WorldWideScience

Sample records for shelf area antarctica

  1. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Amery Ice Shelf area, Antarctica: 1961–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin M.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Orndorff, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth’s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. Amery Ice Shelf, lying between 67.5° and 75° East longitude and 68.5° and 73.2° South latitude, is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. The latest measurements of the area of the ice shelf range between 62,620 and 71,260 square kilometers. The ice shelf is fed primarily by Lambert, Mellor, and Fisher Glaciers; its thickness ranges from 3,000 meters in the center of the grounding line to less than 300 meters at the ice front. Lambert Glacier is considered to be the largest glacier in the world, and its drainage basin is more than 1 million square kilometers in area. It is possible to see some coastal change on the outlet glaciers along the coast, but most of the noticeable change occurs on the Amery Ice Shelf front.

  2. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ronne Ice Shelf area, Antarctica, 1974-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, K.M.; Swithinbank, C.; Williams, R.S.; Dalide, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known for certain whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), on the basis of analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance, whereas Rignot and others (in press) infer even larger negative mass balance for glaciers flowing northward into the Amundsen Sea, a trend suggested by Swithinbank and others (2003a,b, 2004). The mass balance of the East Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is unknown, but thought to be in near equilibrium. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Pro-grams. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geo-logical Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner

  3. The evolution of the western rift area of the Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Humbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the evolution of a zone in the Fimbul Ice Shelf that is characterised by large crevasses and rifts west of Jutulstraumen, an outlet glacier flowing into Fimbulisen. High-resolution radar imagery and radio echo sounding data were used to study the surface and internal structure of this rift area and to define zones of similar characteristics. The western rift area is dominated by two factors: a small ice rumple that leads to basal crevasses and disturbs the homogeneity of the ice, and a zone with fibre-like blocks. Downstream of the rumple we found down-welling of internal layers and local thinning, which we explain as a result of basal crevasses due to the basal drag at the ice rumple. North of Ahlmannryggen the ice loses its lateral constraint and forms individual blocks, which are deformed like fibres under shear, where the ice stream merges with slower moving ice masses of the western side. There, the ice loses its integrity, which initiates the western rift system. The velocity difference between the slow moving western part and the fast moving extension of Jutulstraumen produces shear stress that causes the rifts to form tails and expand them to the major rifts of up to 30 km length.

  4. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Northern Ross Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica: 1962-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. Thomas and others (2004), on the basis of aircraft and satellite laser altimetry surveys, believe the thinning may be accelerating. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), on the basis of analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance, whereas Rignot and others (2004) infer even larger negative mass balance for glaciers flowing northward into the Amundsen Sea, a trend suggested by Swithinbank and others (2003a,b; 2004). The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be strongly positive on the basis of the change in satellite altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation?s (1990) Division of Polar

  5. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    crucial role in the formation of oceanic deep water responsible for ocean/continental shelf exchange of organic carbon, suspended material and dissolved gases around Antarctica. In this context, this work presents the analysis of the 1997, 2001 and 2003 high-resolution surveys carried out in the western Ross Sea near Cape Adare, where the HSSW flows down the continental slope. The second study area was investigated during the 1998 survey of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research of the CLIMA Project, in order to follow the ISW overflow path at the shelf break in the central Ross Sea. A 3D primitive equation model was also implemented as a first step in the construction of a high-resolution process study model to explore the dynamical constraints involved in the downslope motion.

  7. Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Part of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains of Antarctica (55.5N, 178.0W) are in the background of this scene, oriented toward the south. Low stratocumulus clouds are predominant throughout most of the scene.

  8. Note On The Ross Sea Shelf Water Downflow Processes (antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Defendi, V.; Spezie, G.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.

    In the framework of the CLIMA Project of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica, three different experimental data sets were acquired along the continental shelf break; two of them (in 1997 and 2001) close to Cape Adare, the 1998 one in the middle of the Ross Sea (i.e. 75 S, 177 W). The investigations were chosen in order to explore the downslope flow of the bottom waters produced in the Ross Sea, namely the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, the densest water mass of the southern ocean coming from its formation site in the polynya region in Terra Nova bay), and the Ice Shelf Water (ISW, originated below the Ross Ice Shelf and outflowing northward). Both bottom waters spill over the shelf edge and mix with the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) contributing to the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW). Interpreting temperature, salinity and density maps in terms of cascading processes, both HSSW and ISW overflows are evidenced during, respectively, 1997 and 1998. During the 2001 acquisition there is no presence of HSSW along the shelf break, nevertheless distribution captures the evidence of a downslope flow process.

  9. Short term variation in particulate matter in the shelf waters of the Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Particulate matter collected at a single station in the shelf waters of Princess Astrid coast (70 degrees S, 11 degrees E) Antarctica, during the austral summer (Jan.-Feb. 1986) was analysed for phytoplankton biomass (Chl @ia@@), living carbon (ATP...

  10. Fives decades of strong temporal variability in the flow of the Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rydt, Jan; Gudmundsson, Hilmar; Nagler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, is a complex conglomerate of meteoric and marine ice, weakly connected to the much larger and faster-flowing Stancomb Wills Glacier Tongue to the east, and pinned down to the seabed in a small area around the McDonalds Ice Rumples in the north. The ice shelf is home to the UK research station Halley, from which changes to the ice shelf have been monitored closely since the 1960s. A unique 50-year record of the flow speed and an intense surveying programme over the past 10 years, have revealed a strong temporal variability in the flow. In particular, the speed of the ice shelf has increased by 10% each year over the past few years. In order to understand these rapid changes, we use a state-of-the-art flow model in combination with a range of satellite, ground-based and airborne radar data, to accurately simulate the historical flow and recent changes. In particular, we model the effects of a recently formed rift that is propagating at a speed of up to 600m/day and threatens to dislodge the ice shelf from its pinning point at the McDonalds Ice Rumples. We also report on the recent reactivation of a large chasm which has prompted the relocation of the station during the 2016/17 austral summer.

  11. Evolution of Meltwater on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica During Two Summer Melt Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, G. J.; Banwell, A. F.; Willis, I.; Mayer, D. P.; Hansen, E. K.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ice shelves surround > 50% of Antarctica's coast and their response to climate change is key to the ice sheet's future and global sea-level rise. Observations of the development and drainage of 2750 lakes prior to the collapse of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, combined with our understanding of ice-shelf flexure/fracture, suggest that surface meltwater plays a key role in ice-shelf stability, although the present state of knowledge remains limited. Here, we report results of an investigation into the seasonal evolution of meltwater on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 and 2016/17 austral summers using satellite remote sensing, complemented by ground survey. Although the MIS is relatively far south (78° S), it experiences relatively high ablation rates in the west due to adiabatically warmed winds, making it a useful example of how meltwater could evolve on more southerly ice shelves in a warming climate. We calculate the areas and depths of ponded surface meltwater on the ice shelf at different stages of the two melt seasons using a modified NDWI approach and water-depth algorithm applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery. Data from two automatic weather stations on the ice shelf are used to drive a positive degree-day model to compare our observations of surface water volumes with modelled meltwater production. Results suggest that the spatial and temporal variations in surface meltwater coverage on the ice shelf vary not only with climatic conditions but also in response to other important processes. First, a rift that widens and propagates between the two melt seasons intercepts meltwater streams, redirecting flow and facilitating ponding elsewhere. Second, some lakes from previous years remain frozen over and become pedestalled, causing streams to divert around their perimeter. Third, surface debris conditions also cause large-scale spatial variation in melt rates and the flow and storage of water.

  12. Crevasse detection with GPR across the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, A.; Arcone, S.

    2005-12-01

    We have used 400-MHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) to detect crevasses within a shear zone on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, to support traverse operations. The transducer was attached to a 6.5-m boom and pushed ahead of an enclosed tracked vehicle. Profile speeds of 4.8-11.3 km / hr allowed real-time crevasse image display and a quick, safe stop when required. Thirty-two crevasses were located with radar along the 4.8 km crossing. Generally, crevasse radar images were characterized by dipping reflections above the voids, high-amplitude reflections originating from ice layers at the base of the snow-bridges, and slanting, diffracting reflections from near-vertical crevasse walls. New cracks and narrow crevasses (back-filling with bulldozed snow, afforded an opportunity to ground-truth GPR interpretations by comparing void size and snow-bridge geometry with the radar images. While second and third season radar profiles collected along the identical flagged route confirmed stability of the filled crevasses, those profiles also identified several new cracks opened by ice extension. Our experiments demonstrate capability of high-frequency GPR in a cold-snow environment for both defining snow layers and locating voids.

  13. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Berger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB, i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique – based on satellite observations – to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation. Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from −14.7 to 8.6 m a−1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a−1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks. However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite

  14. Deformation and failure of the ice bridge on the Wilkins Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humbert, A.; Gross, D.; Müller, R.; Braun, M.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Vaughan, D.G.; van de Berg, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    A narrow bridge of floating ice that connected the Wilkins Ice Shelf, Antarctica, to two confining islands eventually collapsed in early April 2009. In the month preceding the collapse, we observed deformation of the ice bridge by means of satellite imagery and from an in situ GPS station.

  15. The surface climatology of the Ross Ice Shelf Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Carol A; Lazzara, Matthew A; Keller, Linda M; Cassano, John J

    2016-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS) project has been making meteorological surface observations on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) for approximately 30 years. This network offers the most continuous set of routine measurements of surface meteorological variables in this region. The Ross Island area is excluded from this study. The surface climate of the RIS is described using the AWS measurements. Temperature, pressure, and wind data are analysed on daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual time periods for 13 AWS across the RIS. The AWS are separated into three representative regions - central, coastal, and the area along the Transantarctic Mountains - in order to describe specific characteristics of sections of the RIS. The climatology describes general characteristics of the region and significant changes over time. The central AWS experiences the coldest mean temperature, and the lowest resultant wind speed. These AWSs also experience the coldest potential temperatures with a minimum of 209.3 K at Gill AWS. The AWS along the Transantarctic Mountains experiences the warmest mean temperature, the highest mean sea-level pressure, and the highest mean resultant wind speed. Finally, the coastal AWS experiences the lowest mean pressure. Climate indices (MEI, SAM, and SAO) are compared to temperature and pressure data of four of the AWS with the longest observation periods, and significant correlation is found for most AWS in sea-level pressure and temperature. This climatology study highlights characteristics that influence the climate of the RIS, and the challenges of maintaining a long-term Antarctic AWS network. Results from this effort are essential for the broader Antarctic meteorology community for future research.

  16. Recent rift formation and impact on the structural integrity of the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Rydt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent reactivation of a large rift in the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, in December 2012 and the formation of a 50 km long new rift in October 2016. Observations from a suite of ground-based and remote sensing instruments between January 2000 and July 2017 were used to track progress of both rifts in unprecedented detail. Results reveal a steady accelerating trend in their width, in combination with alternating episodes of fast ( > 600 m day−1 and slow propagation of the rift tip, controlled by the heterogeneous structure of the ice shelf. A numerical ice flow model and a simple propagation algorithm based on the stress distribution in the ice shelf were successfully used to hindcast the observed trajectories and to simulate future rift progression under different assumptions. Results show a high likelihood of ice loss at the McDonald Ice Rumples, the only pinning point of the ice shelf. The nascent iceberg calving and associated reduction in pinning of the Brunt Ice Shelf may provide a uniquely monitored natural experiment of ice shelf variability and provoke a deeper understanding of similar processes elsewhere in Antarctica.

  17. Recent rift formation and impact on the structural integrity of the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rydt, Jan; Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; Nagler, Thomas; Wuite, Jan; King, Edward C.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the recent reactivation of a large rift in the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, in December 2012 and the formation of a 50 km long new rift in October 2016. Observations from a suite of ground-based and remote sensing instruments between January 2000 and July 2017 were used to track progress of both rifts in unprecedented detail. Results reveal a steady accelerating trend in their width, in combination with alternating episodes of fast ( > 600 m day-1) and slow propagation of the rift tip, controlled by the heterogeneous structure of the ice shelf. A numerical ice flow model and a simple propagation algorithm based on the stress distribution in the ice shelf were successfully used to hindcast the observed trajectories and to simulate future rift progression under different assumptions. Results show a high likelihood of ice loss at the McDonald Ice Rumples, the only pinning point of the ice shelf. The nascent iceberg calving and associated reduction in pinning of the Brunt Ice Shelf may provide a uniquely monitored natural experiment of ice shelf variability and provoke a deeper understanding of similar processes elsewhere in Antarctica.

  18. Summer Drivers of Atmospheric Variability Affecting Ice Shelf Thinning in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Pranab; Orr, Andrew; Bromwich, David H.; Nicolas, Julien P.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott

    2018-05-01

    Satellite data and a 35-year hindcast of the Amundsen Sea Embayment summer climate using the Weather Research and Forecasting model are used to understand how regional and large-scale atmospheric variability affects thinning of ice shelves in this sector of West Antarctica by melting from above and below (linked to intrusions of warm water caused by anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge). El Niño episodes are associated with an increase in surface melt but do not have a statistically significant impact on westerly winds over the continental shelf edge. The location of the Amundsen Sea Low and the polarity of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) have negligible impact on surface melting, although a positive SAM and eastward shift of the Amundsen Sea Low cause anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge. The projected future increase in El Niño episodes and positive SAM could therefore increase the risk of disintegration of West Antarctic ice shelves.

  19. Chemotrophic Ecosystem Beneath the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventer, A.; Domack, E.; Ishman, S.; Sylva, S.; Willmott, V.; Huber, B.; Padman, L.

    2005-12-01

    The first living chemotrophic ecosystem in the Southern Ocean was discovered in a region of the seafloor previously occupied by the Larsen-B Ice Shelf. A towed video survey documents an ecosystem characterized by a bottom-draping white mat that appears similar to mats of Begiattoa, hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria, and bivalves, 20-30 cm large, similar to vesicomyid clams commonly found at cold seeps. The carbon source is unknown; three potential sources are hypothesized. First, thermogenically-produced methane may occur as the marine shales of this region are similar to hydrocarbon-bearing rocks to the north in Patagonia. The site occurs in an 850 m deep glacially eroded trough located along the contact between Mesozoic-Tertiary crystalline basement and Cretaceous-Tertiary marine rocks; decreased overburden could have induced upward fluid flow. Also possible is the dissociation of methane hydrates, a process that might have occurred as a result of warming oceanic bottom waters. This possibility will be discussed in light of the distribution of early diagenetic ikaite in the region. Third, the possibility of a biogenic methane source will be discussed. A microstratigraphic model for the features observed at the vent sites will be presented; the system is comprised of mud mounds with central vents and surrounding mud flow channels. A series of still image mosaics record the dynamic behavior of the system, which appears to demonstrate episodic venting. These images show the spatial relationship between more and less active sites, as reflected in the superposition of several episodes of mud flow activity and the formation of mud channels. In addition, detailed microscale features of the bathymetry of the site will be presented, placing the community within the context of glacial geomorphologic features. The Larsen-B Ice Shelf persisted through the entire Holocene, limiting carbon influx from a photosynthetic source. Tidal modeling of both pre and post breakup

  20. Variability of Basal Melt Beneath the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Vaughan, David G.; Vornberger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Observations from satellite and airborne platforms are combined with model calculations to infer the nature and efficiency of basal melting of the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica, by ocean waters. Satellite imagery shows surface features that suggest ice-shelf-wide changes to the ocean s influence on the ice shelf as the grounding line retreated. Longitudinal profiles of ice surface and bottom elevations are analyzed to reveal a spatially dependent pattern of basal melt with an annual melt flux of 40.5 Gt/a. One profile captures a persistent set of surface waves that correlates with quasi-annual variations of atmospheric forcing of Amundsen Sea circulation patterns, establishing a direct connection between atmospheric variability and sub-ice-shelf melting. Ice surface troughs are hydrostatically compensated by ice-bottom voids up to 150m deep. Voids form dynamically at the grounding line, triggered by enhanced melting when warmer-than-average water arrives. Subsequent enlargement of the voids is thermally inefficient (4% or less) compared with an overall melting efficiency beneath the ice shelf of 22%. Residual warm water is believed to cause three persistent polynyas at the ice-shelf front seen in Landsat imagery. Landsat thermal imagery confirms the occurrence of warm water at the same locations.

  1. Multi-Decadal Averages of Basal Melt for Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Using Airborne Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Frearson, N.; Kingslake, J.; Padman, L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Fricker, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance are key to the long term stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Although the most extensive ice shelf mass loss currently is occurring in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, many other ice shelves experience changes in thickness on time scales from annual to ice age cycles. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Shelf. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows substantial variability in Ross Ice Shelf height on interannual time scales, complicating detection of potential long-term climate-change signals in the mass budget of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf surface snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. We investigate Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophysical data from the ROSETTA-Ice surveys using IcePod. We use two ice-penetrating radars; a 2 GHz unit that images fine-structure in the upper 400 m of the ice surface and a 360 MHz radar to identify the ice shelf base. We have identified internal layers that are continuous along flow from the grounding line to the ice shelf front. Based on layer continuity, we conclude that these layers must be the horizons between the continental ice of the outlet glaciers and snow accumulation once the ice is afloat. We use the Lagrangian change in thickness of these layers, after correcting for strain rates derived using modern day InSAR velocities, to estimate multidecadal averaged basal melt rates. This method provides a novel way to quantify basal melt, avoiding the confounding impacts of spatial and short-timescale variability in surface accumulation and firn densification processes. Our estimates show elevated basal melt rates (> -1m/yr) around Byrd and Mullock glaciers within 100 km from the ice shelf front. We also compare modern InSAR velocity derived strain rates with estimates from the comprehensive ground-based RIGGS observations during 1973-1978 to estimate the potential magnitude of

  2. Depositional history of artificial radionuclides in the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, M.; Michel, R.; Goldberg, E.D.; Herron, M.M.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The annual fluxes of artificial radionuclides ( 238 Pu, sup(239 + 240)Pu, 241 Am, 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 3 H) from the atmosphere to the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica were determined from measurements in strata dated by 201 Pb. Recognizable sources include the U.S tests (Mike-Ivy and Castle Hill) in the early 1950s, the U.S.S.R. tests of the early 1960s, the SNAP-9A burnup of 1964 and the French and Chinese tests in the late 1960s and 1970s. There are several problems still awaiting resolution: the differences in atmospheric chemistries of fission products and of transuranics produced in weapons tests and the anomalous fluxes of 238 Pu to the ice shelf which do not appear to reflect a one-year stratospheric residence. There is no evidence for a smearing of the fallout record as a consequence of diffusion of these radionuclides in the glacial column. (Auth.)

  3. Tidal influences on a future evolution of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf cavity in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rachael D.; Hattermann, Tore; Howard, Susan L.; Padman, Laurie

    2018-02-01

    Recent modeling studies of ocean circulation in the southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, project an increase over this century of ocean heat into the cavity beneath Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS). This increase in ocean heat would lead to more basal melting and a modification of the FRIS ice draft. The corresponding change in cavity shape will affect advective pathways and the spatial distribution of tidal currents, which play important roles in basal melting under FRIS. These feedbacks between heat flux, basal melting, and tides will affect the evolution of FRIS under the influence of a changing climate. We explore these feedbacks with a three-dimensional ocean model of the southern Weddell Sea that is forced by thermodynamic exchange beneath the ice shelf and tides along the open boundaries. Our results show regionally dependent feedbacks that, in some areas, substantially modify the melt rates near the grounding lines of buttressed ice streams that flow into FRIS. These feedbacks are introduced by variations in meltwater production as well as the circulation of this meltwater within the FRIS cavity; they are influenced locally by sensitivity of tidal currents to water column thickness (wct) and non-locally by changes in circulation pathways that transport an integrated history of mixing and meltwater entrainment along flow paths. Our results highlight the importance of including explicit tidal forcing in models of future mass loss from FRIS and from the adjacent grounded ice sheet as individual ice-stream grounding zones experience different responses to warming of the ocean inflow.

  4. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  5. Observationally constrained surface mass balance of Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kuipers Munneke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface mass balance (SMB of the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS, Antarctica, is poorly constrained due to a dearth of in situ observations. Combining several geophysical techniques, we reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of SMB over the LCIS. Continuous time series of snow height (2.5–6 years at five locations allow for multi-year estimates of seasonal and annual SMB over the LCIS. There is high interannual variability in SMB as well as spatial variability: in the north, SMB is 0.40 ± 0.06 to 0.41 ± 0.04 m w.e. year−1, while farther south, SMB is up to 0.50 ± 0.05 m w.e. year−1. This difference between north and south is corroborated by winter snow accumulation derived from an airborne radar survey from 2009, which showed an average snow thickness of 0.34 m w.e. north of 66° S, and 0.40 m w.e. south of 68° S. Analysis of ground-penetrating radar from several field campaigns allows for a longer-term perspective of spatial variations in SMB: a particularly strong and coherent reflection horizon below 25–44 m of water-equivalent ice and firn is observed in radargrams collected across the shelf. We propose that this horizon was formed synchronously across the ice shelf. Combining snow height observations, ground and airborne radar, and SMB output from a regional climate model yields a gridded estimate of SMB over the LCIS. It confirms that SMB increases from north to south, overprinted by a gradient of increasing SMB to the west, modulated in the west by föhn-induced sublimation. Previous observations show a strong decrease in firn air content toward the west, which we attribute to spatial patterns of melt, refreezing, and densification rather than SMB.

  6. Variability of sea salts in ice and firn cores from Fimbul Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulina Vega, Carmen; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Divine, Dmitry; Martma, Tõnu; Mulvaney, Robert; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski-Gigar, Margit

    2018-05-01

    Major ions were analysed in firn and ice cores located at Fimbul Ice Shelf (FIS), Dronning Maud Land - DML, Antarctica. FIS is the largest ice shelf in the Haakon VII Sea, with an extent of approximately 36 500 km2. Three shallow firn cores (about 20 m deep) were retrieved in different ice rises, Kupol Ciolkovskogo (KC), Kupol Moskovskij (KM), and Blåskimen Island (BI), while a 100 m long core (S100) was drilled near the FIS edge. These sites are distributed over the entire FIS area so that they provide a variety of elevation (50-400 m a.s.l.) and distance (3-42 km) to the sea. Sea-salt species (mainly Na+ and Cl-) generally dominate the precipitation chemistry in the study region. We associate a significant sixfold increase in median sea-salt concentrations, observed in the S100 core after the 1950s, to an enhanced exposure of the S100 site to primary sea-salt aerosol due to a shorter distance from the S100 site to the ice front, and to enhanced sea-salt aerosol production from blowing salty snow over sea ice, most likely related to the calving of Trolltunga occurred during the 1960s. This increase in sea-salt concentrations is synchronous with a shift in non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO42-) toward negative values, suggesting a possible contribution of fractionated aerosol to the sea-salt load in the S100 core most likely originating from salty snow found on sea ice. In contrast, there is no evidence of a significant contribution of fractionated sea salt to the ice-rises sites, where the signal would be most likely masked by the large inputs of biogenic sulfate estimated for these sites. In summary, these results suggest that the S100 core contains a sea-salt record dominated by the proximity of the site to the ocean, and processes of sea ice formation in the neighbouring waters. In contrast, the ice-rises firn cores register a larger-scale signal of atmospheric flow conditions and a less efficient transport of sea-salt aerosols to these sites. These findings are a

  7. Characteristics and processing of seismic data collected on thick, floating ice: Results from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Bruce C.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Stern, Tim A.

    1992-01-01

    Coincident reflection and refraction data, collected in the austral summer of 1988/89 by Stanford University and the Geophysical Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand, imaged the crust beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The Ross Ice Shelf is a unique acquisition environment for seismic reflection profiling because of its thick, floating ice cover. The ice shelf velocity structure is multilayered with a high velocity‐gradient firn layer constituting the upper 50 to 100 m. This near surface firn layer influences the data character by amplifying and frequency modulating the incoming wavefield. In addition, the ice‐water column introduces pervasive, high energy seafloor, intra‐ice, and intra‐water multiples that have moveout velocities similar to the expected subseafloor primary velocities. Successful removal of these high energy multiples relies on predictive deconvolution, inverse velocity stack filtering, and frequency filtering. Removal of the multiples reveals a faulted, sedimentary wedge which is truncated at or near the seafloor. Beneath this wedge the reflection character is diffractive to a two‐way traveltime of ∼7.2 s. At this time, a prominent reflection is evident on the southeast end of the reflection profile. This reflection is interpreted as Moho indicating that the crust is ∼21-km thick beneath the profile. These results provide seismic evidence that the extensional features observed in the Ross Sea region of the Ross Embayment extend beneath the Ross Ice Shelf.

  8. Ice Penetrating Radar Reveals Spatially Variable Features in Basal Channel under the Nansen Ice Shelf, Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, P. L.; Dow, C. F.; Mueller, D.; Lee, W. S.; Lindzey, L.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    The stability of Antarctic ice shelves is of great concern as their current thinning and future collapse will contribute to sea-level rise via the acceleration of grounded tributary glaciers into the ocean. The study of the sub-ice-shelf environment is essential for understanding ice-ocean interaction, where warming ocean temperatures have already begun to threaten the long-term viability of Antarctic ice shelves. Obtaining direct measurements of the sub-ice-shelf cavity remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that ground-based geophysical methods can deliver high resolution monitoring and mapping of the spatial and temporal changes in features, melt rates, and ice mass transport of this environment. In November 2016, 84 km of ground-based, low frequency, Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) surveys were completed on three sites over the Nansen Ice Shelf in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. The surveys examined an ocean-sourced basal channel incised into the bottom of the shelf, originally detected from a large surface depression. Results reveal high resolution features of a several kilometre-wide, 100 m high channel, with 40 m high sub-channels, zones of significant marine ice accumulation, and basal crevasses penetrating large fractions of the ice shelf thickness. Data from multiple airborne geophysical surveys were compared to the November 2016 IPR data to calculate mass change both spatially and temporally. Many of the smaller scale features we detected are not represented through hydrostatic equilibrium as calculated from ice thicknesses, due to bridging stresses, and as such can not be detected with satellite based remote sensing methods. Our in-field geophysical methods produced high-resolution information of these features, which underscores the need for similar surveys over vulnerable ice shelves to better understand ice-ocean processes.

  9. Nitrogen and carbon limitation of planktonic primary production and phytoplankton-bacterioplankton coupling in ponds on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, B.K.; Hawes, I.; Safi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of nutrient limitation and coupling of planktonic primary and secondary production were investigated in meltwater ponds of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using regression tree analysis and multiple regression. Phytoplankton were primaril N-limited but inorganic carbon apparently co...

  10. New Crustal Boundary Revealed Beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, through ROSETTA-Ice Integrated Aerogeophysics, Geology, and Ocean Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Siddoway, C. S.; Bell, R. E.; Lockett, A.; Wilner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Now submerged within marine plateaus and rises bordering Antarctica, Australia and Zealandia, the East Gondwana accretionary margin was a belt of terranes and stitched by magmatic arcs, later stretched into continental ribbons separated by narrow elongate rifts. This crustal architecture is known from marine geophysical exploration and ocean drilling of the mid-latitude coastal plateaus and rises. A concealed sector of the former East Gondwana margin that underlies the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), Antarctica, is the focus of ROSETTA-ICE, a new airborne data acquisition campaign that explores the crustal makeup, tectonic boundaries and seafloor bathymetry beneath RIS. Gravimeters and a magnetometer are deployed by LC130 aircraft surveying along E-W lines spaced at 10 km, and N-S tie lines at 55 km, connect 1970s points (RIGGS) for controls on ocean depth and gravity. The ROSETTA-ICE survey, 2/3 completed thus far, provides magnetic anomalies, Werner depth-to-basement solutions, a new gravity-based bathymetric model at 20-km resolution, and a new crustal density map tied to the 1970s data. Surprisingly, the data reveal that the major lithospheric boundary separating East and West Antarctica lies 300 km east of the Transantarctic Mountains, beneath the floating RIS. The East and West regions have contrasting geophysical characteristics and bathymetry, with relatively dense lithosphere, low amplitude magnetic anomalies, and deep bathymetry on the East Antarctica side, and high amplitude magnetic anomalies, lower overall density and shallower water depths on the West Antarctic side. The Central High, a basement structure cored at DSDP Site 270 and seismically imaged in the Ross Sea, continues beneath RIS as a faulted but coherent crustal ribbon coincident with the tectonic boundary. The continuity of Gondwana margin crustal architecture discovered beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet requires a revision of the existing tectonic framework. The sub-RIS narrow rift basins and

  11. Areas with special ecological values on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Kessel, J.G.; Berkenbosch, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this report we are submitting proposals for the boundaries of areas on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). In the National Spatial Strategy a conservation regime has been determined for five areas in the North Sea with special ecological values. RIKZ and Alterra have formulated this report in

  12. GIS representation of coal-bearing areas in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.

    2016-03-11

    Understanding the distribution of coal-bearing geologic units in Antarctica provides information that can be used in sedimentary, geomorphological, paleontological, and climatological studies. This report is a digital compilation of information on Antarctica’s coal-bearing geologic units found in the literature. It is intended to be used in small-scale spatial geographic information system (GIS) investigations and as a visual aid in the discussion of Antarctica’s coal resources or in other coal-based geologic investigations. Instead of using spatially insignificant point markers to represent large coal-bearing areas, this dataset uses polygons to represent actual coal-bearing lithologic units. Specific locations of coal deposits confirmed from the literature are provided in the attribution for the coal-bearing unit polygons. Coal-sample-location data were used to confirm some reported coal-bearing geology. The age and extent of the coal deposits indicated in the literature were checked against geologic maps ranging from local scale at 1:50,000 to Antarctic continental scale at 1:5,000,000; if satisfactory, the map boundaries were used to generate the polygons for the coal-bearing localities.

  13. Ice-Shelf Flexure and Tidal Forcing of Bindschadler Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.; Parizek, Bryron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Viscoelastic models of ice-shelf flexure and ice-stream velocity perturbations are combined into a single efficient flowline model to study tidal forcing of grounded ice. The magnitude and timing of icestream response to tidally driven changes in hydrostatic pressure and/or basal drag are found to depend significantly on bed rheology, with only a perfectly plastic bed allowing instantaneous velocity response at the grounding line. The model can reasonably reproduce GPS observations near the grounding zone of Bindschadler Ice Stream (formerly Ice Stream D) on semidiurnal time scales; however, other forcings such as tidally driven ice-shelf slope transverse to the flowline and flexurally driven till deformation must also be considered if diurnal motion is to be matched

  14. Response of Southern Ocean circulation to global warming may enhance basal ice shelf melting around Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattermann, Tore; Levermann, Anders [Potsdam University, Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the large-scale oceanic features determining the future ice shelf-ocean interaction by analyzing global warming experiments in a coarse resolution climate model with a comprehensive ocean component. Heat and freshwater fluxes from basal ice shelf melting (ISM) are parameterized following Beckmann and Goosse [Ocean Model 5(2):157-170, 2003]. Melting sensitivities to the oceanic temperature outside of the ice shelf cavities are varied from linear to quadratic (Holland et al. in J Clim 21, 2008). In 1% per year CO{sub 2}-increase experiments the total freshwater flux from ISM triples to 0.09 Sv in the linear case and more than quadruples to 0.15 Sv in the quadratic case after 140 years at which 4 x 280 ppm = 1,120 ppm was reached. Due to the long response time of subsurface temperature anomalies, ISM thereafter increases drastically, if CO{sub 2} concentrations are kept constant at 1,120 ppm. Varying strength of the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) is crucial for ISM increase, because southward advection of heat dominates the warming along the Antarctic coast. On centennial timescales the ACC accelerates due to deep ocean warming north of the current, caused by mixing of heat along isopycnals in the Southern Ocean (SO) outcropping regions. In contrast to previous studies we find an initial weakening of the ACC during the first 150 years of warming. This purely baroclinic effect is due to a freshening in the SO which is consistent with present observations. Comparison with simulations with diagnosed ISM but without its influence on the ocean circulation reveal a number of ISM-related feedbacks, of which a negative ISM-feedback, due to the ISM-related local oceanic cooling, is the dominant one. (orig.)

  15. Export of Ice-Cavity Water from Pine Island Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnherr, Andreas; Jacobs, Stanley; Dutrieux, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is sensitive to changes in melting at the bottom of floating ice shelves that form the seaward extensions of Antarctic glaciers flowing into the ocean. Not least because observations in the cavities beneath ice shelves are difficult, heat fluxes and melt rates have been inferred from oceanographic measurements obtained near the ice edge (calving fronts). Here, we report on a set of hydrographic and velocity data collected in early 2009 near the calving front of the Amundsen Sea's fast-moving and (until recently) accelerating Pine Island Glacier and its associated ice shelf. CTD profiles collected along the southern half of the meridionally-trending ice front show clear evidence for export of ice-cavity water. That water was carried in the upper ocean along the ice front by a southward current that is possibly related to a striking clockwise gyre that dominated the (summertime) upper-ocean circulation in Pine Island Bay. Signatures of ice-cavity water appear unrelated to current direction along most of the ice front, suggesting that cross-frontal exchange is dominated by temporal variability. However, repeated hydrographic and velocity measurements in a small "ice cove" at the southern end of the calving front show a persistent strong (mean velocity peaking near 0.5 ms-1) outflow of ice-cavity water in the upper 500 m. While surface features (boils) suggested upwelling from deep below the ice shelf, vertical velocity measurements reveal 1) that the mean upwelling within the confines of the cove was too weak to feed the observed outflow, and 2) that large high-frequency internal waves dominated the vertical motion of water inside the cove. These observations indicate that water exchange between the Pine Island Ice Shelf cavity and the Amundsen sea is strongly asymmetric with weak broad inflow at depth and concentrated surface-intensified outflow of melt-laden deep water at the southern edge of the calving front. The lack of

  16. The infauna of three widely distributed sponge species (Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) from the deep Ekström Shelf in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte

    2014-10-01

    Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.

  17. Calcareous nannofossil evidence for Marine Isotope Stage 31 (1 Ma) in the AND-1B Core, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, G.; Persico, D.; Wise, S. W.; Gadaleta, A.

    2009-04-01

    calcareous nannofossils to the margins of Antarctica. The warm interval during the Jaramillo Subchron shows that these areas were more climatically dynamic than previously thought and calls into questions the notion that the EAIS has remained in a stable polar condition since the late Neogene. The warm surface water event reported here is especially significant given its proximal position to the Antarctic ice sheet. References Naish, T., Powell, R., Levy R., Henrys S., Krissek L., Niessen F., Pompilio M., Scherer R., Wilson G. & the ANDRIL-MIS Science Team, 2007. - Synthesis of the Initial Scientific Results of the MIS Project (AND-1B Core), Victoria Land Basin, antartica. Terra Antartica, 14(3), 317-327. Scherer, R., Bohaty, S., Dunbar, R.B., Esper, O., Flores, J.A., Gersonde, R., Harwood, D.M., Roberts, A.P., Taviani, M., 2008. Antarctic records of precession-paced insolation-driven warming during early Pleistocene Marine Isotope Stage 31. Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 35, L03505, doi: 10.1029/2007GL032254. Villa G. and Wise S.W., 1998 - Quaternary calcareous nannofossils from the Antarctic region. Terra Antartica, 5(3), 479-484. Villa G., Lupi, C., Cobianchi, M., Florindo, F., Pekar, S.F., 2008. A Pleistocene warming event at 1 Ma in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica: evidence from ODP Site 1165. Palaeogeography, Palaoeclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/J.palaeo.2007.08.017. Wilson G., Levy R., Browne G., Dunbar, N., Florindo F., Henrys S., Graham I., McIntosh W., McKay R., Naish T., Ohneiser C., Powell R., Ross J., Sagnotti L., Scherer R., Sjunneskog C., Strong C.P. Taviani M., Winter D., & the ANDRILL MIS-Science Team, 2007. Preliminary Integrated Chronostratigraphy of AND-1B Drill Core, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica. Terra Antartica 14 (3), 297-316.

  18. Using aerogravity and seismic data to model the bathymetry and upper crustal structure beneath the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.; Riverman, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that ice shelves along the Amundsen Sea coast in West Antarctica are losing substantial mass through sub-ice-shelf melting and contributing to the accelerating mass loss of the grounded ice buttressed by them. For Pine Island Glacier (PIG), relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water has been identified as the key driver of the sub-ice-shelf melting although poor constraints on PIG sub-ice shelf have restricted thorough understanding of these ice-ocean interactions. Aerogravity data from NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) have been useful in identifying large-scale (on the order of ten kilometers) features but the results have relatively large uncertainties due to the inherent non-uniqueness of the gravity inversion. Seismic methods offer the most direct means of providing water thickness and upper crustal geological constraints, but availability of such data sets over the PIG ice shelf has been limited due to logistical constraints. Here we present a comparative analysis of the bathymetry and upper crustal structure beneath the ice shelf of PIG through joint inversion of OIB aerogravity data and in situ active-source seismic measurements collected in the 2012-13 austral summer. Preliminary results indicate improved resolution of the ocean cavity, particularly in the interior and sides of the PIG ice shelf, and sedimentary drape across the region. Seismically derived variations in ice and ocean water densities are also applied to the gravity inversion to produce a more robust model of PIG sub-ice shelf structure, as opposed to commonly used single ice and water densities across the entire study region. Misfits between the seismically-constrained gravity inversion and that estimated previously from aerogravity alone provide insights on the sensitivity of gravity measurements to model perturbations and highlight the limitations of employing gravity data to model ice shelf environments when no other sub-ice constraints are available.

  19. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Eights Coast area, Antarctica, 1972-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Rosanova, Christine E.; Dailide, Lina M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known for certain whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although the western part is thickening, the northern part is thinning. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), based on analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance. The mass balance of the East Antarctic is unknown, but thought to be in near equilibrium. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The

  20. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica; 1972-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Hallam, Cheryl A.; Rosanova, Christine E.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known for certain whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although the western part is thickening, the northern part is thinning. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), based on analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance. The mass balance of the East Antarctic is unknown, but thought to be in near equilibrium. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation?s (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The

  1. Mapping of the DOME-C area in Antarctica by an airborne L-band radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2014-01-01

    A 350 × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature close to the yearly mean temperature — well suited for calibration checks...

  2. Airborne L-band radiometer mapping of the dome-C area in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2015-01-01

    A 350 km × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome-C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature (TB) close to the yearly mean temperature-well suited for calibration...

  3. Late Quaternary climatic changes in the Ross Sea area, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambati, A.; Melis, R.; Quaia, T.; Salvi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Ten cores from the Ross Sea continental margin were investigated to detect Late Quaternary climatic changes. Two main climatic cycles over the last 300,000 yr (isotope stages 1-8) were recognised in cores from the continental slope, whereas minor fluctuations over the last 30,000 yr were found in cores from the continental shelf. The occurrence of calcareous taxa within the Last Glacial interval and their subsequent disappearance reveal a general raising of the CCD during the last climatic cycle. In addition, periodical trends of c. 400, c. 700, and c. 1400 yr determined on calcareous foraminifers from sediments of the Joides Basin, indicate fluctuations of the Ross Ice Shelf between 15 and 30 ka BP. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs

  4. Global change: Ecology of Greenlandish and Siberian shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This work aimed to study the distribution and structure of pelagic and benthal biocoenoses in two areas, the continental shelf of eastern Greenland and the northern Barents Sea, and to compare them in relation to their ecological boundary conditions. Furthermore, aspects of ontogenetic and ecophysiological adaptations of key species were investigated. The programme followed a fourfold approach: 1) Inventory of fauna, 2) analysis of the distribution and composition of communities, 3) autecological studies of selected key species, 4) description of associations between community structures, autecological adaptations, and special environmental conditions. In this way an inventory of pelagic and benthal biocoenoses in the two areas of investigation was prepared also with a view to further studies. Different modern sampling and data acquisition methods were used to ensure covering a broad spectrum of forms and sizes of fauna. (orig./KW) [de

  5. Ice-Shelf Melt Response to Changing Winds and Glacier Dynamics in the Amundsen Sea Sector, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat-Magnin, Marion; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Spence, Paul; Le Sommer, Julien; Gallée, Hubert; Durand, Gaël.

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that the coastal Southern Ocean subsurface may warm over the 21st century in response to strengthening and poleward shifting winds, with potential adverse effects on West Antarctic glaciers. However, using a 1/12° ocean regional model that includes ice-shelf cavities, we find a more complex response to changing winds in the Amundsen Sea. Simulated offshore subsurface waters get colder under strengthened and poleward shifted winds representative of the SAM projected trend. The buoyancy-driven circulation induced by ice-shelf melt transports this cold offshore anomaly onto the continental shelf, leading to cooling and decreased melt below 450 m. In the vicinity of ice-shelf fronts, Ekman pumping contributes to raise the isotherms in response to changing winds. This effect overwhelms the horizontal transport of colder offshore waters at intermediate depths (between 200 and 450 m), and therefore increases melt rates in the upper part of the ice-shelf cavities, which reinforces the buoyancy-driven circulation and further contributes to raise the isotherms. Then, prescribing an extreme grounding line retreat projected for 2100, the total melt rates simulated underneath Thwaites and Pine Island are multiplied by 2.5. Such increase is explained by a larger ocean/ice interface exposed to CDW, which is then amplified by a stronger melt-induced circulation along the ice draft. Our main conclusions are that (1) outputs from ocean models that do not represent ice shelf cavities (e.g., CMIP5 models) should not be directly used to predict the thermal forcing of future ice shelf cavities; (2) coupled ocean/ice sheet models with a velocity-dependent melt formulation are needed for future projections of glaciers experiencing a significant grounding line retreat.

  6. The role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve: Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Bastmeijer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and declarations on environmental protection in Antarctica. Next, these instruments are compared with the components of IUCN’s ‘protected area’ definition (2008. In the light of this overall protection of Antarctica, the instrument of designating areas as Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs is discussed on the basis of a quick scan of 42 management plans for existing ASPAs. It is concluded that Antarctica could indeed be considered as a protected area and that the ASPA instrument is so shaped to provide specific areas with ‘extra protection’ by regulating human activities in those areas with a high level of detail. However, the continuous increase in human activities in Antarctica raises concerns with respect to the scope and completeness of the existing legal instruments. These concerns regarding the overall protection of Antarctica could become an argument for applying the ASPA instrument in respect of larger areas to ensure the comprehensive protection of at least certain parts of Antarctica. This would make the ASPA system more comparable with protected area systems in other parts of the world; however, strengthening the overall protection of Antarctica – parallel to the further development of the ‘specially’ protected area system - would be more consistent with Antarctica’s protected status as has developed since the Antarctic Treaty was signed 50 years ago.

  7. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. © 2015 John Wiley

  8. Assessing the effectiveness of specially protected areas for conservation of Antarctica's botanical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A; Ireland, Louise C; Convey, Peter; Fleming, Andrew H

    2016-02-01

    Vegetation is sparsely distributed over Antarctica's ice-free ground, and distinct plant communities are present in each of the continent's 15 recently identified Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs). With rapidly increasing human activity in Antarctica, terrestrial plant communities are at risk of damage or destruction by trampling, overland transport, and infrastructure construction and from the impacts of anthropogenically introduced species, as well as uncontrollable pressures such as fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) activity and climate change. Under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, the conservation of plant communities can be enacted and facilitated through the designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs). We examined the distribution within the 15 ACBRs of the 33 ASPAs whose explicit purpose includes protecting macroscopic terrestrial flora. We completed the first survey using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite remote sensing to provide baseline data on the extent of vegetation cover in all ASPAs designated for plant protection in Antarctica. Large omissions in the protection of Antarctic botanical diversity were found. There was no protection of plant communities in 6 ACBRs, and in another 6, area was included in an ASPA that protected vegetation. Protected vegetation cover within the 33 ASPAs totaled 16.1 km(2) for the entire Antarctic continent; over half was within a single protected area. Over 96% of the protected vegetation was contained in 2 ACBRs, which together contributed only 7.8% of the continent's ice-free ground. We conclude that Antarctic botanical diversity is clearly inadequately protected and call for systematic designation of ASPAs protecting plant communities by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties, the members of the governing body of the continent. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society

  9. Spectral Discrimination of Vegetation Classes in Ice-Free Areas of Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Calviño-Cancela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in ice-free areas of Antarctica is crucial to determine the effects of climate warming and increasing human presence in this vulnerable ecosystem. Remote sensing techniques are especially suitable in this distant and rough environment, with high spectral and spatial resolutions needed owing to the patchiness and similarity between vegetation elements. We analyze the reflectance spectra of the most representative vegetation elements in ice-free areas of Antarctica to assess the potential for discrimination. This research is aimed as a basis for future aircraft/satellite research for long-term vegetation monitoring. The study was conducted in the Barton Peninsula, King George Island. The reflectance of ground patches of different types of vegetation or bare ground (c. 0.25 m 2 , n = 30 patches per class was recorded with a spectrophotometer measuring between 340 nm to 1025 nm at a resolution of 0.38 n m . We used Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA to classify the cover classes according to reflectance spectra, after reduction of the number of bands using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The first five principal components explained an accumulated 99.4% of the total variance and were added to the discriminant function. The LDA classification resulted in c. 92% of cases correctly classified (a hit ratio 11.9 times greater than chance. The most important region for discrimination was the visible and near ultraviolet (UV, with the relative importance of spectral bands steeply decreasing in the Near Infra-Red (NIR region. Our study shows the feasibility of discriminating among representative taxa of Antarctic vegetation using their spectral patterns in the near UV, visible and NIR. The results are encouraging for hyperspectral vegetation mapping in Antarctica, which could greatly facilitate monitoring vegetation changes in response to a changing environment, reducing the costs and environmental impacts of

  10. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Palmer Land Area, Antarctica: 1947-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2009-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of the two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting rise in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying

  11. Heat Flow and Hydrologic Characteristics at the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; Williams, Trevor; Henry, Stuart; ,; Hansaraj, Dhiresh

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) successfully drilled and cored a borehole, AND-1B, beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf and into a flexural moat basin that surrounds Ross Island. Total drilling depth reached 1285 m below seafloor (mbsf) with 98 percent core recovery for the detailed study of glacier dynamics. With the goal of obtaining complementary information regarding heat flow and permeability, which is vital to understanding the nature of marine hydrogeologic systems, a succession of three temperature logs was recorded over a five-day span to monitor the gradual thermal recovery toward equilibrium conditions. These data were extrapolated to true, undisturbed temperatures, and they define a linear geothermal gradient of 76.7 K/km from the seafloor to 647 mbsf. Bulk thermal conductivities of the sedimentary rocks were derived from empirical mixing models and density measurements performed on core, and an average value of 1.5 W/mK ± 10 percent was determined. The corresponding estimate of heat flow at this site is 115 mW/m2. This value is relatively high but is consistent with other elevated heat-flow data associated with the Erebus Volcanic Province. Information regarding the origin and frequency of pathways for subsurface fluid flow is gleaned from drillers' records, complementary geophysical logs, and core descriptions. Only two prominent permeable zones are identified and these correspond to two markedly different features within the rift basin; one is a distinct lithostratigraphic subunit consisting of a thin lava flow and the other is a heavily fractured interval within a single thick subunit.

  12. Seabed geodiversity in a glaciated shelf area, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskela, Anu Marii; Kotilainen, Aarno Tapio

    2017-10-01

    Geodiversity describes the heterogeneity of the physical terrain. We have performed basin-wide geodiversity analysis on a glaciated epicontinental seabed to assess geodiversity measures and patterns, locate areas with high geodiversity, and draw conclusions on contributing processes. Geodiversity quantification is a rather new topic and is mainly practiced in land areas. We applied geodiversity methods developed for terrestrial studies to a seabed environment. Three geodiversity parameters, including the richness, patchiness, and geodiversity index, of the Baltic Sea were assessed in a GIS environment based on broad-scale datasets on seabed substrates, structures, and bedrock. A set of environmental and geological variables, which were considered to reflect geological processes under seabed conditions, were compared with the geodiversity to identify some of its drivers. We observed differences in the geodiversity levels of the Baltic subbasins, which are mainly due to basement type/bedrock, roughness, shore density, and glacier-derived processes. The geodiversity of the Baltic Sea generally increases from South to North and from open-sea to high-shore density areas (archipelagos). Crystalline bedrock areas provide more diverse seabed environments than sedimentary rock areas. The analysis helps to inform scientists, marine spatial planners, and managers about abiotic conservation values, the dynamics of the seabed environment, and potential areas with elevated biodiversity.

  13. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Trinity Peninsula area and south Shetland Islands, Antarctica: 1843-2001: Chapter A in Coastal-change and glaciological maps of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Foley, Kevin M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In addition to its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. Thomas and others (2004), on the basis of aircraft and satellite laser altimetry surveys, believe the thinning may be accelerating. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), on the basis of analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance, whereas Rignot and others (2004) infer even larger negative mass balance for glaciers flowing northward into the Amundsen Sea, a trend suggested by Swithinbank and others (2003a,b, 2004). The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be strongly positive on the basis of the change in satellite altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science

  14. Heat flow and radioactivity studies in the Ross Island-dry valley area, Antarctica and their tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Dry Valley Drilling Project, the University of Wyoming conducted heat flow and basement radioactivity studies in the Ross Island-dry valley area of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. This part of Antarctica is characterized by late Cenozoic alkaline basaltic volcanism and uplift. Six heat flow (q) values for the area range from 1.4 to 2.0 HFU, with a mean value of 1.7 HFU. Radioactive heat production (A) values for basement rocks from the dry valleys range from 2.2 to 4.1 HGU, with a mean value of 3.0 HGU. The combined q-A data imply that this area is a zone of high reduced heat flow, similar to the Basin and Range province in the western United States and other zones of late Cenozoic tectonof Antarctica is probably in the range of 1.2 to 1.6 HFU, which is about 50 to 100% higher than the reduced flux which characterizes stable continental areas. The results of the transient conductive models presented herein imply that the high flux in this part of Antarctica cannot be explained by the residual thermal effects of a major episode of lithospheric thinning associated with the generation of the Ferrar Dolerites. The correlation between steady conductive thermal models and the late Cenozoic, silica-undersaturated, alkaline basalts of the region is similarly obscure. For example, purely conductive steady-state temperature-depth models predict partial melting at depths of only 45 to 50 km in the mantle, whereas geochemical data for the volcanic units are consistent with the basalts being generated at depths of at least 60 to 80 km

  15. On the formation of coastal polynyas in the area of Commonwealth Bay, Eastern Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Gerd; Gilmore, Dan; Curtis, Jan

    Antarctica's King George V Land and Adélie Land were first explored by Sir Douglas Mawson and his party during their 1911-1913 expedition. They were astounded by the strength of the katabatic wind, which is so dominant in this area. These strong offshore winds can move the sea ice away from shore, forming coastal polynya, not only in summer but even in midwinter. Poor visibility due to darkness and frequently occurring blowing snow make the study of these polynyas from land-based observations difficult. Recently, coverage of this area by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery, which has a high resolution of 40 m (pixel size 12.5 m), gave additional insight into the characteristics of these polynyas. This high resolution is needed because the width of the polynya is small (10 km or so). Furthermore, of special importance is the fact that SAR data can be obtained during darkness and overcast conditions. Following original Russian work, we modified a simple model for wind-driven coastal polynyas, using actual meteorological data from our coastal automatic weather stations as input. Using mean monthly data for the stations, we show that coastal polynyas are to be expected in the windiest area (Cape Denison-Port Martin); while to the west (Dumont d'Urville) and east (Penguin Point), the average conditions do not produce them. Here, they occur only during strong and long-lasting storms. Our observational data of the polynyas as viewed from SAR and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) confirm these findings.

  16. Terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the lewis cliff stranding area, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; Alderliesten, C.; van der Borg, K.

    1999-07-01

    We determined terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the Lewis Cliff stranding area, East Antarctica, on the basis of the concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be (t1/2 = 1.51 Ma), 26Al (t1/2 = 0.705 Ma) and 36Cl (t1/2 = 0.301 Ma). After an initial 26Al -ray survey of 91 meteorites suggested that many have terrestrial ages larger than 0.1 Ma, we selected 62 meteorites for 10Be and 26Al measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and measured 36Cl in twelve of those. Low terrestrial ages (Ma) were found for about 60% of the meteorites, whereas all others have ages between 0.1 and 0.5 Ma, except for one exceptional age of >2 Ma (Welten et al., 1997). Our major conclusions are: (1) The Lewis Cliff H-chondrites show similar ages as those from the Allan Hills Ice-fields, but the L-chondrites are about a factor of two younger than those from Allan Hills, which indicates that Lewis Cliff is a younger stranding area. (2) The terrestrial age distributions at different parts of the Lewis Cliff stranding area generally agree with simple meteorite concentration models, although differences in weathering rate may also play a role. (3) We confirm that meteorites with natural thermoluminescence (TL) levels >80 krad are associated with low terrestrial ages (Benoit et al., 1992), but conclude that natural TL levels <80 krad can not be used to calculate the terrestrial age of a meteorite. Natural TL levels do seem useful to estimate relative terrestrial ages of large groups of meteorites and to determine differences in surface exposure age of paired meteorite fragments. (4) Of the 62 meteorites measured with AMS, 31 were assigned to eleven different pairing groups, mainly on the basis of their cosmogenic nuclide record. The meteorites are estimated to represent between 42 and 52 distinct falls.

  17. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle. The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by internal dynamics, to be followed in

  18. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle.

    The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by

  19. Micro-relief distribution of major mosses in ice-free areas along the Soya Coast, the Syowa Station area, East Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Okitsu,Susumu; Imura,Satoshi; Ayukawa,Eri

    2004-01-01

    Micro-relief distribution of five major mosses, Pottia heimii, Ceratodon purpureus, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Grimmia lawiana and Bryum argenteum, in the ice-free areas along the Soya Coast, continental part of East Antarctica have been compared. Those five mosses showed three different types of micro-relief distribution, at three different types of sites: mounds, slopes and hollows. Pottia heimii and Ceratodon purpureus prevailed on mound sites mixed with cyanobacteria. In dryer mound environm...

  20. Marine geology and bathymetry of nearshore shelf of Chukchi Sea, Ogotoruk Creek area, northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Sainsbury, C.L.

    1960-01-01

    During July and August 1958 the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in behalf of the Atomic Energy Commission of the oceanography, bathymetry, and marine geology of the nearshore shelf of the Chukchi Sea off the Ogotoruk Creek area, northwest Alaska. Ogotoruk Creek enters the Chukchi Sea about 32 miles southeast of the large cuapate spit of Point Hope at long 165 degrees 4446 W. and lat 68 degrees 0551 N. The Ogotoruk Creek area extends approximately 10 miles west and 7 miles east of the creek mouth. Knowledge of the marine geology and oceanography is confined primarily to the nearshore shelf, which includes about 70 square miles of the shelf and is defined as the sea floor lying shoreward of the 50-foot submarine contour. The 50-foot contour generally lies from 2 to 4 miles from shore. Submarine topography was studied to a distance of 15 miles from shore over an area of approximately 340 square miles. A northwest coastal current flows past the Ogotoruk Creek area and during July and August averaged 0.5 mile per hour. Persistent northerly winds cause general upwelling near shore and at times of pronounced upwelling the coastal current was reversed or appreciably reduced in speed. Longshore currents shoreward of the breaker zone averaged 0.3 mile per hour and moved to the east for the greater part of the time of the study. The overall seaward slope of the inner 15 miles of the Chukchi shelf from a depth of 40 to 135 feet is approximately 0 degrees 04, or about 6 feet per mile. Slopes near shore to depths of 15-20 feet are steep and average 2 degrees 30. Beyond these depths they increase gradually out to a depth of 40-45 feet. Seaward of this point the shelf is flattest and slopes are as low as 0 degree 01. This terrace or flat part of the nearshore shelf is about 2 miles wide and descends to a depth of 50-55 feet beyond which the gradient increases to about 0 degree 06. At depths greater than 85 feet the submarine declivity gradually decreases to 0 degree 03 at

  1. Ice Motion and Topography Near Margin Areas of Kamb Ice Stream, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes ice motion and topography measurements that were taken by measuring movement and altitude of poles set in the West Antarctic Ice Shelf. The...

  2. Neogene sea surface temperature reconstructions from the Southern McMurdo Sound and the McMurdo Ice Shelf (ANDRILL Program, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, Francesca; Willmott, Veronica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Florindo, Fabio; Harwood, David; Naish, Tim; Powell, Ross

    2010-05-01

    During the austral summers 2006 and 2007 the ANtarctic DRILLing Program (ANDRILL) drilled two cores, each recovering more than 1000m of sediment from below the McMurdo Ice-Shelf (MIS, AND-1B), and sea-ice in Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS, AND-2A), respectively, revealing new information about Neogene Antarctic cryosphere evolution. Core AND-1B was drilled in a more distal location than core AND-2A. With the aim of obtaining important information for the understanding of the history of Antarctic climate and environment during selected interval of the Neogene, we applied novel organic geochemistry proxies such as TEX86 (Tetra Ether IndeX of lipids with 86 carbon atoms) using a new calibration equation specifically developed for polar areas and based on 116 surface sediment samples collected from polar oceans (Kim et al., subm.), and BIT (Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether), to derive absolute (sea surface) temperature values and to evaluate the relative contribution of soil organic matter versus marine organic matter, respectively. We will present the state-of-the-art of the methodology applied, discussing its advantages and limitations, and the results so far obtained from the analysis of 60 samples from core AND-2A covering the Miocene Climatic Optimum (and the Mid-late Miocene transition) and of 20 pilot samples from core AND-1B covering the late Pliocene.

  3. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  4. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  5. Evaluating the Duration and Continuity of Potential Climate Records From the Allan Hills Blue Ice Area, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrl, Laura; Conway, Howard; Holschuh, Nicholas; Campbell, Seth; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Spaulding, Nicole E.

    2018-05-01

    The current ice core record extends back 800,000 years. Geologic and glaciological evidence suggests that the Allan Hills Blue Ice Area, East Antarctica, may preserve a continuous record that extends further back in time. In this study, we use ice-penetrating radar and existing age constraints to map the internal stratigraphy and age structure of the Allan Hills Main Ice Field. The dated isochrones provide constraints for an ice flow model to estimate the age of ice near the bed. Previous drilling in the region recovered stratigraphically disturbed sections of ice up to 2.7 million years old. Our study identifies a site 5 km upstream, which likely preserves a continuous record through Marine Isotope Stage 11 with the possibility that the record extends back 1 million years. Such records would provide new insight into the past climate and glacial history of the Ross Sea Sector.

  6. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2008-04-01

    Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas). Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed the identification of sequences belonging to Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the maritime Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clone). The only microorganism identified in the maritime Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. The two snow samples from the Alps only shared one common microorganism. Most of the identified microorganisms have been detected previously in cold environments (Dietzia kujamenisi, Pseudonocardia Antarctica, Hydrogenophaga palleronii and Brebundimonas sp.), marine sediments (Aquiflexus balticus, Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes, Pseudomonas sp. and one uncultured Alphaproteobacteria), and soils and rocks (Pseudonocardia sp., Agrobactrium sp., Limnobacter sp. and two uncultured Alphaproteobacetria clones). Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those

  7. Heat flux variations over sea ice observed at the coastal area of the Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jong; Choi, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2013-08-01

    This study presents variations of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over sea ice observed in 2011 from the 10-m flux tower located at the coast of the Sejong Station on King George Island, Antarctica. A period from July to September was selected as a sea ice period based on daily record of sea state and hourly photos looking at the Marian Cove in front of the Sejong Station. For the sea ice period, mean sensible heat flux is about -11 Wm-2, latent heat flux is about +2 W m-2, net radiation is -12 W m-2, and residual energy is -3 W m-2 with clear diurnal variations. Estimated mean values of surface exchange coefficients for momentum, heat and moisture are 5.15 × 10-3, 1.19 × 10-3, and 1.87 × 10-3, respectively. The observed exchange coefficients of heat shows clear diurnal variations while those of momentum and moisture do not show diurnal variation. The parameterized exchange coefficients of heat and moisture produces heat fluxes which compare well with the observed diurnal variations of heat fluxes.

  8. Classroom Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzard, David

    2017-01-01

    Australian company Antarctica Flights runs summer sightseeing trips out of Australian capital cities to tour the Antarctic coast. The Laby Foundation of the University of Melbourne, through its "Classroom Antarctica" program, sponsored Kent Street High School science teacher, Ms Suzy Urbaniak and 18 of her students to take the trip, to…

  9. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Point Hope et al., v. Salazar, No. 1:08-cv-00004-RRB (D. Alaska)]. The sale was conducted in February... Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of...: BOEMRE announces the availability of a Revised Draft SEIS, OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea...

  10. 76 FR 50245 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact... sale's incremental contribution to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources... Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the...

  11. 75 FR 17156 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Western Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 215 (2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... environmental assessment (EA) for proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas Lease Sale... Environmental Impact Statement; Volumes I and II (Multisale EIS, OCS EIS/EA MMS 2007-018) and in the Gulf of...; Western Planning Area Sales 210, 215, and 218--Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...

  12. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  13. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Twin Ridges Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Madison Swanson Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  15. Ice shelf melt rates in Greenland and Antarctica using time-tagged digital imagery from World View and TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charolais, A.; Rignot, E. J.; Milillo, P.; Scheuchl, B.; Mouginot, J.

    2017-12-01

    The floating extensions of glaciers, or ice shelves, melt vigorously in contact with ocean waters. Melt is non uniform, with the highest melt taking place in the deepest part of the cavity, where thermal forcing is the greatest because of 1) the pressure dependence of the freezing point of the seawater/ice mixture and 2) subglacial water injects fresh, buoyant, cold melt water to fuel stronger ice-ocean interactions. Melt also forms along preferential channels, which are not stationary, and create lines of weakness in the shelf. Ice shelf melt rates have been successfully measured from space over the entire Antarctic continent and on the ice shelves in Greenland using an Eulerian approach that combines ice thickness, ice velocity vectors, surface mass balance data, and measurements of ice thinning rates. The Eulerian approach is limited by the precision of the thickness gradients, typically of a few km, and requires significant spatial averaging to remove advection effects. A Lagrangian approach has been shown to be robust to advection effects and provides higher resolution details. We implemented a Lagrangian methodology for time-tagged World View DEMs by the Polar Geoscience Center (PGS) at the University of Minnesota and time-tagged TanDEM-X DEMs separated by one year. We derive melt rates on a 300-m grid with a precision of a few m/yr. Melt is strongest along grounding lines and along preferred channels. Channels are non-stationary because melt is not the same on opposite sides of the channels. Examining time series of data and comparing with the time-dependent grounding line positions inferred from satellite radar interferometry, we evaluate the magnitude of melt near the grounding line and even within the grounding zone. A non-zero melt rate in the grounding zone has vast implications for ice sheet modeling. This work is funded by a grant from NASA Cryosphere Program.

  16. Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project (RICE): A 65 Kyr ice core record of black carbon aerosol deposition to the Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ross; Bertler, Nancy; Tuohy, Andrea; Neff, Peter; Proemse, Bernedette; Feiteng, Wang; Goodwin, Ian; Hogan, Chad

    2015-04-01

    Emitted by fires, black carbon aerosols (rBC) perturb the atmosphere's physical and chemical properties and are climatically active. Sedimentary charcoal and other paleo-fire records suggest that rBC emissions have varied significantly in the past due to human activity and climate variability. However, few paleo rBC records exist to constrain reconstructions of the past rBC atmospheric distribution and its climate interaction. As part of the international Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, we have developed an Antarctic rBC ice core record spanning the past ~65 Kyr. The RICE deep ice core was drilled from the Roosevelt Island ice dome in West Antarctica from 2011 to 2013. The high depth resolution (~ 1 cm) record was developed using a single particle intracavity laser-induced incandescence soot photometer (SP2) coupled to an ice core melter system. The rBC record displays sub-annual variability consistent with both austral dry-season and summer biomass burning. The record exhibits significant decadal to millennial-scale variability consistent with known changes in climate. Glacial rBC concentrations were much lower than Holocene concentrations with the exception of several periods of abrupt increases in rBC. The transition from glacial to interglacial rBC concentrations occurred over a much longer time relative to other ice core climate proxies such as water isotopes and suggests . The protracted increase in rBC during the transition may reflected Southern hemisphere ecosystem / fire regime changes in response to hydroclimate and human activity.

  17. Nitrogen and carbon limitation of planktonic primary production and phytoplankton–bacterioplankton coupling in ponds on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Brian K; Safi, Karl; Hawes, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We compared planktonic primary and secondary production across twenty meltwater ponds on the surface of the McMurdo Ice Shelf in January 2007, including some ponds with basal brines created by meromictic stratification. Primary production ranged from 1.07 to 65.72 mgC m −3 h −1 in surface waters. In stratified ponds primary production was always more than ten times higher in basal brines than in the corresponding mixolimnion. Regression tree analysis (r 2 = 0.80) identified inorganic nitrogen (as NH 4 + ) as the main factor limiting planktonic primary production. However, there was also evidence of inorganic carbon co-limitation of photosynthesis in some of the more oligotrophic waters. Neither C nor N limited carbon fixation at [NH 4 –N] > 50 mg m −3 , with photoinhibition the factor most likely limiting photosynthesis under such conditions. Primary production was the only factor significantly correlated to bacterial production and the relationship (r 2 = 0.56) was non-linear. Nitrogen limitation and tight coupling of planktonic primary and bacterial production is surprising in these ponds, as all have large pools of dissolved organic carbon (1.2–260 g m −3 ) and organic nitrogen (all >130 mg m −3 ). The dissolved pools of organic carbon and nitrogen appear to be recalcitrant and bacterial production to be constrained by limited release of labile organics from phytoplankton. (letter)

  18. Distribution of mean surface stable isotopes values in east Antarctica; observed changes with depth in coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorius, C.; Merlivat, L.

    1975-01-01

    Mean samples of the snow accumulated during the last ten years have been collected at 48 stations distributed along a 850km long axis in East Antarctica, starting from Dumont d'Urville towards Vostok. Up to 1000m elevations the mean deuterium values are rather constant (-150 per thousand); then they decrease with various parameters (distance, elevation) and in particular with the mean annual temperatures, according to a linear relationship (D per thousand=6,04T(degC)-51) for a temperature range from -20 to -55 deg C. The observed D per thousand-O per thousand relationship is discussed. Measurements along a 303m deep core (down to the bedrock) obtained in the control area show very large D changes with mean values varying between -150 and -360 per thousand; this last value characterizes present surface snow deposited about 800km upstream. The observed D variations may be explained by changes in the site of origin of the ice; mechanisms which could explain the presence of ice originating from further distances above less distant origin layers are discussed [fr

  19. Role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve : Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; van Hengel, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and

  20. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of coastal areas of the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Indications for long-term downward trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Karla; Martellini, Tania; Corsolini, Simonetta; Harner, Tom; Estellano, Victor; Kukučka, Petr; Mulder, Marie D; Lammel, Gerhard; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Passive air samplers were used to evaluate long-term trends and spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in Antarctica. Duplicate PUF disk samplers were deployed at six automatic weather stations in the coastal area of the Ross sea (East Antarctica), between December 2010 and January 2011, during the XXVI Italian Scientific Research Expedition. Among the investigated persistent organic compounds, Hexachlorobenzene was the most abundant, with air concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 50 pg m -3 . In general, the following decreasing concentration order was found for the air samples analyzed: HCB > PeCB > PCBs > DDTs > HCHs. While HCB concentrations were in the same range as those reported in the atmosphere of other Antarctic sampling areas and did not show a decline, HCHs and DDTs levels were lower or similar to those determined one or two decades ago. In general, the very low concentrations reflected the pristine state of the East Antarctica air. Backward trajectories indicated the prevalence of air masses coming from the Antarctic continent. Local contamination and volatilization from ice were suggested as potential sources for the presence of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  2. Granitoids of the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica : plutons, field relationships, and isotopic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Cox, S.C.; Johnstone, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed mapping throughout much of the Dry Valleys area indicates the region is underlain by 15 major granitoid plutons and numerous smaller plugs and dikes. Intrusive relationships of these plutons and dikes indicate repeated intrusion of superficially similar granitoids at different times. Sufficient internal lithologic variation occurs within individual plutons, to allow correlation with several of the previously defined granitoid units based on lithologic character. Consequently, previous subdivision schemes based on lithology are no longer tenable and are here replaced with a subdivision scheme based on the identification of individual plutons. The elongate, concordant Bonney, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons, which range in composition between monzodiorite and granodiorite, are the oldest relatively undeformed plutons in the Dry Valleys area. Each pluton is characterised by flow alignment of K-feldspar megacrysts, hornblende, biotite, and mafic enclaves. Field relationships and radiometric dating indicate these are deep-level plutons, emplaced synchronous with upper amphibolite facies metamorphism of the adjacent Koettlitz Group between 589 and 490 Ma ago. Elongate, discordant plutons of equigranular homogeneous biotite granodiorite and granite (Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Suess) were subsequently emplaced by stoping at a relatively high crustal level at 490 Ma. These eight plutons are cut by numerous swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic porphyry dikes. The ovoid, discordant, high level Pearse, Nibelungen, Orestes, Brownworth, Swinford, and Harker Plutons, emplaced between c. 486 and 477 Ma, display mutually crosscutting relationships with the youngest of the Vanda dikes. These younger plutons range in composition between monzonite and granite. Some are characterised by K-feldspar megacrystic textures superficially similar to some of the oldest concordant plutons. (author). 57 refs.; 2 tabs.; 4 figs

  3. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY OF UNION GLACIER AREA, ELLSWORTH MOUNTAINS, OCCIDENTAL ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa do Couto Silva Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to investigate the geomorphological and sedimentological aspects of Union Glacier area (79°45’00’’S; 82°30’00’’W, southern sector of Ellsworth Mountains. Geomorphological cartography based on 15 m ASTER (2010 satellite imagery and field works were carried out during the Brazilian expedition (2011/2012 enabled the identification of morainic formations: ice-cored hummock moraines, supraglacial moraines, and recession moraines in the interior of the valleys. With the exception of the latter one, all types of moraines have been developed on the blue-ice areas. The evidence for paleo wet-based glacial conditions is reconstructed from a range of geomorphological record, including exposed abrasion marks, striations and glaciotectonic deformation. This type of deformation is represented by lee sides of oversteepening bedrock promontories which follow the tributaries of glaciers ice flow. Glacial sediments were collected from the moraines for granulometric and morphometric analyses. They show the prevalence of sandy gravel and sand texture, low quantity of fine fractions, and absence of attributes such as striated and faceted clasts, which indicate, on the other side, low-sediment transport capacity from the ice sheet bottom. It is inferred that the moraine debris are originated from local sources. Weathering action and constant katabatic winds are possibly the major agents of transport and alteration of the exposed sediments. The geomorphological features reveal an ancient thicker ice sheet, and sedimentary characteristics of the morainic formations reveal a latter thinner ice sheet in this sector of Ellsworth Mountains.

  4. Point-of-Sale Notification and Shelf Tags for Urban Uses of Certain Pesticides in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Stipulated Injunction and Court Order required EPA to develop a shelf tag to help retailers inform consumers about potential risks to endangered species related to use of certain pesticides. See the shelf tag and pesticide ingredients affected.

  5. Ultimate Eocene (Priabonian) Chondrichthyans (Holocephali, Elasmobranchii) of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriwet, Jürgen; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo; Pfaff, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, is known for its remarkable wealth of fossil remains of chondrichthyans and teleosts. Chondrichthyans seemingly were dominant elements in the Antarctic Paleogene fish fauna, but decreased in abundance from middle to late Eocene, during which time remains of bony fishes increase. This decline of chondrichthyans at the end of the Eocene generally is related to sudden cooling of seawater, reduction in shelf area, and increasing shelf depth due to the onset of the Antarctic thermal isolation. The last chondrichthyan records known so far include a chimeroid tooth plate from TELM 6 (Lutetian) and a single pristiophorid rostral spine from TELM 7 (Priabonian). Here, we present new chondrichthyan records of Squalus , Squatina , Pristiophorus , Striatolamia , Palaeohypotodus , Carcharocles , and Ischyodus from the upper parts of TELM 7 (Priabonian), including the first record of Carcharocles sokolovi from Antarctica. This assemblage suggests that chondrichthyans persisted much longer in Antarctic waters despite rather cool sea surface temperatures of approximately 5°C. The final disappearance of chondrichthyans at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary concurs with abrupt ice sheet formation in Antarctica. Diversity patterns of chondrichthyans throughout the La Meseta Formation appear to be related to climatic conditions rather than plate tectonics.

  6. Methane Metabolizing Microbial Communities in the Cold Seep Areas in the Northern Continental Shelf of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Liang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Marine sediment contains large amount of methane, estimated approximately 500-2500 gigatonnes of dissolved and hydrated methane carbon stored therein, mainly in continental margins. In localized specific areas named cold seeps, hydrocarbon (mainly methane) containing fluids rise to the seafloor, and support oases of ecosystem composed of various microorganisms and faunal assemblages. South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by passive continental margins in the west and north and convergent margins in the south and east. Thick organic-rich sediments have accumulated in the SCS since the late Mesozoic, which are continuing sources to form gas hydrates in the sediments of SCS. Here, Microbial ecosystems, particularly those involved in methane transformations were investigated in the cold seep areas (Qiongdongnan, Shenhu, and Dongsha) in the northern continental shelf of SCS. Multiple interdisciplinary analytic tools such as stable isotope probing, geochemical analysis, and molecular ecology, were applied for a comprehensive understanding of the microbe mediated methane transformation in this project. A variety of sediments cores have been collected, the geochemical profiles and the associated microbial distribution along the sediment cores were recorded. The major microbial groups involved in the methane transformation in these sediment cores were revealed, known methane producing and oxidizing archaea including Methanosarcinales, anaerobic methane oxidizing groups ANME-1, ANME-2 and their niche preference in the SCS sediments were found. In-depth comparative analysis revealed the presence of SCS-specific archaeal subtypes which probably reflected the evolution and adaptation of these methane metabolizing microbes to the SCS environmental conditions. Our work represents the first comprehensive analysis of the methane metabolizing microbial communities in the cold seep areas along the northern continental shelf of South China Sea, would provide new insight into the

  7. An improved bathymetry compilation for the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica, to inform ice-sheet and ocean models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. C. Graham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The southern Bellingshausen Sea (SBS is a rapidly-changing part of West Antarctica, where oceanic and atmospheric warming has led to the recent basal melting and break-up of the Wilkins ice shelf, the dynamic thinning of fringing glaciers, and sea-ice reduction. Accurate sea-floor morphology is vital for understanding the continued effects of each process upon changes within Antarctica's ice sheets. Here we present a new bathymetric grid for the SBS compiled from shipborne multibeam echo-sounder, spot-sounding and sub-ice measurements. The 1-km grid is the most detailed compilation for the SBS to-date, revealing large cross-shelf troughs, shallow banks, and deep inner-shelf basins that continue inland of coastal ice shelves. The troughs now serve as pathways which allow warm deep water to access the ice sheet in the SBS. Our dataset highlights areas still lacking bathymetric constraint, as well as regions for further investigation, including the likely routes of palaeo-ice streams. The new compilation is a major improvement upon previous grids and will be a key dataset for incorporating into simulations of ocean circulation, ice-sheet change and history. It will also serve forecasts of ice stability and future sea-level contributions from ice loss in West Antarctica, required for the next IPCC assessment report in 2013.

  8. Feasibility study on nuclear methods using 252Cf for the exploration of marine mineral deposits in shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmaier, W.; Pepelnik, R.; Suppan, A.

    1975-01-01

    For the exploration of marine mineral deposits in shelf areas additional systems will be required in order to supplement the results of other methods and determine in a short time the amount and the concentration of the minerals. The neutron induced γ-radiation measurement is an appropriate method for this problem. To obtain high-resolution analysis it is necessary to use Ge(Li)- detectors. The employment of cryostats keeping the diodes at low temperature is only applicable to scientific but not to industrial applications. In this case, cryogenerators will be required. The design of borehole-sondes is influenced by the arrangement of cryogenic apparatus and the technique of lowering the probes into the seafloor. Besides the possibility of probe penetration into the sediment on the bottom of the sea, the sample can also be transferred to the measurement system. (U.S.)

  9. Flexural-response of the McMurdo Ice Shelf to surface lake filling and drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, A. F.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Willis, I.; Macdonald, G. J.; Goodsell, B.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic ice-shelf instability and break-up, as exhibited by the Larsen B ice shelf in 2002, remains one of the most difficult glaciological processes to observe directly. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have previously been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain. During the austral summer of 2016/2017, we monitored the filling and draining of four surface lakes on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and the effect of these processes on ice-shelf flexure. Water-depth data from pressure sensors reveal that two lakes filled to >2 m in depth and subsequently drained over multiple week timescales, which had a simultaneous effect on vertical ice deflection in the area. Differential GPS data from 12 receivers over three months show that vertical deflection varies as a function of distance from the maximum load change (i.e. at the lake centre). Using remote sensing techniques applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery, we also quantify the meltwater volume in these two lakes through the melt season, which, together with the vertical deflection data, are used to constrain key flexural parameter values in numerical models of ice-shelf flexure.

  10. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  11. COMPILATION OF GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP FOR RECONSTRUCTING THE DEGLACIATION OF ICE-FREE AREAS IN THE MARTEL INLET, KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Kellem Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We compiled a geomorphological map and a reconstruction map of glacier extension and ice-free areas in the Martel Inlet, located in King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. Glacier extension data were derived of the digitized over a orthophotomosaic (2003, SPOT (February, 1988; March, 1995 and 2000, Quickbird (October, 2006 and Cosmo-Skymed (February, 2011 images. This mapping was supported by fieldworks carried out in the summers of 2007, 2010 and 2011, and by topographic surveys and geomorphic map in the proglacial area. Several types of glacial deposits were identified in the study area, such as frontal and lateral moraines, flutes, meltwater channels and erosional features like rock moutonnés, striations and U-shaped valleys. These features allowed reconstructing the evolution of the deglaciation environment in the Martel Inlet ice-free areas, which has been affected by a regional climate warming trend. The mapped data indicated the glaciers in study area lost about 0.71 km² of their ice masses (13.2% of the 50.3 km² total area, without any advances during 1979-2011. Since those years these glaciers receded by an average of 25.9 m a-1. These ice-free areas were susceptible to rapid post-depositional changes.

  12. Experimental dem Extraction from Aster Stereo Pairs and 3d Registration Based on Icesat Laser Altimetry Data in Upstream Area of Lambert Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, G.; Xie, H.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Li, R.; Tong, X.

    2017-09-01

    DEM Extraction from ASTER stereo pairs and three-dimensional registration by reference to ICESat laser altimetry data are carried out in upstream area of Lambert Glacier, East Antarctica. Since the study area is located in inland of East Antarctica where few textures exist, registration between DEM and ICESat data is performed. Firstly, the ASTER DEM generation is based on rational function model (RFM) and the procedure includes: a) rational polynomial coefficient (RPC) computation from ASTER metadata, b) L1A image product de-noise and destriping, c) local histogram equalization and matching, d) artificial collection of tie points and bundle adjustment, and e) coarse-to-fine hierarchical matching of five levels and grid matching. The matching results are filtered semi-automatically. Hereafter, DEM is interpolated using spline method with ground points converted from matching points. Secondly, the generated ASTER DEM is registered to ICESat data in three-dimensional space after Least-squares rigid transformation using singular value decomposition (SVD). The process is stated as: a) correspondence selection of terrain feature points from ICESat and DEM profiles, b) rigid transformation of generated ASTER DEM using selected feature correspondences based on least squares technique. The registration shows a good result that the elevation difference between DEM and ICESat data is low with a mean value less than 2 meters and the standard deviation around 7 meters. This DEM is generated and specially registered in Antarctic typical region without obvious ground rock control points and serves as true terrain input for further radar altimetry simulation.

  13. Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica was taken during its first encounter with the Earth. This color picture of Antarctica is part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent showing the Ross Ice Shelf and its border with the sea and mountains poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica. View provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37297.

  14. Ross Ice Shelf airstream driven by polar vortex cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The powerful air and ocean currents that flow in and above the Southern Ocean, circling in the Southern Hemisphere's high latitudes, form a barrier to mixing between Antarctica and the rest of the planet. Particularly during the austral winter, strong westerly winds isolate the Antarctic continent from heat, energy, and mass exchange, bolstering the scale of the annual polar ozone depletion and driving the continent's record-breaking low temperatures. Pushing through this wall of high winds, the Ross Ice Shelf airstream (RAS) is responsible for a sizable amount of mass and energy exchange from the Antarctic inland areas to lower latitudes. Sitting due south of New Zealand, the roughly 470,000-square-kilometer Ross Ice Shelf is the continent's largest ice shelf and a hub of activity for Antarctic research. A highly variable lower atmospheric air current, RAS draws air from the inland Antarctic Plateau over the Ross Ice Shelf and past the Ross Sea. Drawing on modeled wind patterns for 2001-2005, Seefeldt and Cassano identify the primary drivers of RAS.

  15. Plio-Quaternary Sandy Deposits and Microbial Buildups at the Southern Marmara Shelf Near Shoreface Area, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denizhan Vardar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the formation and evolution mechanism of the sandy deposits plays key role to define the hydrodynamics of the shelves and coasts. The barrier islands determined from high resolution chirp seismic reflection profiles, were started to deposit on the boundary (SB that characterized by the lowstand stages of global sea level in the southern Marmara shelf near shoreface area. The unit haslost its activity at 55 ms, 60 ms depth in Erdek Bay, at 55 ms in Bandırma Bay, at 61 ms front of the Kocasu River. According to global sea level curves, this unit was evolved between 11000-11500 BP and10450-10150 BP. The geometrical situation and internal reflection character of these units indicate the balance between fluvial sediment transportation, marine intrusion and current systems in the study area. Belkis Isthmus that connects the Kapıdağ Peninsula to the mainland occurred synchronously with same process that formed the barrier islands. Bioherm structures were formed on the barrier islands and some of the bioherm’s uppermost surface is reached to 1 m below the sea floor. Bioherm structures are composing from organisms; formation and evolution depend on various stress factors. Barrier islands provide nutritional source to bioherms. Since these structures occur in a limited area, the development should be controlled by secondary factors. Biogenic gas determined from seismic sections closed to bioherm structures, probably plays the secondary role. Addition to this, during the forming and the growing of bioherms, Marmara Islands (Pasalimanı, Avşa, Marmara Islands and Imralı Island were possibly control the currents and the flooding in the study area and provided convenient environment to these structures evolution.

  16. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-02

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  17. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Peci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARMTM processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (DebianTM as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  18. Changes in water mass exchange between the NW shelf areas and the North Atlantic and their impact on nutrient/carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Matthias; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Segschneider, Joachim; Sein, Dimitry

    2010-05-01

    Despite their comparatively small extension on a global scale, shelf areas are of interest for several economic reasons and climatic processes related to nutrient cycling, sea food supply, and biological productivity. Moreover, they constitute an important interface for nutrients, pollutants and freshwater on their pathway from the continents to the open ocean. This modelling study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of water mass exchange between the North Atlantic and the NW European shelf and their impact on nutrient/carbon cycling and biological productivity. For this, a new modeling approach has been set up which bridges the gap between pure shelf models where water mass transports across the model domain too strongly depend on the formulation of open boundaries and global models suffering under their too coarse resolution in shelf regions. The new model consists of the global ocean and carbon cycle model MPIOM/HAMOCC with strongly increased resolution in the North Sea and the North Atlantic coupled to the regional atmosphere model REMO. The model takes the full luni-solar tides into account. It includes further a 12 layer sediment module with the relevant pore water chemistry. The main focus lies on the governing mechanisms of water mass exchange across the shelf break and the imprint on shelf biogeochemistry. For this, artificial tracers with a prescribed decay rate have been implemented to distinguish waters arriving from polar and shelf regions and those that originate from the tropics. Experiments were carried out for the years 1948 - 2007. The relationship to larger scale circulation patterns like the position and variability of the subtropical and subpolar gyres is analyzed. The water mass exchange is analyzed with respect to the nutrient concentration and productivity on the European shelf areas. The implementation of tides leads to an enhanced vertical mixing which causes lower sea surface temperatures compared to simulations

  19. Heat flux variations over sea-ice observed at the coastal area of the Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Choi, T.; Kim, S.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents variations of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over sea-ice observed in 2011 from the 10-m flux tower located at the coast of the Sejong Station on King George Island, Antarctica. A period from June to November was divided into three parts: "Freezing", "Frozen", and "Melting" periods based on daily monitoring of sea state and hourly photos looking at the Marian Cove in front of the Sejong Station. The division of periods enabled us to look into the heat flux variations depending on the sea-ice conditions. Over freezing sea surface during the freezing period of late June, daily mean sensible heat flux was -11.9 Wm-2 and daily mean latent heat flux was +16.3 Wm-2. Over the frozen sea-ice, daily mean sensible heat flux was -10.4 Wm-2 while daily mean latent heat flux was +2.4 Wm-2. During the melting period of mid-October to early November, magnitudes of sensible heat flux increased to -14.2 Wm-2 and latent heat flux also increased to +13.5 Wm-2. In short, latent heat flux was usually upward over sea-ice most of the time while sensible heat flux was downward from atmosphere to sea-ice. Magnitudes of the fluxes were small but increased when freezing or melting of sea-ice was occurring. Especially, latent heat flux increased five to six times compared to that of "frozen" period implying that early melting of sea-ice may cause five to six times larger supply of moisture to the atmosphere.

  20. The evolution of a coupled ice shelf-ocean system under different climate states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Sandhäger, Henner

    2004-07-01

    Based on a new approach for coupled applications of an ice shelf model and an ocean general circulation model, we investigate the evolution of an ice shelf-ocean system and its sensitivity to changed climatic boundary conditions. Combining established 3D models into a coupled model system enabled us to study the reaction and feedbacks of each component to changes at their interface, the ice shelf base. After calculating the dynamics for prescribed initial ice shelf and bathymetric geometries, the basal mass balance determines the system evolution. In order to explore possible developments for given boundary conditions, an idealized geometry has been chosen, reflecting basic features of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The model system is found to be especially sensitive in regions where high ablation or accretion rates occur. Ice Shelf Water formation as well as the build up of a marine ice body, resulting from accretion of marine ice, is simulated, indicating strong interaction processes. To improve consistency between modeled and observed ice shelf behavior, we incorporate the typical cycle of steady ice front advance and sudden retreat due to tabular iceberg calving in our time-dependent simulations. Our basic hypothesis is that iceberg break off is associated with abrupt crack propagation along elongated anomalies of the inherent stress field of the ice body. This new concept yields glaciologically plausible results and represents an auspicious basis for the development of a thorough calving criterion. Experiments under different climatic conditions (ocean warming of 0.2 and 0.5 °C and doubled surface accumulation rates) show the coupled model system to be sensitive especially to ocean warming. Increased basal melt rates of 100% for the 0.5 °C ocean warming scenario and an asymmetric development of ice shelf thicknesses suggest a high vulnerability of ice shelf regions, which represent pivotal areas between the Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Southern

  1. Micromorphological features of the fine earth and skeletal fractions of soils of West Antarctica in the areas of Russian Antarctic stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E. V.; Gagarina, E. I.; Sapega, V. F.; Vlasov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    Micromorphological features of the fine earth and skeletal fractions of soils of West Antarctica forming under different conditions of pedogenesis have been studied in the areas of Russian Antarctic stations. The processes of mineral weathering and alteration of rock fragments are more pronounced in the Subantarctic soils with better developed humification and immobilization of iron compounds under conditions of surface overmoistening. The biogenic accumulative processes in the soils of King George Island result in the appearance of initial forms of humic plasma that have not been detected in the Antarctic soils in the areas of the Russkaya and Leningradskaya stations. Humus films on mineral grains are present in the soils of King George Island, and organic plasmic material is present in the ornithogenic soils under penguin guano on Lindsey Island. High-latitude Antarctic soils may contain surface concentrations of organic matter; rock fragments are covered by iron oxides and soluble salts. The formation of amorphous organic plasma takes place in the ornithogenic soils of Lindsey Island. The microprobe analysis indicates the presence of local concentrations of organic matter and pedogenic compounds not only on the surface of rock fragments but also in the fissures inside them. This analysis has also proved the translocation of guano-derived organic substances inside rock fragments through a system of fissures in the soils of Lindsey Island and the development of a network of pores inside rock fragments in the soils of King George Island.

  2. An oilspill risk analysis for the Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf lease area; regional environmental impact statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted for the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)lease area region. Results of the analysis can be used to determine relative risks associated with oil production in different regions to be offered in OCS Lease Sales 72, 74, and 79. The analysis considered the probability of spill occurrences based on historical trends; likely movement of oil slicks based on a climatological model; and locations of major environmental resources which could be vulnerable to spilled oil. The times between spill occurrence and contact with resources were estimated to aid in estimating slick characteristics. Critical assumptions made for this particular analysis were (1) that oil exists in the lease area, and (2) that oil will be, found and produced from tracts sold in sales 72, 74, and 79. On the basis of a most likely resource estimate of 241 million barrels of oil to be produced over an 18-year production life from sales to be held in 1983 (sales 72, 74, 79), it was calculated that approximately one oilspill of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than 30 days is 41-percent. For a high resource estimate case of sales to be held in 1983, 717 million barrels are estimated to be produced over an 18-year production life with an 83-percent chance of one or more spills of 1,000 barrels or larger occurring and contacting land within 30 days. These results depend upon the routes and methods chosen to transport oil from OCS platforms to shore. Given a total development scenario in which 5.6 billion barrels of oil are estimated to be present and produced, it was calculated that 18 oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur over the 40-year production life of the proposed lease area. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than

  3. Oil-Spill Analysis: Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sales, Eastern Planning Area, 2003-2007 and Gulfwide OCS Program, 2003-2042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Federal Government plans to offer U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) for oil and gas leasing. This report summarizes results of that analysis, the objective of which was to estimate the risk of oil-spill contact to sensitive offshore and onshore environmental resources and socioeconomic features from oil spills accidentally occurring from the OCS activities.

  4. Evidence of calcium carbonates in coastal (Talos Dome and Ross Sea area) East Antarctica snow and firn: Environmental and climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, M.; Delmonte, B.; Frezzotti, M.; Proposito, M.; Scarchilli, C.; Maggi, V.; Artioli, G.; Dapiaggi, M.; Marino, F.; Ricci, P. C.; De Giudici, G.

    2008-07-01

    Micrometre-sized aeolian dust particles stored in Antarctic firn and ice layers are a useful tool for reconstructing climate and environmental changes in the past. The mineral content, particle concentration and chemical composition of modern dust in firn cores from the peripherycal dome (Talos Dome) and coastal area of East Antarctica (Ross Sea sector) were investigated. During analyses there was a considerable decrease in microparticle concentrations within a few hours of ice sample melting, accompanied by a systematic increase in the concentration of calcium ions (Ca 2+) in solution. Based on mineralogical phase analyses, which reveal the presence of anhydrous and hydrous calcium carbonates such as calcite (CaCO 3), monohydrocalcite (CaCO 3·H 2O) and ikaite (CaCO 3·6H 2O, hexahydrate calcium carbonate), the observed variations in concentrations are ascribed to the partial dissolution of the carbonate content of samples. Soluble carbonate compounds are thus primary aerosols included into the samples along with insoluble aluminosilicate minerals. We hypothesize hydrous carbonates may derive from the sea ice surface, where ikaite typically forms at the early stages of sea ice formation. Back trajectory calculations show that favourable events for air mass advection from the sea ice surface to Talos Dome are rare but likely to occur.

  5. Clay mineralogy and source-to-sink transport processes of Changjiang River sediments in the estuarine and inner shelf areas of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Yali; Yao, Yulong; Zhao, Wancang; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We examined the source-to-sink sediment transport processes from the Changjiang River to the estuarine coastal shelf area by analyzing the clay mineral assemblages in suspended sediment samples from the Changjiang River catchment and surface samples from the estuarine coastal shelf area following the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The results indicate that the clay mineral compositions throughout the study area are dominated by illite, with less abundant kaolinite and chlorite and scarce smectite. The clay minerals display distinct differences in the tributaries and exhibit obvious changes in the trunk stream compared with the periods before 2003, and the source of sediment has largely shifted to the mid- to lower reaches of the river after 2003. Spatially, the clay mineral assemblages in the estuarine area define two compositionally distinct provinces. Province I covers the mud area of the Changjiang River estuary and the Zhe-Min coastal region, where sediment is primarily supplied by the Changjiang River. Province II includes part of the Changjiang River estuary and the southeastern portion of the study area, where the sediment is composed of terrestrial material from the Changjiang River and re-suspended material from the Huanghe River carried by the Jiangsu coastal current. Moreover, the other smaller rivers in China (including the Oujiang and Minjiang rivers of mainland China and the rivers of West Taiwan) also contribut sediments to the estuarine and inner shelf areas. In general, the clay mineral assemblages in the Changjiang River estuarine area are have mainly been controlled by sediment supplied from upstream of the Changjiang River tributaries. However, since the completion of the TGD in 2003, the mid- to downstream tributaries have become the main source of sediments from the Changjiang catchment into the East China Sea. These analyses further demonstrate that the coastal currents and the decrease in the sediment load of the river

  6. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  7. Fun at Antarctic grounding lines: Ice-shelf channels and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Reinhard; Mayer, Christoph; Eisen, Olaf; Helm, Veit; Ehlers, Todd A.; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Favier, Lionel; Hewitt, Ian H.; Ng, Felix; Fürst, Johannes J.; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Bergeot, Nicolas; Matsuoka, Kenichi

    2017-04-01

    Meltwater beneath the polar ice sheets drains, in part, through subglacial conduits. Landforms created by such drainages are abundant in areas formerly covered by ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. However, observations of subglacial conduit dynamics under a contemporary ice sheet are lacking. We present results from ice-penetrating radar to infer the existence of subglacial conduits upstream of the grounding line of Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The conduits are aligned with ice-shelf channels, and underlain by esker ridges formed from sediment deposition due to reduced water outflow speed near the grounding line. In turn, the eskers modify local ice flow to initiate the bottom topography of the ice-shelf channels, and create small surface ridges extending onto the shelf. Relict features on the shelf are interpreted to indicate a history of these interactions and variability of past subglacial drainages. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation, and ice-shelf stability. To investigate the role of sediment transport beneath ice sheets further, we model the sheet-shelf system of the Ekstömisen catchment, Antarctica. A 3D finite element model (Elmer/ICE) is used to solve the transients full Stokes equation for isotropic, isothermal ice with a dynamic grounding line. We initialize the model with surface topography from the TanDEM-X satellites and by inverting simultaneously for ice viscosity and basal drag using present-day surface velocities. Results produce a flow field which is consitent with sattelite and on-site observations. Solving the age-depth relationship allows comparison with radar isochrones from airborne data, and gives information about the atmospheric/dynamic history of this sector. The flow field will eventually be used to identify potential sediment sources and sinks which we compare with more than 400 km of

  8. Movement and effects of spilled oil over the outer continental shelf; inadequacy of existent data for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Harley J.

    1974-01-01

    A deductive approach to the problem of determining the movement and effects of spilled oil over the Outer Continental Shelf requires that the potential paths of oil be determined first, in order that critical subareas may be defined for later studies. The paths of spilled oil, in turn, depend primarily on the temporal and spatial variability of four factors: the thermohaline structure of the waters, the circulation of the water, the winds, and the distribution of suspended matter. A review of the existent data concerning these factors for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area (a relatively well studied segment of the Continental Shelf) reveals that the movement and dispersal of potential oil spills cannot be reliably predicted. Variations in the thermohaline structure of waters and in the distribution of suspended matter are adequately known; the uncertainty is due to insufficient wind and storm statistics and to the lack of quantitative understanding of the relationship between the nontidal drift and its basic driving mechanisms. Similar inadequacies should be anticipated for other potentially leasable areas of the shelf because an understanding of the movement of spilled oil has not been the underlying aim of most previous studies.

  9. The planktonic communities of the Jamaican south-east coast; a comparison of harbor, shelf and oceanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Small

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared water quality and plankton along the eutrophication gradient from Kingston Harbour to oceanic waters around Jamaica. To compare the planktonic community along the expected nutrient gradient, we sampled every two weeks at four stations, from eutrophic Kingston Harbour to oceanic California Bank. Phytoplankton was assessed from whole water Niskin bottle casts and zooplankton by vertical hauls with plankton nets of three different mesh sizes: 64µm, 200µm, and 600µm. Total phytoplankton biomass declined sharply away from the harbour (1.0 μg L-1 at the Harbour Shoal Beacon to 0.2 μg L-1 at California Bank. Characteristic estuarine phytoplankton genera -such as Ceratium, Gonyaulax, Gyrodinium and Rhizosolenia- dominated harbour samples while genera characteristic of offshore locations -such as Asterionelliopsis, Navicula, Nitzschia, Rhizosolenia and Thalassionema- dominated California Bank. Highest phytoplankton densities (mean values of 34 174 cells L-1 were found at the harbor mouth. Mean zooplankton abundances ranged from maximum (5 858.5m-3 at Beacon to minimum (2 124.2 m-3 at California; 171 species of zooplankton were identified and copepods dominated with 76 species. Overall, 75 species of zooplankton were identified from Beacon, 107 from Port Royal Cays- South East Cay, 110 from the exposed shelf edge- Windward Edge, and 95 from the oceanic California Bank. Larval forms dominated; copepod nauplii, fish eggs and echinoderm larvae occurred at all sites. Lucifer faxoni and Penilia avirostris were indicative of harbor waters and Microsetella sp. and Farranula carinata of offshore waters. Some zooplankton taxa, like L. faxoni, Paracalanus parvus and copepod nauplii, despite showing gradual decline with distance from Beacon to the Edge, increased in abundance at the furthest station, California. California Bank clearly experiences enrichment which at times can be as high as near-shore areas, but the planktonic

  10. Calibration and Validation of A One-dimensional Complex Marine Biogeochemicalfluxes Model In Different Areas of The Northern Adriatic Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, M.; Oddo, P.; Zavatarelli, M.; Coluccelli, A.; Coppini, G.; Celio, M.; Fonda Umani, S.; Pinardi, N.

    In this contribution we show results from numerical simulations carried out with a complex biogeochemical fluxes model coupled with a one-dimensional high-resol ution hydrodynamical model and implemented at three different locations of the north- ern Adriatic shelf . One location is directly affected by Po river influence, one has more open-sea characteristics and one is located in the Gulf of Trieste with an in- termediate behavior; emphasis is put on the comparison with observations and on the functioning of the northern Adriatic ecosystem in the three areas. The work has been performed in a climatological context and has to be considered as preliminary to the development of three-dimensional numerical simulations. Biogeochemical model parameterizations have been ameliorated with a detailed description of bacterial sub- strate utilization associated to the quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in order to improve model skill in capturing the observed DOM dynamics in the basin. The coupled model has been calibrated and validated at the three locations by means of climatological datasets. Results show satisfactory model behavior in simulating local seasonal dynamics in the limit of the available boundary conditions and the one-dimensional implementation. Comparisons with available in situ measurements of primary and bacterial production and bacterial abundances have been performed in all locations. Model simulated rates and bacterial dynamics are in the same order of magnitude of observations and show a qualitatively correct time evolution. The importance of temperature as a factor controlling bacteria efficiency is investigated with sensitivity experiments on the model parameterizations. The different model be- havior and pelagic ecosystem structure developed by the model at the three location can be attributed to the local hydrodynamical features and interactions with external inputs of nutrients. The onset of the winter/spring bloom in the climatological

  11. A GIS FOR THE ANTARCTIC SPECIALLY MANAGED AREA OF ADMIRALTY BAY,KING GEORGE ISLAND,ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A GIS is proposed as a tool for the managing plan for the Antarctic specially managed area (ASMA) in Admiralty Bay.The ASMA comprises the area considered to be within the glacial drainage basin of the bay.Furthermore,it includes part of SSSI No.8 adjacent to the area but outside of the glacial drainage basin.Three stations and six refuges are located in the area.Using a SPOT satellite image map,the limits of the ASMA are marked and its area is re_calculated.It consists of 362 km2,including 186 km2 island ice field and small cirque glaciers and 32 km2 ice_free field.The rest comprises water of the bay and a small adjacent area (8 km2) of the Bransfield Strait. The ASMA_GIS will consists of 12 data layers ranging from the physiographic settings to the biological and administrative features.All data will be implemented into Arc/Info GIS according to the cartographic guidelines of the SCAR WG_GGI.First,five plans of information will be realised using a topographic database compiled from various sources and data from the revised bathymetric chart published by the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Survey and also including: 1) Limits of the ASMA and protected areas;2) Glaciological features (e.g.drainage basin limits) and 3) Human presence (e.g.stations and historical sites).These basic GIS layers will be operational in early 2001.Then,additional data on the remaining layers (e.g.hydrology,geology and geomorphology) will be included from published sources. The ASMA_GIS will form an important database for environmental monitoring and studies surveying temporal changes of features such as glacier front positions or bird breading sites.

  12. Geomorphological mapping of ice-free areas using polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data on Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T.; López-Martínez, J.; Guillaso, S.; Serrano, E.; D'Hondt, O.; Koch, M.; Nieto, A.; O'Neill, T.; Mink, S.; Durán, J. J.; Maestro, A.

    2017-09-01

    Satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been used for characterizing and mapping in two relevant ice-free areas in the South Shetland Islands. The objective has been to identify and characterize land surface covers that mainly include periglacial and glacial landforms, using fully polarimetric SAR C band RADARSAT-2 data, on Fildes Peninsula that forms part of King George Island, and Ardley Island. Polarimetric parameters obtained from the SAR data, a selection of field based training and validation sites and a supervised classification approach, using the support vector machine were chosen to determine the spatial distribution of the different landforms. Eight periglacial and glacial landforms were characterized according to their scattering mechanisms using a set of 48 polarimetric parameters. The mapping of the most representative surface covers included colluvial deposits, stone fields and pavements, patterned ground, glacial till and rock outcrops, lakes and glacier ice. The overall accuracy of the results was estimated at 81%, a significant value when mapping areas that are within isolated regions where access is limited. Periglacial surface covers such as stone fields and pavements occupy 25% and patterned ground over 20% of the ice-free areas. These are results that form the basis for an extensive monitoring of the ice-free areas throughout the northern Antarctic Peninsula region.

  13. Front-Eddy Influence on Water Column Properties, Phytoplankton Community Structure, and Cross-Shelf Exchange of Diatom Taxa in the Shelf-Slope Area off Concepción (˜36-37°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carmen E.; Anabalón, Valeria; Bento, Joaquim P.; Hormazabal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Correa-Ramírez, Marco A.; Silva, Nelson

    2017-11-01

    In eastern boundary current systems (EBCSs), submesoscale to mesocale variability contributes to cross-shore exchanges of water properties, nutrients, and plankton. Data from a short-term summer survey and satellite time series (January-February 2014) were used to characterize submesoscale variability in oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton distribution across the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones north of Punta Lavapié, and to explore cross-shelf exchanges of diatom taxa. A thermohaline front (FRN-1) flanked by a mesoscale anticyclonic intrathermocline eddy (ITE-1), or mode-water eddy, persisted during the time series and the survey was undertaken during a wind relaxation event. At the survey time, ITE-1 contributed to an onshore intrusion of warm oceanic waters (southern section) and an offshore advection of cold coastal waters (northern section), with the latter forming a cold, high chlorophyll-a filament. In situ phytoplankton and diatom biomasses were highest at the surface in FRN-1 and at the subsurface in ITE-1, whereas values in the coastal zone were lower and dominated by smaller cells. Diatom species typical of the coastal zone and species dominant in oceanic waters were both found in the FRN-1 and ITE-1 interaction area, suggesting that this mixture was the result of both offshore and onshore advection. Overall, front-eddy interactions in EBCSs could enhance cross-shelf exchanges of coastal and oceanic plankton, as well as sustain phytoplankton growth in the slope area through localized upward injections of nutrients in the frontal zone, combined with ITE-induced advection and vertical nutrient inputs to the surface layer.

  14. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes)

    OpenAIRE

    González-Toril , E.; Amils , R.; Delmas , R. J.; Petit , J.-R.; Komárek , J.; Elster , J.

    2008-01-01

    Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas). Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells be...

  15. Bringing Antarctica Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constible, Juanita; Williams, Lauren; Faure, Jaime; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of the amazing creatures of Antarctica, an insect probably does not come to mind. But this unlikely animal, and a scientific expedition to Antarctica, was the foundation for a learning event that created a community of learners spanning kindergarten through sixth grade and extended beyond the classroom. Miami University's Antarctic…

  16. Characterisation of the nematode community of a low-activity cold seep in the recently ice-shelf free Larsen B area, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freija Hauquier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent climate-induced ice-shelf disintegration in the Larsen A (1995 and B (2002 areas along the Eastern Antarctic Peninsula formed a unique opportunity to assess sub-ice-shelf benthic community structure and led to the discovery of unexplored habitats, including a low-activity methane seep beneath the former Larsen B ice shelf. Since both limited particle sedimentation under previously permanent ice coverage and reduced cold-seep activity are likely to influence benthic meiofauna communities, we characterised the nematode assemblage of this low-activity cold seep and compared it with other, now seasonally ice-free, Larsen A and B stations and other Antarctic shelf areas (Weddell Sea and Drake Passage, as well as cold-seep ecosystems world-wide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nematode community at the Larsen B seep site differed significantly from other Antarctic sites in terms of dominant genera, diversity and abundance. Densities in the seep samples were high (>2000 individuals per 10 cm(2 and showed below-surface maxima at a sediment depth of 2-3 cm in three out of four replicates. All samples were dominated by one species of the family Monhysteridae, which was identified as a Halomonhystera species that comprised between 80 and 86% of the total community. The combination of high densities, deeper density maxima and dominance of one species is shared by many cold-seep ecosystems world-wide and suggested a possible dependence upon a chemosynthetic food source. Yet stable (13C isotopic signals (ranging between -21.97±0.86‰ and -24.85±1.89‰ were indicative of a phytoplankton-derived food source. CONCLUSION: The recent ice-shelf collapse and enhanced food input from surface phytoplankton blooms were responsible for the shift from oligotrophic pre-collapse conditions to a phytodetritus-based community with high densities and low diversity. The parthenogenetic reproduction of the highly dominant Halomonhystera species is rather unusual

  17. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  18. Composition of microbial communities in aerosol, snow and ice samples from remote glaciated areas (Antarctica, Alps, Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, J.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Řeháková, K.

    2007-06-01

    Taxonomical and ecological analyses were performed on micro-autotrophs (cyanobacteria and algae together with remnants of diatom valves), micro-fungi (hyphae and spores), bacteria (rod, cocci and red clusters), yeast, and plant pollen extracted from various samples: Alps snow (Mt. Blank area), Andean snow (Illimani, Bolivia), Antarctic aerosol filters (Dumont d'Urville, Terre Adélie), and Antarctic inland ice (Terre Adélie). Three methods for ice and snow sample's pre-concentration were tested (filtration, centrifugation and lyophilisation). Afterwards, cultivation methods for terrestrial, freshwater and marine microorganisms (micro-autotrophs and micro-fungi) were used in combination with liquid and solid media. The main goal of the study was to find out if micro-autotrophs are commonly transported by air masses, and later stored in snow and icecaps around the world. The most striking result of this study was the absence of culturable micro-autotrophs in all studied samples. However, an unusual culturable pigmented prokaryote was found in both alpine snow and aerosol samples. Analyses of many samples and proper statistical analyses (PCA, RDA- Monte Carlo permutation tests) showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in both microbial community and biotic remnants composition F=9.33, p=0.001. In addition, GLM showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in numbers of categories of microorganisms and remnants of biological material F=11.45, p=0.00005. The Antarctic aerosol samples were characterised by having red clusters of bacteria, the unusual prokaryote and yeasts. The high mountain snow from the Alps and Andes contained much more culturable heterotrophs. The unusual prokaryote was very abundant, as were coccoid bacteria, red clusters of bacteria, as well as yeasts. The Antarctic ice samples were quite different. These samples had higher numbers of rod bacteria and fungal hyphae. The microbial communities and biological remnants of

  19. Geologic characterization of shelf areas using usSEABED for GIS mapping, modeling processes and assessing marine sand and gravel resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.J.; Bliss, J.D.; Arsenault, M.A.; Jenkins, C.J.; Goff, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic maps depicting offshore sedimentary features serve many scientific and applied purposes. Such maps have been lacking, but recent computer technology and software offer promise in the capture and display of diverse marine data. Continental margins contain landforms which provide a variety of important functions and contain important sedimentary records. Some shelf areas also contain deposits regarded as potential aggregate resources. Because proper management of coastal and offshore areas is increasingly important, knowledge of the framework geology and marine processes is critical. Especially valuable are comprehensive and integrated digital databases based on high-quality information from original sources. Products of interest are GIS maps containing thematic information, such as sediment character and texture. These products are useful to scientists modeling nearshore and shelf processes as well as planners and managers. The U.S. Geological Survey is leading a national program to gather a variety of extant marine geologic data into the usSEABED database system. This provides centralized, integrated marine geologic data collected over the past 50 years. To date, over 340,000 sediment data points from the U.S. reside in usSEABED, which combines an array of physical data and analytical and descriptive information about the sea floor and are available to the marine community through three USGS data reports for the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific published in 2006, and the project web sites: (http://woodshole.er.usg s.gov/project-pages/aggregates/ and http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/usseabed/)

  20. Aeromagnetic and gravity investigations of the Coastal Area and Continental Shelf of Liberia, West Africa, and their relation to continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1970-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey has shown the existence of several basins in which magnetic basement depths are greater than 5 km on the continental shelf off Liberia. Magnetic diabase of 176 to 192 m.y. (Jurassic) in age intruding the Paleozoic (?) rocks and overlain by younger rocks onshore requires the distinction between “magnetic basement” and “basement.” Several lines of evidence suggest that the Paleozoic(?) rocks are less than 1 km thick; this implies that the diabase does not introduce a large error in depth-to-basement estimates. The dikes or their extrusive equivalents are traceable, on the basis of the magnetic data, beneath the younger sedimentary rock in the basins to the edge of the continental slope. The magnetic data also delineate a second zone of diabase dikes 90 km inland, parallel to the coast, which cross the entire country. The intrusion of the younger dikes probably coincides with rifting at the beginning of the separation of Africa and South America, and the associated magnetic anomaly zones appear to be parallel with and continuous into the anomaly bands in the Atlantic. A major northeast-trending break in the magnetic fabric intersects the coast near 9° W. and is associated with Eburnean age rocks (about 2000 m.y.) to the southeast as contrasted with Liberian-age rocks (about 2700 m.y.) to the northwest. Change in magnetic fabric direction inland from northeast to northwest in the coastal area allows recognition of a boundary between the Liberian-age rocks inland and Pan-African-age (about 550 m.y.) rocks in the coastal area northwest of about 9° 20'W. Sets of north-northwest-and west-northwest—trending faults of 1 to 2 km vertical displacement cut the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks onshore and can be traced into the offshore basins. Vertical displacements of several kilometers in the magnetic basement underlying the continental shelf suggest a pattern of block faulting all along the coast and continental shelf. Negative Bouguer

  1. The response of grounded ice to ocean temperature forcing in a coupled ice sheet-ice shelf-ocean cavity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Little, C. M.; Sergienko, O. V.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Ice shelves provide a pathway for the heat content of the ocean to influence continental ice sheets. Changes in the rate or location of basal melting can alter their geometry and effect changes in stress conditions at the grounding line, leading to a grounded ice response. Recent observations of ice streams and ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica have been consistent with this story. On the other hand, ice dynamics in the grounding zone control flux into the shelf and thus ice shelf geometry, which has a strong influence on the circulation in the cavity beneath the shelf. Thus the coupling between the two systems, ocean and ice sheet-ice shelf, can be quite strong. We examine the response of the ice sheet-ice shelf-ocean cavity system to changes in ocean temperature using a recently developed coupled model. The coupled model consists a 3-D ocean model (GFDL's Generalized Ocean Layered Dynamics model, or GOLD) to a two-dimensional ice sheet-ice shelf model (Goldberg et al, 2009), and allows for changing cavity geometry and a migrating grounding line. Steady states of the coupled system are found even under considerable forcing. The ice shelf morphology and basal melt rate patterns of the steady states exhibit detailed structure, and furthermore seem to be unique and robust. The relationship between temperature forcing and area-averaged melt rate is influenced by the response of ice shelf morphology to thermal forcing, and is found to be sublinear in the range of forcing considered. However, results suggest that area-averaged melt rate is not the best predictor of overall system response, as grounding line stability depends on local aspects of the basal melt field. Goldberg, D N, D M Holland and C G Schoof, 2009. Grounding line movement and ice shelf buttressing in marine ice sheets, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surfaces, 114, F04026.

  2. NASA-ISRO synthetic aperture radar (NISAR) for temporal tracking of iceberg calving events in the Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, S. D.; Luis, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating mass loss of the Antarctic ice sheet caused by iceberg calving is a challenging job. Antarctica is surrounded by a variety of large, medium and small sized ice shelves, glacier tongues and coastal areas without offshore floating ice masses. It is possible to monitor surface structures on the continental ice and the ice shelves as well as calved icebergs using NASA-ISRO synthetic aperture radar (NISAR) satellite images in future. The NISAR, which is planned to be launched in 2020, can be used as an all-weather and all-season system to classify the coastline of Antarctica to map patterns of surface structures close to the calving front. Additionally, classifying patterns and density of surface structures distributed over the ice shelves and ice tongues can be a challenging research where NISAR can be of a great advantage. So this work explores use of NISAR to map surface structures visible on ice shelves which can provide advisories to field teams. The ice shelf fronts has been categorized into various classes based on surface structures relative to the calving front within a 30 km-wide seaward strip. The resulting map of the classified calving fronts around Antarctica and their description would provide a detailed representation of crevasse formation and dominant iceberg in the southern ocean which pose a threat to navigation of Antarctic bound ships.

  3. Combined Gravimetric-Seismic Crustal Model for Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Alexey; Tenzer, Robert; Bagherbandi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    The latest seismic data and improved information about the subglacial bedrock relief are used in this study to estimate the sediment and crustal thickness under the Antarctic continent. Since large parts of Antarctica are not yet covered by seismic surveys, the gravity and crustal structure models are used to interpolate the Moho information where seismic data are missing. The gravity information is also extended offshore to detect the Moho under continental margins and neighboring oceanic crust. The processing strategy involves the solution to the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's inverse problem of isostasy constrained on seismic data. A comparison of our new results with existing studies indicates a substantial improvement in the sediment and crustal models. The seismic data analysis shows significant sediment accumulations in Antarctica, with broad sedimentary basins. According to our result, the maximum sediment thickness in Antarctica is about 15 km under Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. The Moho relief closely resembles major geological and tectonic features. A rather thick continental crust of East Antarctic Craton is separated from a complex geological/tectonic structure of West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains. The average Moho depth of 34.1 km under the Antarctic continent slightly differs from previous estimates. A maximum Moho deepening of 58.2 km under the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in East Antarctica confirmed the presence of deep and compact orogenic roots. Another large Moho depth in East Antarctica is detected under Dronning Maud Land with two orogenic roots under Wohlthat Massif (48-50 km) and the Kottas Mountains (48-50 km) that are separated by a relatively thin crust along Jutulstraumen Rift. The Moho depth under central parts of the Transantarctic Mountains reaches 46 km. The maximum Moho deepening (34-38 km) in West Antarctica is under the Antarctic Peninsula. The Moho depth minima in East Antarctica are found under the Lambert Trench (24

  4. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karel; Behrendt, John Charles

    1983-01-01

    No known petroleum or mineral resources occur in Antarctica. The data on these subjects have been collected, mainly since the IGY (International Geophysical Year), 1957-58, as a part of other research carried out by geologists and geophysicists from a number of countries. Specific resource-related studies have not been made. Wright and Williams (1974) summarized what was known of Antarctic mineral resources a decade ago.The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively pursuing various investigations in Antarctica since 194 7. In the course of this work and that of our colleagues elsewhere in the United States and in other countries, much information relevant to petroleum and mineral resources has been obtained. Since 1976, modern state-of-the-art multichannel seismic reflection and aeromagnetic surveys by several countries over the continental margin of Antarctica have indicated thick sedimentary basins. However, no offshore drilling beneath the continental shelf has taken place since the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) holes in the Ross Sea in 1973. Geologic field investigations begun at the turn of the twentieth century have been intensified in the past two decades; most rock outcrops have been visited and samples collected. Technology to exploit resources, particularly in the Arctic, has been developing at a rapid rate, and much of it could be applied to Antarctica. As a result of the petroleum price increases of the past decade, the attention of a number of countries has turned to Antarctica, but under the policy of "voluntary restraint" adopted by the Antarctic Treaty nations, no active petroleum or mineral exploration is taking place. The Antarctic treaty countries are in the process of negotiating an Antarctic mineral resources regime that is anticipated to be completed within the next several years. Therefore it seemed timely to us to readdress the question of petroleum and mineral resources. These reports review and summarize the available information. The

  5. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Area offer greater resource potential, while minimizing potential conflicts with environmental.... Existing Information An extensive Environmental Studies Program, including environmental, social, and... limiting conflicts with environmentally sensitive areas and subsistence use by making certain...

  6. The geostatistics of the metal concentrations in sediments from the eastern Brazilian continental shelf in areas of gas and oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Jose Edvar; de Lacerda, Luiz Drude; Miguens, Flavio Costa; Marins, Rozane Valente

    2014-04-01

    Geostatistical techniques were used to evaluate the differences in the geochemistry of metals in the marine sediments along the Eastern Brazilian continental margin along the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte (Northeastern sector) and Espírito Santo (Southeastern sector). The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Hg, and Zn were obtained from acid digestion and quantified using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The metals showed a similar order of concentration: Al > Fe > Ba > Mn > V > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu, in both the Ceará; and Rio Grande do Norte shelf regions but different in the Espírito Santo shelf (Fe > Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > V > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cu. The concentrations of Hg and Cd were below the detection limit in all areas. A multivariate analysis revealed that the metals of siliciclastic origin on the continental shelf of Ceará are carried by Al. In addition, a large portion of metal deposits is connected to the iron and manganese oxides on the continental margin of Rio Grande do Norte. The metals from the continental supply on the coast of Espírito Santo (Cu, Ni, Ba, and Mn) are associated with Al; whereas Cr, Pb, V, and Zn are associated with iron in this southern area. Geochemical evaluations are needed to distinguish the origin and mineralogical differences of marine sediments within the regions. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) applied to the sediments from the coast of Ceará showed the morphological diversity of sediment grains: biological fragments, multifaceted particles, aggregates, and crystals occurred in the three regions analyzed. Among these grains, calcite, Mg-calcite, and aragonite were predominant in the northeastern sector, whereas silicates and other minerals were predominant the southeastern sector. Mg, K, Ti, and Zr as well as the

  7. Living and Working in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Noel

    This source book, designed for 11- to 14-year-old students, seeks to describe what life is like in Antarctica. In spite of extreme weather conditions, people go to Antarctica to work every summer. Some of them stay there during the winter as well. This book seeks to supply answers to such questions as: How do people get to Antarctica? Why do they…

  8. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  9. Technical procedures for aeromagnetic surveys in Antarctica during the Italian expeditions (1988-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available For most of Antarctica, the geophysical data now available are those of aeromagnetic surveys performed there from 1950 to 1960. Until 1984, the inaccurate positioning and insufficient monitoring of geomagnetic time variations allowed the investigation of the geomagnetic residual field only along profiles. The Ganovex IV aeromagnetic survey, performed by BGR-USGS over the Ross Sea and the Northern Victoria Land, and the geophysical investigations of BAS on the Southern Antarctic peninsula and the Ronne ice shelf region corresponds to the recent advancement of these techniques in Antarctica. The first experiments of aeromagnetic measurements, during the Italian expeditions in Antarctica were made during the 1988-1989 field season. Some geomagnetic helicopter borne profiles were accomplished with a Proton Precession Magnetometer (PPM in the Terra Nova Bay-Gerlache Inlet area. In the 1989-1990 ItaliAntartide expedition some profiles were flown over the suture between the Wilson and Bower terranes, in Northern Victoria Land. During the 1991-1992 expedition, in cooperation with researchers of BGR (Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe of Hannover, the GITARA I (German ITalian Aeromagnetic Rescarch Antarctica program, as part of the LIRA (Litospheric Investigation in the Ross Sea Area project, was carried out. The investigated area lies between the latitudes 74°18' S and 75°18' S and the longitudes 160°30' E and 164°30'E and it corresponds to a portion of the North Victoria Land, located between the Eisenhower Range and the, DrygaIski Ice Tongue. The survey was made with a Cesium vapour magnetometer. The positioning system was of the “Range-Range” type, it consisted of three transmitters (beacons, installed inside the investigated area and located with GPS measurements. The line spacing was 4.4 km, with tie lines every 22 km. The survey covered an area of 6500 km2 . Four PPM base stations for the determination of the time variation

  10. Larval and small juvenile cod Gadus morhua concentrated in the highly productive areas of a shelf break front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielsen, D.

    1995-01-01

    describe the identified nursery areas of larvae/juveniles and analyse the connection between the distribution of cod and hydrographical (frontal) characteristics of the areas. A total area of 67000 km(2) was covered by stations in a 10 x 10 nautical mile grid. Salinity, temperature, NO3+NO2 and chlorophyll...... part of the investigation area, and within the zone of the front we observed enhanced primary production and abundance of both phyto- and zooplankton. The distribution of larval and juvenile cod was also related to the hydrography, the abundance of cod peaked within a restricted zone...

  11. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... resource potential, while minimizing potential conflicts with environmental subsistence considerations... extensive Environmental Studies Program, including environmental, social, and economic studies in the... while limiting conflicts with environmentally sensitive areas and subsistence use by making certain...

  12. 75 FR 69122 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... focus on updating the baseline conditions and potential environmental effects of oil and natural gas.... Comments Public meetings will be held in locations near these areas in early to mid November 2010. The...

  13. Endmembers of Ice Shelf Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, A.; Child, S. F.; Kingslake, J.; Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Alexandrov, O.; McMichael, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of surface melt on ice shelves have defined a spectrum of meltwater behavior. On one end the storage of meltwater in persistent surface ponds can trigger ice shelf collapse as in the 2002 event leading to the disintegration of the Larsen B Ice Shelf. On the other, meltwater export by rivers can stabilize an ice shelf as was recently shown on the Nansen Ice Shelf. We explore this dichotomy by quantifying the partitioning between stored and transported water on two glaciers adjacent to floating ice shelves, Nimrod (Antarctica) and Peterman (Greenland). We analyze optical satellite imagery (LANDSAT, WorldView), airborne imagery (Operation IceBridge, Trimetrogon Aerial Phototography), satellite radar (Sentinel-1), and digital elevation models (DEMs) to categorize surface meltwater fate and map the evolution of ice shelf hydrology and topographic features through time. On the floating Peterman Glacier tongue a sizable river exports water to the ocean. The surface hydrology of Nimrod Glacier, geometrically similar to Peterman but with ten times shallower surface slope, is dominated by storage in surface lakes. In contrast, the Nansen has the same surface slope as Nimrod but transports water through surface rivers. Slope alone is not the sole control on ice shelf hydrology. It is essential to track the storage and transport volumes for each of these systems. To estimate water storage and transport we analyze high resolution (40 cm - 2 m) modern and historical DEMs. We produce historical (1957 onwards) DEMs with structure-from-motion photogrammetry. The DEMs are used to constrain water storage potential estimates of observed basins and water routing/transport potential. We quantify the total volume of water stored seasonally and interannually. We use the normalize difference water index to map meltwater extent, and estimate lake water depth from optical data. We also consider the role of stored water in subsurface aquifers in recharging surface water after

  14. ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF RECENT GLOBAL OCEAN TIDE MODELS AROUND ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the coverage limitation of T/P-series altimeters, the lack of bathymetric data under large ice shelves, and the inaccurate definitions of coastlines and grounding lines, the accuracy of ocean tide models around Antarctica is poorer than those in deep oceans. Using tidal measurements from tide gauges, gravimetric data and GPS records, the accuracy of seven state-of-the-art global ocean tide models (DTU10, EOT11a, GOT4.8, FES2012, FES2014, HAMTIDE12, TPXO8 is assessed, as well as the most widely-used conventional model FES2004. Four regions (Antarctic Peninsula region, Amery ice shelf region, Filchner-Ronne ice shelf region and Ross ice shelf region are separately reported. The standard deviations of eight main constituents between the selected models are large in polar regions, especially under the big ice shelves, suggesting that the uncertainty in these regions remain large. Comparisons with in situ tidal measurements show that the most accurate model is TPXO8, and all models show worst performance in Weddell sea and Filchner-Ronne ice shelf regions. The accuracy of tidal predictions around Antarctica is gradually improving.

  15. Accuracy Assessment of Recent Global Ocean Tide Models around Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, J.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Ke, H.; Zhang, Q.; Li, W.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the coverage limitation of T/P-series altimeters, the lack of bathymetric data under large ice shelves, and the inaccurate definitions of coastlines and grounding lines, the accuracy of ocean tide models around Antarctica is poorer than those in deep oceans. Using tidal measurements from tide gauges, gravimetric data and GPS records, the accuracy of seven state-of-the-art global ocean tide models (DTU10, EOT11a, GOT4.8, FES2012, FES2014, HAMTIDE12, TPXO8) is assessed, as well as the most widely-used conventional model FES2004. Four regions (Antarctic Peninsula region, Amery ice shelf region, Filchner-Ronne ice shelf region and Ross ice shelf region) are separately reported. The standard deviations of eight main constituents between the selected models are large in polar regions, especially under the big ice shelves, suggesting that the uncertainty in these regions remain large. Comparisons with in situ tidal measurements show that the most accurate model is TPXO8, and all models show worst performance in Weddell sea and Filchner-Ronne ice shelf regions. The accuracy of tidal predictions around Antarctica is gradually improving.

  16. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  17. Eddy-resolving simulations of the Fimbul Ice Shelf cavity circulation: Basal melting and exchange with open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, T.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Nøst, O. A.; Lilly, J. M.; Galton-Fenzi, B. K.

    2014-10-01

    Melting at the base of floating ice shelves is a dominant term in the overall Antarctic mass budget. This study applies a high-resolution regional ice shelf/ocean model, constrained by observations, to (i) quantify present basal mass loss at the Fimbul Ice Shelf (FIS); and (ii) investigate the oceanic mechanisms that govern the heat supply to ice shelves in the Eastern Weddell Sea. The simulations confirm the low melt rates suggested by observations and show that melting is primarily determined by the depth of the coastal thermocline, regulating deep ocean heat fluxes towards the ice. Furthermore, the uneven distribution of ice shelf area at different depths modulates the melting response to oceanic forcing, causing the existence of two distinct states of melting at the FIS. In the simulated present-day state, only small amounts of Modified Warm Deep Water enter the continental shelf, and ocean temperatures beneath the ice are close to the surface freezing point. The basal mass loss in this so-called state of "shallow melting" is mainly controlled by the seasonal inflow of solar-heated surface water affecting large areas of shallow ice in the upper part of the cavity. This is in contrast to a state of "deep melting", in which the thermocline rises above the shelf break depth, establishing a continuous inflow of Warm Deep Water towards the deep ice. The transition between the two states is found to be determined by a complex response of the Antarctic Slope Front overturning circulation to varying climate forcings. A proper representation of these frontal dynamics in climate models will therefore be crucial when assessing the evolution of ice shelf basal melting along this sector of Antarctica.

  18. Coexisting sea-based and land-based sources of contamination by PAHs in the continental shelf sediments of Coatzacoalcos River discharge area (Gulf of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Portela, Julián Mauricio Betancourt; Sericano, José Luis; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Espinosa, Luisa Fernanda; Cardoso-Mohedano, José Gilberto; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Tinoco, Jesús Antonio Garay

    2016-02-01

    The oldest refinery and the major petrochemical complexes of Mexico are located in the lower reach of the Coatzacoalcos River, considered the most polluted coastal area of Mexico. A (210)Pb-dated sediment core, from the continental shelf of the Coatzacoalcos River, was studied to assess the contamination impact by the oil industry in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The sedimentary record showed the prevalence of petrogenic PAHs between 1950s and 1970s, a period during which waste discharges from the oil industry were not regulated. Later on, sediments exhibited higher contents of pyrogenic PAHs, attributed to the incineration of petrochemical industry wastes and recurrent wildfires in open dumpsites at the nearby swamps. The total concentration of the 16 EPA-priority PAHs indicated low levels of contamination (1000 ng g(-1)) during the late 1970s, most likely due to the major oil spill produced by the blowout of the Ixtoc-I offshore oil rig in deep waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Most of the PAH congeners did not show defined temporal trends but, according to a Factor Analysis, apparently have a common origin, probably waste released from the nearby oil industry. The only exceptions were the pyrogenic benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and the biogenic perylene, that showed increasing concentration trends with time, which we attributed to erosional input of contaminated soil from the catchment area. Our study confirmed chronic oil contamination in the Coatzacoalcos River coastal area from land based sources for more than 60 years (since 1950s). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The conquest of Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristan, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    The information obtained in the more than 15 projects designed for the XXVIII campaign to Antarctica, and in the they involved a total of 80 researchers, will serve to learn more about terrestrial magnetism, changes occurring in the climate, the behavior of the volcanoes, the evolution of the glaciers, the rate of thaw, the weather variations, characteristics of the lichens, the progress of pollution... Even know the past that remains frozen under the ice to predict what might happen in the future. (Author)

  20. Antarctica: Cooling or Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, Armin; Ludescher, Josef; Franzke, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We consider the 14 longest instrumental monthly mean temperature records from the Antarctica and analyse their correlation properties by wavelet and detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the stations in the western and the eastern part of the Antarctica show significant long-term memory governed by Hurst exponents close to 0.8 and 0.65, respectively. In contrast, the temperature records at the inner part of the continent (South Pole and Vostok), resemble white noise. We use linear regression to estimate the respective temperature differences in the records per decade (i) for the annual data, (ii) for the summer and (iii) for the winter season. Using a recent approach by Lennartz and Bunde [1] we estimate the respective probabilities that these temperature differences can be exceeded naturally without inferring an external (anthropogenic) trend. We find that the warming in the western part of the continent and the cooling at the South Pole is due to a gradually changes in the cold extremes. For the winter months, both cooling and warming are well outside the 95 percent confidence interval, pointing to an anthropogenic origin. In the eastern Antarctica, the temperature increases and decreases are modest and well within the 95 percent confidence interval. [1] S. Lennartz and A. Bunde, Phys. Rev. E 84, 021129 (2011)

  1. Radon in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.; Rusov, V.D.; Pavlovych, V.N.; Vaschenko, V.M.; Hanzic, L.; Bondarchuk, Y.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews results of radon measurements obtained in Antarctic research stations in the last 40 years by both active and passive radon monitors. A brief description of the radon laboratory set-up in the Ukrainian Academician Vernadsky station on the Antarctic Peninsula (W 64 o 16 ' , S 65 o 15 ' ), where radon is measured by two types of etched track Rn dosimeter and 4 types of continuous radon monitoring devices is presented. Some selected results of research work are described related to: (i) analysis of radon storms, defined as an abrupt increase of 222 Rn during the occurrence of a cyclone, and its applicability for the study of the transport of air masses of continental origin to Antarctica; (ii) a study of the correlation of changes of radon concentration and geomagnetic field induced by tectonic activity and its application to predicting tectonomagnetic anomalies, and (iii) verification of a newly developed theoretical model based on noise analysis of the measured radon signal for earthquake prediction. Suggestions for future utilization of radon for basic research in Antarctica (and not only in Antarctica) conclude the contribution. conclude the contribution

  2. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  3. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    The Holocene sea level changes in the shelf areas off Visakhapatnam was studied from sediment distribution pattern and shallow seismic profiling. Morphological features on the shelf indicate a Late Pleistocene regression down to about -130 m below...

  4. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  5. Challenges for understanding Antarctic surface hydrology and ice-shelf stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Bell, R. E.; Banwell, A. F.; Boghosian, A.; Spergel, J.; Trusel, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely hypothesized that surface meltwater can contribute to ice mass loss in Antarctica through its impact on ice-shelf stability. Meltwater potentially expedites ice-shelf calving by flowing into and enlarging existing crevasses, and could even trigger ice-shelf disintegration via stresses generated by melt ponds. When ice shelves collapse, the adjacent grounded ice accelerates and thins, which contributes to sea-level rise. How these mechanisms mediate the interactions between the atmosphere, the ocean and the ice sheet is the subject of long-standing research efforts. The drainage of water across the surface of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and its ice shelves is beginning to be recognized as another important aspect of the system. Recent studies have revealed that surface meltwater drainage is more widespread than previously thought and that surface hydrological systems in Antarctica may expand and proliferate this century. Contrasting hypotheses regarding the impact of the proliferation of drainage systems on ice-shelf stability have emerged. Surface drainage could deliver meltwater to vulnerable area or export meltwater from ice shelves entirely. Which behavior dominates may have a large impact on the future response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to atmospheric warming. We will discuss these recent discoveries and hypotheses, as well as new detailed studies of specific areas where hydrological systems are well developed, such as Amery and Nimrod Ice Shelves. We will highlight analogies that can be drawn with Greenlandic (near-)surface hydrology and, crucially, where hydrological systems on the two ice sheets are very different, leading to potentially important gaps in our understanding. Finally, we will look ahead to the key questions that we argue will need to be if we are to determine the role Antarctic surface hydrology could play in the future of the ice sheet. These include: Where does meltwater pond today and how will this change this century? What

  6. Evaluation of uranium resources in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, E.J.; Dreschhoff, G.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The continent of Antarctica comprises roughly nine per cent of the total land surface of the earth and is the only large land area that has been left almost totally unexplored for uranium resources. In 1976 the first systematic uranium resource evaluation, entitled Antarctica International Radiometric Survey, was started as a part of the US Antarctic Research Program. This project was staffed jointly by scientists from the University of Kansas and the Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe of the Federal Republic of Germany. The survey has continued for three antarctic field seasons and an extension of operations for the next four years has been approved. Two areas in the Transantarctic Mountains and one part of Marie Byrd Land have been surveyed by airborne gamma-ray spectrometric methods. The work that has been conducted demonstrates clearly that radiometric surveys can be performed successfully under the rigorous climatic conditions in Antarctica, and that significant and reproducible data can be obtained. So far no substantial concentrations of uranium have been detected but deposits of thorium minerals have been found. (author)

  7. Coastal-change and glaciological maps of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known for certain whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although the western part is thickening, the northern part is thinning. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), based on analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance. The mass balance of the East Antarctic is unknown, but thought to be in near equilibrium. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The

  8. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  9. Meteorites, Ice, and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, William A.

    2003-08-01

    Bill Cassidy led meteorite recovery expeditions in the Antarctic for fifteen years and his searches have resulted in the collection of thousands of meteorite specimens from the ice. This personal account of his field experiences on the U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites Project reveals the influence the work has had on our understanding of the moon, Mars and the asteroid belt. Cassidy describes the hardships and dangers of fieldwork in a hostile environment, as well as the appreciation he developed for its beauty. William Cassidy is Emeritus Professor of Geology and Planetary Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He initiated the U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET) nroject and led meteorite recovery expeditions in Antarctica in1976. His name is found attached to a mineral (cassidyite), on the map of Antarctica (Cassidy Glacier), and in the Catalog of Asteroids (3382 Cassidy). Profiled in "American Men of Science," and "Who's Who in America," he is also a recipient of The Antarctic Service Medal from the United States and has published widely in Science, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, and The Journal of Geophysical Research.

  10. Weathering and genesis of Soils from Ellsworth Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoline Delpupo Souza, Katia; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Monari, Julia; Machado, Vania

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on Antarctic soils from the Ellsworth Mountains (EM) are patchy comparatively with Dry Valleys soils from the Transantartic Mountains, and could help understand the genesis of cryogenic soils under extreme dry, cold desert conditions. The EM are a slightly arcuate 350-km-long north-northwest-trending mountain chain is bordered on the west by the polar plateau of West Antarctica and on the east by Ronne Ice Shelf. The range is as much as 90 km wide and constitutes one of the largest areas of exposed bedrock in West Antarctica. The stratigraphic succession in the EM includes strata from Cambriam to Permian in age. The objective of this study is to analyze the properties of soils from EM in order to identify the main factors and processes involved in soil formation under cold desert conditions in Antarctica. The sampling design aimed to represent the different geological substrates (marble-clast conglomerate, graywacke, argillite, conglomerate, black shale, marble and quartzite) as well as altitudinal levels and landforms within the same substrate. We characterized soils from EM regarding their morphological, physics and chemical properties. Soil samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieves. After removal of water soluble salts, the samples were submitted to chemical and physical analyses such as: pH in water, potential acidity (H + Al), exchangeable bases, total organic carbon, electric conductivity, soil texture and color. The soils classify, for the most part, in weathering stages 1 to 2. Only in the upper parts of ridges were there traces of soils at weathering stage 3. This indicates that much of the present icefree topography has been overridden by ice within the last few hundred thousand years. Cryoturbation is a widespread phenomenon in this area resulting in intense cryoclastic weathering and patterned ground, forming sorted circles, stripes and gelifluxion lobes. The soil show low horizontation, discrete patches of salt on the surface, and

  11. Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Carton, G.; Trembanis, A. C.; Edwards, M.; Miller, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) are present in U.S. waters as a result of past and ongoing live-fire testing and training, combat operations, and sea disposal. To identify MEC that may pose a risk to human safety during development of offshore wind facilities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is preparing to develop guidance on risk analysis and selection processes for methods and technologies to identify MEC in Wind Energy Areas (WEA). This study developed a process for selecting appropriate technologies and methodologies for MEC detection using a synthesis of historical research, physical site characterization, remote sensing technology review, and in-field trials. Personnel were tasked with seeding a portion of the Delaware WEA with munitions surrogates, while a second group of researchers not privy to the surrogate locations tested and optimized the selected methodology to find and identify the placed targets. This in-field trial, conducted in July 2016, emphasized the use of multiple sensors for MEC detection, and led to further guidance for future MEC detection efforts on the Atlantic OCS. An April 2017 follow on study determined the fate of the munitions surrogates after the Atlantic storm season had passed. Using regional hydrodynamic models and incorporating the recommendations from the 2016 field trial, the follow on study examined the fate of the MEC and compared the findings to existing research on munitions mobility, as well as models developed as part of the Office of Naval Research Mine-Burial Program. Focus was given to characterizing the influence of sediment type on surrogate munitions behavior and the influence of mophodynamics and object burial on MEC detection. Supporting Mine-Burial models, ripple bedforms were observed to impede surrogate scour and burial in coarse sediments, while surrogate burial was both predicted and observed in finer sediments. Further, incorporation of

  12. Sea ice and wind variability during the Holocene in East Antarctica: Insight on middle high latitude coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, D.; Crosta, X.; Barbera, L.; Masse, G.; Renssen, H.; Ther, O.; Giraudeau, J.

    2010-01-01

    Micropaleontological and biomarker data from two high-accumulation marine sites from the Coastal and Continental Shelf Zone (CCSZ) off East Antarctica (Adélie Land at ∼140°E and eastern Prydz Bay at ∼77°E) are used to reconstruct Holocene changes in sea ice and wind stress at the basin-wide scale.

  13. Understanding Ice Shelf Basal Melting Using Convergent ICEPOD Data Sets: ROSETTA-Ice Study of Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Fricker, H. A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.

    2017-12-01

    The future stability of the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica will be susceptible to increases in both surface and basal melt as the atmosphere and ocean warm. The ROSETTA-Ice program is targeted at using the ICEPOD airborne technology to produce new constraints on Ross Ice Shelf, the underlying ocean, bathymetry, and geologic setting, using radar sounding, gravimetry and laser altimetry. This convergent approach to studying the ice-shelf and basal processes enables us to develop an understanding of the fundamental controls on ice-shelf evolution. This work leverages the stratigraphy of the ice shelf, which is detected as individual reflectors by the shallow-ice radar and is often associated with surface scour, form close to the grounding line or pinning points on the ice shelf. Surface accumulation on the ice shelf buries these reflectors as the ice flows towards the calving front. This distinctive stratigraphy can be traced across the ice shelf for the major East Antarctic outlet glaciers and West Antarctic ice streams. Changes in the ice thickness below these reflectors are a result of strain and basal melting and freezing. Correcting the estimated thickness changes for strain using RIGGS strain measurements, we can develop decadal-resolution flowline distributions of basal melt. Close to East Antarctica elevated melt-rates (>1 m/yr) are found 60-100 km from the calving front. On the West Antarctic side high melt rates primarily develop within 10 km of the calving front. The East Antarctic side of Ross Ice Shelf is dominated by melt driven by saline water masses that develop in Ross Sea polynyas, while the melting on the West Antarctic side next to Hayes Bank is associated with modified Continental Deep Water transported along the continental shelf. The two sides of Ross Ice Shelf experience differing basal melt in part due to the duality in the underlying geologic structure: the East Antarctic side consists of relatively dense crust, with low amplitude

  14. DOMECair: An Airborne Campaign in Antarctica Supporting SMOS Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2013-01-01

    In search for a stable, well characterized terrestrial calibration target for SMOS, an airborne campaign was carried out in January 2013 over the Dome C area of Antarctica, and the surface was measured by an L-band radiometer. The focus was on homogeneity, and an area of 350 × 350 km around...

  15. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M

    1990-01-01

    .... This volume of the Antarctic Research Series results from an attempt to assemble a summary of current factual knowledge and scientific data related to issues of mineral resources in Antarctica...

  16. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M

    1990-01-01

    .... This volume includes not only papers that are the culmination of many years of research conducted in Antarctica by leading scientists, but also additional studies from the United States, Australia...

  17. Summer composition and distribution of the jellyfish (Cnidaria: Medusozoa in the shelf area off the central Mexican Pacific Composición y distribución de las medusas (Cnidaria: Medusozoa en la plataforma continental central del Pacifico mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Segura-Puertas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition, distribution, and abundance of the jellyfish community of a shelf area of the Mexican tropical Pacific were surveyed during August 1988. Zooplankton samples were collected along transects on the outer and inner sectors of the continental shelf to determine the structure of the jellyfish community and its variation in this area during the rainy season. A total of 23 species were recorded, with Aglaura hemistoma, Solmundella bitentaculata, Liriope tetraphylla, Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhopalonema velatum being the most abundant. The total abundance of medusae and of the most abundant species was statistically independent of depth and distance to the coast. Hence, the total jellyfish abundance of the most abundant species, and Shannon's Diversity index had a uniform distribution in both the inner and the outer shelf; furthermore, neritic-oceanic forms and oceanic species occurred indistinctly over the entire continental shelf. On the outer shelf A. hemistoma and S. bitentaculata were most abundant; the former species, together with L. tetraphylla, weakly characterized the inner shelf jellyfish community. The narrowness of the shelf, the wide distribution of the most abundant forms, and the possible effect of local advective processes from the oceanic zone masked a definite gradient across the shelf. Three species have not been recorded previously in the Mexican Pacific: Amphinema dinema (Péron and Lesueur, 1810, Sarsia coccometra Bigelow, 1909, and Clytia mccradyi (Brooks, 1888. The finding of A. dinema is the first in the Eastern Pacific.Se estudió la composición, distribución y abundancia de la comunidad de medusas de la plataforma continental en el Pacífico mexicano durante agosto 1988. Las muestras de zooplancton provienen de transectos en las zonas externa e interna de la plataforma para determinar la estructura de la comunidad de medusas y su variación durante la época de lluvias. Se identificaron 23 especies; las m

  18. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  19. SMOS brightness data indicate ice thickness hence bedrock topography in east antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate a potential calibration target for spaceborne L-band radiometer systems, a 350 × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the East Antarctica plateau was mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer. Unexpectedly, the area showed significant brightness temperature spatial...... variations, well correlated with bedrock topography, hence ice thickness. Using SMOS data over a poorly known part of Antarctica, ice thickness in this area has been assessed, and an existing bedrock map has been improved....

  20. Influence of Persistent Wind Scour on the Surface Mass Balance of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indrani; Bell, Robin E.; Scambos, Ted A.; Wolovick, Michael; Creyts, Timothy T.; Studinger, Michael; Fearson, Nicholas; Nicolas, Julien P.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; vandenBroeke, Michiel R.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow accumulation over Antarctica is a key constraint for estimates of the Antarctic mass balance, as well as climatic interpretations of ice-core records. Over Antarctica, near-surface winds accelerate down relatively steep surface slopes, eroding and sublimating the snow. This wind scour results in numerous localized regions (Antarctica. The scour zones are persistent because they are controlled by bedrock topography. On the basis of our Dome A observations, we develop an empirical model to predict wind-scour zones across the Antarctic continent and find that these zones are predominantly located in East Antarctica. We estimate that approx. 2.7-6.6% of the surface area of Antarctica has persistent negative net accumulation due to wind scour, which suggests that, across the continent, the snow mass input is overestimated by 11-36.5 Gt /yr in present surface-mass-balance calculations.

  1. Spatial distribution of Salpa thompsoni in the high Antarctic area off Adélie Land, East Antarctica during the austral summer 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Atsushi; Moteki, Masato

    2017-06-01

    The salp Salpa thompsoni has the potential to alter the Southern Ocean ecosystem through competition with krill Euphausia superba. Information on the reproductive status of S. thompsoni in the high Southern Ocean is thus essential to understanding salp population growth and predicting changes in the Southern Ocean ecosystem. We carried out stratified and quantitative sampling from the surface to a depth of 2000 m during the austral summer of 2008 to determine the spatial distribution and population structure of S. thompsoni in the Southern Ocean off Adélie Land. We found two salp species, S. thompsoni and Ihlea racovitzai, with the former being dominant. S. thompsoni was distributed north of the continental slope area, while I. racovitzai was observed in the neritic zone. Mature aggregates and solitary specimens of S. thompsoni were found south of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, suggesting that S. thompsoni is able to complete its life cycle in high Antarctic waters during the austral summer. However, S. thompsoni was sparsely distributed in the continental slope area, and absent south of the Antarctic Slope Front, suggesting that it is less competitive with krill for food in the slope area off Adélie Land, where krill is densely distributed during the austral summer.

  2. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  3. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  4. P-band radar ice sounding in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2012-01-01

    In February 2011, the Polarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder (POLARIS) was flown in Antarctica in order to assess the feasibility of a potential space-based radar ice sounding mission. The campaign has demonstrated that the basal return is detectable in areas with up to 3 km thick cold ice, in a...

  5. My IGY in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Dr Charles Bentley is the A.P. Crary Professor Emeritus of Geophysics, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Bentley joined the Arctic Institute of North America in 1956 to participate in International Geophysical Year (IGY)-related activities in the Antarctic. He wintered over consecutively in 1957 and 1958 at Byrd Station, a station in the interior of West Antarctica that housed 24 men each winter - 12 Navy support people and 12 civilian scientists/technicians. During the austral summers, he also participated in over-snow traverses, first as co-leader, then leader (the other coleader went home after the first year). These traverses consisted of six men and three vehicles, and lasted several months. These traverses covered more than 1609 kilometers (1000 miles) of largely unmapped and unphotographed terrain. During these traverses, connections to Byrd Station were by radio (daily, when the transmission conditions were good enough) and roughly every 2 weeks by resupply flight.

  6. Summary of environmental study carried out by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre during 8th, 9th and 10th summer Indian expeditions to Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Sathe, A.P.; Joshi, P.V.; Balani, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has participated in the 8th, 9th and 10th summer expeditions to Antarctica during 1988-91 period to carry out background radiation survey and to collect representative samples for radioactivity and heavy metal analyses. Spot measurements of ions as well as Radon daughter radionuclides were also carried out during the expeditions. Radon levels as well as heavy metal pollutant concentrations have been found to be quite low in general; however higher levels were observed at places where human activity is concentrated around the landing area as well as the laboratory site. The richness of the shelf waters at Antarctic were also realised through analysis of phytoplankton and zooplankton samples. (author). 25 refs., 5 figs., 26 tabs

  7. Creep deformation and buttressing capacity of damaged ice shelves: theory and application to Larsen C ice shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Borstad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Around the perimeter of Antarctica, much of the ice sheet discharges to the ocean through floating ice shelves. The buttressing provided by ice shelves is critical for modulating the flux of ice into the ocean, and the presently observed thinning of ice shelves is believed to be reducing their buttressing capacity and contributing to the acceleration and thinning of the grounded ice sheet. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role that fractures play in the ability of ice shelves to sustain and transmit buttressing stresses. Here, we present a new framework for quantifying the role that fractures play in the creep deformation and buttressing capacity of ice shelves. We apply principles of continuum damage mechanics to derive a new analytical relation for the creep of an ice shelf that accounts for the softening influence of fractures on longitudinal deformation using a state damage variable. We use this new analytical relation, combined with a temperature calculation for the ice, to partition an inverse method solution for ice shelf rigidity into independent solutions for softening damage and stabilizing backstress. Using this new approach, field and remote sensing data can be utilized to monitor the structural integrity of ice shelves, their ability to buttress the flow of ice at the grounding line, and thus their indirect contribution to ice sheet mass balance and global sea level. We apply this technique to the Larsen C ice shelf using remote sensing and Operation IceBridge data, finding damage in areas with known crevasses and rifts. Backstress is highest near the grounding line and upstream of ice rises, in agreement with patterns observed on other ice shelves. The ice in contact with the Bawden ice rise is weakened by fractures, and additional damage or thinning in this area could diminish the backstress transmitted upstream. We model the consequences for the ice shelf if it loses contact with this small ice rise

  8. Measures Earth System Data Records (ESDR) of Ice Motion in Antarctica: Status, Impact and Future Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.

    2014-12-01

    Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is an extremely useful tool for providing relevant information about the ice sheet ECV: ice vector velocity, grounding line position, and ice front location. Here, we provide an overview of the SAR Earth System Data Records (ESDR) for Antarctica part of MEaSUREs that includes: the first complete map of surface ice vector velocity in Antarctica, a map of grounding line positions around Antarctica, ice velocity time series for selected regions: Ross and Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelves and associated drainage basins, the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica which is the largest contributor to sea level rise from Antarctica and the focus of rapid ice sheet retreat, and Larsen-B and -C ice shelves which is the second largest contribution to sea level rise from Antarctica. Other products include a database of ice shelf boundaries and drainage basins based on ice motion mapping and digital elevation models generated independently. Data continuity is a crucial aspect of this work and a fundamental challenge for the continuation of these products due to the lack of a dedicated interferometric mission on the cryosphere until the SAR mission under consideration between NASA and ISRO is approved. Four SAR missions ceased operations since IPY. CSA's RADARSAT-2 has provided important bridging data between these missions in Greenland and Antarctica. In 2014, ESA launched Sentinel-1a and JAXA launched ALOS-2 PALSAR, for which we will have limited data access. The Polar Space Task Group (PSTG) created by WMO has established a mandate to support cryospheric products from scientific research using international SARs which continues to play an active role in securing key data acquisitions over ice sheets. We will provide an overview of current efforts. This work was conducted at UC Irvine, Department of Earth System Science under a contract with NASA's MEaSUREs program.

  9. Ocean stratification reduces melt rates at the grounding zone of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, C. B.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Marsh, O.; Mikucki, J.; Stanton, T. P.; Hodson, T. O.; Siegfried, M. R.; Powell, R. D.; Christianson, K. A.; King, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean-driven melting of ice shelves is often invoked as the primary mechanism for triggering ice loss from Antarctica. However, due to the difficulty in accessing the sub-ice-shelf ocean cavity, the relationship between ice-shelf melt rates and ocean conditions is poorly understood, particularly near the transition from grounded to floating ice, known as the grounding zone. Here we present the first borehole oceanographic observations from the grounding zone of Antarctica's largest ice shelf. Contrary to predictions that tidal currents near grounding zones should mix the water column, driving high ice-shelf melt rates, we find a stratified sub-ice-shelf water column. The vertical salinity gradient dominates stratification over a weakly unstable vertical temperature gradient; thus, stratification takes the form of a double-diffusive staircase. These conditions limit vertical heat fluxes and lead to low melt rates in the ice-shelf grounding zone. While modern grounding zone melt rates may presently be overestimated in models that assume efficient tidal mixing, the high sensitivity of double-diffusive staircases to ocean freshening and warming suggests future melt rates may be underestimated, biasing projections of global sea-level rise.

  10. Ice shelf thickness change from 2010 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, A.; Shepherd, A.; Gilbert, L.; Muir, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Floating ice shelves fringe 74 % of Antarctica's coastline, providing a direct link between the ice sheet and the surrounding oceans. Over the last 25 years, ice shelves have retreated, thinned, and collapsed catastrophically. While change in the mass of floating ice shelves has only a modest steric impact on the rate of sea-level rise, their loss can affect the mass balance of the grounded ice-sheet by influencing the rate of ice flow inland, due to the buttressing effect. Here we use CryoSat-2 altimetry data to map the detailed pattern of ice shelf thickness change in Antarctica. We exploit the dense spatial sampling and repeat coverage provided by the CryoSat-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometric mode (SARIn) to investigate data acquired between 2010 to the present day. We find that ice shelf thinning rates can exhibit large fluctuations over short time periods, and that the improved spatial resolution of CryoSat-2 enables us to resolve the spatial pattern of thinning with ever greater detail in Antarctica. In the Amundsen Sea, ice shelves at the terminus of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers have thinned at rates in excess of 5 meters per year for more than two decades. We observe the highest rates of basal melting near to the ice sheet grounding line, reinforcing the importance of high resolution datasets. On the Antarctic Peninsula, in contrast to the 3.8 m per decade of thinning observed since 1992, we measure an increase in the surface elevation of the Larsen-C Ice-Shelf during the CryoSat-2 period.

  11. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

  12. Antarctica: Chile’s Claim,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    India in this petition. More recently, Prime Minister Indira Ghandi asserted that in relation with Antarctica, her country is nei- ther expansionist...West Germany 68 Ghandi , Indira, 69 D’Urville, Dumont, 7 Gherritsz, Dirk, 6 Gold deposits, 28, 29. 88 Gonzalez, Ariel. 95 East Germany, 23, 72

  13. Novel Avulaviruses in Penguins, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Víctor; Tapia, Rodrigo; Verdugo, Claudio; Barriga, Gonzalo; Mor, Sunil; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; García, Victoria; Del Río, José; Rodrigues, Pedro; Briceño, Cristóbal; Medina, Rafael A; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    We identified 3 novel and distinct avulaviruses from Gentoo penguins sampled in Antarctica. We isolated these viruses and sequenced their complete genomes; serologic assays demonstrated that the viruses do not have cross-reactivity between them. Our findings suggest that these 3 new viruses represent members of 3 novel avulavirus species.

  14. CEDEX research activities in Antarctica. Aquatic ecosystems in Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, maritime Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, M.; Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Oliva, M.; Alcami, A.; Antoniades, D.; Banon, M.; Fassnacht, S.; Fernandez-Valiente, E.; Galan, L.; Giralt, S.; Granados, I.; Justel, A.; Liu, E. J.; Lopez-Bravo, A.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Rastrojo, A.; Rico, E.; Rochera, C.; Van de Vijver, B.; Velazquez, D.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Vicent, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001 CEDEX has taken part in many Antarctic joint research projects with different institutions from Spain and other countries, developing scientific activities in the International Camp of Byers Peninsular (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). This place was designed as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area (No.126) because the importance and value of its terrestrial and aquatic habitats. It is one of the largest ice-free areas of maritime Antarctica, with the highest diversity of environments and geological, hydrological and biological processes in the whole region, all of them in a pristine state. Byers Peninsula is considered the most significant limnological area in the Antarctic Peninsula region because it hosts a high number of lakes, ponds and streams, with an exceptional fauna and flora diversity, including the most singular, representative or endemic Antarctic species. Furthermore, the lakes sedimentary record is one of the widest and complete archives in Antarctic Peninsula region for the palaeocological and climatic study of the Holocene. Because Byers Peninsula is an Antarctic biodiversity hotspot, and it is located in one of the areas in the Earth where global warming is being more significant, it must be considered as a suitable international reference site for limnetic, terrestrial and coastal studies, and long term monitoring programmes. (Author)

  15. The effects of sub-ice-shelf melting on dense shelf water formation and export in idealized simulations of Antarctic margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gustavo; Stern, Alon; Harrison, Matthew; Sergienko, Olga; Hallberg, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Dense shelf water (DSW) is formed in coastal polynyas around Antarctica as a result of intense cooling and brine rejection. A fraction of this water reaches ice shelves cavities and is modified due to interactions with sub-ice-shelf melt water. This modified water mass contributes to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water, and consequently, influences the large-scale ocean circulation. Here, we investigate the role of sub-ice-shelf melting in the formation and export of DSW using idealized simulations with an isopycnal ocean model (MOM6) coupled with a sea ice model (SIS2) and a thermodynamic active ice shelf. A set of experiments is conducted with variable horizontal grid resolutions (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 km), ice shelf geometries and atmospheric forcing. In all simulations DSW is spontaneously formed in coastal polynyas due to the combined effect of the imposed atmospheric forcing and the ocean state. Our results show that sub-ice-shelf melting can significantly change the rate of dense shelf water outflows, highlighting the importance of this process to correctly represent bottom water formation.

  16. Antarctic Ice Shelf Potentially Stabilized by Export of Meltwater in Surface River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin E.; Chu, Winnie; Kingslake, Jonathan; Das, Indrani; Tedesco, Marco; Tinto, Kirsty J.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Boghosian, Alexandra; Lee, Won Sang

    2017-01-01

    Meltwater stored in ponds and crevasses can weaken and fracture ice shelves, triggering their rapid disintegration. This ice-shelf collapse results in an increased flux of ice from adjacent glaciers and ice streams, thereby raising sea level globally. However, surface rivers forming on ice shelves could potentially export stored meltwater and prevent its destructive effects. Here we present evidence for persistent active drainage networks-interconnected streams, ponds and rivers-on the Nansen Ice Shelf in Antarctica that export a large fraction of the ice shelf's meltwater into the ocean. We find that active drainage has exported water off the ice surface through waterfalls and dolines for more than a century. The surface river terminates in a 130-metre-wide waterfall that can export the entire annual surface melt over the course of seven days. During warmer melt seasons, these drainage networks adapt to changing environmental conditions by remaining active for longer and exporting more water. Similar networks are present on the ice shelf in front of Petermann Glacier, Greenland, but other systems, such as on the Larsen C and Amery Ice Shelves, retain surface water at present. The underlying reasons for export versus retention remain unclear. Nonetheless our results suggest that, in a future warming climate, surface rivers could export melt off the large ice shelves surrounding Antarctica-contrary to present Antarctic ice-sheet models, which assume that meltwater is stored on the ice surface where it triggers ice-shelf disintegration.

  17. Spatial patterning and persistence of meltwater on ice shelves and the implications for ice shelf collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, A.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Tsai, V. C.; Shean, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Observations indicate that for at least the last few decades, there has been extensive surface melting over ice shelves in Antarctica. Meltwater either collects in ponds or flows over the surface in streams that discharge to the ocean. The spatial organization and persistence of this meltwater can have a significant influence on the thermomechanical ice shelf state through albedo, turbulent heat exchange, refreezing and hydrofracture. However, as more meltwater forms on Antarctic ice shelves, there is no general theory that predicts the spatial pattern of meltwater ponded on the ice shelf surface and the volume of meltwater runoff to the ocean. Here, we show how dynamical systems tools, such as cellular automata, can be used to calculate the expected distribution of meltwater on ice shelf surfaces. These tools can also be used to explore how ice shelf surface morphology is modified by meltwater albedo and turbulent heating feedbacks. We apply these numerical approaches to new high-resolution digital elevation models for ice shelves in West Antarctica. Additionally, we survey the prospects of developing general rules of meltwater patterning by applying scaling approaches from percolation theory. We conclude by discussing the types of ice shelves that are more likely to cause ice shelf collapse through surface melt-induced hydrofracture or thermomechanical weakening.

  18. Human Activity and Pollution in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, H.-F.; Shirsat, S. V.; Podzun, R.

    2009-04-01

    A regional climate chemistry model is used to determine the level of pollution of the Antarctic continent due to anthropogenic and natural emission of sulphur species. Based on an emission inventory for the year 2004/2005 including emissions from energy use and ground traffic at and between Antarctic research stations, flight activity, tourist and scientific ship operations, and emissions from the Mt. Erebus volcano, atmospheric concentration and deposition rates of sulphur species and black carbon were simulated at 0.5 degree resolution for the whole Antarctic continent. The biggest anthropogenic source of pollution is ship operations. These concentrate near the Antarctic Peninsula and close to the big scientific stations at Queen Maud Land and in the Ross sea area. The prevailing winds guarantee that most of the anthropogenic emissions from sources near the coast will be blown to lower latitudes and do not affect the continent. While atmospheric concentrations over vast areas remain extremely low, in some places locally concentrations and deposition rates are reached that may be detectable by in-situ measurements and give rise to concern. Especially at the Peninsula atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of sulphur and soot are dominated by ship emissions. The largest part of shipping activity in this region is from tourist ships, a strongly increasing business. The by far biggest source of sulphur species in Antarctica is the Mt. Erebus volcano. It is also the only source that remains equally strong in polar winter. However, due to its high altitude and the long life time of SO2, especially in winter resulting in long range transport and dilution, Erebus emissions contribute relatively little to deposition of sulphur in the most anthropogenic polluted areas while they dominate the sulphur deposition in central Antarctica.

  19. The weeding handbook a shelf-by-shelf guide

    CERN Document Server

    Vnuk, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    "No! We can't rid of that!" Vnuk, author of the popular "Weeding Tips" column on Booklist Online, is here to show you that yes, you can. A library is an ever-changing organism; when done the right way, weeding helps a library thrive by focusing its resources on those parts of the collection that are the most useful to its users. Her handbook takes the guesswork out of this delicate but necessary process, giving public and school library staff the knowledge and the confidence to effectively weed any collection, of any size. Going through the proverbial stacks shelf by shelf, Vnuk: Explains why weeding is important for a healthy library, demonstrating that a vibrant collection leads to robust circulation, which in turn affects library budgets Walks readers through a library's shelves by Dewey area, with recommended weeding criteria and call-outs in each area for the different considerations of large collections and smaller collections Features a chapter addressing reference, media, magazines and newspapers, e-b...

  20. The Antarctica component of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) based on GPS positioning, exposure age dating of ice thicknesses, and relative sea level histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Moore, Angelyn W.

    2014-07-01

    A new model of the deglaciation history of Antarctica over the past 25 kyr has been developed, which we refer to herein as ICE-6G_C (VM5a). This revision of its predecessor ICE-5G (VM2) has been constrained to fit all available geological and geodetic observations, consisting of: (1) the present day uplift rates at 42 sites estimated from GPS measurements, (2) ice thickness change at 62 locations estimated from exposure-age dating, (3) Holocene relative sea level histories from 12 locations estimated on the basis of radiocarbon dating and (4) age of the onset of marine sedimentation at nine locations along the Antarctic shelf also estimated on the basis of 14C dating. Our new model fits the totality of these data well. An additional nine GPS-determined site velocities are also estimated for locations known to be influenced by modern ice loss from the Pine Island Bay and Northern Antarctic Peninsula regions. At the 42 locations not influenced by modern ice loss, the quality of the fit of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5A) is characterized by a weighted root mean square residual of 0.9 mm yr-1. The Southern Antarctic Peninsula is inferred to be rising at 2 mm yr-1, requiring there to be less Holocene ice loss there than in the prior model ICE-5G (VM2). The East Antarctica coast is rising at approximately 1 mm yr-1, requiring ice loss from this region to have been small since Last Glacial Maximum. The Ellsworth Mountains, at the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, are inferred to be rising at 5-8 mm yr-1, indicating large ice loss from this area during deglaciation that is poorly sampled by geological data. Horizontal deformation of the Antarctic Plate is minor with two exceptions. First, O'Higgins, at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is moving southeast at a significant 2 mm yr-1 relative to the Antarctic Plate. Secondly, the margins of the Ronne and Ross Ice Shelves are moving horizontally away from the shelf centres at an approximate rate of 0.8 mm yr-1, in

  1. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  2. LiDAR in extreme environment: surveying in Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, D.; Pierattini, S.; Bianchi Fasani, G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed under the patronage of the Italian National Research Programme in Antarctica (PNRA) with the aim to realize a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the moraine named "Boulder Clay" which insists approximately 7 km far from the Italian Research Base "Mario Zucchelli Station" in the Terra Nova Bay area. The DEM will be included in the project for the construction of two runways to be used as support facilities for the scientific research campaigns wh...

  3. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye-area cosmetics is more limited than for other products. Because of repeated microbial exposure during use by the consumer and the risk of eye infections, some industry experts recommend replacing mascara 3 months after purchase. ...

  4. Distribution and origin of sediments on the northern Sunda Shelf, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Guo; Wong, H. K.; Luo, You-Lang; Liang, Zhi-Rong

    1999-03-01

    Seventy-seven surface sediment samples and core samples from the outer Sunda Shelf were analyzed and a number of seismic profiles of the shelf were interpreted. The bottom sediments could be divided into six types: terrigenous sand, biogenic sand, silt-sand, clay-silt-sand, clayey silt and coral reef detritus. Our seismic data showed a thick, prograding Pleistocene deltaic sequence near the shelf-break and a thin Holocene sedimentary layer on the outer shelf. Eleven thermoluminescence (TL) ages were determined. The oldest relict sediments were derived from Late Pleistocene deposits. Based on sediment types, ages, and origins, five sedimentary areas were identified: area of modern Mekong sediments; insular shelf area receiving modern sediments from small Borneo rivers; shelf area near the Natuna-Anambas islands in the southeastern Gulf of Thailand Basin off the Malay Peninsula; area of relict sediments on the outer shelf north of the Natuna Islands, and typical coral reefs and detritus sediments.

  5. The contents and distributions of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Usnea antarctica lichens from Solorina Valley, James Ross Island (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvěřina, Ondřej; Coufalík, Pavel; Barták, Miloš; Petrov, Michal; Komárek, Josef

    2017-12-11

    Lichens are efficient and cost-effective biomonitors of the environment. Their geographic distribution together with their slow growth rate enable investigation of the deposition patterns of various elements and substances. In this research, levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in Usnea antarctica lichens in the area of James Ross Island, Antarctica, were investigated. The lichens were microwave-digested, and the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace and a direct mercury analyzer. Median total contents of Cd, Hg, and Pb were 0.04, 0.47, and 1.6 mg/kg in whole lichens, respectively. The bottom-up distributions of these metals in the fruticose lichen thalli were investigated, and it was revealed that the accumulation patterns for mercury and lead were opposite to that for cadmium. The probable reason for this phenomenon may lie in the inner structure of thalli. The total contents of metals were comparable with those published for other unpolluted areas of maritime Antarctica. However, this finding was not expected for mercury, since the sampling locality was close to an area with some of the highest mercury contents published for Antarctic lichens. In short, lichens proved their usability as biological monitors, even in harsh conditions. However, the findings emphasize the need to take into account the distributions of elements both in the environment and in the lichen itself.

  6. Rb/Sr dating of rock samples from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Awan, M.A.; Mehjabeen, A.; Jabeen, N.; Majid, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radioactivity in 1896 by Becquerel, the phenomenon was applied to geochronology. From 1902 onwards, rapid advances were made in this field of science. Using radiometric techniques of Rb/Sr the whole rock granitic pegmatite samples from two localities in the North Eastern Antarctica have been dated. The rock samples have yielded Rb/Sr ages around 200 nd 173 million year. The ages around 200 million year have been correlated to the orogenic/epeirogenic activities associated with the breaking up of the Pangaea which led to the dispersion of the continents to form Gondwanaland and Laurasia which subsequently gave rise to the present day configuration of the globe. The younger age of 173 million year corresponds to Jurassic dole rites from Western queens Maud Land and other areas of Antarctica. (author)

  7. Changes in flow of Crosson and Dotson ice shelves, West Antarctica, in response to elevated melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilien, David A.; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Benjamin; Shean, David E.

    2018-04-01

    Crosson and Dotson ice shelves are two of the most rapidly changing outlets in West Antarctica, displaying both significant thinning and grounding-line retreat in recent decades. We used remotely sensed measurements of velocity and ice geometry to investigate the processes controlling their changes in speed and grounding-line position over the past 20 years. We combined these observations with inverse modeling of the viscosity of the ice shelves to understand how weakening of the shelves affected this speedup. These ice shelves have lost mass continuously since the 1990s, and we find that this loss results from increasing melt beneath both shelves and the increasing speed of Crosson. High melt rates persisted over the period covered by our observations (1996-2014), with the highest rates beneath areas that ungrounded during this time. Grounding-line flux exceeded basin-wide accumulation by about a factor of 2 throughout the study period, consistent with earlier studies, resulting in significant loss of grounded as well as floating ice. The near doubling of Crosson's speed in some areas during this time is likely the result of weakening of its margins and retreat of its grounding line. This speedup contrasts with Dotson, which has maintained its speed despite increasingly high melt rates near its grounding line, likely a result of the sustained competency of the shelf. Our results indicate that changes to melt rates began before 1996 and suggest that observed increases in melt in the 2000s compounded an ongoing retreat of this system. Advection of a channel along Dotson, as well as the grounding-line position of Kohler Glacier, suggests that Dotson experienced a change in flow around the 1970s, which may be the initial cause of its continuing retreat.

  8. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C; Daniels, Chris J; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    shelf break and oceanic stations in the study area.

  9. Direct gravimetric determination of aerosol mass concentration in central antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In Antarctica, experimental difficulties due to extreme conditions have meant that aerosol mass has rarely been measured directly by gravimetry, and only in coastal areas where concentrations were in the range of 1-7 μg m(-3). The present work reports on a careful differential weighing methodology carried out for the first time on the plateau of central Antarctica (Dome C, East Antarctica). To solve problems of accurate aerosol mass measurements, a climatic room was used for conditioning and weighing filters. Measurements were carried out in long stages of several hours of readings with automatic recording of temperature/humidity and mass. This experimental scheme allowed us to sample from all the measurements (up to 2000) carried out before and after exposure, those which were recorded under the most stable humidity conditions and, even more importantly, as close to each other as possible. The automatic reading of the mass allowed us in any case to obtain hundreds of measurements from which to calculate average values with uncertainties sufficiently low to meet the requirements of the differential weighing procedure (±0.2 mg in filter weighing, between ±7% and ±16% both in aerosol mass and concentration measurements). The results show that the average summer aerosol mass concentration (aerodynamic size ≤10 μm) in central Antarctica is about 0.1 μg m(-3), i.e., about 1/10 of that of coastal Antarctic areas. The concentration increases by about 4-5 times at a site very close to the station.

  10. Seasonal variation of nutrients and hydrological conditions in the State Marine Park of Laje de Santos (SMPLS and adjacent continental shelf areas (South Atlantic Ocean - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete de Santis Braga

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine parks constitute important areas for the conservation of marine life and the genetic heritage around the world. The creation of such marine parks must be accompanied by careful measures to guarantee the coexistence of natural biota and human activities in these systems. The State Marine Park of Laje de Santos (SMPLS is so close to an industrial pole and urban area that its creation and maintenance is an example for humanity. However, no program has yet been installed for the monitoring of its biotic and abiotic water parameters. Thus, the objective of this study is to provide hydrological and hydrochemical parameters with emphasis on dissolved nutrients to establish a starting point for the monitoring of these waters. The presence of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW in the marine park during the spring and summer sampling periods was evidenced by the observation of low temperatures ( 7.00 µmol L-1, while the concentration of N-ammonium (maximum 9.86 µmol L-1 demonstrated a rapid regeneration of the organic matter, mainly in the euphotic zone. Analysis of the data from summer periods revealed an annual difference, showing January 2014 to be drier than January 2015, which influenced the availability of some nutrients and the standard distribution of hydrochemical parameters in this region. The results of the distribution of hydrochemical parameters in the marine park confirms the preserved conditions of the seawater around the Laje de Santos, demonstrated by the excellent water quality, concluding the need to implant monitoring actions based on these reference data to preserve this important reserve of marine life.

  11. Distributions of larval and juvenile/adult stages of the Antarctic myctophid fish, Electrona antarctica, off Wilkes Land in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, Masato; Fujii, Kentaro; Amakasu, Kazuo; Shimada, Keishi; Tanimura, Atsushi; Odate, Tsuneo

    2017-06-01

    Myctophid fish are an important component of the Southern Ocean food web because of their very high biomass. This study investigated the spatial distributions of larval and juvenile/adult stages of the Antarctic myctophid Electrona antarctica. Fish were sampled in January 2011 and 2012 on a transect along 140°E and in January 2013 along 110°E using two different opening/closing net systems. In total, 1075 specimens of E. antarctica were collected: 948 larvae, 127 juveniles/adults, and 2 in the transformation stage. Most larvae were collected at 5-200 m depth, with diel vertical migration (DVM) not apparent. Larvae were mainly distributed in the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (-1.5 °C-2.0 °C). By contrast, an analysis of the echogram at 38 kHz and discrete depth samples implied that juveniles/adults undertook DVM except in the continental slope area (65.5°S). As the distribution of krill is limited to the cold water mass (<-1.5 °C) along the continental slope, E. antarctica and krill populations are spatially separated off Wilkes Land during summer. According to the previously estimated larval period of 30-47 days, E. antarctica may spawn in late November to December in the marginal ice zone or near the sea ice edge. This study suggests that the environment related to sea ice provides a nursery ground for early stage larvae of E. antarctica.

  12. Long-Term Variability of Surface Albedo and Its Correlation with Climatic Variables over Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The cryosphere is an essential part of the earth system for understanding climate change. Components of the cryosphere, such as ice sheets and sea ice, are generally decreasing over time. However, previous studies have indicated differing trends between the Antarctic and the Arctic. The South Pole also shows internal differences in trends. These phenomena indicate the importance of continuous observation of the Polar Regions. Albedo is a main indicator for analyzing Antarctic climate change and is an important variable with regard to the radiation budget because it can provide positive feedback on polar warming and is related to net radiation and atmospheric heating in the mainly snow- and ice-covered Antarctic. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed long-term temporal and spatial variability of albedo and investigated the interrelationships between albedo and climatic variables over Antarctica. We used broadband surface albedo data from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring and data for several climatic variables such as temperature and Antarctic oscillation index (AAO during the period of 1983 to 2009. Time series analysis and correlation analysis were performed through linear regression using albedo and climatic variables. The results of this research indicated that albedo shows two trends, west trend and an east trend, over Antarctica. Most of the western side of Antarctica showed a negative trend of albedo (about −0.0007 to −0.0015 year−1, but the other side showed a positive trend (about 0.0006 year−1. In addition, albedo and surface temperature had a negative correlation, but this relationship was weaker in west Antarctica than in east Antarctica. The correlation between albedo and AAO revealed different relationships in the two regions; west Antarctica had a negative correlation and east Antarctica showed a positive correlation. In addition, the correlation between albedo and AAO was weaker in the west. This

  13. Magnetic anomalies in the Cosmonauts Sea, off East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Y.; Hanyu, T.; Fujii, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of magnetic anomaly lineations and fracture zone trends in the Southern Indian Ocean, are vital to understanding the breakup of Gondwana. However, the magnetic spreading anomalies and fracture zones are not clear in the Southern Indian Ocean. Magnetic anomaly lineations in the Cosmonauts Sea, off East Antarctica, are key to elucidation of separation between Sri Lanka/India and Antarctica. No obvious magnetic anomaly lineations are observed from a Japanese/German aerogeophysical survey in the Cosmonauts Sea, and this area is considered to be created by seafloor spreading during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. Vector magnetic anomaly measurements have been conducted on board the Icebreaker Shirase mainly to understand the process of Gondwana fragmentation in the Indian Ocean. Magnetic boundary strikes are derived from vector magnetic anomalies obtained in the Cosmonauts Sea. NE-SW trending magnetic boundary strikes are mainly observed along the several NW-SE oriented observation lines with magnetic anomaly amplitudes of about 200 nT. These NE-SW trending magnetic boundary strikes possibly indicate M-series magnetic anomalies that can not be detected from the aerogeophysical survey with nearly N-S observation lines. We will discuss the magnetic spreading anomalies and breakup process between Sri Lanka/India and Antarctica in the Cosmonauts Sea.

  14. How committed are we to monitoring human impacts in Antarctica?

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Under the Antarctic Treaty System, environmental monitoring is a legal obligation for signatory nations and an essential tool for managers attempting to minimize local human impacts, but is it given the importance it merits? Antarctica is a vast frozen continent with an area around 1.5 times that of Europe (14 000 000 km2), but the majority of its terrestrial life is found on multiple outcrops or 'islands' of ice-free coastal ground, with a combined area of ~6000 km2, equivalent to four t...

  15. A two-stage evolution of Visakhapatnam-Paradip Shelf, east coast of India, from magnetic studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    A detailed analysis of bathymetry and magnetic data of Visakhapatnam-Paradip shelf, east coast of India revealed three major structural lineaments over the shelf/slope of the area. Models derived from the anomalies associated with the trends...

  16. Optical-televiewer-based identification and characterization of material facies associated with an Antarctic ice-shelf rift

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, B.; Tison, J.-L.; Pattyn, F.; Dierckx, M.; Boereboom, T.; Samyn, D.

    2012-01-01

    We have drilled 13 boreholes within and around a through-cutting rift on the (unofficially named) Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. Logging by optical televiewer (OPTV) combined with core inspection has resulted in the identification and characterization of several material facies. Outside the rift, OPTV-imaged annual layering indicates ~150 years of accumulation over the 66m length of one of the boreholes. Luminosity analysis of this image also reveals the presence of numerous dark me...

  17. Biosecurity on thin ice in Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulme, P. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Winter, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 336, č. 6085 (2012), s. 1101-1102 ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * Antarctica * management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 31.027, year: 2012

  18. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Rimondino, Clara; Torre, Luciana; Sahade, Ricardo Jose; Tatian, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo), South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verr...

  19. Wind profiler installed in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsley, B. B.; Carey, J.; Woodman, R. F.; Sarango, M.; Urbina, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ragaini, E.

    A VHF (50 MHz) wind profiler was installed in Antarctica at the Peruvian Base “Machu Picchu” on King George Island from January 21 to 26. The wind profiler will provide a first look at atmospheric dynamics over the region.The profiler—the first of its kind in Antarctica—is a National Science Foundationsponsored cooperative project of the University of Colorado, the Geophysical Institute of Peru, the University of Piura (Peru), and the Peruvian Navy. This venture was also greatly facilitated by Peru's Comision Nacional de Asuntos Antartidos and Consejo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnologia, with additional logis tics support provided by the Argentinean Navy and the Uruguayan Air Force.

  20. The exchange of inorganic carbon on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is an area that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds and resulting cross-shelf Ekman transport. Downwelling carries inorganic carbon and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world oceans. Upwelling carries water high in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of inorganic carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore and cross-shelf transport of inorganic carbon is quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf is analyzed and the resulting influence on the carbonate system, including the saturation state of aragonite and pH levels, is investigated. TA and δ18O are used to examine water mass distributions in the study area and analyze the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key in order to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and to provide a basis for understanding how its role will respond to the aforementioned changes in the regional marine system.

  1. New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Expedition 313 Scientists; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    to key horizons in wells drilled into the adjacent coastal plain suggest the clinoform structures investigated during Expedition 313 were deposited during times of oscillations in global sea level; however, this needs to be determined with much greater certainty. The age, lithofacies, and core-log......Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 to the New Jersey Shallow Shelf off the east coast of the United States is the third IODP expedition to use a mission-specific platform. It was conducted by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO......) between 30 April and 17 July 2009, with additional support from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). There were three objectives: (1) date late Paleogene–Neogene depositional sequences and compare ages of unconformable surfaces that divide these sequences with times of sea...

  2. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  3. Characterization of marine sediments from Antarctica using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib-ur-Rehman; Wasim, M.; Ahmad, S.

    1995-01-01

    In present investigations 17 major, minor ad trace elements were determined by XRF in a number of sea bottom sediment samples collected from the sea in the vicinity of Jinnah Station in Antarctica. Full listing of results is presented and discussed as well. The evaluation of precision and accuracy was performed with the use of IAEA SRM (IAEA-SD-M2) and the obtained results are in good agreement with the literature values. In order to find correlation and similarities among the sediment samples. The analytical data was submitted to statistical treatment and subsequently for geochemical interpretation Antarctica is considered to be one of the most uncontaminated areas of the world with respect to materials deriving from man activities or migration from other continents. Environmental samples from Antarctica are thus only representative of events of geological history of the continent to project the degree of pollution influx in future profile. (author) 5 tabs

  4. A century of oceanographic and fisheries exploration on the continental shelf off Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelescu, V.; Sánchez, R. P.

    1995-03-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the main contributions, both local and international, to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences resulting from exploratory cruises carried out on the continental shelf off Argentina over the last 100 years. The end of the 19th century is chosen as a starting point for this analysis as it marks the beginning of active marine research by Argentinian scientists and an accumulation of information on Antarctic and Subantarctic organisms in foreign journals. Mention is also made of previous contributions derived from the classic expeditions and global circumnavigational voyages during the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the aims of those were not always strictly oceanographic, they rendered significant information to this field of knowledge. In the early years, references arose mainly from the particular geographic situation of the Argentinian shelf, a necessary passage in the navigation routes to the Pacific Ocean, and later on the way to Antarctica. Sources of information are divided into four categories: (a) foreign scientific projects in the area; (b) investigation by Argentinian scientists and research vessels; (c) joint projects between Argentinian and foreign institutions; and (d) contributions from sources other than oceanographic cruises (commercial navigation, maritime weather reports, satellite images, etc.). The analysis includes an updated and classified bibliographical list of the main contributions to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences derived from those sources, published either in international or local journals or appearing as technical and internal reports. The motivations, objectives and main achievements of foreign surveys and programmes in the area and their impact on local scientific progress are discussed. The early sixties mark a turning point in the evolution of international research in the area. The creation of biological stations along the Argentinian coast, and the support given to

  5. Macrozooplankton community structure off East Antarctica (80 150°E) during the Austral summer of 1995/1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, G. W.; Schultz, M. B.; Kitchener, J. A.; Cochran, T. G.; Richards, K.

    2000-08-01

    Zooplankton data from routine 0-200 m oblique trawls and targeted trawls were analysed using cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling to define the communities in Eastern Antarctica (80-150°E), their distribution patterns, indicator species, and species affinities. Three communities were defined based on routine trawls. The Main Oceanic Community comprising herbivorous copepods, chaetognaths, and the euphausiid Thysanoessa macrura dominated the area west of 120°E. The area east of 120°E was dominated by Salpa thompsoni. The third community located in the neritic zone was dominated by Euphausia crystallorophias. Antarctic krill Euphausia superba did not form a distinct community in its own right, unlike previous observations in Prydz Bay. Krill were distributed throughout most of the survey area but generally in higher abundances towards the shelf break. Overall, krill abundance was low compared with previous net surveys in Prydz Bay. Three main types of assemblages were identified based on target trawls. The first group was dominated by krill (mean 1149 individuals per 1000 m 3) which represented >99% of Group 1 catches in terms of numbers and biomass. Group 2 comprised the bulk of target trawls and comprised a wide diversity of species typical of the main oceanic community, with a mean abundance approximately half of that observed in the routine trawls. The third group comprised trawls in the neritic zone dominated by E. crystallorophias. No salp-dominated aggregation was found. While E. superba did not dominate a distinct community geographically as seen in previous Prydz Bay surveys, it did dominate discrete layers or aggregations, showing that both horizontal and vertical separation of communities exist.

  6. Regional geochemical baselines for Portuguese shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil-Homens, M.; Stevens, R.L.; Cato, I.; Abrantes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from the DGM-INETI archive data set have been examined for sediments collected during the 1970s from 267 sites on the Portuguese shelf. Due to the differences in the oceanographic and sedimentological settings between western and Algarve coasts, the archive data set is split in two segments. For both shelf segments, regional geochemical baselines (RGB) are defined using aluminium as a reference element. Seabed samples recovered in 2002 from four distinct areas of the Portuguese shelf are superimposed on these models to identify and compare possible metal enrichments relative to the natural distribution. Metal enrichments associated with anthropogenic influences are identified in three samples collected nearby the Tejo River and are characterised by the highest enrichment factors (EF; EF Pb Zn < 4). EF values close to 1 suggest a largely natural origin for metal distributions in sediments from the other areas included in the study. - Background metal concentrations and their natural variability must be established before assessing anthropogenic impacts

  7. Evaluation of Ice sheet evolution and coastline changes from 1960s in Amery Ice Shelf using multi-source remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, G.; Ye, W.; Scaioni, M.; Liu, S.; Feng, T.; Liu, Y.; Tong, X.; Li, R.

    2013-12-01

    Global change is one of the major challenges that all the nations are commonly facing, and the Antarctica ice sheet changes have been playing a critical role in the global change research field during the past years. Long time-series of ice sheet observations in Antarctica would contribute to the quantitative evaluation and precise prediction of the effects on global change induced by the ice sheet, of which the remote sensing technology would make critical contributions. As the biggest ice shelf and one of the dominant drainage systems in East Antarctic, the Amery Ice Shelf has been making significant contributions to the mass balance of the Antarctic. Study of Amery Ice shelf changes would advance the understanding of Antarctic ice shelf evolution as well as the overall mass balance. At the same time, as one of the important indicators of Antarctica ice sheet characteristics, coastlines that can be detected from remote sensing imagery can help reveal the nature of the changes of ice sheet evolution. Most of the scientific research on Antarctica with satellite remote sensing dated from 1970s after LANDSAT satellite was brought into operation. It was the declassification of the cold war satellite reconnaissance photographs in 1995, known as Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photograph (DISP) that provided a direct overall view of the Antarctica ice-sheet's configuration in 1960s, greatly extending the time span of Antarctica surface observations. This paper will present the evaluation of ice-sheet evolution and coastline changes in Amery Ice Shelf from 1960s, by using multi-source remote sensing images including the DISP images and the modern optical satellite images. The DISP images scanned from negatives were first interior-oriented with the associated parameters, and then bundle block adjustment technology was employed based on the tie points and control points, to derive the mosaic image of the research region. Experimental results of coastlines generated

  8. Carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight to nineteen ethanol-soluble carbohydrate components were identified in vegetative tissues of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica. The analysed carbohydrates included: monosaccharides, cyclitols, galactosyl cyclitols, raffinose family oligosaccharides, lichnose family oligosaccharides, kestose family oligosaccharides. The analysed vegetative tissues accumulated from 447 to 139 mg/g d.m. soluble carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis, Deschampsia antarctica respectively. The raffinose family oligosaccharides constituted 53.3% in Colobanthus quitensis of the identified soluble carbohydrate component pool. Vegetative tissues accumulated starch in Colobanthus quitensis 20.6 mg/g d.m. and 261.6 mg/g d.m. in Deschampsia antarctica. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative part of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica revealed the presence of various ergastic materials in intercellular spaces, cell walls and protoplasts. Various parts of these plants contain insoluble, PAS positive polysaccharides in intercellular spaces and in cell walls. Chloroplasts of analysed tissues contained starch. Less starch was visible in young, growing parts of shoots of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica, more starch appears in mature, differentiated parts.

  9. Magmatism and sedimentation in an area in the Continental Shelf of Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the Upper Cretaceous - Tertiary interval; Magmatismo e sedimentacao em uma area na Plataforma Continental de Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no intervalo Cretaceo Superior - Terciario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oreiro, Sergio Goulart [PETROBRAS S.A., Santos, SP (Brazil). E e P. Ativo de Exploracao Santos - Polo Sul], E-mail: oreiro@petrobras.com.br

    2005-11-15

    The Continental Shelf of the Cabo Frio Area shows unique features in its tectono-sedimentary evolution when compared to the other areas of the Campos and Santos basins. The presence of a regular pattern of antithetic faults in the basement and in the sin-rift and post-rift sedimentary sections, are some of these features. In addition, the area shows important magmatic events in the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences, which climax took place in the earliest portion of the Middle Eocene. The description of these magmatic events and their influence in the post-rift sedimentation is the main objective of this paper. The analyses of seismic reflection and well log data, in the work area, points to a set of diagnostic features that can lead to the identification of magmatic events and the distinction of intrusive from extrusive rocks, as well as their intercalations with epiclastic sedimentary sequences. Volcanic edifices have preserved their conical shapes when they were formed under submarine conditions; under subaereal conditions, they show irregular shapes due to erosion. In this way, these observations indicate the paleobathymetry for the time of the formation of these edifices. In the case of the work area, the integration of the analyzed data indicates that extrusive events are more widespread than intrusive events. The sedimentary pattern of the work area is similar to that of the Campos Basin. The sedimentary sequences that overlap this volcano-sedimentary section are not directly related to the magmatic pulses in the area; however, they affected the palaeo-relief of the sea floor, which controlled turbiditic deposition. (author)

  10. Anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Richard B; Thatje, Sven; McClintock, James B; Hughes, Kevin A

    2011-03-01

    Antarctica is the most isolated continent on Earth, but it has not escaped the negative impacts of human activity. The unique marine ecosystems of Antarctica and their endemic faunas are affected on local and regional scales by overharvesting, pollution, and the introduction of alien species. Global climate change is also having deleterious impacts: rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification already threaten benthic and pelagic food webs. The Antarctic Treaty System can address local- to regional-scale impacts, but it does not have purview over the global problems that impinge on Antarctica, such as emissions of greenhouse gases. Failure to address human impacts simultaneously at all scales will lead to the degradation of Antarctic marine ecosystems and the homogenization of their composition, structure, and processes with marine ecosystems elsewhere. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA): A Cutting-Edge Way for Students and Teachers to Learn about Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian; Bindschadler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    By studying Antarctica via satellite and through ground-truthing research, we can learn where the ice is melting and why. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), a new and cutting-edge way for scientists, researchers, educators, students, and the public to look at Antarctica, supports this research and allows for unprecedented views of our…

  12. Quantifying the Jakobshavn Effect: Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, compared to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T.; Sargent, A.; Fastook, J.; Purdon, K.; Li, J.; Yan, J.-B.; Gogineni, S.

    2014-04-01

    The Jakobshavn Effect is a series of positive feedback mechanisms that was first observed on Jakobshavn Isbrae, which drains the west-central part of the Greenland Ice Sheet and enters Jakobshavn Isfjord at 69°10'. These mechanisms fall into two categories, reductions of ice-bed coupling beneath an ice stream due to surface meltwater reaching the bed, and reductions in ice-shelf buttressing beyond an ice stream due to disintegration of a laterally confined and locally pinned ice shelf. These uncoupling and unbuttressing mechanisms have recently taken place for Byrd Glacier in Antarctica and Jakobshavn Isbrae in Greenland, respectively. For Byrd Glacier, no surface meltwater reaches the bed. That water is supplied by drainage of two large subglacial lakes where East Antarctic ice converges strongly on Byrd Glacier. Results from modeling both mechanisms are presented here. We find that the Jakobshavn Effect is not active for Byrd Glacier, but is active for Jakobshavn Isbrae, at least for now. Our treatment is holistic in the sense it provides continuity from sheet flow to stream flow to shelf flow. It relies primarily on a force balance, so our results cannot be used to predict long-term behavior of these ice streams. The treatment uses geometrical representations of gravitational and resisting forces that provide a visual understanding of these forces, without involving partial differential equations and continuum mechanics. The Jakobshavn Effect was proposed to facilitate terminations of glaciation cycles during the Quaternary Ice Age by collapsing marine parts of ice sheets. This is unlikely for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, based on our results for Byrd Glacier and Jakobshavn Isbrae, without drastic climate warming in high polar latitudes. Warming would affect other Antarctic ice streams already weakly buttressed or unbuttressed by an ice shelf. Ross Ice Shelf would still protect Byrd Glacier.

  13. Weathering process in Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamaru, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Oiwane, H.; Miura, M.; Okuno, J.; Hayakawa, H.

    2016-12-01

    Weathering process under the hyper-arid and hypothermal environment is a key to understand the geomorphogic process and landscape evolution in Antarctica and on Mars. A nunber of studies have focused on weathering process of basaltic rocks in Antarctica, however, the nature of the weathering process of plutonic type rock, a common rock type on the Earth, have been less focused and remain unclear. Here, we report the physical/chemical weathering process of the granitic rocks obtained from Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica based on a multiplicity of petrological approaches. Loss on Ignition (LOI) and major element composition of the crust and core of the rock samples indicate that chemical weathering process in this area seems to be very limited. The microscopic observations and laser-Raman micro spectroscopy for thin sections from the crust and core indicate that goethite grains are formed mainly in the vein around the crust, which is consistent with the higher Fe3+/Fe2+ contrast from the core to crust. A negative correlation between the rock hardness and color strength index (CSI) values also indicate that crust of rock samples tend to less hard than core due to cracking of the rock samples and following goethite formation. On the other hand, EPMA analysis indicates that original Fe-Ti oxide grains in the core of rock samples are damaged by weathering, and altered to hematite, and to non-stoichiometric Fe-Ti compound associated with ilmenite grans in case of the higher relative height samples. These reveal that the weathering process of the plutonic rocks under the hyper-cold and hypothermal environment are mainly controlled by oxidation, including iron hydroxide formation in the veins formed by mechanical distraction, and Fe-Ti oxide alteration in rock interior.

  14. Acting Antarctica: science on stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Piera; Tizzoni, Paola; Pierro, Luigia

    2016-04-01

    Key-words: Polar science, Earth science, Theatre, Hands on activities The legendary Antarctic Expedition of sir E. Shackleton and his crew of 27 aboard the Endurance (1914/16) trapped in the Antarctic ice has become the starting point to learn about Polar Science and Climate Change. While the students were involved into this incredible adventure by the astonishing images of the Australian photographer Frank Hurley (who joined the crew), they discovered the world in which this story happened. Students were then involved in hands-on activities and role plays and have become the writers of the play "Uomini a scienza ai confini del mondo". They act the story of Shackelton's expedition and they tell at the same time to the audience about ice pack, ice cores and their role in understanding the past of the climate, physical and geographical characteristic of polar regions, thermal phenomena related to adaptations of polar animals, solar radiation at different latitude, day/night duration. The theater was the place to "stage" some scientific experiments and to explain the current research carried out in polar regions and their importance in climate change studies and to stress some similarities between Antarctica and space. The project was carried out from teachers of science, letters and geography and was born in collaboration with the "Piccolo Teatro di Milano" and the association "Science Under 18" with the support of a professional actor and director and was played for other schools at "EXPO 2015" in Milano (Italy). In our opinion drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills. To be able to write and to act, students need a deep understanding of contents. Arts, including theatre, are a good key to involve emotionally students. To have an audience different from their own teachers and classmates offers a real task and the opportunity to play and let grow real skills.

  15. Chronicling ice shelf history in the sediments left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, B. E.; Subt, C.; Shevenell, A.; Guitard, M.; Vadman, K. J.; DeCesare, M.; Wellner, J. S.; Bart, P. J.; Lee, J. I.; Domack, E. W.; Yoo, K. C.; Hayes, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Collapsing and retreating ice shelves leave unmistakable sediment sequences on the Antarctic margin. These sequences tell unequivocal stories of collapse or retreat through a typical progression of sub-ice shelf diamicton (marking the past positions of grounding lines), sequentially overlain by a granulated facies from beneath the ice shelf, ice rafted debris from the calving line, and finally open marine sediment. The timelines to these stories, however, are troublesome. Difficulties in chronicling these stories recorded in sediment have betrayed their importance to our understanding of a warming world in many cases. The difficulties involve the concerted lack of preservation/production of calcium carbonate tests from the water column above and admixture of relict organic material from older sources of carbon. Here, we summarize our advances in the last decade of overcoming difficulties associated with the paucity of carbonate and creating chronologies of ice shelf retreat into the deglacial history of Antarctica by exploiting the range of thermochemical stability in organic matter (Ramped PyrOx) from these sediment sequences. We describe our success in comparing Ramped PyrOx 14C dates with foraminiferal dates, the relationship between sediment facies and radiocarbon age spectrum, and our ability to push limits of dating sediments deposited underneath ice shelves. With attention to the caveats of recent dating developments, we summarize expectations that geologist should have when coring the Antarctic margins to discern deglacial history. Perhaps most important among these expectations is the ability to design coring expeditions without regard to our ability to date calcium carbonate microfossils within the cores, in essence removing suspense of knowing whether cores taken from crucial paleo ice channels and other bathymetric features will ultimately yield a robust chronology for its sedimentary sequence.

  16. Shelf life of packaged bakery goods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galić, K; Curić, D; Gabrić, D

    2009-05-01

    Packaging requirements for fresh bakery goods are often minimal as many of the products are for immediate consumption. However, packaging can be an important factor in extending the shelf life of other cereal-based goods (toast, frozen products, biscuits, cakes, pastas). Some amount of the texture changes and flavor loss manifest over the shelf life of a soft-baked good can usually be minimized or delayed by effective use of packaging materials. The gains in the extension of shelf life will be application specific. It is recognized that defining the shelf life of a food is a difficult task and is an area of intense research for food product development scientists (food technologists, microbiologists, packaging experts). Proper application of chemical kinetic principles to food quality loss allows for efficiently designing appropriate shelf-life tests and maximizing the useful information that can be obtained from the resulting data. In the development of any new food product including reformulating, change of packaging, or storage/distribution condition (to penetrate into a new market), one important aspect is the knowledge of shelf life.

  17. Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

  18. Sub-ice-shelf sediments record history of twentieth-century retreat of Pine Island Glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A; Andersen, T J; Shortt, M; Gaffney, A M; Truffer, M; Stanton, T P; Bindschadler, R; Dutrieux, P; Jenkins, A; Hillenbrand, C-D; Ehrmann, W; Corr, H F J; Farley, N; Crowhurst, S; Vaughan, D G

    2017-01-05

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the largest potential sources of rising sea levels. Over the past 40 years, glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea sector of the ice sheet have thinned at an accelerating rate, and several numerical models suggest that unstable and irreversible retreat of the grounding line-which marks the boundary between grounded ice and floating ice shelf-is underway. Understanding this recent retreat requires a detailed knowledge of grounding-line history, but the locations of the grounding line before the advent of satellite monitoring in the 1990s are poorly dated. In particular, a history of grounding-line retreat is required to understand the relative roles of contemporaneous ocean-forced change and of ongoing glacier response to an earlier perturbation in driving ice-sheet loss. Here we show that the present thinning and retreat of Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is part of a climatically forced trend that was triggered in the 1940s. Our conclusions arise from analysis of sediment cores recovered beneath the floating Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, and constrain the date at which the grounding line retreated from a prominent seafloor ridge. We find that incursion of marine water beyond the crest of this ridge, forming an ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf, occurred in 1945 (±12 years); final ungrounding of the ice shelf from the ridge occurred in 1970 (±4 years). The initial opening of this ocean cavity followed a period of strong warming of West Antarctica, associated with El Niño activity. Thus our results suggest that, even when climate forcing weakened, ice-sheet retreat continued.

  19. Primary productivity off the coast of East Antarctica (80 150°E): January to March 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutton, Peter G.; Brian Griffiths, F.; Waters, Raechel L.; Wright, Simon W.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.

    2000-08-01

    During February and March 1996, an interdisciplinary research project was undertaken off the coast of East Antarctica, south and southwest of Australia, from approximately 63 to 66.25°S and 80 to 150°E. Coastal, continental shelf and open ocean waters were sampled, encompassing the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) and the Antarctic Divergence (AD). Sea ice coverage during the previous winter exhibited a gradual decline in northwards extent from 80°E, where its edge was located at 57°S, to 150°E, where it reached 62-63°S. Productivity versus irradiance ( P- I) experiments were conducted to calculate primary productivity, and measurements of the photochemical quantum efficiency of photosynthesis ( Fv/ Fm) were made using a fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorometer. Phytoplankton pigment (HPLC) and nutrient (nitrate, phosphate and silicate) concentrations also were obtained. Mean chlorophyll a concentrations in the mixed layer were highest (>1 μg l -1) on the continental shelf along 93.5°E and in the shelf and shelf-break waters of a meridional transect along 120°E. Integrated production over the mixed layer ranged from greater than 700 mg C m -2 d -1 slightly north of the AD along 80°E, to less than 50 mg C m -2 d -1 in open ocean water at the northeastern corner of the survey area. The elevated biomass and productivity west of approximately 120°E was attributed to macro- and micro-nutrient release and upper water column stratification following the spring/summer ice melt that preceded and coincided with the sampling period. Macronutrient concentrations were not found to be limiting, and in the upper 75 m of the water column ranged between 20.8 and 32.7 μM for nitrate, from 0.75 to 2.3 μM for phosphate, and from 22.6 to 74.9 μM for silicate. Nutrient uptake rates, inferred from depletion in the mixed layer, indicated that silicate uptake was uncoupled from that of nitrate and phosphate in the northeastern region of the survey area. The mixed layer deepened

  20. Physical properties of aerosols at Maitri, Antarctica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements of the submicron aerosol size distribution made at the Indian Antarctic station, Maitri (70° 45′S, 11° 44′E) from January 10th to February 24th, 1997, are reported. Total aerosol concentrations normally range from 800 to 1200 particles cm-3 which are typical values for the coastal stations at Antarctica in ...

  1. ULF fluctuations at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meloni

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available ULF geomagnetic field measurements in Antarctica are a very important tool for better understanding the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and its response to the variable solar wind conditions. We review the results obtained in the last few years at the Italian observatory at Terra Nova Bay

  2. Challenges in protecting the wilderness of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tina Tin; Alan Hemmings

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998, the wilderness values of Antarctica have been among those given legal recognition under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Despite the legal obligation, on-the-ground implementation has attracted little interest. The term "wilderness" and its consequential operational implication, including the designation of...

  3. Read--and Walk--to Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Doneyko, Kathleen; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The students at Crestwood Primary School proved that they have what it takes to exercise their bodies and their minds. In an effort to support their teacher's scientific expedition to Antarctica, students from kindergarten to second grade pledged to read books and do physical activity that equated to the 12,900 km (8,000-mile) journey to the…

  4. Antarctica: Is It More Than Just Ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cheryl; Gutierrez, Melida

    2009-01-01

    The authors introduced polar science in a fourth-grade classroom by means of 3 hands-on activities that addressed (1) the melting of glaciers and ice, (2) the differences between the North and the South Pole, and (3) the geography and landforms of Antarctica. An assessment 4 months after the original activity showed that students remembered the…

  5. Biodiversity and community structure of freeliving marine nematodes from the Larsemann Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Singh, R.

    . The reported average size of this genera is 3.8–4.4 mm, which is relatively larger compared to Sphaerolaimus sp. (length 1.6–1.8 mm) that was recorded in higher numbers at deeper sediment depth. Production in the pelagic water and delivery of food material...

  6. Particulate organic matter in shelf waters of Prinsesse Asrid Kyst, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    In the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa, particulate organic carbon (POC) varied from 0.52 to 2.51 mg l-1 and from 0.28 to 5.24 mg l-1 and particulate phosphorus (PP) varied from 0.71 to 5.18 mu g l-1 and from 0.78 to 20.34 mu g l-1, respectively...

  7. An approach to peat formation period on both coast of Fildes Strait, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenfen, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Because peat consist mainly of organic matter, both credibility and comparability of the peat 14 C age are high. This paper discuss the use of radiocarbon ( 14 C) to study the peat age. The results of a comparative study of ten samples from China Great Wall Station in Antarctica and the nearby area (on both sides of Fildes Strait) are presented, indicating differences of peat formation period between the pole and other areas

  8. Summer Distribution of Co2 Partial Pressure In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, and Relations With Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini, S.; Tositti, L.; Tubertini, O.; Ceradini, S.; Palucci, A.; Barbini, R.; Fantoni, R.; Colao, F.; Ferrari, G. M.

    The oceans play a key role in the processes responsible for global climate changes, in fact the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide is estimated to be 17-39The Southern Ocean and Antarctic marginal seas are considered to absorb up to half of this fraction. The Ross Sea, during the summer pack-ice melting, expe- riences rapid seasonal outgrowths, giving rise to phytoplankton blooms, especially in polynya areas near the coast line. This has a direct influence on pCO2 concentration in surface water, and hence on CO2 fluxes between ocean and atmosphere. Both the Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean transect between New Zealand and Antarctica are sys- tematically investigated during Italian Antarctic oceanographic campaigns onboard of the R/V Italica. During the XVI expedition, which took place in January and Febru- ary 2001, simultaneous measurements of surface pCO2 and Chlorophyll-a by laser remote-sensing apparatus were collected. Chlorophyll-a and pCO2 showed a general anticorrelation along the cruise. The survey has revealed the presence of high produc- tive regions in the polynya and close to the ice edge. The linear regression analysis of the chl-a vs pCO2 values improved our knowledge of the time evolution of the phyto- planktonic growth, independently measured by means of the laser yield, thus allowing for discrimination between different initial and final blooms in the Antarctic Ross Sea. The results obtained are here presented and discussed. They confirm the importance of biological production in the net absorption of atmospheric CO2 in continental shelf zones.

  9. Magnetic anomaly patterns over crustal blocks of the King Edward VII Peninsula, Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the GITARA II project an aeromagnetic survey was performed during the GANOVEXVII expedition (1992/1993 over the King Edward VII Peninsula in northwestern Marie Byrd Land (West Antarctica. This region which may represent the eastern flank of the Ross Sea rift system had previously been explored only at reconnaissance level. New total field and upward continued (10 km magnetic anomaly maps are produced and interpreted here to map and discuss the crustal structure of the Edward VII Peninsula. Tworound-shaped, high-amplitude magnetic anomalies are recognised over the Alexandra Mountains block. The anomalies are difficult to interpret since susceptibility data indicate the prevalence of non-magnetic rocks at the surface. A possible interpretation is that the anomalies are due to Cretaceous mafic intrusives distinct from weakly magnetic Byrd Coast Granite of the adjacent Rockefeller Mountains block. Alternatively the anomalies could be related to buried pluton-sized Devonian Ford Granodiorite intruded by dikes. If Cretaceous in age, the former intrusives revealed from the magnetics could also be responsible for contact metamorphism of the adjacent Alexandra Mountains migmatites. Lower amplitude circular anomalies over the Central Plateau and Prestrud Inlet are likely to be caused by unexposed Devonian Ford Granodiorite which crops out in the Ford Ranges. Elongated high-frequency anomalies of the Sulzberger Bay are similar to those recognised over seismically constrained Cenozoic rift-related volcanics of the Ross Sea. A broad magnetic low over the Sulzberger Ice Shelf may be indicative of a fault bounded graben-like basin with sedimentary infill. Overall recognition of magnetic anomaly patterns and trends reveals segmentation of the Edward VII Peninsula and of the adjacent marine areas in distinct crustal blocks. Faults may separate these blocks and they are interpreted to reflect multiple Cretaceous and maybe Cenozoic crustal

  10. Constraining ice sheet history in the Weddell Sea, West Antarctica, using ice fabric at Korff Ice Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Smith, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Baird, A. F.; Martin, C.; Kingslake, J.

    2017-12-01

    The grounding history of ice rises (grounded area of independent flow regime within a floating ice shelf) can be used to constrain large scale ice sheet history: ice fabric, resulting from the preferred orientation of ice crystals due to the stress regime, can be used to infer this grounding history. With the aim of measuring the present day ice fabric at Korff Ice Rise, West Antarctica, a multi-azimuth wide-angle seismic experiment was undertaken. Three wide-angle common-midpoint gathers were acquired centred on the apex of the ice rise, at azimuths of 60 degrees to one another, to measure variation in seismic properties with offset and azimuth. Both vertical and horizontal receivers were used to record P and S arrivals including converted phases. Measurements of the variation with offset and azimuth of seismic traveltimes, seismic attenuation and shear wave splitting have been used to quantify seismic anisotropy in the ice column. The observations cannot be reproduced using an isotropic ice column model. Anisotropic ray tracing has been used to test likely models of ice fabric by comparison with the data. A model with a weak girdle fabric overlying a strong cluster fabric provides the best fit to the observations. Fabric of this nature is consistent with Korff Ice Rise having been stable for the order of 10,000 years without any ungrounding or significant change in the ice flow configuration across the ice rise for this period. This observation has significant implications for the ice sheet history of the Weddell Sea sector.

  11. Vigorous lateral export of the meltwater outflow from beneath an Antarctic ice shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabato, Alberto C Naveira; Forryan, Alexander; Dutrieux, Pierre; Brannigan, Liam; Biddle, Louise C; Heywood, Karen J; Jenkins, Adrian; Firing, Yvonne L; Kimura, Satoshi

    2017-02-09

    The instability and accelerated melting of the Antarctic Ice Sheet are among the foremost elements of contemporary global climate change. The increased freshwater output from Antarctica is important in determining sea level rise, the fate of Antarctic sea ice and its effect on the Earth's albedo, ongoing changes in global deep-ocean ventilation, and the evolution of Southern Ocean ecosystems and carbon cycling. A key uncertainty in assessing and predicting the impacts of Antarctic Ice Sheet melting concerns the vertical distribution of the exported meltwater. This is usually represented by climate-scale models as a near-surface freshwater input to the ocean, yet measurements around Antarctica reveal the meltwater to be concentrated at deeper levels. Here we use observations of the turbulent properties of the meltwater outflows from beneath a rapidly melting Antarctic ice shelf to identify the mechanism responsible for the depth of the meltwater. We show that the initial ascent of the meltwater outflow from the ice shelf cavity triggers a centrifugal overturning instability that grows by extracting kinetic energy from the lateral shear of the background oceanic flow. The instability promotes vigorous lateral export, rapid dilution by turbulent mixing, and finally settling of meltwater at depth. We use an idealized ocean circulation model to show that this mechanism is relevant to a broad spectrum of Antarctic ice shelves. Our findings demonstrate that the mechanism producing meltwater at depth is a dynamically robust feature of Antarctic melting that should be incorporated into climate-scale models.

  12. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201l. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record -- provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica--parameters such as surface temperature.

  13. Temporal variability of the Circumpolar Deep Water inflow onto the Ross Sea continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagno, Pasquale; Falco, Pierpaolo; Dinniman, Michael S.; Spezie, Giancarlo; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-02-01

    The intrusion of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is the primary source of heat, salt and nutrients onto Antarctica's continental shelves and plays a major role in the shelf physical and biological processes. Different studies have analyzed the processes responsible for the transport of CDW across the Ross Sea shelf break, but until now, there are no continuous observations that investigate the timing of the intrusions. Also, few works have focused on the effect of the tides that control these intrusions. In the Ross Sea, the CDW intrudes onto the shelf in several locations, but mostly along the troughs. We use hydrographic observations and a mooring placed on the outer shelf in the middle of the Drygalski Trough in order to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of CDW inflow onto the shelf. Our data span from 2004 to the beginning of 2014. In the Drygalski Trough, the CDW enters as a 150 m thick layer between 250 and 400 m, and moves upward towards the south. At the mooring location, about 50 km from the shelf break, two main CDW cores can be observed: one on the east side of the trough spreading along the west slope of Mawson Bank from about 200 m to the bottom and the other one in the central-west side from 200 m to about 350 m depth. A signature of this lighter and relatively warm water is detected by the instruments on the mooring at bottom of the Drygalski Trough. High frequency periodic CDW intrusion at the bottom of the trough is related to the diurnal and spring/neap tidal cycles. At lower frequency, a seasonal variability of the CDW intrusion is noticed. A strong inflow of CDW is observed every year at the end of December, while the CDW inflow is at its seasonal minimum during the beginning of the austral fall. In addition an interannual variability is also evident. A change of the CDW intrusion before and after 2010 is observed.

  14. Borehole temperatures reveal a changed energy budget at Mill Island, East Antarctica, over recent decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A borehole temperature record from the Mill Island (East Antarctica icecap reveals a large surface warming signal manifested as a 0.75 K temperature difference over the approximate 100 m depth in the zone of zero annual amplitude below the seasonally varying zone. The temperature profile shows a break in gradient around 49 m depth, which we model with inverse numerical simulations, indicating that surface warming started around the austral summer of 1980/81 AD ±5 yr. This warming of approximately 0.37 K per decade is consistent with trends seen in both instrumental and other reconstructions for Antarctica and, therefore, suggests that regional- rather than local-scale processes are largely responsible. Alteration of the surface energy budget arising from changes in radiation balances due to local cloud, the amount of liquid deposition and local air temperatures associated with altered air/sea exchanges also potentially plays a role at this location due to the proximity of the Shackleton Ice Shelf and sea-ice zone.

  15. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  16. Water masses of Visakhapatnam shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.

    The T-S relationships of shelf waters off Visakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal are studied for the different seasons with the data collected during February 1979 to January 1981. The T-S relationships indicate distinct characteristics of the water...

  17. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  18. The oldest plesiosaur (Reptilia, Sauropterygia from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wilhelm Armin Kellner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic plesiosaurs are known from the Upper Cretaceous López de Bertodano and Snow Hill Island formations (Campanian to upper Maastrichtian, which crop out within the James Ross Basin region of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here we describe the first plesiosaur fossils from the Lachman Crags Member of the Santa Marta Formation, north-western James Ross Island. This material constitutes the stratigraphically oldest plesiosaur occurrence presently known from Antarctica, extending the occurrence of plesiosaurians in this continent back to Santonian times (86.3–83.5 Mya. Furthermore, MN 7163-V represents the first plesiosaur from this region not referable to the Elasmosauridae nor Aristonectes, indicating a greater diversity of this group of aquatic reptiles in Antarctica than previously suspected.

  19. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Iceland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. These studies, conducted in Iceland and in Antarctica, investigated physical and chemical weathering mechanisms and rates, eolitan processes, mudflow phenomena, drainage development, and catastrophic fluvial and volcanic phenomena. Continuing investigations in Iceland fall in three main catagories: (1) catastrophic floods of the Jokulsa a Fjollum, (2) lahars associated with explosive volcanic eruptions of Askja caldera, and (3) rates of eolian abrasion in cold, volcanic deserts. The ice-free valleys of Antarctica, in particular those in South Victoria Land, have much is common with the surface of Mars. In addition to providing independent support for the application of the Iceland findings to consideration of the martian erosional system, the Antarctic observations also provide analogies to other martian phenomena. For example, a family of sand dunes in Victoria Valley are stabilized by the incorporation of snow as beds.

  20. Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L.; Huiskes, Ad H. L.; Gremmen, Niek J. M.; Lee, Jennifer E.; Terauds, Aleks; Crosbie, Kim; Frenot, Yves; Hughes, Kevin A.; Imura, Satoshi; Kiefer, Kate; Lebouvier, Marc; Raymond, Ben; Tsujimoto, Megumu; Ware, Chris; Van de Vijver, Bart; Bergstrom, Dana Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the region. However, no comprehensive, continent-wide evaluation of the risks to Antarctica posed by such species has been undertaken. Here we do so by sampling, identifying, and mapping the vascular plant propagules carried by all categories of visitors to Antarctica during the International Polar Year's first season (2007–2008) and assessing propagule establishment likelihood based on their identity and origins and on spatial variation in Antarctica's climate. For an evaluation of the situation in 2100, we use modeled climates based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Scenario A1B [Nakićenović N, Swart R, eds (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK)]. Visitors carrying seeds average 9.5 seeds per person, although as vectors, scientists carry greater propagule loads than tourists. Annual tourist numbers (∼33,054) are higher than those of scientists (∼7,085), thus tempering these differences in propagule load. Alien species establishment is currently most likely for the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Recent founder populations of several alien species in this area corroborate these findings. With climate change, risks will grow in the Antarctic Peninsula, Ross Sea, and East Antarctic coastal regions. Our evidence-based assessment demonstrates which parts of Antarctica are at growing risk from alien species that may become invasive and provides the means to mitigate this threat now and into the future as the continent's climate changes. PMID:22393003

  1. Environmental and climate changes in Antarctica in the Geological Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Leitchenkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Cretaceous time, Antarctica was characterized by subtropical and tropical climate. The Early Eocene was warmest in the Antarctic history but this Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica at about 34 Ma ago. There is indirect evidence that small ice caps developed within central Antarctica in the Late Eocene (42−34 Ma. From the Early Oligocene to the Middle Miocene (34−13 Ma ice sheet was wet-based and fluctuated considerably in volume, but about 14 m.y. ago it became dry-based and more stable.  Seismic data collected on the East Antarctic margin give valuable information on dynamics of the past ice sheets. These data shows that the sedimentary cover of the western Wilkes Land margin includes a giant (c. 200 000 km2 deep-water fan which formed between c. 43 and 34 Ma ago. The average rate of sedimentation in the central part of fan was 230–250 m/m.y. Active input of terrigenous sediments into deep-water denotes high-energy fluvial system within the Wilkes Land. Emergence of this fluvial system evidences earliest glaciation in the Antarctic interior which fed full-flowing rivers. The thickness of strata deposited during post-Early Oligocene glaciations on the Antarctic margin generally reflects the averaged energy of depositional environments. The thickest sediments (up to 2.0 km, i.e. almost twice more than in other parts of East Antarctic margin and inferred highest energy are seen in the central Cooperation Sea, on the central Wilkes Land margin and in the D'Urville Sea. The areas with the thickest post-Early Oligocene strata correlate with places where present-day ice discharge is highest, such as via the Lambert, Totten and Mertz/Ninnis Glaciers. The correlation points to high ice (and sediment flux in the same areas since the Early Oligocene.

  2. An Analysis of the Effects of Promotion and Shelf Position on Store Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Afonso Vieria; Luis Fernando Camilo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the influence of shelf placement and the ways of presenting prices at supermarkets. We carried out an experimental longitudinal study for three months in a supermarket involving nine common products, divided by placement into three shelf positions (upper area, middle area and lower area) and three price presentation strategies. These were the supermarket’s standard price sticker for the base month (control) and two new presentations: the first a poster with the appeal ...

  3. Baseline mercury and zinc concentrations in terrestrial and coastal organisms of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Isaac; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira; Schaefer, Carlos; Maria Sella, Silvia; Silva, Carlos A.; Gomes, Vicente; Passos, Maria Jose de A.C.R.; Phan Van Ngan

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the first quantitative information on mercury in soil, coastal sediment, and in characteristic organisms of terrestrial and shallow coastal marine ecosystems from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica). As expected for a remote area, mercury content is low in abiotic components of the ecosystem, and probably similar to natural levels. Mercury also occurs in very low concentrations in the vegetation, invertebrates and fish. These low mercury levels may be due to sulphide formation in reducing sediments of this environment. Higher concentrations of mercury occurred in bird feathers and mammal hair, indicating biomagnification. This was not found for Zinc. These results may be useful as a reference background to detect future inputs of trace elements in this remote area of the earth. Terrestrial vegetation and bird feathers are suggested as target regional biomonitors. - Low levels of mercury and zinc occurred in soil and plant samples from Antarctica, but high levels occurred in birds and mammals

  4. Environmental and ice volume changes based on seismic stratigraphy in Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica: Preliminary results from NBP1402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, S. P. S.; Fernandez-Vasquez, R. A.; Frederick, B.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Domack, E. W.; Lavoie, C.; Shevenell, A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Leventer, A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer (NBP1402) sailed to a virtually unexplored continental shelf along the Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica. The shelf contains the sedimentary record of environmental and ice volume changes within the Aurora Subglacial Basin (ASB), which is presently occupied by ~7 m sea level-rise equivalent of ice. We acquired 750 km of high-resolution seismic data proximal to the Reynolds Trough and Moscow University Ice Shelf glacial systems west of the Dalton Ice Tongue using dual 45/45 cu. in. G.I. guns and a 24 ch. streamer with 3.125 m groups providing a vertical resolution of ~3 m simultaneously with CHIRP data. These are the first images of this margin acquired and show a remarkable set of sequence stratigraphic transitions. Crystalline basement is at the seafloor landward and buried seaward with a transition to smoother reflection interface. Reflective sedimentary strata overlie the basement, dip seaward, and are capped by a landward-dipping regional angular unconformity. Above this are a series of transparent seismic facies that, along with the middle to outer shelf seafloor, dip landward towards a shelf-oblique glacial trough. The older, seaward-dipping strata include a deeper series of units that display at least three stratal architectures interpreted to be shelf deltas implying a pre-glacial, fluvial environment within the drainage basin. Above these sequences, the seismic facies transition to surfaces exhibiting significant erosion, small u-shaped valleys, and channel fill sequences, all of which are reminiscent of temperate glacial features. We interpret these sequences as including sub-ice tunnel valleys and grounding zone wedges with interspersed non-glacial to pro-glacial deposits. Increasing glaciogenic facies upsection suggests a gradual fluvial to glacial transition and increasing glacial extent with time. The subsequent transition to ice sheets is marked by erosion to basement landward and the angular unconformity seaward

  5. Assemblages of fish larvae and mesozooplankton across the continental shelf and shelf slope of the Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Bjørnsen, Peter Koefoed; Boonruang, P.

    2004-01-01

    on the sampling of fish larvae and mesozooplankton. Surveys were carried out during 2 monsoon periods in March and August 1996, using 3 cross-bathymetric transects extending to the deeper part of the shelf slope of the Andaman Sea. Station distances were either 5 or 10 n miles apart, and at each station a series...... with a hydrographic front generated where the pycnocline meets the sea-bottom. An internal wave of pronounced amplitude interacts with the shelf slope at ca. 300 m bottom depth, and findings indicated another zone of enhanced abundance in this area. Analysis of the relative abundances of fish larvae within families...

  6. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas antarctica PAMC 27494, a bacteriocin-producing psychrophile isolated from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Yong-Joon; Yang, Jae Young; Jung, You-Jung; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2017-10-10

    Antimicrobial-producing, cold-adapted microorganisms have great potential for biotechnological applications in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Pseudomonas antarctica PAMC 27494, a psychrophile exhibiting antimicrobial activity, was isolated from an Antarctic freshwater sample. Here we report the complete genome of P. antarctica PAMC 27494. The strain contains a gene cluster encoding microcin B which inhibits DNA regulations by targeting the DNA gyrase. PAMC 27494 may produce R-type pyocins and also contains a complete set of proteins for the biosynthesis of adenosylcobalamin and possibly induces plant growth by supplying pyrroloquinoline quionone molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sedimentation on the Valencia Continental Shelf: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andres; Swift, Donald J. P.; Young, Robert A.; Han, Gregory; Nittrouer, Charles A.; DeMaster, David J.; Rey, Jorge; Palomo, Carlos; Acosta, Juan; Ballester, A.; Castellvi, J.

    1983-10-01

    Preliminary analysis of data collected during the course of a cooperative Spanish-United States investigation of the Valencia Shelf (western Mediterranean) reveals a storm-dominated, mud-accumulating sedimentary regime. Calcareous mud is accumulating seaward of a narrow band of shoreface sand and gravel. On the outer shelf the mud is enriched by a pelagic calcareous component. Preliminary 210Pb data from vertical profiles of box cores yield nominal accumulation rates from 2.6 mm y -1 near the Ebro Delta to 1.3 mm y -1 on the southern portion of the Valencia Shelf. Storm-current winnowing has resulted in the development of a biogenic lag sand over the mid-shelf mud in the northern part of the study area. Piston cores reveal a basal Holocene sand and gravel facies similar to that presently seen on the inner shelf. Upward-fining sequences on the central and outer shelf are inferred to result from the landward shift of lithotopes during the course of the Holocene transgression. These sequences are locally repeated, perhaps as the consequence of brief, local interludes of coastal progradation. Application of a diagnostic circulation model suggests that intense, downwelling coastal flows occur during winter northeastern storms. Storm activity has induced erosional shoreface retreat during the course of the Holocene transgression and has generated by this means the basal coarse facies observed in the piston cores. In the central part of the study area seaward of the Albufera Lagoon, the mud blanket thins to a layer several centimeters thick which is draped over a thickened (10 m) basal sand. The basal sand is molded into northwest trending ridges. The data are not sufficient to determine whether these are overstepped barriers, or submarine sand ridges formed by storm flows during the shoreface retreat process.

  8. Extraordinary blowing snow transport events in East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarchilli, Claudio; Agnoletto, Lucia [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Universita di Siena, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Siena (Italy); Frezzotti, Massimo; Grigioni, Paolo; Silvestri, Lorenzo de [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Dolci, Stefano [CNR, Rome (Italy); Consorzio P.N.R.A. S.C.r.l., Rome (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    In the convergence slope/coastal areas of Antarctica, a large fraction of snow is continuously eroded and exported by wind to the atmosphere and into the ocean. Snow transport observations from instruments and satellite images were acquired at the wind convergence zone of Terra Nova Bay (East Antarctica) throughout 2006 and 2007. Snow transport features are well-distinguished in satellite images and can extend vertically up to 200 m as first-order quantitatively estimated by driftometer sensor FlowCapt trademark. Maximum snow transportation occurs in the fall and winter seasons. Snow transportation (drift/blowing) was recorded for {proportional_to}80% of the time, and 20% of time recorded, the flux is >10{sup -2} kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} with particle density increasing with height. Cumulative snow transportation is {proportional_to}4 orders of magnitude higher than snow precipitation at the site. An increase in wind speed and transportation ({proportional_to}30%) was observed in 2007, which is in agreement with a reduction in observed snow accumulation. Extensive presence of ablation surface (blue ice and wind crust) upwind and downwind of the measurement site suggest that the combine processes of blowing snow sublimation and snow transport remove up to 50% of the precipitation in the coastal and slope convergence area. These phenomena represent a major negative effect on the snow accumulation, and they are not sufficiently taken into account in studies of surface mass balance. The observed wind-driven ablation explains the inconsistency between atmospheric model precipitation and measured snow accumulation value. (orig.)

  9. Hydrological Controls on Ecosystem Dynamics in Lake Fryxell, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Herbei

    Full Text Available The McMurdo Dry Valleys constitute the largest ice free area of Antarctica. The area is a polar desert with an annual precipitation of ∼ 3 cm water equivalent, but contains several lakes fed by glacial melt water streams that flow from four to twelve weeks of the year. Over the past ∼20 years, data have been collected on the lakes located in Taylor Valley, Antarctica as part of the McMurdo Dry Valley Long-Term Ecological Research program (MCM-LTER. This work aims to understand the impact of climate variations on the biological processes in all the ecosystem types within Taylor Valley, including the lakes. These lakes are stratified, closed-basin systems and are perennially covered with ice. Each lake contains a variety of planktonic and benthic algae that require nutrients for photosynthesis and growth. The work presented here focuses on Lake Fryxell, one of the three main lakes of Taylor Valley; it is fed by thirteen melt-water streams. We use a functional regression approach to link the physical, chemical, and biological processes within the stream-lake system to evaluate the input of water and nutrients on the biological processes in the lakes. The technique has been shown previously to provide important insights into these Antarctic lacustrine systems where data acquisition is not temporally coherent. We use data on primary production (PPR and chlorophyll-A (CHLfrom Lake Fryxell as well as discharge observations from two streams flowing into the lake. Our findings show an association between both PPR, CHL and stream input.

  10. Humus in some soils from Western Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E.

    2009-04-01

    Soils of Antarctica are well known as a thick profile soils with low amounts of humus concentrated in the upper layers - O or A horizons. Also there are specific soils of seashore landscapes which affected by penguins guano accumulation and, therefore characterized by high stocks of organic matter in solum. These two types of soils were studied during the Western Antarctica part of 53th Russian Antarctic Expedition in 2008 International Polar Year. These rote of expedition was on Polar stations "Russkaya", "Leningradskaya" and "Bellinsgausen" and also two places, not affected by polar men's - Lindsey Island and Hudson mountains (Ross Sea). Typical soils of "Russkaya" and "Leningradskaya" stations was a Cryosoils with low humus content (0,02 - 0,20 %) which was a product of lichens decaying and further humification. The humus profile was not deep and humic substances migration stopped on the 30 cm deeps maximally. Soils of Sub-Antarctica (Bellinsgausen station, King-George Island) show higher portions of humus which maximum was 3,00 % under the mosses. Humus distribution was more gradual through profile due to the higher thickness of active layer and longer period of biological activity. Soils under the penguin's beaches shows big portions of organic matter, in some cases more than 50 % to total soil mass. Humification starts in first years in cases of Sub-Antarctic guano soils and only after 3-7 years of leaching in seashore Antarctic guano-soils. Soils under the guano layers were extremely reached by nitrogen, and in some cases there were not any plants there due to toxicity of guano. This event was more typical for cold seashore soils of Antarctica. In all cases humus consists mostly of fulvic acids and low molecular non-specific organic acids. The CHA/CFA ratio in all cases were lesser than 1,0 and in more that 50 % of cases it was lesser than 0,5. The investigations conducted shows that the stocks of humus in soil of Antarctica are not estimated and till now we

  11. Mesoscale variability in the Bransfield Strait region (Antarctica during Austral summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. García

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bransfield Strait is one the best-known areas of Antarctica's oceanic surroundings. In spite of this, the study of the mesoscale variability of its local circulation has been addressed only recently. This paper focuses on the mesoscale structure of local physical oceanographic conditions in the Bransfield Strait during the Austral summer as derived from the BIOANTAR 93 cruise and auxiliary remote sensing data. Moreover, data recovered from moored current meters allow identification of transient mesoscale phenomena.

  12. Morphology and sediment dynamics of the northern Catalan continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ruth; Canals, Miquel; Sanz, José Luis; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Micallef, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The northern Catalan continental shelf, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, extends along 200 km from the Cap de Creus submarine canyon to the Llobregat Delta, in the vicinity of the city of Barcelona. In this paper we present the results of a systematic investigation of this area by means of very high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to fully assess its morphological variability. The causative factors and processes determining such variability are subsequently interpreted. The shelf is divided in three segments by two prominent submarine canyons: the northernmost Roses Shelf is separated from the intermediate La Planassa Shelf by the La Fonera Canyon, while the boundary between the La Planassa Shelf and the southernmost Barcelona Shelf is marked by the Blanes Canyon. These two canyons are deeply incised in the continental margin, with their heads located at only 0.8 and 5 km from the shore, respectively. The seafloor character reflects the influence of external controlling factors on the geomorphology and sediment dynamics of the northern continental shelf of Catalonia. These factors are the geological setting, the volume and nature of sediment input, and the type and characteristics of processes leading to sediment redistribution, such as dense shelf water cascading (DSWC) and eastern storms. The interaction of all these factors determines sediment dynamics and allows subdividing the northern Catalan continental shelf into three segments: the erosional-depositional Roses Shelf to the north, the non-depositional La Planassa Shelf in the middle, and the depositional Barcelona Shelf to the south. Erosional features off the Cap de Creus Peninsula and an along-shelf subdued channel in the outer shelf illustrate prevailing sediment dynamics in the Roses segment, which is dominated by erosional processes, local sediment accumulations and the southward bypass of sediment. The rocky character of the seafloor immediately north of the Blanes Canyon head demonstrates that

  13. Insights into Spatial Sensitivities of Ice Mass Response to Environmental Change from the SeaRISE Ice Sheet Modeling Project I: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert A.; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Aschwanden, Andy; Bueler, Ed; Choi, Hyengu; Fastook, Jim; Granzow, Glen; Greve, Ralf; Gutowski, Gail; hide

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric, oceanic, and subglacial forcing scenarios from the Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) project are applied to six three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet models to assess Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity over a 500 year timescale and to inform future modeling and field studies. Results indicate (i) growth with warming, except within low-latitude basins (where inland thickening is outpaced by marginal thinning); (ii) mass loss with enhanced sliding (with basins dominated by high driving stresses affected more than basins with low-surface-slope streaming ice); and (iii) mass loss with enhanced ice shelf melting (with changes in West Antarctica dominating the signal due to its marine setting and extensive ice shelves; cf. minimal impact in the Terre Adelie, George V, Oates, and Victoria Land region of East Antarctica). Ice loss due to dynamic changes associated with enhanced sliding and/or sub-shelf melting exceeds the gain due to increased precipitation. Furthermore, differences in results between and within basins as well as the controlling impact of sub-shelf melting on ice dynamics highlight the need for improved understanding of basal conditions, grounding-zone processes, ocean-ice interactions, and the numerical representation of all three.

  14. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic characterization of PAH contaminants at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo . E-mail moonkoo.kim@wmich.edu; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian Yaorong

    2006-01-01

    The molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of contaminant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at McMurdo Station, Antarctica were analyzed in samples collected from land and sub-tidal area. PAHs in the study areas were characterized by high amounts of naphthalene and alkylated naphthalenes from petroleum products introduced by human activities in the area. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PAH composition data identified multiple sources of PAH contamination in the study area. Compositional assignments of origins were confirmed using compound specific stable carbon isotopic analysis

  15. Seabed geology of the Canadian eastern continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David J. W.

    1991-08-01

    The physiography of the continental shelf off eastern Canada is irregular, developed by glacial erosion of a previously fluvially-dominated landscape. Northern shelves are deeper than southern shelves. Most surficial sediments on the shelf are relict or palimpsest. The principal modern source of sediment to the northern shelves is ice rafting and iceberg scour reworking of Quaternary sediments. Southern shelves receive sediment through erosion of Quaternary sediments; only small amounts of fine-grained sediment derived from coastal erosion and rivers escape from the coastal zone. Regional maps of sediment texture, carbonate content and heavy mineralogy consequently show differences between the northern and southern shelves. Large areas of the shelf show little net deposition. On the northern shelves, there is a surface veneer up to 0.5 m thick derived from ice rafting and iceberg turbation of underlying Quaternary sediment, modified by south-flowing currents [ WOODWORTH-LYNASet al. (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 939-961]. The overall effects of former iceberg turbation may extend to a depth of 10 m sub-bottom. On the southern shelves, bioturbation and perhaps storm-related currents rework exposed Quaternary sediments more slowly. Muds accumulate in deep basins on the shelves at rates of about 0.5 m per 1000 years; this accumulation is probably episodic and related to major storms reworking sediment from the surface sediment veneer in shallower areas of little net deposition. In water depths less than 110 m sand and gravel have formed as a result of reworking in the coastal zone during the post-glacial transgression. Over large areas of Georges Bank, the eastern Scotian Shelf and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, such sands are mobilized during storms to form a wide suite of bedforms [ AMOS and JUDGE (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1037-1068]. Elsewhere, particularly in deeper water, sandy surfaces appear moribund or inactive and large

  16. Managing Human Activities in Antarctica : Should Wilderness Protection Count?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Antarctica is often described as one of the world's last wildernesses. In harmony with this general perception, the wilderness values of Antarctica received legal status with the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Article 3(1) of the Protocol obliges each

  17. Annually-resolved temperature reconstructions of the past 2000 years from Dome-Fuji, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motizuki, Yuko; Takahashi, Kazuya; Nakai, Yoichi; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    We present annually-resolved temperature and SST reconstructions of the past 2000 years based on water (oxygen and deuterium) isotope measurement on a shallow ice core drilled in 2010 at Dome Fuji station, East Antarctica. These time series records will be an essential contribution to the PAGES 2k project from sparse data area in Antarctica. Dome Fuji station is located on a summit of Dronning Maud Land at an altitude of 3810 m a.s.l. (above sea level) (77o19'01'' S, 39o42'12'' E) in East Antarctica. The 10 m depth mean snow temperature at Dome Fuji is -57.3oC1). The inland area around Dome Fuji has been recognized to be especially unique: The snow and ice there contain much stratospheric information. The direct evidence for this comes from tritium contents originated from the nuclear bomb tests in the 1960s; the tritium fallout at the Dome Fuji site is outstandingly high among 16 snow pit samples widely collected over Antarctica2). To date the concerned Dome Fuji ice core, we applied volcanic signature matching to transfer the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core chronology constructed by annual layer counting as used in the study by Sigl et al. (2014)3). In our presentation, we confine ourselves to discuss the oscillation periodicity that we observed in the oxygen isotope record in our data: The periods of approximately 10, 20, and 200 years were found. We will present the time series analyses for this in detail, and will discuss the origin of this periodicity. References: 1) Kameda, T., Motoyama, H., Fujita, S., and Takahashi, S.: "Past temporal and spatial variability of surface mass balance at Dome Fuji", East Antarctica, by the stake method from 1995 to 2006, J. Glaciol., 54, 107-116, 2008. 2) Fourre, E., Jean-Baptiste, P., Dapoigny, A., Baumier, D., Petit, J.-R., and Jouzel, J.: "Past and recent tritium levels in Arctic and Antarctic polar caps", Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 245, 56-64, 2006. 3) Sigl, M., J. McConnell, M. Toohey, M. Curran, S. Das, R

  18. RICE ice core: Black Carbon reflects climate variability at Roosevelt Island, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Aja; Edwards, Ross; Bertler, Nancy; Winton, Holly; Goodwin, Ian; Neff, Peter; Tuohy, Andrea; Proemse, Bernadette; Hogan, Chad; Feiteng, Wang

    2015-04-01

    The Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project successfully drilled a deep ice core from Roosevelt Island during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons. Located in the Ross Ice Shelf in West Antarctica, the site is an ideal location for investigating climate variability and the past stability of the Ross Ice Shelf. Black carbon (BC) aerosols are emitted by both biomass burning and fossil fuels, and BC particles emitted in the southern hemisphere are transported in the atmosphere and preserved in Antarctic ice. The past record of BC is expected to be sensitive to climate variability, as it is modulated by both emissions and transport. To investigate BC variability over the past 200 years, we developed a BC record from two overlapping ice cores (~1850-2012) and a high-resolution snow pit spanning 2010-2012 (cal. yr). Consistent results are found between the snow pit profiles and ice core records. Distinct decadal trends are found with respect to BC particle size, and the record indicates a steady rise in BC particle size over the last 100 years. Differences in emission sources and conditions may be a possible explanation for changes in BC size. These records also show a significant increase in BC concentration over the past decade with concentrations rising over 1.5 ppb (1.5*10^-9 ng/g), suggesting a fundamental shift in BC deposition to the site.

  19. Neumayer III and Kohnen Station in Antarctica operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wesche

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Alfred Wegener Institute operates two stations in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The German overwintering station Neumayer III is located on the Ekström Ice Shelf at 70°40’S and 08°16’W and is the logistics base for three long-term observatories (meteorology, air chemistry and geophysics and nearby research activities. Due to the vicinity to the coast (ca. 20 km from the ice shelf edge, the Neumayer III Station is the junction for many German Antarctic expeditions, especially as the starting point for the supply traverse for the second German station Kohnen. The summer station Kohnen is located about 600 km from the coast and 750 km from Neumayer III Station on the Antarctic plateau at 75°S and 00°04’E. It was erected as the base for the deep-drilling ice core project, which took place between 2001 and 2006. Since then Kohnen Station is used as a logistics base for different research projects.

  20. Observations on the scattering layers over the continental shelf off Konkan coast (India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.

    The echograms obtained by R.V. "varuna" using asdic during the September, 1963 cruise are analysed. Scattering layers observed over the shelf area, off Ratnagiri, are examined and studied in relation to the thermocline layer present. Comparison...

  1. Mining of phosphorite resources from the Indian continental shelf will help food production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; Nair, R.R.

    of phosphorite deposits would depend on several technical and economic factors Phosphorites occur in water depths upto 200 meters of the western continental shelf of India These are the areas associated with upwelling The relationship between phosphorite deposits...

  2. Cluster analysis and ecology of living benthonic foraminiferids from inner shelf off Ratnagiri, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarupria, J.S.

    Q-mode cluster analysis explains the spatial distribution data of living benthonic foraminiferids from the inner shelf off Ratnagiri. Two main biotopes and two sub-biotopes are revognised within the study area; biotope A, characterised by @i...

  3. Geomorphology and surficial geology of the western continental shelf and slope of India: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    Coastal geology and geomorphology of the area and nearshore currents played a significant role in the distribution of placer minerals off Kerala and Maharashtra. Transport and sedeimentation of fine-grained materials at places on the shelf...

  4. Climatology and decadal variability of the Ross Sea shelf waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Russo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Ocean Database 2001 data located in the Ross Sea (named WOD01 and containing data in this region since 1928 are merged with recent data collected by the Italian expeditions (CLIMA dataset in the period November 1994-February 2004 in the same area. From this extended dataset, austral summer climatologies of the main Ross Sea subsurface, intermediate and bottom water masses: High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW, Ice Shelf Water (ISW and Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW have been drawn. The comparison between the WOD01_1994 climatologies (a subset of the WOD01 dataset until April 1994 and the CLIMA ones for the period 1994/95-2003/04 showed significant changes occurred during the decade. The freshening of the Ross Sea shelf waters which occurred during the period 1960-2000, was confirmed by our analysis in all the main water masses, even though with a spatially varying intensity. Relevant variations were found for the MCDW masses, which appeared to reduce their presence and to deepen; this can be ascribed to the very limited freshening of the MCDW core, which allowed an increased density with respect to the surrounding waters. Variations in the MCDW properties and extension could have relevant consequences, e.g. a decreased Ross Ice Shelf basal melting or a reduced supply of nutrients, and may also be indicative of a reduced thermohaline circulation within the Ross Sea. Shelf Waters (SW having neutral density γn > 28.7 Kg m-3, which contribute to form the densest Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW, showed a large volumetric decrease in the 1994/95-2003/04 decade, most likely as a consequence of the SW freshening.

  5. Field evaluation of air-blocking shelf for dust control on blasthole drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Drew Potts; W. Randolph Reed [Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dust Control, Ventilation, and Toxic Substance Branch

    2011-03-15

    In previous studies, an air-blocking shelf has been shown to be successful in reducing respirable dust leakage from the drill shroud in a laboratory setting. Dust reductions of up to 81% were achieved with the shelf under operating conditions consisting of a 1.9:1 collector-to-bailing airflow ratio and a 5.1-cm gap between the shroud and ground. Recent research focused on evaluating the shelf on two actual operating blasthole drills, in much more severe environments. In the field, the shelf reduced dust levels in the areas surrounding one operating blasthole drill by 70%. Dust reductions measured in the immediate vicinity of the shroud were reduced by 66% at one mine and 81% at the other mine. These field tests confirm that the air-blocking shelf is useful for reducing respirable dust generation from blasthole drills.

  6. The crustal structure and tectonic development of the continental margin of the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica: implications from geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Thomas; Gohl, Karsten

    2014-07-01

    The Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica represents a key component in the tectonic history of Antarctic-New Zealand continental breakup. The region played a major role in the plate-kinematic development of the southern Pacific from the inferred collision of the Hikurangi Plateau with the Gondwana subduction margin at approximately 110-100 Ma to the evolution of the West Antarctic Rift System. However, little is known about the crustal architecture and the tectonic processes creating the embayment. During two `RV Polarstern' expeditions in 2006 and 2010 a large geophysical data set was collected consisting of seismic-refraction and reflection data, ship-borne gravity and helicopter-borne magnetic measurements. Two P-wave velocity-depth models based on forward traveltime modelling of nine ocean bottom hydrophone recordings provide an insight into the lithospheric structure beneath the Amundsen Sea Embayment. Seismic-reflection data image the sedimentary architecture and the top-of-basement. The seismic data provide constraints for 2-D gravity modelling, which supports and complements P-wave modelling. Our final model shows 10-14-km-thick stretched continental crust at the continental rise that thickens to as much as 28 km beneath the inner shelf. The homogenous crustal architecture of the continental rise, including horst and graben structures are interpreted as indicating that wide-mode rifting affected the entire region. We observe a high-velocity layer of variable thickness beneath the margin and related it, contrary to other `normal volcanic type margins', to a proposed magma flow along the base of the crust from beneath eastern Marie Byrd Land-West Antarctica to the Marie Byrd Seamount province. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of upper mantle serpentinization by seawater penetration at the Marie Byrd Seamount province. Hints of seaward-dipping reflectors indicate some degree of volcanism in the area after break-up. A set of gravity anomaly data

  7. New Antarctic Gravity Anomaly Grid for Enhanced Geodetic and Geophysical Studies in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinert, M; Ferraccioli, F; Schwabe, J; Bell, R; Studinger, M; Damaske, D; Jokat, W; Aleshkova, N; Jordan, T; Leitchenkov, G; Blankenship, D D; Damiani, T M; Young, D; Cochran, J R; Richter, T D

    2016-01-28

    Gravity surveying is challenging in Antarctica because of its hostile environment and inaccessibility. Nevertheless, many ground-based, airborne and shipborne gravity campaigns have been completed by the geophysical and geodetic communities since the 1980s. We present the first modern Antarctic-wide gravity data compilation derived from 13 million data points covering an area of 10 million km 2 , which corresponds to 73% coverage of the continent. The remove-compute-restore technique was applied for gridding, which facilitated levelling of the different gravity datasets with respect to an Earth Gravity Model derived from satellite data alone. The resulting free-air and Bouguer gravity anomaly grids of 10 km resolution are publicly available. These grids will enable new high-resolution combined Earth Gravity Models to be derived and represent a major step forward towards solving the geodetic polar data gap problem. They provide a new tool to investigate continental-scale lithospheric structure and geological evolution of Antarctica.

  8. Two new species of Colletteidae (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Tanaidomorpha from Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. Segadilha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples from deep benthic areas in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, revealed the presence of two new species of Colletteidae: Filitanais elongatus sp. nov. and Macrinella lavradoae sp. nov. Filitanais elongatus sp. nov. resembles F. moskalevi in its habitus; it can, however, be distinguished by characters such as the pleonites and pleotelson with lateral margins parallel and the uropod exopod being longer than half of the first endopod article. Macrinella lavradoae sp. nov. differs from the other species of Macrinella in the shape of the uropod and the pleotelson, with the uropod exopod shorter than the first article of the endopod, the uropod about as long as the pleotelson and the pleotelson with a rounded tip. The number of species of Tanaidacea recorded from Antarctica increases to 162, while the colletteids are now represented by 16 species. Moreover, the diagnosis of the genus Filitanais is herein modified.

  9. Elemental composition of Usnea sp lichen from Potter Peninsula, 25 de Mayo (King George) Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubach, Débora; Catán, Soledad Perez; Di Fonzo, Carla; Dopchiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Several pollutants, which include metals, are present in the Antarctic atmosphere, snow, marine and terrestrial organisms. This work reports the elements incorporated by Usnea sp thalli in Potter Peninsula, 25 de Mayo (King George) Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. Geological origin was analyzed as possible sources of elements. For this purpose, correlations were done using a geochemical tracer, principal component analysis and enrichment factors were computed. Lithophile elements from particulate matter were present in most of the sampling sites. Bromine, Se and Hg showed the highest enrichment factors suggesting other sources than the particulate matter. Mercury values found in Usnea sp were in the same range as those reported for Deception Island (South Shetlands) and remote areas from the Patagonia Andes. - Highlights: • Hg enrichment factor was higher in ASPA than in human settlements area. • The elemental composition in Usnea sp from Antarctica reflected the human influence. • Bromine, Ca, Sr, Se, Fe, Hg and K contents indicated origins natural and anthropic. • The data will be considered as baselines for Potter Peninsula, King George Island. - This study provides recent element contents in Usnea sp from Potter Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Some of them are the first concentration reported by Argentina.

  10. Trace metal fronts in European shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremling, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Hebrides shelf edge area is characterized by strong horizontal salinity gradients (fronts) which mark the boundary between Scottish coastal and oceanic waters. The results presented here, obtained in summer 1981 on a transect between the open north Atlantic and the German Bight, confirm that the hydrographical front is accompanied by dramatic increases in inorganic nutrients (phosphate, silicate) and dissolved trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Mn, and 226 Ra. These data (together with measurements from North Sea regions) suggest that the trace metals are mobilized from partly reduced (organic-rich) sediments and vertically mixed into the surface waters. The regional variations evident from the transect are interpreted as being the result of the hydrography prevailing in waters around the British Isles. (author)

  11. Impacts of a weather event on shelf circulation and CO2 and O2 dynamics on the Louisiana shelf during summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.-J.; Cai, W.-J.; Wang, Y.; Hopkinson, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    While much is known about the physics of coastal currents, much less is known about the biogeochemical effects of surface currents on shelf carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen distribution and dynamics. The Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plume is usually observed along the Louisiana shelf with easterly winds. Such a typical pattern was observed in August 2007, i.e. a plume of low salinity and low partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), indicating high biological production on the inner shelf; and higher salinity and pCO2 on the outer shelf. This high biological production induced by riverine nitrogen flux thus provided major organic matter sources for the shelf-wide hypoxia (dissolved oxygen [DO] hypoxic area. Furthermore, DIC concentration in bottom waters was higher than those predicted by the Redfield ratio, most likely because of much rapid O2 compensation than CO2 loss during air-sea exchange. Numerical models indicate such relocation of plume was mostly affected by the shelf circulation dominated by southerly and southwesterly winds. Consequently, we conclude that wind-forcing and shelf circulation are critical factors that influence the plume trajectories and the associated biogeochemical properties in coastal waters.

  12. Antarctica and the strategic plan for biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Chown

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, adopted under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, provides the basis for taking effective action to curb biodiversity loss across the planet by 2020-an urgent imperative. Yet, Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, which encompass 10% of the planet's surface, are excluded from assessments of progress against the Strategic Plan. The situation is a lost opportunity for biodiversity conservation globally. We provide such an assessment. Our evidence suggests, surprisingly, that for a region so remote and apparently pristine as the Antarctic, the biodiversity outlook is similar to that for the rest of the planet. Promisingly, however, much scope for remedial action exists.

  13. The genus Bryoerythrophyllum (Musci, Pottiaceae in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollman Philip

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic material of the genus Bryoerythrophyllum P. C. Chen was studied from all specimens present in KRAM. Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw. P. C. Chen var. antarcticum L. I. Savicz & Smirnova is treated as a distinct species: B. antarcticum (L. I. Savicz & Smirnova P. Sollman, stat. nov. Three species are now known in the Antarctic region: B. antarcticum, B. recurvirostrum and B. rubrum (Jur. ex Geh. P. C. Chen. Bryoerythrophyllum rubrum is reported for the first time from the Antarctic. It is a bipolar species. A key to the taxa is given. These species are described and briefly discussed, with notes on illustrations, reproduction, habitat, world range, distribution and elevation in Antarctica.

  14. Continental shelf landscapes of the southeastern United States since the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Scott; Sautter, Leslie Reynolds; Johnson, Kacey L.; Luciano, Katherine E.; Sedberry, George R.; Wright, Eric E.; Siuda, Amy N. S.

    2013-12-01

    The wide, sediment-starved continental shelf and modern coastal areas of the southeastern United States retain well-preserved but scattered remnants of a submerged paleolandscape. This paper presents a conceptual model of stratigraphic deposition and landscape formation since the last interglacial on the continental shelf of South Carolina, with portions of North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (USA). Data for this study include multibeam bathymetry surveys, sidescan sonar mosaics, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and ground-truth surveys from - 250 m to the modern tidewater region. Four bathymetric zones are recognized with eleven landforms and landform indicators. The described zones range in depths from the modern shoreline, across the shelf, and over the shelf edge to - 250 m MSL. Relative sea level curves are presented for the area and discussed in conjunction with cultural and climatic events. The potential for preservation of Paleoamerican sites is high at the shelf edge between - 130 m and - 45 m, with Archaic and later occupations likely in depths of less than - 25 m. Prominent vantage points for Paleoamericans (> 11 kya) would have existed at the shelf edge, and tidewater resources would have been available nearby for a period of almost 6 ka. Rapid transgression rates (> 60 km/ka) after the sea level rose over the shelf edge make preservation of tidewater sites less likely on the outer and middle shelf. Searches for the earliest Paleoamericans should focus on promontories at the edge of the shelf and along future discoveries of paleoincisions on the shelf. Mapping and delineating this paleolandscape and associated unconsolidated sedimentary deposits interspersed with rocky plains and ledges will continue to be a priority to marine archeologists, coastal managers, fishery scientists, and marine spatial planners over the next several decades.

  15. The Northeast Greenland Shelf as a Potential Habitat for the Northeast Arctic Cod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti O. Strand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations (1978–1991 of distributions of pelagic juvenile Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L. show that up to 1/3 of the year class are dispersed off the continental shelf and into the deep Norwegian Sea while on the way from the spring-spawning areas along the Norwegian coast to the autumn-settlement areas in the Barents Sea. The fate of this variable fraction of pelagic juveniles off-shelf has been an open question ever since Johan Hjort's (1914 seminal work. We have examined both the mechanisms causing offspring off-shelf transport, and their subsequent destiny using an individual-based biophysical model applied to quantify growth and dispersal. Our results show, consistently with the observations, that total off-shelf transport is highly variable between years and may be up to 27.4%. Offspring from spawning grounds around Lofoten have a higher chance of being displaced off the shelf. The off-shelf transport is dominated by episodic events where frequencies and dates vary between years. Northeasterly wind conditions over a 3–7-day period prior to the off-shelf events are a good proxy for dispersal of offspring off the shelf. Offspring transported into the open ocean are on average carried along three following routes: back onto the adjacent eastern shelves and into the Barents Sea (36.9%, recirculating within the Lofoten Basin (60.7%, or drifting northwest to the northeast Greenland shelf (2.4%. For the latter fraction the transport may exceed 12% depending on year. Recent investigations have discovered distributions of young cod on the northeast Greenland shelf indicating that conditions may support survival for Northeast Arctic cod offspring.

  16. Chlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in migrating and resident seabirds from East and West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2011-11-01

    The unhatched eggs of the following seabirds were analyzed to quantify PCBs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-, β-, γ-, δ-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), o,p' and p,p' isomers of DDT, DDD and DDE: resident Adèlie (Pygoscelis adèliae, ADPE) and Emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri, EMPE) penguins, migrating snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea, SNPT) and South Polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki, SPSK) from the Ross Sea (East Antarctica); and migrating Brown skua (Catharacta antartica, BRSK) and resident ADPE from the Brainsfield Strait (West Antarctica). The general aims were to evaluate the contaminant accumulation in eggs of migrating and resident species in the two study areas, and to compare levels in penguins and skuas nesting in East and West Antarctica. PCB congener and HCH and DDT isomer profiles were also assessed. Comparisons were evaluated using seven PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118+149, 138, 153, and 180), p,p'-DDE, ΣDDTs, and ΣHCHs. Higher contaminant concentrations were detected in migrating seabirds (South polar skua and brown skua)>sub-Antarctic species (snow petrel)>Antarctic species (penguins) from both the sampling sites, suggesting contamination events at lower latitudes for those birds migrating northward. HCHs showed the lowest concentrations in all species (from 0.03±0.03 ng/g wet wt in SPSK to 1.81±1.23 ng/g wet wt in ADPE from West Antarctica), and PCBs were the most abundant contaminants (from 4.34±2.15 ng/g wet wt. in EMPE to 53.41±19.61 ng/g wet wt. in brown skua). Among pesticides, it is relevant the detection of p,p'-DDT in Adèlie penguin from West Antarctica and in both species of skua; the detection of this pesticide can confirm its actual use in certain malaria-endemic countries from where it is transferred through the long range transport to the polar regions. Contaminants did not show any significant temporal trend during a ten year time span, from 1994/95 to 2004/05, in organisms collected in East Antarctica and they did not

  17. Glaciological studies near the Soer Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Motoyama

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In the area west of Mizuho Plateau, outflow of the ice sheet is hindered by a chain of mountains (Sor Rondane, Belgica and Yamato Mountains etc. lying along the coast of the continent and ice shelves are developing at the margin of the ice sheet. Therefore the ice sheet geomorphology and dynamical behavior in this area are quite different from those on the Mizuho Plateau. In order to describe the response of the East Antarctic ice sheet to climatic change, we need to know the influence of the presence of mountains on stability of the ice sheet. This glaciological study aims to investigate whether the ice sheet and the ice shelf in this area are now increasing or decreasing in size possibly, in response to atmospheric warming, how far this part of the ice sheet departs from a steady state, and how the influence of climatic change is left inside the ice sheet and the ice shelf. For this purpose the following studies were performed in 1988 and 1989. 1 A series of shallow drillings along a selected flow line upstream of the Sor Rondane Mountains to Breid Bay. 2 Surface flow velocity, strain and mass balance measurements on the flow line. 3 Monitoring of a valley glacier in the Sor Rondane Mountains.

  18. Vertical transport of organic matter in the various oceanic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Nobuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuhide

    1993-01-01

    Organic matter produced by the photosynthesis of the phytoplankton is removed from the euphotic layer to the underlying waters by sinking of the particles consisting of both marine snow and fecal pellet. Phytoplankton bloom always enhances the vertical flux of organic matter from the subsurface to deep waters. Turbidity current is another factor to govern the vertical flux of organic carbon especially in the continental shelf to its slope areas. However, no information are available to distinguish the organic materials from these two sources. Stable carbon isotope ratio and fatty acid composition give most promising informations to diagnose the physiological state of the phytoplankton which is one of the source of the organic materials of the sinking particle, because of the extensive variations of the δ 13 C of the phytoplankton cellular organic matter and fatty acid composition due to the phytoplankton growth rate (O'Leary, 1981; Morris et al., 1985). Δ 14 C of the organic matter of the sinking particle will provide an information as to how much organic materials are derived from the phytoplankton growing in the surface and subsurface waters and/or from the resuspended particles of the surface sediment in the continental shelf and its slope areas. Recently we analyzed various samples of the sinking particles collected from the coastal areas of the Antarctica and off Hokkaido, Japan for fatty acids and found that ratios as biomarker to diagnose these growth phases of the phytoplankton growing in the surface to subsurface waters. Thus, we intend to report here these data obtained. (J.P.N.)

  19. On the shelf life of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Ireland, Charles; Liu, Oscar; Lyapustina, Svetlana; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Sandell, Dennis; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter; Tougas, Terrence

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes new terminology that distinguishes between different concepts involved in the discussion of the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Such comprehensive and common language is currently lacking from various guidelines, which confuses implementation and impedes comparisons of different methodologies. The five new terms that are necessary for a coherent discussion of shelf life are: true shelf life, estimated shelf life, supported shelf life, maximum shelf life, and labeled shelf life. These concepts are already in use, but not named as such. The article discusses various levels of "product" on which different stakeholders tend to focus (e.g., a single-dosage unit, a batch, a production process, etc.). The article also highlights a key missing element in the discussion of shelf life-a Quality Statement, which defines the quality standard for all key stakeholders. Arguments are presented that for regulatory and statistical reasons the true product shelf life should be defined in terms of a suitably small quantile (e.g., fifth) of the distribution of batch shelf lives. The choice of quantile translates to an upper bound on the probability that a randomly selected batch will be nonconforming when tested at the storage time defined by the labeled shelf life. For this strategy, a random-batch model is required. This approach, unlike a fixed-batch model, allows estimation of both within- and between-batch variability, and allows inferences to be made about the entire production process. This work was conducted by the Stability Shelf Life Working Group of the Product Quality Research Institute.

  20. Swell propagation across a wide continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of wave refraction and damping on swell propagation across a wide continental shelf were examined with data from a transect of bottom pressure recorders extending from the beach to the shelf break near Duck, North Carolina. The observations generally show weak variations in swell energy across the shelf during benign conditions, in qualitative agreement with predictions of a spectral refraction model. Although the predicted ray trajectories are quite sensitive to the irregular she...

  1. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  2. Deglacial temperature history of West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffey, Kurt M.; Clow, Gary D.; Steig, Eric J.; Buizert, Christo; Fudge, T.J.; Koutnik, Michelle; Waddington, Edwin D.; Alley, Richard B.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The most recent glacial to interglacial transition constitutes a remarkable natural experiment for learning how Earth’s climate responds to various forcings, including a rise in atmospheric CO2. This transition has left a direct thermal remnant in the polar ice sheets, where the exceptional purity and continual accumulation of ice permit analyses not possible in other settings. For Antarctica, the deglacial warming has previously been constrained only by the water isotopic composition in ice cores, without an absolute thermometric assessment of the isotopes’ sensitivity to temperature. To overcome this limitation, we measured temperatures in a deep borehole and analyzed them together with ice-core data to reconstruct the surface temperature history of West Antarctica. The deglacial warming was 11.3±1.8∘">11.3±1.8∘11.3±1.8∘C, approximately two to three times the global average, in agreement with theoretical expectations for Antarctic amplification of planetary temperature changes. Consistent with evidence from glacier retreat in Southern Hemisphere mountain ranges, the Antarctic warming was mostly completed by 15 kyBP, several millennia earlier than in the Northern Hemisphere. These results constrain the role of variable oceanic heat transport between hemispheres during deglaciation and quantitatively bound the direct influence of global climate forcings on Antarctic temperature. Although climate models perform well on average in this context, some recent syntheses of deglacial climate history have underestimated Antarctic warming and the models with lowest sensitivity can be discounted.

  3. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco, S.; Behera, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants

  4. Plant and bird presence strongly influences the microbial communities in soils of Admiralty Bay, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Lia C R S; Yeargeau, Etienne; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Piccolo, Marisa C; Peixoto, Raquel S; Greer, Charles W; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing relatively large changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen) and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies), Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific.

  5. Plant and bird presence strongly influences the microbial communities in soils of Admiralty Bay, Maritime Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia C R S Teixeira

    Full Text Available Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing relatively large changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies, Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific.

  6. Plant and Bird Presence Strongly Influences the Microbial Communities in Soils of Admiralty Bay, Maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Lia C. R. S.; Yeargeau, Etienne; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Piccolo, Marisa C.; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Greer, Charles W.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing relatively large changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen) and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies), Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific. PMID:23840411

  7. New Perspectives on Blowing Snow Transport, Sublimation, and Layer Thermodynamic Structure over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Steve; Kayetha, Vinay; Yang, Yuekui; Pauly, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    Blowing snow over Antarctica is a widespread and frequent event. Satellite remote sensing using lidar has shown that blowing snow occurs over 70% of the time over large areas of Antarctica in winter. The transport and sublimation of blowing snow are important terms in the ice sheet mass balance equation and the latter is also an important part of the hydrological cycle. Until now the only way to estimate the magnitude of these processes was through model parameterization. We present a technique that uses direct satellite observations of blowing snow and model (MERRA-2) temperature and humidity fields to compute both transport and sublimation of blowing snow over Antarctica for the period 2006 to 2016. The results show a larger annual continent-wide integrated sublimation than current published estimates and a significant transport of snow from continent to ocean. The talk will also include the lidar backscatter structure of blowing snow layers that often reach heights of 200 to 300 m as well as the first dropsonde measurements of temperature, moisture and wind through blowing snow layers.

  8. Temporal and spatial patterns of anthropogenic disturbance at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, Mahlon C II; Klein, Andrew; Montagna, Paul; Palmer, Terence; Sweet, Stephen; Wade, Terry; Sericano, Jose; Denoux, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human visitations to Antarctica have increased in recent decades, raising concerns about preserving the continent's environmental quality. To understand the spatial and temporal patterns of anthropogenic disturbances at the largest scientific station in Antarctica, McMurdo Station, a long-term monitoring program has been implemented. Results from the first nine years (1999-2007) of monitoring are reported. Most physical disturbance of land surfaces occurred prior to 1970 during initial establishment of the station. Hydrocarbons from fuel and anthropogenic metals occur in patches of tens to hundreds of square meters in areas of fuel usage and storage. Most soil contaminant concentrations are not expected to elicit biological responses. Past disposal practices have contaminated marine sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), petroleum hydrocarbons, and metals in close proximity to the station that often exceed concentrations expected to elicit biological responses. Chemical contamination and organic enrichment reduced marine benthic ecological integrity within a few hundred meters offshore of the station. Contaminants were detected in marine benthic organisms confirming bioavailability and uptake. PCBs in sediments are similar to suspected source materials, indicating minimal microbial degradation decades after release. Anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment is likely to persist for decades. A number of monitoring design elements, indicators and methodologies used in temperate climates were effective and provide guidance for monitoring programs elsewhere in Antarctica.

  9. A varied subglacial landscape under Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, K. A.; Holschuh, N.; Paden, J. D.; Sprick, J.; Peters, L. E.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Deglaciated landscapes, whether subaerial or submarine, are often host to a rich panoply of subglacial landforms, such as drumlims, crags, megascale glacial lineations, grounding-line wedges, deep meltwater channels, and more. These landforms are formed and shaped by interactions between the ice and underlying substrate, and thus have implications for the flow of the overlying ice. Robust interpretations of the relationship between the ice and its substrate based on subglacial landforms that remain after deglaciation have been inhibited by a dearth of high-resolution observations of currently glaciated subglacial landscapes, where ice flow speed is known and where subglacial conditions can be ascertained using geophysical methods. Past direct observations of landforms under currently fast-flowing ice have been limited to a few ice streams, where relatively homogeneous, thick dilatant till layers may favor formation of specific subglacial features, i.e., megascale glacial lineations and grounding-zone wedges. Here we present two detailed gridded subglacial topographies, obtained from ice-penetrating radar measurements, from Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica, where ice flows over a highly variable bed (in both topography and model-inferred basal shear stress). One grid is located ˜170 km downstream from the ice divide where ice is moving ˜100 m/yr. Here the ice advects over a broad basin and then flows into a subglacial ridge (of several hundred meters amplitude) oriented orthogonally to flow. A deep canyon ( 400 m) that cuts through this ridge in roughly the ice-flow direction and relatively soft sediments on the downstream side of the basin (immediately upstream of the canyon) suggest that a large subglacial lake may have formed in this location and drained catastrophically, as has been hypothesized as the formation mechanism for the deep canyons observed on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf. Numerous multiscale glacial lineations are also observed in the

  10. Early precursors to break-up of the Larsen Ice Shelves, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambos, T. A.; Klinger, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ice flux into the embayments left behind by the collapse of the Larsen A and Larsen B ice shelves surged 2- to 6-fold after their disintegration events in 1995 and 2002. Glacier imbalance in the region since the events has been persistent, with elevation changes indicating a mass loss per year of approximately twice the rate of accumulation (Scambos et al., 2014, TCryo). The proximal cause of the disintegration events was a group of processes arising from the presence of extensive surface melt lakes and hydrofracture. However, precursor changes in the ice shelves beginning more than a decade before the disintegrations have been identified, and coincide with a trend towards reduced sea ice cover and increased foehn winds. Ice flow speeds in the Larsen A and B increased, even in the period prior to the loss of critical inboard areas of the ice shelf (which began in 1998 for the Larsen B), and elevation of the ice shelf surface decreased. Ice shelf surface lowering is interpreted as resulting from actual ice shelf thinning for this area, since field studies on both the Larsen A and B noted the upper firn of the shelf was almost completely converted to ice. Examination of satellite images spanning 1963 - 2014 shows that Larsen B shear margins and some suture zones evolved significantly prior to major ice shelf retreat. Overall, these changes suggest either increased ocean-driven basal melt or effects of increased surface meltwater on grounded glacier outflow are a cause of early shelf weakening that leads eventually to disintegration. Available ocean temperature data show that modified Weddell Deep Water, having a temperature 0.1-0.4°C above the surface freezing point, is present near the former ice fronts in some 1995-2012 profiles, but to date this has not been detected within the embayments or near the glacier grounding lines.

  11. Before the freeze: otoliths from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica, reveal dominance of gadiform fishes (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Mörs, Thomas; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Reguero, Marcelo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp. nov., Macruronus eastmani sp. nov., Coelorinchus balushkini sp. nov., Coelorinchus nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Palimphemus seymourensis sp. nov., Hoplobrotula? antipoda sp. nov., Notoberyx cionei gen. et sp. nov. and Cepola anderssoni sp. nov. Macruronus eastmani sp. nov. is also known from the late Eocene of Southern Australia, and Tripterophycis immutatus Schwarzhans, widespread in the southern oceans during the Eocene, has been recorded from New Zealand, southern Australia, and now Antarctica. The otolith assemblage shows a typical composition of temperate fishes dominated by gadiforms, very similar at genus and family levels to associations known from middle Eocene strata of New Zealand and the late Eocene of southern Australia, but also to the temperate Northern Hemisphere associations from the Paleocene of Denmark. The Seymour Island fauna bridges a gap in the record of global temperate marine teleost faunas during the early Eocene climate maximum. The dominant gadiforms are interpreted as the main temperate faunal component, as in the Paleocene of Denmark. Here they are represented by the families Moridae, Merlucciidae (Macruroninae), Macrouridae and Gadidae. Nowadays Gadidae are a chiefly Northern Hemisphere temperate family. Moridae, Macruroninae and Macrouridae live today on the lower shelf to deep-water or mesopelagically with Macruroninae being restricted to the Southern Ocean. The extant endemic Antarctic gadiform family

  12. Broadband seismic deployments in East Antarctica: IPY contribution to monitoring the Earth’s interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Deployment of broadband seismic stations on the Antarctica continent” is an ambitious project to improve the spatial resolution of seismic data across the Antarctic Plate and surrounding regions. Several international collaborative programs for the purpose of geomonitoring were conducted in Antarctica during the International Polar Year (IPY 2007-2008. The Antarctica’s GAmburtsev Province (AGAP; IPY #147, the GAmburtsev Mountain SEISmic experiment (GAMSEIS, a part of AGAP, and the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET; IPY #185 were major contributions in establishing a geophysical network in Antarctica. The AGAP/GAMSEIS project was an internationally coordinated deployment of more than 30 broadband seismographs over the crest of the Gambursev Mountains (Dome-A, Dome-C and Dome-F area. The investigations provide detailed information on crustal thickness and mantle structure; provide key constraints on the origin of the Gamburtsev Mountains; and more broadly on the structure and evolution of the East Antarctic craton and subglacial environment. From GAMSEIS and POLENET data obtained, local and regional seismic signals associated with ice movements, oceanic loading, and local meteorological variations were recorded together with a significant number of teleseismic events. In this chapter, in addition to the Earth’s interiors, we will demonstrate some of the remarkable seismic signals detected during IPY that illustrate the capabilities of broadband seismometers to study the sub-glacial environment, particularly at the margins of Antarctica. Additionally, the AGAP and POLENET stations have an important role in the Federation of Digital Seismographic Network (FDSN in southern high latitude.

  13. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Exploration activity has reached record-breaking levels in the last couple of years, which has led to many, but small, discoveries. The NPD believes that large discoveries can still be made in areas of the shelf that have not been extensively explored. Content: Challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf; Value creation in fields; 40 years of oil and gas production; Resource management; Still many possibilities; Energy consumption and the environment; Exploration; Access to acreage; Awards of new licenses; Exploration in frontier areas; Exploration history and statistics; Resources and forecasts; Undiscovered resources; Proven recoverable resources; Forecasts; Short-term petroleum production forecast (2009-2013); Investments- and operating costs forecasts; Long-term forecast for the petroleum production; Emissions from the petroleum activity. (AG)

  14. The internal layering of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, from airborne radar-sounding data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Nanna Bjørnholt; Rippin, David; Vaughan, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of internal layering across Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, as measured from airborne-radar data acquired during a survey conducted by the British Antarctic Survey and the University of Texas in the 2004/05 season. Internal layering is classified according...... to type (continuous/discontinuous/missing) and the results compared with InSAR velocities. Several areas exhibit disruption of internal layers that is most likely caused by large basal shear stresses. Signs of changes in flow were identified in a few inter-tributary areas, but overall the layering...

  15. Decadal variability on the Northwest European continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Cottier, Finlo; Inall, Mark; Griffiths, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Decadal scale time series of the shelf seas are important for understanding both climate and process studies. Despite numerous investigations of long-term temperature variability in the shelf seas, studies of salinity variability are few. Salt is a more conservative tracer than temperature in shallow seas, and it can reveal changes in local hydrographic conditions as well as transmitted basin-scale changes. Here, new inter-annual salinity time series on the northwest European shelf are developed and a 13 year high resolution salinity record from a coastal mooring in western Scotland is presented and analysed. We find strong temporal variability in coastal salinity on timescales ranging from tidal to inter-annual, with the magnitude of variability greatest during winter months. There is little seasonality and no significant decadal trend in the coastal time series of salinity. We propose 4 hydrographic states to explain salinity variance in the shelf area west of Scotland based on the interaction between a baroclinic coastal current and wind-forced barotropic flow: while wind forcing is important, we find that changes in the buoyancy-driven flow are more likely to influence long-term salinity observations. We calculate that during prevailing westerly wind conditions, surface waters in the Sea of the Hebrides receive a mix of 62% Atlantic origin water to 38% coastal sources. This contrasts with easterly wind conditions, during which the mix is 6% Atlantic to 94% coastal sources on average. This 'switching' between hydrographic states is expected to impact nutrient transport and therefore modify the level of primary productivity on the shelf. This strong local variability in salinity is roughly an order of magnitude greater than changes in the adjacent ocean basin, and we infer from this that Scottish coastal waters are likely to be resilient to decadal changes in ocean climate.

  16. Exchange across the shelf break at high southern latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Klinck

    2010-05-01

    water. These water mass conversions are known to have an important effect on export of dense water from many Antarctic coastal areas. An artificial dye, as well as temperature, is used to diagnose the flux of CDW onto the shelf. Model results for the Ross Sea show a vigorous onshore flux of oceanic water across the shelf break both at depth and at the surface as well as creation of dense water (High Salinity Shelf Water created by coastal polynyas in the western Ross Sea.

  17. LiDAR in extreme environment: surveying in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abate

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed under the patronage of the Italian National Research Programme in Antarctica (PNRA with the aim to realize a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the moraine named "Boulder Clay" which insists approximately 7 km far from the Italian Research Base "Mario Zucchelli Station" in the Terra Nova Bay area. The DEM will be included in the project for the construction of two runways to be used as support facilities for the scientific research campaigns which take place on regular basis each year. Although the research efforts to realize a detailed cartography of the area is on-going, for the specific aim and urgency of this project it was decided to perform a laser scanning survey in this extreme environment in order to obtain contour lines describing the terrain elevation each 50 cm and volume analysis. The final result will be super imposed on a photogrammetric DEM with contour lines each 2.5 m and satellite images. This paper focus both on the final scientific data and on all the challenges have to be faced in such extreme and particular environment during the laser scanning survey.

  18. Soil-landform-plant communities relationships of a periglacial landscape at Potter Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelking, E. L.; Schaefer, C. E. R.; Fernandes Filho, E. I.; de Andrade, A. M.; Spielmann, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on monitoring climate change in Maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated in Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil-landform-vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a Quickbird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities at Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils with greater moisture or poorly drained, and acid to neutral pH, are favourable for mosses subformations. Saline, organic-matter rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felseenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens, at the highest surface. Lichens subformations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  19. Soil-landform-plant-community relationships of a periglacial landscape on Potter Peninsula, maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelking, E. L.; Schaefer, C. E. R.; Fernandes Filho, E. I.; de Andrade, A. M.; Spielmann, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on the monitoring of climate change in maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated on Potter Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil-landform-vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a QuickBird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities on Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils that have greater moisture or are poorly drained, and with acid to neutral pH, are favourable for moss sub-formations. Saline, organic-matter-rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felsenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens at the highest surface. Lichens sub-formations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  20. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201 I. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  1. RAMP AMM-1 SAR Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In 1997, the Canadian RADARSAT-1 satellite was rotated in orbit so that its Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna looked south towards Antarctica. This permitted...

  2. Iceberg Harmonic Tremor, Seismometer Data, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seismometers were placed on a 25 km by 50 km iceberg called C16 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, to identify the Iceberg harmonic Tremor (IHT) source mechanism and to...

  3. Book review: The future of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.

    1991-01-01

    A conference on Antarctica: an Exploitable Resource too Valuable to Develop? took place at the Sir Robert Menzies Centre for Australian studies at the University of London in either late 1989 or early 1990. The papers were compiled into this small book (only 104 pages of text exclusive of useful appendices containing maps, texts of the Antarctic treaty and the Convention on the regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activity [CRAMRA]) which addresses the hottest issues confronting the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties in the early 1990’s. Some of the discussion is being overtaken by events, but fortunately, the general quality and broadness of the coverage will make the book useful to diplomats, historians, international lawyers, scientists and other environmentalists for some time to come.

  4. Antarctica and the strategic plan for biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L.; Brooks, Cassandra M.; Terauds, Aleks; Le Bohec, Céline; van Klaveren-Impagliazzo, Céline; Whittington, Jason D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Coetzee, Bernard W. T.; Collen, Ben; Convey, Peter; Gaston, Kevin J.; Gilbert, Neil; Gill, Mike; Höft, Robert; Johnston, Sam; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Kriesell, Hannah J.; Le Maho, Yvon; Lynch, Heather J.; Palomares, Maria; Puig-Marcó, Roser; Stoett, Peter; McGeoch, Melodie A.

    2017-01-01

    The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, adopted under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, provides the basis for taking effective action to curb biodiversity loss across the planet by 2020—an urgent imperative. Yet, Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, which encompass 10% of the planet’s surface, are excluded from assessments of progress against the Strategic Plan. The situation is a lost opportunity for biodiversity conservation globally. We provide such an assessment. Our evidence suggests, surprisingly, that for a region so remote and apparently pristine as the Antarctic, the biodiversity outlook is similar to that for the rest of the planet. Promisingly, however, much scope for remedial action exists. PMID:28350825

  5. Eocene squalomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatiidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni, Squalus woodburnei, Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina sp. differ from other Palaeogene squatinid species, we refrain from introducing a new species. A new dalatiid taxon, Eodalatias austrinalis gen. et sp. nov. is described. This new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic elasmobranchs but also allows assuming that favourable deep-water habitats were available in the Eocene Antarctic Ocean off Antarctica in the Eocene. The occurrences of deep-water inhabitants in shallow, near-coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula agrees well with extant distribution patterns.

  6. Eocene squalomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatiidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni , Squalus woodburnei , Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina sp. differ from other Palaeogene squatinid species, we refrain from introducing a new species. A new dalatiid taxon, Eodalatias austrinalis gen. et sp. nov. is described. This new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic elasmobranchs but also allows assuming that favourable deep-water habitats were available in the Eocene Antarctic Ocean off Antarctica in the Eocene. The occurrences of deep-water inhabitants in shallow, near-coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula agrees well with extant distribution patterns.

  7. Caloplaca coeruleofrigida sp. nova, a species from continental Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Seppelt, R.

    2003-01-01

    Caloplaca coeruleofrigida Søchting & Seppelt is described from Southern Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. It is characterized by vertically elongated papillae and a pale orange pigmentation on shaded parts, and black thallus and apothecia on exposed parts of the thallus......Caloplaca coeruleofrigida Søchting & Seppelt is described from Southern Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. It is characterized by vertically elongated papillae and a pale orange pigmentation on shaded parts, and black thallus and apothecia on exposed parts of the thallus...

  8. Occurrence and diversity of marine yeasts in Antarctica environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Hua, Mingxia; Song, Chunli; Chi, Zhenming

    2012-03-01

    A total of 28 yeast strains were obtained from the sea sediment of Antarctica. According to the results of routine identification and molecular characterization, the strains belonged to species of Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula slooffiae, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mrakia frigida and Guehomyces pullulans, respectively. The Antarctica yeasts have wide potential applications in biotechnology, for some of them can produce β-galactosidase and killer toxins.

  9. It’s good to be big--- Phaeocystis antarctica colony size under the influence of zooplankton grazers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica forms extremely dense accumulations in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and accounts for over 60% of the seasonal primary production. Similar to the Phaeocystis species in the northern hemisphere, P. antarctica exists as solitary cells and mucilagin...

  10. IT’S GOOD TO BE BIG—PHAEOCYSTIS ANTARCTICA COLONY SIZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ZOOPLANKTON GRAZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica forms extremely dense accumulations in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and accounts for over 60% of the seasonal primary production. Similar to the Phaeocystis species in the northern hemisphere, P. antarctica exists as solitary cells and mucilagin...

  11. Geothermal heat flux in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica: New insights from temperature measurements, depth to the bottom of the magnetic source estimation, and thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, R.; Gohl, K.; Diehl, A.; Kaul, N.

    2017-07-01

    Focused research on the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, which drain the West Antarctic Ice Shelf (WAIS) into the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE), revealed strong signs of instability in recent decades that result from variety of reasons, such as inflow of warmer ocean currents and reverse bedrock topography, and has been established as the Marine Ice Sheet Instability hypothesis. Geothermal heat flux (GHF) is a poorly constrained parameter in Antarctica and suspected to affect basal conditions of ice sheets, i.e., basal melting and subglacial hydrology. Thermomechanical models demonstrate the influential boundary condition of geothermal heat flux for (paleo) ice sheet stability. Due to a complex tectonic and magmatic history of West Antarctica, the region is suspected to exhibit strong heterogeneous geothermal heat flux variations. We present an approach to investigate ranges of realistic heat fluxes in the ASE by different methods, discuss direct observations, and 3-D numerical models that incorporate boundary conditions derived from various geophysical studies, including our new Depth to the Bottom of the Magnetic Source (DBMS) estimates. Our in situ temperature measurements at 26 sites in the ASE more than triples the number of direct GHF observations in West Antarctica. We demonstrate by our numerical 3-D models that GHF spatially varies from 68 up to 110 mW m-2.

  12. Analysis of mercury and other heavy metals accumulated in lichen Usnea antarctica from James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvěřina, O.; Láska, K.; Červenka, R.; Kuta, J.; Coufalík, Pavel; Komárek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 12 (2014), s. 9089-9100 ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : antarctica * heavy metal * mercury * lichen Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.679, year: 2014

  13. Neutron activation analysis on sediments from Victoria Land, Antarctica. Multi-elemental characterization of potential atmospheric dust sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccolo, G.; Maggi, V.; Baroni, C.; Clemenza, M.; Motta, A.; Nastasi, M.; Previtali, E.; University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan; Delmonte, B.; Salvatore, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The elemental composition of 40 samples of mineral sediments collected in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in correspondence of ice-free sites, is presented. Concentration of 36 elements was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA. The selection of 6 standard reference materials and the development of a specific analytical procedure allowed to reduce measurements uncertainties and to verify the reproducibility of the results. The decision to analyze sediment samples from Victoria Land ice-free areas is related to recent investigations regarding mineral dust content in the TALos Dome ICE core (159deg11'E; 72deg49'S, East Antarctica, Victoria Land), in which a coarse local fraction of dust was recognized. The characterization of Antarctic potential source areas of atmospheric mineral dust is the first step to identify the active sources of dust for the Talos Dome area and to reconstruct the atmospheric pathways followed by air masses in this region during different climatic periods. Principal components analysis was used to identify elements and samples correlations; attention was paid specially to rare earth elements (REE) and incompatible/compatible elements (ICE) in respect to iron, which proved to be the most discriminating elemental groups. The analysis of REE and ICE concentration profiles supported evidences of chemical weathering in ice-free areas of Victoria Land, whereas cold and dry climate conditions of the Talos Dome area and in general of East Antarctica. (author)

  14. Recovery of Durvillaea antarctica (Durvilleales) inside and outside Las Cruces Marine Reserve, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, J C; Campo, M A; Bustamante, R H

    2007-07-01

    We present the results for over two decades of monitoring on intertidal food-gatherers and the population of the low rocky shore dweller kelp Durvillaea antarctica, a short-distance disperser, inside and outside the no-take marine reserve, Estacion Costera de Investigaciones Marinas (ECIM), at Las Cruces, central Chile. It was hypothesized that protection of an initially extremely depleted population would recover by recolonizing first the no-take area and then adjacent non-protected (exploited) areas. We found that recovery of D. antarctica occurred slowly inside ECIM, with increase in density and biomass, of up to three orders of magnitude as compared to an adjacent non-protected area, which showed approximately 2-yr delay. These results suggest that the kelp population inside ECIM was likely regulated via intraspecific competition, which did not occur outside. Results showed no evidence for juvenile vs. adult density dependence other than a weak relationship for the central area of ECIM. These findings also suggest that the population recovery and cross-boundary seeding subsides affected the population dynamics. Understanding these dynamics may enhance management and conservation policies. Our work highlights the critical value of baseline and long-term comparative studies in marine no-take protected and non-protected areas for understanding how population processes respond to human and conservation practices.

  15. Sponge assemblages on the deep Mediterranean continental shelf and slope (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Andreu; Grinyó, Jordi; Ambroso, Stefano; Uriz, Maria J.; Gori, Andrea; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Sponge assemblages on continental shelves and slopes around the world have been known about for centuries. However, due to limitations of the traditional sampling systems, data about individual sponge species rather than assemblages have been reported. This study characterizes sponge assemblages over a wide bathymetric range ( 50-350 m depth) and covering the entire continental shelf and the upper slope of the Menorca Channel, an area soon to be declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA) as part of the Natura 2000 Network. Quantitative analysis of 85 video-transects (a total linear distance of 75 km), together with representative collections to confirm species identifications, allowed us to discriminate six major assemblages. Differences in the assemblages mainly corresponded to differences in substrate type and depth. On the inner continental shelf, a semi-sciaphilous Axinellid assemblage dominated the rocky outcrops. Maërl beds on the inner continental shelf were dominated by Haliclona (Reniera) mediterranea, whereas the horny sponge Aplysina cavernicola and several other haliclonids mostly dominated maërl beds and rocky substrates of the outer shelf. Soft sediments on the shelf break hosted a monospecific Thenea muricata assemblage, whereas rocky substrates of the shelf break were characterized by a mixture of encrusting, columnar and fan-shaped sponges. Finally, the upper slope was dominated by Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula and the hexactinellid Tretodictyum reiswigi. Overall, sponge diversity showed its highest values above the shelf break, plummeting severely on the upper slope. Despite this diversity decrease, we found very high densities (> 70 ind./m2) of sponges over vast areas of both the shelf break and the upper slope.

  16. A laboratory scale model of abrupt ice-shelf disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Boghosian, A.; Styron, D. D.; Burton, J. C.; Amundson, J. M.; Cathles, L. M.; Abbot, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An important mode of Earth’s disappearing cryosphere is the abrupt disintegration of ice shelves along the Peninsula of Antarctica. This disintegration process may be triggered by climate change, however the work needed to produce the spectacular, explosive results witnessed with the Larsen B and Wilkins ice-shelf events of the last decade comes from the large potential energy release associated with iceberg capsize and fragmentation. To gain further insight into the underlying exchanges of energy involved in massed iceberg movements, we have constructed a laboratory-scale model designed to explore the physical and hydrodynamic interactions between icebergs in a confined channel of water. The experimental apparatus consists of a 2-meter water tank that is 30 cm wide. Within the tank, we introduce fresh water and approximately 20-100 rectangular plastic ‘icebergs’ having the appropriate density contrast with water to mimic ice. The blocks are initially deployed in a tight pack, with all blocks arranged in a manner to represent the initial state of an integrated ice shelf or ice tongue. The system is allowed to evolve through time under the driving forces associated with iceberg hydrodynamics. Digitized videography is used to quantify how the system of plastic icebergs evolves between states of quiescence to states of mobilization. Initial experiments show that, after a single ‘agitator’ iceberg begins to capsize, an ‘avalanche’ of capsizing icebergs ensues which drives horizontal expansion of the massed icebergs across the water surface, and which stimulates other icebergs to capsize. A surprise initially evident in the experiments is the fact that the kinetic energy of the expanding mass of icebergs is only a small fraction of the net potential energy released by the rearrangement of mass via capsize. Approximately 85 - 90 % of the energy released by the system goes into water motion modes, including a pervasive, easily observed seich mode of the tank

  17. Cryolithozone of Western Arctic shelf of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmyanskii, Mikhail; Vladimirov, Maksim; Snopova, Ekaterina; Kartashev, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new original version of the structure of the cryolithozone of west Arctic seas of Russia. In contrast to variants of construction of sections and maps based on thermodynamic modeling, the authors have used electrometric, seismic, and thermal data including their own profile measurements by near-field transient electromagnetic technique and seismic profile observations by reflection method. As a result, we defined the spatial characteristics of cryolithozone and managed to differentiate it to several layers, different both in structure and formation time. We confirmed once again that the spatial boundary of cryolithozone, type and thickness of permafrost, chilled rocks and thawed ground are primarily determined by tectonic and oceanographic regimes of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent land in different geological epochs. Permafrost formed on the land in times of cold weather, turn to submarine during flooding and overlap, in the case of the sea transgression, by marine sediments accumulating in the period of warming. We have been able to establish a clear link between the permafrost thickness and the geomorphological structure of the area. This can be explained by the distribution of thermodynamic flows that change the temperature state of previously formed permafrost rocks. Formation in the outer parts of the shelf which took place at ancient conversion stage can be characterized by the structure: • permafrost table - consists of rocks, where the sea water with a temperature below 0 °C has replaced the melted ice; • middle horizon - composed of undisturbed rocks, and the rocks chilled through the lower sieving underlay; As a result of the interpretation and analysis of all the available data, the authors created a map of types of cryolithozone of the Western Arctic shelf of Russia. The following distribution areas are marked on the map: • single-layer cryolithozone (composed of sediments upper Pleistocene and Holocene); • monosyllabic relict

  18. Indicator Species Population Monitoring in Antarctica with Uav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmarz, A.; Korczak-Abshire, M.; Storvold, R.; Rodzewicz, M.; Kędzierska, I.

    2015-08-01

    A program to monitor bird and pinniped species in the vicinity of Arctowski Station, King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica, has been conducted over the past 38 years. Annual monitoring of these indicator species includes estimations of breeding population sizes of three Pygoscelis penguin species: Adélie, gentoo and chinstrap. Six penguin colonies situated on the western shores of two bays: Admiralty and King George are investigated. To study changes in penguin populations Unmanned Aerial Vehicles were used for the first time in the 2014/15 austral summer season. During photogrammetric flights the high-resolution images of eight penguin breeding colonies were taken. Obtained high resolution images were used for estimation of breeding population size and compared with the results of measurements taken at the same time from the ground. During this Antarctic expedition eight successful photogrammetry missions (total distance 1500 km) were performed. Images were taken with digital SLR Canon 700D, Nikon D5300, Nikon D5100 with a 35mm objective lens. Flights altitude at 350 - 400 AGL, allowed images to be taken with a resolution GSD (ground sample distance) less than 5 cm. The Image J software analysis method was tested to provide automatic population estimates from obtained images. The use of UAV for monitoring of indicator species, enabled data acquisition from areas inaccessible by ground methods.

  19. Surface Flux Measurements at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, T.; Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Shim, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is important in terms of global warming research due to pronounced increase of air temperature over the last century. The first eddy covariance system was established and turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, CO2 and momentum have been measured at King Sejong Station (62 \\deg 13øØS, 58 \\deg 47øØW) located in the northern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula since December in 2002. Our objectives are to better understand the interactions between the Antarctic land surface and the atmosphere and to test the feasibility of the long-term operation of eddy covariance system under extreme weather conditions. Various lichens cover the study area and the dominant species is Usnea fasciata-Himantormia. Based on the analyses on turbulent statistics such as integral turbulence characteristics of vertical velocity (w) and heat (T), stationarity test and investigation of correlation coefficient, they follow the Monin-Obukhov similarity and eddy covariance flux data were reliable. About 50 % of total retrieved sensible heat flux data could be used for further analysis. We will report on seasonal variations of energy and mass fluxes and environmental variables. In addition, factors controlling these fluxes will be presented. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by ¡rEnvironmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica¡_ (Project PP04102 of Korea Polar Research Institute) and ¡rEco-technopia 21 project¡_ (Ministry of Environment of Korea).

  20. INDICATOR SPECIES POPULATION MONITORING IN ANTARCTICA WITH UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zmarz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A program to monitor bird and pinniped species in the vicinity of Arctowski Station, King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica, has been conducted over the past 38 years. Annual monitoring of these indicator species includes estimations of breeding population sizes of three Pygoscelis penguin species: Adélie, gentoo and chinstrap. Six penguin colonies situated on the western shores of two bays: Admiralty and King George are investigated. To study changes in penguin populations Unmanned Aerial Vehicles were used for the first time in the 2014/15 austral summer season. During photogrammetric flights the high-resolution images of eight penguin breeding colonies were taken. Obtained high resolution images were used for estimation of breeding population size and compared with the results of measurements taken at the same time from the ground. During this Antarctic expedition eight successful photogrammetry missions (total distance 1500 km were performed. Images were taken with digital SLR Canon 700D, Nikon D5300, Nikon D5100 with a 35mm objective lens. Flights altitude at 350 – 400 AGL, allowed images to be taken with a resolution GSD (ground sample distance less than 5 cm. The Image J software analysis method was tested to provide automatic population estimates from obtained images. The use of UAV for monitoring of indicator species, enabled data acquisition from areas inaccessible by ground methods.

  1. Tintinnid ciliates of Amundsen Sea (Antarctica plankton communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dolan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amundsen Sea has been described as one of the most productive and dynamic pelagic systems in Antarctica and is one of the least studied. Based on samples from 15 stations in the Amundsen Sea, we describe for the first time the composition of the tintinnid ciliate assemblage of the microzooplankton. We compared the species compositions of coastal polynya sites, where the phytoplankton communities are dominated by Phaeocystis, to those of the offshore deep water sites, which are dominated by diatoms. We found a total of 15 species. Polynya sites were dominated by a few species of tintinnids, mostly those endemic to the Southern Ocean. In contrast, the deep-water sites contained many widespread tintinnid species, which are known from a wide variety of systems as well as other areas of the Southern Ocean. We examined polymorphism known to characterize the Antarctic tintinnid species Cymatocylis affinis/convallaria and Codonellopsis gaussi. We found that the types or forms found appeared unrelated to the type of microplankton community, defined by the identity of the dominant phytoplankton taxa. However, the number of different morphotypes found at a site appeared related to the overall concentration of the species, suggesting that different morphologies, previously considered distinct species, may simply be developmental stages.

  2. How fast is the Patagonian shelf-break acidifying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orselli, Iole B. M.; Kerr, Rodrigo; Ito, Rosane G.; Tavano, Virginia M.; Mendes, Carlos Rafael B.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic carbon (Cant) concentration is determined according to the TrOCA method, from carbonate system data and hydrographic parameters collected during two consecutive spring cruises (2007 and 2008) in the Argentinean Patagonian shelf-break zone between 36°S and 50°S. Cant has intruded the water column until intermediate depths, with no Cant below 1000 m, in the deeper waters (i.e., North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water) of the Northern sector of the study area (i.e., North of 38°S). The higher Cant concentration is observed in Subantarctic Shelf Water in the Southern region, whereas in the Northern sector both Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water are equally affected by Cant intrusion. The Antarctic Intermediate Water represents the depth-limit achieved by Cant penetration, reinforcing the role that this water mass plays as an important vehicle to transport Cant to the oceans interior. The estimated Cant average (± method precision) is 46.6 ± 5.3 μmol kg- 1, considering the full depth of the water column. The ocean acidification state (ΔpH) shows an average (± standard deviation) of - 0.11 ± 0.05, thus, indicating an annual pH reduction of - 0.0010 yr- 1 since the Industrial Revolution (c.a. 1750). The degree of aragonite saturation is lowered towards undersaturation levels of calcite. The Patagonian shelf and shelf-break zones-a strong CO2 sink region in the global ocean-are likely a key area for Cant intrusion in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean.

  3. New isotopic and field evidence for the ages and distribution of Archaean rocks in east Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinny, P.D.; Delor, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of East Antarctica is composed of a number of recognised Archaean cratonic nuclei surrounded by Proterozoic metamorphic complexes. Poor exposure, inaccessibility and the effects of multiple tectonothermal overprints combine to confound the knowledge of the early history of these terranes. Against this, it is shown how recent advances in zircon geochronology allied with new petrological, geochemical and field observations have resulted in major revisions to the chronostratigraphy of several key areas, including Napier Complex of Enderby Land, Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group. 11 refs

  4. Beryllium-7 in Usnea antarctica Du Rietz from the Machu Picchu Antarctic Research Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of Be-7 in Usnea antarctica (lichen) collected during the austral summer of 2013 in the Antarctic Scientific Station 'Machu Picchu' were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry, obtaining values between 366.5 and 515.1 Becquerels per kilogram dry weight. The analysis of variance shows no significant difference in the concentrations of Be-7 between sampling areas located at different heights. The average value of Be-7 for 2013 is significantly higher to other sampling years, except for 1996. (authors).

  5. Inorganic carbon fluxes on the Mackenzie Shelf of the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin; Mucci, Alfonso

    2018-02-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is a region that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds, resulting in cross-shelf Ekman transport, and an alternating estuarine and anti-estuarine circulation. Downwelling carries dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world's oceans. Upwelling carries DIC and nutrient-rich waters from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore transport of water and the cross-shelf transport of DIC are quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) framework. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf took place, bringing CO2-rich (elevated pCO2) water from the UHL onto the shelf bottom. The maximum on-shelf DIC flux was estimated at 16.9×103 mol C d-1 m-2 during the event. The maximum on-shelf transport of DIC through the upwelling event was found to be 65±15×10-3 Tg C d-1. TA and the oxygen isotope ratio of water (δ18O-H2O) are used to examine water-mass distributions in the study area and to investigate the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and provide a basis for understanding how it will

  6. Inorganic carbon fluxes on the Mackenzie Shelf of the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mol

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is a region that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds, resulting in cross-shelf Ekman transport, and an alternating estuarine and anti-estuarine circulation. Downwelling carries dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world's oceans. Upwelling carries DIC and nutrient-rich waters from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore transport of water and the cross-shelf transport of DIC are quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4 configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO framework. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf took place, bringing CO2-rich (elevated pCO2 water from the UHL onto the shelf bottom. The maximum on-shelf DIC flux was estimated at 16.9×103 mol C d−1 m−2 during the event. The maximum on-shelf transport of DIC through the upwelling event was found to be 65±15×10−3 Tg C d−1. TA and the oxygen isotope ratio of water (δ18O-H2O are used to examine water-mass distributions in the study area and to investigate the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and provide a basis

  7. The Faroe shelf circulation and its potential impact on the primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Olsen, Steffen M.; Hansen, Bogi; Hátún, Hjálmar; Larsen, Karin M. H.

    2014-10-01

    The ecosystem on the Faroe shelf has been shown to be tightly controlled by the primary production. It has been suggested that the primary production is governed by the physical processes controlling this water mass. The objective of this study is to identify the physical control mechanisms that control this water mass, link these to the interannual variability of the chlorophyll content on the Faroe shelf and through this discuss the influence on the primary production. In order to achieve this, a 10 year hindcast (2000-2009) with a regional ocean circulation model has been set up for the focus area. Results are compared with measurements on the Faroe shelf. The model reproduces the clockwise residual circulation around the Faroe Islands. The vertical velocity profile is validated using observations at a location west of the Islands. Observations show a logarithmic profile in the entire water column indicating a fully developed boundary layer. The modeled profile matches the observations in the bottom part of the water column, however the thickness of the bottom boundary layer is underestimated, which results in a constant profile in the upper part of the water column. As a consequence, the modeled velocity in the upper part of the water column is up to 20% lower than the observed velocity. The direction of the modeled velocity profile compares well with observations. The model realistically forms the partly isolated unique shelf water mass. Years with anomalously early and persistent modeled spring stratification correspond with years with a high on-shelf chlorophyll concentration. An integration of the exchange across the 120 m isobath shows intense water mass exchange across this depth contour. The major part of this includes tidal shifting of the front between on-shelf and off-shelf waters and is associated with little effective water mass exchange. The result is a shelf water mass that is relatively isolated. The modeled net exchange is constituted by an on-shelf

  8. Surface and Subsurface Meltwater Ponding and Refreezing on the Bach Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, I.; Haggard, E.; Benedek, C. L.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Banwell, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing concern about the stability and fate of Antarctic ice shelves, as four major ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula have completely disintegrated since the 1950s. Their collapse has been linked to the southward movement of the -9 oC mean annual temperature isotherm. The proximal causes of ice shelf instability are not fully known, but an increase in surface melting leading to water ponding and ice flexure, fracture and calving has been implicated. Close to the recently collapsed Wilkins Ice Shelf, the Bach Ice Shelf (72°S 72°W) may be at risk from break up in the near future. Here, we document the changing surface hydrology of the Bach Ice Shelf between 2001 and 2017 using Landsat 7 & 8 imagery. Extensive surface water is identified across the Bach Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers. Two types of drainage system are observed, drainage into firn via simple stream networks and drainage into the ocean via more complex networks. There are differences between the surface hydrology on the ice shelf and the tributary glaciers, as well as variations within and between summer seasons linked to surface air temperature fluctuations. We also document the changing subsurface hydrology of the ice shelf between 2014 and 2017 using Sentinel 1 A/B SAR imagery. Forty-five subsurface features are identified and analysed for their patterns and temporal evolution. Fourteen of the features show similar characteristics to previously-identified buried lakes and some occur in areas associated with surface lakes in previous years. The buried lakes show seasonal variability in area and surface backscatter, which varies with surface air temperature, and are consistent with the presence, enlargement and contraction of liquid water bodies. Buried lakes are an overlooked source of water loading on ice shelves, which may contribute to ice shelf flexure and potential fracture.

  9. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with realistic continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-04-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that uses a plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere, the age distribution of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to reconstruct realistic ocean bathymetry based on parameterized relationships of present-day variables that can be applied to global oceans in the geologic past, and to isolate locations where anomalous processes such as mantle convection may affect bathymetry. Parameters of the plate cooling model are combined with ocean crustal age to calculate depth-to-basement. To the depth-to-basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are parameterized using modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and Central Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth-to-basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  10. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with generalized continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that combines a standard plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere based on the age of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus generalized shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to develop a methodology for reconstructing ocean bathymetry in the geologic past that includes heterogeneous continental margins in addition to abyssal ocean floor. First, the plate cooling model is applied to maps of ocean crustal age to calculate depth to basement. To the depth to basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A three-parameter continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Parameters of the shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are determined from modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and central Atlantic, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth to basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  11. Modern shelf ice, equatorial Aeolis Quadrangle, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological evolution of Aeolis Quadrangle, I have encountered evidence suggesting that near surface ice exists at low latitudes and was formed by partial or complete freezing of an inland sea. The area of interest is centered at approximately -2 deg, 196 deg. As seen in a suite of Viking Orbiter frames obtained at a range of approximately 600 km, the plains surface at this location is very lightly cratered or uncratered, and it is thus of late Amazonian age. Extant topographic data indicate that the Amazonian plains at this location occupy a trough whose surface lies at least 1000 m below the Mars datum. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. In either case, the thin (a few meters at most) high albedo, low thermal inertia cover of aeolian materials was instrumental in allowing ice preservation, and at least the lower portions of this dust cover may be cemented by water ice. Detailed mapping using Viking stereopairs and quantitative comparisons to terrestrial shelf ice geometries are underway.

  12. Geoologic controls on the architecture of the Antarctic Ice Sheet's basal interface: New results from West and East Antarctica from long range geophysics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Richter, T.; Aitken, A.; Siegert, M. J.; Roberts, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The ice-rock interface underlying the Antarctic Ice Sheet was shaped by interactions between underlying gondwanan geology and the overlying ice sheet. The ice sheet now preserves from sedimentary infill an incredibly rugged terrain which now plays a critical role in shaping subglacial hydrology, and thus shape ice sheet behavior. This terrain can by imaged through aerogeophysical means, in particular through ice penetrating radar, while airborne potential fields measurements provide insight into the geological framework that controlled erosion. Over the post IPY era, the density of airborne coverage is only now reaching the point where small scale structure can be identified and placed in context. Of particular importance is understanding the formation of focused erosional valleys, 30-50 km wide, representing now buried subglacial fjords. After initial data from the GIMBLE project in West Antarctica, and five years of sustained long range ICECAP surveys over East Antarctica , we now have a better view of the diversity of these features. The local erosion of these valleys, often cutting through significant topographic barriers, irregularly samples the underlying geology, provided a complex story in the sediment to the Antarctic margin. These valleys now provide the subglacial conduits for significant ice sheet catchments, in particular for subglacial water, including the inland catchments of DeVicq, Thwaites, and Pine Island Glaciers in West Antarctica, and Denman Glacier, Totten Glacier, Byrd Glacier and Cook Ice Shelf in East Antarctica. We find that these features, now sometimes hundreds of kilometers inland of the modern grounding line, often nucleate on or are aligned with structure inherited from the assembly of the Antarctic continent. While many of these features currently host active outlet glaciers or their tributaries, some do not, implying avenues for ice sheet change. In West Antarctica, we find a new deep connection between the coast and interior basin

  13. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  14. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  15. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, R.; Watts, M.F.; Plested, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications

  16. Tidal Mixing at the Shelf Break

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hogg, Nelson; Legg, Sonya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study mixing forced by tidal flow over sudden changes in topographic slope such as near the shelf-break, using high-resolution nonhydrostatic numerical simulations employing the MIT gem...

  17. Radurisation of broilers for shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization is discussed as a method for the shelf life extension of refrigerated chicken carcasses. One of the advantages is that radurization eliminates potential food pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella in the chicken carcasses. Materials and methods for the radurization of chicken are discussed. The objective of the investigation was to determine the influence of different irradiation doses and storage conditions on the microbiological shelf life and organoleptic quality of fresh broilers

  18. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  19. Micro-hole and multigrain quartz luminescence dating of Paleodeltas at Lake Fryxell, McMurdo Dry Valleys (Antarctica), and relevance for lake history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, G.W.; Doran, P.T.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2013-01-01

    Relict (perched) lacustrine deltas around the perennially ice-covered lakes in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, imply that these lakes were up to 40 times larger in area than at present since the last glacial maximum (LGM). These deltas have been used to constrain ice-margin positions in Taylor Val...

  20. Spatial Feature Reconstruction of Cloud-Covered Areas in Daily MODIS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Paul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The opacity of clouds is the main problem for optical and thermal space-borne sensors, like the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Especially during polar nighttime, the low thermal contrast between clouds and the underlying snow/ice results in deficiencies of the MODIS cloud mask and affected products. There are different approaches to retrieve information about frequently cloud-covered areas, which often operate with large amounts of days aggregated into single composites for a long period of time. These approaches are well suited for static-nature, slow changing surface features (e.g., fast-ice extent. However, this is not applicable to fast-changing features, like sea-ice polynyas. Therefore, we developed a spatial feature reconstruction to derive information for cloud-covered sea-ice areas based on the surrounding days weighted directly proportional with their temporal proximity to the initial day of interest. Its performance is tested based on manually-screened and artificially cloud-covered case studies of MODIS-derived polynya area data for the polynya in the Brunt Ice Shelf region of Antarctica. On average, we are able to completely restore the artificially cloud-covered test areas with a spatial correlation of 0.83 and a mean absolute spatial deviation of 21%.

  1. Studies on sound signal scattering from varying seabed sediments of the western continental shelf of India: Cochin to Mangalore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    A study on the interaction effect of the acoustic signal with three different sediment type seabottoms off the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore of the west coast of India is performed. Analyses by means of Probability Density Function (PDF...

  2. Evaluating Current Practices in Shelf Life Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Huynh-Ba, Kim; LeBlond, David; Liu, Oscar; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Rajagopalan, Radhika; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter

    2018-02-01

    The current International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) methods for determining the supported shelf life of a drug product, described in ICH guidance documents Q1A and Q1E, are evaluated in this paper. To support this evaluation, an industry data set is used which is comprised of 26 individual stability batches of a common drug product where most batches are measured over a 24 month storage period. Using randomly sampled sets of 3 or 6 batches from the industry data set, the current ICH methods are assessed from three perspectives. First, the distributional properties of the supported shelf lives are summarized and compared to the distributional properties of the true shelf lives associated with the industry data set, assuming the industry data set represents a finite population of drug product batches for discussion purposes. Second, the results of the ICH "poolability" tests for model selection are summarized and the separate shelf life distributions from the possible alternative models are compared. Finally, the ICH methods are evaluated in terms of their ability to manage risk. Shelf life estimates that are too long result in an unacceptable percentage of nonconforming batches at expiry while those that are too short put the manufacturer at risk of possibly having to prematurely discard safe and efficacious drug product. Based on the analysis of the industry data set, the ICH-recommended approach did not produce supported shelf lives that effectively managed risk. Alternative approaches are required.

  3. Social, occupational and cultural adaptation in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel; Bishop, Sheryl; Weiss, Karine; Gaudino, Marvin

    2016-07-01

    Life in isolated and confined environments (ICEs, e.g., polar stations, submarine or space missions), is subject to important constraints which can generate psychosociological impaired outcomes. This study investigated psychological, social, occupational and cultural variables which are among the most important determinants in adaptation to a one-year wintering in Antarctica with 13 international participants. Our findings confirm and give further insight into the role of social (Cohesiveness, Social Support) and occupational (Implementation / Preparedness, Counterproductive Activity, Decision Latitude and Psychological Job Demands) dimensions of adaptation to ICE environments. Relationships between various social and occupational dimensions studies reflected detrimental effects ranging from decrements in cohesiveness, social support and work performance which differed across professional status and multicultural factors. These psychosocial issues have important implications for pre-mission selection and training, monitoring and support of crews during the mission and post-mission readaptation. Operational recommendations are suggested to improve adaptation, success and well-being for long-term ICE missions, e.g., to Mars and beyond.

  4. 45 CFR 674.4 - Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Antarctica. 674.4 Section 674.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.4 Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica. No person may collect meteorites in Antarctica for other than scientific research purposes. ...

  5. The Patagonian scallop fishing grounds in shelf break frontal areas: the non assessed benthic fraction Bancos de pesca de vieira patagónica en áreas del frente de talud: fracción bentónica no evaluada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Picard dredge was used to sample the benthic community in shelf break frontal areas off Argentina in order to detect species that could be sensitive to fishing activities but are not usually caught during the annual monitoring of Patagonian scallop and associated fauna. The present results show at least 62 taxa not reported previously as components of the benthos in the scallop grounds that are potentially subjected to trawling disturbance.En este trabajo se utilizó una rastra Picard para muestrear la comunidad bentónica en áreas del frente de talud, Argentina, para detectar especies que serían sensibles a la actividad pesquera pero no son capturadas usualmente durante los monitoreos anuales de vieira patagónica y fauna asociada. Los resultados muestran que al menos 62 taxa, no reportados previamente como componentes del bentos en los bancos de vieira, están potencialmente sujetos a perturbaciones por el arrastre.

  6. Energetic electron precipitation characteristics observed from Antarctica during a flux dropout event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Cobbett, Neil; Rodger, Craig J.; Brundell, James B.; Denton, Michael H.; Hartley, David P.; Rodriguez, Juan V.; Danskin, Donald; Raita, Tero; Spanswick, Emma L.

    2013-11-01

    from two autonomous VLF radio receiver systems installed in a remote region of the Antarctic in 2012 is used to take advantage of the juxtaposition of the L = 4.6 contour, and the Hawaii-Halley, Antarctica, great circle path as it passes over thick Antarctic ice shelf. The ice sheet conductivity leads to high sensitivity to changing D region conditions, and the quasi constant L shell highlights outer radiation belt processes. The ground-based instruments observed several energetic electron precipitation events over a moderately active 24 h period, during which the outer radiation belt electron flux declined at most energies and subsequently recovered. Combining the ground-based data with low and geosynchronous orbiting satellite observations on 27 February 2012, different driving mechanisms were observed for three precipitation events with clear signatures in phase space density and electron anisotropy. Comparison between flux measurements made by Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) in low Earth orbit and by the Antarctic instrumentation provides evidence of different cases of weak and strong diffusion into the bounce loss cone, helping to understand the physical mechanisms controlling the precipitation of energetic electrons into the atmosphere. Strong diffusion events occurred as the bounce loss cone. Two events had a factor of about 3 to 10 times more >30 keV flux than was reported by POES, more consistent with strong diffusion conditions.

  7. Iron fluxes to Talos Dome, Antarctica, over the past 200 kyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vallelonga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fluxes of iron (Fe over the past 200 kyr are reported for the coastal Antarctic Talos Dome ice core, based on acid leachable Fe concentrations. Fluxes of Fe to Talos Dome were consistently greater than those at Dome C, with the greatest difference observed during interglacial climates. We observe different Fe flux trends at Dome C and Talos Dome during the deglaciation and early Holocene, attributed to a combination of deglacial activation of dust sources local to Talos Dome and the reorganisation of atmospheric transport pathways with the retreat of the Ross Sea ice shelf. This supports similar findings based on dust particle sizes and fluxes and Rare Earth Element fluxes. We show that Ca and Fe should not be used as quantitative proxies for mineral dust, as they all demonstrate different deglacial trends at Talos Dome and Dome C. Considering that a 20 ppmv decrease in atmospheric CO2 at the coldest part of the last glacial maximum occurs contemporaneously with the period of greatest Fe and dust flux to Antarctica, we confirm that the maximum contribution of aeolian dust deposition to Southern Ocean sequestration of atmospheric CO2 is approximately 20 ppmv.

  8. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  9. Modelling and parameterizing the influence of tides on ice-shelf melt rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, N.; Molines, J. M.; Le Sommer, J.; Mathiot, P.; de Lavergne, C.; Gurvan, M.; Durand, G.

    2017-12-01

    Significant Antarctic ice sheet thinning is observed in several sectors of Antarctica, in particular in the Amundsen Sea sector, where warm circumpolar deep waters affect basal melting. The later has the potential to trigger marine ice sheet instabilities, with an associated potential for rapid sea level rise. It is therefore crucial to simulate and understand the processes associated with ice-shelf melt rates. In particular, the absence of tides representation in ocean models remains a caveat of numerous ocean hindcasts and climate projections. In the Amundsen Sea, tides are relatively weak and the melt-induced circulation is stronger than the tidal circulation. Using a regional 1/12° ocean model of the Amundsen Sea, we nonetheless find that tides can increase melt rates by up to 36% in some ice-shelf cavities. Among the processes that can possibly affect melt rates, the most important is an increased exchange at the ice/ocean interface resulting from the presence of strong tidal currents along the ice drafts. Approximately a third of this effect is compensated by a decrease in thermal forcing along the ice draft, which is related to an enhanced vertical mixing in the ocean interior in presence of tides. Parameterizing the effect of tides is an alternative to the representation of explicit tides in an ocean model, and has the advantage not to require any filtering of ocean model outputs. We therefore explore different ways to parameterize the effects of tides on ice shelf melt. First, we compare several methods to impose tidal velocities along the ice draft. We show that getting a realistic spatial distribution of tidal velocities in important, and can be deduced from the barotropic velocities of a tide model. Then, we explore several aspects of parameterized tidal mixing to reproduce the tide-induced decrease in thermal forcing along the ice drafts.

  10. Anomalously-dense firn in an ice-shelf channel revealed by wide-angle radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, R.; Brown, J.; Matsuoka, K.; Witrant, E.; Philippe, M.; Hubbard, B.; Pattyn, F.

    2015-10-01

    The thickness of ice shelves, a basic parameter for mass balance estimates, is typically inferred using hydrostatic equilibrium for which knowledge of the depth-averaged density is essential. The densification from snow to ice depends on a number of local factors (e.g. temperature and surface mass balance) causing spatial and temporal variations in density-depth profiles. However, direct measurements of firn density are sparse, requiring substantial logistical effort. Here, we infer density from radio-wave propagation speed using ground-based wide-angle radar datasets (10 MHz) collected at five sites on Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (RBIS), Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Using a novel algorithm including traveltime inversion and raytracing with a prescribed shape of the depth-density relationship, we show that the depth to internal reflectors, the local ice thickness and depth-averaged densities can reliably be reconstructed. For the particular case of an ice-shelf channel, where ice thickness and surface slope change substantially over a few kilometers, the radar data suggests that firn inside the channel is about 5 % denser than outside the channel. Although this density difference is at the detection limit of the radar, it is consistent with a similar density anomaly reconstructed from optical televiewing, which reveals 10 % denser firn inside compared to outside the channel. The denser firn in the ice-shelf channel should be accounted for when using the hydrostatic ice thickness for determining basal melt rates. The radar method presented here is robust and can easily be adapted to different radar frequencies and data-acquisition geometries.

  11. Spatial variation in life history characteristics of common megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) on the Northern Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, P.; Angus (née Laurenson), C. H.; Marshall, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years stock structure recommendations for megrim on the Northern Shelf have varied, primarily due to a lack of biological and fishery data. In this study, we compared a number of life history characteristics of the common megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum) between the northern North Sea and Rockall, the latitudinal extremes of the species' distribution on the Northern Shelf. Reproductive timing, sex ratio, maturity and growth were different between the two study areas. Reproductive timing in the northern North Sea was more protracted than at Rockall and other areas. There were differences in sex ratio between the study areas and female megrim in the northern North Sea exhibited different growth rates and larger size at maturity than at Rockall. The results of this study support the recent changes to the definition of the Northern Shelf stocks which recommend that the northern North Sea be treated separately to Rockall.

  12. Contrasting Photo-physiological Responses of the Haptophyte Phaeocystis Antarctica and the Diatom Pseudonitzschia sp. in the Ross Sea (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Tozzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic is a unique environment in which substantial variations in irradiance occur over a number of time scales, and as a result phytoplankton need to acclimate and adapt to these changes. We conducted field and laboratory manipulations in the Ross Sea, Antarctica to examine photophysiological differences between Phaeocystis antarctica and Pseudonitzschia sp. a diatom that commonly occurrs in the Ross Sea, since these are the two functional groups that dominate abundance and productivity. Both exhibited reduced quantum yields due to high irradiances. P. antarctica, a haptophyte, displays a distinct photophysiological response to irradiance when compared to diatoms. P. antarctica showed a rapid recovery from high light exposure, as indicated by the rapid return to initial, high quantum yields, in contrast to diatoms, which responded more slowly. Absorption cross sections were high in both forms, but those in P. antarctica were significantly higher. Both organisms recovered within 24 h to initial quantum yields, suggesting that high irradiance exposure does not have a permanent effect on these organisms. Among all micronutrient additions (iron, cobalt, zinc and vitamin B12, only iron additions resulted in rapid impacts on quantum yields. Iron limitation also can result in reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Understanding these photophysiologial responses and the impact of oceanographic conditions provides constraints on modeling efforts of photosynthesis and primary productivity in the Antarctic.

  13. Generation of terrestrial radiation database in the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Dhabekar, Bhushan; Jose, Jis Romal; Chinnaesakki, S.; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation in the environment includes terrestrial radiation, cosmic radiation from space and air activity due to radon/thoron. It is known that cosmic contribution increases near the poles. The terrestrial component is largely due to 232 Th and 238 U series and 40 K. BARC under the cosmic ray dosimetry project with National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) has taken up measurement of natural background radiation at Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. The project includes generation of baseline data on terrestrial radioactivity in water, soil and rock and estimation of cosmic ray doses. Extensive radiation surveys were carried out by the BARC team in the 35 th and 36 th expedition in and around Larsemann hills in East Antarctica where the third Indian station 'Bharati' is situated. This paper presents mapping of terrestrial radiation levels in Antarctica which will help in strengthening the background radiation database and develop a Radiation Informatics System (RIS)

  14. Neutron activation analysis of snow and ice in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo; Takada, Jitsuya; Inoue, J.; Issiki, K.; Nakayama, E.

    1988-01-01

    In order to minimize the possible contamination during storing and pre-treatment of such pure samples as ice and snow collected in Antarctica, trace elements in experimental tools such as bottles, beakers, tubings and filters were determined by neutron activation analysis. By using well certified tools, ice and snow samples from Antarctica and high mountains in China and in Japan were analyzed. Relative concentrations of volatile elements such as Zn, Cd, As, Sb or Ag to Al or Fe which are major components in the earth crust were found to be 10 to 1000 times higher than in the ordinary soil for the samples from Antarctica and Mt. Naimonanyi in China. (author) 5 refs.; 7 tabs

  15. Trace metals in Antarctica related to climate change and increasing human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2000-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the abiotic and biotic components of all ecosystems, and under natural conditions they are cycled within and between the geochemical spheres--the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere--at quite steady fluxes. In the second half of the twentieth century, the huge increase in energy and mineral consumption determined anthropogenic emissions of several metals exceeding those from natural sources, e.g., volcanoes and windborne soil particles. In the Northern Hemisphere, the biogeochemical cycles of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and other metals were significantly altered, even in Arctic regions. On the contrary, available data on trace metal concentrations in abiotic matrices from continental Antarctica, summarized in this review, suggest that the biogeochemical cycle of Pb is probably the only one that has been significantly altered by anthropogenic emissions in Antarctica and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the period 1950-1975. Environmental contamination by other metals from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica itself can generally only be detected in snow samples taken within a range of a few kilometers or several hundred meters from scientific stations. Local metal pollution from human activities in Antarctica may compromise studies aimed at assessing the biogeochemical cycle of trace elements and the effects of global climate change. Thus, this review focuses on concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate, snow, surface soils, and freshwater from the Antarctic continent and surface sediments and seawater from the Southern Ocean, which can plausibly be regarded as global background values of trace elements. These baselines are also necessary in view of the construction of new stations, the expansion of existing facilities to support research, and the growth of tourism and fisheries. Despite difficulties in making comparisons with data from other remote areas of the world, concentrations of trace metals

  16. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  17. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the

  18. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the

  19. Debris Flows and Water Tracks in Continental Antarctica: Water as a geomorphic agent in a hyperarid polar desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, E.; Sassenroth, C.; De Vera, J.-P.; Schmitz, N.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Johnsson, A.

    2017-09-01

    Most studies using Antarctica as a Mars analogue have focused on the McMurdo Dry Valleys, which are among the coldest and driest places on Earth. However, other ice-free areas in continental Antarctica also display landforms that can inform the study of the possible geomorphic impact of water in a polar desert. Here we present a new analogue site in the interior of the Transantarctic Mountains in Northern Victoria Land. Gullies show unambiguous evidence for debris flows, and water tracks act as shallow subsurface pathways of water on top of the permafrost tale. Both processes are driven by meltwater from glacier ice and snow in an environ-ment which never experiences rainfall and in which the air temperatures probably never exceed 0°C.

  20. The GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Coldwell, R.L.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rester, A.C.; Trombka, J.I.; Starr, R.; Lasche, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Advanced Detector(GRAD) consists of a n-type germanium detector inside an active bismuth-germanate Compton and charged particle shield with additional active plastic shielding across the aperture. It will be flown on a high altitude balloon at 36 km altitude at a latitude of 78 degree S over Antarctica for observations of gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive decay of 56 Co in the Supernova SN1987A, for assessment of the performance of bismuth-germanate scintillation material in the radiation environment of near space, for gathering information on the gamma-ray background over Antarctica, and for testing fault-tolerant software

  1. Distribution of artificial tritium in firn samples from east Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlivat, L.; Jouzel, J.; Robert, J.; Lorius, C.

    1975-01-01

    Five firn cores from East Antarctica have been analyzed for artificial tritium distribution. A fall out tritium chronology in the southern hemisphere has been established using data from precipitation at mid latitude, Kaitoke 41 deg S and high latitude, Halley Bay 75.5 deg S on the Antarctica continent. Mean annual accumulation rates lie between 300 and 76mm water equivalent per year for stations located between 130 and 800km from the coast. As previously established in Greenland, a correlation is found between the mean artificial tritium concentration in snow and the altitude of the site of precipitation [fr

  2. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  3. Seismic Investigations of the Crust and Upper Mantle Structure in Antarctica and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Cristo

    In the three studies that form this dissertation, seismic data from Antarctica and Madagascar have been analyzed to obtain new insights into crustal structure and mantle flow. Until recently, there have been little seismic data available from these areas for interrogating Earth structure and processes. In Antarctica, I analyzed datasets from temporary deployments of broadband seismic stations in both East and West Antarctica. In Madagascar, I analyzed data from a temporary network of broadband stations, along with data from three permanent stations. The seismic data have been processed and modeled using a wide range of techniques to characterize crust and mantle structure. Crustal structure in the East Antarctic Craton resembles Precambrian terrains around the world in its thickness and shear wave velocities. The West Antarctic Rift System has thinner crust, consistent with crustal thickness beneath other Cretaceous rifts. The Transantarctic Mountains show thickening of the crust from the costal regions towards the interior of the mountain range, and high velocities in the lower crust at several locations, possibly resulting from the Ferrar magmatic event. Ross Island and Marie Byrd Land Dome have elevated crustal Vp/Vs ratios, suggesting the presence of partial melt and/or volcaniclastic material within the crust. The pattern of seismic anisotropy in Madagascar is complex and cannot arise solely due to mantle flow from the African superplume, as previously proposed. To explain the complex pattern of anisotropy, a combination of mechanisms needs to be invoked, including mantle flow from the African superplume, mantle flow from the Comoros hotspot, small scale upwelling in the mantle induced by lithospheric delamination, and fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle along Precambrian shear zones.

  4. Global thermal niche models of two European grasses show high invasion risks in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertierra, Luis R; Aragón, Pedro; Shaw, Justine D; Bergstrom, Dana M; Terauds, Aleks; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Ángel

    2017-07-01

    The two non-native grasses that have established long-term populations in Antarctica (Poa pratensis and Poa annua) were studied from a global multidimensional thermal niche perspective to address the biological invasion risk to Antarctica. These two species exhibit contrasting introduction histories and reproductive strategies and represent two referential case studies of biological invasion processes. We used a multistep process with a range of species distribution modelling techniques (ecological niche factor analysis, multidimensional envelopes, distance/entropy algorithms) together with a suite of thermoclimatic variables, to characterize the potential ranges of these species. Their native bioclimatic thermal envelopes in Eurasia, together with the different naturalized populations across continents, were compared next. The potential niche of P. pratensis was wider at the cold extremes; however, P. annua life history attributes enable it to be a more successful colonizer. We observe that particularly cold summers are a key aspect of the unique Antarctic environment. In consequence, ruderals such as P. annua can quickly expand under such harsh conditions, whereas the more stress-tolerant P. pratensis endures and persist through steady growth. Compiled data on human pressure at the Antarctic Peninsula allowed us to provide site-specific biosecurity risk indicators. We conclude that several areas across the region are vulnerable to invasions from these and other similar species. This can only be visualized in species distribution models (SDMs) when accounting for founder populations that reveal nonanalogous conditions. Results reinforce the need for strict management practices to minimize introductions. Furthermore, our novel set of temperature-based bioclimatic GIS layers for ice-free terrestrial Antarctica provide a mechanism for regional and global species distribution models to be built for other potentially invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Bakutis Coast, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Seekins, B.A.; Lucchita, B.K.; Rosanova, Christine E.

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of the polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Loss of the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet alone could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 m. The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m to 73 m. In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. As a result, measurement of changes in the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. An archive of early 1970's Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the fact that the repeat coverage with satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica. The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT images to compare changes over a 20- to 25- year time interval and to prepare a series of 24 1:1,000,000-scale and 1 1:5,000,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series Maps ('I-Maps') (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; and Ferrigno and others, 2002) in both paper and digital format.

  6. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Bakutis Coast, Antarctica: 1972-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Rosanova, Christine E.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of the polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Loss of the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet alone could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 m. The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m to 73 m. In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. As a result, measurement of changes in the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. An archive of early 1970's Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the fact that the repeat coverage with satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica. The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT images to compare changes over a 20- to 25- year time interval and to prepare a series of 24 1:1,000,000-scale and 1 1:5,000,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series Maps ('I-Maps') (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; and Ferrigno and others, 2002) in both paper and digital format.

  7. Cyanobacteria inhabiting biological soil crusts of a polar desert: Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkareva, Ekaterina; Pessi, Igor S; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Mano, Marie-Jose; Elster, Josef; Wilmotte, Annick

    2018-02-07

    Molecular and morphological methods were applied to study cyanobacterial community composition in biological soil crusts (BSCs) from four areas (two nunataks and two ridges) in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. The sampling sites serve as control areas for open top chambers (OTCs) that were put in place in 2010 at the time of sample collection and will be compared with BSC samples taken from the OTCs in the future. Cyanobacterial cell biovolume was estimated using epifluorescence microscopy, which revealed the dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria in all studied sites except the Utsteinen ridge, where unicellular cyanobacteria were the most abundant. Cyanobacterial diversity was studied by a combination of molecular fingerprinting methods based on the 16S rRNA gene (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454 pyrosequencing) using cyanobacteria-specific primers. The number of DGGE sequences obtained per site was variable and, therefore, a high-throughput method was subsequently employed to improve the diversity coverage. Consistent with previous surveys in Antarctica, both methods showed that filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Leptolyngbya sp., Phormidium sp. and Microcoleus sp., were dominant in the studied sites. In addition, the studied localities differed in substrate type, climatic conditions and soil parameters, which probably resulted in differences in cyanobacterial community composition. Furthermore, the BSC growing on gneiss pebbles had lower cyanobacterial abundances than BSCs associated with granitic substrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Polynya dynamics and associated atmospheric forcing at the Ronne Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Lars; Heinemann, Günther

    2014-05-01

    The Ronne Ice Shelf is known as one of the most active regions of polynya developments around the Antarctic continent. Low temperatures are prevailing throughout the whole year, particularly in winter. It is generally recognized that polynya formations are primarily forced by offshore winds and secondarily by ocean currents. Many authors have addressed this issue previously at the Ross Ice Shelf and Adélie Coast and connected polynya dynamics to strong katabatic surge events. Such investigations of atmospheric dynamics and simultaneous polynya occurrence are still severely underrepresented for the southwestern part of the Weddell Sea and especially for the Ronne Ice Shelf. Due to the very flat terrain gradients of the ice shelf katabatic winds are of minor importance in that area. Other atmospheric processes must therefore play a crucial role for polynya developments at the Ronne Ice Shelf. High-resolution simulations have been carried out for the Weddell Sea region using the non-hydrostatic NWP model COSMO from the German Meteorological Service (DWD). For the austral autumn and winter (March to August) 2008 daily forecast simulations were conducted with the consideration of daily sea-ice coverage deduced from the passive microwave system AMSR-E. These simulations are used to analyze the synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric dynamics of the Weddell Sea region and find linkages to polynya occurrence at the Ronne Ice Shelf. For that reason, the relation between the surface wind speed, the synoptic pressure gradient in the free atmosphere and polynya area is investigated. Seven significant polynya events are identified for the simulation period, three in the autumn and four in the winter season. It can be shown that in almost all cases synoptic cyclones are the primary polynya forcing systems. In most cases the timely interaction of several passing cyclones in the northern and central Weddell Sea leads to maintenance of a strong synoptic pressure gradient above the

  9. Duality of Ross Ice Shelf systems: crustal boundary, ice sheet processes and ocean circulation from ROSETTA-Ice surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Das, I.; Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Siegfried, M. R.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Bathymetry beneath Antarctic ice shelves controls sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation and has a major influence on the stability and dynamics of the ice sheets. Beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, the sea-floor bathymetry is a product of both tectonics and glacial processes, and is influenced by the processes it controls. New aerogeophysical surveys have revealed a fundamental crustal boundary bisecting the Ross Ice Shelf and imparting a duality to the Ross Ice Shelf systems, encompassing bathymetry, ocean circulation and ice flow history. The ROSETTA-Ice surveys were designed to increase the resolution of Ross Ice Shelf mapping from the 55 km RIGGS survey of the 1970s to a 10 km survey grid, flown over three years from New York Air National Guard LC130s. Radar, LiDAR, gravity and magnetic instruments provide a top to bottom profile of the ice shelf and the underlying seafloor, with 20 km resolution achieved in the first two survey seasons (2015 and 2016). ALAMO ocean-profiling floats deployed in the 2016 season are measuring the temperature and salinity of water entering and exiting the sub-ice water cavity. A significant east-west contrast in the character of the magnetic and gravity fields reveals that the lithospheric boundary between East and West Antarctica exists not at the base of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), as previously thought, but 300 km further east. The newly-identified boundary spatially coincides with the southward extension of the Central High, a rib of shallow basement identified in the Ross Sea. The East Antarctic side is characterized by lower amplitude magnetic anomalies and denser TAM-type lithosphere compared to the West Antarctic side. The crustal structure imparts a fundamental duality on the overlying ice and ocean, with deeper bathymetry and thinner ice on the East Antarctic side creating a larger sub-ice cavity for ocean circulation. The West Antarctic side has a shallower seabed, more restricted ocean access and a more complex history of

  10. Historic hydrovolcanism at Deception Island (Antarctica): implications for eruption hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Németh, Károly; Geyer, Adelina; Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Bartolini, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Deception Island (Antarctica) is the southernmost island of the South Shetland Archipelago in the South Atlantic. Volcanic activity since the eighteenth century, along with the latest volcanic unrest episodes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, demonstrates that the volcanic system is still active and that future eruptions are likely. Despite its remote location, the South Shetland Islands are an important touristic destination during the austral summer. In addition, they host several research stations and three summer field camps. Deception Island is characterised by a Quaternary caldera system with a post-caldera succession and is considered to be part of an active, dispersed (monogenetic), volcanic field. Historical post-caldera volcanism on Deception Island involves monogenetic small-volume (VEI 2-3) eruptions such forming cones and various types of hydrovolcanic edifices. The scientific stations on the island were destroyed, or severely damaged, during the eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 mainly due to explosive activity triggered by the interaction of rising (or erupting) magma with surface water, shallow groundwater, and ice. We conducted a detailed revision (field petrology and geochemistry) of the historical hydrovolcanic post-caldera eruptions of Deception Island with the aim to understand the dynamics of magma-water interaction, as well as characterise the most likely eruptive scenarios from future eruptions. We specifically focused on the Crimson Hill (estimated age between 1825 and 1829), and Kroner Lake (estimated age between 1829 and 1912) eruptions and 1967, 1969, and 1970 events by describing the eruption mechanisms related to the island's hydrovolcanic activity. Data suggest that the main hazards posed by volcanism on the island are due to fallout, ballistic blocks and bombs, and subordinate, dilute PDCs. In addition, Deception Island can be divided into five areas of expected activity due to magma-water interaction, providing additional

  11. The cloud effects on UV irradiance modeled in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafanelli, C.; Anav, A.; Ciattaglia, L.; Di Menno, I.; Di Menno, M.; Araujo, J.; Ochoa, H.; Rodriguez, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The measurement of solar UV radiation in Antarctica is very important in order to obtain information about Ozone level, and many spectro radiometers are installed in the area to perform this task. Usually, their use is very difficult in harsh environment like Southern polar regions, and several multichannel radiometers have been installed. The evaluation of the irradiance and total ozone levels are done using analytical models. A new semi-analytical method to estimate the solar UV irradiance at ground, named WL4UV, was developed. Using spectral irradiance values at 4 selected wavelengths in the UV-B and UV-A regions (305, 320, 340 and 380 nm), the solar UV irradiance at ground is evaluated with low percent of error. The applicability of the method has been tested for clear sky but such conditions are not common in Antarctic. This work investigate the applicability of the WL4UV model under cloudy sky conditions. The 4 irradiance necessary for the model were selected from spectrophotometer Brewer measurements carried out in the Argentinean Belgrano II base (77 degrees 52' S and 34 degrees 38' W). Other tests using spectrophotometers, Brewer and SUV 100, located in Ushuaia, (54 degrees 50' S and 68 degrees 19' W), were also too. This project was funded by the PNRA, IIA-DNA and CADIC for funding and supporting the activities. They thank also all the Brewer operators that in these years spent their time in the management of the instrument. Last but not the least they thank all IIA-DNA personnel for the professional help they put in carrying out the activities in all these years. (author)

  12. 26 CFR 1.638-1 - Continental Shelf areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employed by N Corporation as a cook and was physically present on the ship. C's sole duties consisted of...) Examples. The application of the provisions of section 638 and this section may be illustrated by the... physical examinations of L Corporation's employees who are engaged in the exploitation of oil on the...

  13. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Dynamics Near Ross Island and Over West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong

    The atmospheric boundary layer dynamics near Ross Island and over West Antarctica has been investigated. The study consists of two parts. The first part involved the use of data from ground-based remote sensing equipment (sodar and RASS), radiosondes, pilot balloons, automatic weather stations, and NOAA AVHRR satellite imagery. The second part involved the use of a high resolution boundary layer model coupled with a three-dimensional primitive equation mesoscale model to simulate the observed atmospheric boundary layer winds and temperatures. Turbulence parameters were simulated with an E-epsilon turbulence model driven by observed winds and temperatures. The observational analysis, for the first time, revealed that the airflow passing through the Ross Island area is supplied mainly by enhanced katabatic drainage from Byrd Glacier and secondarily drainage from Mulock and Skelton glaciers. The observed diurnal variation of the blocking effect near Ross Island is dominated by the changes in the upstream katabatic airflow. The synthesized analysis over West Antarctica found that the Siple Coast katabatic wind confluence zone consists of two superimposed katabatic airflows: a relatively warm and more buoyant katabatic flow from West Antarctica overlies a colder and less buoyant katabatic airflow from East Antarctica. The force balance analysis revealed that, inside the West Antarctic katabatic wind zone, the pressure gradient force associated with the blocked airflow against the Transantarctic Mountains dominates; inside the East Antarctic katabatic wind zone, the downslope buoyancy force due to the cold air overlying the sloping terrain is dominant. The analysis also shows that these forces are in geostrophic balance with the Coriolis force. An E-epsilon turbulence closure model is used to simulate the diurnal variation of sodar backscatter. The results show that the model is capable of qualitatively capturing the main features of the observed sodar backscatter. To

  14. Understanding the Role of Wind in Reducing the Surface Mass Balance Estimates over East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Scambos, T. A.; Koenig, L.; Creyts, T. T.; Bell, R. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J.; Paden, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow-accumulation over Antarctica is important for mass balance estimates and climate studies based on ice core records. An improved estimate of surface mass balance must include the significant role near-surface wind plays in the sublimation and redistribution of snow across Antarctica. We have developed an empirical model based on airborne radar and lidar observations, and modeled surface mass balance and wind fields to produce a continent-wide prediction of wind-scour zones over Antarctica. These zones have zero to negative surface mass balance, are located over locally steep ice sheet areas (>0.002) and controlled by bedrock topography. The near-surface winds accelerate over these zones, eroding and sublimating the surface snow. This scouring results in numerous localized regions (≤ 200 km2) with reduced surface accumulation. Each year, tens of gigatons of snow on the Antarctic ice sheet are ablated by persistent near-surface katabatic winds over these wind-scour zones. Large uncertainties remain in the surface mass balance estimates over East Antarctica as climate models do not adequately represent the small-scale physical processes that lead to mass loss through sublimation or redistribution over the wind-scour zones. In this study, we integrate Operation IceBridge's snow radar over the Recovery Ice Stream with a series of ice core dielectric and depth-density profiles for improved surface mass balance estimates that reflect the mass loss over the wind-scour zones. Accurate surface mass balance estimates from snow radars require spatially variable depth-density profiles. Using an ensemble of firn cores, MODIS-derived surface snow grain size, modeled accumulation rates and surface temperatures from RACMO2, we assemble spatially variable depth-density profiles and use our mapping of snow density variations to estimate layer mass and net accumulation rates from snow radar layer data. Our study improves the quantification of

  15. Low-level precipitation sublimation on the coasts of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Jacopo; Genthon, Christophe; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Lemonnier, Florentin; Gallée, Hubert; Krinner, Gerhard; Berne, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    The weather of East Antarctica is affected by the peculiar morphology of this large continent and by its isolation from the surroundings. The high-elevation interior of the continent, very dry in absolute terms, originates winds that can reach the coastal areas with very high speed and persistence in time. The absence of topographic barriers and the near-ground temperature inversion allow these density-driven air movements to fall from the continent towards the coasts without excessive interaction and mixing with the atmosphere aloft. Thus, the air remains dry in absolute terms, and very dry in relative terms because of the higher temperatures near the coast and the adiabatic warming due to the descent. The coasts of Antarctica are less isolated and more exposed to incoming moist air masses than the rest of the continent, and precipitation in the form of snowfall more frequently occurs. Through its descent, however, snowfall encounters the layer of dry air coming from the continent and the deficit in humidity can lead to the partial or complete sublimation of the precipitating flux. This phenomenon is named here LPS (Low-level Precipitation Sublimation) and it has been observed by means of ground-based remote sensing instruments (weather radars) and atmospheric radio-sounding balloons records in the framework of the APRES3 campaign (Antarctic Precipitation: REmote Sensing from Surface and Space) in the coastal base of Dumont d' Urville (Terre Adélie), and then examined at the continental scale thanks to numerical weather models. LPS occurs over most of the coastal locations, where the total sublimated snowfall can be a significant percentage of the total snowfall. For example, in Dumont d' Urville the total yearly snowfall at 341 m height is less than 80% of the snowfall at 941 m height (the height of maximum yearly accumulation), and at shorter time scales complete sublimation (i.e. virga) often occurs. At the scale of individual precipitation events, LPS is

  16. Climate Proxies: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Discovering Climate Change on Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    An attractive way to advance climate literacy in higher education is to emphasize its relevance while teaching climate change across the curriculum to science majors and non-science majors. An inquiry-based pedagogical approach was used to engage five groups of students on a "Polar Discovery Project" aimed at interpreting the paleoclimate history of ice cores from Antarctica. Learning objectives and student learning outcomes were clearly defined. Students were assigned several exercises ranging from examination of Antarctic topography to the application of physical and chemical measurements as proxies for climate change. Required materials included base and topographic maps of Antarctica; graph sheets for construction of topographic cross-sectional profiles from profile lines of the Western Antarctica Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide and East Antarctica; high-resolution photographs of Antarctic ice cores; stratigraphic columns of ice cores; borehole and glaciochemical data (i.e. anions, actions, δ18O, δD etc.); and isotope data on greenhouse gases (CH4, O2, N2) extracted from gas bubbles in ice cores. The methodology was to engage students in (2) construction of topographic profiles; (2) suggest directions for ice flow based on simple physics; (3) formulate decisions on suitable locations for drilling ice cores; (4) visual ice stratigraphy including ice layer counting; (5) observation of any insoluble particles (i.e. meteoritic and volcanic material); (6) analysis of borehole temperature profiles; and (7) the interpretation of several datasets to derive a paleoclimate history of these areas of the continent. The overall goal of the project was to improve the students analytical and quantitative skills; their ability to evaluate relationships between physical and chemical properties in ice cores, and to advance the understanding the impending consequences of climate change while engaging science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Student learning outcomes

  17. Seasonal variation in particulate organic matter and its cnstituent fractions under the ice covered sea near the shelf, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    discrete depths. Chl @ia@@ concentration at all the 3 depths varied from 0.026 to 0.253 mu g l@u-1@@ showing minimum values during August-September. POC values varied from 280 to 1058 mu g l@u-1@@ while its constituent fractions such as particulate...

  18. Ice Velocity Mapping of Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica by Matching Surface Undulations Measured by Icesat Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon-Ki; Han, Shin-Chan; Yu, Jaehyung; Scambos, Ted A.; Seo, Ki-Weon

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method for estimating the surface horizontal velocity on ice shelves using laser altimetrydata from the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat; 20032009). The method matches undulations measured at crossover points between successive campaigns.

  19. Seasonal and interannual cross-shelf transport over the Texas and Louisiana continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyng, Kristen M.; Hetland, Robert D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical drifters are tracked in a hydrodynamic simulation of circulation over the Texas-Louisiana shelf to analyze patterns in cross-shelf transport of materials. While the important forcing mechanisms in the region (wind, river, and deep eddies) and associated flow patterns are known, the resultant material transport is less well understood. The primary metric used in the calculations is the percent of drifters released within a region that cross the 100 m isobath. Results of the analysis indicate that, averaged over the eleven years of the simulation, there are two regions on the shelf - over the Texas shelf during winter, and over the Louisiana shelf in summer - with increased seasonal probability for offshore transport. Among the two other distinct regions, the big bend region in Texas has increased probability for onshore transport, and the Mississippi Delta region has an increase in offshore transport, for both seasons. Some of these regions of offshore transport have marked interannual variability. This interannual variability is correlated to interannual changes in forcing conditions. Winter transport off of the Texas shelf is correlated with winter mean wind direction, with more northerly winds enhancing offshore transport; summer transport off the Louisiana shelf is correlated with Mississippi River discharge.

  20. Results and Error Estimates from GRACE Forward Modeling over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer; Chambers, Don

    2013-04-01

    Forward modeling using a weighted least squares technique allows GRACE information to be projected onto a pre-determined collection of local basins. This decreases the impact of spatial leakage, allowing estimates of mass change to be better localized. The technique is especially valuable where models of current-day mass change are poor, such as over Antarctica. However when tested previously, the least squares technique has required constraints in the form of added process noise in order to be reliable. Poor choice of local basin layout has also adversely affected results, as has the choice of spatial smoothing used with GRACE. To develop design parameters which will result in correct high-resolution mass detection and to estimate the systematic errors of the method over Antarctica, we use a "truth" simulation of the Antarctic signal. We apply the optimal parameters found from the simulation to RL05 GRACE data across Antarctica and the surrounding ocean. We particularly focus on separating the Antarctic peninsula's mass signal from that of the rest of western Antarctica. Additionally, we characterize how well the technique works for removing land leakage signal from the nearby ocean, particularly that near the Drake Passage.

  1. Gloeocapsopsis aurea, a new subaerophytic cyanobacterium from maritime Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mataloni, G.; Komárek, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2004), s. 623-628 ISSN 0722-4060 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA AV ČR IAA6005002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Antarctica * cyanobacteria * Gloeocapsopsis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.315, year: 2004

  2. Antioxidant Responses Induced by UVB Radiation in Deschampsia antarctica Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Köhler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Deschampsia antarctica Desv. is one of two vascular plants that live in the Maritime Antarctic Territory and is exposed to high levels of ultraviolet-B (UVB radiation. In this work, antioxidant physiology of D. antarctica was studied in response to UVB induced oxidative changes. Samples were collected from Antarctica and maintained in vitro culture during 2 years. Plants were sub-cultured in a hydroponic system and exposed to 21.4 kJ m-2 day-1, emulating summer Antarctic conditions. Results showed rapid and significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS at 3 h, which rapidly decreased. No dramatic changes were observed in photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content, and level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (MDA. The enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD and total peroxidases, POD and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity (total phenolic increased significantly in response to UVB treatment. These findings suggest that tolerance of D. antarctica to UVB radiation could be attributed to its ability to activate both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems.

  3. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wal, R.S.W.; Meijer, H.A.J.; van Rooij, M.; van der Veen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for 14CO and 14CO2 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced 14CO fraction show a very low concentration of in situ produced 14CO.

  4. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. S. W.; Meijer, H. A. J.; De Rooij, M.; Van der Veen, C.

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for (CO)-C-14 and (CO2)-C-14 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced (CO)-C-14 fraction show a very low concentration of in situ

  5. Catalysis by Candida antarctica B (CALB) immobilized on natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In this work, a lipase B from Candida antarctica strain was immobilized onto natural silica carriers via adsorption to enhance its feasibility in practical applications. Methodology and results: The biocatalyst was prepared by simple adsorption on the support whose composition was beforehand characterized and the ...

  6. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  7. Transcriptome of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S

    2015-12-01

    454 RNA-Seq transcriptome data were generated from foot tissue of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica. A total of 6195 contigs were assembled de novo, providing a useful resource for researchers with an interest in Antarctic marine species, phylogenetics and mollusc biology, especially shell production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomonitoring of heavy metals using Usnea antarctica lichens (extended abstract)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvěřina, O.; Coufalík, Pavel; Barták, M.; Komárek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 238-239 ISSN 1805-0689. [Biosciences in Polar and Alpine Research. Workshop 2016. Brno, 23.11.2016-23.11.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : heavy metal * lichen * Antarctica Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  9. Yeast activities involved in carbon and nitrogen cycles in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antarctica and sub Antarctic regions are characterized by extreme conditions for life such as low temperatures and nutrient availability, high solar radiation and dryness, however, microorganisms from the three domains of life have been found as common inhabitants of soils and waters from those zone...

  10. Hydroids from submarine cliffs near Arthur Harbour, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.

    1972-01-01

    At the instigation of Dr. Joel W. Hedgpeth, Resident Director, Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, Oregon, U.S.A., I studied samples of hydroids, collected by Dr. John C. McCain and Dr. William E. Stout from submarine cliffs in the region around Palmer Station, Antarctica. The

  11. Aerobiology Over Antarctica-A New Initiativefor Atmospheric Ecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pearce, D.; Alekhina, I. A.; Teraud, A.; Wilmotte, A.; Quesada, A.; Edwards, A.; Dommergue, A.; Sattler, B.; Adams, B. J.; Magalhaes, C.; Chu, W. L.; Lau, M. C. Y.; Cary, C.; Smith, D. J.; Wall, D. H.; Eguren, G.; Matcher, G.; Bradley, J. A.; de Vera, J. P.; Elster, Josef; Hughes, K. A.; Cuthbertson, L.; Benning, L. G.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Convey, P.; Hong, S. G.; Pointing, S.; Pellizari, V. H.; Vincent, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, 16 February (2016), s. 1-7, č. článku 16. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Antarctica * biodiversity * biogeography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  12. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    This study provides an integrated analysis of exchanges of water, salt and heat between the north-western Black Sea shelf and the deep basin. Three contributing physical mechanisms are quantified, namely: Ekman drift, transport by mesoscale eddies at the edge of the NW Black Sea shelf and non-local cascading assisted by the rim current and mesoscale eddies. The semi-enclosed nature of the Black Sea together with its unique combination of an extensive shelf area in the North West and the deep central part make it sensitive to natural variations of fluxes, including the fluxes between the biologically productive shelf and predominantly anoxic deep sea. Exchanges between the shelf and deep sea play an important role in forming the balance of waters, nutrients and pollution within the coastal areas, and hence the level of human-induced eutrophication of coastal waters (MSFD Descriptor 5). In this study we analyse physical mechanisms and quantify shelf-deep sea exchange processes in the Black Sea sector using the NEMO ocean circulation model. The model is configured and optimized taking into account specific features of the Black Sea, and validated against in-situ and satellite observations. The study uses NEMO-BLS24 numerical model which is based on the NEMO codebase v3.2.1 with amendments introduced by the UK Met Office. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1/24×1/24° and a hybrid s-on-top-of-z vertical coordinate system with a total of 33 layers. The horizontal viscosity/diffusivity operator is rotated to reduce the contamination of vertical diffusion/viscosity by large values of their horizontal counterparts. The bathymetry is processed from ETOPO5 and capped to 1550m. Atmospheric forcing for the period 1989-2012 is given by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2. For comparison, the NCEP atmospheric forcing also used for 2005. The climatological runoff from 8 major rivers is included. We run the model individually for 24 calendar years without data assimilation. For

  13. Diversity structure of culturable bacteria isolated from the Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica): A phylogenetic analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rocha, Gerardo; Muñoz-Cartes, Gabriel; Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Lima, Celia A; Domínguez-Yévenes, Mariana; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Hernández, Cristián E

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that Antarctic environments select microorganisms with unique biochemical adaptations, based on the tenet 'Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects' by Baas-Becking. However, this is a hypothesis that has not been extensively evaluated. This study evaluated the fundamental prediction contained in this hypothesis-in the sense that species are structured in the landscape according to their local habitats-, using as study model the phylogenetic diversity of the culturable bacteria of Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica). Eighty bacterial strains isolated from 10 different locations in the area, were recovered. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were grouped into twenty-six phylotypes distributed in three main clades, of which only six are exclusive to Antarctica. Results showed that phylotypes do not group significantly by habitat type; however, local habitat types had phylogenetic signal, which support the phylogenetic niche conservatism hypothesis and not a selective role of the environment like the Baas-Becking hypothesis suggests. We propose that, more than habitat selection resulting in new local adaptations and diversity, local historical colonization and species sorting (i.e. differences in speciation and extinction rates that arise by interaction of species level traits with the environment) play a fundamental role on the culturable bacterial diversity in Antarctica.

  14. Comparison through fission-track analysis of portions of Australia and Antarctica adjacent prior to continental drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, E.; Fitzgerald, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Australia and Antarctica have been reconstructed by the matching of three terranes in western Victoria with three terranes in northern Victoria Land. Apparent fission-track ages from granitic rocks of these matched regions are compared. In western Victoria, Australia, data reflect a history of slow cooling following intrusion in early to middle Paleozoic time. In northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, a complex history of cooling and uplift is indicated, with uplift of the present-day mountains commencing approximately 50 Ma. Fission tracks in apatites from most samples from northern Victoria Land were completely re-set to zero by the thermal effects of Jurassic tholeiitic magmatism. Apatite in three samples however, predate the Jurassic and were only partially re-set by this event. Apparent sphene fission-track ages indicate that the three terranes in northern Victoria Land have shared a common thermal history since the Devonian. With the exception of one small area in western Victoria, neither western Victoria nor northern Victoria Land data show a clear influence of rifting and breakup in the late Cretaceous. Overall, the data indicate that once the breakup of Australia and Antarctica had occurred, their thermal and tectonic histories evolved independently along differing paths. (author)

  15. Reproductive biology of Perkinsiana antarctica (Kinberg (Polychaeta, Sabellidae in the Straits of Magellan (South America: Systematic and ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Gambi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive biology and larval development of the polychaete Perkinsiana Antarctica (Kinberg, 1867 (Sabellidae are described of a population sampled in October 1994 and March 1997 in the type locality of this species, the Straits of Magellan (Southern Chile. Perkinsiana antarctica is a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Eggs are present in the thorax and in the anterior part of the abdomen, while sperm cells occur in the posterior abdomen. Spermatids are grouped in tetrads; mature sperm cells present an oval nucleus (length of major axis about 3 µm and the acrosome is about 2.5 µm long with a conoid shape. Mature eggs have a mean diameter of 235 µm; embryos and larvae are incubated within the branchial crown of specimens exceeding 10 mm in length. Hatching larvae have a mean length of 420 µm, with 4 segments, each bearing two notochaeta; two ocular spots and a well-developed prototroch are present at the anterior end. Both number of embryos and larvae per individual showed a relatively high range of variation (embryos from 54 to 374, mean=173; larvae from 18 to 222, mean=101. The features of reproductive biology in P. antarctica do not seem to be related to the size of the species itself, as P. antarctica represents one of the largest-sized sabellids that are brooding eggs, and producing a relatively high number of offspring. These reproductive and developmental traits seem more related to the colonization of harsh and selective habitats, such as the intertidal and shallow subtidal of the Subantarctic areas. Comparisons with the reproductive biology of other species of Perkinsiana demonstrate a high degree of variability within the genus regarding reproduction and the apparent lack of synapomorphies.

  16. Occurrence and distribution of old and new halogenated flame retardants in mosses and lichens from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Tae; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Barghi, Mandana; Yoon, Young-Jun; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2018-04-01

    The spatial distribution of old and new halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and Dechlorane Plus (DPs) and related compounds (Dechloranes), were investigated in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica, employing mosses (Andreaea depressinervis and Sanionia uncinata) and lichens (Himantormia lugubris and Usnea antarctica) as bioindicators. The levels of PBDEs, HBCDs, and Dechloranes ranged from 3.2 to 71.5, 0.63-960, and 2.04-2400 pg/g dw (dry weight) in the mosses, and from 1.5 to 188, 0.1-21.1, and 1.0-83.8 pg/g dw in the lichens, respectively. HFRs were detected in all of the collected samples, even in those from the remote regions. The dominance of high brominated-BDE, anti-DP fraction, and HBCD diastereomeric ratio in the samples from remote regions suggested the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of the HFRs. The relatively high HBCDs and Dechloranes contamination and their similar chemical profile with commercial products in the vicinity of Antarctic research stations indicated that human activities might act as local sources, while PBDEs appeared to be more influenced by LRAT and bioaccumulation rather than local emission. Lastly, the relatively high HFR levels and dominance of more brominated BDEs at the Narębski Point and in the wet lowlands suggested that penguin colonies and melting glacier water could be secondary HFR sources in Antarctica. The HFR levels differed by sample species, suggesting that further research on the factors associated with the HFR accumulation in the different species is necessary. This study firstly reports the alternative HFR levels in a wide area of the Antarctica, which could improve our understanding of the source, transport, and fate of the HFRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using satellite laser ranging to measure ice mass change in Greenland and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bonin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A least squares inversion of satellite laser ranging (SLR data over Greenland and Antarctica could extend gravimetry-based estimates of mass loss back to the early 1990s and fill any future gap between the current Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission. The results of a simulation suggest that, while separating the mass change between Greenland and Antarctica is not possible at the limited spatial resolution of the SLR data, estimating the total combined mass change of the two areas is feasible. When the method is applied to real SLR and GRACE gravity series, we find significantly different estimates of inverted mass loss. There are large, unpredictable, interannual differences between the two inverted data types, making us conclude that the current 5×5 spherical harmonic SLR series cannot be used to stand in for GRACE. However, a comparison with the longer IMBIE time series suggests that on a 20-year time frame, the inverted SLR series' interannual excursions may average out, and the long-term mass loss estimate may be reasonable.

  18. Using satellite laser ranging to measure ice mass change in Greenland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer A.; Chambers, Don P.; Cheng, Minkang

    2018-01-01

    A least squares inversion of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data over Greenland and Antarctica could extend gravimetry-based estimates of mass loss back to the early 1990s and fill any future gap between the current Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the future GRACE Follow-On mission. The results of a simulation suggest that, while separating the mass change between Greenland and Antarctica is not possible at the limited spatial resolution of the SLR data, estimating the total combined mass change of the two areas is feasible. When the method is applied to real SLR and GRACE gravity series, we find significantly different estimates of inverted mass loss. There are large, unpredictable, interannual differences between the two inverted data types, making us conclude that the current 5×5 spherical harmonic SLR series cannot be used to stand in for GRACE. However, a comparison with the longer IMBIE time series suggests that on a 20-year time frame, the inverted SLR series' interannual excursions may average out, and the long-term mass loss estimate may be reasonable.

  19. Natural and anthropogenic sources of chemical elements in sediment profiles from the Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueira, R.C.L.; Silva, C.R.A.; Franca, E.J.; Mahiques, M.M.; Bicego, M.C.; Montone, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Antarctic Continent and its surrounding Southern Ocean are the least known regions of the world, mainly due to the most unfavorable climatic conditions, in which sampling for environmental studies are quite difficult to be carried out. Admiralty Bay on the King George Island (Antarctica) hosts three research stations, Arctowski, Ferraz and Macchu Picchu, which are operate by Poland, Brazil and Peru, respectively. Therefore, human activities in this region require the use of fossil fuel as an energy source, which is also considered the main source of pollutants in the area. This work investigated the natural and anthropogenic inputs of chemical elements in sediment samples collected close to Ferraz Station, during the 25 th Brazilian Antarctica Expedition in the 2006/2007 austral summer. Total concentrations of As, Zn and Sc were determined in sediment profiles by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical technique employed to determine the major elements such as Fe, Al, Ca, Mn and Ti was X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. For estimating the sedimentation rate, High Resolution Gamma Ray Spectrometry was applied to determine 137 Cs, after 30 days, to achieve secular equilibrium. According to the enrichment factor and the geochronology analysis, the most relevant enrichment was observed for As in the sediment samples, suggesting the increasing of its content due to the Brazilian activities in the Admiralty Bay. Despite some evidences of anthropogenic contribution, the study indicated low level of environmental risk for this region. (author)

  20. New Antarctic Gravity Anomaly Grid for Enhanced Geodetic and Geophysical Studies in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinert, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Schwabe, J.; Bell, R.; Studinger, M.; Damaske, D.; Jokat, W.; Aleshkova, N.; Jordan, T.; Leitchenkov, G.; Blankenship, D. D.; Damiani, T. M.; Young, D.; Cochran, J. R.; Richter, T. D.

    2018-01-01

    Gravity surveying is challenging in Antarctica because of its hostile environment and inaccessibility. Nevertheless, many ground-based, airborne and shipborne gravity campaigns have been completed by the geophysical and geodetic communities since the 1980s. We present the first modern Antarctic-wide gravity data compilation derived from 13 million data points covering an area of 10 million km2, which corresponds to 73% coverage of the continent. The remove-compute-restore technique was applied for gridding, which facilitated levelling of the different gravity datasets with respect to an Earth Gravity Model derived from satellite data alone. The resulting free-air and Bouguer gravity anomaly grids of 10 km resolution are publicly available. These grids will enable new high-resolution combined Earth Gravity Models to be derived and represent a major step forward towards solving the geodetic polar data gap problem. They provide a new tool to investigate continental-scale lithospheric structure and geological evolution of Antarctica. PMID:29326484

  1. The behaviour of residual contaminants at a former station site, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Jenny; Webster, Kerry; Nelson, Peter; Waterhouse, Emma

    2003-01-01

    Minor contamination by metals, phosphorus, and fuel products were found at a former research station site in Antarctica. - In 1994, New Zealand's only mainland Antarctic base, Vanda Station, was removed from the shores of Lake Vanda, in the McMurdo Dry Valleys region of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Residual chemical contamination of the station site has been identified, in the form of discrete fuel spills, locally elevated Pb, Zn, Ag and Cd concentrations in soil and elevated Cu, Ni, Co and phosphate concentrations in suprapermafrost fluids in a gully formerly used for domestic washing water disposal. Pathways for contaminant transfer to Lake Vanda, potential environmental impacts and specific remediation/monitoring options are considered. While some contaminants (particularly Zn) could be selectively leached from flooded soil, during a period of rising lake level, the small area of contaminated soils exposed and low level of contamination suggests that this would not adversely affect either shallow lake water quality or the growth of cyanobacteria. Phosphate-enhanced growth of the latter may, however, be a visible consequence of the minor contamination occurring at this site

  2. Radio Echo Sounding (RES investigations at Talos Dome (East Antarctica: bedrock topography and ice thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Tabacco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio echo sounding measurements were collected during two Antarctic expeditions to determine the ice thickness and the sub-glacial morphology of Talos Dome in the region around 72°48'S; 159°06'E (about 6400 km2 on the edge of the East Antarctic plateau adjacent to Victoria Land in the western Ross Sea sector. The increasing interest in this region is due to the fact that in this area the ice accumulation is higher than in other sites in East Antarctica. Because of this, Talos Dome could be a new site for a project of a deep ice core drilling to obtain information on climate changes near the coast of Antarctica. In this frame, the knowledge of the bedrock topography is of great importance to choose the best location for the drilling site. In this paper, airborne radio echo sounding results from two Antarctic expeditions (1997 and 1999 are presented. Bedrock topography in bi- and three-dimensions for the Talos Dome region are discussed.

  3. Role of Snow Deposition of Perfluoroalkylated Substances at Coastal Livingston Island (Maritime Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Paulo; Zhang, Yifeng; Martin, Jonathan W; Pizarro, Mariana; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous in the environment, including remote polar regions. To evaluate the role of snow deposition as an input of PFAS to Maritime Antarctica, fresh snow deposition, surface snow, streams from melted snow, coastal seawater, and plankton samples were collected over a three-month period (December 2014-February 2015) at Livingston Island. Local sources of PFASs were significant for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and C7-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in snow but limited to the transited areas of the research station. The concentrations of 14 ionizable PFAS (∑PFAS) in freshly deposited snow (760-3600 pg L -1 ) were 1 order of magnitude higher than those in background surface snow (82-430 pg L -1 ). ∑PFAS ranged from 94 to 420 pg L -1 in seawater and from 3.1 to 16 ng g dw -1 in plankton. Ratios of individual PFAS concentrations in freshly deposited snow relative to surface snow (C SD /C Snow ), snowmelt (C SD /C SM ), and seawater (C SD /C SW ) were close to 1 (from 0.44 to 1.4) for all perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) isomers, suggesting that snowfall does not contribute significantly to PFOS in seawater. Conversely, these ratios for PFCAs ranged from 1 to 33 and were positively correlated with the number of carbons in the PFCA alkylated chain. These trends suggest that snow deposition, scavenging sea-salt aerosol bound PFAS, plays a role as a significant input of PFCAs to the Maritime Antarctica.

  4. Is there 1.5-million-year-old ice near Dome C, Antarctica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parrenin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice sheets provide exceptional archives of past changes in polar climate, regional environment and global atmospheric composition. The oldest dated deep ice core drilled in Antarctica has been retrieved at EPICA Dome C (EDC, reaching ∼ 800 000 years. Obtaining an older paleoclimatic record from Antarctica is one of the greatest challenges of the ice core community. Here, we use internal isochrones, identified from airborne radar coupled to ice-flow modelling to estimate the age of basal ice along transects in the Dome C area. Three glaciological properties are inferred from isochrones: surface accumulation rate, geothermal flux and the exponent of the Lliboutry velocity profile. We find that old ice (> 1.5 Myr, 1.5 million years likely exists in two regions: one ∼ 40 km south-west of Dome C along the ice divide to Vostok, close to a secondary dome that we name Little Dome C (LDC, and a second region named North Patch (NP located 10–30 km north-east of Dome C, in a region where the geothermal flux is apparently relatively low. Our work demonstrates the value of combining radar observations with ice flow modelling to accurately represent the true nature of ice flow, and understand the formation of ice-sheet architecture, in the centre of large ice sheets.

  5. Environmental Correlation and Spatial Autocorrelation of Soil Properties in Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Geraldo de Lima Moraes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pattern of variation in soil and landform properties in relation to environmental covariates are closely related to soil type distribution. The aim of this study was to apply digital soil mapping techniques to analysis of the pattern of soil property variation in relation to environmental covariates under periglacial conditions at Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica. We considered the hypothesis that covariates normally used for environmental correlation elsewhere can be adequately employed in periglacial areas in Maritime Antarctica. For that purpose, 138 soil samples from 47 soil sites were collected for analysis of soil chemical and physical properties. We tested the correlation between soil properties (clay, potassium, sand, organic carbon, and pH and environmental covariates. The environmental covariates selected were correlated with soil properties according to the terrain attributes of the digital elevation model (DEM. The models evaluated were linear regression, ordinary kriging, and regression kriging. The best performance was obtained using normalized height as a covariate, with an R2 of 0.59 for sand. In contrast, the lowest R2 of 0.15 was obtained for organic carbon, also using the regression kriging method. Overall, results indicate that, despite the predominant periglacial conditions, the environmental covariates normally used for digital terrain mapping of soil properties worldwide can be successfully employed for understanding the main variations in soil properties and soil-forming factors in this region.

  6. The contents and distributions of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Usnea antarctica lichens from Solorina Valley, James Ross Island (Antarctica)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvěřina, O.; Coufalík, Pavel; Barták, M.; Petrov, M.; Komárek, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-9, č. článku 13. ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : lichen * biomonitoring * Antarctica * heavy metals Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2016

  7. Sonograph patterns of the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    knolls. A transition zone with tonal variations is present between 40 and 60 m water depth. Ground-truth data sediment and rock distribution maps indicate depositional (inner shelf), nondepositional or erosional (outer shelf) environments and a...

  8. Food packaging and shelf life: a practical guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Gordon L

    2010-01-01

    .... Food Packaging and Shelf Life: A Practical Guide provides package developers with the information they need to specify just the right amount of protective packaging to maintain food quality and maximize shelf life...

  9. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  10. Magnetic surveys of the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    shelf. Quantitative estimates made for the anomalies over the inner shelf using the graphical method and by computing the analytical signal suggest the existence of a fault in the nearshore region and a possible zone of heavy mineral concentration off...

  11. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  12. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  13. Tilt signals at Mount Melbourne, Antarctica: evidence of a shallow volcanic source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gambino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mount Melbourne (74°21′ S, 164°43′ E is a quiescent volcano located in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Tilt signals have been recorded on Mount Melbourne since early 1989 by a permanent shallow borehole tiltmeter network comprising five stations. An overall picture of tilt, air and permafrost temperatures over 15 years of continuous recording data is reported. We focused our observations on long-term tilt trends that at the end of 1997 showed coherent changes at the three highest altitude stations, suggesting the presence of a ground deformation source whose effects are restricted to the summit area of Mount Melbourne. We inverted these data using a finite spherical body source, thereby obtaining a shallow deflation volume source located under the summit area. The ground deformation observed corroborates the hypothesis that the volcanic edifice of Mount Melbourne is active and should be monitored multidisciplinarily.

  14. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum resources will not last for ever. It is therefore important for Norway to look ahead so as to be prepared for the changes that will come. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status of the petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. This is the basis on which the authorities can lay plans for the future. Since no-one can predict the future with certainty, on this occasion the Directorate is presenting four alternative scenarios for the future of Norwegian petroleum activities if the basic scenario proves incorrect. This will enable us to prepare ourselves for changes that may come, and to view the consequences of the various choices we can make. In this report, the Directorate also describes the various plays on the continental shelf, and explains the techniques used and the evaluations made when it estimates the undiscovered resources. This information is important for exploration work, particularly for new companies which need to get acquainted with the geology and the possibilities for finding oil and gas in Norway. Significant volumes remain to be produced and found on the Norwegian continental shelf. Only a third of the total resources have so far been produced, and a quarter of them have still not been discovered. Oil and gas prices are high at the moment, giving the industry and society in general good incentives to produce at a maximum rate. Oil production reached its peak a couple of years ago, but gas production is still increasing. However, the industry is finding less than it produces, which places demands on both it and the authorities. The industry must actively explore the acreage it has been allocated. The Petroleum Directorate believes that substantial resources can still be discovered in areas where production licences have been awarded. At the same time, the industry must gain access to new areas for exploration. The authorities must find an appropriate balance between concern for the

  15. Differential use of the Argentine shelf by wintering adults and juveniles southern giant petrels, Macronectes giganteus, from Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Gabriela S.; Quintana, Flavio

    2014-08-01

    To study habitat use and at-sea movements of southern giant petrels (SGP) during non-breeding period, we deployed 15 satellite transmitters (six adults, nine juveniles) at Isla Arce and Isla Gran Robredo colonies in Patagonia, Argentina. Birds were instrumented during 81.4 ± 37 days. Adult birds used 74% of the Argentine shelf concentrating mainly at the shelf break, middle shelf waters, and the surroundings of the colony. After fledging, juveniles spread to the Argentine, Uruguayan and Brazilian shelves within the South Atlantic. Adults alternated at-sea excursions (12 ± 5 days) with periods at the colony of 3 ± 0.3 days. Contrarily, juveniles moved first to the shelf break and then traveled northwards reaching the south of Brazil. There was some spatial overlap between age classes, but only during the first 30 days after juveniles had fledged; thereafter there was not overlap between the areas used by both age classes. The Argentine shelf is widely used by different species offering a suitable environment for foraging; this may be why adults SGP from Patagonian colonies spend all year-round within the Argentine shelf. The identification of used areas of non-breeding SGP fills a gap in the species knowledge contributing not only to the preservation the species, but also to the management of marine areas globally recognized as important for many other Procellariiformes.

  16. Wind forcing controls on river plume spreading on a tropical continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarya, A.; Vegt, van der M.; Hoitink, A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Berau Continental Shelf is located close to the Equator in the Indonesian Archipelago, hosting a complex of coral reefs along its oceanic edge. The Berau coral reefs have a very high biodiversity, but the area is under serious risk due to river-derived nutrients and sediments. The region is

  17. 2006 Multibeam Mapping of cross-shelf corridor, North of Madison-Swanson - Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of an area North of Madison-Swanson (29.1667N, 85.6667W), in the West-Florida shelf,...

  18. Depth study of insular shelf electric sounding in the Puntas de Abrojal anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the Uranium prospecting Programme, a geophysics team composed by BRGM and DINAMIGE workers were carried out an study about of insular shelf electric sounding on the Puntas de Abrojal area.A geographical location, geologic framework, geophysical survey and methods, materials and results were given

  19. Depth study of insular shelf electric sounding in the Las Mercedes anomaly (Tacuarembo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of Uranium prospecting Programme the geophysics team composed by BRGM and DINAMIGE workers were carried out an study about insular shelf electric sounding on the Mercedes area.They were studied the following topics: geographical location, geologic framework, methods, materials and some results

  20. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... No. BOEM-2011-0008] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind lease in the area offshore... a Request for Interest (RFI) in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21653). Bluewater Wind...

  1. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Special offer: 7 days fly & drive Antarctica: The role of wilderness protection in deciding whether (semi) permanent tourist facilities in Antarctica should be prohibited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, Kees; Watson, A.; Sproull, J.; Dean, L.

    2007-01-01

    Antarctica is often described as one of 'world's last wildernesses'. Since 1990, tourism to this wilderness is developing rapidly. In a period of 15 years, the number of tourists that make landings in Antarctica has increased from 2,500 (1990/91) to more than 23.000 (2004/05). The diversity of

  3. Shelf life prediction of canned fried-rice using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) arrhenius method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, M.; Bintang, R.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Nursiwi, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Susanto, A.; Angwar, M.; Triwiyono; Frediansyah, A.

    2017-12-01

    Research on shelf-life prediction of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius model has been conducted. The aim of this research to predict shelf life of canned-fried rice products. Lethality value of 121°C for 15 and 20 minutes and Total Plate count methods are used to determine time and temperatures of sterilization process.Various storage temperatures of ASLT Arrhenius method were 35, 45 and 55°C during 35days. Rancidity is one of the derivation quality of canned fried rice. In this research, sample of canned fried rice is tested using rancidity value (TBA). TBA value was used as parameter which be measured once a week periodically. The use of can for fried rice without any chemical preservative is one of the advantage of the product, additionaly the use of physicalproperties such as temperature and pressure during its process can extend the shelf life and reduce the microbial contamination. The same research has never done before for fried rice as ready to eat meal. The result showed that the optimum conditions of sterilization process were 121°C,15 minutes with total plate count number of 9,3 × 101 CFU/ml. Lethality value of canned fried rice at 121°C,15 minutes was 3.63 minutes. The calculated Shelf-life of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius method was 10.3 months.

  4. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Funder, Svend Visby

    2010-01-01

    We present the mapping of glacial landforms and sediments from northernmost Greenland bordering 100 km of the Arctic Ocean coast. One of the most important discoveries is that glacial landforms, sediments, including till fabric measurements, striae and stoss-lee boulders suggest eastward ice......-flow along the coastal plain. Volcanic erratic boulders document ice-transport from 80 to 100 km west of the study area. We argue that these findings are best explained by local outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet and local ice caps that merged to form a shelf-based ice in the Arctic Ocean...... and possibly confirming an extensive ice shelf in the Lincoln Sea between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. It is speculated that the shelf-based ice was largely affected by the presence of thick multiyear sea ice in the Arctic Ocean that prevented it from breaking up and forced the outlet glaciers to flow...

  5. Field Observations and Modeling Results of the McMurdo Shear Zone, Antarctica: Implications on Shear Margin Dynamics and Long- Term Viability of the South Pole Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Enderlin, E. M.; Courville, Z.; Campbell, S. W.; Arcone, S.; Jordan, M.; Ray, L.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the flow of inland ice towards the ocean. Understanding the controls on ice-shelf stability are critical to predicting the future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. For the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), an important region of lateral resistance is the McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ), a 5-10 km wide strip of heavily crevassed ice. On a yearly basis the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) mitigates crevasse hazards along the South Pole Traverse (SPoT) route that crosses this region. However, as ice advects northward past the lateral buttress of White Island into a region of greater flow divergence, intensified crevassing has been observed which will continue to place a substantial burden on safety mitigation efforts. The route has advected down-glacier towards this complex region since 2002 so the USAP currently has plans to relocate the shear zone crossing upstream in the near future. Our work aims to assess the feasibility of moving the route to several potential locations based on results from an integrated project incorporating detailed field-based observations of crevasse distributions and orientation from ground-penetrating radar (GPR), GPS and remote sensing observations of the flow and stress field within the MSZ, and finite element numerical modeling of local and regional kinematics within the region. In addition, we assess plausible dynamic forcings both upstream and downstream of the MSZ that could influence shear zone stability. These include changes in mass flux across the grounding lines of tributary glaciers such as the observed increase in ice discharge from of Byrd Glacier (Stearns et al., 2008) as well as changes at the MIS front due to recent intensified rift propagation (Banwel et al., 2017). Results from this work will increase our understanding of ice shelf shear margin dynamics and provide a firm basis for predicting the long-term behavior of the MSZ and viability of the SPoT. Stearns, Leigh A., Benjamin E. Smith, and

  6. Unraveling the Geologic History of Antarctica Through the Study of Sediment and Rock Cores: The ANDRILL Education and Public Outreach Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, F. R.; Huffman, L.; Berg, M.; Levy, R.; Harwood, D.; Lacy, L.

    2007-12-01

    ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) is a multinational collaboration involving more than 250 scientists from Germany, Italy, New Zealand and the United States. The ANDRILL Program has mobilized scientists, technicians, drillers, engineers, students and educators from four member nations to bring world-class science into focus and provide in-depth immersive experiences to educators through the ARISE (ANDRILL Research Immersion for Science Educators) Program and Project Iceberg. During two seasons of scientific drilling, encompassing the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project and the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) Project, 15 educators have been immersed in ANDRILL science and have participated in both learning and teaching experiences. Blogs, video journals, images and other resources were generated and distributed online to teachers, students and the general public through the ANDRILL website as part of Project Iceberg, which was used as a unifying theme for the outreach effort. The video journals chronicled the journey from Lincoln, Nebraska to Antarctica and introduced viewers to many aspects of the ANDRILL program in an engaging manner. An accompanying guide provided background information, discussion starters, and engaging activities for students and adults alike. Subtitles in German and Italian were used on each of the video journals in addition to the English narrative, and the resulting product was entitled, ANDRILL: A REAL WORLD GEOSCIENCE ADVENTURE. The primary objective was to introduce teachers, students, and the general public to Antarctica and the ANDRILL Program, and to provide preliminary insights into the following questions: How do scientists from around the world come together in the coldest, windiest, driest place on Earth to uncover the secrets that have been shrouded beneath the ice for millions of years? What secrets do the rocks record? How can I join the journey to learn more about Antarctica and ANDRILL?

  7. Melt Origin Across a Rifted Continental Margin: A Case for Subduction-related Metasomatic Agents in the Lithospheric Source of Alkaline Basalt, Northwest Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, K. S.; Castillo, P.; Krans, S. R.; Deering, C. D.; McIntosh, W. C.; Valley, J. W.; Kitajima, K.; Kyle, P. R.; Hart, S. R.; Blusztajn, J.

    2017-12-01

    Alkaline magmatism within the West Antarctic rift system in the NW Ross Sea (NWRS) includes a chain of shield volcanoes extending 260 km along the coast, numerous seamounts located on the continental shelf and hundreds more within the oceanic Adare Basin. Dating and geochemistry confirm that the seamounts are Pliocene‒Pleistocene in age and petrogenetically akin to the mostly Miocene volcanism on the continent as well as to a much broader region of alkaline volcanism that altogether encompasses areas of West Antarctica, Zealandia and Australia. All of these regions were contiguous prior to Gondwana breakup at 100 Ma, suggesting that the magmatism is interrelated. Mafic alkaline magmas (> 6 wt.% MgO) erupted across the transition from continent to ocean in the NWRS show a remarkable systematic increase in Si-undersaturation, P2O5, Sr, Zr, Nb and light rare earth element (LREE) concentrations, LREE/HREE and Nb/Y ratios. Radiogenic isotopes also vary with Nd and Pb ratios increasing and Sr ratios decreasing ocean-ward. The variations are not explained by crustal contamination or by changes in degree of mantle partial melting but are likely a function of the thickness and age of mantle lithosphere. The isotopic signature of the most Si-undersaturated and incompatible element enriched basalts best represent the composition of the sub-lithospheric source with low 87Sr/86Sr (≤ 0.7030) and δ18Oolivine (≤ 5.0 ‰), high 143Nd/144Nd ( 0.5130) and 206Pb/204Pb (≥ 20) ratios. The isotopic `endmember' is derived from recycled material and was transferred to the lithospheric mantle by small degree melts to form amphibole-rich metasomes. Later melting of the metasomes produced silica-undersaturated liquids that reacted with the surrounding peridotite. This reaction occurred to a greater extent as the melt traversed through thicker and older lithosphere continent-ward. Ancient or more recent ( 550‒100 Ma) subduction along the margin of Gondwana supplied the recycled

  8. Shelf life of pasteurized microfiltered milk containing 2% fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Barbano, D M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce homogenized milk containing 2% fat with a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d using minimum high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization in combination with other nonthermal processes. Raw skim milk was microfiltered (MF) using a Tetra Alcross MFS-7 pilot plant (Tetra Pak International SA, Pully, Switzerland) equipped with Membralox ceramic membranes (1.4 μm and surface area of 2.31 m(2); Pall Corp., East Hills, NY). The unpasteurized MF skim permeate and each of 3 different cream sources were blended together to achieve three 2% fat milks. Each milk was homogenized (first stage: 17 MPa, second stage: 3 MPa) and HTST pasteurized (73.8°C for 15s). The pasteurized MF skim permeate and the 3 pasteurized homogenized 2% fat milks (made from different fat sources) were stored at 1.7 and 5.7°C and the standard plate count for each milk was determined weekly over 90 d. When the standard plate count was >20,000 cfu/mL, it was considered the end of shelf life for the purpose of this study. Across 4 replicates, a 4.13 log reduction in bacteria was achieved by MF, and a further 0.53 log reduction was achieved by the combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), resulting in a 4.66 log reduction in bacteria for the combined process. No containers of MF skim milk that was pasteurized after MF exceeded 20,000 cfu/mL bacteria count during 90 d of storage at 5.7°C. The 3 different approaches used to reduce the initial bacteria and spore count of each cream source used to make the 2% fat milks did not produce any shelf-life advantage over using cold separated raw cream when starting with excellent quality raw whole milk (i.e., low bacteria count). The combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), combined with filling and packaging that was protected from microbial contamination, achieved a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d at both 1.7 and 5.7°C for 2% fat milks. Copyright © 2013 American

  9. Diatom evidence for the onset of Pliocene cooling from AND-1B, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    The late Pliocene, ~ 3.3–3.0 Ma, is the most recent interval of sustained global warmth in the geologic past. This window is the focus of climate reconstruction efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey's Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Data/Model Cooperative, and may provide a useful climate analog for the coming century. Reconstructions of past surface ocean conditions proximal to the Antarctic continent are essential to understanding the sensitivity of the cryosphere to this key interval in Earth's climate evolution. An exceptional marine sediment core collected from the southwestern Ross Sea (78° S), Antarctica, during ANDRILL's McMurdo Ice Shelf Project preserves evidence of dramatic fluctuations between grounded ice and productive, open ocean conditions during the late Pliocene, reflecting orbitally-paced glacial/interglacial cycling. In this near-shore record, diatom-rich sediments are recovered from interglacial intervals; two of these diatomites, from ~ 3.2 Ma and 3.03 Ma, are within the PRISM chronologic window. The diatom assemblages identified in PRISM-age late Pliocene diatom-rich sediments are distinct from those in mid-Pliocene and later Pliocene/Pleistocene intervals recovered from AND-1B, and comprise both extant taxa with well-constrained ecological preferences and a diverse extinct flora, some members of which are previously undescribed from Antarctic sediments. Both units are dominated by Chaetoceros resting spores, an indicator of high productivity and stratification that is present at much lower abundance in materials both older and younger than the PRISM-age sediments. Newly described species of the genus Fragilariopsis, which first appear in the AND-1B record at 3.2 Ma, are the most abundant extinct members of the PRISM-age assemblages. Other extant species with established environmental affinities, such as Fragilariopsis sublinearis, F. curta, Stellarima microtrias, and Thalassiothrix antarctica, are

  10. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter

  11. Radiocarbon dates of sediment cores from inner continental shelf off Taingapatnam, southwest coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, A.R.; Rajagopalan, G.

    1995-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of carbonized wood samples from three sediment cores from the inner continental shelf off Taingapatnam, in the southwestern coast of India, indicates ages in the bracket 8400-9400 YBP. These radiometric ages correlate well with the ages of carbonized wood from inner continental shelf off Ponnani, Kerala and Karwar, Karnataka. The occurrence of carbonized wood in widely spread offshore areas probably represents a regional transgressive event in the west coast which resulted in submergence and destruction of coastal mangroves. The rate of sedimentation in the study area varies between 0.12 and 0.37 mm/yr, much lower than those reported from shelf areas north of Mangalore. The slow accumulation of sediments in the southern parts of the western continental shelf of India, as exemplified from the present study, may be due to very poor discharge and low bed load sediments of the west-flowing small rivers of this part of the peninsula and low concentration of suspended particulate matter in them. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations in the southern Caspian Sea: shelf currents and flow field off Feridoonkenar Bay, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghaffari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Feridoon-kenar Bay (FB in the south Caspian Sea (CS are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed basin and absence of the astronomical tide, the atmospheric forcing plays an important role in the flow field of the CS. The lasting regular sea breeze system is present almost throughout the year. This system performs the forcing in diurnal and semi-diurnal bands similar to tides in other regions. In general, current field in the continental shelf could be separated into two distinguishable schemes, which in cross-shelf direction is dominated by high frequencies (1 cpd and higher frequencies, and in along-shelf orientation mostly proportional to lower frequencies in synoptic weather bands. Long-period wave currents, whose velocities are much greater than those of direct wind-induced currents, dominates the current field in the continental shelf off FB. The propagation of the latter could be described in terms of shore-controlled waves that are remotely generated and travel across the shelf in the southern CS. It has also been shown that long term displacements in this area follow the classic cyclonic, circulation pattern in the southern CS.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Southern Black Sea Shelf, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkıs, Nuray; Aksu, Abdullah; Erşan, Mahmut S

    2012-02-01

    In this study, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents and some aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were analysed in coastal sediments of hot points collected from along the Southern Black Sea Shelf. Surface sediment (0-2 cm) samples were collected from the locations using a Van Veen type grab sampler in September 2008 during a cruise on the Pollution Monitoring R/V ARAR. All sampling procedures were carried out according to internationally recognized guide-lines (UNEP 1991). Samples were analysed using a UV-fluorescence spec-trophotometry (UNEP/IOC/IAEA 1992) and gas chromatog- raphy (GC) via a Hewlett-Packard HP6890N series with a selective detector (GC-MSD) after hexane/ dichloromethane extraction. The ratio C(17)/C(18) varied between 2.2 and 2.9 for the surface sediments of TRK 34Y (Samsun), TRK46 (Giresun), and TRK55 (Rize), respectively. These results showed higher marine organic matter accumulation. However, pyrolytic PAHs were found predominant in these areas. In contrast, petrogenic contributions were found at Stations TRK1 (İğneada), TRK13 (Zonguldak), TRK53 (Trabzon) and TRK61 (Hopa). TPH contents of surface sediments varied between 0.29 and 363 μg g(-1) (dry wt) throughout the shelf. The lowest values were measured at Stations TRK1 (İğneada) and TRK 19 (Bartın), whereas the highest values were found at Stations TRK13 (Zonguldak) and TRK 53 (Trabzon).

  14. Cross shelf benthic biodiversity patterns in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne; Anlauf, Holger; Kurten, Saskia; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Alsaffar, Zahra Hassan Ali; Curdia, Joao; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of coral reef and soft sediment ecosystems in the Red Sea has to date received limited scientific attention. This study investigates changes in the community composition of both reef and macrobenthic communities along a cross shelf gradient. Coral reef assemblages differed significantly in species composition and structure with location and depth. Inner shelf reefs harbored less abundant and less diverse coral assemblages with higher percentage macroalgae cover. Nutrient availability and distance from the shoreline were significantly related to changes in coral composition and structure. This study also observed a clear inshore offshore pattern for soft sediment communities. In contrast to the coral reef patterns the highest diversity and abundance of soft sediment communities were recorded at the inshore sites, which were characterized by a higher number of opportunistic polychaete species and bivalves indicative of mild disturbance. Sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment were important variables explaining the variability. This study aims to contribute to our understanding of ecosystem processes and biodiversity in the Red Sea region in an area that also has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics, such as the capacity of reef systems and benthic macrofaunal organisms to adapt to global climate change.

  15. Cross shelf benthic biodiversity patterns in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne

    2017-03-21

    The diversity of coral reef and soft sediment ecosystems in the Red Sea has to date received limited scientific attention. This study investigates changes in the community composition of both reef and macrobenthic communities along a cross shelf gradient. Coral reef assemblages differed significantly in species composition and structure with location and depth. Inner shelf reefs harbored less abundant and less diverse coral assemblages with higher percentage macroalgae cover. Nutrient availability and distance from the shoreline were significantly related to changes in coral composition and structure. This study also observed a clear inshore offshore pattern for soft sediment communities. In contrast to the coral reef patterns the highest diversity and abundance of soft sediment communities were recorded at the inshore sites, which were characterized by a higher number of opportunistic polychaete species and bivalves indicative of mild disturbance. Sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment were important variables explaining the variability. This study aims to contribute to our understanding of ecosystem processes and biodiversity in the Red Sea region in an area that also has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics, such as the capacity of reef systems and benthic macrofaunal organisms to adapt to global climate change.

  16. Sup(210)Pb and 210Po distributions and disequilibrium in the coastal and shelf waters of the southern North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhizheng, Zuo; Eisma, Doeke

    1993-01-01

    Concentration profiles of 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured at 10 stations in the coastal and shelf areas of the southern North Sea. Scavenging processes in this study area are revealed by 210 Po/ 210 Pb disequilibrium and their distributions in the water column. Results for 210 Po show strong excess, relative to 210 Pb, in both dissolved and particulate forms, indicating an additional flux of 210 Po from the coastal and shelf sediment. A significant maximum of the dissolved 210 Po and 210 Pb over the fine grained depositional area (Oyster Ground) was observed to correspond with resuspension of the underlying muddy sediments. A comparison of the data between the water and sediment columns shows that the excess of 210 Po found in the water body could be balanced by only a small amount of deficit of 210 Po in the sediment, due to the characteristics of this continental shelf area. (author)

  17. CEDEX research activities in Antarctica. Aquatic ecosystems in Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, maritime Antarctica); Actividad investigadora del CEDEX en la Antartida. Ecosistemas acuaticos de la Peninsula Byers (Isla Livingston, Antartida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro, M.; Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Oliva, M.; Alcami, A.; Antoniades, D.; Banon, M.; Fassnacht, S.; Fernandez-Valiente, E.; Galan, L.; Giralt, S.; Granados, I.; Justel, A.; Liu, E. J.; Lopez-Bravo, A.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Rastrojo, A.; Rico, E.; Rochera, C.; Van de Vijver, B.; Velazquez, D.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Vicent, W. F.

    2015-07-01

    Since 2001 CEDEX has taken part in many Antarctic joint research projects with different institutions from Spain and other countries, developing scientific activities in the International Camp of Byers Peninsular (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). This place was designed as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area (No.126) because the importance and value of its terrestrial and aquatic habitats. It is one of the largest ice-free areas of maritime Antarctica, with the highest diversity of environments and geological, hydrological and biological processes in the whole region, all of them in a pristine state. Byers Peninsula is considered the most significant limnological area in the Antarctic Peninsula region because it hosts a high number of lakes, ponds and streams, with an exceptional fauna and flora diversity, including the most singular, representative or endemic Antarctic species. Furthermore, the lakes sedimentary record is one of the widest and complete archives in Antarctic Peninsula region for the palaeocological and climatic study of the Holocene. Because Byers Peninsula is an Antarctic biodiversity hotspot, and it is located in one of the areas in the Earth where global warming is being more significant, it must be considered as a suitable international reference site for limnetic, terrestrial and coastal studies, and long term monitoring programmes. (Author)

  18. An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shirsat

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles, ships and aircraft in Antarctica, covering the 2004–2005 period.

    The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors. A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in Antarctica.

    Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC (Black Carbon, from shipping only have been calculated using the above technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg from aircraft for 2004–2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local pollution potentially is relatively strong.

  19. Noble gases in ten stone meteorites from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.W.; Schultz, L.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations and isotopic composition of noble gases have been determined in all ten stone meteorites recovered in Antarctica during 1976-1977 by a U.S.-Japanese expedition. From a comparison of spallogenic and radiogenic gas components it is concluded that the chondrites Mt. Baldr (a) and Mt. Baldr (b) belong to the same fall but that all other stone meteorites are individual finds. (orig.)

  20. The conquest of Antarctica; A la conquista de la Antartida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tristan, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    The information obtained in the more than 15 projects designed for the XXVIII campaign to Antarctica, and in the they involved a total of 80 researchers, will serve to learn more about terrestrial magnetism, changes occurring in the climate, the behavior of the volcanoes, the evolution of the glaciers, the rate of thaw, the weather variations, characteristics of the lichens, the progress of pollution... Even know the past that remains frozen under the ice to predict what might happen in the future. (Author)

  1. A view of the upper atmosphere from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rycroft, M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the phenomena associated with the earth's upper atmosphere, as detected from field stations on the Antarctic continent. A description is given of the earth's atmosphere, including the auroral regions, the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Geospace phenomena investigated from the Antarctic are described, and include whistlers, chorus and trimpi events. The earth's geomagnetic field is measured at several Antarctic stations. Possibilities for future projects in Antarctica are also discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Weather and forecasting at Wilkins ice runway, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Aviation forecasts for Wilkins ice runway in East Antarctica are developed within the conceptual framework of flow against a single dome shaped hill. Forecast challenges include the sudden onset of blizzards associated with the formation of an internal gravity wave; frontal weather; transient wake vortices and mesoscale lows; temperature limitations on runway use; and snow and fog events. These key weather aspects are presented within the context of synoptic to local scale climatologies and numerical weather prediction models.

  3. Microgreens: Production, shelf life, and bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Mir, Mohammad Maqbool

    2017-08-13

    Microgreens are emerging specialty food products which are gaining popularity and increased attention nowadays. They are young and tender cotyledonary leafy greens that are found in a pleasing palette of colors, textures, and flavors. Microgreens are a new class of edible vegetables harvested when first leaves have fully expanded and before true leaves have emerged. They are gaining popularity as a new culinary ingredient. They are used to enhance salads or as edible garnishes to embellish a wide variety of other dishes. Common microgreens are grown mainly from mustard, cabbage, radish, buckwheat, lettuce, spinach, etc. The consumption of microgreens has nowadays increased due to higher concentrations of bioactive components such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants than mature greens, which are important for human health. However, they typically have a short shelf life due to rapid product deterioration. This review aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality, potential bioactive compounds, and shelf life of microgreens for proper management of this specialty produce.

  4. Relationships between Charpy impact shelf energies and upper shelf Ksub(IC) values for reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Charpy shelf data and lower bound estimates of Ksub(IC) shelf data for the same steels and test temperatures are given. Included are some typical reactor pressure vessel steels as well as some less tough or degraded steels. The data were evaluated with shelf estimates of Ksub(IC) up to and exceeding 550 MPa√m. It is shown that the high shelf fracture toughness representative of tough reactor pressure vessel steels may be obtained from a knowledge of the Charpy shelf energies. The toughness transition may be obtained either by testing small fracture toughness specimens or by Charpy energy indexing. (U.K.)

  5. Permafrost warming and vegetation changes in continental Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Cannone, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Continental Antarctica represents the last pristine environment on Earth and is one of the most suitable contexts to analyze the relations between climate, active layer and vegetation. In 2000 we started long-term monitoring of the climate, permafrost, active layer and vegetation in Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. Our data confirm the stability of mean annual and summer air temperature, of snow cover, and an increasing trend of summer incoming short wave radiation. The active layer thickness is increasing at a rate of 0.3 cm y −1 . The active layer is characterized by large annual and spatial differences. The latter are due to scarce vegetation, a patchy and very thin organic layer and large spatial differences in snow accumulation. The active layer thickening, probably due to the increase of incoming short wave radiation, produced a general decrease of the ground water content due to the better drainage of the ground. The resultant drying may be responsible for the decline of mosses in xeric sites, while it provided better conditions for mosses in hydric sites, following the species-specific water requirements. An increase of lichen vegetation was observed where the climate drying occurred. This evidence emphasizes that the Antarctic continent is experiencing changes that are in total contrast to the changes reported from maritime Antarctica. (paper)

  6. Crustal thickness of Antarctica estimated using data from gravimetric satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llubes, Muriel; Seoane, Lucia; Bruinsma, Sean; Rémy, Frédérique

    2018-04-01

    Computing a better crustal thickness model is still a necessary improvement in Antarctica. In this remote continent where almost all the bedrock is covered by the ice sheet, seismic investigations do not reach a sufficient spatial resolution for geological and geophysical purposes. Here, we present a global map of Antarctic crustal thickness computed from space gravity observations. The DIR5 gravity field model, built from GOCE and GRACE gravimetric data, is inverted with the Parker-Oldenburg iterative algorithm. The BEDMAP products are used to estimate the gravity effect of the ice and the rocky surface. Our result is compared to crustal thickness calculated from seismological studies and the CRUST1.0 and AN1 models. Although the CRUST1.0 model shows a very good agreement with ours, its spatial resolution is larger than the one we obtain with gravimetric data. Finally, we compute a model in which the crust-mantle density contrast is adjusted to fit the Moho depth from the CRUST1.0 model. In East Antarctica, the resulting density contrast clearly shows higher values than in West Antarctica.

  7. Crustal thickness of Antarctica estimated using data from gravimetric satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Llubes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Computing a better crustal thickness model is still a necessary improvement in Antarctica. In this remote continent where almost all the bedrock is covered by the ice sheet, seismic investigations do not reach a sufficient spatial resolution for geological and geophysical purposes. Here, we present a global map of Antarctic crustal thickness computed from space gravity observations. The DIR5 gravity field model, built from GOCE and GRACE gravimetric data, is inverted with the Parker–Oldenburg iterative algorithm. The BEDMAP products are used to estimate the gravity effect of the ice and the rocky surface. Our result is compared to crustal thickness calculated from seismological studies and the CRUST1.0 and AN1 models. Although the CRUST1.0 model shows a very good agreement with ours, its spatial resolution is larger than the one we obtain with gravimetric data. Finally, we compute a model in which the crust–mantle density contrast is adjusted to fit the Moho depth from the CRUST1.0 model. In East Antarctica, the resulting density contrast clearly shows higher values than in West Antarctica.

  8. Spirometry Changes in Cold Climatic Conditions of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya, Iyamanda B; Laxmi, Chettangada C; Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Raju, Trichur R; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function is one of the important physiological measures that is known to be affected during the changes in the altitude. There is dearth of literature on changes in the pulmonary function variables in the cold climate conditions of Antarctica. We carried out spirometry before, during and after one year stay at Antarctica in members of the Indian expedition. Spirometry was carried out on 23 members of the XXVI Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica at baseline, after six months of expedition and at the end of one year, using standard guidelines. The tests were carried out indoor in temperature controlled laboratory. The pulmonary function test parameters did not vary across the period. Although, both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) showed a decreasing trend but did not attain any statistical significance. However, peak expiratory flow (PEFR) rate was reduced significantly. Our study did not show consistently significant change in the pulmonary function parameters in the members of the Indian Antarctic expedition.

  9. Ice crystal precipitation at Dome C site (East Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santachiara, G.; Belosi, F.; Prodi, F.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, falling ice crystals were collected on glass slides covered with a thin layer of 2% formvar in chloroform at the Dome Concordia site (Dome C), Antarctica. Samplings were performed in the framework of the 27th Italian Antarctica expedition of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica in the period 21 February-6 August 2012. Events of clear-sky precipitations and precipitations from clouds were considered and the replicas obtained were examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Several shapes of ice crystals were identified, including ;diamond dust; (plates, pyramids, hollow and solid columns), and crystal aggregates varying in complexity. Single events often contained both small (10 μm to 50 μm) and large (hundreds of microns) crystals, suggesting that crystals can form simultaneously near the ground (height of a few hundred metres) and at higher layers (height of thousands of metres). Images of sampled crystal replicas showed that single bullets are not produced separately, but by the disintegration of combinations of bullets. Rimed ice crystals were absent in the Dome C samples, i.e. the only mode of crystal growth was water vapour diffusion. On considering the aerosol in the sampled crystals, we reached the conclusion that inertial impaction, interception and Brownian motion were insufficient to explain the scavenged aerosol. We therefore presume that phoretic forces play a role in scavenging during the crystal growth process.

  10. Deuterium and 18O variations in lakes of the Schirmacher Oasis (East Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.; Strauch, G.

    1983-01-01

    As a snow and icefree rock area the Schirmacher Oasis (Dronning Maud Land) is situated on the coast of the Antartic continent between inland and shelf ice. In the area of the oasis different exogenic conditions have produced multiform types of lake basins. In the present report first results about isotope hydrological relations in the lakes of the Schirmacher Oasis are discussed. The lakes can be classified by isotope hydrological parameters into different groups. The classification depends on in- and outflow, evaporation processes, nature of inflow and location. (author)

  11. Deuterium and /sup 18/O variations in lakes of the Schirmacher Oasis (East Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W.; Strauch, G. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1983-05-01

    As a snow and icefree rock area the Schirmacher Oasis (Dronning Maud Land) is situated on the coast of the Antartic continent between inland and shelf ice. In the area of the oasis different exogenic conditions have produced multiform types of lake basins. In the present report first results about isotope hydrological relations in the lakes of the Schirmacher Oasis are discussed. The lakes can be classified by isotope hydrological parameters into different groups. The classification depends on in- and outflow, evaporation processes, nature of inflow and location.

  12. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 , and NO x ). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks

  13. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-12

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  14. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica under other geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caneva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to Cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. We also discuss the possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive Cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  15. Petrography and geochemistry of rocks from the sor-rondane mountains, droning Maude land, eastern Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.S.; Shah, M.T.; Jan, M.Q.; Majid, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mamyu rock specimens, were collected from the sor-rondane mountains and Breid Bay area of Drojnning Maud land, eastern Antarctica, during the 2nd Pakistan Antarctic Expedition, 1992-93. Petrography and geochemical studies suggest that the rocks are essentially of igneous origin. The samples dredged from ocean bottom include olivine basalt, amygdaloidal volcanics, dacites and rhyodacites. A majority of these rocks are calc-alkaline and formed by the fraction of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase +- titanomagnetite. Most of these rocks apparently formed in an island arc or continental margin set up. However, volcanics showing ocean floor basalt character are also present. A metamorphosed and deformed basement consisting of amphibolites, calc-silicate rocks and gneisses is intrude by under formed or only slightly deformed granites with a minor arkosic sandstone cover. The granites are chemically distinguished as I-type, originate at deeper crystal level by collisional/subduction related processes during organic environments. (author)

  16. Tides and their dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai Ooi; Samah, Azizan Abu

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performe...... on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area....

  17. Ecosystem characterization in Indian Ocean sector, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Parulekar, A.H.

    is most pronounced, which makes Indian Ocean sector an upwelled area marked by high nutrients, appreciable growth rate of phytoplankton and rich organic matter in the water column. The fractionation studies revealed the importance of picoautotrophs...

  18. Snow precipitation at four ice core sites in East Antarctica: provenance, seasonality and blocking factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarchilli, Claudio [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Universita degli studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Frezzotti, Massimo; Ruti, Paolo Michele [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Snow precipitation is the primary mass input to the Antarctic ice sheet and is one of the most direct climatic indicators, with important implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction from ice cores. Provenance of precipitation and the dynamic conditions that force these precipitation events at four deep ice core sites (Dome C, Law Dome, Talos Dome, and Taylor Dome) in East Antarctica were analysed with air mass back trajectories calculated using the Lagrangian model and the mean composite data for precipitation, geopotential height and wind speed field data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast from 1980 to 2001. On an annual basis, back trajectories showed that the Atlantic-Indian and Ross-Pacific Oceans were the main provenances of precipitation in Wilkes Land (80%) and Victoria Land (40%), respectively, whereas the greatest influence of the ice sheet was on the interior near the Vostok site (80%) and in the Southwest Ross Sea (50%), an effect that decreased towards the coast and along the Antarctic slope. Victoria Land received snowfall atypically with respect to other Antarctica areas in terms of pathway (eastern instead of western), seasonality (summer instead of winter) and velocity (old air age). Geopotential height patterns at 500 hPa at low (>10 days) and high (2-6 days) frequencies during snowfall cycles at two core sites showed large positive anomalies at low frequencies developing in the Tasman Sea-Eastern Indian Ocean at higher latitudes (60-70 S) than normal. This could be considered part of an atmospheric blocking event, with transient eddies acting to decelerate westerlies in a split region area and accelerate the flow on the flanks of the low-frequency positive anomalies. (orig.)

  19. Conquered from the deep sea? A new deep-sea isopod species from the Antarctic shelf shows pattern of recent colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Riehl

    Full Text Available The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species' potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed.

  20. Subsurface Permian reef complexes of southern Tunisia: Shelf carbonate setting and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Adel; Haddad, Sofiene; Mannaî-Tayech, Beya

    2017-05-01

    2-D seismic reflection sections, borehole data as well as published and unpublished data have been investigated to reconstruct the paleogeography of southern Tunisia during Middle to Late Permian times. Paleogeographical reconstruction based on the integration of petroleum well data and 2-D seismic facies interpretation shows three main depositional areas with very contrasting sedimentary pile. These are 1) a subsiding basin; 2) an outer shelf carbonate, and 3) an inner shelf carbonate. Based on typical electric responses of reef buildups to seismic wave, we shall urge that during Middle Permian times, the outer carbonate shelf was subject of reef barrier development. Lithology evidences from core samples show that reef framework correspond mainly to fossiliferous limestone and dolomite. The WNW-ESE recognized reef barrier led between latitudes 33° 10‧ 00″N and 33° 20‧ 00″N. The Tebaga of Medenine outcrop constitutes the northern-edge of this barrier. Westward it may be extended to Bir Soltane area whereas its extension eastward is still to be determined. Biogenic buildups took place preferentially over faulted Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic paleohighs resulting likely from the Hercynian orogeny. The subsiding basin is located north of Tebaga of Medenine outcrop where Upper Permian sedimentary sequence is made entirely of 4000 m deep marine green silty shale facies. These are ascribed to unorganized and chaotic reflectors. Inner carbonate shelf facies succession corresponds to a typical interbedding of shallow marine carbonate deposits, shale, dolomite, and anhydrite inducing parallel-layered of strong amplitude and good continuity reflectors. Also within the inner carbonate shelf patch reef or reef pinnacles have been identified based on their seismic signature particularly their low vertical development as compared to reef complexes. Southward, towards Sidi Toui area, the Upper Permian depositional sequence thins out and bears witness of land

  1. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  2. Trophic Ecology and Movement Patters of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) off the Western North Atlantic Coastal and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, G.; Edman, R.; Frazier, B.; Bubley, W.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the trophic dynamics and habitat utilization of apex predators is central to inferring their influence on different marine landscapes and to help design effective management plans for these animals. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are abundant in shelf and offshore Gulf Stream waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean, and based on movements from individuals captured in Florida and Bahamas, seem to avoid coastal and shelf waters off South Carolina and Georgia. This contradicts reports of tiger sharks regularly being caught nearshore by anglers in these states, indicating that separate sub-populations may exist in the western North Atlantic. In the present study we captured Tiger Sharks in coastal waters off South Carolina in 2014 and 2015 in order to describe their movement patterns through acoustic and satellite tagging, and trophic dynamics through stable isotope analyses. Movement data show that these tiger sharks repeatedly visit particular inshore areas and mainly travel over the continental shelf, but rarely venture offshore beyond the continental shelf edge. Ongoing C and N stable isotope analyses of muscle, blood and skin tissues from adult and juvenile tiger sharks, as well as from potential prey species and primary producers, will help determine if their diets are based on inshore, shelf or offshore based food webs. Tiger sharks exploiting nearshore environments and shelf waters have much higher probabilities of interacting with humans than individuals occupying far offshore Gulf Stream habitats.

  3. Eddy-induced cross-shelf export of high Chl-a coastal waters in the SE Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Rubio, Anna

    2017-12-08

    Different remote sensing data were combined to characterise a winter anticyclonic eddy in the southeastern Bay of Biscay and to infer its effects on cross-shelf exchanges, in a period when typical along shelf-slope currents depict a cyclonic pattern. While the joint analysis of available satellite data (infrared, visible and altimetry) permitted the characterisation and tracking of the anticyclone properties and path, data from a coastal high-frequency radar system enabled a quantitative analysis of the surface cross-shelf transports associated with this anticyclone. The warm core anticyclone had a diameter of around 50km, maximum azimuthal velocities near 50cms−1 and a relative vorticity of up to −0.45f. The eddy generation occurred after the relaxation of a cyclonic wind-driven current regime over the shelf-slope; then, the eddy remained stationary for several weeks until it started to drift northwards along the shelf break. The surface signature of this eddy was observed by means of high-frequency radar data for 20 consecutive days, providing a unique opportunity to characterise and quantify, from a Lagrangian perspective, the associated transport and its effect on the Chl-a surface distribution. We observed the presence of mesoscale structures with similar characteristics in the area during different winters within the period 2011–2014. Our results suggest that the eddy-induced recurrent cross-shelf export is an effective mechanism for the expansion of coastal productive waters into the adjacent oligotrophic ocean basin.

  4. Influence of oceanographic features on the spatial and seasonal patterns of mesozooplankton in the southern Patagonian shelf (Argentina, SW Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, M. E.; Reta, R.; Lutz, V. A.; Segura, V.; Daponte, C.

    2016-05-01

    Surveys conducted during spring, summer and late winter in 2005-2006 over the southern Patagonian shelf have allowed the seasonal distribution of mesozooplankton communities in relation to water masses and circulation to be investigated. In this system, most of the shelf is dominated by a distinct low salinity plume that is related to the runoff from the Magellan Strait (MSW), while the outer shelf is highly influenced by the cold and salty Subantarctic water (SAW) of the boundary Malvinas Current. Separating these two, the Subantarctic Shelf water mass (SASW) extends over the middle shelf. Correspondingly, the structure of the MSW and SAW mesozooplankton communities was found to be clearly different, while the former and the SASW assemblages were barely separable. This relatively fresh water mass is actually a variant of Subantarctic water that enters into the region from the south and the shelf-break, and hence its mesozooplankton community was not significantly different from that of the SAW water mass. Dissimilar species abundance, in turn associated with different life histories and population development, was more important than species composition in defining the assemblages. Total mesozooplankton abundance increased about 2.5-fold from the beginning of spring to late summer, and then decreased at least two orders of magnitude in winter. Across all seasons copepods represented > 70-80% of total mesozooplankton over most of the shelf. Copepod species best represented through all seasons, in terms of both relative abundance and occurrence, were Drepanopus forcipatus and Oithona helgolandica. Although seasonal differences in abundance were striking, the spatial distribution of mesozooplankton was largely similar across seasons, with relatively higher concentrations occurring mainly in Grande Bay and surroundings. The well defined spatial patterns of mesozooplankton that appear from our results in conjunction with the southward wide extension of the shelf and

  5. Seasonal Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Carbon Under Complex Circulation Schemes on a Large Continental Shelf: The Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Feifei; Dai, Minhan; Cao, Zhimian; Wu, Kai; Zhao, Xiaozheng; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Junhui; Gan, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    We examined the distribution and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) based on a large data set collected from the northern South China Sea (NSCS) shelf under complex circulation schemes influenced by river plume, coastal upwelling, and downwelling. The highest surface values of ˜117 μmol L-1 were observed nearshore in summer suggesting high DOC supplies from the river inputs, whereas the lowest surface values of ˜62 μmol L-1 were on the outer shelf in winter due to entrainment of DOC-poor subsurface water under strengthened vertical mixing. While the summer coastal upwelling brought lower DOC from offshore depth to the nearshore surface, the winter coastal downwelling delivered higher surface DOC to the midshelf deep waters from the inner shelf fueled by the China Coastal Current (CCC) transporting relatively high DOC from the East China Sea to the NSCS. The intensified winter downwelling generated a cross-shelf DOC transport of 3.1 × 1012 g C over a large shelf area, which induced a significant depression of the NSCS DOC inventory in winter relative to in autumn. In addition to the variable physical controls, net biological production of DOC was semiquantified in both the river plume (2.8 ± 3.0 μmol L-1) and coastal upwelling (3.1 ± 1.3 μmol L-1) in summer. We demonstrated that the NSCS shelf had various origins of DOC including riverine inputs, inter-shelf transport and in situ production. Via cross-shelf transport, the accumulated DOC would be exported to and stored in the deep ocean, suggesting that continental shelves are a potentially effective carbon sink.

  6. Direct observations of American eels migrating across the continental shelf to the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Castonguay, Martin; Shan, Shiliang; Benchetrit, José; Dodson, Julian J

    2015-10-27

    Since inferring spawning areas from larval distributions in the Sargasso Sea a century ago, the oceanic migration of adult American eels has remained a mystery. No adult eel has ever been observed migrating in the open ocean or in the spawning area. Here, we track movements of maturing eels equipped with pop-up satellite archival tags from the Scotian Shelf (Canada) into the open ocean, with one individual migrating 2,400 km to the northern limit of the spawning site in the Sargasso Sea. The reconstructed routes suggest a migration in two phases: one over the continental shelf and along its edge in shallow waters; the second in deeper waters straight south towards the spawning area. This study is the first direct evidence of adult Anguilla migrating to the Sargasso Sea and represents an important step forward in the understanding of routes and migratory cues.

  7. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rimondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830 and Molgula pedunculata Herdman, 1881 were identified, with Bryozoa being the most diverse. There were differences between the three ascidian species in terms of richness, percent cover and diversity of sessile macro-epibionts. The morphological characteristics of the tunic surface, the available area for colonization (and its relation with the age of the basibiont individuals and the pH of the ascidian tunic seem to explain the observed differences. Recent environmental changes in the study area (increase of suspended particulate matter caused by glaciers retreat have been related to observed shifts in the benthic community structure, negatively affecting the abundance and distribution of the studied ascidian species. Considering the diversity of sessile macro-epibionts found on these species, the impact of environmental shifts may be greater than that estimated so far.

  8. Evidence for the former existence of a thicker ice sheet on the Vestfjella nunataks in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintinen, P.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Vestfjella (73-74°S, 13-16°W is a 130 km long nunatak range in western Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica, and its northern and southern ends are situated close to the present ice sheet grounding-line. Striations and lodgement till on nunatak Basen indicate that the northernmost Vestfjella nunataks were formerly covered by a thicker Antarctic ice sheet. Striations on the summit ridge of nunatak Plogen indicate that the minimum change in ice thickness has been 700 m at the present ice sheet grounding-line. The relatively uniform oldest striation direction on different nunatak summits and the altitude of Plogen, which is less than 200 m lower than the highest Vestfjella summits, indicates that the whole of Vestfjella may have been covered by an ice sheet. Oxidation of till surface stones and an increased clay fraction in the upper part of the till layer were the only indications of soil formation on Basen. The unweathered nature of the Basen lodgement till indicate a relatively young age for deglaciation. This conclusion is also supported by age determinations and sedimentological data obtained from Weddell Sea sediments by Norwegian researchers, suggesting that a grounded ice sheet extended to the shelf edge at around 21 ka B.P. However the age of the glaciation which covered Basen and Plogen and the subsequent deglaciation is not based on precise dates and therefore the late Wisconsinan/Weichselian age is only a working hypothesis.

  9. The rise and fall of an ancient Adélie penguin 'supercolony' at Cape Adare, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Steven D; McKenzie, Ashley; Patterson, William P

    2018-04-01

    We report new discoveries and radiocarbon dates on active and abandoned Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae ) colonies at Cape Adare, Antarctica. This colony, first established at approximately 2000 BP (calendar years before present, i.e. 1950), is currently the largest for this species with approximately 338 000 breeding pairs, most located on low-lying Ridley Beach. We hypothesize that this colony first formed after fast ice began blocking open-water access by breeding penguins to the Scott Coast in the southern Ross Sea during a cooling period also at approximately 2000 BP. Our results suggest that the new colony at Cape Adare continued to grow, expanding to a large upper terrace above Ridley Beach, until it exceeded approximately 500 000 breeding pairs (a 'supercolony') by approximately 1200 BP. The high marine productivity associated with the Ross Sea polynya and continental shelf break supported this growth, but the colony collapsed to its present size for unknown reasons after approximately 1200 BP. Ridley Beach will probably be abandoned in the near future due to rising sea level in this region. We predict that penguins will retreat to higher elevations at Cape Adare and that the Scott Coast will be reoccupied by breeding penguins as fast ice continues to dissipate earlier each summer, restoring open-water access to beaches there.

  10. The rise and fall of an ancient Adélie penguin `supercolony' at Cape Adare, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Steven D.; McKenzie, Ashley; Patterson, William P.

    2018-04-01

    We report new discoveries and radiocarbon dates on active and abandoned Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies at Cape Adare, Antarctica. This colony, first established at approximately 2000 BP (calendar years before present, i.e. 1950), is currently the largest for this species with approximately 338 000 breeding pairs, most located on low-lying Ridley Beach. We hypothesize that this colony first formed after fast ice began blocking open-water access by breeding penguins to the Scott Coast in the southern Ross Sea during a cooling period also at approximately 2000 BP. Our results suggest that the new colony at Cape Adare continued to grow, expanding to a large upper terrace above Ridley Beach, until it exceeded approximately 500 000 breeding pairs (a `supercolony') by approximately 1200 BP. The high marine productivity associated with the Ross Sea polynya and continental shelf break supported this growth, but the colony collapsed to its present size for unknown reasons after approximately 1200 BP. Ridley Beach will probably be abandoned in the near future due to rising sea level in this region. We predict that penguins will retreat to higher elevations at Cape Adare and that the Scott Coast will be reoccupied by breeding penguins as fast ice continues to dissipate earlier each summer, restoring open-water access to beaches there.

  11. Export of a Winter Shelf Phytoplankton Bloom at the Shelf Margin of Long Bay (South Atlantic Bight, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Seim, H.; Edwards, C. R.; Lockhart, S.; Moore, T.; Robertson, C. Y.; Amft, J.

    2016-02-01

    A winter 2012 field study off Long Bay (seaward of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina) investigated exchange processes along the shelf margin. Topics addressed included mechanisms of nutrient input (upper slope to outer shelf), phytoplankton blooms and community characteristics (mid-to-outer shelf), and possible export of shelf bloom material (transport to and across the shelf break to the upper slope). Observations utilized three moorings (mid-shelf, shelf break, upper slope), two gliders and ship operations (repeat cruises with profiling, water sampling and towed body surveys) along with satellite SST and ocean color imagery and near-by NOAA buoy records. Here we focus on the late January to early February period, when a mid-shelf bloom of Phaeocystis globosa (which forms large gelatinous colonies) was transported to the shelf break. The presence of Phaeocystis colonies resulted in strong spiking in chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence profiles. A partitioning approach was adapted to estimate chl in colonies (spikes) and small forms (baseline signal) and to account for an apparent difference in measured in vivo fluorescence per unit chl (lower in colonies). Up to 40-50% of chl in the bloom (surface to bottom on the mid-shelf) was estimated to be in the colonies. In late January, there a pronounced seaward slumping of relatively dense mid-shelf water along the bottom under warmer surface water derived from the inshore edge of a broad jet of Gulf Stream water flowing southwestward along the upper slope. We describe the evolution of this event and the conditions which set up this mechanism for episodic near-bed transport of fresh bloom material produced on the shelf to the upper slope off Long Bay. Down-slope transport may have been enhanced in this case by the high phytoplankton biomass in gelatinous colonies, which appeared to be settling in the water column on the shelf prior to the transport event.

  12. Influence of cross-shelf water transport on nutrients and phytoplankton in the East China Sea: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional coupled biophysical model was used to examine the supply of oceanic nutrients to the shelf of the East China Sea (ECS and its role in primary production over the shelf. The model consisted of two parts: the hydrodynamic module was based on a nested model with a horizontal resolution of 1/18 degree, whereas the biological module was a lower trophic level ecosystem model including two types of phytoplankton, three elements of nutrients, and biogenic organic material. The model results suggested that seasonal variations occurred in the distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll a over the shelf of the ECS. After comparison with available observed nutrients and chlorophyll a data, the model results were used to calculate volume and nutrients fluxes across the shelf break. The annual mean total fluxes were 1.53 Sv for volume, 9.4 kmol s−1 for DIN, 0.7 kmol s−1 for DIP, and 18.2 kmol s−1 for silicate. Two areas, northeast of Taiwan and southwest of Kyushu, were found to be major source regions of oceanic nutrients to the shelf. Although the onshore fluxes of nutrients and volume both had apparent seasonal variations, the seasonal variation of the onshore nutrient flux did not exactly follow that of the onshore volume flux. Additional calculations in which the concentration of nutrients in Kuroshio water was artificially increased suggested that the oceanic nutrients were distributed in the bottom layer from the shelf break to the region offshore of the Changjiang estuary from spring to summer and appeared in the surface layer from autumn to winter. The calculations also implied that the supply of oceanic nutrients to the shelf can change the consumption of pre-existing nutrients from rivers. The response of primary production over the shelf to the oceanic nutrients was confirmed not only in the surface layer (mainly at the outer shelf and shelf break in winter and in the region

  13. Antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal activities of fungal communities present in different substrates from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antarctica is a pristine and extreme environment that represents a unique opportunity for taxonomic, ecological and biotechnological studies of the microorganisms. In the present work, the fungal communities of rhizosphere soil of Deschampsia antarctica, soil, ornithogenic soil, marine and lake sedi...

  14. Antarctica: The Continuing Experiment. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Philip W.

    One of a series of booklets on world issues examines the sharpened differences between those nations that have declared sovereignty over parts of Antarctica and those that have not; between those nations that have arbitrarily assumed responsibility for the administration of Antarctica and the smaller, more numerous nations that believe their…

  15. Colony Size of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) as Influenced by Zooplankton Grazers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is a dominant phytoplankton species in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and exists as solitary cells and mucilaginous colonies that differ by several orders of magnitude in size. Recent studies with P. globosa suggested that colony formation and enl...

  16. 33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Pollution and Sewage § 151.79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel...

  17. Survival and Recovery of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) from Prolonged Darkness and Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The colony-forming haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is an important primary producer in the Ross Sea, and must survive long periods of darkness and freezing in this extreme environment. We conducted experiments on the responses of P. antarctica-dominated phytoplankton assemblage...

  18. Permanent land-based facilities for tourism in Antarctica : The need for regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Lamers, M.; Harcha, J.

    2008-01-01

    Antarctica is often described as one of world's last wildernesses. For a very long time, its isolation from human settlements has provided an effective protection from intensive human visitation; however, over the past two decades, human activities in Antarctica – in particular tourist activities –

  19. Glacial morphology and depositional sequences of the Antarctic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a simple model for the unusual depositional sequences and morphology of the Antarctic continental shelf. It considers the regional stratal geometry and the reversed morphology to be principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the ice grounding line. The model offers several guidelines for stratigraphic interpretation of the Antarctic shelf and a Northern Hemisphere shelf, both of which were subject to many glacial advances and retreats. -Authors

  20. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring system. 4 figs

  1. Marisediminicola antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from the Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Rong; Yu, Yong; Luo, Wei; Zeng, Yin-Xin

    2010-11-01

    Strain ZS314(T) was isolated from a sandy intertidal sediment sample collected from the coastal area off the Chinese Antarctic Zhongshan Station, east Antarctica (6 9° 22' 13″ S 76 ° 21' 41″ E). The cells were Gram-positive, motile, short rods. The temperature range for growth was 0-26 °C and the pH for growth ranged from 5 to 10, with optimum growth occurring within the temperature range 18-23 °C and pH range 6.0-8.0. Growth occurred in the presence of 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth occurring in the presence of 2-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain ZS314(T) had MK-10 as the major menaquinone and anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as major fatty acids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was B2β with ornithine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C content was approximately 67 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain ZS314(T) represents a new lineage in the family Microbacteriaceae. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characteristics, a new genus, namely Marisediminicola gen. nov., is proposed, harbouring the novel species Marisediminicola antarctica sp. nov. with the type strain ZS314(T) (=DSM 22350(T) =CCTCC AB 209077(T)).

  2. Extended Late-Cretaceous Magnetostratigraphy of the James Ross Basin Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, T. M.; Mitchell, R.; Slotznick, S. P.; Buz, J.; Biasi, J.; O'Rourke, J.; Sousa, F.; Flannery, D.; Fu, R. R.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Sediments in the James Ross Island Basin (JRB) in the West Antarctic Peninsula contain one of the world's highest-resolution records of the late Cretaceous period, including the end-Cretaceous (K-Pg) mass extinction event. However, the geological record of this region has been poorly studied, limited in the past only to the relative dating of local fossils. Recent studies of this region have provided only low-resolution data, with gaps of greater than 0.5 million years between samples where no data was collected. A high-resolution magnetostratigraphic sampling and analysis is necessary in order to accurately determine the age of the JRB sediments and connect them to the global time record. During the 2016 field season in Antarctica, our team collected nearly 1,300 sample cores from JRB sediments using a diamond-tipped, gasoline powered coring drill. Drill sites were densely clustered across bedding in order to obtain a high-resolution record of magnetostratigraphy, permitting the recognition of distinct, high-resolution units of time (group of over 300 of these samples from the Brandy Bay area which constrain the end of the Cretaceous Superchron (C34N) and the C34N/C34R reversal and allow us to investigate the presence of geomagnetic excursions before the end of superchron. These samples span in age from the top of C34N to the mid-Maastrichtian. We also test the Late Cretaceous True Polar Wander (TPW) hypothesis. Current theories on the global extent of TPW are not substantiated by any data sets that confirm the presence and similarity of the effect across multiple continents. Evidence of a rapid TPW oscillation in Antarctica can be correlated with other samples from the North American continent currently under study to provide evidence for the theory of global, short-timescale TPW.

  3. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring

  4. Maintenance and Drainage Guidance for the Scott Base Transition, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    albedo and quickens the melt. Several strategies reduce the amount of dirt tracked on- to the ice shelf: 1. Any vehicles using the ice shelf should...the Ice Transition segment of the SBT is to keep the snow albedo high (keep snow white). This reduces roadway and road-base disin- tegration (i.e...closest to the cliff was 38 ft (11.6 m) deep, and all but the furthest seaward hole encountered sediment (presumably the sea floor or the under- ice

  5. Cyclonic entrainment of preconditioned shelf waters into a frontal eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, J. D.; Macdonald, H.; Baird, M. E.; Humphries, J.; Roughan, M.; Suthers, I. M.

    2015-02-01

    The volume transport of nutrient-rich continental shelf water into a cyclonic frontal eddy (entrainment) was examined from satellite observations, a Slocum glider and numerical simulation outputs. Within the frontal eddy, parcels of water with temperature/salinity signatures of the continental shelf (18-19°C and >35.5, respectively) were recorded. The distribution of patches of shelf water observed within the eddy was consistent with the spiral pattern shown within the numerical simulations. A numerical dye tracer experiment showed that the surface waters (≤50 m depth) of the frontal eddy are almost entirely (≥95%) shelf waters. Particle tracking experiments showed that water was drawn into the eddy from over 4° of latitude (30-34.5°S). Consistent with the glider observations, the modeled particles entrained into the eddy sunk relative to their initial position. Particles released south of 33°S, where the waters are cooler and denser, sunk 34 m deeper than their release position. Distance to the shelf was a critical factor in determining the volume of shelf water entrained into the eddy. Entrainment reduced to 0.23 Sv when the eddy was furthest from the shelf, compared to 0.61 Sv when the eddy was within 10 km of the shelf. From a biological perspective, quantifying the entrainment of shelf water into frontal eddies is important, as it is thought to play a significant role in providing an offshore nursery habitat for coastally spawned larval fish.

  6. Shelf life prediction of apple brownies using accelerated method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulungan, M. H.; Sukmana, A. D.; Dewi, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life of apple brownies. Shelf life was determined with Accelerated Shelf Life Testing method and Arrhenius equation. Experiment was conducted at 25, 35, and 45°C for 30 days. Every five days, the sample was analysed for free fatty acid (FFA), water activity (Aw), and organoleptic acceptance (flavour, aroma, and texture). The shelf life of the apple brownies based on FFA were 110, 54, and 28 days at temperature of 25, 35, and 45°C, respectively.

  7. Clay mineral distribution on tropical shelf: an example from the western shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of RV Gaveshani were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral content. The distribution of total clay ( 4 mu fraction...

  8. Special offer-7 days fly and drive Antarctica: The role of wilderness protection in deciding whether (semi) permanent tourist facilities in Antarctica should be prohibited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kees Bastmeijer

    2007-01-01

    Antarctica is often described as one of the world’s last wildernesses. Since 1990, tourism to this wilderness is developing rapidly. In a period of 15 years, the number of tourists that make landings in Antarctica has increased from 2,500 (1990/91) to more than 23,000 (2004/05). The diversity of tourist activities is also increasing. The 1991 Protocol on Environmental...

  9. On the dense water spreading off the Ross Sea shelf (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budillon, G.; Gremes Cordero, S.; Salusti, E.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, current meter and hydrological data obtained during the X Italian Expedition in the Ross Sea (CLIMA Project) are analyzed. Our data show a nice agreement with previous data referring to the water masses present in this area and their dynamics. Here, they are used to further analyze the mixing and deepening processes of Deep Ice Shelf Water (DISW) over the northern shelf break of the Ross Sea. In more detail, our work is focused on the elementary mechanisms that are the most efficient in removing dense water from the shelf: either classical mixing effects or density currents that interact with some topographic irregularity in order to drop to deeper levels, or also the variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) which, in its meandering, can push the dense water off the shelf, thus interrupting its geostrophic flow. We also discuss in detail the (partial) evidence of dramatic interactions of the dense water with bottom particulate, of geological or biological origin, thus generating impulsive or quasi-steady density-turbidity currents. This complex interaction allows one to consider bottom particular and dense water as a unique self-interacting system. In synthesis, this is a first tentative analysis of the effect of bottom particulate on the dense water dynamics in the Ross Sea.

  10. Geoarchaeological response to landscape changes of the Greek continental shelf since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis

    2010-05-01

    An overview of geological, sedimentological, palaeoclimatic, archaeological and mythological data is presented in order to detect the geomorphological changes of the Aegean and Ionian shelves during the last sea-level transgression, and comprehend the consequent prehistoric human adaptations. The irregular rise of sea level since the Last Glacial Maximum forced the Palaeolithic human to abandon its settlements located near the old (lower) coastlines and to move landward in new positions. Commonly, the coastline movement was very slow causing no significant impact on human activities; however in some cases, the transgression was very prompt causing human migration towards highlands. In some very gentle-dipped and wide regions, e.g. the North Aegean plateau, the sea-level rise caused a rapid coastline retreat (in some extreme case as fast as 10 m/yr) and inundation of an extended surface area. However, at the same time, in the steep parts of the Greek shelf, e.g. the Kyparissiakos Gulf and Crete, the coastline advanced landwards with a slow motion (commonly, a few cm/yr) covering small areas. In addition, coastal regions with particular geomorphologic characteristics, e.g. coastal paleo-lakes protected by a sill (gulfs of Corinth, Amvrakikos, Pagasitikos Evvoikos, Saronikos), were deluged by the sea during different periods and under different intensity, depending on the elevation of the sill and the manner of its overflow. Although the presence of Palaeolithic human in the Greek mainland has been confirmed by several archaeological excavations, there is no certain evidence for human settlement in the deep parts of Greek shelf. However, many archaeologists have suggested that some of Palaeolithic people lived on the shelf, when the sea level was lower than its present position. Nevertheless, some potential Palaeolithic migration routes can be indicated taking into account (a) the palaeogeographic reconstruction of Greek shelf over the Last Quaternary; (b

  11. Seasonal features of black carbon measured at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Yabuki, M.; Shiobara, M.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is one of important aerosol constituents because the strong light absorption ability. Low concentrations of aerosols and BC let BC make insignificant contribution to aerosol radiative forcing in the Antarctica at the moment. Because of less or negligible source strength of BC in the Antarctic circle, BC can be used as a tracer of transport from the mid-latitudes. This study aims to understand seasonal feature, transport pathway, and origins of black carbon in the Antarctic coats. Black carbon measurement has been made using 7-wavelength aethalometer at Syowa Station, Antarctica since February, 2005. Mass BC concentrations were estimated from light attenuation by Weingartner's correction procedure (Weingartner et al., 2003) in this study. Detection limit was 0.2 - 0.4 ng/m3 in our measurement conditions (2-hour resolution and flow rate of ca. 10LPM). BC concentrations ranged from near detection limit to 55.7 ng/m3 at Syowa Station, Antarctica during the measurements. No trend has been observed since February, 2005. High BC concentrations were coincident with poleward flow from the mid-latitudes under the storm conditions by cyclone approach, whereas low BC concentrations were found in transport from coastal regions and the Antarctic continent. Considering that outflow from South America and Southern Africa affect remarkably air quality in the Southern Ocean of Atlantic and Indian Ocean sectors, BC at Syowa Station might be originated from biomass burning and human activity on South America and Southern Africa. Seasonal features of BC at Syowa Station shows maximum in September - October and lower in December - April. Spring maximum in September - October was obtained at the other Antarctic stations (Neumayer, Halley, South pole, and Ferraz). Although second maximum was found in January at the other stations, the maximum was not observed at Syowa Station.

  12. Remote sensing and skywave digital communication from antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Pau; Deumal, Marc; Vilella, Carles; Regué, Joan R; Altadill, David; Marsal, Santi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the research activities undertaken by La Salle and the Ebro Observatory in the field of remote sensing. On 2003 we started a research project with two main objectives: implement a long-haul oblique ionospheric sounder and transmit the data from remote sensors located at the Spanish Antarctic station Juan Carlos I to Spain. The paper focuses on a study of feasibility of two possible physical layer candidates for the skywave link between both points. A DS-SS based solution and an OFDM based solution are considered to achieve a reliable low-power low-rate communication system between Antarctica and Spain.

  13. Deep ice coring at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Fujii

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep ice coring was carried out at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica in 1995 and 1996 following a pilot borehole drilled and cased with FRP pipes in 1993,and reached 2503.52m in December 1996. Total numbers of ice coring runs below the pilot borehole and chip collection were 1369 and 837 respectively. The mean coring depths per run and per day were 1.75m and 8.21m respectively. We report the outline of the coring operation, the system, coring method, and troubles encountered during the coring work.

  14. Permeable bio-reactive barriers for hydrocarbon remediation in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumford, K.A.; Stevens, G.W.; Gore, D.B. [Melbourne Univ., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical and Biomoleculuar Engineering, Particulate Fluids Processing Centre; Snape, I.; Rayner, J.L. [Australian Antarctic Div., Kingston, Tasmania (Australia); Gore, D.B. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the performance of a permeable bio-reactive barrier designed to treat contaminated water. The bio-reactive barrier was installed at a fuel spill site located in the Windmill Islands, Antarctica. A funnel and gate design was used to prevent contaminant migration beyond the barrier location as well as to ensure controlled nutrient delivery. The study also investigated the performance of the bio-reactive barrier in regions with freeze-thaw conditions. The 4-year project was also conducted to assess optimal conditions for enhancing the barrier's ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  15. Aerogeophysical survey over Sør Rondane Mountains and its implications for revealing the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Matthias; Steinhage, Daniel; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    We are presenting new magnetic and gravity data of a high-resolution aerogephysical survey over the area of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the eastern Dronning Maud Land (DML). The aircraft survey is part of the joint geological and geophysical GEA campaign (Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica) of the Federal Agency for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), in cooperation with the Universities of Ghent, Bremen and Bergen. It was completed during the Antarctic summer season 2012/13, covering an area of more than 100000 square kilometer with a line spacing of 5 km. The data will be correlated with geological structures exposed in the mountain range as well as matched and merged with the data sets of the eastern and southern DML (acquired by AWI during the last decade) for comparison and discussion in the greater context of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Preliminary results show that the magnetic anomaly pattern over the Sør Rondane Mountains differs from the pattern found over the central DML mountains as well as from the low amplitude pattern in between both regions, indicating a significant difference in the evolution of this region, which is in accordance with latest geological findings in this region.

  16. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V F

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  17. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  18. Large-scale population assessment informs conservation management for seabirds in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean: A case study of Adélie penguins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Southwell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are increasingly affected by fisheries, climate change and human presence. Antarctic seabirds are vulnerable to all these threats because they depend on terrestrial and marine environments to breed and forage. We assess the current distribution and total abundance of Adélie penguins in East Antarctica and find there are 3.5 (95% CI 2.9–4.2 million individuals of breeding age along the East Antarctic coastline and 5.9 (4.2–7.7 million individuals foraging in the adjacent ocean after the breeding season. One third of the breeding population numbering over 1 million individuals breed within 10 km of research stations, highlighting the potential for human activities to impact Adélie penguin populations despite their current high abundance. The 16 Antarctic Specially Protected Areas currently designated in East Antarctica offer protection to breeding populations close to stations in four of six regional populations. The East Antarctic breeding population consumes an average of 193 500 tonnes of krill and 18 800 tonnes of fish during a breeding season, with consumption peaking at the end of the breeding season. These findings can inform future conservation management decisions in the terrestrial environment under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to develop a systematic network of protected areas, and in the marine environment under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources to allow the consumption needs of Adélie penguins to be taken into account when setting fishery catch limits. Extending this work to other penguin, flying seabird, seal and whale species is a priority for conservation management in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean.

  19. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  20. Crustal heat production and estimate of terrestrial heat flow in central East Antarctica, with implications for thermal input to the East Antarctic ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodge, John W.

    2018-02-01

    East Antarctica resembles that in the Proterozoic Arunta and Tennant Creek inliers of Australia but is dissimilar to other areas like the Central Australian Heat Flow Province that are characterized by anomalously high heat flow. Age variation within the sample suite indicates that central East Antarctic lithosphere is heterogeneous, yet the average heat production and heat flow of four age subgroups cluster around the group mean, indicating minor variation in the thermal contribution to the overlying ice sheet from upper crustal heat production. Despite these minor differences, ice-sheet models may favor a geologically realistic input of crustal heat flow represented by the distribution of ages and geothermal characteristics found in these glacial clasts.