WorldWideScience

Sample records for sheets lesson tests

  1. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  2. Assembly for testing weldability of sheet metal

    David, S.A.; Woodhouse, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    A test assembly for determining the weldability of sheet metal includes a base having a flat side surface with an annular groove in the side surface, a counterbore being formed in the outer wall of the groove and the surface portion of the base circumscribed by the inner wall of the groove being substantially coplanar with the bottom of the counterbore, a test disk of sheet metal the periphery of which is positioned in the counterbore and the outer surface of which is coplanar with one side of the base, and a clamp ring overlying the side surface of the base and the edge portion of the test disk and a plurality of clamp screws which extend through the clamp ring for holding the periphery of the test disk against the bottom of the counterbore

  3. Lubricant Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2008-01-01

    appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stretch forming, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production. Application of the tests for evaluating new lubricants before introducing them in production has......Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...

  4. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  5. An Adaptive Test Sheet Generation Mechanism Using Genetic Algorithm

    Huan-Yu Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For test-sheet composition systems, it is important to adaptively compose test sheets with diverse conceptual scopes, discrimination and difficulty degrees to meet various assessment requirements during real learning situations. Computation time and item exposure rate also influence performance and item bank security. Therefore, this study proposes an Adaptive Test Sheet Generation (ATSG mechanism, where a Candidate Item Selection Strategy adaptively determines candidate test items and conceptual granularities according to desired conceptual scopes, and an Aggregate Objective Function applies Genetic Algorithm (GA to figure out the approximate solution of mixed integer programming problem for the test-sheet composition. Experimental results show that the ATSG mechanism can efficiently, precisely generate test sheets to meet the various assessment requirements than existing ones. Furthermore, according to experimental finding, Fractal Time Series approach can be applied to analyze the self-similarity characteristics of GA’s fitness scores for improving the quality of the test-sheet composition in the near future.

  6. Testing of environmentally friendly lubricants for sheet metal forming

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    the authors have especially been involved in the development of a system of test methods for sheet metal forming and in testing of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants. An overview of the developed tests is presented together with selected results....

  7. Lessons Learned in Software Testing A Context-Driven Approach

    Kaner, Cem; Pettichord, Bret

    2008-01-01

    Decades of software testing experience condensed into the most important lessons learned.The world's leading software testing experts lend you their wisdom and years of experience to help you avoid the most common mistakes in testing software. Each lesson is an assertion related to software testing, followed by an explanation or example that shows you the how, when, and why of the testing lesson. More than just tips, tricks, and pitfalls to avoid, Lessons Learned in Software Testing speeds you through the critical testing phase of the software development project without the extensive trial an

  8. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    O'Brien, J.H.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes

  9. TRIBOLOGICAL TESTING IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Vega Tarantino, Salvador

    alternative lubricants in order to substitute the old and harmful chlorinated paraffin oils. The present project is a small part included in that bigger project called Enlub, in which the newly developed lubricants have been tested by tribological simulative methods. The bending under tension test (BUT...

  10. Research on Al-alloy sheet forming formability during warm/hot sheet hydroforming based on elliptical warm bulging test

    Cai, Gaoshen; Wu, Chuanyu; Gao, Zepu; Lang, Lihui; Alexandrov, Sergei

    2018-05-01

    An elliptical warm/hot sheet bulging test under different temperatures and pressure rates was carried out to predict Al-alloy sheet forming limit during warm/hot sheet hydroforming. Using relevant formulas of ultimate strain to calculate and dispose experimental data, forming limit curves (FLCS) in tension-tension state of strain (TTSS) area are obtained. Combining with the basic experimental data obtained by uniaxial tensile test under the equivalent condition with bulging test, complete forming limit diagrams (FLDS) of Al-alloy are established. Using a quadratic polynomial curve fitting method, material constants of fitting function are calculated and a prediction model equation for sheet metal forming limit is established, by which the corresponding forming limit curves in TTSS area can be obtained. The bulging test and fitting results indicated that the sheet metal FLCS obtained were very accurate. Also, the model equation can be used to instruct warm/hot sheet bulging test.

  11. LESSONS LEARNED IN TESTING OF SAFEGUARDS EQUIPMENT

    Pepper, S.; Farnitano, M.; Carelli, J.; Hazeltine, J.; Bailey, D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards uses complex instrumentation for the application of safeguards at nuclear facilities around the world. Often, this equipment is developed through cooperation with member state support programs because the Agency's requirements are unique and are not met by commercially available equipment. Before approving an instrument or system for routine inspection use, the IAEA subjects it to a series of tests designed to evaluate its reliability. In 2000, the IAEA began to observe operational failures in digital surveillance systems. In response to the observed failures, the IAEA worked with the equipment designer and manufacturer to determine the cause of failure. An action plan was developed to correct the performance issues and further test the systems to make sure that additional operational issues would not surface later. This paper addresses the steps taken to address operation issues related to digital image surveillance systems and the lessons learned during this process

  12. Benchmark Testing of the Largest Titanium Aluminide Sheet Subelement Conducted

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate wrought titanium aluminide (gamma TiAl) as a viable candidate material for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exhaust nozzle, an international team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field successfully fabricated and tested the largest gamma TiAl sheet structure ever manufactured. The gamma TiAl sheet structure, a 56-percent subscale divergent flap subelement, was fabricated for benchmark testing in three-point bending. Overall, the subelement was 84-cm (33-in.) long by 13-cm (5-in.) wide by 8-cm (3-in.) deep. Incorporated into the subelement were features that might be used in the fabrication of a full-scale divergent flap. These features include the use of: (1) gamma TiAl shear clips to join together sections of corrugations, (2) multiple gamma TiAl face sheets, (3) double hot-formed gamma TiAl corrugations, and (4) brazed joints. The structural integrity of the gamma TiAl sheet subelement was evaluated by conducting a room-temperature three-point static bend test.

  13. A System of Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming Tribology

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2007-01-01

    Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...... appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stamping, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production....

  14. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 08: The "Golden Rule" and other lessons on communicating about hazards

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Other fact sheets identified considerations for communicating about hazards, talked about the importance of working locally, and discussed the seven laws of effective hazard communication. This fact sheet introduces the "Golden Rule" of hazard communication and shares some final lessons from hazard educators.

  15. Should Cheat Sheets be Used as Study Aids in Economics Tests?

    Yoav Wachsman

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment that investigates the effectiveness of cheat sheets as study aids for economics tests. A cheat sheet is a piece of paper that students can write anything they want on and use during a test. I find that both preparing and using a cheat sheet improves students' test performance. Additionally, there is no evidence that students become over dependent on their cheat sheets for answers.

  16. Formability analysis of sheet metals by cruciform testing

    Güler, B.; Alkan, K.; Efe, M.

    2017-09-01

    Cruciform biaxial tests are increasingly becoming popular for testing the formability of sheet metals as they achieve frictionless, in-plane, multi-axial stress states with a single sample geometry. However, premature fracture of the samples during testing prevents large strain deformation necessary for the formability analysis. In this work, we introduce a miniature cruciform sample design (few mm test region) and a test setup to achieve centre fracture and large uniform strains. With its excellent surface finish and optimized geometry, the sample deforms with diagonal strain bands intersecting at the test region. These bands prevent local necking and concentrate the strains at the sample centre. Imaging and strain analysis during testing confirm the uniform strain distributions and the centre fracture are possible for various strain paths ranging from plane-strain to equibiaxial tension. Moreover, the sample deforms without deviating from the predetermined strain ratio at all test conditions, allowing formability analysis under large strains. We demonstrate these features of the cruciform test for three sample materials: Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy, DC-04 steel and Magnesium AZ31 alloy, and investigate their formability at both the millimetre scale and the microstructure scale.

  17. Reducing Test Anxiety while Increasing Learning: The Cheat Sheet

    Erbe, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Student learning is greatly enhanced by studying prior to an exam. Allowing students to prepare a cheat sheet for the exam helps structure this study time and deepens learning. The crib sheet is well defined: one double-sided page of notes. An award for the best and most creative cheat sheet allows the instructor to appreciate the students'…

  18. Design data sheets Near-Surface Test Facility Bottom Loading Transporter (BLT): Title 1

    Young, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This document is an accumulation of all the Design Data Sheets relative to the handling equipment in the transporter for the Near-Surface Test Facility. The Data Sheets are in ascending numerical order. Each Data Sheet, regardless of the number of pages, shall stand by itself within this document

  19. Fact sheet on thyroid test in Fukushima prefecture

    Hiranuma, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Fukushima Prefecture chose about 360,000 people who were 18 years old or younger at the time of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi NPS on March 11, 2011, and started thyroid test as part of the prefectural health survey on October 9, 2011. The survey is entrusted to Fukushima Medical University of Medicine from Fukushima Prefecture. This fact sheet summarizes the current state of thyroid test in Fukushima Prefecture. A considerable amount of data and related information have been accumulated in the seventh year from the beginning. However, especially the information disclosed in English by people concerned combined the results of the second round, which was not analyzed properly, with those of the first round. This fact gives a suspicion of intention to deny the possibility of radiation influence in such a way as to make it invisible even if there was the influence. This study firstly prepared an English fact sheet to convey the actual situation in English. However, since some official information/views were contained in papers only available in English, this study also prepared the Japanese version for enabling to grasp the current situation. The Japanese version is supplemented with explanation rather than the Japanese translation of the English version, in order to make it easier to understand. The future of thyroid test is a topic that is causing controversy. Now that the transparency, scientific fairness, and the data integrity of Fukushima Medical University are suspected, it is extremely important that an independent analysis in the true sense is to be performed by qualified experts based on the latest evidence. (A.O.)

  20. Lessons learned in testing of Safeguards equipment

    Pepper, Susan; Farnitano, Michael; Carelli, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Upgrade Travel Funding' - This subtask provides funding for the upgrade of DIS equipment installed in the field; E.125.3, 'DIS Radiation Field Characterization' - This subtask provides for the procurement by the IAEA of radiation measurement equipment and technical assistance for the characterization of radiation conditions in the locations where DIS will be installed. This will help the IAEA ensure that the design specifications for the equipment are consistent with the location where the instrument will be used; E.125.4, 'DIS Design Limit Testing and Advise to Strengthen IAEA's Current Equipment Qualification Criteria' - Under this subtask, Wyle Laboratories and Quanterion Solutions will conduct SDIS design limit testing, including harsh environmental testing and accelerated aging, to determine the expected lifetime and produce a design limit report to include maximum operating environment vs. design limit analysis. Additionally, this task will include the development of a strengthened environmental qualification test plan and reliability and maintainability definition methodology for all safeguards equipment. The implementation of new equipment by the Department of Safeguards is costly. Expected costs associated with the implementation of equipment include capital costs, training and in some cases travel. The cost is dramatically increased when operational issues arise due to the costs of studying the issues, modifying and upgrading the equipment and additional travel. The U.S. Support Program believes that the IAEA's Division of Safeguards Technical Support (SGTS) must strengthen its equipment-testing program to ensure that the equipment it approves for inspection use is reliable and will not place additional burden on the Department of Safeguards' maintenance and inspection staff. The U.S. Support Program recognizes that SGTS already requires a series of fundamentally important and revealing tests, but we believe that additional tests should be added to the testing

  1. A test sheet generating algorithm based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning

    Gu, Peipei; Niu, Zhendong; Chen, Xuting; Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, computer-based testing has become an effective method to evaluate students' overall learning progress so that appropriate guiding strategies can be recommended. Research has been done to develop intelligent test assembling systems which can automatically generate test sheets based on given parameters of test items. A good multisubject test sheet depends on not only the quality of the test items but also the construction of the sheet. Effective and efficient construction of test sheets according to multiple subjects and criteria is a challenging problem. In this paper, a multi-subject test sheet generation problem is formulated and a test sheet generating approach based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning (GAHP) is proposed to tackle this problem. The proposed approach utilizes hierarchical planning to simplify the multi-subject testing problem and adopts genetic algorithm to process the layered criteria, enabling the construction of good test sheets according to multiple test item requirements. Experiments are conducted and the results show that the proposed approach is capable of effectively generating multi-subject test sheets that meet specified requirements and achieve good performance.

  2. Test Driven Development of a Parameterized Ice Sheet Component

    Clune, T.

    2011-12-01

    Test driven development (TDD) is a software development methodology that offers many advantages over traditional approaches including reduced development and maintenance costs, improved reliability, and superior design quality. Although TDD is widely accepted in many software communities, the suitability to scientific software is largely undemonstrated and warrants a degree of skepticism. Indeed, numerical algorithms pose several challenges to unit testing in general, and TDD in particular. Among these challenges are the need to have simple, non-redundant closed-form expressions to compare against the results obtained from the implementation as well as realistic error estimates. The necessity for serial and parallel performance raises additional concerns for many scientific applicaitons. In previous work I demonstrated that TDD performed well for the development of a relatively simple numerical model that simulates the growth of snowflakes, but the results were anecdotal and of limited relevance to far more complex software components typical of climate models. This investigation has now been extended by successfully applying TDD to the implementation of a substantial portion of a new parameterized ice sheet component within a full climate model. After a brief introduction to TDD, I will present techniques that address some of the obstacles encountered with numerical algorithms. I will conclude with some quantitative and qualitative comparisons against climate components developed in a more traditional manner.

  3. Bank stress testing under different balance sheet assumptions

    Busch, Ramona; Drescher, Christian; Memmel, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Using unique supervisory survey data on the impact of a hypothetical interest rate shock on German banks, we analyse price and quantity effects on banks' net interest margin components under different balance sheet assumptions. In the first year, the cross-sectional variation of banks' simulated price effect is nearly eight times as large as the one of the simulated quantity effect. After five years, however, the importance of both effects converges. Large banks adjust their balance sheets mo...

  4. Analysis and comparison of magnetic sheet insulation tests

    Marion-Péra, M. C.; Kedous-Lebouc, A.; Cornut, B.; Brissonneau, P.

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic circuits of electrical machines are divided into coated sheets in order to limit eddy currents. The surface insulation resistance of magnetic sheets is difficult to evaluate because it depends on parameters like pressure and covers a wide range of values. Two methods of measuring insulation resistance are analyzed: the standardized 'Franklin device' and a tester developed by British Steel Electrical. Their main drawback is poor local repeatability. The Franklin method allows better quality control of industrial process because it measures only one insulating layer at a time. It also gives more accurate images of the distribution of possible defects. Nevertheless, both methods lead to similar classifications of insulation efficiency.

  5. The Couplex test cases: models and lessons

    Bourgeat, A.; Kern, M.; Schumacher, S.; Talandier, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Couplex test cases are a set of numerical test models for nuclear waste deep geological disposal simulation. They are centered around the numerical issues arising in the near and far field transport simulation. They were used in an international contest, and are now becoming a reference in the field. We present the models used in these test cases, and show sample results from the award winning teams. (authors)

  6. Testing of Lubricant Performance in Sheet Metal Forming

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Friis, Kasper Leth

    2008-01-01

    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged a number of sheet metal forming companies to look for new tribo-systems in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils. The problems are especially pronounced, when forming tribologically...... of the lubricant film causing pick-up of work piece material on the tool surface and scoring of subsequent work piece surfaces. The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the authors’ research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing...

  7. Multi-Objective Parallel Test-Sheet Composition Using Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization

    Ho, Tsu-Feng; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Shyu, Shyong Jian; Yean, Ya-Nan

    2009-01-01

    For large-scale tests, such as certification tests or entrance examinations, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria. Furthermore, to fairly compare the knowledge levels of the persons who receive tests at different times owing to the insufficiency of available examination halls or the occurrence of certain unexpected…

  8. A Randomized Rounding Approach for Optimization of Test Sheet Composing and Exposure Rate Control in Computer-Assisted Testing

    Wang, Chu-Fu; Lin, Chih-Lung; Deng, Jien-Han

    2012-01-01

    Testing is an important stage of teaching as it can assist teachers in auditing students' learning results. A good test is able to accurately reflect the capability of a learner. Nowadays, Computer-Assisted Testing (CAT) is greatly improving traditional testing, since computers can automatically and quickly compose a proper test sheet to meet user…

  9. Testing and modelling of industrial tribo-systems for sheet metal forming

    Friis, Kasper Leth; Nielsen, Peter Søe; Bay, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Galling is a well-known problem in sheet metal forming of tribological difficult materials such as stainless steel. In this work new, environmentally friendly lubricants and wear resistant tool materials are tested in a laboratory environment using a strip reduction test as well as in a real...

  10. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  11. Field Testing Research at the NWTC (Fact Sheet)

    2015-02-01

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) has extensive field testing capabilities that have been used in collaboration with the wind industry to accelerate wind technology development and deployment for more than 30 years.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW-BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    J.H. Yang; J. Chen; D.N. He; X. Y. Ruan

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory anddepending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system, a simplifiedmethod to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental methodin cup-shaped drawing process. The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement. It shows the method is effective.

  13. Ductile Tearing Resistance Indexing of Automotive Grade DP 590 Steel Sheets: EWF Testing Using DENT Specimens

    Sahoo, Subhadra; Padmapriya, N.; De, Partha Sarathi; Chakraborti, P. C.; Ray, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The essential work of fracture (EWF) method has been explored for indexing the ductile tearing resistance of DP 590 automotive grade dual-phase steel sheet both in longitudinal (L-T) and transverse (T-L) orientations. The simplest possible test and analysis procedures have been adopted. The EWF method is found to be eminently suitable for routine quality control and product development purposes for such materials. Areas for further research for improving the experimental strategy are highlighted. For the investigated steel sheet, the estimated tearing resistance is found to be distinctly higher for the L-T orientation compared to the T-L orientation; the reason thereof merits further investigation.

  14. Case Study of Lessons Learned from the Operation of the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Wootan, D.; Omberg, R.; Grandy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The lessons learned approach being followed at the Fast Flux Test Facility is to have domain experts in each subject area develop a short write-up or report on each lesson learned. Each lesson learned write-up is on the order of 4–6 pages. Longer reports can be developed as needed. Each lessons learned summary discusses the problem and the resolution method employed to address the problem, and also tries to capture the essential “tacit knowledge” associated with each topic in a focused manner. All lessons learned write-ups are supported by more detailed documents. For example, references of more detailed reports are generally included, where available. Topics are selected as those most likely to apply to future design or operating problems. This lessons learned approach has been successful in capturing essential tacit knowledge about key events in FFTF history and providing a context for interpreting the existing data and references. (author

  15. Standard Test Method for Solar Photometric Transmittance of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar photometric transmittance of materials in sheet form. Solar photometric transmittance is measured using a photometer (illuminance meter) in an enclosure with the sun and sky as the source of radiation. The enclosure and method of test is specified in Test Method E 1175 (or Test Method E 1084). 1.2 The purpose of this test method is to specify a photometric sensor to be used with the procedure for measuring the solar photometric transmittance of sheet materials containing inhomogeneities in their optical properties. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Mathematics Teachers' Views of Accountability Testing Revealed through Lesson Study

    Yarema, Connie H.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of lesson study, a professional development model originating in Japan, aligns well with recommendations from research for teacher professional development. Lesson study is also an inductive research method that uncovers student thinking and, in parallel, grants teacher-educators the opportunity to study teachers' thinking about…

  17. Waste generation and pollution prevention progress fact sheet: Nevada Test Site

    1994-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site is responsible for maintaining nuclear testing capability, supporting science-based Stockpile Stewardship experiments, maintaining nuclear agency response capability, applying environmental restoration techniques to areas affected by nuclear testing, managing low-level and mixed radioactive waste, investigating demilitarization technologies, investigating counter- proliferation technologies, supporting work-for-others programs and special Department of Defense activities, operating a hazardous materials spill test center, and providing for the commercial development of the site. This fact sheet provides information on routine waste generation and projected reduction by waste type. Also, materials recycled by the Nevada Test Site in 1994 are listed

  18. Evaluation of electrical test conditions in MIL-M-38510 slash sheets

    Sandgren, K.

    1980-08-01

    Adequacy of MIL-M-38510 slash sheet requirements for electrical test conditions in an automated test environment were evaluated. Military temperature range commercial devices of 13 types from 6 manufacturers were purchased. Software for testing these devices and for varying the test conditions was written for the Tektronix S-3260 test system. The devices were tested to evaluate the effects of pin-condition settling time, measurement sequence of the same and different D-C parameters, temperature sequence, differently defined temperature ambients, variable measurement conditions, sequence of time measurements, pin-application sequence, and undesignated pin condition ambiguity. An alternative to current tri-state enable and disable time measurements is proposed; S-3260 'open' and 'ground' conditions are characterized; and suggestions for changes in MIL-M-38510 slash sheet specifications and MIL-STD-883 test methods are proposed, both to correct errors and ambiguities and to facilitate the gathering of repeatable data on automated test equipment. Data obtained showed no sensitivity to measurement or temperature sequence nor to temperature ambient, provided that test times were not excessive. V sub ICP tests and some low current measurements required allowance for a pin condition settling time because of the test system speed. Some pin condition application sequences yielded incorrect measurements. Undefined terminal conditions of output pins were found to affect I sub OS and propagation delay time measurements. Truth table test results varied with test frequency and V sub IL for low-power Schottky devices.

  19. Standard Test Method for Solar Transmittance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar transmittance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form by using a pyranometer, an enclosure, and the sun as the energy source. 1.2 This test method also allows measurement of solar transmittance at angles other than normal incidence. 1.3 This test method is applicable to sheet materials that are transparent, translucent, textured, or patterned. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Lessons learned on the Ground Test Accelerator control system

    Kozubal, A.J.; Weiss, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    When we initiated the control system design for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), we envisioned a system that would be flexible enough to handle the changing requirements of an experimental project. This control system would use a developers' toolkit to reduce the cost and time to develop applications for GTA, and through the use of open standards, the system would accommodate unforeseen requirements as they arose. Furthermore, we would attempt to demonstrate on GTA a level of automation far beyond that achieved by existing accelerator control systems. How well did we achieve these goals? What were the stumbling blocks to deploying the control system, and what assumptions did we make about requirements that turned out to be incorrect? In this paper we look at the process of developing a control system that evolved into what is now the ''Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System'' (EPICS). Also, we assess the impact of this system on the GTA project, as well as the impact of GTA on EPICS. The lessons learned on GTA will be valuable for future projects

  1. Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned and Accelerated Testing Studies

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    A number of mechanism (mechanical moving component) failures and anomalies have recently occurred on satellites. In addition, more demanding operating and life requirements have caused mechanism failures or anomalies to occur even before some satellites were launched (e.g., during the qualification testing of GOES-NEXT, CERES, and the Space Station Freedom Beta Joint Gimbal). For these reasons, it is imperative to determine which mechanisms worked in the past and which have failed so that the best selection of mechanically moving components can be made for future satellites. It is also important to know where the problem areas are so that timely decisions can be made on the initiation of research to develop future needed technology. To chronicle the life and performance characteristics of mechanisms operating in a space environment, a Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study was conducted. The work was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and by Mechanical Technologies Inc. (MTI) under contract NAS3-27086. The expectation of the study was to capture and retrieve information relating to the life and performance of mechanisms operating in the space environment to determine what components had operated successfully and what components had produced anomalies.

  2. Testing and modelling of new tribo-systems for industrial sheet forming of stainless steels

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Sheet metal forming of stainless steels is known to be tribologically demanding. To ensure satisfactory production without pick-up and galling, lubrication with environmentally hazardous chlorinated paraffin oil is normally required and in the most severe cases combined with ceramic tool coatings...... as well as the production test in order to estimate the critical interface temperature for lubricant film breakdown. Simulation results show good agreement with experimental measurements of tool temperature close to the interface....

  3. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW—BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    J.H.Yang; J.Chen; 等

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory and depending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system,a simplified method to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental method in cup-shaped drawing process.The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement.It shows the method is effective.

  4. A new tensile impact test for the toughness characterization of sheet material

    Könemann, Markus; Lenz, David; Brinnel, Victoria; Münstermann, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    In the past, the selection of suitable steels has been carried out primarily based on the mechanical properties of different steels. One of these properties is the resistance against crack propagation. For many constructions, this value plays an important role, because it can compare the impact toughness of different steel grades easily and gives information about the loading capacity of the specific materials. For thin sheets, impact toughness properties were usually not considered. One of the reasons for this is that the Charpy-impact test is not applicable for sheets with thicknesses below 2 mm. For a long time, this was not relevant because conventional steels had a sufficient impact toughness in a wide temperature range. However, since new multiphase steel grades with improved mechanical property exploitations are available, it turned out that impact toughness properties need to be considered during the component design phase, as the activation of the cleavage fracture mechanism is observed under challenging loading conditions. Therefore, this work aims to provide a new and practical testing procedure for sheet material or thin walled structures. The new testing procedure is based on tensile tests conducted in an impact pendulum similar to the Charpy impact hammer. A new standard geometry is provided, which enables a comparison between different steels or steel grades. A connection to the conventional Charpy test is presented using a damage mechanics model, which predicts material failure with consideration of to the stress state at various temperatures. Different specimen geometries are analysed to cover manifold stress states. A special advantage of the damage mechanics model is also the possibility to predict the materials behaviour in the transition area. To verify the method a conventional steel was tested in Charpy tests as well as in the new tensile impact test.

  5. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate....... It was revealed that cloudy bands affect ice-deformation processes, but the details remain unclear. Udgivelsesdato: June......Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  6. Off-Line Testing of Tribo-Systems for Sheet Metal Forming Production

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Off-line testing of new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming production is an important issue, when new, environmentally benign lubricants are to be introduced. To obtain useful results it is, however, vital to ensure similar conditions as in the production process regarding the main tribo...... leading to very high tool/workpiece interface pressure and temperature in the second re-draw. Under such conditions only the best lubricant systems work satisfactory, and the paper shows how the performance of different tribo-systems in production may be predicted by off-line testing combined...

  7. Determination of friction in sheet metal forming by means of simulative tribo-tests

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    operations a coefficient of friction μ is often determined by calibration of the simulation results with experimental observations of material flow and/or measured load. In case of modeling of new stamping operations μ is typically selected based on former experience. These procedures are, however......, not appropriate when introducing new tribo-systems (lubricant, workpiece material, tool material or tool coating). In order to determine friction under the very varied conditions in sheet stamping simulative testing may be applied, e.g., Plane-Strip-Testing (PST), Draw-Bead-Testing (DBT) and Bending......-Under- Tension testing (BUT) but these tests should be analyzed and carefully tuned with the production process in question to ensure useful results. The present paper illustrates how the BUT test combined with classical analytical modeling may lead to very large errors in estimation of the coefficient...

  8. Testing and Prediction of Limits of Lubrication in Sheet Metal Forming

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged a number of sheet metal forming companies to look for new tribo-systems, here meaning the combination of tool_material/workpiece_material/lubricant, in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... laboratory and production tests as well as numerical analyses in order to evaluate and compare performance of the new tribo-systems. A part is selected from industrial production and analyzed by this methodology in order to substitute the existing tribo-system with a new one....... oils. Testing of new tribo-systems under production conditions is, however, very costly. For preliminary testing it is more feasible to introduce laboratory tests. In this paper a new methodology for testing new tribo-systems is presented. The methodology describes a series of investigations combining...

  9. Characterization of zinc alloy by sheet bulging test with analytical models and digital image correlation

    Vitu, L.; Laforge, N.; Malécot, P.; Boudeau, N.; Manov, S.; Milesi, M.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc alloys are used in a wide range of application such as electronics, automotive and building construction. Their various shapes are generally obtained by metal forming operation such as stamping. Therefore, it is important to characterize the material with adequate characterization tests. Sheet Bulging Test (SBT) is well recognized in the metal forming community. Different theoretical models of the literature for the evaluation of thickness and radius of the deformed sheet in SBT have been studied in order to get the hardening curve of different materials. These theoretical models present the advantage that the experimental procedure is very simple. But Koç et al. showed their limitation, since the combination of thickness and radius evaluations depend on the material. As Zinc alloys are strongly anisotropic with a special crystalline structure, a procedure is adopted for characterizing the hardening curve of a Zinc alloy. The anisotropy is first studied with tensile test, and SBT with elliptical dies is also investigated. Parallel to this, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measures are carried out. The results obtained from theoretical models and DIC measures are compared. Measures done on post-mortem specimens complete the comparisons. Finally, DIC measures give better results and the resulting hardening curve of the studied zinc alloy is provided.

  10. Simple method of testing polymer leaching from thermoplastic sheets used for clear aligner

    Shuvana Altaf Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: With the increasing popularity of clear aligners, newer materials are introduced in the form of thermoplastic sheets. Long-term studies testing the biocompatibility of these sheets are not available. The purpose of this study is to provide a simple, yet effective method to evaluate their leaching potential. Materials and Methods: Using the oxidation reduction reaction taking place in the presence of two different concentrations of potassium permanganate, five different samples were tested. The sequence of colour change from purple to red to brown to yellow to clear was used to determine the amount of leaching. This is the result of a stoichiometric relation between the oxidizing agent and the reducing sample. Color changes were observed through naked eyes over a period of 24 h. Photographs were taken at 15 min, 8 h and 24 h using D-SLR1000 Canon camera. Photos were evaluated separately. Result: Diluted solution showed faster change in color, due to the lesser amount of reagent. 3A Medes (Korea was the first to leach, followed by CA (Scheu, Germany EVA (Endent Private Limited, Delhi, India, Ultradent (United States and Avac R (Jaypee, Kerela, India. Conclusion: "Do it yourself" test is a repeatable and reproducible method that can be modified and used in clinical practice as a chair side method.

  11. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  12. Standard Test Methods for Solar Energy Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of solar energy transmittance and reflectance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form. Method A, using a spectrophotometer, is applicable for both transmittance and reflectance and is the referee method. Method B is applicable only for measurement of transmittance using a pyranometer in an enclosure and the sun as the energy source. Specimens for Method A are limited in size by the geometry of the spectrophotometer while Method B requires a specimen 0.61 m2 (2 ft2). For the materials studied by the drafting task group, both test methods give essentially equivalent results. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Lessons Learned in Pilot Testing Specialty Consultations to Benefit Individuals with Lower Limb Loss

    Christine Elnitsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Telerehabilitation technologies enable the delivery of rehabilitation services from providers to people with disabilities as well as specialty care consultations. This article discusses the barriers experienced when planning and pilot testing a telerehabilitation multi-site specialty consultation for specialists in their medical centers, and the lessons learned. The barriers included integration and participation, coordination across organizational units, and privacy and information security. Lessons learned included the need for collaboration across multiple departments, telerehabilitation equipment back-ups, and anonymous and private communication protocols. Despite delays resulting from coordination at multiple levels of a national organization, we developed a program plan and successfully implemented a pilot test of the southeast region program.  Specialty consultation using telerehabilitation delivery methods requires identifying provider preferences for technological features. Lessons learned could inform development of outpatient telerehabilitation for patients with amputations and studies of patients and providers involved in telerehabilitation.

  14. Testing new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    of a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems for advanced high strength steels and stainless steels. The methodology is presented and applied to an industrial case, where different tribo-systems are tested. A universal sheet tribotester has been developed, which can run automatically repetitive......Testing of new tribo-systems in sheet metal forming has become an important issue due to new legislation, which forces industry to replace current, hazardous lubricants. The present paper summarizes the work done in a recent PhD project at the Technical University of Denmark on the development...

  15. Study of Axes Rotation during Simple Shear Tests on Aluminum Sheets

    Duchene, L.; Diouf, B.; Lelotte, T.; Flores, P.; Habraken, A. M.; Bouvier, S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to model accurately the anisotropic material behavior during finite element simulations, a precise description of the material yield locus is required. Beside the shape (linked to the material model used), the size (related to the isotropic hardening) and the position (kinematic hardening) of the yield locus, its orientation is of particular interest when large rotations of the material are encountered during the simulations. This paper proposes three distinct methods for the determination of the material yield locus rotation: a method based on the Constant Symmetric Local Velocity Gradient (CSLVG), a corotational method and a method based on the Mandel spin. These methods are compared during simple shear tests of an aluminum sheet

  16. Can music lessons increase the performance of preschool children in IQ tests?

    Kaviani, Hossein; Mirbaha, Hilda; Pournaseh, Mehrangiz; Sagan, Olivia

    2014-02-01

    The impact of music on human cognition has a distinguished history as a research topic in psychology. The focus of the present study was on investigating the effects of music instruction on the cognitive development of preschool children. From a sample of 154 preschool children of Tehran kindergartens, 60 children aged between 5 and 6 were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving music lessons and the other (matched for sex, age and mother's educational level) not taking part in any music classes. Children were tested before the start of the course of music lessons and at its end with 4 subtests of the Tehran-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (TSB). The experimental group participated in twelve 75-min weekly music lessons. Statistical analysis showed significant IQ increase in participants receiving music lessons, specifically on the TSB verbal reasoning and short-term memory subtests. The numerical and visual/abstract reasoning abilities did not differ for the two groups after lessons. These data support studies that found similar skills enhancements in preschool children, despite vast differences in the setting in which the instruction occurred. These findings appear to be consistent with some neuroimaging and neurological observations which are discussed in the paper.

  17. Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Monolithic Polycarbonate Sheet by Means of a Falling Weight

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the energy required to initiate failure in monolithic polycarbonate sheet material under specified conditions of impact using a free falling weight. 1.2 Two specimen types are defined as follows: 1.2.1 Type A consists of a flat plate test specimen and employs a clamped ring support. 1.2.2 Type B consists of a simply supported three-point loaded beam specimen (Fig. 1) and is recommended for use with material which can not be failed using the Type A specimen. For a maximum drop height of 6.096 m (20 ft) and a maximum drop weight of 22.68 kg (50 lb), virgin polycarbonate greater than 12.70 mm (1/2 in.) thick will probably require use of the Type B specimen. Note 1 - See also ASTM Methods: D 1709, D 2444 and D 3029. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of reg...

  18. Creating more effective health plan quality reports for consumers: lessons from a synthesis of qualitative testing.

    Harris-Kojetin, L D; McCormack, L A; Jaël, E F; Sangl, J A; Garfinkel, S A

    2001-07-01

    Social marketing techniques such as consumer testing have only recently been applied to develop effective consumer health insurance information. This article discusses lessons learned from consumer testing to create consumer plan choice materials. Data were collected from 268 publicly and privately insured consumers in three studies between 1994 and 1999. Iterative testing and revisions were conducted to design seven booklets to help Medicaid, Medicare, and employed consumers choose a health plan. Standardized protocols were used in 11 focus groups and 182 interviews to examine the content, comprehension, navigation, and utility of the booklets. A method is suggested to help consumers narrow their plan choices by breaking down the process into smaller decisions using a set of guided worksheets. Implementing these lessons is challenging and not often done well. This article gives examples of evidence-based approaches to address cognitive barriers that designers of consumer health insurance information can adapt to their needs.

  19. Identification of non-linear kinematic hardening with bending and unbending tests in anisotropic sheet-metals

    Brunet, M.; Morestin, F.; Godereaux, S.

    2000-01-01

    An inverse identification technique is proposed based on bending-unbending experiments on anisotropic sheet-metal strips. The initial anisotropy theory of plasticity is extended to include the concept of combined isotropic and non-linear kinematic hardening. This theory is adopted to characterise the anisotropic hardening due to loading-unloading which occurs in sheet-metal forming processes. To this end, a specific bending-unbending apparatus has been built to provide experimental moment-curvature curves. The constant bending moment applied over the length of the specimen to determine numerically the strain-stress behaviour but without Finite Element Analysis. Four constitutive parameters have to be identified by an inverse approach. Our identification results show that bending-unbending tests are suitable to model quite accurately the constitutive behaviour of sheet metals under complex loading paths. (author)

  20. An effective self-assessment based on concept map extraction from test-sheet for personalized learning

    Liew, Keng-Hou; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Examination is a traditional way to assess learners' learning status, progress and performance after a learning activity. Except the test grade, a test sheet hides some implicit information such as test concepts, their relationships, importance, and prerequisite. The implicit information can be extracted and constructed a concept map for considering (1) the test concepts covered in the same question means these test concepts have strong relationships, and (2) questions in the same test sheet means the test concepts are relative. Concept map has been successfully employed in many researches to help instructors and learners organize relationships among concepts. However, concept map construction depends on experts who need to take effort and time for the organization of the domain knowledge. In addition, the previous researches regarding to automatic concept map construction are limited to consider all learners of a class, which have not considered personalized learning. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes a new approach to automatically extract and construct concept map based on implicit information in a test sheet. Furthermore, the proposed approach also can help learner for self-assessment and self-diagnosis. Finally, an example is given to depict the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  1. Direct to confusion: lessons learned from marketing BRCA testing.

    Matloff, Ellen; Caplan, Arthur

    2008-06-01

    Myriad Genetics holds a patent on testing for the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, and therefore has a forced monopoly on this critical genetic test. Myriad launched a Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) marketing campaign in the Northeast United States in September 2007 and plans to expand that campaign to Florida and Texas in 2008. The ethics of Myriad's patent, forced monopoly and DTC campaign will be reviewed, as well as the impact of this situation on patient access and care, physician liability, and the future of DTC campaigns for genetic testing.

  2. Travel Time Data Collection Field Tests - Lessons Learned

    1999-06-28

    The Los Angeles Spread Spectrum Radio (SSR) Traffic Signal Interconnect Field Operational Test (FOT) investigated the feasibility of using wireless communications as an alternative to traditional hard-wire interconnection, to extend the coverage of c...

  3. Lessons learned from EU stress tests evaluations with regard to external hazards

    Misak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation was oriented to critical review of the lessons learned from the European Union (EU) Stress Test focusing on NPP robustness against external hazards. These lessons addressed: - organization of the stress tests, - scope and objectives of the stress tests, - peer review findings, recommendations and implications on the design in the area of external hazards, - further studies recommended in the area of external hazards and PSA, - relevant research areas identified by the SNETP Task Group in response to Fukushima accident. Some important conclusions were made in the final part of the presentation: - Vulnerability to the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents caused by external hazards and including their secondary effects was underestimated, - Lessons learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents, from the EU Stress Test and from peer reviews are to be reflected in safety improvements of operating plants and considered in new designs, - while no completely new phenomena were revealed from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents, improvements in specific research areas (including external hazards and use of PSA) should be considered with high priority

  4. Omega Hawaii Antenna System: Modification and Validation Tests. Volume 2. Data Sheets.

    1979-10-19

    a benchmark because of potential hotel construction . DS 5-1 DATA SHEET 5 (DS-5) RADIO FIELD INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS OMEGA STATION: HAWAII SITE NO. C 1A...27.5 1008 11.05 26.5 1007 Ft 11.80 28.1 COMMENT Not considered for a benchmark because of potential hotel construction . DS 5-5 DATA SHEET 5 (DS-5) RADIO

  5. Lessons from Small-scale Standardised Testing of English Reading ...

    The superior performance by the public school can partly be explained by teachers teaching experience, most of them have been teaching for more than ten years and greater community support for the school. It is recommended that data produced through small-scale standardised testing should be used by school ...

  6. Effects of die quench forming on sheet thinning and 3-point bend testing of AA7075-T6

    Kim, Samuel; Omer, Kaab; Rahmaan, Taamjeed; Butcher, Clifford; Worswick, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lab-scaled AA7075 aluminum side impact beams were manufactured using the die quenching technique in which the sheet was solutionized and then quenched in-die during forming to a super saturated solid state. Sheet thinning measurements were taken at various locations throughout the length of the part and the effect of lubricant on surface scoring and material pick-up on the die was evaluated. The as-formed beams were subjected to a T6 aging treatment and then tested in three-point bending. Simulations were performed of the forming and mechanical testing experiments using the LS-DYNA finite element code. The thinning and mechanical response was predicted well.

  7. Testing the Tester: Lessons Learned During the Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm Processor Under Proton Irradiation

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam R.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing of an Intel 14nm desktop processor was conducted under proton irradiation. We share lessons learned, demonstrating that complex devices beget further complex challenges requiring practical and theoretical investigative expertise to solve.

  8. Usability of Optical Mark Reader Sheet as an Answering Tool in Testing.

    Booka, Masayuki; Oku, Hidehisa; Scheller, Andreas; Yamaoka, Shintaro

    2017-01-01

    The research result on usability of Optical Mark Reader Sheet (OMRS) being used as the standard answering tool is reported. The use of OMRS significantly requires more answer time than the answer time without OMRS, and the use of assistive devices for OMRS has the possibility to reduce the answer time.

  9. Multi-Axial Deformation Setup for Microscopic Testing of Sheet Metal to Fracture

    Tasan, C.C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Dekkers, E.C.A.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2012-01-01

    While the industrial interest in sheet metal with improved specific-properties led to the design of new alloys with complex microstructures, predicting their safe forming limits and understanding their microstructural deformation mechanisms remain as significant challenges largely due to the

  10. Lessons Learned During Cryogenic Optical Testing of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs)

    Hadaway, James; Reardon, Patrick; Geary, Joseph; Robinson, Brian; Stahl, Philip; Eng, Ron; Kegley, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Optical testing in a cryogenic environment presents a host of challenges above and beyond those encountered during room temperature testing. The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs) are 1.4 m diameter, ultra light-weight (mA2), off-axis parabolic segments. They are required to have 250 nm PV & 50 nm RMS surface figure error or less at 35 K. An optical testing system, consisting of an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI), a diffractive null corrector (DNC), and an Absolute Distance Meter (ADM), was used to measure the surface figure & radius-of-curvature of these mirrors at the operational temperature within the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Ah4SD program was designed to improve the technology related to the design, fabrication, & testing of such mirrors in support of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This paper will describe the lessons learned during preparation & cryogenic testing of the AMSDs.

  11. Characterization of the deformation texture after tensile test and cold rolling of a Ti-6Al-4V sheet alloy

    Mehdi, B; Badji, R; Azzeddine, H; Alili, B; Bradai, D; Ji, V

    2015-01-01

    The deformation texture after cold rolling and tensile test of an industrial Ti-6Al-4V sheet alloy was studied using X-ray diffraction. The alloy was subjected to a cold rolling to different thickness reductions (from 20% to 60%) and then tensile tests have been carried out along three directions relatively to the rolling direction (0°, 45° and 90°). The experimental results were compared to the existing literature and discussed in terms of active plastic deformation mechanisms. (paper)

  12. Development of new testing methods for the numerical load analysis for the drop test of steel sheet containers for the final repository Konrad

    Protz, C.; Voelzke, H.; Zencker, U.; Hagenow, P.; Gruenewald, H.

    2011-01-01

    The qualification of steel sheet containers as intermediate-level waste container for the final repository is performed by the BAM (Bundeasmt fuer Materialpruefung) according to the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) requirements. The testing requirements include the stacking pressure tests, lifting tests, drop tests thermal tests (fire resistance) and tightness tests. Besides the verification using model or prototype tests and transferability considerations numerical safety analyses may be performed alternatively. The authors describe the internal BAM research project ConDrop aimed to develop extended testing methods for the drop test of steel sheet containers for the final repository Konrad using numerical load analyses. A finite element model was developed using The FE software LS-PrePost 3.0 and ANSYS 12.0 and the software FE-Code LS-DYNA for the simulation of the drop test (5 m height). The results were verified by experimental data from instrumented drop tests. The container preserves its integrity after the drop test, plastic deformation occurred at the bottom plate, the side walls, the cask cover and the lateral uprights.

  13. Experimental Tests on Bending Behavior of Profiled Steel Sheeting Dry Board Composite Floor with Geopolymer Concrete Infill

    Mohd Isa Jaffar

    Full Text Available Abstract Profiled Steel Sheet Dry Board (PSSDB system is a lightweight composite structure comprises Profiled Steel Sheeting and Dry Board connected by self-drilling and self-tapping screws. This study introduced geopolymer concrete, an eco-friendly material without cement content as an infill material in the PSSDB floor system to highlight its effect onto the PSSDB (with full and half-size dry boards floor system's stiffness and strength. Experimental tests on various full scale PSSDB floor specimens were conducted under uniformly distributed transverse loads. Results illustrate that the rigidity of the panel with geopolymer concrete infill with half-size dry board (HBGPC increases by 43% relative to that of the panel with normal concrete infill with full-size dry board (FBNC. The developed finite-element modeling (FEM successfully predicts the behavior of FBGPC model with 94.8% accuracy. Geopolymer concrete infill and dry board size influence the strength panel, infill contact stiffness, and mid-span deflection of the profiled steel sheeting/dry board (PSSDB flooring system.

  14. Estimation of radionuclide ingestion: Lessons from dose reconstruction for fallout from the Nevada Test Site

    Breshears, D.D.; Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    The United States conducted atmospheric testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1963. In 1979 the U.S. Department of Energy established the Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project to compile a data base related to health effects from nuclear testing and to reconstruct doses to public residing off of the Nevada Test Site. This project is the most comprehensive dose reconstruction project to date, and, since similar assessments are currently underway at several other locations within and outside the U.S., lessons from ORERP can be valuable. A major component of dose reconstruction is estimation of dose from radionuclide ingestion. The PATHWAY food-chain model was developed to estimate the amount of radionuclides ingested. For agricultural components of the human diet, PATHWAY predicts radionuclide concentrations and quantities ingested. To improve accuracy and model credibility, four components of model analysis were conducted: estimation of uncertainty in model predictions, estimation of sensitivity of model predictions to input parameters, and testing of model predictions against independent data (validation), and comparing predictions from PATHWAY with those from other models. These results identified strengths and weaknesses in the model and aided in establishing the confidence associated with model prediction, which is a critical component risk assessment and dose reconstruction. For fallout from the Nevada Test Site, by far, the largest internal doses were received by the thyroid. However, the predicted number of fatal cancers from ingestion dose was generally much smaller than the number predicted from external dose. The number of fatal cancers predicted from ingestion dose was also orders of magnitude below the normal projected cancer rate. Several lessons were learned during the study that are relevant to other dose reconstruction efforts

  15. SQUID-based Nondestructive Testing Instrument of Dished Niobium Sheets for SRF Cavities

    Q. S. Shu; I. Ben-Zvi; G. Cheng; I. M. Phipps; J. T. Susta; P. Kneisel; G. Myneni; J. Mast; R. Selim

    2007-01-01

    Currently available technology can only inspect flat sheets and allow the elimination of defective flat sheets before the expensive forming and machining of the SRF cavity half-cells, but it does not eliminate the problem of remaining or uncovered surface impurities after partial chemical etching of the half-cells, nor does it detect any defects that may have been added during the fabrication of the half-cells. AMAC has developed a SQUID scanning system based on eddy current technique that allows the scanning of curved Nb samples that are welded to make superconducting RF cavity half-cells. AMAC SQUID scanning system successfully located the defects (Ta macro particles about 100 mm diameter) in a flat Nb sample (top side) and was able to also locate the defects in a cylindrical surface sample (top side). It is more significant that the system successfully located the defects on the backside of the flat sample and curved sample or 3-mm from the top surface. The 3-D SQUID-based Nondestructive instrument will be further optimized and improved in making SRF cavities and allow inspection and detection during cavity manufacturing for achieving highest accelerating fields

  16. Service Oriented Robotic Architecture for Space Robotics: Design, Testing, and Lessons Learned

    Fluckiger, Lorenzo Jean Marc E; Utz, Hans Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned from six years of experiments with planetary rover prototypes running the Service Oriented Robotic Architecture (SORA) developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at the NASA Ames Research Center. SORA relies on proven software engineering methods and technologies applied to space robotics. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture and robust middleware, SORA encompasses on-board robot control and a full suite of software tools necessary for remotely operated exploration missions. SORA has been eld tested in numerous scenarios of robotic lunar and planetary exploration. The experiments conducted by IRG with SORA exercise a large set of the constraints encountered in space applications: remote robotic assets, ight relevant science instruments, distributed operations, high network latencies and unreliable or intermittent communication links. In this paper, we present the results of these eld tests in regard to the developed architecture, and discuss its bene ts and limitations.

  17. Development of an in-plane biaxial test for forming limit curve (FLC) characterization of metallic sheets

    Zidane, I; Guines, D; Léotoing, L; Ragneau, E

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to propose a new experimental device able to give for a single specimen a good prediction of rheological parameters and formability under static and dynamic conditions (for intermediate strain rates). In this paper, we focus on the characterization of sheet metal forming. The proposed device is a servo-hydraulic testing machine provided with four independent dynamic actuators allowing biaxial tensile tests on cruciform specimens. The formability is evaluated thanks to the classical forming limit diagram (FLD), and one of the difficulties of this study was the design of a dedicated specimen for which the necking phenomenon appears in its central zone. If necking is located in the central zone of the specimen, then the speed ratio between the two axes controls the strain path in this zone and a whole forming limit curve can be covered. Such a specimen is proposed through a numerical and experimental validation procedure. A rigorous procedure for the detection of numerical and experimental forming strains is also presented. Finally, an experimental forming limit curve is determined and validated for an aluminium alloy dedicated to the sheet forming processes (AA5086)

  18. The study features of test procedures of students' knowledge on the physical training lessons

    Korobejnik V.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine the significance of the relationship and special professional skills necessary to detect and correct errors and evaluating students in physical education classes. The surveys were a group of qualified teachers (n = 31 with different pedagogical experience. Each teacher was asked to arrange the professional quality of the places from 1 to 10. It was found that all investigated have a certain quality and a high level of relationship, but they are manifested in different periods of teaching. It is shown that the process of organizing and carrying out checks of expertise includes logically related mental operations which are the basis of test procedures of students' knowledge on the physical training lessons. Found that the most weighty qualities were related to skills: a rating, comment exposed estimate visually identify the error and determine its significance.

  19. Development and experimental validation of a thermoelectric test bench for laboratory lessons

    Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration process reduces the temperature of a space or a given volume while the power generation process employs a source of thermal energy to generate electrical power. Because of the importance of these two processes, training of engineers in this area is of great interest. In engineering courses it is normally studied the vapor compression and absorption refrigeration, and power generation systems such as gas turbine and steam turbine. Another type of cooling and generation less studied within the engineering curriculum, having a great interest, it is cooling and thermal generation based on Peltier and Seebeck effects. The theoretical concepts are useful, but students have difficulties understanding the physical meaning of their possible applications. Providing students with tools to test and apply the theory in real applications, will lead to a better understanding of the subject. Engineers must have strong theoretical, computational and also experimental skills. A prototype test bench has been built and experimentally validated to perform practical lessons of thermoelectric generation and refrigeration. Using this prototype students learn the most effective way of cooling systems and thermal power generation as well as basic concepts associated with thermoelectricity. It has been proven that students learn the process of data acquisition, and the technology used in thermoelectric devices. These practical lessons are implemented for a 60 people group of students in the development of subject of Thermodynamic including in the Degree in Engineering in Industrial Technologies of Public University of Navarra. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Combining evidence and values in priority setting: testing the balance sheet method in a low-income country.

    Makundi, Emmanuel; Kapiriri, Lydia; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2007-09-24

    Procedures for priority setting need to incorporate both scientific evidence and public values. The aim of this study was to test out a model for priority setting which incorporates both scientific evidence and public values, and to explore use of evidence by a selection of stakeholders and to study reasons for the relative ranking of health care interventions in a setting of extreme resource scarcity. Systematic search for and assessment of relevant evidence for priority setting in a low-income country. Development of a balance sheet according to Eddy's explicit method. Eight group interviews (n-85), using a modified nominal group technique for eliciting individual and group rankings of a given set of health interventions. The study procedure made it possible to compare the groups' ranking before and after all the evidence was provided to participants. A rank deviation is significant if the rank order of the same intervention differed by two or more points on the ordinal scale. A comparison between the initial rank and the final rank (before deliberation) showed a rank deviation of 67%. The difference between the initial rank and the final rank after discussion and voting gave a rank deviation of 78%. Evidence-based and deliberative decision-making does change priorities significantly in an experimental setting. Our use of the balance sheet method was meant as a demonstration project, but could if properly developed be feasible for health planners, experts and health workers, although more work is needed before it can be used for laypersons.

  1. Lessons Learned in Designing and Implementing a Computer-Adaptive Test for English

    Jack Burston

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the lessons learned in designing and implementing a computer-adaptive test (CAT for English. The early identification of students with weak L2 English proficiency is of critical importance in university settings that have compulsory English language course graduation requirements. The most efficient means of diagnosing the L2 English ability of incoming students is by means of a computer-based test since such evaluation can be administered quickly, automatically corrected, and the outcome known as soon as the test is completed. While the option of using a commercial CAT is available to institutions with the ability to pay substantial annual fees, or the means of passing these expenses on to their students, language instructors without these resources can only avail themselves of the advantages of CAT evaluation by creating their own tests.  As is demonstrated by the E-CAT project described in this paper, this is a viable alternative even for those lacking any computer programing expertise.  However, language teaching experience and testing expertise are critical to such an undertaking, which requires considerable effort and, above all, collaborative teamwork to succeed. A number of practical skills are also required. Firstly, the operation of a CAT authoring programme must be learned. Once this is done, test makers must master the art of creating a question database and assigning difficulty levels to test items. Lastly, if multimedia resources are to be exploited in a CAT, test creators need to be able to locate suitable copyright-free resources and re-edit them as needed.

  2. FaceSheet Push-off Tests to Determine Composite Sandwich Toughness at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Gates, Thomas S.; Herring, Helen M.

    2001-01-01

    A new novel test method, associated analysis, and experimental procedures are developed to investigate the toughness of the facesheet-to-core interface of a sandwich material at cryogenic temperatures. The test method is designed to simulate the failure mode associated with facesheet debonding from high levels of gas pressure in the sandwich core. The effects of specimen orientation are considered, and the results of toughness measurements are presented. Comparisons are made between room and liquid nitrogen (-196 C) test temperatures. It was determined that the test method is insensitive to specimen facesheet orientation and strain energy release rate increases with a decrease in the test temperature.

  3. Decontamination sheet

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  4. Operational Lessons Learned from the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test, launched in 2009, is the first test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive. The mission team itself comprised only 700 individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions. To prepare for Ares I-X, vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure had to be modified at Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) as well as Launch Complex (LC) 39B. In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork. Ares I-X also proved to be a resource challenge, as individuals and ground service equipment (GSE) supporting the mission also were required for Shuttle or Atlas V operations at LC 40/41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle. Ground command, control, and communication (GC3) hardware was incorporated into the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP). The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of 600-foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle

  5. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    Elliott, Kevin C., E-mail: ke@sc.edu [University of South Carolina, Department of Philosophy, USC NanoCenter (United States); Volz, David C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345-1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  6. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345–1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  7. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345-1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  8. Failure analysis based on microvoid growth for sheet metal during uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests

    Abbassi, Fethi; Mistou, Sebastien; Zghal, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cruciform specimen designed and biaxial tensile test carried out. ► Stereo Correlation Image technique is used for 3D full-filed measurements. ► SEM fractography analysis is used to explain the fracture mechanism. ► Constitutive modeling of the necking phenomenon was developed using GTN model. - Abstract: The aim of the presented investigations is to perform an analysis of fracture and instability during simple and complex load testing by addressing the influence of ductile damage evolution in necking processes. In this context, an improved experimental methodology was developed and successfully used to evaluate localization of deformation during uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests. The biaxial tensile tests are carried out using cruciform specimen loaded using a biaxial testing machine. In this experimental investigation, Stereo-Image Correlation technique has is used to produce the heterogeneous deformations map within the specimen surface. Scanning electron microscope is used to evaluate the fracture mechanism and the micro-voids growth. A finite element model of uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests are developed, where a ductile damage model Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) is used to describe material deformation involving damage evolution. Comparison between the experimental and the simulation results show the accuracy of the finite element model to predict the instability phenomenon. The advanced measurement techniques contribute to understand better the ductile fracture mechanism

  9. Numerical Analysis Of The Resistance To Pullout Test Of Clinched Assemblies Of Thin Metal Sheets

    Jomaa, Moez; Billardon, Rene

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the finite element analysis of the resistance of a clinch point to pullout test -that follows the numerical analysis of the forming process of the point-. The simulations have been validated by comparison with experimental evidences. The influence on the numerical predictions of various computation and process parameters have been evaluated

  10. Friction stir welding of AA6082-T6 sheets: Numerical analysis and experimental tests

    Buffa, G.; Fratini, L.

    2004-01-01

    3D numerical simulation of the Friction Stir Welding process is developed with the aim to highlight the process mechanics in terms of metal flux and temperature, strain and strain rate distributions. The numerical results have been validated though a set of experimental tests

  11. An evaluation of the pressure proof test concept for 2024-T3 aluminium alloy sheet

    Dawicke, D. S.; Poe, C. C., Jr.; Newman, J. C.; Harris, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of pressure proof testing of fuselage structures with fatigue cracks to insure structural integrity was evaluated from a fracture mechanics viewpoint. A generic analytical and experimental investigation was conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with crack configurations and stress levels typical of longitudinal lap splice joints in commercial transport aircraft fuselages. The results revealed that the remaining fatigue life after a proof cycle was longer than that without the proof cycle because of crack growth retardation due to increased crack closure. However, based on a crack length that is slightly less than the critical value at the maximum proof stress, the minimum assured life or proof test interval must be no more than 550 pressure cycles for a 1.33 proof factor and 1530 pressure cycles for a 1.5 proof factor to prevent in-flight failures.

  12. Development and Testing of Tailored Tool Surfaces for Sheet Metal Forming

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin

    MPa. The above mentioned simple experimental procedure for determining lubricant bulk modulus gives a first rough estimate, and it is supplemented by a more advanced laboratory test based on a newly designed equipment. The lubricant compressibility experiment with a direct pressure measurement inside...... to achieve this purpose. A simple laboratory test consisting of upsetting a specially designed metal cylinder with a lubricant reservoir together with elasto-plastic, numerical modelling of the metal cylinder is carried out in order to determine the bulk modulus at low pressure regimes of approximately 100...... for the manufacturing. The SRT tools were manufactured with longitudinal, shallow pocket geometries oriented perpendicular to the sliding direction. The pockets have small angles to the workpiece surface and varying distance. The experiments show an optimum distance between the pockets to exist that creates a table...

  13. Using Selective Redundancy and Testing to Optimize Learning from Multimedia Lessons

    Yue, Carole Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia learning refers to learning from a combination of words and images. In the present dissertation, a multimedia lesson is defined as an animated, narrated educational video that depicts a scientific process--a format of instructional material becoming increasingly common in online, hybrid, and traditional classrooms. The overarching goal of the present research was to investigate how to optimize learning from multimedia lessons using two related theories of multimedia learning (the...

  14. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  15. Systematic study of polycrystalline flow during tension test of sheet 304 austenitic stainless steel at room temperature

    Muñoz-Andrade, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    By systematic study the mapping of polycrystalline flow of sheet 304 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) during tension test at constant crosshead velocity at room temperature was obtained. The main results establish that the trajectory of crystals in the polycrystalline spatially extended system (PCSES), during irreversible deformation process obey a hyperbolic motion. Where, the ratio between the expansion velocity of the field and the velocity of the field source is not constant and the field lines of such trajectory of crystals become curved, this accelerated motion is called a hyperbolic motion. Such behavior is assisted by dislocations dynamics and self-accommodation process between crystals in the PCSES. Furthermore, by applying the quantum mechanics and relativistic model proposed by Muñoz-Andrade, the activation energy for polycrystalline flow during the tension test of 304 ASS was calculated for each instant in a global form. In conclusion was established that the mapping of the polycrystalline flow is fundamental to describe in an integral way the phenomenology and mechanics of irreversible deformation processes

  16. Systematic study of polycrystalline flow during tension test of sheet 304 austenitic stainless steel at room temperature

    Muñoz-Andrade, Juan D., E-mail: jdma@correo.azc.uam.mx [Departamento de Materiales, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Colonia Reynosa Tamaulipas, C.P. 02200, México Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2013-12-16

    By systematic study the mapping of polycrystalline flow of sheet 304 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) during tension test at constant crosshead velocity at room temperature was obtained. The main results establish that the trajectory of crystals in the polycrystalline spatially extended system (PCSES), during irreversible deformation process obey a hyperbolic motion. Where, the ratio between the expansion velocity of the field and the velocity of the field source is not constant and the field lines of such trajectory of crystals become curved, this accelerated motion is called a hyperbolic motion. Such behavior is assisted by dislocations dynamics and self-accommodation process between crystals in the PCSES. Furthermore, by applying the quantum mechanics and relativistic model proposed by Muñoz-Andrade, the activation energy for polycrystalline flow during the tension test of 304 ASS was calculated for each instant in a global form. In conclusion was established that the mapping of the polycrystalline flow is fundamental to describe in an integral way the phenomenology and mechanics of irreversible deformation processes.

  17. ACER Mathematics Profile Series: Number Test. (Test Booklet, Answer and Record Sheet, Score Key, and Teachers Handbook).

    Cornish, Greg; Wines, Robin

    The Number Test of the ACER Mathematics Profile Series, contains 30 items, for each of three suggested grade levels: 7-8, 8-9, and 9-10. Raw scores on all tests in the ACER Mathematics Profile Series (Number, Operations, Space and Measurement) are converted to a common scale called MAPS, a major feature of the Series. Based on the Rasch Model,…

  18. Lessons Learned (3 Years of H2O2 Propulsion System Testing Efforts at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center)

    Taylor, Gary O.

    2001-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center continues to support the Propulsion community in an effort to validate High-Test Peroxide as an alternative to existing/future oxidizers. This continued volume of peroxide test/handling activity at Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides numerous opportunities for the SSC team to build upon previously documented 'lessons learned'. SSC shall continue to strive to document their experience and findings as H2O2 issues surface. This paper is intended to capture all significant peroxide issues that we have learned over the last three years. This data (lessons learned) has been formulated from practical handling, usage, storage, operations, and initial development/design of our systems/facility viewpoint. The paper is intended to be an information type tool and limited in technical rational; therefore, presenting the peroxide community with some issues to think about as the continued interest in peroxide evolves and more facilities/hardware are built. These lessons learned are intended to assist industry in mitigating problems and identifying potential pitfalls when dealing with the requirements for handling high-test peroxide.

  19. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong; Wang, Shafei

    2015-01-01

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation

  20. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Shafei [North Electronic Device Research Institution, P.O. Box 947, Beijing 100141 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation.

  1. Improving Climate Literacy Using The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM): A Prototype Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory For Use In K-12 Classrooms

    Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.; Perez, G.; Petrie, K.; Nguyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Statistics indicate that most Americans learn what they will know about science within the confines of our public K-12 education system and the media. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aim to remedy science illiteracy and provide guidelines to exceed the Common Core State Standards that most U.S. state governments have adopted, by integrating disciplinary cores with crosscutting ideas and real life practices. In this vein, we present a prototype ';Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory' (I-Lab), geared to K-12 students, educators and interested members of the general public. I-Lab will allow users to perform experiments using a state-of-the-art dynamical ice sheet model and provide detailed downloadable lesson plans, which incorporate this model and are consistent with NGSS Physical Science criteria for different grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). The ultimate goal of this website is to improve public climate science literacy, especially in regards to the crucial role of the polar ice sheets in Earth's climate and sea level. The model used will be the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), an ice flow model developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, that simulates the near-term evolution of polar ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and includes high spatial resolution capabilities and data assimilation to produce realistic simulations of ice sheet dynamics at the continental scale. Open sourced since 2011, ISSM is used in cutting edge cryosphere research around the globe. Thru I-Lab, students will be able to access ISSM using a simple, online graphical interface that can be launched from a web browser on a computer, tablet or smart phone. The interface will allow users to select different climate conditions and watch how the polar ice sheets evolve in time under those conditions. Lesson contents will include links to background material and activities that teach observation recording, concept articulation, hypothesis formulation and testing, and

  2. Errata Sheet for Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Errata Sheet--The survey map referenced on Page F-10 is a draft. This errata sheet replaces the map with a final version. All recipients of this errata sheet shall replace Page F-10 with the attached map

  3. NTPR Fact Sheets

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  4. Lessons learned from the fire test of Westinghouse's new type AF package, the traveller: (nothing like the real thing)

    Malloy, J.; Hempy, B.; Utlak, R.; Kent, N.

    2004-01-01

    Satisfying the thermal test requirements is a significant part of licensing a Type AF package. Regulations allow the thermal test requirements to be satisfied by several means including thermal analysis, thermal test inside a furnace, pool fire test, test using a scale model of the package, test using a segment or portion of a package, or test using a full-scale package. It was decided that a pool fire test using a full-scale package was the only way to adequately test the many features of the Traveller. Items crucial to criticality safety are more subject to damage during the thermal test. The Traveller design includes a substantial amount of neutron moderating material built into the packaging. This is so that criticality safety would not be dependent on moderation by HAC immersion. A full-scale fire test proved to be the only method to verify that the moderator survives. The Traveller also features a unique impact limiter system inside the packaging that is designed to lessen the impact of the contents in an end drop. It was determined that the full-scale fire test would be the only way to verify that the limiters would not ignite and burn inside the package. Actual pool fire temperatures are more severe than the 800 C minimum required in the regulations. Also it is impossible to model distortions and stresses caused by an actual fire, and these have a significant impact on any thermal analysis. This paper describes the many exploratory and scoping tests that preceded the final fire tes t. The lessons learned, though perhaps not new to those regularly employed in the fire testing profession, proved to be valuable to the licensee in completing the Traveller design

  5. You plan, you test and then it happens: Lessons learned from the Schneider warehouse tornado recovery.

    Marotz, William T

    2017-12-01

    This paper is about the experience gained and lessons learned while dealing with the long-term recovery of Schneider's Port Logistics Division following extensive damage to three warehouse/ office facilities in Savannah, GA on 25th April, 2015. This paper will provide insight into how the initial assessments were handled, how the skill sets needed by the response teams were determined, and what further actions were triggered as more detailed information was received and assessed by the leadership team. This paper will also provide information as to how closely the company followed its existing contingency and disaster recovery plans, as well as where those plans fell short and where it was necessary to make adjustments as the recovery progressed.

  6. Lessons Learned from the Construction of Upgrades to the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel and Re-activation Testing

    Sheldon, David W.; Andracchio, Charles R.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Spera, David A.; Austinson, Todd A.

    2001-01-01

    Major upgrades were made in 1999 to the 6- by 9-Foot (1.8- by 2.7-m) Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. These included replacement of the electronic controls for the variable-speed drive motor, replacement of the heat exchanger, complete replacement and enlargement of the leg of the tunnel containing the new heat-exchanger, the addition of flow-expanding and flow-contracting turning vanes upstream and downstream of the heat exchanger, respectively, and the addition of fan outlet guide vanes (OGV's). This paper presents an overview of the construction and reactivation testing phases of the project. Important lessons learned during the technical and contract management work are documented.

  7. Lessons learned from use of social network strategy in HIV testing programs targeting African American men who have sex with men.

    McCree, Donna H; Millett, Gregorio; Baytop, Chanza; Royal, Scott; Ellen, Jonathan; Halkitis, Perry N; Kupprat, Sandra A; Gillen, Sara

    2013-10-01

    We report lessons derived from implementation of the Social Network Strategy (SNS) into existing HIV counseling, testing, and referral services targeting 18- to 64-year-old Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). The SNS procedures used in this study were adapted from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded, 2-year demonstration project involving 9 community-based organizations (CBOs) in 7 cities. Under the SNS, HIV-positive and HIV-negative men at high risk for HIV (recruiters) were enlisted to identify and recruit persons from their social, sexual, or drug-using networks (network associates) for HIV testing. Sites maintained records of modified study protocols for ascertaining lessons learned. The study was conducted between April 2008 and May 2010 at CBOs in Washington, DC, and New York, New York, and at a health department in Baltimore, Maryland. Several common lessons regarding development of the plan, staffing, training, and use of incentives were identified across the sites. Collectively, these lessons indicate use of SNS is resource-intensive, requiring a detailed plan, dedicated staff, and continual input from clients and staff for successful implementation. SNS may provide a strategy for identifying and targeting clusters of high-risk Black MSM for HIV testing. Given the resources needed to implement the strategy, additional studies using an experimental design are needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of SNS compared with other testing strategies.

  8. Scaling up HIV viral load - lessons from the large-scale implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and CD4 testing.

    Peter, Trevor; Zeh, Clement; Katz, Zachary; Elbireer, Ali; Alemayehu, Bereket; Vojnov, Lara; Costa, Alex; Doi, Naoko; Jani, Ilesh

    2017-11-01

    The scale-up of effective HIV viral load (VL) testing is an urgent public health priority. Implementation of testing is supported by the availability of accurate, nucleic acid based laboratory and point-of-care (POC) VL technologies and strong WHO guidance recommending routine testing to identify treatment failure. However, test implementation faces challenges related to the developing health systems in many low-resource countries. The purpose of this commentary is to review the challenges and solutions from the large-scale implementation of other diagnostic tests, namely nucleic-acid based early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) and CD4 testing, and identify key lessons to inform the scale-up of VL. Experience with EID and CD4 testing provides many key lessons to inform VL implementation and may enable more effective and rapid scale-up. The primary lessons from earlier implementation efforts are to strengthen linkage to clinical care after testing, and to improve the efficiency of testing. Opportunities to improve linkage include data systems to support the follow-up of patients through the cascade of care and test delivery, rapid sample referral networks, and POC tests. Opportunities to increase testing efficiency include improvements to procurement and supply chain practices, well connected tiered laboratory networks with rational deployment of test capacity across different levels of health services, routine resource mapping and mobilization to ensure adequate resources for testing programs, and improved operational and quality management of testing services. If applied to VL testing programs, these approaches could help improve the impact of VL on ART failure management and patient outcomes, reduce overall costs and help ensure the sustainable access to reduced pricing for test commodities, as well as improve supportive health systems such as efficient, and more rigorous quality assurance. These lessons draw from traditional laboratory practices as well as fields

  9. Experimental formability analysis of bondal sandwich sheet

    Kami, Abdolvahed; Banabic, Dorel

    2018-05-01

    Metal/polymer/metal sandwich sheets have recently attracted the interests of industries like automotive industry. These sandwich sheets have superior properties over single-layer metallic sheets including good sound and vibration damping and light weight. However, the formability of these sandwich sheets should be enhanced which requires more research. In this paper, the formability of Bondal sheet (DC06/viscoelastic polymer/DC06 sandwich sheet) was studied through different types of experiments. The mechanical properties of Bondal were determined by uniaxial tensile tests. Hemispherical punch stretching and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out to determine the forming limit diagram (FLD) of Bondal. Furthermore, cylindrical and square cup drawing tests were performed in dry and oil lubricated conditions. These tests were conducted at different blank holding forces (BHFs). An interesting observation about Bondal sheet deep drawing was obtaining of higher drawing depths at dry condition in comparison with oil-lubricated condition.

  10. Testing of the assisting software for radiologists analysing head CT images: lessons learned.

    Martynov, Petr; Mitropolskii, Nikolai; Kukkola, Katri; Gretsch, Monika; Koivisto, Vesa-Matti; Lindgren, Ilkka; Saunavaara, Jani; Reponen, Jarmo; Mäkynen, Anssi

    2017-12-11

    Assessing a plan for user testing and evaluation of the assisting software developed for radiologists. Test plan was assessed in experimental testing, where users performed reporting on head computed tomography studies with the aid of the software developed. The user testing included usability tests, questionnaires, and interviews. In addition, search relevance was assessed on the basis of user opinions. The testing demonstrated weaknesses in the initial plan and enabled improvements. Results showed that the software has acceptable usability level but some minor fixes are needed before larger-scale pilot testing. The research also proved that it is possible even for radiologists with under a year's experience to perform reporting of non-obvious cases when assisted by the software developed. Due to the small number of test users, it was impossible to assess effects on diagnosis quality. The results of the tests performed showed that the test plan designed is useful, and answers to the key research questions should be forthcoming after testing with more radiologists. The preliminary testing revealed opportunities to improve test plan and flow, thereby illustrating that arranging preliminary test sessions prior to any complex scenarios is beneficial.

  11. Axial Fatigue Tests at Zero Mean Stress of 24S-T Aluminum-alloy Sheet with and Without a Circular Hole

    Brueggeman, W C; Mayer, M JR; Smith, W H

    1944-01-01

    Axial fatigue tests were made on 189 coupon specimens of 0.032-inch 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet and a few supplementary specimens of 0.004-inch sheet. The mean load was zero. The specimens were restrained against lateral buckling by lubricated solid guides described in a previous report on this project. About two-thirds of the 0.032-inch specimens were plain coupons nominally free from stress raisers. The remainder contained a 0.1285-inch drilled hole at the center where the reduced section was 0.5 inch wide. S-N diagrams were obtained for cycles to failure between about 1000 and 10 to the 7th power cycles for the plain specimens and 17 and 10 to the 7th power cycles for the drilled specimens. The fatigue stress concentration factor increased from about 1.08 for a stress amplitude causing failure at 0.25 cycles (static) to a maximum of 1.83 at 15,000 cycles and then decreased gradually. The graph for the drilled specimens showed less scatter than that for the plain specimens.

  12. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  13. Experiences with a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists: lessons learnt

    Timmers, J. M. H.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; Pijnappel, R. M.; Broeders, M. J. M.; den Heeten, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists introduced as part of the national quality assurance programme. A total of 144 radiologists were invited to complete a test-set of 60 screening mammograms (20 malignancies). Participants assigned findings such as location, lesion type

  14. GASN sheets

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  15. Lessons learned from implementation of a computerized application for pending tests at hospital discharge.

    Dalal, Anuj K; Poon, Eric G; Karson, Andrew S; Gandhi, Tejal K; Roy, Christopher L

    2011-01-01

    Patients are often discharged from the hospital before test results are finalized. Awareness of these results is poor and therefore an important patient safety concern. Few computerized systems have been deployed at care transitions to address this problem. We describe an attempt to implement a computerized application to help inpatient physicians manage these test results. We modified an ambulatory electronic medical record (EMR)-based results management application to track pending tests at hospital discharge (Hospitalist Results Manager, HRM). We trained inpatient physicians at 2 academic medical centers to track these tests using this application. We surveyed inpatient physicians regarding usage of and satisfaction with the application, barriers to use, and the characteristics of an ideal system to track pending tests at discharge. Of 29 survey respondents, 14 (48%) reported never using HRM, and 13 (45%) used it 1 to 2 times per week. A total of 23 (79%) reported barriers prohibiting use, including being inundated with clinically "irrelevant" results, not having sufficient time, and a lack of integration of post-discharge test result management into usual workflow. Twenty-one (72%) wanted to receive notification of abnormal and clinician-designated pending test results. Twenty-seven physicians (93%) agreed that an ideally designed computerized application would be valuable for managing pending tests at discharge. Although inpatient physicians would highly value a computerized application to manage pending tests at discharge, the characteristics of an ideal system are unclear and there are important barriers prohibiting adoption and optimal usage of such systems. We outline suggestions for future electronic systems to manage pending tests at discharge. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lessons learned in preparing method 29 filters for compliance testing audits.

    Martz, R F; McCartney, J E; Bursey, J T; Riley, C E

    2000-01-01

    Companies conducting compliance testing are required to analyze audit samples at the time they collect and analyze the stack samples if audit samples are available. Eastern Research Group (ERG) provides technical support to the EPA's Emission Measurements Center's Stationary Source Audit Program (SSAP) for developing, preparing, and distributing performance evaluation samples and audit materials. These audit samples are requested via the regulatory Agency and include spiked audit materials for EPA Method 29-Metals Emissions from Stationary Sources, as well as other methods. To provide appropriate audit materials to federal, state, tribal, and local governments, as well as agencies performing environmental activities and conducting emission compliance tests, ERG has recently performed testing of blank filter materials and preparation of spiked filters for EPA Method 29. For sampling stationary sources using an EPA Method 29 sampling train, the use of filters without organic binders containing less than 1.3 microg/in.2 of each of the metals to be measured is required. Risk Assessment testing imposes even stricter requirements for clean filter background levels. Three vendor sources of quartz fiber filters were evaluated for background contamination to ensure that audit samples would be prepared using filters with the lowest metal background levels. A procedure was developed to test new filters, and a cleaning procedure was evaluated to see if a greater level of cleanliness could be achieved using an acid rinse with new filters. Background levels for filters supplied by different vendors and within lots of filters from the same vendor showed a wide variation, confirmed through contact with several analytical laboratories that frequently perform EPA Method 29 analyses. It has been necessary to repeat more than one compliance test because of suspect metals background contamination levels. An acid cleaning step produced improvement in contamination level, but the

  18. The effectiveness of Concept Mapping Content Representation Lesson Study (ComCoReLS) model to improve skills of Creating Physics Lesson Plan (CPLP) for pre-service physics teacher

    Purwaningsih, E.; Suyatno; Wasis; Prahani, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to analyse the effectiveness of ComCoReLS (Concept Mapping Content Representation Lesson Study) model towards the improvement skills of Creating Physics Lesson Plan (CPLP) for pre-service physics teacher. This research used one group pre-test and post-test design on 12 pre-service physics teacher at University of Malang State (Indonesia) in academic year 2016/2017. Data collection was conducted through test and interview. Skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher measurement were conducted through Physics Lesson Plan Evaluation Sheet (PLPES). The data analysis technique was done by using paired t-test and n-gain. The CoMCoReLS model consists of 5 phases, including (1) Preparation, (2) Coaching, (3) Guided Practice, (4) Independent Practice, and (5) Evaluation. In the first, second, third and fifth phases are done at University of Malang State, while the fourth phase (Independent Practice) is done in SMAN 1 Singosari, SMAN 2 Malang, SMA Lab UM, MAN 3 Malang. The results showed that there was a significant increase in skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher at α = 5% and n-gain average of high category. Thus, the ComCoReLS model is effective for improving skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher.

  19. Lessons learned from nanoscale specimens tested by MEMS-based apparatus

    Elhebeary, Mohamed; Saif, M. Taher A.

    2017-06-01

    The last two decades were marked by the innovative synthesis of nanomaterials and devices. The success of these devices hinges on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials and an understanding of their deformation and failure mechanisms. Many novel testing techniques have been developed to test materials at small scale. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) apparatus developed to characterize materials at nanoscale, and the key insights gained on structure-property relations of materials through these characterizations. Finally, new applications of MEMS in testing living materials, such as tissues and cells, for disease diagnosis and prognosis are discussed.

  20. Lessons learned from nanoscale specimens tested by MEMS-based apparatus

    Elhebeary, Mohamed; Saif, M Taher A

    2017-01-01

    The last two decades were marked by the innovative synthesis of nanomaterials and devices. The success of these devices hinges on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials and an understanding of their deformation and failure mechanisms. Many novel testing techniques have been developed to test materials at small scale. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) apparatus developed to characterize materials at nanoscale, and the key insights gained on structure-property relations of materials through these characterizations. Finally, new applications of MEMS in testing living materials, such as tissues and cells, for disease diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (topical review)

  1. Observaciones morfohistológicas del testículo y espermatozoides de Microlophus peruvianus (Lesson, 1826 (Sauria:Tropiduridae

    Cesar Ramírez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo proporciona información morfohistológica de los testículos y espermatozoides de 5 individuos de la lagartija peruana Microlophus peruvianus (Lesson, 1826, procedentes de Huaral, Lima (11º 26´S; 77º24´W; colectados durante el mes de setiembre de 2005. El trabajo de campo se combinó con el análisis de laboratorio de las gónadas. La longitud promedio hocico-cloaca fue de 91,3mm ± 13,655, encontrándose todos los individuos con gran actividad meiótica en la línea espermatogénica con un grosor del epitelio germinativo de 126,33 mμ ± 0,092, lo que sugiere que el mes de colecta estaría dentro de su ciclo activo de reproducción. La línea espermatogénica presenta los tipos celulares típicos de la espermatogénesis: espermatogonias (3,544 mμ ± 0,4513, espermatocitos primarios (4,864 mμ ± 0,5292, espermátides (2,85 mμ ± 0,4071; no se encontraron espermatocitos secundarios. La morfología y biometría del espermatozoide de M. peruvianus propone su importancia como valor taxonómico.

  2. Innovative accountability of tracking test kit as locked resources: a lesson in a restricted resource setting.

    Makuwani, Ahmad M; Msuya, Sia; Haule, Dunstan; Mogella, Deus; Nkya, Efesper

    2013-09-01

    To implement quality screening in a blood service requires the presence of screening strategy with a clear algorithm and supporting standard operating procedures (SOPs), skilled and motivated human resource to perform testing, infrastructure, regular available test kits, and other supplies. In developing countries, smooth supply chain management of critical transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) screening reagents is a challenge. Therefore, managing the little available kits by knowing the rate of consumption, good forecasting, and monitoring expiry date may be a key in ensuring regular supply. Test kit monitoring tool (TKMT) for Vironostika HIV Uni-Form kit/192 1&2 Ag/Ab, Genedia kits for HBsAg and HCV, and RPR for syphilis was developed to track these reagents. This excel tool was developed to assess received reagents, quantity used, quantity remaining, and date of expiration. The tool was evaluated by assessing rerun for each test kits, match tests conducted with blood units tested, adherence to the principle of first in-first out (FIFO), and quantity remaining in the center against the need. The mean rerun for HIV ELISA Vironistika uniform II Ag/Ab observed over expected was 6.9% (n = 3.8) than 2.4% (n = 1.3), HBsAg was 9.9% (n = 5.7) than 6.7% (3.5) (expected), Genedia for HCV was 1.3% (n = 0.7) than 0.5% (n = 0.3), and RPR test for syphilis 3.3% (n = 1.5) than 0.5%. During implementation, TKMT managed to detect expiring kits in the zonal blood transfusion centers. A tool-like TKMT may capture other supplies within blood when expanded. Monitoring of supplies may enable blood service actual accounting and in forecasting supplies and reagents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Technetium Retention In WTP Law Glass With Recycle Flow-Sheet DM10 Melter Testing VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    Abramowitz, Howard; Callow, Richard A.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-01-01

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the 99m Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the 99m Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P and ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives

  4. TECHNETIUM RETENTION IN WTP LAW GLASS WITH RECYCLE FLOW-SHEET DM10 MELTER TESTING VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    Abramowitz, Howard [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Brandys, Marek [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Cecil, Richard [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; D& #x27; Angelo, Nicholas [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Matlack, Keith S. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Muller, Isabelle S. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Pegg, Ian L. [Energy Solutions, Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Callow, Richard A. [Energy Solutions, Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-11

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the {sup 99m}Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the {sup 99m}Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives.

  5. Towards General Evaluation of Intelligent Systems: Lessons Learned from Reproducing AIQ Test Results

    Vadinský, Ondřej

    2018-03-01

    This paper attempts to replicate the results of evaluating several artificial agents using the Algorithmic Intelligence Quotient test originally reported by Legg and Veness. Three experiments were conducted: One using default settings, one in which the action space was varied and one in which the observation space was varied. While the performance of freq, Q0, Qλ, and HLQλ corresponded well with the original results, the resulting values differed, when using MC-AIXI. Varying the observation space seems to have no qualitative impact on the results as reported, while (contrary to the original results) varying the action space seems to have some impact. An analysis of the impact of modifying parameters of MC-AIXI on its performance in the default settings was carried out with the help of data mining techniques used to identifying highly performing configurations. Overall, the Algorithmic Intelligence Quotient test seems to be reliable, however as a general artificial intelligence evaluation method it has several limits. The test is dependent on the chosen reference machine and also sensitive to changes to its settings. It brings out some differences among agents, however, since they are limited in size, the test setting may not yet be sufficiently complex. A demanding parameter sweep is needed to thoroughly evaluate configurable agents that, together with the test format, further highlights computational requirements of an agent. These and other issues are discussed in the paper along with proposals suggesting how to alleviate them. An implementation of some of the proposals is also demonstrated.

  6. Social contract theory and just decision making: lessons from genetic testing for the BRCA mutations.

    Williams-Jones, Bryn; Burgess, Michael M

    2004-06-01

    Decisions about funding health services are crucial to controlling costs in health care insurance plans, yet they encounter serious challenges from intellectual property protection--e.g., patents--of health care services. Using Myriad Genetics' commercial genetic susceptibility test for hereditary breast cancer (BRCA testing) in the context of the Canadian health insurance system as a case study, this paper applies concepts from social contract theory to help develop more just and rational approaches to health care decision making. Specifically, Daniel's and Sabin's "accountability for reasonableness" is compared to broader notions of public consultation, demonstrating that expert assessments in specific decisions must be transparent and accountable and supplemented by public consultation.

  7. Test Scores, Class Rank and College Performance: Lessons for Broadening Access and Promoting Success.

    Niu, Sunny X; Tienda, Marta

    2012-04-01

    Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success-high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe.

  8. LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design - lessons learned from testing at Fermilab

    Kaluzny, J.; Hurd, J.; Orlov, Y.; He, Y.; Bossert, R.; Grimm, C.; Schappert, W.; Atassi, O. Al; Wang, R.; Arkan, T.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; White, M.; Wu, G.; Makara, J.; Ginsburg, C.; Pei, L.; Holzbauer, J.; Hansen, B.; Stanek, R.; Peterson, T.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    Fermilab’s 1.3 GHz prototype cryomodule for the Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade (LCLS-II) has been tested at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Aspects of the cryomodule design have been studied and tested. The cooldown circuit was used to quickly cool the cavities through the transition temperature, and a heater on the circuit was used to heat incoming helium for warmup. Due to the 0.5% slope of the cryomodule, the liquid level is not constant along the length of the cryomodule. This slope as well as the pressure profile caused liquid level management to be a challenge. The microphonics levels in the cryomodule were studied and efforts were made to reduce them throughout testing. Some of the design approaches and studies performed on these aspects will be presented. Fermilab is operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. De-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy. This work was supported, in part, by the LCLS-II Project.

  9. Competency Testing for Pediatric Cardiology Fellows Learning Transthoracic Echocardiography: Implementation, Fellow Experience, and Lessons Learned.

    Levine, Jami C; Geva, Tal; Brown, David W

    2015-12-01

    There is currently great interest in measuring trainee competency at all levels of medical education. In 2007, we implemented a system for assessing cardiology fellows' progress in attaining imaging skills. This paradigm could be adapted for use by other cardiology programs. Evaluation consisted of a two-part exercise performed after years 1 and 2 of pediatric cardiology training. Part 1: a directly observed evaluation of technical skills as fellows imaged a normal subject (year 1) and a patient with complex heart disease (year 2). Part 2: fellows interpreted and wrote reports for two echocardiograms illustrating congenital heart disease. These were graded for accuracy and facility with communicating pertinent data. After 5 years of testing, fellows were surveyed about their experience. In 5 years, 40 fellows were tested at least once. Testing identified four fellows who underperformed on the technical portion and four on the interpretive portion. Surveys were completed by 33 fellows (83 %). Most (67 %) felt that intermittent observation by faculty was inadequate for assessing skills and that procedural volume was a poor surrogate for competency (58 %). Posttest feedback was constructive and valuable for 90, and 70 % felt the process helped them set goals for skill improvement. Overall, fellows felt this testing was fair and should continue. Fellow performance and responses identified programmatic issues that were creating barriers to learning. We describe a practical test to assess competency for cardiology fellows learning echocardiography. This paradigm is feasible, has excellent acceptance among trainees, and identifies trainees who need support. Materials developed could be easily adapted to help track upcoming ACGME-mandated metrics.

  10. Usability Testing of a Complex Clinical Decision Support Tool in the Emergency Department: Lessons Learned.

    Press, Anne; McCullagh, Lauren; Khan, Sundas; Schachter, Andy; Pardo, Salvatore; McGinn, Thomas

    2015-09-10

    As the electronic health record (EHR) becomes the preferred documentation tool across medical practices, health care organizations are pushing for clinical decision support systems (CDSS) to help bring clinical decision support (CDS) tools to the forefront of patient-physician interactions. A CDSS is integrated into the EHR and allows physicians to easily utilize CDS tools. However, often CDSS are integrated into the EHR without an initial phase of usability testing, resulting in poor adoption rates. Usability testing is important because it evaluates a CDSS by testing it on actual users. This paper outlines the usability phase of a study, which will test the impact of integration of the Wells CDSS for pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis into a large urban emergency department, where workflow is often chaotic and high stakes decisions are frequently made. We hypothesize that conducting usability testing prior to integration of the Wells score into an emergency room EHR will result in increased adoption rates by physicians. The objective of the study was to conduct usability testing for the integration of the Wells clinical prediction rule into a tertiary care center's emergency department EHR. We conducted usability testing of a CDS tool in the emergency department EHR. The CDS tool consisted of the Wells rule for PE in the form of a calculator and was triggered off computed tomography (CT) orders or patients' chief complaint. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Queens, New York. There were seven residents that were recruited and participated in two phases of usability testing. The usability testing employed a "think aloud" method and "near-live" clinical simulation, where care providers interacted with standardized patients enacting a clinical scenario. Both phases were audiotaped, video-taped, and had screen-capture software activated for onscreen recordings. Phase I: Data from the "think-aloud" phase of the study showed an overall positive outlook on

  11. Lesson learned from the application to LOBI tests of CATHARE and RELAP5 codes

    Ambrosini, W.; D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari has participated to the LOBI project since its very beginning, contributing to almost all the international activities in this field, such as task group meetings, International Standards Problems, Seminars, etc. System codes like RELAP4/MOD6, RELAP5/MOD1, RELAP5/MOD1-EUR, RELAP5/MOD2, CATHARE 1 and CATHARE 2 were applied to the design and post test evaluation of a wide series of both LOBI/MOD1 and LOBI/MOD2 experiments, including Large Break LOCAs, Small and Intermediate Break LOCAs, long lasting transients and characterization tests. The LOBI data base demonstrated its usefulness in assessing capabilities and limitations of these codes and in qualifying a code use strategy. (author)

  12. Initial Start-Up and Testing of the Fort St. Vrain HTGR – Lessons Learned which May Be Useful for the HTR-PM

    Brey, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Although the activities presented in this paper occurred 40 years ago, there are many observations and lessons associated with Fort St. Vrain (FSV) which may be beneficial in support of the start-up, testing and licensing of the HTR-PM. This report includes a review of the FSV NPP design including an overview of the requirements and testing program utilized to bring the plant from initial start-up to full power. A sampling of the test results as well as a comparison of the plant design characteristics to actual values achieved at 100% power along with selected overall experiences gained through operation of this plant is also included. (author)

  13. Issue of Changes in Adhesion of Bitumen Sheet to Primary Layer over the Course of Time in Multilayer Waterproofing during Shear Testing

    Plachý, Jan; Vysoká, Jana; Vejmelka, Radek; Horský, Jan; Vacek, Vítězslav

    2017-10-01

    This paper is based on research dealing with defects that appear on concrete bridge decks with an insulating layer from asphalt strips on the interface between the asphalt strip and its basis. The durability and lifespan of the bearing structure of concrete bridge is determined by insulating layer that constitutes, together with the primary layer and a protective layer, the insulation system of the concrete bridge deck. Paints based on low viscosity epoxy resigns are one of the possibilities of primary layer implementation. These paints may be performed as anchoring-impregnation paints that usually represent single layer paint on the bridge deck surface. Sealing layer is another variant. Sealing layer is a multilayer consisting of anchoring- impregnation paint and sealing paint. The primary layers mainly provide vapour closing of the concrete surface, and partly, through roughening the surface, contribute to adhesion of bitumen (asphalt) insulation (waterproofing) layer. Application of the primary layer has been spreading in the Czech Republic since the 1990s. Now, after approximately 30 years of use defects in these epoxy based sealing layers at the interface between primary layer and waterproofing layer of reinforced bitumen sheets (RBS) are being solved in the Czech Republic. After performance of the first test focusing on breaking-strength, it was found that the strength between the asphalt and the primary belt layer in some types of low-viscosity resin-epoxy decreases and after a certain period of time again increases, depending on the time. Tensile strength test is carried out on a sample of asphalt strip, which is fused onto the substrate with a primer coat. It was therefore proceeded to test the shear adhesion. Testing of the shear adhesion is conducted on the entire concrete deck waterproofing system. It was supposed that the decrease of adhesion at this test become evident in higher extent. Adhesion tests in shear were performed on the primary layer

  14. Lessons learned from full-scale vibration tests on nuclear power plant auxiliary structure in Switzerland

    Berger, E.; Tinic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Beznau Nuclear Power Plant is located in northern Switzerland. The plant is owned and operated by the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) in Baden, Switzerland. It is a twin unit plant (2 x 350 MWe) which was designed in the early 1960's and placed into commercial operation between 1969 and 1971. In connection with a major backfit project, which will improve the safety of the plant against external events, the free-standing boric water tanks had to be relocated and were replaced by two boric water tanks in a new building (the so called BOTA-building). It enabled to plan and perform full scale vibration tests.The scope of experimental investigation was to determine the eigenfrequencies and damping values for fundamental soil-structure interaction. The vibration tests allowed identification of the important modes of the soil-structure system in the range 3 to 15 Hz. The excitation was strung enough to generate accelerations in the structure comparable to those of a small earthquake. From the comparisons of computed and measured results it is concluded that the rocking frequency can be reasonably well predicted by either Finite Element or Lumped Parameter models with springs simulating the soil-foundation stiffness, provided in the case of the latter the embedment is taken into account. The prediction of the amplitude of structural response appears to be more difficult, as shown by the differences in the mode shapes. In the frequency range 8 to 10 Hz the agreement between computed and test results was less satisfactory. The actual structural behaviour turned out to be more complex than expected and needs further investigation with the aid of more refined models for the soil-structure system

  15. Lessons learned from full-scale vibration tests on nuclear power plant auxiliary structure in Switzerland

    Berger, E [Basler and Hofmann AG, Consulting Engineers, Zurich (Switzerland); Tinic, S [Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    1988-07-01

    The Beznau Nuclear Power Plant is located in northern Switzerland. The plant is owned and operated by the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) in Baden, Switzerland. It is a twin unit plant (2 x 350 MWe) which was designed in the early 1960's and placed into commercial operation between 1969 and 1971. In connection with a major backfit project, which will improve the safety of the plant against external events, the free-standing boric water tanks had to be relocated and were replaced by two boric water tanks in a new building (the so called BOTA-building). It enabled to plan and perform full scale vibration tests.The scope of experimental investigation was to determine the eigenfrequencies and damping values for fundamental soil-structure interaction. The vibration tests allowed identification of the important modes of the soil-structure system in the range 3 to 15 Hz. The excitation was strung enough to generate accelerations in the structure comparable to those of a small earthquake. From the comparisons of computed and measured results it is concluded that the rocking frequency can be reasonably well predicted by either Finite Element or Lumped Parameter models with springs simulating the soil-foundation stiffness, provided in the case of the latter the embedment is taken into account. The prediction of the amplitude of structural response appears to be more difficult, as shown by the differences in the mode shapes. In the frequency range 8 to 10 Hz the agreement between computed and test results was less satisfactory. The actual structural behaviour turned out to be more complex than expected and needs further investigation with the aid of more refined models for the soil-structure system.

  16. Results and Lessons Learned from Performance Testing of Humans in Spacesuits in Simulated Reduced Gravity

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program has plans to return to the Moon within the next 10 years. Although reaching the Moon during the Apollo Program was a remarkable human engineering achievement, fewer than 20 extravehicular activities (EVAs) were performed. Current projections indicate that the next lunar exploration program will require thousands of EVAs, which will require spacesuits that are better optimized for human performance. Limited mobility and dexterity, and the position of the center of gravity (CG) are a few of many features of the Apollo suit that required significant crew compensation to accomplish the objectives. Development of a new EVA suit system will ideally result in performance close to or better than that in shirtsleeves at 1 G, i.e., in "a suit that is a pleasure to work in, one that you would want to go out and explore in on your day off." Unlike the Shuttle program, in which only a fraction of the crew perform EVA, the Constellation program will require that all crewmembers be able to perform EVA. As a result, suits must be built to accommodate and optimize performance for a larger range of crew anthropometry, strength, and endurance. To address these concerns, NASA has begun a series of tests to better understand the factors affecting human performance and how to utilize various lunar gravity simulation environments available for testing.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). This CR provides documentation and justification for the closure of CAU 124 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The SAFER Plan provides information relating to site history as well as the scope and planning of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CR.

  18. Lessons from five years of vegetation monitoring on the Nevada Test Site

    Hunter, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 the US Department of Energy funded a formal, extensive monitoring program for the flora and fauna on the Nevada Test Site. The goal was to understand and record changes with time In the distribution and abundance of the plants and animals. The need to detect changes, rather than do a one-time characterization, required careful selection of parameters and the use of permanent plots to distinguish spatial from temporal variability. Repeated measurements of the same plots revealed errors and imprecision which required changes in training and data collection techniques. Interpretation of trends after several years suggested it will be important to monitor not only changes, but causes of change, such as soil moisture and herbivory. Finally, the requirement for records to be available over long periods of time poses problems of archiving and publication. This report consists of viewgraphs presenting the findings of the study

  19. Laser welding of aluminum alloy sheet test%铝合金薄板激光焊接试验

    王中林; 杨晟; 石金发

    2011-01-01

    The purpse of Technology testing is to find a relatively economical and practical method of laser welding of aluminum alloy for the modem industrial assembly technology to provide new ideas to promote productivity improvement and cost reduction. Analyzed the characteristics of aluminum alloy laser welding technology, technical difficulties and Solutions, recording using 300W single - beam laser welding of aluminum alloy with the relevant parameters and tile welding effect, to build dual - beam laser welding test platform for high - power dual - beam and record the total about 500W into two beams of laser welding and related parameters during the test. By laser and argon arc welding test mixture. On the part of the welded samples were quantitatively analyzed. After analysis, made of aluminum alloy laser welding technology improvements.%工艺试验的目的是寻求相对经济实用的铝合金激光焊接方法,为现代工业装配生产提供新的工艺思路,促进生产效率的提升和成本的降低。分析了铝合金激光焊接的工艺特性、技术难点和解决思路,记录利用300W激光对铝合金进行单光束焊接的有关参数和焊接效果,搭建双光束激光焊接试验平台,记录较高功率双光束和总量约500W激光分成双光束焊接试验过程及有关参数。进行了激光、氩弧混合焊接试验。对部分焊接样品进行了定量分析。经过分析研究,提出了铝合金激光焊接工艺改进意见。

  20. Lessons learned from testing the quality cost model of Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) transitional care.

    Brooten, Dorothy; Naylor, Mary D; York, Ruth; Brown, Linda P; Munro, Barbara Hazard; Hollingsworth, Andrea O; Cohen, Susan M; Finkler, Steven; Deatrick, Janet; Youngblut, JoAnne M

    2002-01-01

    To describe the development, testing, modification, and results of the Quality Cost Model of Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) Transitional Care on patient outcomes and health care costs in the United States over 22 years, and to delineate what has been learned for nursing education, practice, and further research. The Quality Cost Model of APN Transitional Care. Review of published results of seven randomized clinical trials with very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants; women with unplanned cesarean births, high risk pregnancies, and hysterectomy surgery; elders with cardiac medical and surgical diagnoses and common diagnostic related groups (DRGs); and women with high risk pregnancies in which half of physician prenatal care was substituted with APN care. Ongoing work with the model is linking the process of APN care with the outcomes and costs of care. APN intervention has consistently resulted in improved patient outcomes and reduced health care costs across groups. Groups with APN providers were rehospitalized for less time at less cost, reflecting early detection and intervention. Optimal number and timing of postdischarge home visits and telephone contacts by the APNs and patterns of rehospitalizations and acute care visits varied by group. To keep people well over time, APNs must have depth of knowledge and excellent clinical and interpersonal skills that are the hallmark of specialist practice, an in-depth understanding of systems and how to work within them, and sufficient patient contact to effect positive outcomes at low cost.

  1. Perforation of metal sheets

    Steenstrup, Jens Erik

    simulation is focused on the sheet deformation. However, the effect on the tool and press is included. The process model is based on the upper bound analysis in order to predict the force progress and hole characteristics etc. Parameter analyses are divided into two groups, simulation and experimental tests......The main purposes of this project are:1. Development of a dynamic model for the piercing and performation process2. Analyses of the main parameters3. Establishing demands for process improvements4. Expansion of the existing parameter limitsThe literature survey describes the process influence...

  2. Advanced Test Reactor Safety Basis Upgrade Lessons Learned Relative to Design Basis Verification and Safety Basis Management

    G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The reactor also provides other irradiation services such as radioisotope production. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An audit conducted by the Department of Energy's Office of Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance (DOE OA) raised concerns that design conditions at the ATR were not adequately analyzed in the safety analysis and that legacy design basis management practices had the potential to further impact safe operation of the facility.1 The concerns identified by the audit team, and issues raised during additional reviews performed by ATR safety analysts, were evaluated through the unreviewed safety question process resulting in shutdown of the ATR for more than three months while these concerns were resolved. Past management of the ATR safety basis, relative to facility design basis management and change control, led to concerns that discrepancies in the safety basis may have developed. Although not required by DOE orders or regulations, not performing design basis verification in conjunction with development of the 10 CFR 830 Subpart B upgraded safety basis allowed these potential weaknesses to be carried forward. Configuration management and a clear definition of the existing facility design basis have a direct relation to developing and maintaining a high quality safety basis which properly identifies and mitigates all hazards and postulated accident conditions. These relations and the impact of past safety basis management practices have been reviewed in order to identify lessons learned from the safety basis upgrade process and appropriate actions to resolve possible concerns with respect to the current ATR safety

  3. Market transformation lessons learned from an automated demand response test in the Summer and Fall of 2003

    Shockman, Christine; Piette, Mary Ann; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    A recent pilot test to enable an Automatic Demand Response system in California has revealed several lessons that are important to consider for a wider application of a regional or statewide Demand Response Program. The six facilities involved in the site testing were from diverse areas of our economy. The test subjects included a major retail food marketer and one of their retail grocery stores, financial services buildings for a major bank, a postal services facility, a federal government office building, a state university site, and ancillary buildings to a pharmaceutical research company. Although these organizations are all serving diverse purposes and customers, they share some underlying common characteristics that make their simultaneous study worthwhile from a market transformation perspective. These are large organizations. Energy efficiency is neither their core business nor are the decision makers who will enable this technology powerful players in their organizations. The management of buildings is perceived to be a small issue for top management and unless something goes wrong, little attention is paid to the building manager's problems. All of these organizations contract out a major part of their technical building operating systems. Control systems and energy management systems are proprietary. Their systems do not easily interact with one another. Management is, with the exception of one site, not electronically or computer literate enough to understand the full dimensions of the technology they have purchased. Despite the research team's development of a simple, straightforward method of informing them about the features of the demand response program, they had significant difficulty enabling their systems to meet the needs of the research. The research team had to step in and work directly with their vendors and contractors at all but one location. All of the participants have volunteered to participate in the study for altruistic

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    NNSA/NV

    2002-11-12

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions

  6. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  7. On Jovian plasma sheet structure

    Khurana, K.K.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluate several models of Jovian plasma sheet structure by determining how well they organize several aspects of the observed Voyager 2 magnetic field characteristics as a function of Jovicentric radial distance. It is shown that in the local time sector of the Voyager 2 outbound pass (near 0300 LT) the published hinged-magnetodisc models with wave (i.e., models corrected for finite wave velocity effects) are more successful than the published magnetic anomaly model in predicting locations of current sheet crossings. They also consider the boundary between the plasma sheet and the magnetotail lobe which is expected to vary slowly with radial distance. They use this boundary location as a further test of the models of the magnetotail. They show that the compressional MHD waves have much smaller amplitude in the lobes than in the plasma sheet and use this criterion to refine the identification of the plasma-sheet-lobe boundary. When the locations of crossings into and out of the lobes are examined, it becomes evident that the magnetic-anomaly model yields a flaring plasma sheet with a halfwidth of ∼ 3 R J at a radial distance of 20 R J and ∼ 12 R J at a radial distance of 100 R J . The hinged-magnetodisc models with wave, on the other hand, predict a halfwidth of ∼ 3.5 R J independent of distance beyond 20 R J . New optimized versions of the two models locate both the current sheet crossings and lobe encounters equally successfully. The optimized hinged-magnetodisc model suggests that the wave velocity decreases with increasing radial distance. The optimized magnetic anomaly model yields lower velocity contrast than the model of Vasyliunas and Dessler (1981)

  8. VISL: A Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory For Outreach and K-12 Education

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.; Moore, J.; Dunn, S.; Perez, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present an update on our developing Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory (VISL). Geared to K-12 classrooms and the general public, VISL's main goal is to improve climate literacy, especially in regards to the crucial role of the polar ice sheets in Earth's climate and sea level. VISL will allow users to perform guided experiments using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), a state-of-the-art ice flow model developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine that simulates the near-term evolution of the ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. VISL users will access ISSM via a graphical interface that can be launched from a web browser on a computer, tablet or smart phone. Users select climate conditions and run time by moving graphic sliders then watch how a given region evolves in time under those conditions. Lesson plans will include conceptual background, instructions for table top experiments related to the concepts addressed in a given lesson, and a guide for performing model experiments and interpreting their results. Activities with different degrees of complexity will aim for consistency with NGSS Physical Science criteria for different grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12), although they will not be labeled as such to encourage a broad user base. Activities will emphasize the development of physical intuition and critical thinking skills, understanding conceptual and computational models, as well as observation recording, concept articulation, hypothesis formulation and testing, and mathematical analysis. At our present phase of development, we seek input from the greater science education and outreach communities regarding VISL's planned content, as well as additional features and topic areas that educators and students would find useful.

  9. Initial Startup and Testing of the Fort St. Vrain HTGR - Lessons Learned which May Be Useful to the HTR-PM

    Brey, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    Lessons Learned: Although the HTR-PM and FSV incorporate significant differences in their designs, there are lessons to be learned that are applicable to both plants. This is especially important for key systems that incorporate first-of-a-kind equipment. Basically, these lessons are just an application of common sense. • Complexity Breeds Unavailability. Incorporate system/components that are ruggedly simple in design with a history of reliable operation and minimal maintenance. • Assure Strong Expertise and Funding for this First HTR-PM. Quite likely, the successful startup and operation of this plant will require a level of support considerably greater than a typical nuclear plant. • Be Very Attentive to the Design Aspects of first-of-a-kind Components in the Class 1, Safety-Related Portions of the Plant. For example; a generic metallurgical failure could easily lead to a very long plant shutdown in order to redesign the failed component, re-license, manufacture, install and test prior to plant resuming plant operation. • Where Possible, Test all Key Systems/Components Prior to Installation using Actual Plant Configuration & Operating Characteristics This will help assure operational capability prior to application of nuclear heat. • Never Attempt to Start an Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Without First Having the Proper Regulatory Guides and Criteria in Place. FSV was licensed as a Research Facility. There was no Standard Review Plan or Regulatory Guides in place for the NRC (or PSC) to utilize in regulating this HTGR. • Do Not Be Reluctant to Incorporate a Generous Over-Build Capability into Systems/Components. It is significantly easier to design extra margin into the original compressors, pumps and motors than to be required to backfit into larger units after plant start-up. • Assure All Safety Documents Reflect the Actual Capability of the Plant to Respond to Accidents Described in the Safety Analysis. FSV was limited to 82% power during the

  10. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  11. French electric power balance sheet 2006

    Derdevet, Michel; Usatorre, Karine de

    2007-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2006: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, RTE's public utility commitments, efficient market mechanisms and free flow of trades, lessons learnt from the power breakdown of November 4, 2006. The evolution of RTE's infrastructures and production means, the contract with Gaz de France for the improvement of Brittany's security of supply, and the results of RTE's 2006 satisfaction survey are presented in appendixes

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Mark Krauss

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this CR is to document that closure activities have met the approved closure standards detailed in the NDEP-approved CAP for CAU 271. The purpose of the Errata Sheet is as follows: In Appendix G, Use Restriction (UR) Documentation, the UR form and drawing of the UR area do not reflect the correct coordinates. Since the original UR was put into place, the UR Form has been updated to include additional information that was not on the original form. This Errata Sheet replaces the original UR Form and drawing. In place of the drawing of the UR area, an aerial photograph is included which reflects the UR area and the correct coordinates for the UR area.

  13. Ice sheet in peril

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  14. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  15. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    team the opportunity to gain insight into functional hardware requirements via lessons learned from executing the Desert RATS field test missions. This paper will detail the mission control team structure that was used during the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS Lunar analog missions. It will also present a number of the lessons learned by the operations team during these field tests. Major lessons learned involved Mission Control Center (MCC) operations, pre-mission planning and training processes, procedure requirements, communication requirements, and logistic support for analogs. This knowledge will be applied to future Desert RATS field tests, and other Earth based analog testing for space exploration, to continue the evolution of manned space operations in preparation for human planetary exploration. It is important that operational knowledge for human space exploration missions be obtained during Earth-bound field tests to the greatest extent possible. This allows operations personnel the ability to examine various flight control and crew operations scenarios in preparation for actual space missions.

  16. Carbon sheet pumping

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  17. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  18. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  19. Radiation protecting sheet

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  20. Global ice sheet modeling

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  1. Energy information sheets

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  2. Informed Choice in Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing for Alzheimer and Other Diseases: Lessons from Two Cases.

    Messner, Donna A

    2011-01-01

    Health-related direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing has been a controversial practice. Especially problematic is predictive testing for Alzheimer disease (AD), since the disease is incurable, prevention is inconclusive, and testing does not definitively predict an individual's future disease status. In this paper, I examine two contrasting cases of subjects who learn through genetic testing that they have an elevated risk of developing AD later in life. In these cases, the subject's emotional response to the result is related to how well prepared she was for the real-life personal implications of possible test results. Analysis leads to the conclusion that when groups of health-related genetic tests are offered as packages by DTC companies, informed consumer choice is rendered impossible. Moreover, I argue, this marketing approach contravenes U.S. Federal Trade Commission policies for non-deceptive commercial communications. I conclude by suggesting ways to improve the prospects for informed consumer choice in DTC testing.

  3. A Tale of Two Chambers: Iterative Approaches and Lessons Learned from Life Support Systems Testing in Altitude Chambers

    Callini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    With a brand new fire set ablaze by a serendipitous convergence of events ranging from a science fiction novel and movie ("The Martian"), to ground-breaking recent discoveries of flowing water on its surface, the drive for the journey to Mars seems to be in a higher gear than ever before. We are developing new spacecraft and support systems to take humans to the Red Planet, while scientists on Earth continue using the International Space Station as a laboratory to evaluate the effects of long duration space flight on the human body. Written from the perspective of a facility test director rather than a researcher, and using past and current life support systems tests as examples, this paper seeks to provide an overview on how facility teams approach testing, the kind of information they need to ensure efficient collaborations and successful tests, and how, together with researchers and principal investigators, we can collectively apply what we learn to execute future tests.

  4. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  5. Safety advice sheets

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  6. Copper contamination in thin stainless steel sheet

    Holbert, R.K. Jr.; Dobbins, A.G.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The standard welding technique used at Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for joining thin stainless sheet is the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process. One of the reoccurring problems with the sheet welds is surface cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Metallography shows that the cracks are only about 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) deep which is significant in a 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) thick sheet. Thus, welding requirements do not permit any surfacing cracking as detected by a fluorescent dye penetrant test conducted on every part after welding. Surface cracks have been found in both of the two most common weld designs in the thin sheet fabricated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These butt joints are welded between two 0.25 mm thick stainless steel sheets and a tube with eyelet welded to a 25 mm (0.98 in.) thick sheet. The weld between the two sheets is made on a semiautomatic seam welding unit, whereas the tube-to-eyelet-to-sheet welds are done manually. The quality of both welds is very dependent on the welding procedure and the way the parts are placed in the weld fixturing. Metallographic examination has indicated that some welded parts with surface cracking in the weld region had copper particles on the surface, and the question of copper contamination has been raised. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe, the existence of copper in an around the surface cracks has been verified. The copper is on the surface of the parts prior to welding in the form of small dust particles

  7. Ice Sheet System Model as Educational Entertainment

    Perez, G.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the importance of polar ice sheets and their role in the evolution of Sea Level Rise (SLR), as well as Climate Change, is of paramount importance for policy makers as well as the public and schools at large. For example, polar ice sheets and glaciers currently account for 1/3 of the SLR signal, a ratio that will increase in the near to long-term future, which has tremendous societal ramifications. Consequently, it is important to increase awareness about our changing planet. In our increasingly digital society, mobile and web applications are burgeoning venues for such outreach. The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) is a software that was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CalTech/NASA, in collaboration with University of California Irvine (UCI), with the goal of better understanding the evolution of polar ice sheets. It is a state-of-the-art framework, which relies on higher-end cluster-computing to address some of the aforementioned challenges. In addition, it is a flexible framework that can be deployed on any hardware; in particular, on mobile platforms such as Android or iOS smart phones. Here, we look at how the ISSM development team managed to port their model to these platforms, what the implications are for improving how scientists disseminate their results, and how a broader audience may familiarize themselves with running complex climate models in simplified scenarios which are highly educational and entertaining in content. We also look at the future plans toward a web portal fully integrated with mobile technologies to deliver the best content to the public, and to provide educational plans/lessons that can be used in grades K-12 as well as collegiate under-graduate and graduate programs.

  8. Energized Oxygen : Speiser Current Sheet Bifurcation

    George, D. E.; Jahn, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A single population of energized Oxygen (O+) is shown to produce a cross-tail bifurcated current sheet in 2.5D PIC simulations of the magnetotail without the influence of magnetic reconnection. Treatment of oxygen in simulations of space plasmas, specifically a magnetotail current sheet, has been limited to thermal energies despite observations of and mechanisms which explain energized ions. We performed simulations of a homogeneous oxygen background, that has been energized in a physically appropriate manner, to study the behavior of current sheets and magnetic reconnection, specifically their bifurcation. This work uses a 2.5D explicit Particle-In-a-Cell (PIC) code to investigate the dynamics of energized heavy ions as they stream Dawn-to-Dusk in the magnetotail current sheet. We present a simulation study dealing with the response of a current sheet system to energized oxygen ions. We establish a, well known and studied, 2-species GEM Challenge Harris current sheet as a starting point. This system is known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection upon thinning of the current sheet. We added a uniform distribution of thermal O+ to the background. This 3-species system is also known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection. We add one additional variable to the system by providing an initial duskward velocity to energize the O+. We also traced individual particle motion within the PIC simulation. Three main results are shown. First, energized dawn- dusk streaming ions are clearly seen to exhibit sustained Speiser motion. Second, a single population of heavy ions clearly produces a stable bifurcated current sheet. Third, magnetic reconnection is not required to produce the bifurcated current sheet. Finally a bifurcated current sheet is compatible with the Harris current sheet model. This work is the first step in a series of investigations aimed at studying the effects of energized heavy ions on magnetic reconnection. This work differs

  9. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  10. Energy information sheets

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  11. Fission products and nuclear fuel behaviour under severe accident conditions part 1: Main lessons learnt from the first VERDON test

    Pontillon, Y.; Geiger, E.; Le Gall, C.; Bernard, S.; Gallais-During, A.; Malgouyres, P. P.; Hanus, E.; Ducros, G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the first VERDON test performed at the end of September 2011 with special emphasis on the behaviour of fission products (FP) and actinides during the accidental sequence itself. Two other papers discuss in detail the post-test examination results (SEM, EPMA and SIMS) of the VERDON-1 sample. The first VERDON test was devoted to studying UO2 fuel behaviour and fission product releases under reducing conditions at very high temperature (∼2883 K), which was able to confirm the very good performance of the VERDON loop. The fuel sample did not lose its integrity during this test. According to the FP behaviour measured by the online gamma station (fuel sight), the general classification of the FP in relation to their released fraction is very accurate, and the burn-up effect on the release rate is clearly highlighted.

  12. Implementing the Xpert® MTB/RIF Diagnostic Test for Tuberculosis and Rifampicin Resistance: Outcomes and Lessons Learned in 18 Countries.

    Elisa Ardizzoni

    Full Text Available The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert is an automated molecular test for simultaneous detection of tuberculosis (TB and rifampicin resistance, recommended by the World Health Organization as the preferred diagnostic method for individuals presumed to have multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB or HIV-associated TB. We describe the performance of Xpert and key lessons learned during two years of implementation under routine conditions in 33 projects located in 18 countries supported by Médecins Sans Frontières across varied geographic, epidemiological and clinical settings.Xpert was used following three strategies: the first being as the initial test, with microscopy in parallel, for all presumptive TB cases; the second being only for patients at risk of MDR-TB, or with HIV- associated TB, or presumptive paediatric TB; and the third being as the initial test for these high-risk patients plus as an add-on test to microscopy in others. Routine laboratory data were collected, using laboratory registers. Qualitative data such as logistic aspects, human resources, and tool acceptance were collected using a questionnaire.In total, 52,863 samples underwent Xpert testing from April 2011 to December 2012. The average MTB detection rate was 18.5%, 22.3%, and 11.6% for the three different strategies respectively. Analysis of the results on samples tested in parallel showed that using Xpert as add-on test to microscopy would have increased laboratory TB confirmation by 49.7%, versus 42.3% for Xpert replacing microscopy. The main limitation of the test was the high rate of inconclusive results, which correlated with factors such as defective modules, cartridge version (G3 vs. G4 and staff experience. Operational and logistical hurdles included infrastructure renovation, basic computer training, regular instrument troubleshooting and maintenance, all of which required substantial and continuous support.The implementation of Xpert was feasible and significantly increased TB

  13. Cryosphere Science Outreach using the Ice Sheet System Model and a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of Cryosphere Science within the larger context of Sea Level Rise is both a technical and educational challenge that needs to be addressed if the public at large is to trulyunderstand the implications and consequences of Climate Change. Within this context, we propose a new approach in which scientific tools are used directly inside a mobile/website platform geared towards Education/Outreach. Here, we apply this approach by using the Ice Sheet System Model, a state of the art Cryosphere model developed at NASA, and integrated within a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory, with the goal is to outreach Cryospherescience to K-12 and College level students. The approach mixes laboratory experiments, interactive classes/lessons on a website, and a simplified interface to a full-fledged instance of ISSM to validate the classes/lessons. This novel approach leverages new insights from the Outreach/Educational community and the interest of new generations in web based technologies and simulation tools, all of it delivered in a seamlessly integrated web platform. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  14. The implementation of discovery learning model based on lesson study to increase student's achievement in colloid

    Suyanti, Retno Dwi; Purba, Deby Monika

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this research are to get the increase student's achievement on the discovery learning model based on lesson study. Beside of that, this research also conducted to know the cognitive aspect. This research was done in three school that are SMA N 3 Medan. Population is all the students in SMA N 11 Medan which taken by purposive random sampling. The research instruments are achievement test instruments that have been validated. The research data analyzed by statistic using Ms Excell. The result data shows that the student's achievement taught by discovery learning model based on Lesson study higher than the student's achievement taught by direct instructional method. It can be seen from the average of gain and also proved with t-test, the normalized gain in experimental class of SMA N 11 is (0.74±0.12) and control class (0.45±0.12), at significant level α = 0.05, Ha is received and Ho is refused where tcount>ttable in SMA N 11 (9.81>1,66). Then get the improvement cognitive aspect from three of school is C2 where SMA N 11 is 0.84(high). Then the observation sheet result of lesson study from SMA N 11 92 % of student working together while 67% less in active using media.

  15. Towards subsidized malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Lessons learned from programmes to subsidise artemisinin-based combination therapies in the private sector: a review.

    Lussiana, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The idea of a private sector subsidy programme of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) was first proposed in 2004. Since then, several countries around the world have hosted pilot projects or programmes on subsidized ACTs and/or the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria programme (AMFm). Overall the private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs have been effective in increasing availability of ACTs in the private sector and driving down average prices but struggled to crowd out antimalarial monotherapies. The results obtained from this ambitious strategy should inform policy makers in the designing of future interventions aimed to control malaria morbidity and mortality. Among the interventions recently proposed, a subsidy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the private sector has been recommended by governments and international donors to cope with over-treatment with ACTs and to delay the emergence of resistance to artemisinin. In order to improve the cost-effectiveness of co-paid RDTs, we should build on the lessons we learned from almost 10 years of private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs in malaria-endemic countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  16. Normal operation and maintenance safety lessons from the ITER US PbLi test blanket module program for a US FNSF and DEMO

    Merrill, B.J., E-mail: Brad.Merrill@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wong, C.P.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Cadwallader, L.C. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Abdou, M.; Morley, N.B. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    A leading power reactor breeding blanket candidate for a fusion demonstration power plant (DEMO) being pursued by the US Fusion Community is the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) concept. The safety hazards associated with the DCLL concept as a reactor blanket have been examined in several US design studies. These studies identify the largest radiological hazards as those associated with the dust generation by plasma erosion of plasma blanket module first walls, oxidation of blanket structures at high temperature in air or steam, inventories of tritium bred in or permeating through the ferritic steel structures of the blanket module and blanket support systems, and the {sup 210}Po and {sup 203}Hg produced in the PbLi breeder/coolant. What these studies lack is the scrutiny associated with a licensing review of the DCLL concept. An insight into this process was gained during the US participation in the ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) Program. In this paper we discuss the lessons learned during this activity and make safety proposals for the design of a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) or a DEMO that employs a lead lithium breeding blanket.

  17. Lesson Learning at JPL

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  18. The effectiveness of CCDSR learning model to improve skills of creating lesson plan and worksheet science process skill (SPS) for pre-service physics teacher

    Limatahu, I.; Suyatno; Wasis; Prahani, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the previous research, CCDSR (Condition, Construction, Development, Simulation, and Reflection) learning model has been developed to improve science process skills for pre-service physics teacher. This research is aimed to analyze the effectiveness of CCDSR learning model towards the improvement skills of creating lesson plan and worksheet of Science Process Skill (SPS) for pre-service physics teacher in academic year 2016/2017. This research used one group pre-test and post-test design on 12 pre-service physics teacher at Physics Education, University of Khairun. Data collection was conducted through test and observation. Creating lesson plan and worksheet SPS skills of pre-service physics teacher measurement were conducted through Science Process Skill Evaluation Sheet (SPSES). The data analysis technique was done by Wilcoxon t-test and n-gain. The CCDSR learning model consists of 5 phases, including (1) Condition, (2) Construction, (3) Development, (4) Simulation, and (5) Reflection. The results showed that there was a significant increase in creating lesson plan and worksheet SPS skills of pre-service physics teacher at α = 5% and n-gain average of moderate category. Thus, the CCDSR learning model is effective for improving skills of creating lesson plan and worksheet SPS for pre-service physics teacher.

  19. Translation and Adaptation of Tests: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Countries Participating in timss, pisa and other International Comparisons

    Guillermo Solano-Flores

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a conceptual model and methodology for the review of translated tests in the context of such international comparisons as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA. We also present the results of an investigation into the quality of the Mexican translation of the TIMSS-1995 into the Spanish language. We identified translation errors in a significant percentage of the items, as well as relatively high correlations between the severity of translation errors and the items’ p-values. These findings indicate that our error-coding system is highly sensitive to test-translation error. The results underscore the need for improved translation and translation-review procedures in international comparisons. In our opinion, to implement the guidelines properly for test translation in international comparisons, each participating country needs to have internal procedures that would ensure a rigorous review of its own translations. The article concludes with four recommendations for countries participating in international comparisons. These recommendations relate to: (a the characteristics of the individuals in charge of translating instruments; (b the use of review, not simply at the end of the process, but during the process of test translation; (c the minimum time needed for various translation review iterations to take place; and (d the need for proper documentation of the entire process of test translation.

  20. Constellation Program Lessons Learned. Volume 2; Detailed Lessons Learned

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Neubek, Deborah J.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2011-01-01

    These lessons learned are part of a suite of hardware, software, test results, designs, knowledge base, and documentation that comprises the legacy of the Constellation Program. The context, summary information, and lessons learned are presented in a factual format, as known and described at the time. While our opinions might be discernable in the context, we have avoided all but factually sustainable statements. Statements should not be viewed as being either positive or negative; their value lies in what we did and what we learned that is worthy of passing on. The lessons include both "dos" and "don ts." In many cases, one person s "do" can be viewed as another person s "don t"; therefore, we have attempted to capture both perspectives when applicable and useful. While Volume I summarizes the views of those who managed the program, this Volume II encompasses the views at the working level, describing how the program challenges manifested in day-to-day activities. Here we see themes that were perhaps hinted at, but not completely addressed, in Volume I: unintended consequences of policies that worked well at higher levels but lacked proper implementation at the working level; long-term effects of the "generation gap" in human space flight development, the need to demonstrate early successes at the expense of thorough planning, and the consequences of problems and challenges not yet addressed because other problems and challenges were more immediate or manifest. Not all lessons learned have the benefit of being operationally vetted, since the program was cancelled shortly after Preliminary Design Review. We avoid making statements about operational consequences (with the exception of testing and test flights that did occur), but we do attempt to provide insight into how operational thinking influenced design and testing. The lessons have been formatted with a description, along with supporting information, a succinct statement of the lesson learned, and

  1. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  2. Cholera Fact Sheet

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  3. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  4. Production (information sheets)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  5. Hibernia fact sheet

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  6. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  7. Buckling of Aluminium Sheet Components

    Hegadekatte, Vishwanath; Shi, Yihai; Nardini, Dubravko

    Wrinkling is one of the major defects in sheet metal forming processes. It may become a serious obstacle to implementing the forming process and assembling the parts, and may also play a significant role in the wear of the tool. Wrinkling is essentially a local buckling phenomenon that results from compressive stresses (compressive instability) e.g., in the hoop direction for axi-symmetric systems such as beverage cans. Modern beverage can is a highly engineered product with a complex geometry. Therefore in order to understand wrinkling in such a complex system, we have started by studying wrinkling with the Yoshida buckling test. Further, we have studied the buckling of ideal and dented beverage cans under axial loading by laboratory testing. We have modelled the laboratory tests and also the imperfection sensitivity of the two systems using finite element method and the predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  8. Car Builder: Design, Construct and Test Your Own Cars. School Version with Lesson Plans. [CD-ROM].

    Highsmith, Joni Bitman

    Car Builder is a scientific CD-ROM-based simulation program that lets students design, construct, modify, test, and compare their own cars. Students can design sedans, four-wheel-drive vehicles, vans, sport cars, and hot rods. They may select for aerodynamics, power, and racing ability, or economic and fuel efficiency. It is a program that teaches…

  9. Post-Hoc Pattern-Oriented Testing and Tuning of an Existing Large Model: Lessons from the Field Vole

    Topping, Christopher John; Dalkvist, Trine; Grimm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Pattern-oriented modeling (POM) is a general strategy for modeling complex systems. In POM, multiple patterns observed at different scales and hierarchical levels are used to optimize model structure, to test and select sub-models of key processes, and for calibration. So far, POM has been used f...

  10. Post-hoc pattern-oriented testing and tuning of an existing large model: lessons from the field vole.

    Christopher J Topping

    Full Text Available Pattern-oriented modeling (POM is a general strategy for modeling complex systems. In POM, multiple patterns observed at different scales and hierarchical levels are used to optimize model structure, to test and select sub-models of key processes, and for calibration. So far, POM has been used for developing new models and for models of low to moderate complexity. It remains unclear, though, whether the basic idea of POM to utilize multiple patterns, could also be used to test and possibly develop existing and established models of high complexity. Here, we use POM to test, calibrate, and further develop an existing agent-based model of the field vole (Microtus agrestis, which was developed and tested within the ALMaSS framework. This framework is complex because it includes a high-resolution representation of the landscape and its dynamics, of the individual's behavior, and of the interaction between landscape and individual behavior. Results of fitting to the range of patterns chosen were generally very good, but the procedure required to achieve this was long and complicated. To obtain good correspondence between model and the real world it was often necessary to model the real world environment closely. We therefore conclude that post-hoc POM is a useful and viable way to test a highly complex simulation model, but also warn against the dangers of over-fitting to real world patterns that lack details in their explanatory driving factors. To overcome some of these obstacles we suggest the adoption of open-science and open-source approaches to ecological simulation modeling.

  11. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  12. A personalized mobile patient guide system for a patient-centered smart hospital: Lessons learned from a usability test and satisfaction survey in a tertiary university hospital.

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Jung, Se Young; Kim, Seok; Kim, Eunhye; Lee, Kee-Hyuck; Chung, Eunja; Hwang, Hee

    2016-07-01

    The present study focused on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a personalized mobile patient guide system that utilizes smart phones, indoor navigation technology and a hospital information system (HIS) to address the difficulties that outpatients face in finding hospital facilities, recognizing their daily treatment schedule, and accessing personalized medical and administrative information. The present study was conducted in a fully digitized tertiary university hospital in South Korea. We developed a real-time location-based outpatient guide system that consists of Bluetooth access points (APs) for indoor navigation, an Android-based guide application, a guide server, and interfaces with the HIS. A total of 33 subjects and 43 outpatients participated in the usability test (UT) and the satisfaction survey, respectively. We confirmed that the indoor navigation feature can be applied to outpatient departments with precision using a position error test. The participants in the UT completed each scenario with an average success rate of 67.4%. According to the results, we addressed the problems and made improvements to the user interface by providing users with context-based guidance information. The satisfaction rating of the system was high, with an average score of 4.0 out of 5.0, showing its utility as a patient-centered hospital service. The innovative mobile patient guide system for outpatients is feasible and can be successfully implemented to provide personalized information with high satisfaction. Additionally, the issues identified and lessons learned from our experiences regarding task scheduling, indoor navigation, and usability should be considered when developing the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From community-based pilot testing to region-wide systems change: lessons from a local quality improvement collaborative.

    Keyser, Donna J; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2010-01-01

    A community-based collaborative conducted a 2-year pilot study to inform efforts for improving maternal and child health care practice and policy in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. (1) To test whether three small-scale versions of an evidence-based, systems improvement approach would be workable in local community settings and (2) to identify specific policy/infrastructure reforms for sustaining improvements. A mixed methods approach was used, including quantitative performance measurement supplemented with qualitative data about factors related to outcomes of interest, as well as key stakeholder interviews and a literature review/Internet search. Quantitative performance results varied; qualitative data revealed critical factors for the success and failure of the practices tested. Policy/infrastructure recommendations were developed to address specific practice barriers. This information was important for designing a region-wide quality improvement initiative focused on maternal depression. The processes and outcomes provide valuable insights for other communities interested in conducting similar quality improvement initiatives.

  14. Leak tightness tests on actively cooled plasma facing components: Lessons learned from Tore Supra experience and perspectives for the new fusion machines

    Chantant, M., E-mail: michel.chantant@cea.fr; Lambert, R.; Gargiulo, L.; Hatchressian, J.-C.; Guilhem, D.; Samaille, F.; Soler, B.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Test procedures for the qualification of the tightness of actively cooled plasma facing components were defined. • The test is performed after the component manufacturing and before its set-up in the vacuum vessel. • It allows improving the fusion machine availability. • The lessons of tests over 20 years at Tore Supra are presented. - Abstract: The fusion machines under development or construction (ITER, W7X) use several hundreds of actively cooled plasma facing components (ACPFC). They are submitted to leak tightness requirements in order to get an appropriate vacuum level in the vessel to create the plasma. During the ACPFC manufacturing and before their installation in the machine, their leak tightness performance must be measured to check that they fulfill the vacuum requirements. A relevant procedure is needed which allows to segregate potential defects. It must also be optimized in terms of test duration and costs. Tore Supra, as an actively cooled Tokamak, experienced several leaks on ACPFCs during the commissioning and during the operation of the machine. A test procedure was then defined and several test facilities were set-up. Since 1990 the tightness of all the new ACPFCs is systematically tested before their installation in Tore Supra. During the qualification test, the component is set up in a vacuum test tank, and its cooling circuits are pressurized with helium. It is submitted to 3 temperature cycles from room temperature up to the baking temperature level in Tore Supra (200 °C) and two pressurization tests are performed (6 MPa at room temperature and 4 MPa at 200 °C) at each stage. At the end of the last cycle when the ACPFC is at room temperature and pressurized with helium at 6 MPa, the measured leak rate must be lower than 5 × 10{sup −11} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, the pressure in the test tank being <5 × 10{sup −5} Pa. A large experience has been gained on ACPFCs with carbon parts on stainless steel and Cu

  15. Contract for service to produce 50 tonnes sterifeed - lesson learned from semi-commercial scale test production

    Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mat Rasol Awang; Zainon Said; Irwan Md Arif; Alias K Sadeli

    2005-01-01

    A contract for service has been awarded to a local company to produce 50 tonnes Sterifeed in a period of 4 months commencing 3 September 2001. The production was for supplying enough feed for the testing of Sterifeed on cattle. Appointed contractor was required to manage the production, supply labours and provide transport for the full production operation of the plant. The production performance is discussed based on: the labour cost; supervision and control; and skill and training. This report discusses and evaluate the suitability of service for contract for the future commercial scale production. (Author)

  16. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of corrosion resistance testing/evaluation methods for coated steel sheets; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Hyomen shori koban no taishokusei shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to develop the evaluation methods for reappearing corrosion characteristics of coated steel sheets in a short time, acid rain composition and artificial acid rain composition for the accelerated test were studied, and the cyclic corrosion tests were conducted. The literature survey shows that the main ionic species present in acid rain are Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and Cl{sup -}, of which the acid rain components are SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}, their equivalent ratio (NO{sub 3}{sup -}/ SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the Far Eastern area being 0.2 to 0.3. Therefore, the solution specified by ASTM 1141 is diluted 30 times with water to prepare the base solution for the accelerated tests, where its acidity is adjusted with a mixed acid of NO{sub 3}{sup -}/ SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = 0.2 to 0.3 (pH: 3.0 to 4.0). Two sets of preliminary cyclic corrosion tests were conducted, one involving acid rain spraying, drying and humidification in this order, and the other acid rain spraying, humidification and drying. Analysis of the test data indicates that difference between these test cycles in corrosion rate is within a deviation range caused by different testing tools. Therefore, the former condition is adopted as the basis for the accelerated tests, because of its smaller deviation caused by different testing tools. (NEDO)

  17. Fatigue failure of sandwich beams with face sheet wrinkle defects

    Leong, Martin Klitgaard; Hvejsel, C.F.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experimental fatigue results for GFRP face sheet/balsa core sandwich beams with face sheet wrinkle defects, subjected to fully reversed in-plane fatigue loading. An estimate of the fatigue design limit is presented, based on static test results, finite element analyses and app...

  18. Are We Ready for Fragile X Newborn Screening Testing?—Lessons Learnt from a Feasibility Study

    Tiffany Wotton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most prevalent heritable cause of cognitive impairment but is not yet included in a newborn screening (NBS program within Australia. This paper aims to assess the feasibility and reliability of population screening for FXS using a pilot study in one hospital. A total of 1971 mothers consented for 2000 newborns to be tested using routine NBS dried blood spot samples. DNA was extracted and a modified PCR assay with a chimeric CGG primer was used to detect fragile X alleles in both males and females in the normal, premutation, and full mutation ranges. A routine PCR-based fragile X assay was run in parallel to validate the chimeric primer assay. Babies with CGG repeat number ≥59 were referred for family studies. One thousand nine hundred and ninety NBS samples had a CGG repeat number less than 55 (1986 < 50; 10 had premutation alleles >54 CGG repeats (1/123 females and 1/507 males. There was complete concordance between the two PCR-based assays. A recent review revealed no clinically identified cases in the cohort up to 5 years later. The cost per test was $AUD19. Fragile X status can be determined on routine NBS samples using the chimeric primer assay. However, whilst this assay may not be considered cost-effective for population screening, it could be considered as a second-tier assay to a developed immunoassay for fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP.

  19. Iodine behaviour under LWR accident conditions: Lessons learnt from analyses of the first two Phebus FP tests

    Girault, N.; Dickinson, S.; Funke, F.; Auvinen, A.; Herranz, L.; Krausmann, E.

    2006-01-01

    The International Phebus Fission Product programme, initiated in 1988 and performed by the French 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN), investigates through a series of in-pile integral experiments, key phenomena involved in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents. The tests cover fuel rod degradation and the behaviour of fission products released via the primary coolant circuit into the containment building. The results of the first two tests, called FPT0 and Ftp, carried out under low pressure, in a steam rich atmosphere and using fresh fuel for Ftp and fuel burned in a reactor at 23 GWdt -1 for Ftp, were immensely challenging, especially with regard to the iodine radiochemistry. Some of the most important observed phenomena with regard to the chemistry of iodine were indeed neither predicted nor pre-calculated, which clearly shows the interest and the need for carrying out integral experiments to study the complex phenomena governing fission product behaviour in a PWR in accident conditions. The three most unexpected results in the iodine behaviour related to early detection during fuel degradation of a weak but significant fraction of volatile iodine in the containment, the key role played by silver rapidly binding iodine to form insoluble AgI in the containment sump and the importance of painted surfaces in the containment atmosphere for the formation of a large quantity of volatile organic iodides. To support the Phebus test interpretation small-scale analytical experiments and computer code analyses were carried out. The former, helping towards a better understanding of overall iodine behaviour, were used to develop or improve models while the latter mainly aimed at identifying relevant key phenomena and at modelling weaknesses. Specific efforts were devoted to exploring the potential origins of the early-detected volatile iodine in the containment building. If a clear explanation has not yet been found, the non-equilibrium chemical

  20. Warm Deep Drawing of Aluminium Sheet

    Bolt, P.J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium sheet drawing processes can be improved by manipulating local flow behaviour by means of elevated temperatures and temperature gradients in the tooling. Forming tests showed that a substantial improvement is possible not only for 5xxx but also for 6xxx series alloys. Finite element method

  1. Lessons learned from the Febex in situ test: geochemical processes associated to the microbial degradation and gas generation

    Fernandez, A. M.; Sanchez, D.M.; Melon, A.; Mingarro, M.; Wieczorek, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Compacted bentonites are considered as backfill and sealing material in most high-level radioactive waste disposal (HLW) concepts because of their physico-chemical properties. Although they are very stable in their original natural ambient, any change in the physico-chemical, geochemical and mineralogical conditions may influence in their functions. Therefore, numerous studies have been performed during years in order to evaluate the bentonite barrier behaviour affected by thermo-hydro-mechanical and geochemical processes in tests at different scales. One of the key parameters in the safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository is the redox conditions of the bentonite pore water in the near field, due to their effect on the mobility and sorption of a lot of radionuclides. Among the factors that influence the Eh of the pore water are: a) the amount of oxygen in the barrier and in the clay-rocks, b) the type of existing minerals sensible to the redox potential, c) the production of radiolytic oxidants and reductants, d) the type and rate of the metal corrosion, f) the existence of organic matter, and e) the presence and viability of micro-organisms. However, the microbiological processes have not been taken into account during a lot of years because it is was thought that the microbial growth and activity at repository conditions are improbable due to: the low water activity as a consequence of the heat and the pore water salinity, the reduced space for their growth due to the compaction degree and swelling of the bentonite, etc. Different studies have shown that the microorganisms stop their activity at a w 2 MPa, low availability of water, small pore size 3 or a pore water salinity > 100 g NaCl/L. Nevertheless, during the transitory phase of the bentonite saturation, some modifications occur in the salinity of the pore water, the initial dry densities due to the hydration process, the swelling pressures, and the

  2. Laser Tracker Utilization Methodology in Measuring Truth Trajectories for INS Testing on 6 Degree of Freedom Table at the Marshall Space Flight Center's Contact Dynamics Simulation Laboratory with Lessons Learned

    Leggett, Jared O.; Bryant, Thomas C.; Cowen, Charles T.; Clifton, Billy W.

    2018-01-01

    When performing Inertial Navigation System (INS) testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Contact Dynamics Simulation Laboratory (CDSL) early in 2017, a Leica Geosystems AT901 Laser Tracker system (LLT) measured the twist & sway trajectories as generated by the 6 Degree Of Freedom (6DOF) Table in the CDSL. These LLT measured trajectories were used in the INS software model validation effort. Several challenges were identified and overcome during the preparation for the INS testing, as well as numerous lessons learned. These challenges included determining the position and attitude of the LLT with respect to an INS-shared coordinate frame using surveyed monument locations in the CDSL and the accompanying mathematical transformation, accurately measuring the spatial relationship between the INS and a 6DOF tracking probe due to lack of INS visibility from the LLT location, obtaining the data from the LLT during a test, determining how to process the results for comparison with INS data in time and frequency domains, and using a sensitivity analysis of the results to verify the quality of the results. While many of these challenges were identified and overcome before or during testing, a significant lesson on test set-up was not learned until later in the data analysis process. It was found that a combination of trajectory-dependent gimbal locking and environmental noise introduced non-negligible noise in the angular measurements of the LLT that spanned the evaluated frequency spectrum. The lessons learned in this experiment may be useful for others performing INS testing in similar testing facilities.

  3. Film sheet cassette

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  4. Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage

    Anderson, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

  5. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  6. Information sheets on energy

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  7. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  8. Sheet pinch devices

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  9. Field observations and lessons learned

    Nielsen, Joh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This presentation outlines observations and lessons learned from the Megaports program. It provides: (1) details of field and technical observations collected during LANL field activities at ports around the world and details of observations collected during radiation detections system testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (2) provides suggestions for improvement and efficiency; and (3) discusses possible program execution changes for more effective operations.

  10. Physically active academic lessons in elementary children.

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M

    2011-06-01

    Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. We will review the on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Riparian ecosystem resilience and livelihood strategies under test: lessons from Lake Chilwa in Malawi and other lakes in Africa.

    Kafumbata, Dalitso; Jamu, Daniel; Chiotha, Sosten

    2014-04-05

    This paper reviews the importance of African lakes and their management challenges. African inland lakes contribute significantly to food security, livelihoods and national economies through direct exploitation of fisheries, water resources for irrigation and hydropower generation. Because of these key contributions, the ecosystem services provided are under significant stress mainly owing to high demand by increasing populations, negative anthropogenic impacts on lake catchments and high levels of poverty which result in unsustainable use. Climate variability exacerbates the stress on these ecosystems. Current research findings show that the lakes cannot sustain further development activities on the scale seen over the past few decades. Millions of people are at risk of losing livelihoods through impacts on livestock and wildlife. The review further shows that the problems facing these lakes are beyond the purview of current management practices. A much better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between different components of the lake socio-ecological systems is needed to address the complex challenges of managing these ecosystem services. This review suggests that the three small wetlands of Chad, Chilwa and Naivasha provide an opportunity for testing novel ideas that integrate sustainability of natural resource management with livelihoods in order to inform policy on how future land use and climatic variability will affect both food security and the ecosystem services associated with it.

  12. Lessons learned in the deployment of a HIV counseling and testing management information system on a new project.

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Ezomike, Chioma F; Lehmann, Harold P; Ibanga, Iko J

    2011-11-28

    To share our experience on how we used simple but detailed processes and deployed a management information system on a new HIV counseling and testing (HCT) project in Nigeria. The procedures used in this study were adopted for their strength in identifying areas of continuous improvement as the project was implemented. We used an iterative brainstorming technique among 30 participants (volunteer counselors and project management staff) as well as iterative quality audits to identify several limitations to the success of the project and to propose solutions. We then implemented the solutions and reevaluated for performance. Findings from the evaluations were then reintroduced into the brainstorming and planning sessions. Several limitations were identified with the most prominent being the poor documentation of records at the site and the lack of a document transfer trail for audit purposes. Communication, cohesion and team focus are necessary to achieve success on any new project. Institutionalizing routine HIV behavioral surveillance using data collected at HCT will help in streamlining interventions that will be evidence-based. 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  13. Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  14. Investigation of the Formability of TRIP780 Steel Sheets

    Song, Yang

    The formability of a metal sheet is dependent on its work hardening behaviour and its forming limits; and both aspects must be carefully determined in order to accurately simulate a particular forming process. This research aims to characterize the formability of a TRIP780 sheet steel using advanced experimental testing and analysis techniques. A series of flat rolling and tensile tests, as well as shear tests were conducted to determine the large deformation work hardening behaviour of this TRIP780 steel. Nakazima tests were carried out up to fracture to determine the forming limits of this sheet material. A highly-automated method for generating a robust FLC for sheet materials from DIC strain measurements was created with the help of finite element simulations, and evaluated against the conventional method. A correction algorithm that aims to compensate for the process dependent effects in the Nakazima test was implemented and tested with some success.

  15. Lessons learnt during the design, construction and start-up phase of a molten salt testing facility

    Rodríguez-García, Margarita-Manuela; Herrador-Moreno, Miguel; Zarza Moya, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, CIEMAT (Centro de investigaciones energéticas medioambientales y tecnológicas) signed a turn-key contract to have an experimental plant for thermal storage using molten salts at its PSA (Plataforma Solar de Almeria) facilities. This plant was designed to evaluate components, instrumentation and operation strategies and to give support to the industry in the qualification and evaluation of components. During the design, construction and start-up phases of this plant, many different aspects regarding design, construction and commissioning have been learnt and these will contribute to the improvement of other plants. Among other tips explained in the paper, we recommend the use of venting valves to eliminate the water present in the system after the pressure test or released by the salts during the first melting. The selection of instrumentation with no electronic components near a heat source, thus preventing them from overheating, is also advisable. The heat exchanger design and dimensioning should take into account not only the thermal losses to the atmosphere and through pipes and supports, but any possible reduction in the heat exchange surface that could have detrimental consequences in the thermal performance. Special attention must be paid when dimensioning and installing the EHT and insulation because both components are decisive in the avoidance of plug formation. Its correct installation in valves and supports and the proper positioning of the temperature control sensors, i.e. where no other heat source can distort the readings, are crucial. Recommendations and strategies for the operation and shutdown of this experimental plant are being gathered for a future paper. -- Highlights: • Description of the experimental molten salt storage system built at CIEMAT. • Design technical considerations for an experimental molten salt storage plant. • Hints for piping and heat exchangers design and thermal losses calculation. • Recommendations for

  16. Lessons learned: wrong intraocular lens.

    Schein, Oliver D; Banta, James T; Chen, Teresa C; Pritzker, Scott; Schachat, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    To report cases involving the placement of the wrong intraocular lens (IOL) at the time of cataract surgery where human error occurred. Retrospective small case series, convenience sample. Seven surgical cases. Institutional review of errors committed and subsequent improvements to clinical protocols. Lessons learned and changes in procedures adapted. The pathways to a wrong IOL are many but largely reflect some combination of poor surgical team communication, transcription error, lack of preoperative clarity in surgical planning or failure to match the patient, and IOL calculation sheet with 2 unique identifiers. Safety in surgery involving IOLs is enhanced both by strict procedures, such as an IOL-specific "time-out," and the fostering of a surgical team culture in which all members are encouraged to voice questions and concerns. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. "What if We Were in a Test Tube?" Students' Gendered Meaning Making during a Biology Lesson about the Basic Facts of the Human Genitals

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was…

  18. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  19. Laser Indirect Shock Welding of Fine Wire to Metal Sheet.

    Wang, Xiao; Huang, Tao; Luo, Yapeng; Liu, Huixia

    2017-09-12

    The purpose of this paper is to present an advanced method for welding fine wire to metal sheet, namely laser indirect shock welding (LISW). This process uses silica gel as driver sheet to accelerate the metal sheet toward the wire to obtain metallurgical bonding. A series of experiments were implemented to validate the welding ability of Al sheet/Cu wire and Al sheet/Ag wire. It was found that the use of a driver sheet can maintain high surface quality of the metal sheet. With the increase of laser pulse energy, the bonding area of the sheet/wire increased and the welding interfaces were nearly flat. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that the intermetallic phases were absent and a short element diffusion layer which would limit the formation of the intermetallic phases emerging at the welding interface. A tensile shear test was used to measure the mechanical strength of the welding joints. The influence of laser pulse energy on the tensile failure modes was investigated, and two failure modes, including interfacial failure and failure through the wire, were observed. The nanoindentation test results indicate that as the distance to the welding interface decreased, the microhardness increased due to the plastic deformation becoming more violent.

  20. Lessons Learned

    Amanda Phelan BNS, MSc, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The public health nurses’ scope of practice explicitly includes child protection within their role, which places them in a prime position to identify child protection concerns. This role compliments that of other professions and voluntary agenices who work with children. Public health nurses are in a privileged position as they form a relationship with the child’s parent(s/guardian(s and are able to see the child in its own environment, which many professionals cannot. Child protection in Ireland, while influenced by other countries, has progressed through a distinct pathway that streamlined protocols and procedures. However, despite the above serious failures have occurred in the Irish system, and inquiries over the past 20 years persistently present similar contributing factors, namely, the lack of standardized and comprehensive service responses. Moreover, poor practice is compounded by the lack of recognition of the various interactional processes taking place within and between the different agencies of child protection, leading to psychological barriers in communication. This article will explore the lessons learned for public health nurses practice in safeguarding children in the Republic of Ireland.

  1. The Knitting Lesson.

    Smith, Pamela

    1987-01-01

    Based on Jean-Francois Millet's 1869 painting, "The Knitting Lesson," this lesson's goal is to introduce students in grades seven through nine to genre (everyday life) painting the nineteenth century. The lesson is also designed to show that some aspects of genre may be timeless. (BSR)

  2. Characteristics of potential repository wastes: Volume 4, Appendix 4A, Nuclear reactors at educational institutions of the United States; Appendix 4B, Data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions; Appendix 4C, Supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; Appendix 4D, Supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; Appendix 4E, Supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility

    1992-07-01

    Volume 4 contains the following appendices: nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States; data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States(operational reactors and shut-down reactors); supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; and supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility

  3. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  4. Lateral dimension-dependent antibacterial activity of graphene oxide sheets.

    Liu, Shaobin; Hu, Ming; Zeng, Tingying Helen; Wu, Ran; Jiang, Rongrong; Wei, Jun; Wang, Liang; Kong, Jing; Chen, Yuan

    2012-08-21

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising precursor to produce graphene-family nanomaterials for various applications. Their potential health and environmental impacts need a good understanding of their cellular interactions. Many factors may influence their biological interactions with cells, and the lateral dimension of GO sheets is one of the most relevant material properties. In this study, a model bacterium, Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of well-dispersed GO sheets, whose lateral size differs by more than 100 times. Our results show that the antibacterial activity of GO sheets toward E. coli cells is lateral size dependent. Larger GO sheets show stronger antibacterial activity than do smaller ones, and they have different time- and concentration-dependent antibacterial activities. Large GO sheets lead to most cell loss after 1 h incubation, and their concentration strongly influences antibacterial activity at relative low concentration (oxidation capacity toward glutathione is similar, consistent with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results. This suggests the lateral size-dependent antibacterial activity of GO sheets is caused by neither their aggregation states, nor oxidation capacity. Atomic force microscope analysis of GO sheets and cells shows that GO sheets interact strongly with cells. Large GO sheets more easily cover cells, and cells cannot proliferate once fully covered, resulting in the cell viability loss observed in the followed colony counting test. In contrast, small GO sheets adhere to the bacterial surfaces, which cannot effectively isolate cells from environment. This study highlights the importance of tailoring the lateral dimension of GO sheets to optimize the application potential with minimal risks for environmental health and safety.

  5. Non normal and non quadratic anisotropic plasticity coupled with ductile damage in sheet metal forming: Application to the hydro bulging test

    Badreddine, Houssem; Saanouni, Khemaies; Dogui, Abdelwaheb

    2007-01-01

    In this work an improved material model is proposed that shows good agreement with experimental data for both hardening curves and plastic strain ratios in uniaxial and equibiaxial proportional loading paths for steel metal until the final fracture. This model is based on non associative and non normal flow rule using two different orthotropic equivalent stresses in both yield criterion and plastic potential functions. For the plastic potential the classical Hill 1948 quadratic equivalent stress is considered while for the yield criterion the Karafillis and Boyce 1993 non quadratic equivalent stress is used taking into account the non linear mixed (kinematic and isotropic) hardening. Applications are made to hydro bulging tests using both circular and elliptical dies. The results obtained with different particular cases of the model such as the normal quadratic and the non normal non quadratic cases are compared and discussed with respect to the experimental results

  6. Oilseed rape grain yield productivity increases with hybrid varietal types: a first balance sheet with post registration tests in France and in Europe

    Pinochet Xavier

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 several oilseed rape hybrid types were proposed to farmers. Following registration experiments, Cetiom and different equivalent institutions in European Union have tested them in different post registration national networks. Grain yield productivity increases were demonstrated and a first synthesis could be done to check avantages and difficulties which had occurred. For winter types, Hybrid Composits were widely used, mainly in France and in the United Kingdom. Grain yield increases were important in the South and West part of France where their market shares increased up to 50-80%. Nevertheless, many fecondation problems occurred in several places all over Europe. Reasons of such problems were difficult to identify. Several factors, as cold temperatures, nutritionnal competitions, pollen avaibility may be involved to explain low seed sets. Restored Hybrids made with the NPZ hybridation system were successfully tested widely, and has reached significative market shares during 1999-2000 season. Less experiments were carried out with others hybrid types (Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids, Mixed Hybrids. Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids reached the highest grain yield levels but users are waiting for lower glucosinolates seed content hybrids which would come in the next future. Performances comparisons among countries have to be done carefully. Productivity increases with hybrid types could have been over estimated depending of pollinic environments or plot size and possible neighbouring effects. For France, results from field trials networks are coherent with results coming from postal surveys. For spring varieties, Polima restored hybrids and varietal associations have demonstrated a significative advantage compared to classical lines.

  7. Beginning CSS Cascading Style Sheets for Web Design

    Pouncey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Completely updated material and new examples show you what CSS can do With the latest versions of Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer, and other browsers released, CSS is more essential than ever. This beginner guide demonstrates how cascading style sheets can be used to define styles to items in Web pages, rather than format each item individually. Each lesson in this full-color book has been methodically revised to be more concise and efficient, making your learning experience as productive as possible.Covers the latest in CSS, including the new features of Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari,

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Grant Evenson

    2008-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 556, Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 556 is comprised of four corrective action sites (CASs): • 06-20-04, National Cementers Dry Well • 06-99-09, Birdwell Test Hole • 25-60-03, E-MAD Stormwater Discharge and Piping • 25-64-01, Vehicle Washdown and Drainage Pit The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 556 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities began on February 7 and were completed on June 19, 2008, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 556 data were evaluated based on the data quality assessment process, which demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 556 that required the completion of a corrective action. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 556 revealed the following: • Corrective Action Sites 06-20-04, 06-99-09, and 25-64-01 do not contain contamination at

  9. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests wer...

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two

  12. Stiffness Matrices and Anisotropy in the Trapezoidal Corrugated Composite Sheets

    Mohammad Golzar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the some applications like as morphing technology, high strain and anisotropic behavior are essential design requirements. The corrugated composite sheets due to their special geometries have potential to high deflection under axial loading through longitudinal direction of corrugation. In this research, the strain and the anisotropic behavior of corrugated composite sheets are investigated by fabricating glass/epoxy samples with trapezoidal geometries. For evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the composites the samples were subjected to tension and flexural tests in the longitudinal and transverse directions of corrugation. In order to determine anisotropic behavior of the corrugated sheets, two approaches were introduced: (1 tensile anisotropic (E* and (2 flexural anisotropic (D*. The anisotropic behavior and ultimate deflections were investigated theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, mechanical behaviors based on theoretical and experimental analysis including the elastic constants and stiffness matrices of trapezoidal corrugated composite sheets were studied and the results were verified by finite element method. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions were compared with those of experimental tests. Finally, the load-displacement curves of tensile tests in longitudinal direction of corrugation, the ultimate deflection and anisotropy behavior of these exclusive composite sheets in the corrugated composite sheets were studied experimentally. The experimental results of the trapezoidal corrugated sheets showed that one of the most important parameters in the ultimate strain was amplitude of the corrugation elements. Generally, increasing the amplitude and element per length unit of trapezoidal corrugated specimen led to higher ultimate strain.

  13. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies.

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-02-01

    Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11-12 years old. To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method: We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15-16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Brazed Zinc-Coated Structured Sheet Metal

    A. Nikitin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc brazing has, in comparison to arc welding, the advantage of less heat input while joining galvanized sheet metals. The evaporation of zinc is reduced in the areas adjacent to the joint and improved corrosion protection is achieved. In the automotive industry, lightweight design is a key technology against the background of the weight and environment protection. Structured sheet metals have higher stiffness compared to typical automobile sheet metals and therefore they can play an important role in lightweight structures. In the present paper, three arc brazing variants of galvanized structured sheet metals were validated in terms of the corrosion behavior. The standard gas metal arc brazing, the pulsed arc brazing, and the cold metal transfer (CMT® in combination with a pulsed cycle were investigated. In experimental climate change tests, the influence of the brazing processes on the corrosion behavior of galvanized structured sheet metals was investigated. After that, the corrosion behavior of brazed structured and flat sheet metals was compared. Because of the selected lap joint, the valuation of damage between sheet metals was conducted. The pulsed CMT brazing has been derived from the results as the best brazing method for the joining process of galvanized structured sheet metals.

  15. Lessons learned bulletin

    1994-05-01

    During the past four years, the Department of Energy -- Savannah River Operations Office and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program completed various activities ranging from waste site investigations to closure and post closure projects. Critiques for lessons learned regarding project activities are performed at the completion of each project milestone, and this critique interval allows for frequent recognition of lessons learned. In addition to project related lessons learned, ER also performs lessons learned critiques. T'he Savannah River Site (SRS) also obtains lessons learned information from general industry, commercial nuclear industry, naval nuclear programs, and other DOE sites within the complex. Procedures are approved to administer the lessons learned program, and a database is available to catalog applicable lessons learned regarding environmental remediation, restoration, and administrative activities. ER will continue to use this database as a source of information available to SRS personnel

  16. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  17. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  18. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  19. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  20. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  1. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  2. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  3. A laser sheet self-calibration method for scanning PIV

    Knutsen, Anna N.; Lawson, John M.; Dawson, James R.; Worth, Nicholas A.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of laser sheet position, orientation, and thickness is a fundamental requirement of scanning PIV and other laser-scanning methods. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a new laser sheet self-calibration method for stereoscopic scanning PIV, which allows the measurement of these properties from particle images themselves. The approach is to fit a laser sheet model by treating particles as randomly distributed probes of the laser sheet profile, whose position is obtained via a triangulation procedure enhanced by matching particle images according to their variation in brightness over a scan. Numerical simulations and tests with experimental data were used to quantify the sensitivity of the method to typical experimental error sources and validate its performance in practice. The numerical simulations demonstrate the accurate recovery of the laser sheet parameters over range of different seeding densities and sheet thicknesses. Furthermore, they show that the method is robust to significant image noise and camera misalignment. Tests with experimental data confirm that the laser sheet model can be accurately reconstructed with no impairment to PIV measurement accuracy. The new method is more efficient and robust in comparison with the standard (self-) calibration approach, which requires an involved, separate calibration step that is sensitive to experimental misalignments. The method significantly improves the practicality of making accurate scanning PIV measurements and broadens its potential applicability to scanning systems with significant vibrations.

  4. The Growth of Democratic Tradition: The Age of Enlightenment. Tenth Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    Rosa, Marie A.

    This lesson plan begins with an overview of the age of enlightenment and those ideas that influenced the founders of the United States. The lesson plan provides information sheets about five enlightenment thinkers: John Locke (1632-1704), Mary Wolstonecraft (1759-1898), Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755), Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1788), and John…

  5. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  6. HYPNOTEACHING IN HISTORY LESSON

    Agus Budianto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Hypnoteaching in History Lesson. Historical learning is a science that can’t be separated in educating the younger generation. Through this lesson, teachers in secondary schools can provide the foundation of nationality through important events in the study of the social sciences. Many of the problems that occur in learning history, such as the boring and make sleepy. Everyone must have heard the term hypnosis, hypnotism, or hypnotherapy. Each person must also have a different view or understanding when hearing these terms. Hypnoteaching is one of the learning methods by using the art of communicating to influence learners. Hypnoteaching is a combination of five teaching-learning methods such as quantum learning, accelerate learning, power teaching, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP and hypnosis. Hypnoteaching can be done using informal hypnosis as well as formal hypnosis. Informal hypnosis is also called indirect hypnosis ie teachers can naturally make the Critical Area learners become no longer critical, through a very persuasive communication pattern. Here's what the teacher can do in Informal hypnosis: (1 get attention; (2 establishing Themes; (3 presenting the structure and regulations; (4 building relationships. If the learners are already comfortable and interested, the next step is to do a formal hypnosis before the lesson begins. Here are the steps that must be done: (1 Induction; (2 Deepening; (3 Deep level test; (4 Suggestion, and; (5 Termination.   Keywords: Historical learning, hypnoteaching, hypnosis, hypnotism, hypnotherapy, history Abstrak: Hipnoteaching dalam Pembelajaran Sejarah. Pelajaran sejarah tidak bisa dihilangkan dalam mendidik para generasi muda. Melalui pembelajaran ini, guru pada sekolah menengah pertama dapat memberikan pondasi rasa nasionalisme melalui peristiwa peristiwa penting dalam pelajaran ilmu pengetahuan social. Masalah yang sering muncul pada pembelajaran ini adalah kebosanan siswa dan

  7. Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    Bay, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the author’s research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing and testing environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials and coatings inhibiting galling. Partners ......’s research group has especially been involved in the development of a system of tribo-tests for sheet metal forming and in testing and modelling of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials....

  8. Marine Exposure Tests on Stainless Steel Sheet

    1947-02-01

    contained 17 to 20 percent of chromium, 7 to 10 percent of nickel, and, in seme Instances, sma.11 amounts of molybdenum, tita - nium, or columbium...3.5 percent, of molybdenum, exhibited much loss rust on weathering than those of the ordinary 18:8 type with or without additions of tita - nium or

  9. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  10. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  11. Predicting Hot Deformation of AA5182 Sheet

    Lee, John T.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Jodlowski, Jakub P.; Taleff, Eric M.

    Aluminum 5000-series alloy sheet materials exhibit substantial ductilities at hot and warm temperatures, even when grain size is not particularly fine. The relatively high strain-rate sensitivity exhibited by these non-superplastic materials, when deforming under solute-drag creep, is a primary contributor to large tensile ductilities. This active deformation mechanism influences both plastic flow and microstructure evolution across conditions of interest for hot- and warm-forming. Data are presented from uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge tests of AA5182 sheet material at elevated temperatures. These data are used to construct a material constitutive model for plastic flow, which is applied in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of plastic deformation under multiaxial stress states. Simulation results are directly compared against experimental data to explore the usefulness of this constitutive model. The effects of temperature and stress state on plastic response and microstructure evolution are discussed.

  12. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  13. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  14. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh

    2006-01-01

    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  15. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  16. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  17. Lesson study i Danmark?

    Mogensen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning.......Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning....

  18. "Frankenstein." [Lesson Plan].

    Simon, Melanie

    Based on Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that active readers interpret a novel (its characters, plot, setting, and theme) in different ways; and the great literature can be and has been adapted in many ways over time. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  19. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  20. Characterization of Tensile Mechanical Behavior of MSCs/PLCL Hybrid Layered Sheet

    Azizah Intan Pangesty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs sheet on the tensile mechanical properties of porous poly-(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL sheet. The porous PLCL sheet was fabricated by the solid-liquid phase separation method and the following freeze-drying method. The MSCs sheet, prepared by the temperature-responsive dish, was then layered on the top of the PLCL sheet and cultured for 2 weeks. During the in vitro study, cellular properties such as cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation were evaluated. Tensile test of the layered construct was performed periodically to characterize the tensile mechanical behavior. The tensile properties were then correlated with the cellular properties to understand the effect of MSCs sheet on the variation of the mechanical behavior during the in vitro study. It was found that MSCs from the cell sheet were able to migrate into the PLCL sheet and actively proliferated into the porous structure then formed a new layer of MSCs on the opposite surface of the PLCL sheet. Mechanical evaluation revealed that the PLCL sheet with MSCs showed enhancement of tensile strength and strain energy density at the first week of culture which is characterized as the effect of MSCs proliferation and its infiltration into the porous structure of the PLCL sheet. New technique was presented to develop tissue engineered patch by combining MSCs sheet and porous PLCL sheet, and it is expected that the layered patch may prolong biomechanical stability when implanted in vivo.

  1. Friction and bending forces evaluation of AISI 304 DDQ steel sheet forming by bending tests under deep-drawing multiaxial stresses; Evaluacion de la fuerza de doblado y de friccion en el conformado de chapa de acero inoxidable AISI 304 DDQ mediante ensayos de doblado en condiciones multiaxiales de embuticion

    Coello, J.; Miguel, V.; Ferrer, C.; Calatayud, A.; Martinez, A.

    2012-11-01

    Die radius is a critical area from the viewpoint of friction in forming processes. Moreover the sheet, that has been previously deformed in flange area, suffers bending and unbending stresses. Then, die-sheet contact in die radius must be especially considered in order to guarantee the suitable lubrication conditions. In the present work, a test method is carried out for evaluating an AISI 304 DDQ steel under similar conditions to those existing in the die radius area and that, usually, are not really reproduced in traditional bending under tensions tests. Deformation under pure shear condition, the bending and the radius angle have been established as variables of the tests. Results allow to obtain the apparent pressure sheet-bending tool, that increases with bending angle and decreases with tool radius. This last variable is the most significant while the bending angle has lesser influence. Although experimental results present some concordances with values obtained by analytical methods, some corrections must be considered in them in order to improve the theoretical values. (Author) 18 refs.

  2. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  3. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials

  4. The history of a lesson

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    2003-01-01

    and emphasises the need to study the history of lessons rather than the lessons of history. This approach shows that Munich is the end point of a constitutive history that begins in the failure of the Versailles treaty to create a durable European order following the First World War. The Munich lesson is thus......The article investigates the concept of lessons in IR. By means of a constructivist critique of the 'lessons literature', the article analyses one of the most important of IR lessons: that of Munich. Examining how the Munich lesson came about, the article shows the praxeological nature of lessons...... one element of the lesson of Versailles, which is a praxeology that defines how the West is to make peace, and against whom peace must be defended. The lesson of Versailles has been, at least in part, constitutive of the outbreak of the Cold War, and it continues to define the Western conception...

  5. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  6. Single sheet iron oxides

    Yin, Zhou

    profile with reversible reduction and oxidation, suggesting the formation of FeII-OH/O-FeIII clusters as that in GRs were formed on the ITO electrode (trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloride (CT) and 4-chlorophenol are used to test...

  7. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  8. Dynamics of a radially expanding liquid sheet: Experiments

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh

    2017-11-01

    A recent theory predicts that sinuous waves generated at the center of a radially expanding liquid sheet grow spatially even in absence of a surrounding gas phase. Unlike flat liquid sheets, the thickness of a radially expanding liquid sheet varies inversely with distance from the center of the sheet. To test the predictions of the theory, experiments were carried out on a horizontal, radially expanding liquid sheet formed by collision of a single jet on a solid impactor. The latter was placed on a speaker-vibrator with controlled amplitude and frequency. The growth of sinuous waves was determined by measuring the wave surface inclination angle using reflected laser light under both atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressure conditions. It is shown that the measured growth rate matches with the predictions of the theory over a large range of Weber numbers for both pressure conditions suggesting that the thinning of the liquid sheet plays a dominant role in setting the growth rate of sinuous waves with minimal influence of the surrounding gas phase on its dynamics. IIT Bombay.

  9. Characterization of Platinum Nanoparticles Deposited on Functionalized Graphene Sheets

    Yu-Chun Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its special electronic and ballistic transport properties, graphene has attracted much interest from researchers. In this study, platinum (Pt nanoparticles were deposited on oxidized graphene sheets (cG. The graphene sheets were applied to overcome the corrosion problems of carbon black at operating conditions of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To enhance the interfacial interactions between the graphene sheets and the Pt nanoparticles, the oxygen-containing functional groups were introduced onto the surface of graphene sheets. The results showed the Pt nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on the surface of graphene sheets with a mean Pt particle size of 2.08 nm. The Pt nanoparticles deposited on graphene sheets exhibited better crystallinity and higher oxygen resistance. The metal Pt was the predominant Pt chemical state on Pt/cG (60.4%. The results from the cyclic voltammetry analysis showed the value of the electrochemical surface area (ECSA was 88 m2/g (Pt/cG, much higher than that of Pt/C (46 m2/g. The long-term test illustrated the degradation in ECSA exhibited the order of Pt/C (33% > Pt/cG (7%. The values of the utilization efficiency were calculated to be 64% for Pt/cG and 32% for Pt/C.

  10. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  11. Optimal swimming of a sheet.

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  12. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  13. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  14. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...

  15. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  16. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  17. The social balance sheet 2004

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2005-01-01

    Each year, in the 4th quarter’s Economic Review, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets. As all the social balance sheets are not yet available for 2004, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 38,530 enterprises employing around 1,331,000 workers in 2004. The main results of the analysis, in terms of employment, working hours, labour cost and tra...

  18. ``What if we were in a test tube?'' Students' gendered meaning making during a biology lesson about the basic facts of the human genitals

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was conducted through a series of close readings of situations where students interacted with each other and the teacher in opening up gaps about alternative ways of discussing gender. Drawing on Foucault's theories about the inclusion and exclusion of knowledge and the subsequent work of Butler and other feminist researchers, the paper illuminates what gendered relations remain tacit in the conversation. It then illustrates possible ways in which these tacit gendered meanings could be made overt and discussed with the students when making meaning about the human genitals. The paper also shows how the ways in which human genitals are transacted in the science classroom have importance for what kind of learning is made available to the students.

  19. Method and apparatus for determining weldability of thin sheet metal

    Goodwin, Gene M.; Hudson, Joseph D.

    1988-01-01

    A fixture is provided for testing thin sheet metal specimens to evaluate hot-cracking sensitivity for determining metal weldability on a heat-to-heat basis or through varying welding parameters. A test specimen is stressed in a first direction with a load selectively adjustable over a wide range and then a weldment is passed along over the specimen in a direction transverse to the direction of strain to evaluate the hot-cracking characteristics of the sheet metal which are indicative of the weldability of the metal. The fixture provides evaluations of hot-cracking sensitivity for determining metal weldability in a highly reproducible manner with minimum human error.

  20. [Heritage Education Lesson Plans and Slide Presentations].

    Van Buren, Maurie

    Field tested in 27 schools and in grades four through twelve, this teaching unit stresses heritage education through the study of southern U.S. architectural styles for homes from the pioneer log structures to the 1950s ranch home. Each of the four lessons in this unit focuses around a slide presentation of 20 slides designed to fit into one…

  1. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  2. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  3. Formability of Annealed Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy Sheet

    Fann, K. J.; Su, J. Y.; Chang, C. H.

    2018-03-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloy has two specific properties, superelasiticity and shape memory effect, and thus is widely applied in diverse industries. To extend its application, this study attempts to investigate the strength and cold formability of its sheet blank, which is annealed at various temperatures, by hardness test and by Erichsen-like cupping test. As a result, the higher the annealing temperature, the lower the hardness, the lower the maximum punch load as the sheet blank fractured, and the lower the Erichsen-like index or the lower the formability. In general, the Ni-Ti sheet after annealing has an Erichsen-like index between 8 mm and 9 mm. This study has also confirmed via DSC that the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy possesses the austenitic phase and shows the superelasticity at room temperature.

  4. Improving the primary school science learning unit about force and motion through lesson study

    Phaikhumnam, Wuttichai; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to develop primary school science lesson plan based on inquiry cycle (5Es) through lesson study. The study focused on the development of 4 primary school science lesson plans of force and motion for Grade 3 students in KKU Demonstration Primary School (Suksasart), first semester of 2015 academic year. The methodology is mixed method. The Inthaprasitha (2010) lesson study cycle was implemented in group of KKU Demonstration Primary School. Instruments of reflection of lesson plan developing included participant observation, meeting and reflection report, lesson plan and other document. The instruments of examining students' learning include classroom observation and achievement test. Data was categorized from these instruments to find the issues of changing and improving the good lesson plan of Thai primary school science learning. The findings revealed that teachers could develop the lesson plans through lesson study. The issues of changing and improving were disused by considering on engaging students related to societal issues, students' prior knowledge, scientific concepts for primary school students, and what they learned from their changing. It indicated that the Lesson Study allowed primary school science teachers to share ideas and develop ideas to improve the lesson. The study may have implications for Thai science teacher education through Lesson Study.

  5. How might the North American ice sheet influence the northwestern Eurasian climate?

    Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Dumas, C.; Kageyama, M.; Ritz, C.

    2015-10-01

    altitude of the American ice sheet leads to less total precipitation and snowfall and to colder temperatures over both the Scandinavian and the Barents and Kara sea sectors. We then compute the resulting annual surface mass balance over the Fennoscandian region from the simulated temperature and precipitation fields used to force an ice-sheet model. It clearly appears that the SMB is dominated by the ablation signal. In response to the summer cooling induced by the American ice-sheet albedo, high positive SMB values are obtained over the Eurasian region, leading thus to the growth of an ice sheet. On the contrary, the gradual increase of the American ice-sheet altitude induces more ablation over the Eurasian sector, hence limiting the growth of Fennoscandia. To test the robustness of our results with respect to the Eurasian ice sheet state, we carried out two additional LMDZ experiments with new boundary conditions involving both the American (flat or full LGM) and high Eurasian ice sheets. The most striking result is that the Eurasian ice sheet is maintained under full-LGM North American ice-sheet conditions, but loses ~ 10 % of its mass compared to the case in which the North American ice sheet is flat. These new findings qualitatively confirm the conclusions from our first series of experiments and suggest that the development of the Eurasian ice sheet may have been slowed down by the growth of the American ice sheet, offering thereby a new understanding of the evolution of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets throughout glacial-interglacial cycles.

  6. Integrating UNESCO ICT-Based Instructional Materials in Chemistry Lessons

    CHARLIE P. NACARIO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effectiveness of the lessons in Chemistry integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional material on the achievement of Chemistry students at Central Bicol State University of Agriculture. It aimed to identify lessons that may be developed integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials, determine the effect of the developed lessons using the material on: conceptual understanding; science process skills; and attitude towards chemistry and gather insights from the experiences of the students and teacher. The study used the single group pretest and posttest experimental design. Descriptive, quantitative and qualitative techniques were also utilized. Quantitative data were taken from the pretest-posttest results on the Test on Conceptual Understanding, Science Process Skills and Chemistry Attitudinaire. Qualitative data were drawn from the experts’ assessment of the developed lessons and research instruments, and the insights of students and teacher. The developed lessons integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials were Atomic Model and Structure, Periodic Table of Elements, Chemical Bonding, and Balancing Chemical Equation. These lessons increased the conceptual understanding of the students by topic and skill from very low mastery to average mastery level. The students have slightly improved along the different science process skills. After teaching the lessons, the students’ attitude also improved. The students became more motivated and interested in Chemistry and the lessons were student centered and entailed teacher’s competence and flexibility in computer use.

  7. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    ... months 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Tosferina (pertussis) The best ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  8. Evaluation of essential work of fracture in a dual phase high strength steel sheet

    Gutierrez, D.; Perez, L. I.; Lara, A.; Casellas, D.; Prado, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture toughness of advanced high strength steels (AHSS), can be used to optimize crash behavior of structural components. However it cannot be readily measured in metal sheet because of the sheet thickness. In this work, the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) methodology is proposed to evaluate the fracture toughness of metal sheets. It has been successfully applied in polymers films and some metal sheets. However, their information about the applicability of this methodology to AHSS is relatively scarce. In the present work the fracture toughness of a Dual Phase (strength of 800 MPa) and drawing steel sheets has been measured by means of the EWF. The results show that the test requirements are met and also show the clear influence of notch radii on the measured values, specially for the AHSS grade. Thus, the EWF is postulated as a methodology to evaluate the fracture toughness in AHSS sheets. (Author) 18 refs.

  9. Spring back evaluation by bending under tension tests in conditions of multiaxial stresses corresponding to deep drawing processes. Application to AISI 304 DDQ stainless steel sheet; Evaluacion del springback mediante ensayos de doblado bajo tension en condiciones de multiaxialidad tipicas de los procesos de embuticion profunda. Aplicacion a chapa de acero inoxidable AISI 304 DDQ

    Miguel, V.; Coello, J.; Martinez, A.; Calatayud, A.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a methodology has been developed for evaluating the spring back of AISI 304 DDQ stainless steel sheet based on a bending under tension test. The main difference of the methodology herein carried out is that tests are made under the multiaxial stresses state that take place in deep drawing processes. This affects to the level of stress value in the test and to the hardening state of the sheet. Springback evaluation has been done in two different areas. Bending area has been evaluated from elastic recovery ratio defined as the ratio between the bending radius after and before bending. Bending and unbending extreme has been studied from the measured curvature radius in this area and taking into account the geometric equivalence of the test with the drawing cups process. Results found allow to state that drawing ratio or deformation ratio have a negligible influence on the springback into the range of values experimented here. Bending radius has hardly influence as well while bending angle is the most significant variable. The results obtained are compared to those measured in deep-drawn cups, finding a great agreement. (Author)

  10. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  11. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  12. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  13. On the possible eigenoscillations of neutral sheets

    Almeida, W.A.; Costa, J.M. da; Aruquipa, E.G.; Sudano, J.P.

    1974-12-01

    A neutral sheet model with hyperbolic tangent equilibrium magnetic field and hyperbolic square secant density profiles is considered. It is shown that the equation for small oscillations takes the form of an eigenvalue oscillation problem. Computed eigenfrequencies of the geomagnetic neutral sheet were found to be in the range of the resonant frequencies of the geomagnetic plasma sheet computed by other authors

  14. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of methods for testing and evaluating corrosion resistance of surface treated steel sheets; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Hyomenshori kohan no taishokusei hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With a view to presenting the result to ISO (International Organization for Standardization), studies were conducted of accelerated test and evaluation methods capable of promptly reproducing the state of corrosion generated during outdoor exposure tests of surface treated steel sheets. In the study of a wet rate evaluation test, a cycle test was carried out at a wet rate of 25-75% under the conditions of an artificial seawater concentration level of 6.0g/L, equivalence ratio of 0.2, and pH of 2.5, and it was found that a wet rate of 50% was appropriate. For comparison of a rain of pH 2.5 with a rain of pH 3.0 in an acid rain pH evaluation test, a cycle test was conducted at pH 3.0 under the conditions of an artificial seawater concentration level of 6.0g/L, equivalence ratio of 0.2, and a wet rate of 50%, and the result indicated that pH 2.5 was more realistic than pH 3.0. As a comprehensive test, a cycle test was conducted comprising 1 hour of acid rain spray, 4 hours of dry spell, and 3 hours of moist spell under the conditions of an artificial seawater concentration level of 6.0g/L, equivalence ratio of 0.2, wet rate of 50%, and pH of 2.5, and the resultant data were found to be correlative to the data obtained at Naoetsu. Based on the findings, a ground plan was drafted for an international standard relative to methods for testing and evaluating surface treated steel sheets for corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

  15. Evaluating risk communication about fish consumption advisories: efficacy of a brochure versus a classroom lesson in Spanish and English.

    Burger, Joanna; McDermott, Melanie Hughes; Chess, Caron; Bochenek, Eleanor; Perez-Lugo, Marla; Pflugh, Kerry Kirk

    2003-08-01

    Presentation format can influence the way target audiences understand risk-related information. Brochures or fish fact sheets are the methods traditionally used by state agencies to inform the public about fish consumption advisories and the risks from consuming fish. This study examines the efficacy of presenting information about the risks from consuming contaminated fish and shellfish in two different formats: a brochure and classroom presentation. The two instruments were developed and tested in Spanish and English, reflecting the local ethnic composition in the Newark Bay Complex. The instruments were tested on women of child-bearing age at the Women, Infants, and Children Center in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Detailed diagrams were used in both presentations, including contaminated fish species, fish preparation methods, and food chain bioaccumulation and transmission to the fetus. There were few language-related differences in the efficacy of the classroom lesson, and the main ideas were understood by both groups. Where there were significant differences in understanding about the risks from consuming fish or crabs from the contaminated waters of Newark Bay, in all cases the women exposed to the classroom lesson had a better understanding than those who read the brochure. Ninety-six percent of the women who heard the lesson understood that it was unsafe to eat fish from the port, compared to 72% of those reading the brochure. Both formats succeeded in imparting information to most women about the area under advisories, the fish species under advisories, and transmission of toxins to the fetus. Information on fish preparation was recalled less clearly, partly because women were asked to relate methods to reduce the risk from consuming fish from 11 presented, and most recalled only two or three of the list. The advantages and disadvantages of conducting short classes to women of child-bearing age are discussed.

  16. Monitoring dc stray current corrosion at sheet pile structures

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Steel is discarded by railway owners as a material for underground structures near railway lines, due to uncertainty over increased corrosion by DC stray currents stemming from the traction power system. This paper presents a large scale field test in which stray currents interference of a sheet

  17. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  18. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    sound welds. Laser cutting the sheets may therefore be an alternative to shear cutting, if the cut kerf squareness can be kept below 0.05 mm.In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effects of the major process parameters in laser cutting have been investigated. Each cut was quantified...... by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...

  19. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  20. Deformation Analysis of RC Ties Externally Strengthened with FRP Sheets

    Gribniak, V.; Arnautov, A. K.; Kaklauskas, G.; Jakstaite, R.; Tamulenas, V.; Gudonis, E.

    2014-11-01

    The current study has two objectives: to validate the ability of the Atena finite-element software to estimate the deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) elements strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and to assess the effect of FRP-to-concrete bond strength on the results of numerical simulation. It is shown that the bond strength has to be selected according to the overall stiffness of the composite element. The numerical results found are corroborated experimentally by tensile tests of RC elements strengthened with basalt FRP sheets.

  1. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  2. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  3. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Jansson, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  4. Lessons for Teaching Art Criticism.

    Barrett, Terry, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    This collection of lessons is meant to be a practical guide to help teachers engage children in art criticism. The lessons generally follow a similar format. Most suggest an age group but may be modified for use with younger or older students. Several authors suggest variations and extensions for lessons that include studio activities. A broad…

  5. Lesson Planning the Kodaly Way.

    Boshkoff, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Zoltan Kodaly to music lesson planning. Emphasizes preparation, presentation, and practice as the three important strategies in teaching concepts and skills to be included in a lesson plan. Includes a sample lesson plan covering a semester and advice on choosing song material. (DK)

  6. Heat Exchanger Tube to Tube Sheet Joints Corrosion Behavior

    M. Iancu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the studies made by the authors above the tube to tube sheet fittings of heat exchanger with fixed covers from hydrofining oil reforming unit. Tube fittings are critical zones for heat exchangers failures. On a device made from material tube and tube sheet at real joints dimensions were establish axial compression force and traction force at which tube is extracted from expanded joint. Were used two shapes joints with two types of fittings surfaces, one with smooth hole of tube sheet and other in which on boring surface we made a groove. From extracted expanded tube zones were made samples for corrosion tests in order to establish the corrosion rate, corrosion potential and corrosion current in working mediums such as hydrofining oil and industrial water at different temperatures. The corrosion rate values and the temperature influence are important to evaluate joints durability and also the results obtained shows that the boring tube sheet shape with a groove on hole tube shape presents a better corrosion behavior then the shape with smooth hole tube sheet.

  7. Fatigue characteristics of dual-phase steel sheets

    Onn, Irwan Herman; Ahmad, Norhayati; Tamin, Mohd Nasir [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia)

    2015-01-15

    Fatigue characteristics of dual-phase steel sheets, commonly used in automobile body construction were established. For this purpose, a series of fatigue tests, each at constant stress amplitude were conducted on 1.2 mm-thick, dual-phase DP600 steel sheet specimens with two different load ratios of minimum-to-maximum stress, R = 0.1 and -1. The resulting fatigue behavior is expressed in terms of fatigue strength-life (S-N) curves. Fatigue behavior of the steel sheets in the high-cycle fatigue region can be represented by Basquin's equation with coefficient and exponent value of 921.2 and 0.093, respectively. An endurance limit of 255 MPa is observed. In addition, fatigue strengths of the dual-phase steel sheets display lower magnitude than their bulk counterparts. Effect of mean stress on fatigue behavior of the steel sheets is well predicted by Walker's model. Exponential calibration factor is introduced to the models by SWT, Goodman and Morrow with comparable prediction to the Walker's model.

  8. CLIL in physics lessons at grammar school

    Štefančínová, Iveta; Valovičová, Ľubomíra

    2017-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is one of the most outstanding approaches in foreign language teaching. This teaching method has promising prospects for the future of modern education as teaching subject and foreign languages are combined to offer a better preparation for life in Europe, especially when the mobility is becoming a highly significant factor of everyday life. We realized a project called Foreign languages in popularizing science at grammar school. Within the project five teachers with approbation subjects of English, French, German and Physics attended the methodological courses abroad. The teachers applied the gained experience in teaching and linking science teaching with the teaching of foreign languages. Outputs of the project (e.g. English-German-French-Slovak glossary of natural science terminology, student activity sheets, videos with natural science orientation in a foreign language, physical experiments in foreign languages, multimedia fairy tales with natural contents, posters of some scientists) are prepared for the CLIL-oriented lessons. We collected data of the questionnaire for students concerning attitude towards CLIL. The questionnaire for teachers showed data about the attitude, experience, and needs of teachers employing CLIL in their lessons.

  9. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  10. Single point incremental forming: Formability of PC sheets

    Formisano, A.; Boccarusso, L.; Carrino, L.; Lambiase, F.; Minutolo, F. Memola Capece

    2018-05-01

    Recent research on Single Point Incremental Forming of polymers has slightly covered the possibility of expanding the materials capability window of this flexible forming process beyond metals, by demonstrating the workability of thermoplastic polymers at room temperature. Given the different behaviour of polymers compared to metals, different aspects need to be deepened to better understand the behaviour of these materials when incrementally formed. Thus, the aim of the work is to investigate the formability of incrementally formed polycarbonate thin sheets. To this end, an experimental investigation at room temperature was conducted involving formability tests; varying wall angle cone and pyramid frusta were manufactured by processing polycarbonate sheets with different thicknesses and using tools with different diameters, in order to draw conclusions on the formability of polymer sheets through the evaluation of the forming angles and the observation of the failure mechanisms.

  11. Lessons in the Design and Characterization Testing of the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) Wind-Tunnel Model

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on some of the more challenging design processes and characterization tests of the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T)-Active Controls Testbed (ACT). The model was successfully tested in four entries in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to satisfy the goals and objectives of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Supersonic Project Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic effort. Due to the complexity of the S4T-ACT, only a small sample of the technical challenges for designing and characterizing the model will be presented. Specifically, the challenges encountered in designing the model include scaling the Technology Concept Airplane to model scale, designing the model fuselage, aileron actuator, and engine pylons. Characterization tests included full model ground vibration tests, wing stiffness measurements, geometry measurements, proof load testing, and measurement of fuselage static and dynamic properties.

  12. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  13. Considerations for the selection of an applicable energy efficiency test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia: Lessons for other developing countries

    Yanti, P.A.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Electric motors are a major energy-consuming appliance in the industrial sector. According to a survey, electric motors account for more than 70% of the total growth from 1991 to 2004 in electricity consumption in this sector in Malaysia. To reduce electricity consumption, Malaysia should consider resetting the minimum energy efficiency standards for electric motors sometime in the coming year. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is the creation of a procedure for testing and rating equipment. An energy test procedure is the technical foundation for all energy efficiency standards, energy labels and other related programs. The test conditions in the test procedure must represent the conditions of the country. This paper presents the process for the selection of an energy test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia based on the country's conditions and requirements. The adoption of test procedures for electric motors internationally by several countries is also discussed in this paper. Even though the paper only discusses the test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia, the methods can be directly applied in other countries without major modifications.

  14. Which lessons can we learn from the European Union legal framework of medicines for the regulation of direct-to-consumer genetic tests?

    van Hellemondt, Rachèl; Hendriks, Aart; Breuning, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    The legal framework of the European Union (EU) for regulating access to and supply of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests is very liberal compared to the legal and regulatory framework for (internet) medicines. Nevertheless, both health related products can cause equally serious damage to the well being of individuals. In this contribution we examine whether the legal framework of the EU for the safety and responsible use of (internet) medicines could be an example for regulating access to and supply of DTC genetic tests. The EU laws governing medicines can, notwithstanding their shortcomings, serve as an example for (central) authorising the marketing of DTC genetic tests on the internal market in accordance with strict criteria regarding predictive value and clinical usefulness. Furthermore, a legal framework controlling DTC genetic tests also should introduce system supervision as well as quality criteria with respect to the information to be provided to consumers in order to enhance health protection. However, DTC genetic tests purchased through online ordering are difficult to supervise by any agency. Adequately protecting individuals against questionable testing kits calls for international vigilance and comprehensive measures by the international community. For Europe, it is important to rank the regulation of DTC genetic tests on the European regulatory agenda.

  15. Engaging African and Caribbean Immigrants in HIV Testing and Care in a Large US City: Lessons Learned from the African Diaspora Health Initiative.

    Kwakwa, Helena A; Wahome, Rahab; Goines, Djalika S; Jabateh, Voffee; Green, Arraina; Bessias, Sophia; Flanigan, Timothy P

    2017-08-01

    The lifting in 2010 of the HIV entry ban eliminated an access point for HIV testing of the foreign-born. The African Diaspora Health Initiative (ADHI) was developed to examine alternative pathways to testing for African and Caribbean persons. The ADHI consists of Clinics Without Walls (CWW) held in community settings. HIV testing is offered to participants along with hypertension and diabetes screening. A survey is administered to participants. Descriptive data were analyzed using SAS 9.2. Between 2011 and 2015, 4152 African and Caribbean individuals participated in 352 CWW. Participants were mostly (67.7 %) African. HIV rates were lowest in Caribbean women (0.4 %) and highest in Caribbean men (8.4 %). Efforts to engage African and Caribbean communities in HIV testing are important given the elimination of the HIV entry ban and continued immigration to the US from areas of higher prevalence. The ADHI offers a successful model of engagement.

  16. Methodologies, solutions, and lessons learned from heavy oil well testing with an ESP, offshore UK in the Bentley field, block 9/3b

    Brennan, Barny; Lucas-Clements, Charles; Kew, Steve [Xcite Energy Resources (United Kingdom); Shumakov, Yakov; Camilleri, Lawrence; Akuanyionwu, Obinna; Tonoglu, Ahmet [Schlumberger (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in hydrocarbon demand that led to the production of heavy oil fields in the United Kingdom continental shelf (UKCS). Most of the activity has been confined to exploration and appraisal drilling, the reason being the high uncertainty of the reservoir and fluid properties. Due to the operational complexity inherent to heavy oil, the use of conventional appraisal-well testing technology is limited. A novel technique developed to determine the most appropriate technology for testing wells with heavy oil using an electrical submersible pump (ESP) is presented in this paper. This technique was applied in the Bentley field. Some of the technical challenges include, maintaining fluid mobility using a surface-testing equipment, obtaining accurate flow measurements, a short weather window, and oil and gas separation for metering. Combining technologies such as dual-energy gamma ray venturi multiphase flowmeter, realtime monitoring, and ESP completion made it possible to execute the well test.

  17. Applying core principles to the design and evaluation of the 'Take Charge. Take the Test' campaign: what worked and lessons learned.

    Fraze, J L; Uhrig, J D; Davis, K C; Taylor, M K; Lee, N R; Spoeth, S; Robinson, A; Smith, K; Johnston, J; McElroy, L

    2009-09-01

    To describe the application of seven core principles to the design and evaluation of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing social marketing campaign as a case study example. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) used a structured social marketing approach, informed by the Ecological Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Health Belief Model, to develop and evaluate a two-city campaign with print, radio and outdoor advertising; HIV telephone hotlines; an HIV website; community partnerships; and events to promote information seeking and HIV testing. The CDC applied seven core principles to design and evaluate the campaign, including formative research, the use of behavioural theories, audience segmentation, message design and pretesting, channel selection, process evaluation and outcome evaluation. Over 200 partners in both cities contributed significantly to campaign efforts. Key informant interviews indicated that, due to increased coordination, city infrastructures for HIV testing improved. More than 9600 individuals attended campaign events in both cities, with 1492 rapid HIV tests administered and 14 newly-identified HIV individuals. Overall, event attendees responded positively to campaign materials and events, and free HIV testing opportunities. The campaign significantly increased information-seeking behaviours in the form of hotline calls and web searches. Audience reaction and receptivity to the final campaign materials was very high. Exposure to campaign messages was associated with increases in key knowledge items, intentions to get tested, and peer-to-peer communication. The seven core principles, including formative research, behavioural theories and extensive partnerships, acted synergistically to help a campaign reach its target audience with compelling, relevant messages and motivate them to seek information and get an HIV test. Rapid testing removes many barriers by providing a testing process that can be accessed and

  18. JLab SRF Cavity Fabrication Errors, Consequences and Lessons Learned

    Marhauser, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Today, elliptical superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are preferably made from deep-drawn niobium sheets as pursued at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The fabrication of a cavity incorporates various cavity cell machining, trimming and electron beam welding (EBW) steps as well as surface chemistry that add to forming errors creating geometrical deviations of the cavity shape from its design. An analysis of in-house built cavities over the last years revealed significant errors in cavity production. Past fabrication flaws are described and lessons learned applied successfully to the most recent in-house series production of multi-cell cavities.

  19. Rotator cuff repair using cell sheets derived from human rotator cuff in a rat model.

    Harada, Yoshifumi; Mifune, Yutaka; Inui, Atsuyuki; Sakata, Ryosuke; Muto, Tomoyuki; Takase, Fumiaki; Ueda, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Takeshi; Kokubu, Takeshi; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2017-02-01

    To achieve biological regeneration of tendon-bone junctions, cell sheets of human rotator-cuff derived cells were used in a rat rotator cuff injury model. Human rotator-cuff derived cells were isolated, and cell sheets were made using temperature-responsive culture plates. Infraspinatus tendons in immunodeficient rats were resected bilaterally at the enthesis. In right shoulders, infraspinatus tendons were repaired by the transosseous method and covered with the cell sheet (sheet group), whereas the left infraspinatus tendons were repaired in the same way without the cell sheet (control group). Histological examinations (safranin-O and fast green staining, isolectin B4, type II collagen, and human-specific CD31) and mRNA expression (vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF, type II collagen; Col2, and tenomodulin; TeM) were analyzed 4 weeks after surgery. Biomechanical tests were performed at 8 weeks. In the sheet group, proteoglycan at the enthesis with more type II collagen and isolectin B4 positive cells were seen compared with in the control group. Human specific CD31-positive cells were detected only in the sheet group. VEGF and Col2 gene expressions were higher and TeM gene expression was lower in the sheet group than in the control group. In mechanical testing, the sheet group showed a significantly higher ultimate failure load than the control group at 8 weeks. Our results indicated that the rotator-cuff derived cell sheet could promote cartilage regeneration and angiogenesis at the enthesis, with superior mechanical strength compared with the control. Treatment for rotator cuff injury using cell sheets could be a promising strategy for enthesis of tendon tissue engineering. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:289-296, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music.

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Brothers Grimm. [Lesson Plan].

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Grimm's fairy tales, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that fairy tales connect them to earlier generations, help them think about present situations, that magic figures prominently in fairy tales, and that fairy tales can inspire readers to create original works of art. The main activity in the…

  2. Phagocytosis: history's lessons.

    Garg, Manish; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-01-01

    The assimilation of lessons from the past is an essential component of education for scientists of tomorrow. These lessons are not easy to find. History books on science are few and usually highly dramatized and biographies of scientists tend to exaggerate the pomp of scientific discovery. Both underplay the hard and laborious work that is integral to any scientific pursuit. Here we illustrate one such example. A century ago, the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to two scientists: Ilya Metchnikoff, a Russian zoologist, for the discovery ofphagocytosis-a cell-mediated ingestion ofmicrobes; and Paul Ehrlich, a distinguished physician-scientist, for discovering a highly antigen-specific serum-derived antibody-based immune defense. These two diametrically opposing views of the host-pathogen interaction set the stage for a strife that led to seminal advancements in immunology. Mirrored in this journey are important lessons for scientists today--ubiquitously as applicable to modern scientific life as they were a century ago. This commentaryhighlights these lessons--a fitting centenary to a well-deserved recognition.

  3. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  4. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  5. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  6. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  7. Development of a low energy micro sheet forming machine

    Razali, A. R.; Ann, C. T.; Shariff, H. M.; Kasim, N. I.; Musa, M. A.; Ahmad, A. F.

    2017-10-01

    It is expected that with the miniaturization of materials being processed, energy consumption is also being `miniaturized' proportionally. The focus of this study was to design a low energy micro-sheet-forming machine for thin sheet metal application and fabricate a low direct current powered micro-sheet-forming machine. A prototype of low energy system for a micro-sheet-forming machine which includes mechanical and electronic elements was developed. The machine was tested for its performance in terms of natural frequency, punching forces, punching speed and capability, energy consumption (single punch and frequency-time based). Based on the experiments, the machine can do 600 stroke per minute and the process is unaffected by the machine's natural frequency. It was also found that sub-Joule of power was required for a single stroke of punching/blanking process. Up to 100micron thick carbon steel shim was successfully tested and punched. It concludes that low power forming machine is feasible to be developed and be used to replace high powered machineries to form micro-products/parts.

  8. Developing Sustainable and Impactful Mobile Phone HIV Testing Interventions for Spanish-Speaking Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United States: Lessons Learned From Informative Interviews.

    Mitchell, Jason; Torres, Maria Beatriz; Asmar, Lucy; Danh, Thu; Horvath, Keith J

    2018-04-24

    Although many men who have sex with men (MSM) test for HIV at least once in their lifetime, opportunities to improve regular HIV testing, particularly among Hispanic or Latino MSM, is needed. Many mHealth interventions in development, including the ones on HIV testing, have primarily focused on English-speaking white, black, and MSM of other races. To date, no studies have assessed app use, attitudes, and motivations for downloading and sustaining use of mobile apps and preferences with respect to HIV prevention among Spanish-speaking, Hispanic MSM in the United States. The primary aims of this study were to determine what features and functions of smartphone apps do Hispanic, Spanish-speaking MSM believe are associated with downloading apps to their smartphones, (2) what features and functions of smartphone apps are most likely to influence men's sustained use of apps over time, and (3) what features and functions do men prefer in a smartphone app aimed to promote regular testing for HIV. Interviews (N=15) were conducted with a racially diverse group of sexually active, HIV-negative, Spanish-speaking, Hispanic MSM in Miami, Florida. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated back to English, and de-identified for analysis. A constant-comparison method (ie, grounded theory coding) was employed to examine themes that emerged from the interviews. Personal interest was the primary reason associated with whether men downloaded an app. Keeping personal information secure, cost, influence by peers and posted reviews, ease of use, and functionality affected whether they downloaded and used the app over time. Men also reported that entertainment value and frequency of updates influenced whether they kept and continued to use an app over time. There were 4 reasons why participants chose to delete an app-dislike, lack of use, cost, and lack of memory or space. Participants also shared their preferences for an app to encourage regular HIV testing by

  9. Crossflow Ultra-filter Module Draining and Flush Testing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Lessons Learned in De-clogging Crossflow Filters

    Townson, P.S.; Brackenbury, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes test work conducted in order to study crossflow ultra-filter module draining and flushing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that the current design, with a flush tank at elevation 29.9 m (98'-00'') has enough pressure head to drain (to a minimum elevation ∼1.5 m [∼5'-00'']) and clean out the ultra-filter tube side. Without demonstrating this, a potential failure of the flush system could cause immovable solids to plug the tubular membranes of the filters causing serious adverse impacts to plant availability and/or throughput, and could permit deleterious flammable gas accumulations. In conjunction with the water flush, the plant also utilizes air purging to prevent build up of flammable gases. Two filter configurations were investigated, one being the baseline horizontal layout and one being an alternative vertical layout. The slurry used in the tests was a non radioactive simulant (kaolin-bentonite clay), and it mimicked the rheological properties of the real waste slurry. The filter modules were full scale items, being 2.44 m (8') in length and containing 241 by 1.3 cm (1/2'') id sintered stainless steel filter tubes. (authors)

  10. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  11. Dynamics of Radially Expanding Liquid Sheets

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2018-04-01

    The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions. We anticipate these results to not only lead to more accurate predictions of the final drop-size distribution but also enable more efficient designs of atomizers.

  12. The Effect of Grinding and Polishing Procedure of Tool Steels in Sheet Metal Forming

    Lindvall, F.; Bergström, J.; Krakhmalev, P.

    2010-01-01

    The surface finish of tools in sheet metal forming has a large influence on the performance of the forming tool. Galling, concern of wear in sheet metal forming, is a severe form of adhesive wear where sheet material is transferred on to the tool surface. By polishing the tools to a fine surface ...... 40 and Vanadis 6 and up to ten different grinding and polishing treatments were tested against AISI 316 stainless steel. The tests showed that an optimum surface preparation might be found at the transition between abrasive and adhesive wear....

  13. A summary of lessons learned activities conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    A series of lessons learned studies have been conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The purpose of these lessons learned reports are to summarize knowledge and experience gained across a number of research project. This paper presents a summary of main issues addressed in four of these lessons learned projects. These are concerned with software development and quality assurance, software reliability, methods for test and evaluation of developed systems, and the evaluation of system design features

  14. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  15. Magnetic properties of sheet silicates

    Ballet, O.; Coey, J.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Susceptibility, magnetisation and Moessbauer measurements are reported for a representative selection of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Eight samples from the mica, vermiculite and smectite groups include examples diluted in iron which are paramagnetic at all temperatures, as well as iron-rich silicates which order magnetically below 10 K. Anisotropic susceptibility of crystals of muscovite, biotite and vermiculite is quantitatively explained with a model where the Fe 2+ ions lie in sites of effective trigonal symmetry, the trigonal axis lying normal to the sheets. The ferrous ground state is an orbital singlet. Ferric iron gives an isotropic contribution to the susceptibility. Fe 2+ -Fe 2+ exchange interactions are ferromagnetic with Gapprox. equal to2 K, whereas Fe 3+ -Fe 3+ coupling is antiferromagnetic in the purely ferric minerals. A positive paramagnetic Curie temperature for glauconite may be attributable to Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ charge transfer. Magnetic order was found to set in inhomogeneously for glauconite at 1-7 K. One biotite sample showed an antiferromagnetic transition at Tsub(N) = 7 K marked by a well-defined susceptibility maximum. Its magnetic structure, consisting of ferromagnetic sheets with moments in their planes coupled antiferromagnetically by other, weak interactions, resembles that found earlier for the 1:1 mineral greenalite. (orig.)

  16. Formation of sheeting joints in Yosemite National Park, California

    Martel, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints"), opening mode fractures subparallel to the Earth's surface, has been a classic unresolved problem in geology. Diverse new observations and analyses support the hypothesis that sheeting joints develop in response to a near-surface tension induced by compressive stresses parallel to a convex slope (hypothesis 1) rather than the conventional explanation that the joints form as a result of removal of overburden by erosion (hypothesis 2). The opening mode displacements across the joints together with the absence of mineral precipitates within the joints mean that sheeting joints open in response to a near-surface tension normal to the surface (N) rather than a pressurized fluid. An absolute tension must arise in the shallow subsurface if a plot of N as a function of depth normal to the surface (z) has a positive slope at the surface (z=0). The differential equations of static equilibrium require that this slope (derivative) equals k2 P22 + k3 P33 - ?g cosβ, where k2 and k3 are the principal curvatures of the surface, P22 and P33 are the respective surface-parallel normal stresses along the principal curvatures, ? is the material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the slope. This derivative will be positive and sheeting joints can open if the surface-parallel stress in at least one direction is sufficiently compressive (negative) and the curvature in that direction is sufficiently convex (negative). Hypotheses 1 and 2 are being tested using geologic mapping and aerial LIDAR data from Yosemite National Park, California. The abundance of sheeting joints on convex ridges there, where erosion is a local minimum, coupled with their scarcity in the adjacent concave valleys, where erosion is a local maximum, is consistent with hypothesis 1 but inconsistent with hypothesis 2. At several sites with sheeting joints, measurements of the current topographic curvatures and the current surface

  17. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  18. Predicting Pulsar Scintillation from Refractive Plasma Sheets

    Simard, Dana; Pen, Ue-Li

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic and secondary spectra of many pulsars show evidence for long-lived, aligned images of the pulsar that are stationary on a thin scattering sheet. One explanation for this phenomenon considers the effects of wave crests along sheets in the ionized interstellar medium, such as those due to Alfvén waves propagating along current sheets. If these sheets are closely aligned to our line-of-sight to the pulsar, high bending angles arise at the wave crests and a selection effect causes alignment of images produced at different crests, similar to grazing reflection off of a lake. Using geometric optics, we develop a simple parameterized model of these corrugated sheets that can be constrained with a single observation and that makes observable predictions for variations in the scintillation of the pulsar over time and frequency. This model reveals qualitative differences between lensing from overdense and underdense corrugated sheets: Only if the sheet is overdense compared to the surrounding interstellar medium can the lensed images be brighter than the line-of-sight image to the pulsar, and the faint lensed images are closer to the pulsar at higher frequencies if the sheet is underdense, but at lower frequencies if the sheet is overdense.

  19. The X-15 airplane - Lessons learned

    Dana, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The X-15 rocket research airplane flew to an altitude of 354,000 ft and reached Mach 6.70. In almost 200 flights, this airplane was used to gather aerodynamic-heating, structural loads, stability and control, and atmospheric-reentry data. This paper describes the origins, design, and operation of the X-15 airplane. In addition, lessons learned from the X-15 airplane that are applicable to designing and testing the National Aero-Space Plane are discussed.

  20. CAT/RF Simulation Lessons Learned

    2003-06-11

    IVSS-2003-MAS-7 CAT /RF Simulation Lessons Learned Christopher Mocnik Vetronics Technology Area, RDECOM TARDEC Tim Lee DCS Corporation...developed a re- configurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) simulation for the Crew integration and Automation Test bed ( CAT ) and Robotics Follower (RF...Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) experiments. This simulation was developed as a component of the Embedded Simulation System (ESS) of the CAT

  1. Transuranics and fission products release from PWR fuels in severe accident conditions. Lessons learnt from VERCORS RT3 and RT4 tests

    Pontillon, Y.; Ducros, G.; Van Winckel, S.; Christiansen, B.; Kissane, M.P.; Dubourg, R.; Dutheillet, Y.; Andreo, F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decades, several experimental programs devoted to the source term of fission products (FP) and actinides released from PWR fuel samples in severe accident (SA) conditions have been initiated throughout the world. In France, in this context, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Safety (IRSN) and Electricite de France (EDF) have supported the analytical VERCORS program which was performed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). The VERCORS facility at the LAMA-laboratory (CEA-Grenoble, France) was designed to heat up an irradiated fuel sample - taken from EDF's nuclear power reactors - to fuel relocation, and to capture the fission products released from the fuel and deposited downstream on a series of specific filters (impactors, bead-bed filter). On-line gamma detectors aimed at the fuel position, filters and gas capacity monitored the progress of FP release from the fuel, FP deposition on the filters and the fission gases emitted by the fuel (xenon and krypton). Before and after the test, a longitudinal gamma-scan of the fuel was conducted to measure the initial and final FP inventory in order to evaluate the quantitative fractions of FP emitted by the fuel during the test. All the components of the loop were then gamma-scanned to measure and locate the FPs released during the test and to draw up a mass balance of these FP. 25 annealing tests were performed between 1983 and 2002 on irradiated PWR fuels under various conditions of temperature and atmospheres (oxidising or reducing conditions). The influence of the nature of the fuel (UO 2 versus MOX, burn up) and the fuel morphology (initially intact or fragmented fuel) have also been investigated. This led to an extended data base allowing on the one hand to study mechanisms which promote FP release in SA conditions, and on the other hand to enhance models implemented in SA codes. Because gamma spectrometry is well suited to FP measurement and not to actinides (except neptunium

  2. Lessons learned developing a diagnostic tool for HIV-associated dementia feasible to implement in resource-limited settings: pilot testing in Kenya.

    Judith Kwasa

    Full Text Available To conduct a preliminary evaluation of the utility and reliability of a diagnostic tool for HIV-associated dementia (HAD for use by primary health care workers (HCW which would be feasible to implement in resource-limited settings.In resource-limited settings, HAD is an indication for anti-retroviral therapy regardless of CD4 T-cell count. Anti-retroviral therapy, the treatment for HAD, is now increasingly available in resource-limited settings. Nonetheless, HAD remains under-diagnosed likely because of limited clinical expertise and availability of diagnostic tests. Thus, a simple diagnostic tool which is practical to implement in resource-limited settings is an urgent need.A convenience sample of 30 HIV-infected outpatients was enrolled in Western Kenya. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic tool for HAD as administered by a primary HCW. This was compared to an expert clinical assessment which included examination by a physician, neuropsychological testing, and in selected cases, brain imaging. Agreement between HCW and an expert examiner on certain tool components was measured using Kappa statistic.The sample was 57% male, mean age was 38.6 years, mean CD4 T-cell count was 323 cells/µL, and 54% had less than a secondary school education. Six (20% of the subjects were diagnosed with HAD by expert clinical assessment. The diagnostic tool was 63% sensitive and 67% specific for HAD. Agreement between HCW and expert examiners was poor for many individual items of the diagnostic tool (K = .03-.65. This diagnostic tool had moderate sensitivity and specificity for HAD. However, reliability was poor, suggesting that substantial training and formal evaluations of training adequacy will be critical to enable HCW to reliably administer a brief diagnostic tool for HAD.

  3. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Kulhavy, Petr; Egert, Josef

    This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion) from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  4. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Kulhavy Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  5. AFFTC Instruction 99-1, Test and Evaluation Test Plans

    Crane, Roger

    2002-01-01

    .... Test Information Sheets (TISs) are actually appendices to test plans and contain sufficient information for use by a flight test engineer to develop flight test cards and for management to discern the overall technical approach being taken...

  6. Interactive Ice Sheet Flowline Model for High School and College Students

    Stearns, L. A.; Rezvanbehbahani, S.; Shankar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Teaching about climate and climate change is conceptually challenging. While teaching tools and lesson plans are rapidly evolving to help teachers and students improve their understanding of climate processes, there are very few tools targeting ice sheet and glacier dynamics. We have built an interactive ice sheet model that allows students to explore how Antarctic glaciers respond to different climate perturbations. Interactive models offer advantages that are hard to obtain in traditional classroom settings; users can systematically investigate hypothetical situations, explore the effects of modifying systems, and repeatedly observe how systems interrelate. As a result, this project provides a much-needed bridge between the data and models used by the scientific community and students in high school and college. We target our instructional and assessment activities to three high school and college students with the overall aim of increasing understanding of ice sheet dynamics and the different ways that ice sheets are impacted by climate change, while also improving their fundamental math skills.

  7. Integrating self-regulated learning and discovery learning into English lesson plan

    Sayukti Ni Kadek Heny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of learner-centeredness has been embedded in the National Curriculum of Indonesia, 2013 Curriculum. However, most of the teachers seem to be hardly acquainted with the concept of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL and discovery learning in the lesson planning. Considering the phenomenon, this study intends to explore the concept of Self-Regulated Learning in the lesson plan of English subject for a tenth-grade level by employing a qualitative design with data obtained from a teacher-made lesson plan and a semi-structured interview. The researcher used content analysis to analyze the lesson plan. Meanwhile, the qualitative data from interview result were preceded through a coding sheet and transcribed modified figure. The findings revealed an integration of SRL cyclical phase and discovery learning in the teacher-made lesson plan. Based on the discussion, the results need to be applied in a considerably large context, in order to see thoroughly dynamic integration between Self-Regulated Learning model, lesson planning and the concept of learner autonomy.

  8. Formability of aluminium sheets manufactured by solid state recycling

    Kore, A. S.; Nayak, K. C.; Date, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Conventional recycling practices for non-ferrous metallic scrap involves melting followed by purification. This practice is suitable for recycling when the large volume of scrap is available. Though such recycling reduces consumption of diminishing metallic resources, high energy requirement and material loss during melting and purification limit its applicability. In the present work, manufacturing of solid state recycled aluminium sheet by hot rolling is explored and its formability characterized. Aluminium chips were divided into smaller particles (1~2mm) by crushing. After stress relief annealing, chips were cold compacted into square slabs (75*75mm section) of different thicknesses. Another similar set of slabs was made by hot compaction. The compacted slabs were hot rolled over a number of passes at 400°C. Each slab was reduced to approximately 90% thickness to get the sheet thickness in the range of 0.6 to 1.5 mm. Microstructure revealed good interface bonding between the chip particles. Mechanical properties of the sheet from room temperature up to 200°C and at different strain rates were characterized by a number of tensile tests. Circular blanks from sheet were drawn into cylindrical cups and strain distribution was observed along different directions of rolling using circle grid analysis.

  9. Lessons from Goiania

    Nazari Alves, R.

    2000-01-01

    The lessons learned from the radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 derived from the observations from the Regulatory Agency which was in charge of the decontamination tasks may be consolidated into four classes: Preventive Actions, characterised as those that aim to minimise the probability of occurrence of a radiological accident; Minimisation of time between the moment of the accident occurrence and the beginning of intervention, in case a radiological accident does occur, despite all preventive measures; Intervention, which is correlated to the type of installation, its geographical location, the social classes involved and their contamination vectors; and Follow up, for which well established rules to allow continuing monitoring of the victims and rebuilding of homes are necessary. The greatest lesson of all was the need for integration of the professionals involved, from all organizations. (author)

  10. Tube sheet structural analysis of intermediate heat exchanger for fast breeder reactor 'Monju'

    Nakagawa, Y.; Ueno, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Ichimiya, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor 'Monju' is the first power generating fast breeder reactor in Japan. We have been designing the components of the plant for manufacturing. Among these is the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) which exchanges heat between primary and secondary sodium loop. The tube sheet of IHX (shell to ligament junction) is a difficult area from the view point of structural strength design under elevated temperature. To validate the structural integrity of tube sheet we performed the series of inelastic analysis and tube sheet thermal shock test using test pieces and half scale model of actual design. The results of inelastic analyses showed there is little progressive deformation around shell to ligament structural discontinuous junction. Furthermore, thermal shock tests showed no increase of an accumulative deformation. By these analyses and experiments, structural reliability of tube sheet could be shown. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  12. Microstructure evolution of a dissimilar junction interface between an Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet joined by magnetic pulse welding

    Itoi, Takaomi, E-mail: itoi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Mohamad, Azizan Bin; Suzuki, Ryo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Okagawa, Keigo [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 Higashi ohi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0011 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    An Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet were lap joined by using magnetic pulse welding (MPW). Tensile tests were performed on the joined sheets, and a good lap joint was achieved at a discharge energy of > 0.9 kJ. The weld interface exhibited a wavy morphology and an intermediate layer along the weld interface. Microstructure observations of the intermediate layer revealed that the Ni coating region consisted of a Ni–Al binary amorphous alloy and that the Al sheet region contained very fine Al nanograins. Ni fragments indicative of unmelted residual Ni from the coating were also observed in parts of the intermediate layer. Formation of these features can be attributed to localize melting and a subsequent high rate cooling of molten Al and Ni confined to the interface during the MPW process. In the absence of an oxide film, atomic-scale bonding was also achieved between the intermediate layer and the sheet surfaces after the collision. MPW utilises impact energy, which affects the sheet surfaces. From the obtained results, good lap joint is attributed to an increased contact area, the anchor effect, work hardening, the absence of an oxide film, and suppressed formation of intermetallic compounds at the interface. - Highlights: •Good lap joint of an Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet was achieved by using magnetic pulse welding. •A Ni–Al binary amorphous alloy was formed as an intermediate layer at weld interface. •Atomic-scale bonding was achieved between the intermediate layer and the sheet surfaces.

  13. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  14. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  15. Advanced friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.

    2012-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  16. Advanced friction modeling in sheet metal forming

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  17. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.Q.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a

  18. Molding cork sheets to complex shapes

    Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    Partially cured cork sheet is easily formed to complex shapes and then final-cured. Temperature and pressure levels required for process depend upon resin system used and final density and strength desired. Sheet can be bonded to surface during final cure, or can be first-formed in mold and bonded to surface in separate step.

  19. Solute transport in crystalline rocks at Äspö — II: Blind predictions, inverse modelling and lessons learnt from test STT1

    Jakob, Andreas; Mazurek, Martin; Heer, Walter

    2003-03-01

    Based on the results from detailed structural and petrological characterisation and on up-scaled laboratory values for sorption and diffusion, blind predictions were made for the STT1 dipole tracer test performed in the Swedish Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory. The tracers used were nonsorbing, such as uranine and tritiated water, weakly sorbing 22Na +, 85Sr 2+, 47Ca 2+and more strongly sorbing 86Rb +, 133Ba 2+, 137Cs +. Our model consists of two parts: (1) a flow part based on a 2D-streamtube formalism accounting for the natural background flow field and with an underlying homogeneous and isotropic transmissivity field and (2) a transport part in terms of the dual porosity medium approach which is linked to the flow part by the flow porosity. The calibration of the model was done using the data from one single uranine breakthrough (PDT3). The study clearly showed that matrix diffusion into a highly porous material, fault gouge, had to be included in our model evidenced by the characteristic shape of the breakthrough curve and in line with geological observations. After the disclosure of the measurements, it turned out that, in spite of the simplicity of our model, the prediction for the nonsorbing and weakly sorbing tracers was fairly good. The blind prediction for the more strongly sorbing tracers was in general less accurate. The reason for the good predictions is deemed to be the result of the choice of a model structure strongly based on geological observation. The breakthrough curves were inversely modelled to determine in situ values for the transport parameters and to draw consequences on the model structure applied. For good fits, only one additional fracture family in contact with cataclasite had to be taken into account, but no new transport mechanisms had to be invoked. The in situ values for the effective diffusion coefficient for fault gouge are a factor of 2-15 larger than the laboratory data. For cataclasite, both data sets have values comparable to

  20. Refining MARGINS Mini-Lessons Using Classroom Observations

    Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.; McDaris, J. R.; Lee, S.

    2009-12-01

    One of the challenges that we face in developing teaching materials or activities from research findings is testing the materials to determine that they work as intended. Traditionally faculty develop material for their own class, notice what worked and didn’t, and improve them the next year. However, as we move to a community process of creating and sharing teaching materials, a community-based process for testing materials is appropriate. The MARGINS project has piloted such a process for testing teaching materials and activities developed as part of its mini-lesson project (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/index.html). Building on prior work developing mechanisms for community review of teaching resources (e.g. Kastens, 2002; Hancock and Manduca, 2005; Mayhew and Hall, 2007), the MARGINS evaluation team developed a structured classroom observation protocol. The goals of field testing are to a) gather structured, consistent feedback for the lesson authors based on classroom use; b) guide reviewers of these lessons to reflect on research-based educational practice as a framework for their comments; c) collect information on the data and observations that the reviewer used to underpin their review; d) determine which mini-lessons are ready to be made widely available on the website. The protocol guides faculty observations on why they used the activity, the effectiveness of the activity in their classroom, the success of the activity in leading to the desired learning, and what other faculty need to successfully use the activity. Available online (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/protocol.html), the protocol can be downloaded and completed during instruction with the activity. In order to encourage review of mini-lessons using the protocol, a workshop focused on review and revision of activities was held in May 2009. In preparation for the workshop, 13 of the 28 participants chose to field test a mini-lesson prior to the workshop and reported that they found this

  1. Cold Forming of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy Sheet

    Fann, Kaung-Jau; Su, Jhe-Yung

    2018-03-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloy has two specific properties, superelasiticity and shape memory effect, and thus is widely applied in diverse industries. To extend its further application, this study attempts to investigate the feasibility of cold forming its sheet blank especially under a bi-axial tensile stress state. Not only experiments but also a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with DEFORM 2D was conducted in this study. The material data for FEA was accomplished by the tensile test. An Erichsen-like cupping test was performed as well to determine the process parameter for experiment setup. As a result of the study, the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy sheet has a low formability for cold forming and shows a relative large springback after releasing the forming load.

  2. Pressure balance between lobe and plasma sheet

    Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.

    1990-01-01

    Using eight months of AMPTE/IRM plasma and magnetic field data, the authors have done a statistical survey on the balance of total (thermal and magnetic) pressure in the Earth's plasma sheet and tail lobe. About 300,000 measurements obtained in the plasma sheet and the lobe were compared for different levels of magnetic activity as well as different distances from the Earth. The data show that lobe and plasma sheet pressure balance very well. Even in the worst case they do not deviate by more than half of the variance in the data itself. Approximately constant total pressure was also seen during a quiet time pass when IRM traversed nearly the whole magnetotail in the vertical direction, from the southern hemisphere lobe through the neutral sheet and into the northern plasma sheet boundary layer

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Impact on Multiple-Sheet Structures and an Evaluation of the Meteoroid Hazard to Space Vehicles

    Nysmith, C. Robert; Summers, James L.

    1961-01-01

    Small pyrex glass spheres, representative of stoney meteoroids, were fired into 2024-T3 aluminum alclad multiple-sheet structures at velocities to 11,000 feet per second to evaluate the effectiveness of multisheet hull construction as a means of increasing the resistance of a spacecraft to meteoroid penetrations. The results of these tests indicate that increasing the number of sheets in a structure while keeping the total sheet thickness constant and increasing the spacing between sheets both tend to increase the penetration resistance of a structure of constant weight per unit area. In addition, filling the space between the sheets with a light filler material was found to substantially increase structure penetration resistance with a small increase in weight. An evaluation of the meteoroid hazard to space vehicles is presented in the form of an illustrative-example for two specific lunar mission vehicles, a single-sheet, monocoque hull vehicle and a glass-wool filled, double-sheet hull vehicle. The evaluation is presented in terms of the "best" and the "worst" conditions that might be expected as determined from astronomical and satellite measurements, high-speed impact data, and hypothesized meteoroid structures and compositions. It was observed that the vehicle flight time without penetration can be increased significantly by use of multiple-sheet rather than single-sheet hull construction with no increase in hull weight. Nevertheless, it is evident that a meteoroid hazard exists, even for the vehicle with the selected multiple-sheet hull.

  4. Simulation of the European ice sheet through the last glacial cycle and prediction of future glaciation

    Boulton, G.S.; Payne, A.

    1992-12-01

    Global climates of the recent past appear to correlate with patterns of variation in the earths orbit round the sun. As such orbital changes can be predicted into the future, it is argued that the pattern of natural long-term future change can also be estimated. From this, future trends of glaciation can be inferred. The physical and mathematical basis of a time-dependent, thermo mechanically coupled, three dimensional ice sheet model is described. The model is driven by changes in the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) on its surface. This causes flexure of the underlying lithosphere. The model is tuned to the maximum extension of the last (Weichselian) ice sheet and driven by an ELA fluctuation which reflects the NE Atlantic sea surface temperature fluctuation pattern during the last glacial cycle in such a way that the model reproduces the ice sheet margin at the glacial maximum. The distribution of internal ice sheet velocity, temperature, basal melting rate and sub glacial permafrost penetration are all computed. The model is then tested against its predictions of the areal pattern of ice sheet expansion and decay, the pattern of crustal flexure and relative sea level change, and the distribution of till produced by the last European ice sheet. The tested model is then driven by predictions of future climate change to produce simulations of future ice sheet glaciation in northern Europe

  5. Folded Sheet Versus Transparent Sheet Models for Human Symmetry Judgments

    Jacques Ninio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the mysteries of human symmetry perception, reaction time data were collected on the detection of symmetry or repetition violations, in the context of short term visual memory studies. The histograms for reaction time distributions are rather narrow in the case of symmetry judgments. Their analysis was performed in terms of a simple kinetic model of a mental process in two steps, a slow one for the construction of the representation of the images to be compared, and a fast one, in the 50 ms range, for the decision. There was no need for an additional ‘mental rotation’ step. Symmetry seems to facilitate the construction step. I also present here original stimuli showing a color equalization effect across a symmetry axis, and its counterpart in periodic patterns. According to a “folded sheet model”, when a shape is perceived, the brain automatically constructs a mirror-image representation of the shape. Based in part on the reaction time analysis, I present here an alternative “transparent sheet” model in which the brain constructs a single representation, which can be accessed from two sides, thus generating simultaneously a pattern and its mirror-symmetric partner. Filtering processes, implied by current models of symmetry perception could intervene at an early stage, by nucleating the propagation of similar perceptual groupings in the two symmetric images.

  6. Effects of Multimedia Usage in Students' Attitude towards Turkish Republic Revolution History and Kemalism Lesson

    Ulusoy, Kadir

    2011-01-01

    In this study, whether the multimedia in the history lesson affects the students' attitude towards this lesson or not has been studied. With this object, whether there is a difference among the point averages that students take from the preliminary test and whether there is a difference among the point averages that students take from the last…

  7. Seeking Comfort: How and Why Preservice Teachers Use Internet Resources for Lesson Planning

    Sawyer, Amanda G.; Myers, Joy

    2018-01-01

    This study examined 158 lesson plans at one institution across two teacher education programs, inclusive early childhood and elementary education, to determine the impact of Internet usage as inspiration on preservice teachers' lesson plans. Fisher's exact test determined statistically significant differences between the Internet use of preservice…

  8. Applications of chitosan-based thermo-sensitive copolymers for harvesting living cell sheet

    Chen, J.-P.; Yang, T.-F.

    2008-01-01

    A thermo-sensitive chitosan-based copolymer hydrogel was used for harvesting living cell sheets. The hydrogel was tested for harvesting 3T3 cells after carrying out cell culture at 37 deg. C and incubating the confluent cells at 20 deg. C for spontaneous detachment of cell sheets from hydrogel surface without enzyme treatment. Results from cell viability assay and microscopy observations demonstrated that cells could attach to the hydrogel surface and maintain high viability and proliferation ability. Cell detachment efficiency from the hydrogel was about 80%. The detached cell sheet retained high viability and could proliferate again after transferred to a new culture surface

  9. Elaboration of the technology of forming a conical product of sheet metal

    W. Matysiak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a general knowledge about spinning draw pieces of sheets, one of multi-operational processes of spinning a sheet metal conical product without machining. The objective of the work was to elaborate both the technology of forming conical products of sheet metal and execution of technological tests as well as to determine the technological parameters for the process of spinning a conical insert. As a result of the investigations, the products with improved mechanical properties, stricter execution tolerance and low roughness have been obtained. The series of 200 prototype conical inserts for the shipbuilding industry have been made.

  10. Test

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  11. Masterwork Art Lesson: Kandinsky Watercolors.

    LiPira, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students which also can be used with other grade levels. Explains that the artwork of Wassily Kandinsky served as inspiration for this lesson. Explains that the students learned about abstract art and used watercolors to create their own paintings in the style of Kandinsky. (CMK)

  12. Bead Game Simulation. Lesson Plan.

    Ripp, Ken

    This lesson plan offers students the opportunity to participate in the three basic economic systems (market, command, and tradition). By working in each of the systems, students will internalize the fundamental values present in each system and will gain insights into the basic advantages and disadvantages of each system. The lesson plan provides…

  13. Simple and Practical Efficiency Lessons

    Kolpin, Van

    2018-01-01

    The derivation of conditions necessary for Pareto efficient production and exchange is a lesson frequently showcased in microeconomic theory textbooks. Traditional delivery of this lesson is, however, limited in its scope of application and can be unnecessarily convoluted. The author shows that the universe of application is greatly expanded and a…

  14. Keiko, Killer Whale. [Lesson Plan].

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Keiko, the killer whale, lived for a long time in an aquarium and had to be taught to live independently; and that computer users can get updates on how Keiko is doing. The main activity of the lesson involves middle school students working in small groups to produce a…

  15. Lesson Study and History Education

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  16. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  17. Investigation into springback characteristics of two HSS sheets during cold v-bending

    Fang, Gang; Gao, Wei-Ran [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-16

    Considering the safety and the light-weight structure, there is an increasing requirement of high strength steel (HSS) sheets in the automotive industry. The high-precise prediction of the springback depends on constitutive equations and their corresponding material parameters. In order to investigate the springback of HSS sheets, DP590 and B280VK, their constitutive behaviors were analyzed based on the sheet tension tests. With respect to the constitutive equation, the Voce model is more proper to two hot-rolled steels, DP590 and B280VK, than the Swift model. Two steels are all saturated hardening, and the degree of hardening decreases with the strain. The cold v-banding tests of two HSS sheets were carried out for evaluation of springback characteristics. Results of v-bending experiments showed that the springback angle increases with the bending along 45°, 90° and 0° to the rolling direction of steel in turn.

  18. Investigation into springback characteristics of two HSS sheets during cold v-bending

    Fang, Gang; Gao, Wei-Ran

    2013-01-01

    Considering the safety and the light-weight structure, there is an increasing requirement of high strength steel (HSS) sheets in the automotive industry. The high-precise prediction of the springback depends on constitutive equations and their corresponding material parameters. In order to investigate the springback of HSS sheets, DP590 and B280VK, their constitutive behaviors were analyzed based on the sheet tension tests. With respect to the constitutive equation, the Voce model is more proper to two hot-rolled steels, DP590 and B280VK, than the Swift model. Two steels are all saturated hardening, and the degree of hardening decreases with the strain. The cold v-banding tests of two HSS sheets were carried out for evaluation of springback characteristics. Results of v-bending experiments showed that the springback angle increases with the bending along 45°, 90° and 0° to the rolling direction of steel in turn

  19. Mechanical characterization and constitutive modeling of Mg alloy sheets

    Mekonen, M. Nebebe; Steglich, D.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Mosler, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Material characterization of the Mg alloys AZ31 and ZE10 at elevated temperatures. ► Distortion of the yield locus does not depend on the strain rate. ► Novel constitutive model suitable for the analysis of sheet forming of magnesium. ► Strain-dependent r-values are included within the model. ► The model is thermodynamically consistent and accounts for distortional hardening. - Abstract: In this paper, an experimental mechanical characterization of the magnesium alloys ZE10 and AZ31 is performed and a suitable constitutive model is established. The mechanical characterization is based on uniaxial tensile tests. In order to avoid poor formability at room temperature, the tests were conducted at elevated temperature (200 °C). The uniaxial tensile tests reveal sufficient ductility allowing sheet forming processes at this temperature. The differences in yield stresses and plastic strain ratios (r-values) confirm the anisotropic response of the materials under study. The constitutive model is established so that the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloys such as anisotropy and compression-tension asymmetry can be accommodated. This model is thermodynamically consistent, incorporates rate effect, is formulated based on finite strain plasticity theory and is applicable in sheet forming simulations of magnesium alloys. More precisely, a model originally proposed by Cazacu and Barlat in 2004 and later modified to account for the evolution of the material anisotropy is rewritten in a thermodynamically consistent framework. The calibrated constitutive model is shown to capture the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloy sheets.

  20. Tube sheet design for PFBR steam generator

    Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Top and bottom tube sheets of PFBR Steam Generators have been analysed with 3D and axisymmetric models using CASTEM Programs. Analysis indicates that the effects of piping reactions at the inlet/outlet nozzles on the primary stresses in the tube sheets are negligible and the asymmetricity of the deformation pattern introduced in the tube sheet by the presence of inlet/outlet and manhole nozzles is insignificant. The minimum tube sheet thicknesses for evaporator and reheater are 135 mm and 75 mm respectively. Further analysis has indicated the minimum fillet radius at the junction of tube sheet and dished end should be 20 mm. Simplified methodology has been developed to arrive at the number of thermal baffles required to protect the tube sheet against fatigue damage due to thermal transient. This method has been applied to PFBR steam generators to determine the required number of thermal baffles. For protecting the bottom tube sheet of evaporator against the thermal shock due to feed water and secondary pump trip, one thermal shield is found to be sufficient. Further analysis is required to decide upon the actual number to take care of the severe thermal transient, following the event of sudden dumping of water/steam, immediately after the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  1. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  2. Plasma sheet behavior during substorms

    Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Auroral or magnetic substorms are periods of enhanced auroral and geomagnetic activity lasting one to a few hours that signify increased dissipation of energy from the magnetosphere to the earth. Data acquired during the past decade from satellites in the near-earth sector of the magnetotail have suggested that during a substorm part of the plasma sheet is severed from earth by magnetic reconnection, forming a plasmoid, i.e., a body of plasma and closed magnetic loops, that flows out of the tail into the solar wind, thus returning plasma and energy that have earlier been accumulated from the solar wind. Very recently this picture has been dramatically confirmed by observations, with the ISEE 3 spacecraft in the magnetotail 220 R/sub E/ from earth, of plasmoids passing that location in clear delayed response to substorms. It now appears that plasmoid release is a fundamental process whereby the magnetosphere gives up excess stored energy and plasma, much like comets are seen to do, and that the phenomena of the substorm seen at earth are a by-product of that fundamental process

  3. Radiation dominated relativistic current sheets

    Jaroschek, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic Current Sheets (RCS) feature plasma instabilities considered as potential key to magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation in Poynting flux dominated plasma flows. We show in a series of kinetic plasma simulations that the physical nature of non-linear RCS evolution changes in the presence of incoherent radiation losses: In the ultra-relativistic regime (i.e. magnetization parameter sigma = 104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density) the combination of non-linear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the Relativistic Tearing Mode (RTM). As direct consequence the RTM prevails over the Relativistic Drift Kink (RDK) Mode as competitive RCS instability. This is in contrast to the previously studied situation of weakly relativistic RCS (sigma ∼ 1) where the RDK is dominant and most of the plasma is thermalized. The simulations witness the typical life cycle of ultra-relativistic RCS evolving from a violent radiation induced collapse towards a radiation quiescent state in rather classical Sweet-Parker topology. Such a transition towards Sweet-Parker configuration in the late non-linear evolution has immediate consequences for the efficiency of magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation. Ceasing dissipation rates directly affect our present understanding of non-linear RCS evolution in conventional striped wind scenarios. (author)

  4. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    2006-01-01

    Lesson PlanningTask 1As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need tobe included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasonswhy we need to plan our lessons.

  5. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lesson Planning Task 1 As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need to be included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasons why we need to plan our lessons.

  6. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  7. World-sheet gauge fields in superstrings

    Porrati, M.; Tomboulis, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the introduction of world-sheet 2-dimensional gauge fields in a manner consistent with world-sheet supersymmetry. We obtain the effective string action resulting from the exact integration over the world-sheet gauge fields to show that it generally describes string models with spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries with continuous breaking parameters. We examine the question of spacetime supersymmetry spontaneous breaking, and show that breaking with continuous, in particular arbitrarily small breaking parameters does not occur; only breaking for discrete values of parameters is possible. (orig.)

  8. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  9. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  10. An Assessment of Need for Instructional Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers Using Interactive Lessons

    Burton, Amanda

    Numerous studies on the impact of interactive lessons on student learning have been conducted, but there has been a lack of professional development (PD) programs at a middle school focusing on ways to incorporate interactive lessons into the science classroom setting. The purpose of this case study was to examine the instructional practices of science teachers to determine whether the need for an interactive lessons approach to teaching students exists. This qualitative case study focused on teachers' perceptions and pedagogy to determine whether the need to use interactive lessons to meet the needs of all students is present. The research question focused on identifying current practices and determining whether a need for interactive lessons is present. Qualitative data were gathered from science teachers at the school through interviews, lesson plans, and observations, all of which were subsequently coded using an interpretative analysis. The results indicated the need for a professional development (PD) program centered on interactive science lessons. Upon completion of the qualitative study, a detailed PD program has been proposed to increase the instructional practices of science teachers to incorporate interactive lessons within the science classroom. Implications for positive social change include improved teaching strategies and lessons that are more student-centered resulting in better understanding and comprehension, as well as performance on state-mandated tests.

  11. A Novel Method of Modeling the Deformation Resistance for Clad Sheet

    Hu Jianliang; Yi Youping; Xie Mantang

    2011-01-01

    Because of the excellent thermal conductivity, the clad sheet (3003/4004/3003) of aluminum alloy is extensively used in various heat exchangers, such as radiator, motorcar air conditioning, evaporator, and so on. The deformation resistance model plays an important role in designing the process parameters of hot continuous rolling. However, the complex behaviors of the plastic deformation of the clad sheet make the modeling very difficult. In this work, a novel method for modeling the deformation resistance of clad sheet was proposed by combining the finite element analysis with experiments. The deformation resistance model of aluminum 3003 and 4004 was proposed through hot compression test on the Gleeble-1500 thermo-simulation machine. And the deformation resistance model of clad sheet was proposed through finite element analysis using DEFORM-2D software. The relationship between cladding ratio and the deformation resistance was discussed in detail. The results of hot compression simulation demonstrate that the cladding ratio has great effects on the resistance of the clad sheet. Taking the cladding ratio into consideration, the mathematical model of the deformation resistance for clad sheet has been proved to have perfect forecasting precision of different cladding ratio. Therefore, the presented model can be used to predict the rolling force of clad sheet during the hot continuous rolling process.

  12. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34 orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters.

  13. Studies in Cup Drawing Behavior of Polymer Laminated Sheet Metal

    Elnagmi, M.; Jain, M.; Bruhis, M.; Nielsen, K.

    2011-08-01

    Axisymmetric deep drawing behavior of a polymer laminated sheet metal (PLSM) is investigated using an axisymmetric cup drawing test. PLSMs are of interest as a replacement for painted finishes for automotive applications as they have the potential to achieve good quality long lasting and aesthetically appealing surfaces on stamped parts. However, there is limited understanding of PLSMs in automotive deep drawing situations to produce complex 3-D parts. The tests are carried out using well-controlled, laboratory-based, dual-action, servo-hydraulic forming presses under blank-holder force and punch displacement control conditions. An optical strain mapping system is used to measure the surface strains (and to construct 3D strain maps) from the film side of the deformed samples for a range of forming conditions. Deep drawing characteristics such as punch load versus punch displacement traces, strain distribution along the cup profile, flange wrinkling and fracture characteristics are experimentally assessed for stainless steel-plastic film laminated sheet materials. Also the effect of lamination pressure on wrinkling and delamination is investigated for a decorative pressure sensitive adhesive film affixed to the stainless steel sheet.

  14. Prediction of formability of aluminum alloy 5454 sheet

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Han; Kim, Young Suk

    2012-01-01

    In the automobile industry, reducing the weight is the most important objective for reducing air pollution and improving the fuel efficiency. For this reason, the application of aluminum sheets is increasing. When the sheets are applied to the automobile, using inappropriate variables for the material, product design, and press processing can generate tearing, wrinkling, and spring back problems, which are the main types of failure in the manufacturing process. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce these failures by harmonizing the many variables and strictly managing the processes. In this research, we study the theoretical plasticity instability of Al5454 and obtain the forming limit diagram (FLD) using MATLAB. Moreover, we compare the theoretical FLD with an experimental FLD obtained from a stretching test

  15. Plastic anisotropy of straight and cross rolled molybdenum sheets

    Oertel, C.-G.; Huensche, I.; Skrotzki, W.; Knabl, W.; Lorich, A.; Resch, J.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of molybdenum sheets produced by different rolling processes were investigated by orientation imaging in the scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile tests, respectively. For comparable recrystallization degree of the sheets investigated, straight rolling with low reduction ratio produces α-fiber textures with a maximum at {100} . At higher rolling degrees the maximum shifts to {112} . Cross rolling increases the rotated cube component {100} . The strong differences in the texture measured are reflected in the plastic anisotropy characterized by differences in the yield stress and Lankford parameter which were measured along directions in the rolling plane at angles of 0 deg., 45 deg. and 90 deg. with the rolling direction. The Taylor-Bishop-Hill theory is used successfully to qualitatively explain the plastic anisotropy

  16. PULSED MODE LASER CUTTING OF SHEETS FOR TAILORED BLANKS

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how the laser cutting process can be optimised in such a way that the cut sheets can subsequently be used to laser weld tailored blanks. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effect of cutting speed, assist gas pressure, average laser power and pulse energy...... item for parameter optimisation of laser cut sheets used for tailored blanks. It was concluded that high quality cut edges with a squareness as small as 0.015 mm may be obtained. Such edges are well suited for subsequent laser welding....... was analysed. For quality assessment the squareness, roughness and dross attachment of laser cut blanks were measured. In all tests, the medium strength steel GA 260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm was used. In this work it has been successfully demonstrated that the squareness of a cut can be used as a quality...

  17. Development of Multi-Scale Finite Element Analysis Codes for High Formability Sheet Metal Generation

    Nnakamachi, Eiji; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Ngoc Tam, Nguyen; Nakamura, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Morimoto, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic- and static-explicit multi-scale finite element (F.E.) codes are developed by employing the homogenization method, the crystalplasticity constitutive equation and SEM-EBSD measurement based polycrystal model. These can predict the crystal morphological change and the hardening evolution at the micro level, and the macroscopic plastic anisotropy evolution. These codes are applied to analyze the asymmetrical rolling process, which is introduced to control the crystal texture of the sheet metal for generating a high formability sheet metal. These codes can predict the yield surface and the sheet formability by analyzing the strain path dependent yield, the simple sheet forming process, such as the limit dome height test and the cylindrical deep drawing problems. It shows that the shear dominant rolling process, such as the asymmetric rolling, generates ''high formability'' textures and eventually the high formability sheet. The texture evolution and the high formability of the newly generated sheet metal experimentally were confirmed by the SEM-EBSD measurement and LDH test. It is concluded that these explicit type crystallographic homogenized multi-scale F.E. code could be a comprehensive tool to predict the plastic induced texture evolution, anisotropy and formability by the rolling process and the limit dome height test analyses

  18. Low Back Pain Fact Sheet

    ... arthritis. Potential tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Blood tests may ... size and relieving pressure on the nerves. Several channels may be made depending on how tissue needs ...

  19. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  20. Single clay sheets inside electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Sun, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    Nanofibers were prepared from polymer solution with clay sheets by electrospinning. Plasma etching, as a well controlled process, was used to supply electrically excited gas molecules from a glow discharge. To reveal the structure and arrangement of clay layers in the polymer matrix, plasma etching was used to remove the polymer by controlled gasification to expose the clay sheets due to the difference in reactivity. The shape, flexibility, and orientation of clay sheets were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Additional quantitative information on size distribution and degree of exfoliation of clay sheets were obtained by analyzing electron micrograph of sample after plasma etching. Samples in various forms including fiber, film and bulk, were thinned by plasma etching. Morphology and dispersion of inorganic fillers were studied by electron microscopy.

  1. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  2. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  3. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  4. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  5. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  6. Effective Lesson Planning: Field Trips in the Science Curriculum

    Rieger, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    Science field trips can positively impact and motivate students. However, if a field trip is not executed properly, with appropriate preparation and follow-up reinforcement, it can result in a loss of valuable educational time and promote misconceptions in the students. This study was undertaken to determine if a classroom lesson before an out-of-the-classroom activity would affect learner gain more or less than a lesson after the activity. The study was based on the immersive theater movie ``Earth's Wild Ride'' coupled with a teacher-led Power Point lesson. The participants in the study were students in a sixth grade physical science class. The order of lessons showed no detectable effect on final learner outcomes. Based on pre- and post-testing, improvement in mean learning gain came from the teacher-led lesson independent of the movie. The visit to the immersive theater, however, had significant positive effects that did not show up in the quantitative results of the testing.

  7. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  8. Controlling microstructure and texture in magnesium alloy sheet by shear-based deformation processing

    Sagapuram, Dinakar

    basal slip exhibits ductile tensile-type fracture. A two-fold increase in ductility is also observed for the LSEM sheet under uniaxial tensile testing without significant changes in the strength. Among texture and microstructure (grain size), texture is shown to be more critical for Mg sheet formability. However, in conjunction with a favorable texture, fine recrystallized microstructure provides for additional enhancement of strain-hardening capacity and formability. In-situ imaging of material flow during uniaxial tensile testing revealed new, interesting flow localization phenomena and fracture behavior. It is shown that the deformation behavior of Mg sheet is highly texture dependent, and also radically different from that of conventional ductile metals both in terms of necking and fracture. The implications of these observations for the LDH test results and formability of Mg sheet, in general, are briefly discussed.

  9. The Svalbard-Barents Sea ice-sheet - Historical, current and future perspectives

    Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Landvik, Jon Y.

    2013-03-01

    The history of research on the Late Quaternary Svalbard-Barents Sea ice sheet mirrors the developments of ideas and the shifts of paradigms in glacial theory over the past 150 years. Since the onset of scientific research there in the early 19th Century, Svalbard has been a natural laboratory where ideas and concepts have been tested, and played an important (but rarely acknowledged) role in the break-through of the Ice Age theory in the 1870's. The history of how the scientific perception of the Svalbard-Barents sea ice sheet developed in the mid-20th Century also tells a story of how a combination of fairly scattered and often contradictory observational data, and through both deductive and inductive reasoning, could outline a major ice sheet that had left but few tangible fingerprints. Since the 1980's, with increased terrestrial stratigraphical data, ever more marine geological evidence and better chronological control of glacial events, our perception of the Svalbard-Barents Sea ice sheet has changed. The first reconstructions depicted it as a static, concentric, single-domed ice sheet, with ice flowing from an ice divide over the central northern Barents Sea that expanded and declined in response to large-scale, Late Quaternary climate fluctuations, and which was more or less in tune with other major Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. We now increasingly perceive it as a very dynamic, multidomed ice sheet, controlled by climate fluctuations, relative sea-level change, as well as subglacial topography, substrate properties and basal temperature. In this respect, the Svalbard-Barents Sea ice sheet will increasingly hold the key for understanding the dynamics and processes of how marine-based ice sheets build-up and decay.

  10. Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

    Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.

    2017-04-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.

  11. Do Lessons in Nature Boost Subsequent Classroom Engagement? Refueling Students in Flight

    Ming Kuo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers wishing to offer lessons in nature may hold back for fear of leaving students keyed up and unable to concentrate in subsequent, indoor lessons. This study tested the hypothesis that lessons in nature have positive—not negative—aftereffects on subsequent classroom engagement. Using carefully matched pairs of lessons (one in a relatively natural outdoor setting and one indoors, we observed subsequent classroom engagement during an indoor instructional period, replicating these comparisons over 10 different topics and weeks in the school year, in each of two third grade classrooms. Pairs were roughly balanced in how often the outdoor lesson preceded or followed the classroom lesson. Classroom engagement was significantly better after lessons in nature than after their matched counterparts for four of the five measures developed for this study: teacher ratings; third-party tallies of “redirects” (the number of times the teacher stopped instruction to direct student attention back onto the task at hand; independent, photo-based ratings made blind to condition; and a composite index each showed a nature advantage; student ratings did not. This nature advantage held across different teachers and held equally over the initial and final 5 weeks of lessons. And the magnitude of the advantage was large. In 48 out of 100 paired comparisons, the nature lesson was a full standard deviation better than its classroom counterpart; in 20 of the 48, the nature lesson was over two standard deviations better. The rate of “redirects” was cut almost in half after a lesson in nature, allowing teachers to teach for longer periods uninterrupted. Because the pairs of lessons were matched on teacher, class (students and classroom, topic, teaching style, week of the semester, and time of day, the advantage of the nature-based lessons could not be attributed to any of these factors. It appears that, far from leaving students too keyed up to concentrate

  12. Medical faculty members' attitude on lesson planning Semnan University of Medical Sciences

    Masomeh Saberian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesson planning has a distinct role in enhancing education quality, as well as maintaining the friendly and dynamic atmosphere of the academic environment and increasing student's initiatives for achieving better educational attainments. Lesson planning is a process for defining the goals, understanding the needs, and specifying available tools and possible limitations. Lesson planning is a written description of this process, which shows the materials, the route, the time, and the place of instructions, as well as a method for evaluating students. Purpose: to identify the attitudes of Semnan University of Medical Sciences (SUMS on lesson planning. Methods: Fifty-three faculty members of the SUMS participated in this study. A questionnaire was used, which contained 8 demographic questions, and 24 r questions for identification the faculty members' attitude. Questionnaires were distributed among the faculty members in sealed envelopes, without denoting their names. The questionnaires were gathered after being completed. Results were analyzed by calculating the mean, standard deviation, absolute and relative frequencies, and using Chi-square and Fischer exact test at the level of 5%. Results: II was shown that 88% of faculty members favoured lesson planning before the beginning of the semester. But they found lesson planning a difficult task, because of their heavy workload. Of the faculty members, 60.4% organized their teaching classes according to a designed lesson plan, and believed that it did affect the quality of their teaching, but 49.1% disagreed with distributing the designed lesson plan among the students. Discussion: Although professor favoured lesson planning and find it necessary to work according to such a plan, workload and lack of knowledge are defined as two main obstacles in doing so. It is believed that by decreasing the professor's workload and provision of lesson planning workshops, these problems could be solved

  13. Evaluation of the sheet mechanical response to laser welding processes

    Carmignani, B.; Daneri, A.; Toselli, G.; Bellei, M.

    1995-07-01

    The simulation of the mechanical response of steel sheets, due to the heating during welding processes by a laser source beam, obtained by Abaqus standard code, is discussed. Different hypotheses for the material behaviour at temperatures greater than the fusion one have been tested and compared; in particular, some tests have been made taking the annealing effect into account by means of an user routine UMAT developed ad hoc. This work was presented at the 8th international Abaqus Users' conference at Paris, 31 May - 2 June 1995

  14. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  15. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  16. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets

    Kuijian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  17. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.  Q.; Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  18. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction

  19. Robot-based additive manufacturing for flexible die-modelling in incremental sheet forming

    Rieger, Michael; Störkle, Denis Daniel; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    The paper describes the application concept of additive manufactured dies to support the robot-based incremental sheet metal forming process (`Roboforming') for the production of sheet metal components in small batch sizes. Compared to the dieless kinematic-based generation of a shape by means of two cooperating industrial robots, the supporting robot models a die on the back of the metal sheet by using the robot-based fused layer manufacturing process (FLM). This tool chain is software-defined and preserves the high geometrical form flexibility of Roboforming while flexibly generating support structures adapted to the final part's geometry. Test series serve to confirm the feasibility of the concept by investigating the process challenges of the adhesion to the sheet surface and the general stability as well as the influence on the geometric accuracy compared to the well-known forming strategies.

  20. Effect of Intermediate Annealing on Microstructure and Property of 5182 Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Automobile

    WANG Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and properties of 5182 aluminum alloy sheet with full annealed state (5182-O was investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. The results indicate that compared with 5182-O sheet without intermediate annealing, 5182-O sheet with intermediate annealing possesses too fine grain size, intermetallic compounds not broken enough, larger size intermetallic particles, less dispersed phase. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, work hardening exponent and normal anisotropy of plastic strain ratio decrease but planner anisotropy of plastic strain ratio increases. The mechanical properties and forming ability of 5182-O aluminum alloy sheet and its microstructure are not improved significantly after intermediate annealing.

  1. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except for... of this part. Balance sheets filed under this rule shall comply with the following provisions: Assets...

  2. Physiotherapy exercise programmes: are instructional exercise sheets effective?

    Smith, Jo; Lewis, Jeremy; Prichard, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Effective compliance with physiotherapy exercises is only possible if patients remember the exercises accurately. The purpose of this study was to assess how well elderly in-patients remembered simple physiotherapy exercises, by comparing the ability to accurately reproduce a set of exercises in a group of patients that had received a written exercise sheet, with a group that had not. The study also aimed to investigate the relationship between memory for exercises and cognition. Sixty-four in-patients in an acute hospital were taught 3 exercises. Half of the subjects were randomised to receive exercise sheets to reinforce the teaching (Group 1). The rest of the subjects did not receive this memory aid (Group 2). Two to three days later subjects were asked to demonstrate their exercises. The accurate recall of the exercises was scored using a new assessment scale with a maximum score of 24. The mean exercise score was 17.19 for group 1 (SD = 5.91) and 16.24 for Group 2 (SD = 6.01). There was no significant difference in exercise score between groups (Mann Whitney U test p = 0.44). There was a statistically significant small positive correlation between exercise score and cognition (tau = 0.263). The study showed that older adult in-patients do not remember physiotherapy exercises effectively after a single teaching session and that their memory is not significantly improved by provision of an exercise sheet.

  3. Machining of the nuclear tube sheet with small hole diameter

    Lin Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    Regarding the tube sheet for the heat exchanger of Qinshan Phase II extension project, its material is 00Cr19Ni10 forgings, the tube sheet thickness is 125 mm, requiring 178-φ10.35 0 +0.05 hole, the tube array shall take the shape of equilateral triangle, the center distance is 15 mm, and the tube hole roughness is Ra 3.2. The guide sleeve shall be adopted for positioning prior to machining of the high precision small hole of the thick tube sheet, and the gun drill and BTA drill shall be adopted for testing, finally BTA drilling with internal chip removal shall be adopted, this method shall overcome the disadvantage factor of BTA drilling and shall be the new approach for drilling. The diameter of BTA drill is φ10.34 mm. The machined hole diameter shall be φ10.375-φ10.355 mm. The ellipticity of the tube hole shall be less than 0.01 mm, the pipe bridge dimension shall be 4.6 mm, conforming to the requirement of the drawing. The paper presents the precautions during machining so as to provide the reference for the similar pipe hole machining in the future. (author)

  4. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    Yoshinobu Uchihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  5. Higher Education ERP: Lessons Learned.

    Swartz, Dave; Orgill, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Shares experiences and lessons learned by chief information officers of large universities about enterprise resource planning (ERP). Specifically, provides a framework for approaching an ERP that could save universities millions of dollars. (EV)

  6. lessons from tuberous sclerosis complex

    intellectual disability, autism, specific learning disorders) and mental health disorders (e.g. depression, psychosis and anxiety disorders). The first lesson, therefore, is ... of an adolescent with TSC, facial angiofibromas and a presumed fat-poor ...

  7. Lessons of nuclear power

    Collingridge, D.

    1984-01-01

    In an earlier article the author has argued that the turbulent history of nuclear power in Britain and the USA stems from the technology itself, and has little to do with the very different institutional arrangements made for the new technology in the two countries. Nuclear plant has various features which make its planning extraordinarily difficult. Its long lead time, large unit size, capital intensity and dependence on complex infrastructure combine to ensure that mistakes are likely to be made in planning the technology and that what mistakes do occur are expensive. This article aims to expand on the earlier one in two ways; by looking at the apparent success of the French nuclear programme which seems to run counter to the thesis of the earlier article, and by trying to draw lessons from the earlier analysis for the breeder reactor. (author)

  8. HIV Resistance Testing

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  9. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  10. Lessons learned in radiology

    Goodenough, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews aspects of the history of radiology with the goal of identifying lessons learned, particularly in the area of radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. It is pointed out that since the days of Roentgen there has been a need not only to control and quantify the amount of radiation reaching the patient but also to optimize the imaging process to offer the greatest diagnostic benefit within allowable levels of patient dose. To this end, in diagnostic radiology, one finds the development of better films, X rays tubes, grids, screens and processing techniques, while in fluoroscopy, one sees the increased luminance of calcium tungstate. In interventional radiology, one finds an improvement in catheterization techniques and contrast agents. In nuclear medicine, the development of tracer techniques into modern cameras and isotopes such as technetium can be followed. In radiotherapy, one sees the early superficial X rays and radium sources gradually replaced with radon seeds, supervoltage, 60 Co and today's linear accelerators. Along with the incredible advances in imaging and therapeutic technologies comes the growing realization of the potential danger of radiation and the need to protect the patient (as well as physicians, ancillary personnel and the general population) from unnecessary radiation. The important lesson learned is that we must walk a tightrope, balancing the benefits and risks of any technology utilizing radiation to produce the greatest benefits at the lowest acceptable risk. The alternative techniques using non-ionizing radiation will have to be considered as part of the general armamentarium for medical imaging whenever radiation consequences are unacceptable. (author)

  11. Lessons Learned from FUSRAP

    Castillo, Darina [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-06

    The US DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the long-term steward for 90 sites remediated under numerous regulatory regimes including the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. In addition, LM holds considerable historical information, gathered in the 1970s, to determine site eligibility for remediation under FUSRAP. To date, 29 FUSRAP sites are in LM’s inventory of sites for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M), and 25 are with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for remediation or in the process of being transitioned to LM. It is forecasted that 13 FUSRAP sites will transfer from the USACE to LM over the next 10 years; however, the timing of the transfers is strongly dependent upon federal funding of the ongoing remedial actions. Historically, FUSRAP sites were generally cleaned up for “unrestricted” industrial use or remediated to the “cleanup standards” at that time, and their use remained unchanged. Today, these sites as well as the adjacent properties are now changing or envisioned to have changes in land use, typically from industrial to commercial or residential uses. The implication of land-use change affects DOE’s LTS&M responsibility for the sites under LM stewardship as well as the planning for the additional sites scheduled to transition in time. Coinciding with land-use changes at or near FUSRAP sites is an increased community awareness of these sites. As property development increases near FUSRAP sites, the general public and interested stakeholders regularly inquire about the sufficiency of cleanups that impact their neighborhoods and communities. LM has used this experience to address a series of lessons learned to improve our program management in light of the changing conditions of our sites. We describe these lessons learned as (1) improved stakeholder relations, (2) enhanced LTS&M requirements for the sites, and (3) greater involvement in the transition process.

  12. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  13. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    Zuniga-Bello, P.; Croft, J.R.; Glenn, J.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  14. HCI Lessons From PlayStation VR

    Habgood, Jacob; Wilson, David; Moore, David; Alapont, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    PlayStation VR has quickly built up a significant user-base of over a million headsets and its own ecosystem of games across a variety of genres. These games form part of a rapidly evolving testing ground for design solutions which can usefully inform HCI design for virtual reality. This paper reviews every PlayStation VR title released in the first three months of its lifecycle in order to identify emerging themes for locomotion. These themes are discussed with respect to the lessons learned...

  15. Texture and mechanical properties of Al-0.5Mg-1.0Si-0.5Cu alloy sheets manufactured via a cross rolling method

    Jeon, Jae-Yeol; Son, Hyeon-Taek; Woo, Kee-Do; Lee, Kwang-Jin

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between the texture and mechanical properties of 6xxx aluminum alloy sheets processed via cross rolling was investigated. The microstructures of the conventional rolled and cross rolled sheets after annealing were analyzed using optical micrographs (OM). The texture distribution across the thickness in the Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy, conventional rolled sheets, and cross rolled sheets both before and after annealing was investigated via X-ray texture measurements. The texture was analyzed in three layers from the surface to the center of the sheet. The β-fiber texture of the conventional rolled sheet was typical of the texture obtained using aluminumoll ring. After annealing, the typical β-fiber orientations were changed to recrystallization textures: cube{001} and normal direction (ND)-rotated cubes. However, the texture of the cross rolled sheet was composed of an asymmetrical, rolling direction (RD)-rotated cubes. After annealing, the asymmetrical orientations in the cross rolled sheet were changed to a randomized texture. The average R-value of the annealed cross rolled sheets was higher than that of the conventional rolled sheets. The limit dome height (LDH) test results demonstrated that cross rolling is effective in improving the formability of the Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy sheets.

  16. BH4 deficiency with unusual presentations: Challenges and lessons

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2015-10-23

    Oct 23, 2015 ... patient died before testing result of the urine neopterin was finished. ... physician and restrict his diagnosis only to lysosomal storage diseases. The high ... The third lesson is that taking samples in critically ill patient is of high ...

  17. Public health lessons from a pilot programme to reduce mother-to ...

    Public health lessons from a pilot programme to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Khayelitsha. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... took blood for HIV enzyme-linked imrnunosorbent assay (EUSA) testing.

  18. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  19. The Value of Identifying and Recovering Lost GN&C Lessons Learned: Aeronautical, Spacecraft, and Launch Vehicle Examples

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Labbe, Steve; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Within the broad aerospace community the importance of identifying, documenting and widely sharing lessons learned during system development, flight test, operational or research programs/projects is broadly acknowledged. Documenting and sharing lessons learned helps managers and engineers to minimize project risk and improve performance of their systems. Often significant lessons learned on a project fail to get captured even though they are well known 'tribal knowledge' amongst the project team members. The physical act of actually writing down and documenting these lessons learned for the next generation of NASA GN&C engineers fails to happen on some projects for various reasons. In this paper we will first review the importance of capturing lessons learned and then will discuss reasons why some lessons are not documented. A simple proven approach called 'Pause and Learn' will be highlighted as a proven low-impact method of organizational learning that could foster the timely capture of critical lessons learned. Lastly some examples of 'lost' GN&C lessons learned from the aeronautics, spacecraft and launch vehicle domains are briefly highlighted. In the context of this paper 'lost' refers to lessons that have not achieved broad visibility within the NASA-wide GN&C CoP because they are either undocumented, masked or poorly documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System (LLIS).

  20. Bessel light sheet structured illumination microscopy

    Noshirvani Allahabadi, Golchehr

    Biomedical study researchers using animals to model disease and treatment need fast, deep, noninvasive, and inexpensive multi-channel imaging methods. Traditional fluorescence microscopy meets those criteria to an extent. Specifically, two-photon and confocal microscopy, the two most commonly used methods, are limited in penetration depth, cost, resolution, and field of view. In addition, two-photon microscopy has limited ability in multi-channel imaging. Light sheet microscopy, a fast developing 3D fluorescence imaging method, offers attractive advantages over traditional two-photon and confocal microscopy. Light sheet microscopy is much more applicable for in vivo 3D time-lapsed imaging, owing to its selective illumination of tissue layer, superior speed, low light exposure, high penetration depth, and low levels of photobleaching. However, standard light sheet microscopy using Gaussian beam excitation has two main disadvantages: 1) the field of view (FOV) of light sheet microscopy is limited by the depth of focus of the Gaussian beam. 2) Light-sheet images can be degraded by scattering, which limits the penetration of the excitation beam and blurs emission images in deep tissue layers. While two-sided sheet illumination, which doubles the field of view by illuminating the sample from opposite sides, offers a potential solution, the technique adds complexity and cost to the imaging system. We investigate a new technique to address these limitations: Bessel light sheet microscopy in combination with incoherent nonlinear Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). Results demonstrate that, at visible wavelengths, Bessel excitation penetrates up to 250 microns deep in the scattering media with single-side illumination. Bessel light sheet microscope achieves confocal level resolution at a lateral resolution of 0.3 micron and an axial resolution of 1 micron. Incoherent nonlinear SIM further reduces the diffused background in Bessel light sheet images, resulting in

  1. The transposition of the balance sheet to financial and functional balance sheet. Research and development

    Liana GĂDĂU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the title suggests, through this paper we want to highlight the necessity of treating again the content and the form of the balance sheet in order to adapt it to a more efficient analysis, this way surpassing the informational valences of the classic balance sheet. The functional and the financial balance sheet will be taken into account. These models of balance sheet permit the complex analyses regarding the solvability or the bankruptcy risk of an enterprise to take place, and also other analyses, like the analysis of the structure and the financial/ functional equilibrium, the analysis of the company on operating cycles and their role in the functioning of the company. Through the particularities offered by each of these two models of balance sheet, we want to present the advantages of a superior informing. This content of this material is based on a vast investigation of the specialized literature.

  2. Electricity prices in Spain between 2000 and 2011: lessons to be learnt from a descent into Hell

    2011-01-01

    This note aims at analysing the impact of public authorities' decisions on the Spanish electricity tariffing system since the year 2000: 1 - the Spanish electricity tariff out of touch; 2 - the strategic choice made by Spain; 3 - 2008 crisis and securitization; 4 - a desperate attempt to move backward; 5 - the last ten years balance sheet for the Spanish power system; 6 - the lessons to be learnt from the Spanish experience

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICS STUDENT WORK SHEET (SWS TO BUILD SCIENCE PROCESS SKILL VALUED CONSERVATION

    D. Yulianti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Student Work Sheet (SWS which contains only a summary of the material and exercises does not train students to investigate and develop conservation values. The research objective is to also prepared worksheets guided inquiry that can enhance science process skills, understanding of the concept and develop conservation value. Elements of inquiry and conservation value generated through work instructions and investigation. The study was performed by using one group pretest-posttest design. Research procedures include observation and identification of weaknesses worksheets, planning, early product development and initial field trials. Feasibility and legibility using questionnaires and tests hiatus. The value of understanding the concept derived from the pretest-posttest. Data science process skills gained from the observation during the lesson. Conservation values obtained from the students' self-assessment questionnaire and assessment questionnaire between friends. The analysis showed guided inquiry SWS easy to understand and very fit for use as teaching materials. Test gain showed guided inquiry SWS can enhance science process skills and conceptual understanding, and can be used as a medium to develop conservation value.LKS yang hanya berisi ringkasan materi dan latihan soal tidak melatih siswa melakukan penyelidikan dan mengembangkan nilai konservasi. Tujuan penelitian R&D ini adalah menyususn LKS yang mampu meningkatkan keterampilan proses sains, pemahaman konsep dan nilai konservasi. Nilai konservasi dimunculkan melalui petunjuk kerja dan kegiatan penyelidikan.Ujicoba menggunakanOne Group Pretest-Posttest Design. Prosedur penelitian meliputi observasi dan identifikasi kelemahan LKS, perencanaan, pengembangan produk awal dan uji coba lapangan awal. Uji kelayakan dan keterbacaan menggunakan angket dan tes rumpang. Nilai pemahaman konsep  diperoleh dari pretest-posttest. Data keterampilan proses sains diperoleh dari hasil observasi

  4. The key factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons

    Cheung, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The present study aimed to address this gap, using a mixed methods design. Qualitative interview data were collected from 60 Hong Kong junior secondary school students, who were asked to describe the nature of their interest in science lessons and the factors to which they attribute this. Teacher interviews, parent interviews, and classroom observations were conducted to triangulate student interview data. Five factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons were identified: situational influences in science lessons, individual interest in science, science self-concept, grade level, and gender. Quantitative data were then collected from 591 students using a questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was applied to test a hypothesised model, which provided an acceptable fit to the student data. The strongest factor affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons was science self-concept, followed by individual interest in science and situational influences in science lessons. Grade level and gender were found to be nonsignificant factors. These findings suggest that teachers should pay special attention to the association between academic self-concept and interest if they want to motivate students to learn science at school.

  5. Crack Propagation on ESE(T) Specimens Strengthened with CFRP Sheets

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Jensen, Peter Holmstrøm; Dyrelund, Jens

    2009-01-01

    In this paper fatigue tests on side notched steel test specimens strengthened with adhesive bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets are presented. The specimens are subject to crack growth both in the steel and bond line. Influence of the load ratio and initial crack length on the overall...

  6. Fine-grained sheet silicate rocks

    Weaver, C.E.

    1977-09-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the possibility of using shales as repositories for radioactive waste and a variety of other waste products, and it appears that over the next few years much money and effort will be expended to investigate and test a wide variety of shales. If shales are to be studied in detail by a large number of investigators, it is important that all concerned have the same concept of what constitutes a shale. The term shale and other terms for fine-grained rocks have been used for many years and have been continually redefined. Most definitions predate the development of modern instrumentation and are based on field observations and intuition; however, the main problem is the diversity of definitions. An attempt is made here to develop a simple, rational classification of fine-grained sediments, and it is hoped that this classification will eliminate some of the present ambiguity. In order that the classification be pertinent, mineral composition and textural data were compiled and evaluated. The data on unconsolidated and consolidated sediments were contrasted and the effects of burial diagenesis assessed. It was found necessary to introduce a new term, physil, to describe all sheet silicate minerals. In contrast to the term clay mineral, the term physil has no size connotation. A simple classification is proposed that is based on the percentage of physils and grain size. In Part II the fine-grained physil rocks are classified on the basis of physil type, non-physil minerals, and texture. Formations are listed which have the mineral and textural characteristics of the most important rock types volumetrically. Selected rock types, and the formations in which they can be found, are recommended for laboratory study to determine their suitability for the storage of high-level radioactive waste

  7. Enhanced mechanical properties of ARB-processed aluminum alloy 6061 sheets by subsequent asymmetric cryorolling and ageing

    Yu, Hailiang, E-mail: hailiang@uow.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Su, Lihong; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Kiet [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Li, Huijun, E-mail: huijun@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Li, Jintao; Godbole, Ajit [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Kong, Charlie [Electron Microscope Unit, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-09-30

    Grain size and precipitations affect the strength and ductility of ultrafine-grained materials. In this study, aluminum alloy 6061 sheets were fabricated using the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) technique. The ARB-processed sheets were subsequently subjected to cryorolling and asymmetric cryorolling. The sheets were further aged at 100 °C for 48 h. Mechanical tests show that a combination of asymmetric cryorolling and ageing results in significant improvement in both the ductility and the strength of the ARB-processed sheets. The microstructures of the sheets at different stages of the process were also analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to correlate the mechanical properties with the microstructure.

  8. Contact-free sheet resistance determination of large area graphene layers by an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity

    Shaforost, O.; Wang, K.; Adabi, M.; Guo, Z.; Hanham, S.; Klein, N.; Goniszewski, S.; Gallop, J.; Hao, L.

    2015-01-01

    A method for contact-free determination of the sheet resistance of large-area and arbitrary shaped wafers or sheets coated with graphene and other (semi) conducting ultrathin layers is described, which is based on an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity. The sample under test is exposed to the evanescent resonant field outside the cavity. A comparison with a closed cavity configuration revealed that radiation losses have no significant influence of the experimental results. Moreover, the microwave sheet resistance results show good agreement with the dc conductivity determined by four-probe van der Pauw measurements on a set of CVD samples transferred on quartz. As an example of a practical application, correlations between the sheet resistance and deposition conditions for CVD graphene transferred on quartz wafers are described. Our method has a high potential as measurement standard for contact-free sheet resistance measurement and mapping of large area graphene samples

  9. Enhanced mechanical properties of ARB-processed aluminum alloy 6061 sheets by subsequent asymmetric cryorolling and ageing

    Yu, Hailiang; Su, Lihong; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Kiet; Li, Huijun; Li, Jintao; Godbole, Ajit; Kong, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Grain size and precipitations affect the strength and ductility of ultrafine-grained materials. In this study, aluminum alloy 6061 sheets were fabricated using the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) technique. The ARB-processed sheets were subsequently subjected to cryorolling and asymmetric cryorolling. The sheets were further aged at 100 °C for 48 h. Mechanical tests show that a combination of asymmetric cryorolling and ageing results in significant improvement in both the ductility and the strength of the ARB-processed sheets. The microstructures of the sheets at different stages of the process were also analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to correlate the mechanical properties with the microstructure.

  10. Forming limit and fracture mechanism of ferritic stainless steel sheets

    Xu Le; Barlat, Frederic; Ahn, Deok Chan; Bressan, Jose Divo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Forming limit curves of two ferritic stainless steel sheets were well predicted. → Failure occurs by necking in uniaxial and plane strain tension for both materials. → Failure occurs by shearing in balanced biaxial tension for both materials. → Strain rate sensitivity does not affect the limit strains a lot for both materials. → Strain rate sensitivity likely influences the failure mode for both materials. - Abstract: In this work, the forming limit curves (FLCs) of two ferritic stainless steel sheets, AISI409L and AISI430, were predicted with the Marciniak-Kuczynski (MK) and Bressan-William-Hill (BWH) models, combined with the Yld2000-2d yield function and the Swift hardening law. Uniaxial tension, disk compression and hydraulic bulge tests were performed to determine the yield loci and hardening curves of both materials. Meanwhile, the strain rate sensitivity (SRS) coefficient was measured through uniaxial tension tests carried out at different strain rates. Out-of-plane stretching tests were conducted in sheet specimens to obtain the surface limit strains under different linear strain paths. Micrographs of the specimens fractured in different stress states were obtained by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The overall results show that the BWH model can predict the FLC better than the MK model, and that the SRS does not have much effect on the limit strains for both materials. The predicted FLCs and micrograph analysis both indicate that failure occurs by surface localized necking in uniaxial and plane strain tension states, whereas it occurs by localized shearing in the through thickness direction in balanced biaxial tension state.

  11. Pneumatic artificial rubber muscle using shape-memory polymer sheet with embedded electrical heating wire

    Takashima, Kazuto; Sugitani, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Naohiro; Sakaguchi, Seiya; Noritsugu, Toshiro; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2014-12-01

    Shape-memory polymer (SMP) can be deformed by applying a small load above its glass transition temperature (Tg). Shape-memory polymer maintains its shape after it has cooled below Tg and returns to a predefined shape when subsequently heated above Tg. The reversible change in the elastic modulus between the glassy and rubbery states of an SMP can be on the order of several hundred times. Based on the change in stiffness of the SMP in relation to the change in temperature, the present study attempts to evaluate the application of the SMP to soft actuators of a robot. In order to control the temperature of the SMP, we developed an SMP sheet with an embedded electrical heating wire. We formed a uniform, thin SMP sheet without air bubbles using a heat press. The SMP sheet with a heating wire can be heated quickly and can be maintained at a constant temperature. Moreover, the effects of the embedded wire on the mechanical properties in bending and tensile tests were small. Then, we applied the SMP sheet with the embedded electrical heating wire to a pneumatic artificial rubber muscle. The enhanced versatility of SMP sheet applications is demonstrated through a series of experiments conducted using a prototype. The initial shape and bending displacement of the pneumatic artificial rubber muscle can be changed by controlling the temperature of the SMP sheet.

  12. Pneumatic artificial rubber muscle using shape-memory polymer sheet with embedded electrical heating wire

    Takashima, Kazuto; Sugitani, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Naohiro; Sakaguchi, Seiya; Noritsugu, Toshiro; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Shape-memory polymer (SMP) can be deformed by applying a small load above its glass transition temperature (T g ). Shape-memory polymer maintains its shape after it has cooled below T g and returns to a predefined shape when subsequently heated above T g . The reversible change in the elastic modulus between the glassy and rubbery states of an SMP can be on the order of several hundred times. Based on the change in stiffness of the SMP in relation to the change in temperature, the present study attempts to evaluate the application of the SMP to soft actuators of a robot. In order to control the temperature of the SMP, we developed an SMP sheet with an embedded electrical heating wire. We formed a uniform, thin SMP sheet without air bubbles using a heat press. The SMP sheet with a heating wire can be heated quickly and can be maintained at a constant temperature. Moreover, the effects of the embedded wire on the mechanical properties in bending and tensile tests were small. Then, we applied the SMP sheet with the embedded electrical heating wire to a pneumatic artificial rubber muscle. The enhanced versatility of SMP sheet applications is demonstrated through a series of experiments conducted using a prototype. The initial shape and bending displacement of the pneumatic artificial rubber muscle can be changed by controlling the temperature of the SMP sheet. (paper)

  13. Impact of the storm-time plasma sheet ion composition on the ring current energy density

    Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Petrinec, S. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Cohen, I.

    2017-12-01

    The adiabatic inward transport of the night-side near-earth ( 6 Re) hot plasma sheet is the dominant contributor to the ring current pressure during storm times. During storm times, the plasma sheet composition in the 6 - 12 Re tail region changes due to O+ entry from the lobes (from the cusp) and the direct feeding from the night side auroral region. In addition, at substorm onset the plasma sheet O+ ions can be preferentially accelerated. We use MMS and observations during two magnetic storms, 5/8/2016 and 7/16/2017, to monitor the composition changes and energization in the 6 - 12 Re plasma sheet region. For both storms the MMS apogee was in the tail. In addition, we use subsequent Van Allen Probe observations (with apogee in the dawn and dusk respectively) to test if the 6-12 Re plasma sheet, observed by MMS, is a sufficient source of the O+ in the ring current. For this we will compare the phase space density (PSD) of the plasma sheet source population and the PSD of the inner magnetosphere at constant magnetic moment values as used in Kistler et al., [2016].

  14. Stretchable and bendable carbon nanotube on PDMS super-lyophobic sheet for liquid metal manipulation

    Kim, Daeyoung; Jung, Daewoong; Yoo, Jun Hyeon; Lee, Gil S; Lee, Jeong-Bong; Lee, Yunho; Choi, Wonjae; Yoo, Koangki

    2014-01-01

    We report a vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet as a novel widely stretchable and bendable anti-wetting super-lyophobic surface for naturally oxidized gallium-based liquid metals. The vertically-aligned CNT has inherent chemical inertness and a hierarchical texture combining micro/nanoscale roughness; these two characters render the developed sheet as a super-lyophobic substrate against gallium-based liquid metals. The vertically-aligned CNT forest was first grown on Si substrate and then transferred onto a PDMS sheet by imprinting. It was found that the transferred CNT on the PDMS sheet maintained its vertically-aligned nature as well as hierarchical micro/nano surface morphology. It was found that the static contact angles of the gallium-based liquid metal droplet on the CNT on Si and on the CNT on PDMS were both greater than 155° and the contact angle hysteresis on the CNT on Si was 4° and that on the transferred CNT on PDMS was 19°. These measurement results showed that the surface retains a super-lyophobic property before and after the CNT transfer onto PDMS. We tested the CNT on PDMS sheet for its mechanical flexibility using stretching (50% and 100%) and bending (curvature of 0.1 and 0.4 mm −1 ). We carried out a bouncing test and a rolling test on the stretched/bent CNT on the PDMS sheet and the results confirmed that the flexible sheet maintains anti-wetting characteristics under bending or stretching conditions. (paper)

  15. Flapping dynamics of a thin liquid sheet

    Vadivukkarasan, M.; Kumaran, Dhivyaraja; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Multi-phase flow physics Group Team

    2017-11-01

    We attempt to delineate and describe the complete evolution of a thin soap film when air is blown through a nozzle in the normal direction. The sequence of events and its intrinsic dynamics are captured using high speed imaging. By careful observation, it was observed that multiple mechanisms occur in the same system and each event is triggered by an independent mechanism. The events include (a) flapping of a liquid sheet and pinching of the bubble, (b) onset of rupture on the liquid sheet, (c) formation of ligaments and (d) ejection of drops. From this study, it is shown that these events are predominantly governed by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Taylor - Culick law, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and capillary instability, respectively. The present experiments can be considered as an extension to the previous studies on soap films as well as thin flapping sheets which has direct relevance to coaxial atomizers used in aircraft applications.

  16. Symmetry breaking bifurcations of a current sheet

    Parker, R.D.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Using a time evolution code with periodic boundary conditions, the viscoresistive hydromagnetic equations describing an initially static, planar current sheet with large Lundquist number have been evolved for times long enough to reach a steady state. A cosh 2 x resistivity model was used. For long periodicity lengths L p , the resistivity gradient drives flows that cause forced reconnection at X point current sheets. Using L p as a bifurcation parameter, two new symmetry breaking bifurcations were found: a transition to an asymmetric island chain with nonzero, positive, or negative phase velocity, and a transition to a static state with alternating large and small islands. These states are reached after a complex transient behavior, which involves a competition between secondary current sheet instability and coalescence

  17. Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch

    Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table

  18. Dipole-sheet multipole magnets for accelerators

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dipole-sheet formalism can be used to describe both cylindrical current-sheet multipole magnets and cylindrical-bore magnets made up of permanent magnet blocks. For current sheets, the formalism provides a natural way of finding a finite set of turns that approximate a continuous distribution. The formalism is especially useful In accelerator applications where large-bore, short, high-field-quality magnets that are dominated by fringe fields are needed. A further advantage of the approach is that in systems with either open or cylindrically symmetric magnetic boundaries, analytical expressions for the three-dimensional fields that are suitable for rapid numerical evaluation can be derived. This development is described in some detail. Also, recent developments in higher-order particle-beam optics codes based on the formalism are described briefly

  19. Symmetry breaking bifurcations of a current sheet

    Parker, R.D.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    Using a time evolution code with periodic boundary conditions, the viscoresistive hydromagnetic equations describing an initially static, planar current sheet with large Lundquist number have been evolved for times long enough to reach a steady state. A cosh 2 x resistivity model was used. For long periodicity lengths, L p , the resistivity gradient drives flows which cause forced reconnection at X point current sheets. Using L p as a bifurcation parameter, two new symmetry breaking bifurcations were found - a transition to an asymmetric island chain with nonzero, positive or negative phase velocity, and a transition to a static state with alternating large and small islands. These states are reached after a complex transient behavior which involves a competition between secondary current sheet instability and coalescence. 31 refs., 6 figs

  20. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  1. SiC/C composite sheets produced from polycarbosilane/resin/bonder mixtures. Polycarbosilane/jushi/bonder kongokei kara sakuseishita SiC/C fukugo sheet

    Kawamura, K. (The National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)); Koga, J.; Iwata, T.; Yamanaka, S.; Ono, M. (Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Saitama (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    In a course of work to improve anti-oxidative property and strength of sheets of carbonic composite materials with resins, and further to produce those sheets in an industrial scale, it was tried to prepare two types of 0.4 {approximately} 0.6 m thickness SiC / C composite sheets by heat treatment of two green sheets polycarbosilane ( PCS ) / fran resin / binder type and PCS / (phenol-formaldehyde resin / binder type ) at temperature of 1200 {approximately} 1400{degree}C in an atmosphere of nitrogen. The sheets thus made were subjected to SEM observation, X-ray diffraction, measurement of density and electric resistance, and to tests on weight loss by heating and on bending. The texture of them were as tight as that of their resin carbon ( glassy carbon ). The structural feature is formation of amorphous SiO{sub 2} as a secondary product, This indicates that Si in PCS reacts with oxygen in resin during pyrolysis. The bending strength and anti-oxidative property depend on the SiC content from PCS and that the mixing effect of SiC on them are feasible when a mixing ratio of PCS / resin is higher than (2/1). 13 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. DESKRIPSI PARTISIPASI AKTIF, DAN KEMAMPUAN KOMUNIKASI MATEMATIS MAHASISWA PADA MATA KULIAH GEOMETRI ANALITIK BIDANG MELALUI PENERAPAN LESSON STUDY

    Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the active participation, independent learning, and mathematical communication skills of students in the field of analytic geometry courses through the implementation of lesson study. The study consisted of four cycles, each cycle shall be composed of three stages: plan, do, see. The subjects were students of first semester 2014 in class A of mathematics education, The University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto. The data of this research were through observation sheets, video recordings, portfolios, and questionnaires. The data were analyzed through data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The results showed that the students' learning motivation can be increased with learning-based lesson study. Keywords: active participation, independent learning, mathematical communication, lesson study

  3. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  4. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  5. Physics of the magnetotail current sheet

    Chen, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetotail plays an important role in the solar-wind--magnetosphere coupling. At the midplane of the magnetotail is a current sheet where the dominant magnetic field component reverses sign. The charged particle motion in and near the current sheet is collisionless and nonintegrable, exhibiting chaotic scattering. The current understanding of the dynamical properties of the charged particle motion is discussed. In particular, the relationships between particle dynamics and global attributes of the system are elucidated. Geometrical properties of the phase space determine important physical observables on both micro- and macroscales

  6. W-Band Sheet Beam Klystron Design

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Burke, A.; Jensen, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Krasnykh, A.; Neubauer, M.; Phillips, R.; Rauenbuehler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Sheet beam devices provide important advantages for very high power, narrow bandwidth RF sources like accelerator klystrons (1). Reduced current density and increased surface area result in increased power capabi1ity, reduced magnetic fields for focusing and reduced cathode loading. These advantages are offset by increased complexity, beam formation and transport issues and potential for mode competition in the ovennoded cavities and drift tube. This paper will describe the design issues encountered in developing a 100 kW peak and 2 kW average power sheet beam k1ystron at W-band including beam formation, beam transport, circuit design, circuit fabrication and mode competition.

  7. Balance sheet capacity and endogenous risk

    Jon Danielsson; Hyun Song Shin; Jean-Pierre Zigrand

    2011-01-01

    Banks operating under Value-at-Risk constraints give rise to a well-defined aggregate balance sheet capacity for the banking sector as a whole that depends on total bank capital. Equilibrium risk and market risk premiums can be solved in closed form as functions of aggregate bank capital. We explore the empirical properties of the model in light of recent experience in the financial crisis and highlight the importance of balance sheet capacity as the driver of the financial cycle and market r...

  8. Friction in sheet metal forming

    Wiklund, D.; Liljebgren, M.; Berglund, J.

    2010-01-01

    and calls for functional tool surfaces that are durable in these severe tribological conditions. In this study the influence of tool surface topography on friction has been investigated. The frictional response was studied in a Bending Under Tension test. The results did show that a low frictional response...

  9. Supporting teachers' technology integration in lesson plans

    Janssen, Noortje

    2017-01-01

    Lesson planning offers rich opportunities for teachers to consider and implement technology in the classroom. This dissertation investigated the design and effectiveness of supplementary information to assist pre-service teachers during the lesson planning process. Based on the Technological,

  10. Value pricing pilot program : lessons learned

    2008-08-01

    This "Lessons Learned Report" provides a summary of projects sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Congestion and Value Pricing Pilot Programs from 1991 through 2006 and draws lessons from a sample of projects with the richest an...

  11. Quantification of Galling in Sheet Metal Forming by surface topography characterisation

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    One of the major problems in forming of stainless steel sheet is galling due to lubricant film breakdown leading to scoring and bad surface quality. In a Danish research programme new lubricants substituting the normally applied chlorinated paraffin oils are being developed and tested...... for this purpose. In order to determine the limits of lubrication of these new lubricants, as well as commercial ones already available on the market, two sheet forming tests have been developed. Quantification of the degree of galling is done by roughness measurements on the workpiece surface. In a strip...

  12. Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex sheets are given.

  13. Lessons from independence

    Hauptfuhrer, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of Oryx provides invaluable lessons for those who plan future energy strategies, relates the author of this paper. When Oryx became an independent oil and gas company, its reserves were declining, its stock was selling below asset values, and the price of oil seemed stuck below $15 per barrel. The message from Oryx management to Oryx employees was: We are in charge of our own destiny. We are about to create our own future. Oryx had developed a new, positive corporate culture and the corporate credit required for growth. This paper points to two basic principles that have guided the metamorphosis in Oryx's performance. The first objective was to improve operational efficiency and to identify the right performance indicators to measure this improvement. It states that the most critical performance indicator for an exploration and production company must be replacement and expansion of reserves at a competitive replacement cost. Oryx has cut its finding costs from $12 to $5 per barrel, while the BP acquisition provided proven reserves at a cost of only $4 per barrel. Another performance indicator measures Oryx's standing in the financial markets

  14. Patient safety: lessons learned

    Bagian, James P.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional approach to patient safety in health care has ranged from reticence to outward denial of serious flaws. This undermines the otherwise remarkable advances in technology and information that have characterized the specialty of medical practice. In addition, lessons learned in industries outside health care, such as in aviation, provide opportunities for improvements that successfully reduce mishaps and errors while maintaining a standard of excellence. This is precisely the call in medicine prompted by the 1999 Institute of Medicine report ''To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.'' However, to effect these changes, key components of a successful safety system must include: (1) communication, (2) a shift from a posture of reliance on human infallibility (hence ''shame and blame'') to checklists that recognize the contribution of the system and account for human limitations, and (3) a cultivation of non-punitive open and/or de-identified/anonymous reporting of safety concerns, including close calls, in addition to adverse events. (orig.)

  15. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  16. What Happens at the Lesson Start?

    Saloviita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Transitional periods, such as lesson starts, are necessary steps from one activity to another, but they also compete with time for actual learning. The aim of the present study was to replicate a previous pilot study on lesson starts and explore possible disturbances. In total, 130 lesson starts in Finnish basic education in grades 1-9 were…

  17. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Articles

    This fact sheet provides guidance on classifying articles under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and determining the applicability of EPA’s articles exclusion policy for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. The primary goal of this document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the CDR rule.

  18. Lamination sheet of AA BST magnet

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame, long and narrow)and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a very wide aperture, 0.564 m of "good field". To demonstrate the size, the petite AA secretary, Val Mansfield, poses with a lamination sheet. See also 7811105, 7906163, 8006050.

  19. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...

  20. Multiscale friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Felder, Eric; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The most often used friction model for sheet metal forming simulations is the relative simple Coulomb friction model. This paper presents a more advanced friction model for large scale forming simulations based on the surface change on the micro-scale. The surface texture of a material changes when

  1. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  2. Renewable Energy Project Development Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    2013-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Tribes selected to receive assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy 2013 Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, which provides technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects on tribal lands.

  3. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  4. The storm time central plasma sheet

    R. Schödel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The plasma sheet plays a key role during magnetic storms because it is the bottleneck through which large amounts of magnetic flux that have been eroded from the dayside magnetopause have to be returned to the dayside magnetosphere. Using about five years of Geotail data we studied the average properties of the near- and midtail central plasma sheet (CPS in the 10–30 RE range during magnetic storms. The earthward flux transport rate is greatly enhanced during the storm main phase, but shows a significant earthward decrease. Hence, since the magnetic flux cannot be circulated at a sufficient rate, this leads to an average dipolarization of the central plasma sheet. An increase of the specific entropy of the CPS ion population by a factor of about two during the storm main phase provides evidence for nonadiabatic heating processes. The direction of flux transport during the main phase is consistent with the possible formation of a near-Earth neutral line beyond ~20 RE.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  5. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  6. Algebra task sheets : grades pk-2

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  7. Geometry task sheets : grades pk-2

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  8. College Experience and Volunteering. Fact Sheet

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    College experience and volunteering are positively correlated. Measurable differences in civic activity exist between young people who attend college and young people who do not. This fact sheet explores volunteering as civic engagement among youth with college experience, ages 19-25, which was down for the second year in a row in 2006. The…

  9. Thin sheet numerical modelling of continental collision

    Jimenez-Munt, I.; Garcia-Gastellanos, D.; Fernandez, M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the effects of incorporating surface mass transport and the gravitational potential energy of both crust and lithospheric mantle to the viscous thin sheet approach. Recent 2D (cross-section) numerical models show that surface erosion and sediment transport can play a major role in shaping

  10. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of your... compressed during installation.” (e) After the chart and any statement dealing with the specific type of...

  11. Rapidly cast crystalline thin sheet materials

    Warlimont, H.; Emmerich, K.

    1986-01-01

    The current state and progress of casting thin sheet and ribbons directly from the melt are reviewed. First, the solidification phenomena pertinent to the process are outlined. Subsequently, Fe-Si,l Fe-Si-Al, Fe-Nd-B, Ag-Cu-Ti, alloy steels, Ni superalloys and Si are treated as examples. Finally, the information available on process development is critically assessed

  12. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  13. Flammability studies of impregnated paper sheets

    Ivan Simkovic; Anne Fuller; Robert White

    2011-01-01

    Paper sheets impregnated with flame retardants made from agricultural residues and other additives were studied with the cone calorimeter. The use of sugar beet ethanol eluent (SBE), CaCl2, and ZnCl2 lowered the peak rate of heat release (PRHR) the most in comparison to water treated material. The average effective heat of...

  14. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=213

    Basunia, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=213. This evaluation for A=213 supersedes the earlier one by Y. A. Akovali (1992Ak01), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 66, 237 (1992)

  15. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  16. MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet

    Cheng, C.Z.; Zaharia, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum

  17. Glacial Cycles and ice-sheet modelling

    Oerlemans, J.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to simulate the Pleistocene glacial cycles with a numerical model of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. This model treats the vertically-integrated ice flow along a meridian, including computation of bedrock adjustment and temperature distribution in the ice. Basal melt water is

  18. Gas isotope separation method using plasma sheet

    Takayama, K.; Takagi, K.; Fukvi, R.

    1988-03-01

    A high frequency electric field is applied to a plasma sheet with a frequency equal to the cyclotronic frequency of the ions to be separated. Because of resonance the cyclotronic radius of the isotope has increased and the electric charge is eliminated by collision with a separator and the isotope is separated in neutral particles [fr

  19. beta-sheet preferences from first principles

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Bækgaard, Iben Sig Buur; Gregersen, Misha Marie

    2003-01-01

    The natural amino acids have different preferences of occurring in specific types of secondary protein structure. Simulations are performed on periodic model â-sheets of 14 different amino acids, at the level of density functional theory, employing the generalized gradient approximation. We find ...

  20. French electric power balance sheet 2007

    Lartigau, Thierry; Pierron, Helene

    2008-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2007: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, progresses in the implementation of market mechanisms, durable rise of RTE's investment, and RTE's commitment in sustainable development