effect of polarization on III-nitride solar cells. Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations were assessed to determine their impacts upon the open circuit voltages (V{sub OC}) in p-i(InGaN)-n and multi-quantum well (MQW) solar cells. We found that the spontaneous polarization in Ga-polar p-i-n solar cells strongly modifies energy band structures and corresponding electric fields in a way that degrades V{sub OC} compared to non-polar p-i-n structures. In contrast, we found that piezoelectric polarization in Ga-polar MQW structures does not have a large influence on V{sub OC} compared to non-polar MQW structures. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea.

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C; Daniels, Chris J; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters. Hence, to improve our understanding of environmental drivers of phytoplankton communities, biological and environmental data were collected on seven cross-shelf transects across the Malin and Hebridean Shelves during autumn 2014. Density profiles indicated that shelf break and oceanic stations had a 100 m deep mixed surface layer while stations on the shelf were generally well mixed. Analysis of similarity and multidimensional scaling of phytoplankton counts revealed that phytoplankton communities on the shelf were significantly different to those found at the shelf break and at oceanic stations. Shelf stations were dominated by dinoflagellates, with diatoms contributing a maximum of 37% of cells. Shelf break and oceanic stations were also dinoflagellate dominated but displayed a lower species diversity. Significant difference between shelf and shelf break stations suggested that the continental slope limited cross shelf phytoplankton exchange. Northern and southern phytoplankton communities on the shelf were approximately 15% dissimilar while there was no latitudinal gradient for stations along the slope current, suggesting this current provided south to north connectivity. Fitting environmental data to phytoplankton ordination showed a significant relationship between phytoplankton community dissimilarities and nutrient concentrations and light availability on the shelf compared to

  20. Evaluation and scale-up of intermediate temperature (700{sup o}C) solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Cotton, J.

    1999-10-01

    This 3-year development and evaluation of materials and fabrication processes for ITSOFC has resulted in a successful demonstration of the components developed. A 120 mm 5-cell stack was operated over 2000 hours at high fuel utilisation using steam reformed CH{sub 4} at temperatures between 630{sup o}C to 675{sup o}C. Cost effective materials were largely used resulting in a 45% reduction of costs compared to state of the art SOFC stacks. The demonstration of a large stack was, however, only partially successful due to the inherent thermomechanical weakness of the key component, the CGO electrolyte. (author)

  1. Accurate quantum calculations of translation-rotation eigenstates in electric-dipole-coupled H2O@C60 assemblies

    Felker, Peter M.; Bačić, Zlatko

    2017-09-01

    We present methodology for variational calculation of the 6 n -dimensional translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of assemblies of n H2O@C60 moieties coupled by dipole-dipole interactions. We show that the TR Hamiltonian matrix for any n can be constructed from dipole-dipole matrix elements computed for n = 2 . We present results for linear H2O@C60 assemblies. Two classes of eigenstates are revealed. One class comprises excitations of the 111 rotational level of H2O. The lowest-energy 111 -derived eigenstate for each assembly exhibits significant dipole ordering and shifts down in energy with the assembly size.

  2. Origin and processing of terrestrial organic carbon in the Amazon system: lignin phenols in river, shelf, and fan sediments

    Sun, Shuwen; Schefuß, Enno; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Zabel, Matthias; Baker, Paul A.; Hefter, Jens; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2017-05-01

    The Amazon River transports large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr) from the Andean and Amazon neotropical forests to the Atlantic Ocean. In order to compare the biogeochemical characteristics of OCterr in the fluvial sediments from the Amazon drainage basin and in the adjacent marine sediments, we analysed riverbed sediments from the Amazon mainstream and its main tributaries as well as marine surface sediments from the Amazon shelf and fan for total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13CTOC), and lignin phenol compositions. TOC and lignin content exhibit positive correlations with Al / Si ratios (indicative of the sediment grain size) implying that the grain size of sediment discharged by the Amazon River plays an important role in the preservation of TOC and leads to preferential preservation of lignin phenols in fine particles. Depleted δ13CTOC values (-26.1 to -29.9 ‰) in the main tributaries consistently correspond with the dominance of C3 vegetation. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S / V) and cinnamyl to vanillyl (C / V) lignin phenols suggest that non-woody angiosperm tissues are the dominant source of lignin in the Amazon basin. Although the Amazon basin hosts a rich diversity of vascular plant types, distinct regional lignin compositions are not observed. In the marine sediments, the distribution of δ13CTOC and Λ8 (sum of eight lignin phenols in organic carbon (OC), expressed as mg/100 mg OC) values implies that OCterr discharged by the Amazon River is transported north-westward by the North Brazil Current and mostly deposited on the inner shelf. The lignin compositions in offshore sediments under the influence of the Amazon plume are consistent with the riverbed samples suggesting that processing of OCterr during offshore transport does not change the encoded source information. Therefore, the lignin compositions preserved in these offshore sediments can reliably reflect the vegetation in the Amazon

  3. Vertical Variability of Anoxia Along the Northern Omani Shelf.

    Queste, B. Y.; Piontkovski, S.; Heywood, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    Three autonomous underwater gliders were deployed along a 80 km transect extending from Muscat out into the Gulf during both monsoons and the intermonsoon season as part of a project funded by ONR Global and the UK NERC. The gliders surveyed the top 1000m across the continental shelf, the steep continental slope, and the Sea of Oman while measuring temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll a fluorescence, optical backscatter, photosyntheticall active radiation and providing estimates of depth-averaged currents and up/downwelling. The data show the depth of the surface oxycline varying by 50m across the transect as a function of mixed layer depth. Below, we observed high variability, on the order of days, in the oxygen profile with the boundary of the suboxic zone (glider transect. During periods of minimal flow, it was constrained to 10km beyond the shelf break. PGW was also present in mesoscale eddies beyond the shelf break.

  4. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE 00 ) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  5. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  6. The O-C2 angle established at occipito-cervical fusion dictates the patient's destiny in terms of postoperative dyspnea and/or dysphagia.

    Izeki, Masanori; Neo, Masashi; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Ito, Hiromu; Nagai, Koutatsu; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-02-01

    We have revealed that the cause of postoperative dyspnea and/or dysphagia after occipito-cervical (O-C) fusion is mechanical stenosis of the oropharyngeal space and the O-C2 alignment, rather than total or subaxial alignment, is the key to the development of dyspnea and/or dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to confirm the impact of occipito-C2 angle (O-C2A) on the oropharyngeal space and to investigate the chronological impact of a fixed O-C2A on the oropharyngeal space and dyspnea and/or dysphagia after O-C fusion. We reviewed 13 patients who had undergone O-C2 fusion, while retaining subaxial segmental motion (OC2 group) and 20 who had subaxial fusion without O-C2 fusion (SA group). The O-C2A, C2-C6 angle and the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space were measured on lateral dynamic X-rays preoperatively, when dynamic X-rays were taken for the first time postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. We also recorded the current dyspnea and/or dysphagia status at the final follow-up of patients who presented with it immediately after the O-C2 fusion. There was no significant difference in the mean preoperative values of the O-C2A (13.0 ± 7.5 in group OC2 and 20.1 ± 10.5 in group SA, Unpaired t test, P = 0.051) and the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space (17.8 ± 6.0 in group OC2 and 14.9 ± 3.9 in group SA, Unpaired t test, P = 0.105). In the OC2 group, the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space changed according to the cervical position preoperatively, but became constant postoperatively. In contrast, in the SA group, the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space changed according to the cervical position at any time point. Three patients who presented with dyspnea and/or dysphagia immediately after O-C2 fusion had not resolved completely at the final follow-up. The narrowest oropharyngeal airway space and postoperative dyspnea and/or dysphagia did not change with time once the O-C2A had been established at O-C fusion. The O-C2A established at O-C

  7. Tectonic structure of the Tuscany-Latium Continental Shelf (Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Bartole, R.

    1988-08-01

    An old regional seismic multicoverage reflection survey (Zone E) provides useful information on the shallow structure of the southern Tuscany-northern Latium shelf located between Elba Island and Anzio. Three main seismic units have been recognized on the grid, directly tied to the Matilde-1 offshore drilling and correlated to onshore wells and outcrops. The upper unit, characterized by continuous and generally undisturbed reflectors, is constituted by the postorogenic sedimentary cover of late Neogene-Quaternary age. This sequence unconformably lies on an intermediate unit or, when absent, a basal one. These two units, characterized by good-to-poor seismic response, are constituted by the tectonized geologic units of the Northern and Central Apennines. The intermediate unit corresponds to the Ligurids and Sicilids allochthonous complexes, while the basal unit may be attributable to the Tuscan nappe and/or the Tuscan autochthon in the shelf sector north of the Tiber River mouth, and the Umbro-Sabina units south of the same mouth. The widespread distribution and consistent thickness of the allochthonous cover (up to 1,000 msec two-way traveltime) lying over a structured substratum might be of some interest in hydrocarbon prospecting.

  8. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Climatology and decadal variability of the Ross Sea shelf waters

    A. Russo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Ocean Database 2001 data located in the Ross Sea (named WOD01 and containing data in this region since 1928 are merged with recent data collected by the Italian expeditions (CLIMA dataset in the period November 1994-February 2004 in the same area. From this extended dataset, austral summer climatologies of the main Ross Sea subsurface, intermediate and bottom water masses: High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW, Ice Shelf Water (ISW and Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW have been drawn. The comparison between the WOD01_1994 climatologies (a subset of the WOD01 dataset until April 1994 and the CLIMA ones for the period 1994/95-2003/04 showed significant changes occurred during the decade. The freshening of the Ross Sea shelf waters which occurred during the period 1960-2000, was confirmed by our analysis in all the main water masses, even though with a spatially varying intensity. Relevant variations were found for the MCDW masses, which appeared to reduce their presence and to deepen; this can be ascribed to the very limited freshening of the MCDW core, which allowed an increased density with respect to the surrounding waters. Variations in the MCDW properties and extension could have relevant consequences, e.g. a decreased Ross Ice Shelf basal melting or a reduced supply of nutrients, and may also be indicative of a reduced thermohaline circulation within the Ross Sea. Shelf Waters (SW having neutral density γn > 28.7 Kg m-3, which contribute to form the densest Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW, showed a large volumetric decrease in the 1994/95-2003/04 decade, most likely as a consequence of the SW freshening.

  10. Tactile/kinesthetic stimulation (TKS) increases tibial speed of sound and urinary osteocalcin (U-MidOC and unOC) in premature infants (29-32weeks PMA).

    Haley, S; Beachy, J; Ivaska, K K; Slater, H; Smith, S; Moyer-Mileur, L J

    2012-10-01

    Preterm delivery (kinesthetic stimulation (TKS), a form of infant massage that incorporates kinesthetic movement, would increase bone strength and markers of bone accretion in preterm infants. Preterm, AGA infants (29-32 weeks) were randomly assigned to TKS (N=20) or Control (N=20). Twice daily TKS was provided 6 days per week for 2 weeks. Control infants received the same care without TKS treatment. Treatment was masked to parents, health care providers, and study personnel. Baseline and week two measures were collected for tibial speed of sound (tSOS, m/sec), a surrogate for bone strength, by quantitative ultrasound (Sunlight8000) and urine markers of bone metabolism, pyridinium crosslinks and osteocalcin (U-MidOC and unOC). Infant characteristics at birth and study entry as well as energy/nutrient intake were similar between TKS and Control. TKS intervention attenuated the decrease in tSOS observed in Control infants (p<0.05). Urinary pyridinium crosslinks decreased over time in both TKS and CTL (p<0.005). TKS infants experienced greater increases in urinary osteocalcin (U-MidOC, p<0.001 and unOC, p<0.05). We conclude that TKS improves bone strength in premature infants by attenuating the decrease that normally follows preterm birth. Further, biomarkers of bone metabolism suggest a modification in bone turnover in TKS infants in favor of bone accretion. Taken together, we speculate that TKS improves bone mineralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  12. Shelf life extension for the lot AAE nozzle severance LSCs

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf life extension tests for the remaining lot AAE linear shaped charges for redesigned solid rocket motor nozzle aft exit cone severance were completed in the small motor conditioning and firing bay, T-11. Five linear shaped charge test articles were thermally conditioned and detonated, demonstrating proper end-to-end charge propagation. Penetration depth requirements were exceeded. Results indicate that there was no degradation in performance due to aging or the linear shaped charge curving process. It is recommended that the shelf life of the lot AAE nozzle severance linear shaped charges be extended through January 1992.

  13. Water Mass Classification on a Highly Variable Arctic Shelf Region: Origin of Laptev Sea Water Masses and Implications for the Nutrient Budget

    Bauch, D.; Cherniavskaia, E.

    2018-03-01

    Large gradients and inter annual variations on the Laptev Sea shelf prevent the use of uniform property ranges for a classification of major water masses. The central Laptev Sea is dominated by predominantly marine waters, locally formed polynya waters and riverine summer surface waters. Marine waters enter the central Laptev Sea from the northwestern Laptev Sea shelf and originate from the Kara Sea or the Arctic Ocean halocline. Local polynya waters are formed in the Laptev Sea coastal polynyas. Riverine summer surface waters are formed from Lena river discharge and local melt. We use a principal component analysis (PCA) in order to assess the distribution and importance of water masses within the Laptev Sea. This mathematical method is applied to hydro-chemical summer data sets from the Laptev Sea from five years and allows to define water types based on objective and statistically significant criteria. We argue that the PCA-derived water types are consistent with the Laptev Sea hydrography and indeed represent the major water masses on the central Laptev Sea shelf. Budgets estimated for the thus defined major Laptev Sea water masses indicate that freshwater inflow from the western Laptev Sea is about half or in the same order of magnitude as freshwater stored in locally formed polynya waters. Imported water dominates the nutrient budget in the central Laptev Sea; and only in years with enhanced local polynya activity is the nutrient budget of the locally formed water in the same order as imported nutrients.

  14. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  15. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  16. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  17. Biomarker-indicated extent of oxidation of plant-derived organic carbon (OC) in relation to geomorphology in an arsenic contaminated Holocene aquifer, Cambodia.

    Magnone, Daniel; Richards, Laura A; Polya, David A; Bryant, Charlotte; Jones, Merren; van Dongen, Bart E

    2017-10-12

    The poisoning of rural populations in South and Southeast Asia due to high groundwater arsenic concentrations is one of the world's largest ongoing natural disasters. It is important to consider environmental processes related to the release of geogenic arsenic, including geomorphological and organic geochemical processes. Arsenic is released from sediments when iron-oxide minerals, onto which arsenic is adsorbed or incorporated, react with organic carbon (OC) and the OC is oxidised. In this study we build a new geomorphological framework for Kandal Province, a highly studied arsenic affected region of Cambodia, and tie this into wider regional environmental change throughout the Holocene. Analyses shows that the concentration of OC in the sediments is strongly inversely correlated to grainsize. Furthermore, the type of OC is also related to grain size with the clay containing mostly (immature) plant derived OC and sand containing mostly thermally mature derived OC. Finally, analyses indicate that within the plant derived OC relative oxidation is strongly grouped by stratigraphy with the older bound OC more oxidised than younger OC.

  18. An oilspill risk analysis for the Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf lease area; regional environmental impact statement

    LaBelle, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted for the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)lease area region. Results of the analysis can be used to determine relative risks associated with oil production in different regions to be offered in OCS Lease Sales 72, 74, and 79. The analysis considered the probability of spill occurrences based on historical trends; likely movement of oil slicks based on a climatological model; and locations of major environmental resources which could be vulnerable to spilled oil. The times between spill occurrence and contact with resources were estimated to aid in estimating slick characteristics. Critical assumptions made for this particular analysis were (1) that oil exists in the lease area, and (2) that oil will be, found and produced from tracts sold in sales 72, 74, and 79. On the basis of a most likely resource estimate of 241 million barrels of oil to be produced over an 18-year production life from sales to be held in 1983 (sales 72, 74, 79), it was calculated that approximately one oilspill of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than 30 days is 41-percent. For a high resource estimate case of sales to be held in 1983, 717 million barrels are estimated to be produced over an 18-year production life with an 83-percent chance of one or more spills of 1,000 barrels or larger occurring and contacting land within 30 days. These results depend upon the routes and methods chosen to transport oil from OCS platforms to shore. Given a total development scenario in which 5.6 billion barrels of oil are estimated to be present and produced, it was calculated that 18 oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur over the 40-year production life of the proposed lease area. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than

  19. OC5 Project Phase Ib: Validation of Hydrodynamic Loading on a Fixed, Flexible Cylinder for Offshore Wind Applications

    Robertson, Amy N.; Wendt, Fabian; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    at the Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI) with support from the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The first phase of OC5 examined two simple cylinder structures (Phase Ia and Ib) to focus on validation of hydrodynamic models used in the various tools before moving on to more complex offshore wind systems...

  20. THEODORE, a two-step heating system for the EC/OC determination of radiocarbon (14C) in the environment

    Szidat, S.; Jenk, T.M.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Synal, H.-A.; Hajdas, I.; Bonani, G.; Saurer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of 14 C in the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions, respectively, of fine aerosol particles bear the potential to apportion anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources. For this purpose, the system THEODORE (two-step heating system for the EC/OC determination of radiocarbon in the environment) was developed. In this device, OC and EC are transformed into carbon dioxide in a stream of oxygen at 340 and 650 deg. C, respectively, and reduced to filamentous carbon. This is the target material for subsequent accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14 C measurements, which were performed on sub-milligram carbon samples at the PSI/ETH compact 500 kV AMS system. Quality assurance measurements of SRM 1649a, Urban Dust, yielded a fraction of modern f M in total carbon (TC) of 0.522 ± 0.018 (n=5, 95% confidence level) in agreement with reported values. The results for OC and EC are 0.70 ± 0.05 (n=3) and 0.066 ± 0.020 (n=4), respectively

  1. Radioimmunoimaging of 99mTc-OC125 on experimental research and clinical application of ovarian cancer

    Zhang Hong; Xu Huimin; Wu Jinchang

    2000-03-01

    The objective of research is to investigate radioimmunoimaging (RII) on ovarian tumor by labelling anti-ovarian cancer monoclonal antibody (OC125) with 99m Tc. the nude mice models were produced by injection ovarian serous cyst adenocarcinoma cell HO8910. Experimental group was injected with 99m Tc-OC125 as tracer and control groups were injected normal mice IgG labelled with 99m Tc and anti-HO8910 antibody labelled with 99m Tc. RII using 99m Tc-OC125 McAb was also performed on 4 nude mice model of glioma (control group). Imaging positive rate, negative rate and tumor/non-tumor ratio were calculated. Results show positive rate of imaging of tumor was 100%. The most distinct pictures were gained between 4 to 6 h after injection of tracer. T/NT ratios of experimental group were higher than that of control groups (P 99m Tc on the nude mice models was sensitive and specific. 16 ovarian neoplasm patients were received RII 6 h after intravenous injected OC125 McAb labelled with 99m Tc. Four patients of malignant tumor repeated RII after operation and chemotherapy. The result of RII was accorded perfectly with operation. RII also can find micro recurrence focus of post-operation. The sensitivity and specificity was more excellent than the radioimmunoassay of CA125. RII is useful for defining character of ovarian tumor, especially for detecting early recurrence focus of post-operation patients

  2. Assemblages of fish larvae and mesozooplankton across the continental shelf and shelf slope of the Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean)

    Munk, Peter; Bjørnsen, Peter Koefoed; Boonruang, P.

    2004-01-01

    on the sampling of fish larvae and mesozooplankton. Surveys were carried out during 2 monsoon periods in March and August 1996, using 3 cross-bathymetric transects extending to the deeper part of the shelf slope of the Andaman Sea. Station distances were either 5 or 10 n miles apart, and at each station a series...... with a hydrographic front generated where the pycnocline meets the sea-bottom. An internal wave of pronounced amplitude interacts with the shelf slope at ca. 300 m bottom depth, and findings indicated another zone of enhanced abundance in this area. Analysis of the relative abundances of fish larvae within families...

  3. Projecting the effects of climate change on Calanus finmarchicus distribution within the U.S. Northeast Continental Shelf.

    Grieve, Brian D; Hare, Jon A; Saba, Vincent S

    2017-07-24

    Calanus finmarchicus is vital to pelagic ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies suggest the species is vulnerable to the effects of global warming, particularly on the Northeast U.S. Shelf, which is in the southern portion of its range. In this study, we evaluate an ensemble of six different downscaled climate models and a high-resolution global climate model, and create a generalized additive model (GAM) to examine how future changes in temperature and salinity could affect the distribution and density of C. finmarchicus. By 2081-2100, we project average C. finmarchicus density will decrease by as much as 50% under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario. These decreases are particularly pronounced in the spring and summer in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank. When compared to a high-resolution global climate model, the ensemble showed a more uniform change throughout the Northeast U.S. Shelf, while the high-resolution model showed larger decreases in the Northeast Channel, Shelf Break, and Central Gulf of Maine. C. finmarchicus is an important link between primary production and higher trophic levels, and the decrease projected here could be detrimental to the North Atlantic Right Whale and a host of important fishery species.

  4. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of the choline transport tracer deshydroxy-[18F]fluorocholine ([18F]dOC)

    Henriksen, G.; Herz, M.; Hauser, A.; Schwaiger, M.; Wester, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    11 C-labeled choline ([ 11 C]CHO) and 18 F-fluorinated choline analogues have been demonstrated to be valuable tracers for in vivo imaging of neoplasms by means of positron emission tomography (PET). The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether deshydroxy-[ 18 F]fluorocholine, ([ 18 F]dOC), a non-metabolizable [ 18 F]fluorinated choline analogue, can serve as a surrogate for cholines that are able to be phosphorylated and thus allow PET-imaging solely by addressing the choline transport system. The specificity of uptake of [ 18 F]dOC was compared with that of [ 11 C]choline ([ 11 C]CHO) in cultured rat pancreatic carcinoma and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. In addition, biodistribution of [ 18 F]dOC and [ 11 C]CHO was compared in AR42J- and PC-3 tumor bearing mice. The in vitro studies revealed that membrane transport of both compounds can be inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by similar concentrations of cold choline (IC 50 [ 18 F]dOC= 11 μM; IC 50 [ 11 C]CHO=13 μM. In vitro studies with PC-3 and AR42J cells revealed that the internalized fraction of [ 18 F]dOC after 5 min incubation time is comparable to that of [ 11 C]CHO, whereas the uptake of [ 11 C]CHO was superior after 20 min incubation time. As for [ 11 C]CHO, kidney and liver were also the primary sites of uptake for [ 18 F]dOC in vivo. Biodistribution data after simultaneous injection of both tracers into AR42J tumor bearing mice revealed slightly higher tumor uptake for [ 18 F]dOC at 10 min post-injection, whereas [ 11 C]CHO uptake was higher at later time points. In conclusion, [ 18 F]dOC is taken up into AR42J rat pancreatic carcinoma and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells by a choline specific transport system. Similar transport rates of [ 18 F]dOC and [ 11 C]CHO result in comparable cellular uptake levels at early time points. In contrast to [ 18 F]dOC, which is transported but not intracellularily trapped, the choline kinase substrate [ 11 C]CHO is transported

  5. Geochemistry of zinc in the sediments of the western continental shelf and slope of India

    Murty, P.S.N.; Paropkari, A.L.; Rao, Ch.M.

    The bulk geochemistry of zinc in the sediments of the western continental shelf and slope of India and also the partition geochemistry of the sediments of the shelf and slope regions between Ratnagiri and Mangalore have been studied. The studies...

  6. Infaunal macrobenthic community of soft bottom sediment in a tropical shelf

    Jayaraj, K.A.; Jacob, J.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    Studies of benthic communities in tropical shelf waters are limited. In this study, we deal with the infaunal benthic community of soft bottom sediment of the tropical eastern Arabian Sea shelf. Benthic macroinfauna was sampled with a Smith...

  7. Linewidths in OCS: Isotope effects, vibrational effects, temperature dependence, and T1/T2

    Creswell, R.A.; Brown, S.R.; Schwendeman, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    A computer-controlled microwave spectrometer has been used to record the frequency dependence of the absorption of the J=2reverse arrow1 transition of OCS under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, and microwave power. From least-squares fits of the data to Lorentzian line shapes, a variety of linewidths and linewidth parameters have been deduced. The linewidth parameter for the J=2reverse arrow1 transition of 16 O 12 C 32 S in the ground vibrational state has been determined to be 6.03+-0.05 MHz/torr. The ratios of linewidth parameters for this transition for several other species to that for the ground state of 16 O 12 C 32 S are: 16 O 12 C 34 S, ground state, 0.987+-0.003; 16 O 13 C 32 S, ground state, 0.991+-0.005; 18 O 12 C 32 S, ground state, 0.966+-0.018; 16 O 12 C 32 S, v 3 =1, 1.024+-0.026; 16 O 12 C 32 S, v 2 /subl/=2degree, 0.978+-0.003. The linewidth parameter for the ground state of the parent species was determined to be inversely proportional to the absolute temperature in the range 297--346 K. From comparison of theoretical and experimental power-broadened lineshapes it is shown that T 1 /T 2 =1.04+-0.10 for the transition

  8. Implementasi Dan Perancangan Online Charging System (OCS IPTV Multichannel pada Jaringan IPv6

    Bagus Wahyu Nugraha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available IPTV didefinisikan sebagai layanan multimedia berbentuk data seperti televisi, video, audio, text, grafik yang dikirimkan melalui jaringan berbasisi IP tetapi harus diberikan dengan persyaratan seperti QOS dan experience, security, interactivity dan reliability.  Beberapa  feature yang  dimiliki oleh IPTV ini adalah IPTV dapat menyiarkan secara live  atau prerecorded digital video program-program pendidikan, komersial, scheduling / penjadwalan program dsb. Tentunya hal ini menggunakan IPTV akan menguntungkan dari sisi bisnis mengingat semakin banyaknya pengguna broadband. Dengan konvergen antara televisi, telephone dan access internet, IPTV dapat berkembang sesuai dengan tren masa kini yaitu IP based, sehingga mudah di akses oleh pengguna dan proses charging/billing yang sesuai dengan standar bisnis yang ada. Oleh karena itu, “Design and Implementation Online Charging System (OCS IPTV Multichannel on IPv6 Network“ dibuat sebagai layanan konten yang dapat digunakan untuk teknologi yang menggunakan IP based. Dalam pembuatan rancang bangun system billing pada IPTV ini dihasilkan sebuah software yang user friendly sehingga penyedia layanan IPTV dapat dengan mudah menggunakan software yang telah dibuat.

  9. New O-C Observations for 150 Algols: Insight to the Origins of Period Shifts

    Hoffman, D. I.; Harrison, T. E.; McNamara, B. J.; Vestrand, W. T.

    2005-12-01

    Many eclipsing binaries of type Algol, RS CVn, and W UMa have observed orbital period shifts. Of these, many show both increasing and decreasing period shifts. Two leading explanations for these shifts are third body effects and magnetic activity changing the oblateness of the secondary, though neither one can explain all of the observed period oscillations. The first-generation Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE-I) based in Los Alamos, NM, was primarily designed to look for the optical counterparts to gamma-ray bursts as well as searching for other optical transients not detected in gamma-rays. The telescope, consisting of four 200mm camera lenses, can image the entire northern sky twice in a night, which is a very useful tool in monitoring relatively bright eclipsing binaries for period shifts. The public data release from ROTSE-I, the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS), spans one year of data stating in April, 1999. O-C data for 150 eclipsing binaries are presented using the NSVS data. We revisit work by Borkovits and Hegedüs on some third body candidates in several eclipsing binary systems using recent AAVSO and NSVS data. Some unusual light curves of eclipsing binaries produced from NSVS data is presented and discussed.

  10. Size effect studies on notched tensile specimens at room temperature and 400 {sup o}C

    Krompholz, K.; Kamber, J.; Groth, E.; Kalkhof, D

    2000-07-01

    One of the objectives of the REVISA project (REactor Vessel Integrity in Severe Accidents) is to assess the size effect related to deformation and failure models as well as material data under quasistatic and dynamic conditions in homogeneous and non-homogeneous states of strain. For these investigations the reactor pressure vessel material 20 MnMoNi 55 was selected. It was subjected to a size effect study on notched scaled tensile specimens of three sizes. Two strain rates (2*10{sup -5}/s and 10{sup -3}/s) and two temperatures (room temperature and 400 {sup o}C) were selected. The investigations are aimed at a support for a gradient plasticity approach to size effects. Test on the small specimens (diameters 2.4 and 7.2 mm) were performed at an electromechanical test machine, while the large specimens (diameter 24 mm) had to be tested at a servohydraulical closed loop test machine with a force capacity of 1000 kN. All characteristic values were found to be size dependent. A selected semicircular notch retains its shape. The notch opening becomes a chord of a segment of a circle, the notch shape at fracture is a segment of a circle. (author)

  11. Shelf life extension of ground beef by radurization

    Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization was investigated as a technique in the shelf life extension of ground beef. Although radurization does not necessarily kill off all meat spoilage bacteria, this process may be used for extending the bacteriological keeping quality of fresh meat. The materials and methods used in the investigation are also discussed

  12. Organizing information from the shelf to the web

    Chowdhury, G G

    2007-01-01

    LIS professionals will have to be conversant with all the tools and techniques for organizing information in different domains - from traditional library shelf to full-scale digital libraries. This text covers the organization of the entire spectrum of information, and the principles, tools and techniques needed to do this effectively.

  13. Improvement of Injera shelf life through the use of chemical ...

    Mould spoilage is a serious problem that affects the shelf life of injera, the staple Ethiopian fermented bread. Injera is made from teff (Eragrostis tef) but other cereals may also be used in combination with teff. About two-third of Ethiopian diet consists of injera and it accounts for about two-thirds of the daily protein intake of the ...

  14. Depth study of insular shelf electric sounding Adelaida anomaly (Rivera)

    Cicalese, H.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the Uranium prospecting programme, the DINAMIGE geophysical equipment have made a study. It was about the depth of insular shelf electric sounding on the anomalies zone of Adelaida. This equipment carried out a study of the following subjects: geographical location, geologic framework, geophysical intervention, developed works, methods and material and results

  15. Studies on the shelf sediments off the Madras coast

    Rao, Ch.M.; Murty, P.S.N.

    content. Grain size study has shown that the sediments off Madras are mainly sandy in nature and vary from fine to very fine sands in the nearshore and outer shelf regions to medium to coarse sands in the midshelf region. Off Karaikal they vary from coarse...

  16. Surficial sediments of the continental shelf off Karnataka

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    sediments occur betweenthe water depths of 15 to 50m corresponding to a distance of about 40 km from the coast. Beyond 50 m to the shelf edge are calcareous sands. Non-carbonate components of these deep water sands are essentially quartz, many of which...

  17. Areas with special ecological values on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Kessel, J.G.; Berkenbosch, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this report we are submitting proposals for the boundaries of areas on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). In the National Spatial Strategy a conservation regime has been determined for five areas in the North Sea with special ecological values. RIKZ and Alterra have formulated this report in

  18. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Clay mineral distribution on the Kerala continental shelf and slope

    Rao, V.P.; Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of @iRV gaveshani@@ were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral cntent. The distribution of total clay (< 4~k fraction...

  20. Ross Ice Shelf airstream driven by polar vortex cyclone

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The powerful air and ocean currents that flow in and above the Southern Ocean, circling in the Southern Hemisphere's high latitudes, form a barrier to mixing between Antarctica and the rest of the planet. Particularly during the austral winter, strong westerly winds isolate the Antarctic continent from heat, energy, and mass exchange, bolstering the scale of the annual polar ozone depletion and driving the continent's record-breaking low temperatures. Pushing through this wall of high winds, the Ross Ice Shelf airstream (RAS) is responsible for a sizable amount of mass and energy exchange from the Antarctic inland areas to lower latitudes. Sitting due south of New Zealand, the roughly 470,000-square-kilometer Ross Ice Shelf is the continent's largest ice shelf and a hub of activity for Antarctic research. A highly variable lower atmospheric air current, RAS draws air from the inland Antarctic Plateau over the Ross Ice Shelf and past the Ross Sea. Drawing on modeled wind patterns for 2001-2005, Seefeldt and Cassano identify the primary drivers of RAS.

  1. Optimal issuing of perishables with a short fixed shelf life

    Haijema, R.

    2011-01-01

    The management of inventories of perishable products with a short maximal shelf life takes a good issuing policy next to a good ordering policy. Ordering policies of non-perishables are well studied in literature and implemented in Automated Store Ordering (ASO) systems and Computer Assisted

  2. Potential power-generating stations on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Mittl, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Progress toward the installation of floating power plants, which represent a beneficial use of the continental shelf, is presented. The demonstration of the feasibility of such facilities with existing technology, and the thorough support by safety and environmental reviews, have been made possible by the efforts of engineers and scientists working toward supplying the nation's growing energy needs

  3. Mineralogy of the carbonate sediments - western continental shelf of India

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    An X-ray diffraction study of forty-six sediment samples and three oolitic limestone samples from the western continental shelf of India shows that aragonite is the dominant carbonate mineral (99% maximum), followed by low-magnesium calcite (77...

  4. Agglutinated foraminifera from the shelf of east coast of India

    Almeida, F.; Setty, M.G.A.P.

    belonging to six families, in a depth zone of 35-222 m of the east-coast of India (between Visakhapatnam and Masulipatnam along the continental shelf-slope region) in terms of lithology, faunal assemblage and their percentage distribution are discussed...

  5. Shelf-life of infrared dry-roasted almonds

    Infrared heating was recently used to develop a more efficient roasting technology than traditional hot air roasting. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the shelf-life of almonds roasted with three different approaches, namely infrared [IR], sequential infrared and hot air [SIRHA], and regular h...

  6. Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains, Antarctica

    1991-01-01

    Part of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains of Antarctica (55.5N, 178.0W) are in the background of this scene, oriented toward the south. Low stratocumulus clouds are predominant throughout most of the scene.

  7. Shelf life assessment of Malaysian Pangasius sutchi during cold ...

    Malaysian Pangasius sutchi concerning the marketing sector from the point of view ... Patin (Pangasius sutchi) is a popular freshwater fish used as food in ... remaining shelf life allows a processor or a retailer to plan the length of time a product can be ... While consumption has increased, the Malaysian fisheries industry.

  8. Magnetic giant magnetoresistance commercial off the shelf for space applications

    Michelena, M.D.; Oelschlägel, Wulf; Arruego, I.

    2008-01-01

    The increase of complexity and miniaturizing level of Aerospace platforms make use of commercial off the shelf (COTS) components constitute a plausible alternative to the use of military or rad-tolerant components. In this work, giant magnetoresistance commercial sensors are studied to be used as......-375 mu T biasing field. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  9. Exchange across the shelf break at high southern latitudes

    J. M. Klinck

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of water across the Antarctic shelf break has considerable scientific and societal importance due to its effects on circulation and biology of the region, conversion of water masses as part of the global overturning circulation and basal melt of glacial ice and the consequent effect on sea level rise. The focus in this paper is the onshore transport of warm, oceanic Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW; export of dense water from these shelves is equally important, but has been the focus of other recent papers and will not be considered here. A variety of physical mechanisms are described which could play a role in this onshore flux. The relative importance of some processes are evaluated by simple calculations. A numerical model for the Ross Sea continental shelf is used as an example of a more comprehensive evaluation of the details of cross-shelf break exchange. In order for an ocean circulation model to simulate these processes at high southern latitudes, it needs to have high spatial resolution, realistic geometry and bathymetry. Grid spacing smaller than the first baroclinic radius of deformation (a few km is required to adequately represent the circulation. Because of flow-topography interactions, bathymetry needs to be represented at these same small scales. Atmospheric conditions used to force these circulation models also need to be known at a similar small spatial resolution (a few km in order to represent orographically controlled winds (coastal jets and katabatic winds. Significantly, time variability of surface winds strongly influences the structure of the mixed layer. Daily, if not more frequent, surface fluxes must be imposed for a realistic surface mixed layer. Sea ice and ice shelves are important components of the coastal circulation. Ice isolates the ocean from exchange with the atmosphere, especially in the winter. Melting and freezing of both sea ice and glacial ice influence salinity and thereby the character of shelf

  10. Seabed geology of the Canadian eastern continental shelf

    Piper, David J. W.

    1991-08-01

    The physiography of the continental shelf off eastern Canada is irregular, developed by glacial erosion of a previously fluvially-dominated landscape. Northern shelves are deeper than southern shelves. Most surficial sediments on the shelf are relict or palimpsest. The principal modern source of sediment to the northern shelves is ice rafting and iceberg scour reworking of Quaternary sediments. Southern shelves receive sediment through erosion of Quaternary sediments; only small amounts of fine-grained sediment derived from coastal erosion and rivers escape from the coastal zone. Regional maps of sediment texture, carbonate content and heavy mineralogy consequently show differences between the northern and southern shelves. Large areas of the shelf show little net deposition. On the northern shelves, there is a surface veneer up to 0.5 m thick derived from ice rafting and iceberg turbation of underlying Quaternary sediment, modified by south-flowing currents [ WOODWORTH-LYNASet al. (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 939-961]. The overall effects of former iceberg turbation may extend to a depth of 10 m sub-bottom. On the southern shelves, bioturbation and perhaps storm-related currents rework exposed Quaternary sediments more slowly. Muds accumulate in deep basins on the shelves at rates of about 0.5 m per 1000 years; this accumulation is probably episodic and related to major storms reworking sediment from the surface sediment veneer in shallower areas of little net deposition. In water depths less than 110 m sand and gravel have formed as a result of reworking in the coastal zone during the post-glacial transgression. Over large areas of Georges Bank, the eastern Scotian Shelf and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, such sands are mobilized during storms to form a wide suite of bedforms [ AMOS and JUDGE (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1037-1068]. Elsewhere, particularly in deeper water, sandy surfaces appear moribund or inactive and large

  11. 41 CFR 101-27.204 - Types of shelf-life items.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of shelf-life items...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.204 Types of shelf-life items. Shelf-life items are classified as nonextendable (Type I) and extendable (Type II). Type I items have a definite storage life after which the item...

  12. Modelling the impact of soil Carbonic Anhydrase on the net ecosystem exchange of OCS at Harvard forest using the MuSICA model

    Launois, Thomas; Ogée, Jérôme; Commane, Roisin; Wehr, Rchard; Meredith, Laura; Munger, Bill; Nelson, David; Saleska, Scott; Wofsy, Steve; Zahniser, Mark; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The exchange of CO2 between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is driven by photosynthetic uptake and respiratory loss, two fluxes currently estimated with considerable uncertainty at large scales. Model predictions indicate that these biosphere fluxes will be modified in the future as CO2 concentrations and temperatures increase; however, it still unclear to what extent. To address this challenge there is a need for better constraints on land surface model parameterisations. Additional atmospheric tracers of large-scale CO2 fluxes have been identified as potential candidates for this task. In particular carbonyl sulphide (OCS) has been proposed as a complementary tracer of gross photosynthesis over land, since OCS uptake by plants is dominated by carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, an enzyme abundant in leaves that catalyses CO2 hydration during photosynthesis. However, although the mass budget at the ecosystem is dominated by the flux of OCS into leaves, some OCS is also exchanged between the atmosphere and the soil and this component of the budget requires constraining. In this study, we adapted the process-based isotope-enabled model MuSICA (Multi-layer Simulator of the Interactions between a vegetation Canopy and the Atmosphere) to include the transport, reaction, diffusion and production of OCS within a forested ecosystem. This model was combined with 3 years (2011-2013) of in situ measurements of OCS atmospheric concentration profiles and fluxes at the Harvard Forest (Massachussets, USA) to test hypotheses on the mechanisms responsible for CA-driven uptake by leaves and soils as well as possible OCS emissions during litter decomposition. Model simulations over the three years captured well the impact of diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions on the net ecosystem OCS flux. A sensitivity analysis on soil CA activity and soil OCS emission rates was also performed to quantify their impact on the vertical profiles of OCS inside the

  13. Shelf sediment transport during hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Xu, Kehui; Mickey, Rangley C.; Chen, Qin; Harris, Courtney K.; Hetland, Robert D.; Hu, Kelin; Wang, Jiaze

    2016-05-01

    Hurricanes can greatly modify the sedimentary record, but our coastal scientific community has rather limited capability to predict hurricane-induced sediment deposition. A three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to study seabed erosion and deposition on the Louisiana shelf in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the year 2005. Sensitivity tests were performed on both erosional and depositional processes for a wide range of erosional rates and settling velocities, and uncertainty analysis was done on critical shear stresses using the polynomial chaos approximation method. A total of 22 model runs were performed in sensitivity and uncertainty tests. Estimated maximum erosional depths were sensitive to the inputs, but horizontal erosional patterns seemed to be controlled mainly by hurricane tracks, wave-current combined shear stresses, seabed grain sizes, and shelf bathymetry. During the passage of two hurricanes, local resuspension and deposition dominated the sediment transport mechanisms. Hurricane Katrina followed a shelf-perpendicular track before making landfall and its energy dissipated rapidly within about 48 h along the eastern Louisiana coast. In contrast, Hurricane Rita followed a more shelf-oblique track and disturbed the seabed extensively during its 84-h passage from the Alabama-Mississippi border to the Louisiana-Texas border. Conditions to either side of Hurricane Rita's storm track differed substantially, with the region to the east having stronger winds, taller waves and thus deeper erosions. This study indicated that major hurricanes can disturb the shelf at centimeter to meter levels. Each of these two hurricanes suspended seabed sediment mass that far exceeded the annual sediment inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, but the net transport from shelves to estuaries is yet to be determined. Future studies should focus on the modeling of sediment exchange between

  14. Decadal variability on the Northwest European continental shelf

    Jones, Sam; Cottier, Finlo; Inall, Mark; Griffiths, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Decadal scale time series of the shelf seas are important for understanding both climate and process studies. Despite numerous investigations of long-term temperature variability in the shelf seas, studies of salinity variability are few. Salt is a more conservative tracer than temperature in shallow seas, and it can reveal changes in local hydrographic conditions as well as transmitted basin-scale changes. Here, new inter-annual salinity time series on the northwest European shelf are developed and a 13 year high resolution salinity record from a coastal mooring in western Scotland is presented and analysed. We find strong temporal variability in coastal salinity on timescales ranging from tidal to inter-annual, with the magnitude of variability greatest during winter months. There is little seasonality and no significant decadal trend in the coastal time series of salinity. We propose 4 hydrographic states to explain salinity variance in the shelf area west of Scotland based on the interaction between a baroclinic coastal current and wind-forced barotropic flow: while wind forcing is important, we find that changes in the buoyancy-driven flow are more likely to influence long-term salinity observations. We calculate that during prevailing westerly wind conditions, surface waters in the Sea of the Hebrides receive a mix of 62% Atlantic origin water to 38% coastal sources. This contrasts with easterly wind conditions, during which the mix is 6% Atlantic to 94% coastal sources on average. This 'switching' between hydrographic states is expected to impact nutrient transport and therefore modify the level of primary productivity on the shelf. This strong local variability in salinity is roughly an order of magnitude greater than changes in the adjacent ocean basin, and we infer from this that Scottish coastal waters are likely to be resilient to decadal changes in ocean climate.

  15. Ancient divergence time estimates in Eutropis rugifera support the existence of Pleistocene barriers on the exposed Sunda Shelf

    Benjamin R. Karin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Episodic sea level changes that repeatedly exposed and inundated the Sunda Shelf characterize the Pleistocene. Available evidence points to a more xeric central Sunda Shelf during periods of low sea levels, and despite the broad land connections that persisted during this time, some organisms are assumed to have faced barriers to dispersal between land-masses on the Sunda Shelf. Eutropis rugifera is a secretive, forest adapted scincid lizard that ranges across the Sunda Shelf. In this study, we sequenced one mitochondrial (ND2 and four nuclear (BRCA1, BRCA2, RAG1, and MC1R markers and generated a time-calibrated phylogeny in BEAST to test whether divergence times between Sundaic populations of E. rugifera occurred during Pleistocene sea-level changes, or if they predate the Pleistocene. We find that E. rugifera shows pre-Pleistocene divergences between populations on different Sundaic land-masses. The earliest divergence within E. rugifera separates the Philippine samples from the Sundaic samples approximately 16 Ma; the Philippine populations thus cannot be considered conspecific with Sundaic congeners. Sundaic populations diverged approximately 6 Ma, and populations within Borneo from Sabah and Sarawak separated approximately 4.5 Ma in the early Pliocene, followed by further cladogenesis in Sarawak through the Pleistocene. Divergence of peninsular Malaysian populations from the Mentawai Archipelago occurred approximately 5 Ma. Separation among island populations from the Mentawai Archipelago likely dates to the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary approximately 3.5 Ma, and our samples from peninsular Malaysia appear to coalesce in the middle Pleistocene, about 1 Ma. Coupled with the monophyly of these populations, these divergence times suggest that despite consistent land-connections between these regions throughout the Pleistocene E. rugifera still faced barriers to dispersal, which may be a result of environmental shifts that accompanied the

  16. 41 CFR 101-27.209 - Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items.

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of shelf-life items. 101-27.209 Section 101-27.209 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209 Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items. Where it is determined that specified quantities of both Type I and Type II...

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.206 - Procurement of shelf-life materials.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of shelf-life materials. 101-27.206 Section 101-27.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.206 Procurement of shelf-life materials. ...

  18. 41 CFR 102-36.450 - Do we report excess shelf-life items?

    2010-07-01

    ... shelf-life items? 102-36.450 Section 102-36.450 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.450 Do we report excess shelf-life items? (a) When there are quantities on hand, that...

  19. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  20. Acoustic masking in sediments due to gases on the western continental shelf of India

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Rao, D.G.; Vora, K.H.; Topgi, R.S.

    Surveys carried out on the western continental shelf of India indicate that the inner and middle shelf to a depth of 50-60 m is covered by acoustically transparent clays. On the shelf off Bombay, the clays are thin near the shore where they overlie...

  1. Phosphate geochemistry, mineralization processes, and Thioploca distribution in shelf sediments off central Chile

    Holmkvist, Lars; Arning, Esther T.; Küster-Heins, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Sediments underlying the major costal upwelling systems of the world oceans are hot-spots of modern formation of hydroxyapatites, often associated with benthic communities of large, nitrate-accumulating sulfur bacteria. We studied the association between phosphate release, organic phosphorus...... to the pore water reached 100-300 μM peak concentrations within the uppermost 0-5 cm and phosphate was lost to the overlying anoxic water column. The large phosphate release was not directly related to the presence of Thioploca but was rather the result of a high deposition and mineralization rate of fresh...

  2. Shallow seismic studies on the inner continental shelf off selected bays, Central West coast of India

    Ramana, M.V.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    LEGEND I .A.~ .~ " Temple . .G "~ RATNAGIRI BAY i, 90a'---a-A"'~"~- '~6 L L I L L ,I .a" I~ LA'rlglII LINE 22o. ...... ¢- ........ o- o .... t.o. ..... ?°P::"~az° ~0 Bll:r..,~ Tlt~eS. o-'" ~-,.<,.~,-.~ ' L L L L L # P BEACH ROCK j o .~los ,6...

  3. Microbial biodiversity, quality and shelf life of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk from Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Schmidt, Verena S J; Kaufmann, Veronika; Kulozik, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2012-03-01

    Information on factors limiting the shelf life of extended shelf life (ESL) milk produced by microfiltration and subsequent pasteurization is very limited. In this study, three different batches of ESL milk were analyzed at different stages of the production process and during storage at 4 °C, 8 °C and 10 °C in order to evaluate the changes in bacterial cell counts, microbial diversity and enzymatic quality. Additionally, detailed biodiversity analyses of 250 retail ESL milk packages produced by five manufacturers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were performed at the end of shelf life. It was observed that microfiltration decreased the microbial loads by 5-6 log₁₀ units to lower than 1 CFU/mL. However, bacterial counts at the end of shelf life were extremely variable and ranged between ESL treatment, causing stochastic variations of initial species distributions in individual packages. This would result in the development of significantly different bacterial populations during cold storage, including the occasional development of high numbers of pathogenic species such as B. cereus or Acinetobacter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chimeric bispecific OC/TR monoclonal antibody mediates lysis of tumor cells expressing the folate-binding protein (MOv18) and displays decreased immunogenicity in patients

    Luiten, R. M.; Warnaar, S. O.; Sanborn, D.; Lamers, C. H.; Bolhuis, R. L.; Litvinov, S. V.; Zurawski, V. R.; Coney, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    The bispecific OC/TR monoclonal antibody (mAb) cross-links the CD3 molecule on T cells with the human folate-binding protein (FBP), which is highly expressed on nonmucinous ovarian carcinomas. Clinical trials of patients with ovarian carcinoma with the OC/TR mAb have shown some complete and partial

  5. The relationship between tics, OC, ADHD and autism symptoms : A cross-disorder symptom analysis in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients and family-members

    van Dijk, H.M.; van de Schoot, A.G.J.; Rijkeboer, M.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Cath, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We explored the phenotypic structure of tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms as

  6. Carbon Inputs From Riparian Vegetation Limit Oxidation of Physically Bound Organic Carbon Via Biochemical and Thermodynamic Processes: OC Oxidation Processes Across Vegetation

    Graham, Emily B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Tfaily, Malak M. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Crump, Alex R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Goldman, Amy E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Arntzen, Evan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Romero, Elvira [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Resch, C. Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Kennedy, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Stegen, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-12-01

    In light of increasing terrestrial carbon (C) transport across aquatic boundaries, the mechanisms governing organic carbon (OC) oxidation along terrestrial-aquatic interfaces are crucial to future climate predictions. Here, we investigate biochemistry, metabolic pathways, and thermodynamics corresponding to OC oxidation in the Columbia River corridor. We leverage natural vegetative differences to encompass variation in terrestrial C inputs. Our results suggest that decreases in terrestrial C deposition associated with diminished riparian vegetation induce oxidation of physically-bound (i.e., mineral and microbial) OC at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces. We also find that contrasting metabolic pathways oxidize OC in the presence and absence of vegetation and—in direct conflict with the concept of ‘priming’—that inputs of water-soluble and thermodynamically-favorable terrestrial OC protects bound-OC from oxidation. Based on our results, we propose a mechanistic conceptualization of OC oxidation along terrestrial-aquatic interfaces that can be used to model heterogeneous patterns of OC loss under changing land cover distributions.

  7. 30 CFR 250.220 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP?

    2010-07-01

    ... Region, what planning information must accompany the EP? 250.220 Section 250.220 Mineral Resources... activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP? If you propose exploration activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the following planning information must accompany your EP: (a...

  8. Enabling the MLSpOC (Multi-Level Space Operations Center) of the Future

    Missal, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, passed by Congress in 2004, established the expectation that the "vast intelligence enterprise" of the United States would become more unified, coordinated, and effective. This law charged the intelligence community and government agencies to integrate foreign intelligence and domestic US intelligence components to reduce gaps in understanding threats to our national security and to improve our reaction. This intelligence strategy — designed to provide more comprehensive and accurate intelligence analysis—substantially increases requirements for secure data sharing capabilities. An information system must be Certified & Accredited (C&A) by the appropriate Accreditation Authority in accordance with each Authority's prescribed compliance requirements and governance. Cross-Domain Solutions (CDSs) can provide the ability to share data between multiple operating domains (e.g. among users on Top Secret and Secret networks). However, sharing sensitive data across security domains and networks has been impeded by both technical and cultural challenges. A viable CDS requires a tremendous investment for initial C&A and many solutions are limited with respect to the integration of an organization's applications. As a result, most of today's highly secured systems have been designed to restrict access to entire user populations rather than implement data sharing on the basis of mandatory access controls and an individual's need-to-know. Most CDSs today are based on one-way replication through data transfer guards that copy data from one network to another. This model inherently builds in additional and extensive Operations and Maintenance (O&M) costs. Oracle's National Security Group challenged its top engineers and security architects to engineer the first Cross-Domain database providing a practical and robust solution to the Cross-Domain security problem. The result is the MLSpOC, which is deployed, fielded, and

  9. Evaluation of global monitoring and forecasting systems at Mercator Océan

    J.-M. Lellouche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since December 2010, the MyOcean global analysis and forecasting system has consisted of the Mercator Océan NEMO global 1/4° configuration with a 1/12° nested model over the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The open boundary data for the nested configuration come from the global 1/4° configuration at 20° S and 80° N.

    The data are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3-D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. A 3-D-Var scheme provides a correction for the slowly evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity. Altimeter data, satellite sea surface temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. In addition to the quality control performed by data producers, the system carries out a proper quality control on temperature and salinity vertical profiles in order to minimise the risk of erroneous observed profiles being assimilated in the model.

    This paper describes the recent systems used by Mercator Océan and the validation procedure applied to current MyOcean systems as well as systems under development. The paper shows how refinements or adjustments to the system during the validation procedure affect its quality. Additionally, we show that quality checks (in situ, drifters and data sources (satellite sea surface temperature have as great an impact as the system design (model physics and assimilation parameters. The results of the scientific assessment are illustrated with diagnostics over the year 2010 mainly, assorted with time series over the 2007–2011 period. The validation procedure demonstrates the accuracy of MyOcean global products, whose quality is stable over time. All monitoring systems are close to altimetric observations with a forecast RMS difference of 7 cm. The update of the mean

  10. Building an early career network through outreach projects: The "mon océan & moi" example

    Barbieux, M.; Scheurle, C.; Ardyna, M.; Harmel, T.; Ferraris, M.; Jessin, T.; Lacour, L.; Mayot, N.; Organelli, E.; Pasqueron De Fommervault, O.; Penkerc'h, C.; Poteau, A.; Uitz, J.; Ramondec, S.; Sauzède, R.; Velluci, V.; Claustre, H.

    2016-02-01

    The ocean plays an important role in the global processes of our planet, from climate change to sea level rise, uptake of carbon dioxide to fisheries stocks. In addition, its scientific importance, extraordinary beauty and public fascination provide perfect ingredients for both education and public outreach. Four years ago, after the launch of the "mon océan & moi" outreach project, an early career network (Ph.D. students and postdocs) has been formed to "promote collaborations/exchanges between the scientific and educational worlds in order to co-elaborate a teaching method for raising the awareness of school children on marine environments". Scientists are pursuing new research yielding improved knowledge and new documentation resources. However, they lack the communication skills to make the subject accessible to the general public. On the other hand, teachers must be informed of recent discoveries and of new resources for educational purposes. To fill this gap, the early career scientists developed, in collaboration with a school authority and an experienced science communicators team, both a trail education program tested directly in middle and high schools and innovative supporting material (i.e., animations, educative video clips and experiments, interactive maps and quizzes). Here we outline a set of guidelines as to how to improve science outreach across a variety of disciplines (e.g., science, technology, engineering) and how this may impact the experience of early career scientists. These tips will be useful for other early career scientists and science outreach projects, large or small, regional, national or international. Such novel outreach initiatives will help educate current and next generations about the importance of ocean environments and the relevance of ocean sciences for the society, and may serve as an example of teamwork for other young scientists.

  11. Nutrient Dynamics in the Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS)

    Wong, G. T.; Guo, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) is situated in the sub-tropics along the southern Chinese coast between the southern end of the Taiwan Strait and the Hainan Island. Samples were collected in four cross-shelf transects in summer, 2010 and two cross-shelf transects in winter, 2011 in this Shelf-sea. The shelf may be sub-divided into the inner shelf (1 μM in NO3- and >0.1 μM in soluble reactive phosphate) stretched across the shelf at least to the middle shelf. Thus, vertical mixing, even to relatively shallow depths, on the shelf may supply nutrients to and play a critical role in determining the primary production in the mixed layer. At least three such processes were observed. Through the year, internal waves of various strengths generated at the Luzon Strait propagated westward along the bottom of the mixed layer and dissipated along the middle and outer shelf. The effects of these waves were especially conspicuous north of the Dongsha Atoll and their action enhances vertical mixing. In the summer, upwelling occurred in the inner/middle shelf off Dongshan in response to the along shore southwest monsoon and the topographic forcing by the ridge extending offshore from Dongshan to the Taiwan Bank. In the winter, surface cooling and the strong northeast monsoon led to complete overturn in the shelf. The maximum density, reaching 24.6, in the surface waters was found offshore in the inner and middle shelf. This density was equivalent to the density of the water at >100 m offshore. As a result, this dense water also appeared as a layer of bottom water that extended across the shelf to the shelf edge.

  12. Central Chile

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  13. Afrique Centrale

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  14. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    2010-05-28

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) policies, practices, and procedures for the Minerals Management Service (MMS... applies NEPA in its management of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas exploration and development and make recommendations for revisions. The scope of the review is intended to be holistic, i.e. from leasing decisions to...

  15. Shelf-life Assessment of Food Undergoing Oxidation-A Review.

    Calligaris, Sonia; Manzocco, Lara; Anese, Monica; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-17

    Oxidation is the most common event leading to the end of shelf life of microbiologically stable foods. Thus, a reliable shelf-life assessment is crucial to verify how long the product will last before it becomes oxidized to an unacceptable level to the consumers. Shelf-life assessment strategies of foods and beverages suffering oxidation are critically discussed focusing on definition of the acceptability limit, as well as the choice of the proper oxidative indicators, and methodologies for shelf-life testing. Testing methodologies for shelf-life determination under actual and accelerated storage conditions are considered, highlighting possible uncertainties, pitfalls, and future research needs.

  16. Genomic Analysis of 15 Human Coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43s Circulating in France from 2001 to 2013 Reveals a High Intra-Specific Diversity with New Recombinant Genotypes

    Nathalie Kin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43 is one of five currently circulating human coronaviruses responsible for respiratory infections. Like all coronaviruses, it is characterized by its genome’s high plasticity. The objectives of the current study were to detect genetically distinct genotypes and eventually recombinant genotypes in samples collected in Lower Normandy between 2001 and 2013. To this end, we sequenced complete nsp12, S, and N genes of 15 molecular isolates of HCoV-OC43 from clinical samples and compared them to available data from the USA, Belgium, and Hong-Kong. A new cluster E was invariably detected from nsp12, S, and N data while the analysis of nsp12 and N genes revealed the existence of new F and G clusters respectively. The association of these different clusters of genes in our specimens led to the description of thirteen genetically distinct genotypes, among which eight recombinant viruses were discovered. Identification of these recombinant viruses, together with temporal analysis and tMRCA estimation, provides important information for understanding the dynamics of the evolution of these epidemic coronaviruses.

  17. Distribution and origin of sediments on the northern Sunda Shelf, South China Sea

    Wu, Shi-Guo; Wong, H. K.; Luo, You-Lang; Liang, Zhi-Rong

    1999-03-01

    Seventy-seven surface sediment samples and core samples from the outer Sunda Shelf were analyzed and a number of seismic profiles of the shelf were interpreted. The bottom sediments could be divided into six types: terrigenous sand, biogenic sand, silt-sand, clay-silt-sand, clayey silt and coral reef detritus. Our seismic data showed a thick, prograding Pleistocene deltaic sequence near the shelf-break and a thin Holocene sedimentary layer on the outer shelf. Eleven thermoluminescence (TL) ages were determined. The oldest relict sediments were derived from Late Pleistocene deposits. Based on sediment types, ages, and origins, five sedimentary areas were identified: area of modern Mekong sediments; insular shelf area receiving modern sediments from small Borneo rivers; shelf area near the Natuna-Anambas islands in the southeastern Gulf of Thailand Basin off the Malay Peninsula; area of relict sediments on the outer shelf north of the Natuna Islands, and typical coral reefs and detritus sediments.

  18. Four years of highly time resolved measurements of elemental and organic carbon at a rural background site in Central Europe

    Mbengue, Saliou; Fusek, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Šmejkalová, Adéla Holubová; Holoubek, Ivan

    2018-06-01

    for OC, only the afternoon/evening peak is observed. These seasonal, diurnal and weekly variations of EC and OC concentrations and OC/EC ratio are probably related to variability in terms of emission sources (residential heating, traffic), transport characteristic and meteorological conditions. A weaker correlation between EC and OC in summer (r = 0.56) suggests additional sources and/or transport processes during other seasons. The elevated OC/EC ratio, the higher correlation between OC and O3, and the temperature and solar radiation during summer confirmed an increasing contribution of OC from secondary organic carbon (SOC) estimated as at least 59 ± 11% of total carbon in the PM2.5 using the EC tracer method. Backward trajectories of air masses arriving at 100 m AGL calculated in winter and summer show that higher pollution episodes of EC and OC are predominantly associated with continental air masses confined over Central Europe (about 79%), while lower EC and OC levels are mainly associated with episodes of long-range transport of marine air masses. Interestingly, the results reveal that in winter pollutants emitted during workdays could be accumulated above the region and influence the rural background air quality during some prolonged time of the weekend, especially on Saturday.

  19. Hausse du niveau des océans et perte de terres dans le delta du Nil ...

    9 juin 2016 ... Au moyen de systèmes d'information géographique (SIG), des chercheurs subventionnés par le CRDI ont déterminé les zones littorales du delta du Nil qui pourraient être touchées par la hausse du niveau des océans. Il pourrait en résulter d'importantes pertes de terres d'ici 2100. Selon les plus récentes ...

  20. Characterization and origin of EC and OC particulate matter near the Doñana National Park (SW Spain).

    de la Campa, A M Sánchez; Pio, C; de la Rosa, J D; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; González-Castanedo, Y

    2009-08-01

    In the South of Spain, major industrial estates (e.g. Huelva) exist alongside ecologically interesting zones (e.g. Doñana National Park). Between June 2005 and June 2006, PM10 and PM2.5 were measured, for total mass, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) chemical composition, at a station in an ecologically interesting area located near Doñana National Park and an urban background area with industrial influence. The mean OC concentration is higher in the urban background (3.5 microg m(-3)) than in the rural monitoring station (2.8 microg m(-3)) as a consequence of local emissions (e.g. traffic). A total of 82% of TC is OC in the rural station, while the urban background station reveals 70% and 73% of TC in the PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. The study of air-mass origin and characterization of carbonaceous species in the course of simultaneous sampling in rural and urban background monitoring stations differentiated three long-range air-mass transports: a North-African dust outbreak, Atlantic Advection and Continental (N-NW) episodes, the origins of the first and last of which are more heavily influenced by the anthropogenic emissions from industrial estates located around the city of Huelva (Punta del Sebo and Nuevo Puerto). Higher values were measured for OC and EC in the study area during the North-African dust outbreak, similar to those obtained during the Continental episode (N-NW), which was clearly influenced by industrial emissions, followed by the Atlantic Advection episodes. The comparison of carbon species with air-mass origin can help to discriminate the origin and source of particulate matter, as well as to determine the urban impact on rural areas.

  1. Coupled Metagenomic and Chemical Analyses of Degrading Fungal Necromass and Implications for Microbial Contributions to Stable Soil OC

    Schreiner, K. M.; Morgan, B. S. T.; Schultz, J.; Blair, N. E.; Egerton-Warburton, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fungi comprise a significant portion of total soil biomass, the turnover of which must represent a dominant flux within the soil carbon cycle. Fungal OC can turn over on time scales of days to months, but this process is poorly understood. Here, we examined temporal changes in the chemical and microbial community composition of fungal necromass during a 2 month decomposition experiment in which Fusarium avenaceum (a common saprophyte) was exposed to a natural soil microbial community. Over the course of the experiment, residual fungal necromass was harvested and analyzed using FTIR and thermochemolysis-GCMS to examine chemical changes in the tissue. Additionally, genomic DNA was extracted from tissues, amplified with barcoded ITS primers, and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform to examine changes in microbial community composition. Up to 80% of the fungal necromass turned over in the first week. This rapid degradation phase corresponded to colonization of the necromass by known chitinolytic soil fungi including Mortierella species. Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes were among the dominant fungal species involved in degradation with very small contributions from Basidiomycetes. At the end of the 2 month degradation, only 15% of the original necromass remained. The residual material was rich in amide and C-O moieties which is consistent with previous work predicting that peptidoglycans are the main residual product from microbial tissue degradation. Straight-chain fatty acids exhibit varying degradation profiles, with some fatty acids (e.g. C16 and C18:1) degrading more rapidly than bulk tissue, others maintaining steady concentrations relative to bulk OC (e.g. C18), and some increasing in concentration throughout the degradation (e.g. C24). These results indicate that the turnover of fungal necromass has the potential to significantly influence a variety of soil OC properties, including C/N ratios, lipid biomarker distributions, and OC turnover times.

  2. Cooperative function of Pdx1 and Oc1 in multipotent pancreatic progenitors impacts postnatal islet maturation and adaptability.

    Kropp, Peter A; Dunn, Jennifer C; Carboneau, Bethany A; Stoffers, Doris A; Gannon, Maureen

    2018-04-01

    The transcription factors pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) and onecut1 (Oc1) are coexpressed in multipotent pancreatic progenitors (MPCs), but their expression patterns diverge in hormone-expressing cells, with Oc1 expression being extinguished in the endocrine lineage and Pdx1 being maintained at high levels in β-cells. We previously demonstrated that cooperative function of these two factors in MPCs is necessary for proper specification and differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells. In those studies, we observed a persistent decrease in expression of the β-cell maturity factor MafA. We therefore hypothesized that Pdx1 and Oc1 cooperativity in MPCs impacts postnatal β-cell maturation and function. Here our model of Pdx1-Oc1 double heterozygosity was used to investigate the impact of haploinsufficiency for both of these factors on postnatal β-cell maturation, function, and adaptability. Examining mice at postnatal day (P) 14, we observed alterations in pancreatic insulin content in both Pdx1 heterozygotes and double heterozygotes. Gene expression analysis at this age revealed significantly decreased expression of many genes important for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (e.g., Glut2, Pcsk1/2, Abcc8) exclusively in double heterozygotes. Analysis of P14 islets revealed an increase in the number of mixed islets in double heterozygotes. We predicted that double-heterozygous β-cells would have an impaired ability to respond to stress. Indeed, we observed that β-cell proliferation fails to increase in double heterozygotes in response to either high-fat diet or placental lactogen. We thus report here the importance of cooperation between regulatory factors early in development for postnatal islet maturation and adaptability.

  3. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2009

    2009-07-01

    Exploration activity has reached record-breaking levels in the last couple of years, which has led to many, but small, discoveries. The NPD believes that large discoveries can still be made in areas of the shelf that have not been extensively explored. Content: Challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf; Value creation in fields; 40 years of oil and gas production; Resource management; Still many possibilities; Energy consumption and the environment; Exploration; Access to acreage; Awards of new licenses; Exploration in frontier areas; Exploration history and statistics; Resources and forecasts; Undiscovered resources; Proven recoverable resources; Forecasts; Short-term petroleum production forecast (2009-2013); Investments- and operating costs forecasts; Long-term forecast for the petroleum production; Emissions from the petroleum activity. (AG)

  4. Shelf life prediction of radiation sterilized polymeric materials

    Sandford, Craig; Woo, Lecon

    1988-01-01

    The functional properties of many polymers employed in medical disposables are unaffected by sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation. However, some materials (PVC, polypropylene, cellulosics, etc.) undergo undesirable changes which continue to occur for the shelf life of the product. In many cases, conventional accelerated aging techniques do not accurately predict the real time properties of the materials. As real time aging is not generally practical, it has become necessary to develop accelerated aging techniques which can predict the functional properties of a material for the shelf life of the product. This presentation will address issues involved in developing these tests. Real time physical property data is compared to data generated by various acceleration methods. (author)

  5. Ice-Shelf Tidal Flexure and Subglacial Pressure Variations

    Walker, Ryan T.; Parizek, Byron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Riverman, Kiya L.; Christianson, Knut

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of an ice shelf-ice stream system as a viscoelastic beam partially supported by an elastic foundation. When bed rock near the grounding line acts as a fulcrum, leverage from the ice shelf dropping at low tide can cause significant (approx 1 cm) uplift in the first few kilometers of grounded ice.This uplift and the corresponding depression at high tide lead to basal pressure variations of sufficient magnitude to influence subglacial hydrology.Tidal flexure may thus affect basal lubrication, sediment flow, and till strength, all of which are significant factors in ice-stream dynamics and grounding-line stability. Under certain circumstances, our results suggest the possibility of seawater being drawn into the subglacial water system. The presence of sea water beneath grounded ice would significantly change the radar reflectivity of the grounding zone and complicate the interpretation of grounded versus floating ice based on ice-penetrating radar observations.

  6. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-05-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates.

  7. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates. (orig.)

  8. Determination of primary combustion source organic carbon-to-elemental carbon (OC / EC ratio using ambient OC and EC measurements: secondary OC-EC correlation minimization method

    C. Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Elemental carbon (EC has been widely used as a tracer to track the portion of co-emitted primary organic carbon (OC and, by extension, to estimate secondary OC (SOC from ambient observations of EC and OC. Key to this EC tracer method is to determine an appropriate OC / EC ratio that represents primary combustion emission sources (i.e., (OC / ECpri at the observation site. The conventional approaches include regressing OC against EC within a fixed percentile of the lowest (OC / EC ratio data (usually 5–20 % or relying on a subset of sampling days with low photochemical activity and dominated by local emissions. The drawback of these approaches is rooted in its empirical nature, i.e., a lack of clear quantitative criteria in the selection of data subsets for the (OC / ECpri determination. We examine here a method that derives (OC / ECpri through calculating a hypothetical set of (OC / ECpri and SOC followed by seeking the minimum of the coefficient of correlation (R2 between SOC and EC. The hypothetical (OC / ECpri that generates the minimum R2(SOC,EC then represents the actual (OC / ECpri ratio if variations of EC and SOC are independent and (OC / ECpri is relatively constant in the study period. This Minimum R Squared (MRS method has a clear quantitative criterion for the (OC / ECpri calculation. This work uses numerically simulated data to evaluate the accuracy of SOC estimation by the MRS method and to compare with two commonly used methods: minimum OC / EC (OC / ECmin and OC / EC percentile (OC / EC10 %. Log-normally distributed EC and OC concentrations with known proportion of SOC are numerically produced through a pseudorandom number generator. Three scenarios are considered, including a single primary source, two independent primary sources, and two correlated primary sources. The MRS method consistently yields the most accurate SOC estimation. Unbiased SOC estimation by OC

  9. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    M. Gröger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from

  10. Measurement of OCS, CO2, CO and H2O aboard NASA's WB-57 High Altitude Platform Using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS)

    Leen, J. B.; Owano, T. G.; Du, X.; Gardner, A.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere and has been implicated in controlling the sulfur budget and aerosol loading of the stratosphere. In the troposphere, OCS is irreversibly consumed during photosynthesis and may serve as a tracer for gross primary production (GPP). Its primary sources are ocean outgassing, industrial processes, and biomass burning. Its primary sinks are vegetation and soils. Despite the importance of OCS in atmospheric processes, the OCS atmospheric budget is poorly determined and has high uncertainty. OCS is typically monitored using either canisters analyzed by gas chromatography or integrated atmospheric column measurements. Improved in-situ terrestrial flux and airborne measurements are required to constrain the OCS budget and further elucidate its role in stratospheric aerosol formation and as a tracer for biogenic volatile organics and photosynthesis. Los Gatos Research has developed a flight capable mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to simultaneously quantify OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O in ambient air at up to 2 Hz. The prototype was tested on diluted, certified samples and found to be precise (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O to better than ±4 ppt, ±0.2 ppm, ±0.31 ppb, and ±3.7 ppm respectively, 1s in 1 sec) and linear (R2 > 0.9997 for all gases) over a wide dynamic range (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O ranging from 0.2 - 70 ppb, 500 - 3000 ppm, 150 - 480 ppb, and 7000 - 21000 ppm respectively). Cross-interference measurements showed no appreciable change in measured OCS concentration with variations in CO2 (500 - 3500 ppm) or CO. We report on high altitude measurements made aboard NASA's WB-57 research aircraft. Two research flights were conducted from Houston, TX. The concentration of OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O were continuously recorded from sea level to approximately 60,000 feet. The concentration of OCS was observed to increase with altitude through the troposphere due to the

  11. OC-2-KB: A software pipeline to build an evidence-based obesity and cancer knowledge base.

    Lossio-Ventura, Juan Antonio; Hogan, William; Modave, François; Guo, Yi; He, Zhe; Hicks, Amanda; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Obesity has been linked to several types of cancer. Access to adequate health information activates people's participation in managing their own health, which ultimately improves their health outcomes. Nevertheless, the existing online information about the relationship between obesity and cancer is heterogeneous and poorly organized. A formal knowledge representation can help better organize and deliver quality health information. Currently, there are several efforts in the biomedical domain to convert unstructured data to structured data and store them in Semantic Web knowledge bases (KB). In this demo paper, we present, OC-2-KB (Obesity and Cancer to Knowledge Base), a system that is tailored to guide the automatic KB construction for managing obesity and cancer knowledge from free-text scientific literature (i.e., PubMed abstracts) in a systematic way. OC-2-KB has two important modules which perform the acquisition of entities and the extraction then classification of relationships among these entities. We tested the OC-2-KB system on a data set with 23 manually annotated obesity and cancer PubMed abstracts and created a preliminary KB with 765 triples. We conducted a preliminary evaluation on this sample of triples and reported our evaluation results.

  12. Seasonal cycle of circulation in the Antarctic Peninsula and the off-shelf transport of shelf waters into southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea

    Jiang, Mingshun; Charette, Matthew A.; Measures, Christopher I.; Zhu, Yiwu; Zhou, Meng

    2013-06-01

    The seasonal cycle of circulation and transport in the Antarctic Peninsula shelf region is investigated using a high-resolution (˜2 km) regional model based on the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model also includes a naturally occurring tracer with a strong source over the shelf (radium isotope 228Ra, t1/2=5.8 years) to investigate the sediment Fe input and its transport. The model is spun-up for three years using climatological boundary and surface forcing and then run for the 2004-2006 period using realistic forcing. Model results suggest a persistent and coherent circulation system throughout the year consisting of several major components that converge water masses from various sources toward Elephant Island. These currents are largely in geostrophic balance, driven by surface winds, topographic steering, and large-scale forcing. Strong off-shelf transport of the Fe-rich shelf waters takes place over the northeastern shelf/slope of Elephant Island, driven by a combination of topographic steering, extension of shelf currents, and strong horizontal mixing between the ACC and shelf waters. These results are generally consistent with recent and historical observational studies. Both the shelf circulation and off-shelf transport show a significant seasonality, mainly due to the seasonal changes of surface winds and large-scale circulation. Modeled and observed distributions of 228Ra suggest that a majority of Fe-rich upper layer waters exported off-shelf around Elephant Island are carried by the shelfbreak current and the Bransfield Strait Current from the shallow sills between Gerlache Strait and Livingston Island, and northern shelf of the South Shetland Islands, where strong winter mixing supplies much of the sediment derived nutrients (including Fe) input to the surface layer.

  13. SHELF LIFE OF THAWED CRUSTACEANS TREATED WITH SULPHITES

    G. Smaldone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish and fish products is closely related to their freshness. Aim of this research was to evaluate the shelf life of thawed crustaceans (Aristeomorpha foliacea and Nefrops norvegicus which had been treated with sulphites and frozen on board. Organoleptic characteristics and microbiological and chemical parameters were judged favourably up to day 6 and 7 for the shrimps and Norway lobsters, respectively.

  14. Europa central

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  15. Shelf life of irradiated minimally processed (MP) watercress (Nasturtium officinale)

    Martins, C.G.; Behrens, J.H.; Aragon-Alegro, L.C.; Vieira, V.S.; Costa-Sobrinho, P.S.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.; Franco, B.D.G. de M.; Destro, M.T.; Landgraf, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the shelf life of minimally processed (MP) watercress exposed to gamma radiation with doses of 1.0; 3.0; 4.0 kGy. Packaged irradiated and non-irradiated MP watercress was subject to sensory analysis. A panel consisting of 25-30 non-trained members, aged 20-55 years, was used. Sensory evaluation was carried out on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 9 and 12 after treatment with packages maintained at 7 °C. The members of the panel rated each sample for overall liking on a hybrid 10 hedonic scale (0 = extremely dislike; 10 = extremely like). Microbiological analyses were also conducted. Compared to the non-irradiated sample, 1 kGy irradiated watercress increased its shelf life by one day (16 days). Shelf lives of samples exposed to higher doses were reduced to 9 days (3 kGy) and 6 days (4 kGy) due to changes in appearance. The microbiological quality was good throughout the experiment

  16. Simulating shelf life determination by two simultaneous criteria.

    Peleg, Micha; Normand, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    The shelf life of food and pharmaceutical products is frequently determined by a marker's concentration or quality index falling below or surpassing an assigned threshold level. Naturally, different chosen markers would indicate different shelf life for the same storage temperature history. We demonstrate that if there are two markers, such as two labile vitamins, the order in which their concentrations cross their respective thresholds may depend not only on their degradation kinetic parameters but also on the particular storage temperature profile, be it isothermal or non-isothermal. Thus, at least theoretically, the order observed in accelerated storage need not be always indicative of the actual order at colder temperatures, except where the two degradation reactions follow the same kinetic order and their temperature-dependence rate parameter is also the same. This is shown with simulated hypothetical degradation reactions that follow first or zero order kinetics and whose rate constant's temperature-dependence obeys the exponential model. It is also demonstrated with simulated hypothetical Maillard reaction's products whose synthesis rather than their degradation follows pseudo zero order kinetics. The software developed to do the simulations and calculate the thresholds crossing points has been posted on the Internet as a freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstration, which can be used as a tool in storage studies and shelf life prediction. In principle, the methodology can be extended from two to any number of markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    S. Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ∼ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  18. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Sun, Sainan; Cornford, Stephen L.; Moore, John C.; Gladstone, Rupert; Zhao, Liyun

    2017-11-01

    Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM) to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ˜ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor) fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  19. 41 CFR 102-36.460 - Do we report excess medical shelf-life items held for national emergency purposes?

    2010-07-01

    ... medical shelf-life items held for national emergency purposes? 102-36.460 Section 102-36.460 Public... Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.460 Do we report excess medical shelf-life items held for national emergency purposes? When the remaining shelf life of any medical materials or...

  20. The Hong Kong version of the Oxford Cognitive Screen (HK-OCS): validation study for Cantonese-speaking chronic stroke survivors.

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Lam, Pinky Hiu-Ping; Ho, Diana Wai-Lam; Lau, Johnny King; Humphreys, Glyn W; Riddoch, Jane; Weekes, Brendan

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the validation of the Hong Kong version of Oxford Cognitive Screen (HK-OCS). Seventy Cantonese-speaking healthy individuals participated to establish normative data and 46 chronic stroke survivors were assessed using the HK-OCS, Albert's Test of Visual Neglect, short test of gestural production, and Hong Kong version of the following assessments: Western Aphasia Battery, MMSE, MoCA, Modified Barthel Index, and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale. The validity of the HK-OCS was appraised by the difference between the two participant groups. Neurologically unimpaired individuals performed significantly better than stroke survivors on the HK-OCS. Positive and significant correlations found between cognitive subtests in the HK-OCS and related assessments indicated good concurrent validity. Excellent intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities, fair test-retest reliability, and acceptable internal consistency suggested that the HK-OCS had good reliability. Specific HK-OCS subtests including semantics, episodic memory, number writing, and orientation were the best predictors of functional outcomes.