WorldWideScience

Sample records for sheet hypertension high

  1. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Parents / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... High Blood Pressure) Treated? Print What Is Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  5. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X-Q. Xu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and prostaglandin I2 pathways in the pathogenesis of HAPH deserve further study. Although some studies have suggested that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of HAPH, data published to date are insufficient for the identification of a significant number of gene polymorphims in HAPH. The clinical presentation of HAPH is nonspecific. Exertional dyspnoea is the most common symptom and signs related to right heart failure are common in late stages of HAPH. Echocardiography is the most useful screening tool and right heart catheterisation is the gold standard for the diagnosis of HAPH. The ideal management for HAPH is migration to lower altitudes. Phosphodiesterase 5 is an attractive drug target for the treatment of HAPH. In addition, acetazolamide is a promising therapeutic agent for high-altitude pulmonary hypertension. To date, no evidence has confirmed whether endothelin-receptor antagonists have efficacy in the treatment of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension.

  6. Using the Global Burden of Disease study to assist development of nation-specific fact sheets to promote prevention and control of hypertension and reduction in dietary salt: a resource from the World Hypertension League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Lisheng, Liu; Niebylski, Mark L; Nilsson, Peter M; Zhang, Xin-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Increased blood pressure and high dietary salt are leading risks for death and disability globally. Reducing the burden of both health risks are United Nations' targets for reducing noncommunicable disease. Nongovernmental organizations and individuals can assist by ensuring widespread dissemination of the best available facts and recommended interventions for both health risks. Simple but impactful fact sheets can be useful for informing the public, healthcare professionals, and policy makers. The World Hypertension League has developed fact sheets on dietary salt and hypertension but in many circumstances the greatest impact would be obtained from national-level fact sheets. This manuscript provides instructions and a template for developing fact sheets based on the Global Burden of Disease study and national survey data. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep ...

  8. Generation of sheet currents by high frequency fast MHD waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of fast magnetosonic waves of high frequency propagating into an axisymmetric equilibrium plasma is studied. By using the methods of weakly nonlinear geometrical optics, it is shown that the perturbation travels in the equatorial plane while satisfying a transport equation which enables us to predict the time and location of formation of shock waves. For plasmas of large magnetic Prandtl number, this would result into the creation of sheet currents which may give rise to magnetic reconnection and destruction of the original equilibrium. - Highlights: • Regular solutions of quasilinear hyperbolic systems may evolve into shocks. • The shock location is found for high frequency fast MHD waves. • The result is applied to static axisymmetric equilibria. • The previous process may lead to the formation of sheet currents and destruction of the equilibrium.

  9. Is tinnitus an early voice of masked hypertension? High masked hypertension rate in patients with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Taylan; Özkan, Selçuk; Yavuz, Bunyamin

    2018-04-23

    Tinnitus is hearing a sound without any external acoustic stimulus. There are some clues of hypertension can cause tinnitus in different ways. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between tinnitus and masked hypertension including echocardiographic parameters and severity of tinnitus. This study included 88 patients with tinnitus of at least 3 months duration and 85 age and gender-matched control subjects. Tinnitus severity index was used to classify the patients with tinnitus. After a complete medical history, all subjects underwent routine laboratory examination, office blood pressure measurement, hearing tests and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Masked hypertension is defined as normal office blood pressure measurement and high ambulatory blood pressure level. Baseline characteristics in patients and controls were similar. Prevalence of masked hypertension was significantly higher in patients with tinnitus than controls (18.2% vs 3.5%, p = 0.002). Office diastolic BP (76 ± 8.1 vs. 72.74 ± 8.68, p = 0.01), ambulatory 24-H diastolic BP (70.2 ± 9.6 vs. 66.9 ± 6.1, p = 0.07) and ambulatory daytime diastolic BP (73.7 ± 9.5 vs. 71.1 ± 6.2, p = 0.03) was significantly higher in patients with tinnitus than control group. Tinnitus severity index in patients without masked hypertension was 0 and tinnitus severity index in patients with masked hypertension were 2 (1-5). This study demonstrated that masked hypertension must be kept in mind if there is a complaint of tinnitus without any other obvious reason.

  10. hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Hatipoglu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disease associated with important cardiovascular complications. Persistent blood pressure of 140/90 or higher despite combined use of a reninangiotensin system blocker, calcium channel blocker and a diuretic at highest tolerated doses constitutes resistant hypertension. Excess sympathetic activity plays an important pathogenic role in resistant hypertension in addition to contributing to the development of metabolic problems, in particular diabetes. Reduction of renal sympathetic activity by percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation via the renal arteries has been shown in several studies to decrease blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension, and importantly is largely free of significant complications. However, longer term follow-up is required to confirm both long-term safety and efficacy.

  11. Hypertension

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These datasets provide de-identified insurance data for hypertension hyperlipidemia. The data is provided by three managed care organizations in Allegheny County...

  12. Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Emanuel

    2004-01-01

    Hypertension is a rapidly moving clinical field with frequent developments in new pharmacologic agents and management strategies. Perhaps more importantly, there have been substantial improvements in our understanding of how best to use the drugs available to us. In this article, I will review some of the more important advances in our understanding of hypertension over the past two years, specifically by reviewing six important trials, one survey and two sets of guidelines, all published bet...

  13. Heat transfer modeling in asymmetrical sheet rolling of aluminium alloys with ultra high shear strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical sheet rolling is a method of severe plastic deformation (SPD for production of aluminium alloys with UFG structure. Prediction of sheet temperature during SPD is important. The temperature of sheet is changed due to the conversion of mechanical work into heat through sliding on contact surfaces and high shear strain. Paper presents the results of FEM simulation of the effect of contact friction, rolling speed and rolls speed ratio on the heating of aluminium sheets during asymmetrical rolling.

  14. Characterization and improvement of highly inclined optical sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolini, T.; Curcio, V.; Gardini, L.; Capitanio, M.; Pavone, F. S.

    2018-02-01

    Highly Inclined and Laminated Optical sheet (HILO) microscopy is an optical technique that employs a highly inclined laser beam to illuminate the sample with a thin sheet of light that can be scanned through the sample volume1 . HILO is an efficient illumination technique when applied to fluorescence imaging of thick samples owing to the confined illumination volume that allows high contrast imaging while retaining deep scanning capability in a wide-field configuration. The restricted illumination volume is crucial to limit background fluorescence originating from portions of the sample far from the focal plane, especially in applications such as single molecule localization and super-resolution imaging2-4. Despite its widespread use, current literature lacks comprehensive reports of the actual advantages of HILO in these kinds of microscopies. Here, we thoroughly characterize the propagation of a highly inclined beam through fluorescently labeled samples and implement appropriate beam shaping for optimal application to single molecule and super-resolution imaging. We demonstrate that, by reducing the beam size along the refracted axis only, the excitation volume is consequently reduced while maintaining a field of view suitable for single cell imaging. We quantify the enhancement in signal-tobackground ratio with respect to the standard HILO technique and apply our illumination method to dSTORM superresolution imaging of the actin and vimentin cytoskeleton. We define the conditions to achieve localization precisions comparable to state-of-the-art reports, obtain a significant improvement in the image contrast, and enhanced plane selectivity within the sample volume due to the further confinement of the inclined beam.

  15. Secondary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary hypertension Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, ...

  16. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena  (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  17. High performance supercapacitors based on highly conductive nitrogen-doped graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongcai; Zhang, Xinfeng; Yang, Shihe

    2011-07-21

    Thermal nitridation of reduced graphene oxide sheets yields highly conductive (∼1000-3000 S m(-1)) N-doped graphene sheets, as a result of the restoration of the graphene network by the formation of C-N bonded groups and N-doping. Even without carbon additives, supercapacitors made of the N-doped graphene electrodes can deliver remarkable energy and power when operated at higher voltages, in the range of 0-4 V. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  18. Evaluation of essential work of fracture in a dual phase high strength steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, D.; Perez, L. I.; Lara, A.; Casellas, D.; Prado, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture toughness of advanced high strength steels (AHSS), can be used to optimize crash behavior of structural components. However it cannot be readily measured in metal sheet because of the sheet thickness. In this work, the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) methodology is proposed to evaluate the fracture toughness of metal sheets. It has been successfully applied in polymers films and some metal sheets. However, their information about the applicability of this methodology to AHSS is relatively scarce. In the present work the fracture toughness of a Dual Phase (strength of 800 MPa) and drawing steel sheets has been measured by means of the EWF. The results show that the test requirements are met and also show the clear influence of notch radii on the measured values, specially for the AHSS grade. Thus, the EWF is postulated as a methodology to evaluate the fracture toughness in AHSS sheets. (Author) 18 refs.

  19. High-latitude Conic Current Sheets in the Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabarova, Olga V.; Obridko, Vladimir N.; Kharshiladze, Alexander F. [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN), Moscow (Russian Federation); Malova, Helmi V. [Scobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kislov, Roman A.; Zelenyi, Lev M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN), Warsaw (Poland); Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken’ichi [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University (Japan); Sokół, Justyna M.; Grzedzielski, Stan [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK), Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-02-10

    We provide observational evidence for the existence of large-scale cylindrical (or conic-like) current sheets (CCSs) at high heliolatitudes. Long-lived CCSs were detected by Ulysses during its passages over the South Solar Pole in 1994 and 2007. The characteristic scale of these tornado-like structures is several times less than a typical width of coronal holes within which the CCSs are observed. CCS crossings are characterized by a dramatic decrease in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. Ulysses crossed the same CCS at different heliolatitudes at 2–3 au several times in 1994, as the CCS was declined from the rotation axis and corotated with the Sun. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole, and its structure was strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. Restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles in both 1994 and 2007. Such separators exist only during solar minima. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis confirms the presence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. Energetic particle flux enhancements up to several MeV/ nuc are observed at edges of the CCSs. We built simple MHD models of a CCS to illustrate its key features. The CCSs may be formed as a result of nonaxiality of the solar rotation axis and magnetic axis, as predicted by the Fisk–Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and coworkers.

  20. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena 
    (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  1. Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Gallbladder Cancer Additional Content Medical News Portal Hypertension By Steven K. Herrine, MD, Professor of Medicine, ... Liver Hepatic Encephalopathy Jaundice in Adults Liver Failure Portal Hypertension Portal hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure in ...

  2. Greenland Ice Sheet: High-Elevation Balance and Peripheral Thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabill; Abdalati; Frederick; Manizade; Martin; Sonntag; Swift; Thomas; Wright; Yungel

    2000-07-21

    Aircraft laser-altimeter surveys over northern Greenland in 1994 and 1999 have been coupled with previously reported data from southern Greenland to analyze the recent mass-balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Above 2000 meters elevation, the ice sheet is in balance on average but has some regions of local thickening or thinning. Thinning predominates at lower elevations, with rates exceeding 1 meter per year close to the coast. Interpolation of our results between flight lines indicates a net loss of about 51 cubic kilometers of ice per year from the entire ice sheet, sufficient to raise sea level by 0.13 millimeter per year-approximately 7% of the observed rise.

  3. Improvement of formability of high strength steel sheets in shrink flanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamedon, Z; Abe, Y; Mori, K

    2016-01-01

    In the shrinkage flanging, the wrinkling tends to occur due to compressive stress. The wrinkling will cause a difficulty in assembling parts, and severe wrinkling may leads to rupture of parts. The shrinkage flange of the ultra-high strength steel sheets not only defects the product by the occurrence of the wrinkling but also causes seizure and wear of the dies and shortens the life of dies. In the present study, a shape of a punch having gradual contact was optimized in order to prevent the wrinkling in shrinkage flanging of ultra-high strength steel sheets. The sheet was gradually bent from the corner of the sheet to reduce the compressive stress. The wrinkling in the shrink flanging of the ultra-high strength steel sheets was prevented by the punch having gradual contact. It was found that the punch having gradual contact is effective in preventing the occurrence of wrinkling in the shrinkage flanging. (paper)

  4. Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet at High Elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas; Akins; Csatho; Fahnestock; Gogineni; Kim; Sonntag

    2000-07-21

    Comparison of ice discharge from higher elevation areas of the entire Greenland Ice Sheet with total snow accumulation gives estimates of ice thickening rates over the past few decades. On average, the region has been in balance, but with thickening of 21 centimeters per year in the southwest and thinning of 30 centimeters per year in the southeast. The north of the ice sheet shows less variability, with average thickening of 2 centimeters per year in the northeast and thinning of about 5 centimeters per year in the northwest. These results agree well with those from repeated altimeter surveys, except in the extreme south, where we find substantially higher rates of both thickening and thinning.

  5. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Results: Hypertensive patients who were physically active accounted for 46 % and the risk of hypertension .... based care, emergency room visits, inpatient .... from different geographic areas and ... Diabetes. Hypertension. Angina. Myocardial infarction. Other heart diseases .... blood pressure: a critical review of the clinical.

  6. Utilizing boron nitride sheets as thin supports for high resolution imaging of nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yimin A; Kirkland, Angus I; Schaeffel, Franziska; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Young, Neil P; Briggs, G Andrew D; Warner, Jamie H, E-mail: Jamie.warner@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-13

    We demonstrate the use of thin BN sheets as supports for imaging nanocrystals using low voltage (80 kV) aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This provides an alternative to the previously utilized 2D crystal supports of graphene and graphene oxide. A simple chemical exfoliation method is applied to get few layer boron nitride (BN) sheets with micrometer-sized dimensions. This generic approach of using BN sheets as supports is shown by depositing Mn doped ZnSe nanocrystals directly onto the BN sheets and resolving the atomic structure from both the ZnSe nanocrystals and the BN support. Phase contrast images reveal moire patterns of interference between the beams diffracted by the nanocrystals and the BN substrate that are used to determine the relative orientation of the nanocrystals with respect to the BN sheets and interference lattice planes. Double diffraction is observed and has been analyzed.

  7. Utilizing boron nitride sheets as thin supports for high resolution imaging of nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yimin A; Kirkland, Angus I; Schaeffel, Franziska; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Young, Neil P; Briggs, G Andrew D; Warner, Jamie H

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of thin BN sheets as supports for imaging nanocrystals using low voltage (80 kV) aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This provides an alternative to the previously utilized 2D crystal supports of graphene and graphene oxide. A simple chemical exfoliation method is applied to get few layer boron nitride (BN) sheets with micrometer-sized dimensions. This generic approach of using BN sheets as supports is shown by depositing Mn doped ZnSe nanocrystals directly onto the BN sheets and resolving the atomic structure from both the ZnSe nanocrystals and the BN support. Phase contrast images reveal moire patterns of interference between the beams diffracted by the nanocrystals and the BN substrate that are used to determine the relative orientation of the nanocrystals with respect to the BN sheets and interference lattice planes. Double diffraction is observed and has been analyzed.

  8. High-strength high-conductivity Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet fabricated via multiple roll bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.C.; Delagi, R.G.; Forster, J.A.; Krotz, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Copper-niobium microcomposites are a new class of high-strength high-conductivity materials that have attractive properties for room- and elevated-temperature applications. Since Nb has little solid solubility in Cu, addition of Nb to Cu does not affect its conductivity. Copper-niobium microcomposites are melted and cast so that the microstructure of cast Cu-Nb ingots consists of 1- to 10 μm Nb dendrites uniformly distributed within the copper matrix. Extensive wire drawing with a true processing strain (η> 12) of Cu-Nb alloy leads to refinement and elongation of Nb dendrites into 1- to 10 nm-thick filaments. The presence of such fine Nb filaments causes a significant increase in the strength of Cu-Nb wires. The tensile strength of heavily drawn Cu-Nb wires was determined to be significantly higher than the values predicted by the rule of mixtures. This article reports the fabrication of high-strength Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet by multiple roll bonding. It is difficult and impractical to attain high processing strains (η>3) by simple cold rolling. In most practical cold-rolling operation, the thickness reduction does not exceed 90 pct (η ≅2). Therefore, innovative processing is required to generate high strength in Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet. Multiple roll bonding of Cu-Nb has been utilized to store high processing strain ( η>10) in the material and refine the Nb particle size within the copper matrix. This article describes the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of roll-bonded Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet

  9. Initial rigid response and softening transition of highly stretchable kirigami sheet materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Midori; Okumura, Ko

    2016-04-27

    We study, experimentally and theoretically, the mechanical response of sheet materials on which line cracks or cuts are arranged in a simple pattern. Such sheet materials, often called kirigami (the Japanese words, kiri and gami, stand for cut and paper, respectively), demonstrate a unique mechanical response promising for various engineering applications such as stretchable batteries: kirigami sheets possess a mechanical regime in which sheets are highly stretchable and very soft compared with the original sheets without line cracks, by virtue of out-of-plane deformation. However, this regime starts after a transition from an initial stiff regime governed by in-plane deformation. In other words, the softness of the kirigami structure emerges as a result of a transition from the two-dimensional to three-dimensional deformation, i.e., from stretching to bending. We clarify the physical origins of the transition and mechanical regimes, which are revealed to be governed by simple scaling laws. The results could be useful for controlling and designing the mechanical response of sheet materials including cell sheets for medical regeneration and relevant to the development of materials with tunable stiffness and mechanical force sensors.

  10. Development of Multi-Scale Finite Element Analysis Codes for High Formability Sheet Metal Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nnakamachi, Eiji; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Ngoc Tam, Nguyen; Nakamura, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Morimoto, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic- and static-explicit multi-scale finite element (F.E.) codes are developed by employing the homogenization method, the crystalplasticity constitutive equation and SEM-EBSD measurement based polycrystal model. These can predict the crystal morphological change and the hardening evolution at the micro level, and the macroscopic plastic anisotropy evolution. These codes are applied to analyze the asymmetrical rolling process, which is introduced to control the crystal texture of the sheet metal for generating a high formability sheet metal. These codes can predict the yield surface and the sheet formability by analyzing the strain path dependent yield, the simple sheet forming process, such as the limit dome height test and the cylindrical deep drawing problems. It shows that the shear dominant rolling process, such as the asymmetric rolling, generates ''high formability'' textures and eventually the high formability sheet. The texture evolution and the high formability of the newly generated sheet metal experimentally were confirmed by the SEM-EBSD measurement and LDH test. It is concluded that these explicit type crystallographic homogenized multi-scale F.E. code could be a comprehensive tool to predict the plastic induced texture evolution, anisotropy and formability by the rolling process and the limit dome height test analyses

  11. Factors associated with lack of awareness and uncontrolled high blood pressure among Canadian adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Marianne E; Bienek, Asako; McAlister, Finlay A; Robitaille, Cynthia; Joffres, Michel; Tremblay, Mark S; Johansen, Helen; Campbell, Norm R C

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 17% of Canadians with high blood pressure were unaware of their condition, and of Canadians aware of having the condition, approximately 1 in 5 have uncontrolled high blood pressure despite high rates of pharmacotherapy. The objectives of the current study are to estimate the prevalence of resistant hypertension and examine factors associated with (1) lack of awareness and (2) uncontrolled hypertension despite pharmacotherapy. Using the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (N = 3473, aged 20-79 years) and logistic regression, we quantified relationships between characteristics and (1) presence of hypertension, (2) lack of awareness (among those with hypertension), and (3) uncontrolled high blood pressure (among those treated for hypertension). Older age, lowest income, and less than high school education were associated with presence of hypertension. Men (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2) and adults high blood pressure (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.2) despite treatment. Elevated systolic blood pressure was the issue in over 90% of women and 80% of men with uncontrolled hypertension. Depending on the definition employed, 4.4% (95% CI, 2.4-6.4) to 7.8% (95% CI, 6.0-9.6) of the population with hypertension had resistant hypertension. Messaging or interventions encouraging screening may be helpful for all younger Canadian adults and men; programs encouraging blood pressure control may help older women. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-Sheet Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry has introduced the three-layer weld configuration, which represents new challenges compared to normal two-sheet lap welds. The process is further complicated by introducing high-strength steels in the joint. The present article investigates the weldability of thin, low....... The weld mechanisms are analyzed numerically and compared with metallographic analyses showing how the primary bonding mechanism between the thin, low-carbon steel sheet and the thicker sheet of high-strength steel is solid-state bonding, whereas the two high-strength steels are joined by melting, forming...... a weld nugget at their mutual interface. Despite the absence of the typical fusion nugget through the interface between the low-carbon steel and high-strength steel, the weld strengths obtained are acceptable. The failure mechanism in destructive testing is ductile fracture with plug failure....

  13. A high resolution electron microscopy investigation of curvature in multilayer graphite sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenxia; Hu Jun; Wang Wenmin; Yu Guoqing

    1998-01-01

    Here the authors report a carbon sample generated by ultrasonic wave high oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in ethanol, water or ethanol-water mixed solution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed many multilayer graphite sheets with a total curved angle that is multiples of θ 0 (= 30 degree C). Close examination of the micrographs showed that the curvature is accomplished by bending the lattice planes. A possible explanation for the curvature in multilayer graphite sheets is discussed based on the conformation of graphite symmetry axes and the formation of sp 3 -like line defects in the sp 2 graphitic network

  14. Synthesis and characterization of straight and stacked-sheet AlN nanowires with high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, M.; Yang, H.; Li, P.G.; Tang, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale AlN nanowires with hexagonal crystal structure were synthesized by the direct nitridation method at high temperatures. The experimental results indicate that these single-crystalline AlN nanowires have high purity and consist of straight and stacked-sheet nanowires. It is found that straight AlN nanowire grows along [1, 1, -2, 0] direction, whereas the stacked-sheet nanowire with hexagonal cross section is along [0 0 0 1] direction. It is thought that vapor-solid (VS) mechanism should be responsible for the growth of AlN nanowires

  15. Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkings, Jon R; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Statham, Peter J; Tedstone, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Telling, Jon

    2014-05-21

    The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting.

  16. Hypertensive Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... Nov 13,2017 A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) crisis is when blood pressure rises quickly and severely ...

  17. Non-contact sheet forming using lasers applied to a high strength aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Humberto Mota Siqueira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Laser beam forming (LBF is a contactless mechanical process accomplished by the introduction of thermal stresses on the surface of a material using a laser in order to induce plastic deformation. In this work, LBF was performed on 1.6 mm thick sheets of a high strength aluminum alloy, AA6013-T4 class by using a defocused continuous Yb-fiber laser beam of 0.6 mm in diameter on the sheet top surface. The laser power and process speed were varied from 200 W to 2000 W and from 3 to 30 mm/s, respectively. For these experimental conditions, the bending angle of the sheet ranged from 0.1° to 2.5° per run. In the highest bending angle condition, 1000 W and 30 mm/s, the depth of remelted pool was 0.6 mm and the microstructure near the plate bottom surface remained unaltered. For the whole set of experimental conditions, the hardness remained constant at approximately 100 HV, which is similar to the base material. In order to verify the applicability of the method, some previously T-welded sheets were straightened. The method was efficient in correcting the distortion of the sheets with a bending angle up to 5°.

  18. The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered, high CO2 world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, Peter J; Lunt, Daniel J; Stone, Emma J; Ridgwell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as one means of helping avoid the occurrence of dangerous climate change and undesirable state transitions ('tipping points') in the Earth system. The irreversible melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet is a case in point-a state transition that could occur as a result of CO 2 -driven elevated global temperatures, and one leading to potentially catastrophic sea-level rise. SRM schemes such as the creation of a 'sunshade' or injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere could reduce incoming solar radiation, and in theory balance, in a global mean, the greenhouse warming resulting from elevated concentrations of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Previous work has highlighted that a geoengineered world would have: warming towards the poles, cooling in the tropics, and a reduction in the global hydrological cycle, which may have important implications for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using a fully coupled global climate model in conjunction with an ice sheet model, we assess the consequences for the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet of the reorganization of climate patterns by the combination of high CO 2 and geoengineering. We find that Greenland surface temperature and precipitation anomalies, compared to the pre-industrial situation, decrease almost linearly with increasing levels of SRM geoengineering, but that these combine to create a highly non-linear response of the ice sheet. The substantial melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet predicted for four times pre-industrial CO 2 levels is prevented in our model with only a partial application of SRM, and hence without having to fully restore the global average temperature back to pre-industrial levels. This suggests that the degree of SRM geoengineering required to mitigate the worst impacts of greenhouse warming, such as sea-level rise, need not be as extensive as generally assumed.

  19. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  20. Design of Helical Self-Piercing Rivet for Joining Aluminum Alloy and High-Strength Steel Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W. Y.; Kim, D. B.; Park, J. G; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, I. H.; Cho, H. Y. [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    A self-piercing rivet (SPR) is a mechanical component for joining dissimilar material sheets such as those of aluminum alloy and steel. Unlike conventional rivets, the SPR directly pierces sheets without the need for drilling them beforehand. However, the regular SPR can undergo buckling when it pierces a high-strength steel sheet, warranting the design of a helical SPR. In this study, the joining and forging processes using the helical SPR were simulated using the commercial FEM code, DEFORM-3D. High-tensile-strength steel sheets of different strengths were joined with aluminum alloy sheets using the designed helical SPR. The simulation results were found to agree with the experimental results, validating the optimal design of a helical SPR that can pierce high-strength steel sheets.

  1. Design of Helical Self-Piercing Rivet for Joining Aluminum Alloy and High-Strength Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. Y.; Kim, D. B.; Park, J. G; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, I. H.; Cho, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    A self-piercing rivet (SPR) is a mechanical component for joining dissimilar material sheets such as those of aluminum alloy and steel. Unlike conventional rivets, the SPR directly pierces sheets without the need for drilling them beforehand. However, the regular SPR can undergo buckling when it pierces a high-strength steel sheet, warranting the design of a helical SPR. In this study, the joining and forging processes using the helical SPR were simulated using the commercial FEM code, DEFORM-3D. High-tensile-strength steel sheets of different strengths were joined with aluminum alloy sheets using the designed helical SPR. The simulation results were found to agree with the experimental results, validating the optimal design of a helical SPR that can pierce high-strength steel sheets

  2. Effect of highly reflective roofing sheet on building thermal loads for a school in Osaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jihui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and building energy consumptions are becoming serious. Strategies to mitigate UHI and reduce building energy consumptions are implemented worldwide. In Japan, as an effective means of mitigating UHI and saving energy of buildings, highly reflective (HR and green roofs are increasingly used. In order to evaluate the effect of roofs with high reflection and thermal insulation on the energy conservation of buildings, we investigated the roof solar reflectivity of the subject school in Osaka, in which the HR roofing sheet was installed on the roof from 2010. Thermal loads, including cooling and heating loads of the top floor of school, were calculated using the thermal load calculation software, New HASP/ACLD-β. Comparing the thermal loads after HR roofing sheet installation to previous, the annual thermal load decreased about 25 MJ/m2-year and the cooling load decreased about 112 MJ/m2-year. However, the heating load increased about 87 MJ/m2-year in winter. To minimize the annual thermal load, thermal insulation of the roof was also considered be used together with HR roofing sheet in this study. The results showed that the combination of HR roofing sheet and high thermal insulation is more effective to reduce the annual thermal load.

  3. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  4. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the association between physical activity, prevalence of hypertension, and total healthcare and pharmaceutical expenditure in the United States of America (US). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult United States residents were included from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) for ...

  5. Prevalence of obesity and high level of cholesterol in hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine what proportion of patients with hypertension are obese and or have elevated serum cholesterol. The data of two hundred and fifty patients who attended the outpatient clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan from January 1998 to December 2001 were analysed. Almost half ...

  6. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  7. Interactive Ice Sheet Flowline Model for High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, L. A.; Rezvanbehbahani, S.; Shankar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Teaching about climate and climate change is conceptually challenging. While teaching tools and lesson plans are rapidly evolving to help teachers and students improve their understanding of climate processes, there are very few tools targeting ice sheet and glacier dynamics. We have built an interactive ice sheet model that allows students to explore how Antarctic glaciers respond to different climate perturbations. Interactive models offer advantages that are hard to obtain in traditional classroom settings; users can systematically investigate hypothetical situations, explore the effects of modifying systems, and repeatedly observe how systems interrelate. As a result, this project provides a much-needed bridge between the data and models used by the scientific community and students in high school and college. We target our instructional and assessment activities to three high school and college students with the overall aim of increasing understanding of ice sheet dynamics and the different ways that ice sheets are impacted by climate change, while also improving their fundamental math skills.

  8. 75 FR 70289 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...)] Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China and... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (``certain coated paper'') from... paper industry is materially injured by reason of imports of the subject merchandise from China and...

  9. High rates of child hypertension associated with obesity: a community survey in China, India and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Matthews, David R; Stevens, Denise E

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and epidemiological evidence suggests that it is increasing in parallel with obesity in children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. To identify and determine the relationship between overweight, obesity and hypertension in a community sample of school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 12,730 school children aged 12-18 years in China, India and Mexico as part of the Community Interventions for Health programme, an international study evaluating community interventions to reduce non-communicable disease by addressing the three main risk factors of tobacco use, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of body mass index and gender and hypertension. Prevalence rates of hypertension were 5.2% in China, 10.1% in India and 14.1% in Mexico, and pre-hypertension rates in China, India and Mexico were 13.4%, 9.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence rates varied by country and were 16.6% in China, 4.1% in India and 37.1% in Mexico. In all countries there was a significant association between overweight and obesity and rates of hypertension. Overweight children were 1.7-2.3 times more likely to be hypertensive and obese children 3.5-5.5 more likely to show hypertension than those of normal weight. Rates of hypertension and overweight and obesity are high in school children in China, India and Mexico, and increased bodyweight is a significant risk factor for hypertension.

  10. A high-power millimeter-wave sheet beam free-electron laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1996-01-01

    The results of experiments with a short period (9.6 mm) wiggler sheet electron beam (1.0 mm x 2.0 cm) millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) amplifier are presented. This FEL amplifier utilized a strong wiggler field for sheet beam confinement in the narrow beam dimension and an offset-pole side-focusing technique for the wide dimension beam confinement. The beam analysis herein includes finite emittance and space-charge effects. High-current beam propagation was achieved as a result of extensive analytical studies and experimental optimization. A design optimization resulted in a low sensitivity to structure errors and beam velocity spread, as well as a low required beam energy. A maximum gain of 24 dB was achieved with a 1-kW injected signal power at 86 GHz, a 450-kV beam voltage, 17-A beam current, 3.8-kG wiggler magnetic field, and a 74-period wiggler length. The maximum gain with a one-watt injected millimeter-wave power was observed to be over 30 dB. The lower gain at higher injection power level indicates that the device has approached saturation. The device was studied over a broad range of experimental parameters. The experimental results have a good agreement with expectations from a one-dimensional simulation code. The successful operation of this device has proven the feasibility of the original concept and demonstrated the advantages of the sheet beam FEL amplifier. The results of the studies will provide guidelines for the future development of sheet beam FEL's and/or other kinds of sheet beam devices. These devices have fusion application

  11. Effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on the data collected from 2007 to 2013 in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A total of 8853 male adults were included in the analysis. The odds ratios for hypertension according to exercise groups were assessed by using logistic regression of each sodium intake gro...

  12. Hypertensive emergencies remain a clinical problem and are associated with high mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubsanthisuk, Weranuj; Wongsurin, Unticha; Buranakitjaroen, Peera

    2010-01-01

    We suspect that hypertensive emergencies remain a clinical problem and data on their long-term prognosis are lacking. This study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, management, and outcome of hypertensive emergencies in this era, in which hypertension treatment is more effective than in the past. We reviewed the medical records of patients with hypertensive emergencies admitted to the medical wards of Siriraj Hospital in 2003 and collected data on their characteristic, management, investigations, and follow-ups through 31 December 2007. There were 184 patients included. Hypertension has been previously diagnosed in 89% of cases. Nearly half also had diabetes mellitus and around a quarter had chronic kidney failure. Mean +/- SD of blood pressure at presentation was 205.96 +/- 21.36/114.60 +/- 20.59 mmHg. Cardiac complications and stroke accounted for 71% and 23% of all target organ damage, respectively. Intravenous nitroglycerine and furosemide were most frequently prescribed. Additional investigations to search for the causes of hypertension were performed in only 55 cases. The average hospital stay was 9.8 days. The in-hospital mortality rate was 15%. Some 26% of patients were lost to follow-up and another 20% died later. Only 19% of patients had regular follow-ups until the end of 2007 and remained on an average of 2.4 antihypertensive drugs. Hypertensive emergencies are usually found in patients with a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus or kidney failure. Recommended investigations usually failed to identify the cause of hypertension. The mortality rate of these patients was extremely high while their adherence to treatment was extremely poor.

  13. Factors associated with high brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity in non-hypertensive and appropriately treated hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ato D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dai Ato,1 Toshitami Sawayama2 1Gakujutsu Shien (Academic Support Co., Ltd. Tokyo, 2Sawayama Clinic, Okayama, Japan Abstract: While pulse wave velocity (PWV correlates with blood pressure (BP, its extent differs between patients, and some cases of high PWV in normotensives are present. Moreover, PWV frequently remains high in hypertensive patients despite adequate BP control. The factors associated with such phenomena are yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the factors associated with brachial–ankle PWV (baPWV in 107 patients whose systolic BP was under 140 mmHg at their latest baPWV measurement. There were 64 controlled hypertensives and 43 normotensives. Multivariate regression analysis identified age, hypertension, body mass index (BMI, systolic BP, and heart rate (HR as independent factors for baPWV. Next, we divided the subjects into groups according to their age (in 5-year increments and calculated the mean and standard deviation (SD of the baPWV for each group. For each age group, we defined patients with a baPWV above the mean + SD baPWV for the group as the high-baPWV cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that BMI, hypertension, and smoking were independent determinants of a high-baPWV subject. This represents the first study to report the existence of the hypertensive state itself as one of the independent predictors of high baPWV in normotensive and well-treated hypertensive patients. This finding implies that the hypertensive state itself possibly worsens arterial stiffness independently from aging in spite of adequate BP maintenance. To prevent the early progression of arterial stiffness, the application of an appropriate intervention during the early stages of hypertension is important and the continuation of an appropriate BP treatment is suggested. Keywords: arterial stiffness, brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity, heart failure, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease

  14. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN SCLERODERMA PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs. If the high ... the right side of the heart. Patients with scleroderma are at increased risk for developing PH from ...

  15. High Prevalence of Hypertension in Ethiopian and Non-Ethiopian HIV-Infected Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Korem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Prevalence of hypertension has not been studied in the Ethiopian HIV-infected population, which represents 60% of the patients in our AIDS unit. Our aim was to identify risk factors and characterize the prevalence of hypertension in the population monitored at our unit. Methods. A retrospective chart review categorized subjects according to their blood pressure levels. Hypertension prevalence was determined and stratified according to variables perceived to contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results. The prevalence of hypertension in our study population was significantly higher compared to the general population (53% versus 20%, P<0.0001 and was associated with known risk factors and not with patients’ viral load and CD4 levels. Ethiopian HIV-infected adults had a prominently higher rate of blood pressure rise over time as compared to non-Ethiopians (P=0.016. Conclusions. The high prevalence of hypertension in this cohort and the rapid increase in blood pressure in Ethiopians are alarming. We could not attribute high prevalence to HIV-related factors and we presume it is part of the metabolic syndrome. The lifelong cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection mandates hypertension screening and close monitoring in this population.

  16. Stability of high-speed lithium sheet jets for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masamichi; Takahashi, Minoru; Aritomi, Masanori; Kobayashi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    The stability of high-speed liquid lithium sheet jets was analytically studied for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which makes cancers and tumors curable with cell-level selections and hence high QOL. The object of our research is to realize the thin and high-speed plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum as an accelerator target. Linear analysis approach is made to the stability on thin plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum, and then our analytical results were compared with the previous experimental ones. We proved that the waves of surface tension on thin lithium sheet jets in a high-vacuum are of supercritical flows and neutral stable under about 17.4 m/s in flow velocity and that the fast non-dispersive anti-symmetric waves are more significant than the very slow dispersive symmetric waves. We also formulated the equation of shrinking angle in isosceles-triangularly or isosceles-trapezoidal shrinking sheet jets corresponding to the Mach angle of supersonic gas flows. This formula states universally the physical meaning of Weber number of sheet jets on the wave of surface tension in supercritical flows. We obtained satisfactory prospects (making choice of larger flow velocity U and larger thickness of sheet a) to materialize a liquid target of accelerator in BNCT. (author)

  17. Structural phase transition and failure of nanographite sheets under high pressure: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Liang Yongcheng; Sun Huiyu

    2007-01-01

    Nanographite sheets under high compressive stresses at ambient temperature have been investigated through molecular dynamics simulations using the Tersoff-Brenner potential. Nanographite undergoes a soft to hard phase transition at a certain compressive stress, about 15 GPa. With increasing compressions, the bonding structures of nanographite are changed, interlayer sp 3 -bonds are formed, and nanographite transforms into a superhard carbon phase (SCP). Further compressions lead to the instabilities of the SCP. Although the detailed lattice structure of the SCP remains elusive, its compressive strength can approach 150 GPa, comparable to that of diamond. The maximum failure stresses of nanographite sheets are sensitive to the inter-and intra-layer interstices. Our results may explain paradoxical experimental results in the available literature

  18. A global high-resolution data set of ice sheet topography, cavity geometry and ocean bathymetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Arndt, Jan Erik

    2016-01-01

    of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) version 1. While RTopo-1 primarily aimed at a good and consistent representation of the Antarctic ice sheet, ice shelves, and sub-ice cavities, RTopo-2now also contains ice topographies of the Greenland ice sheet and outlet glaciers. In particular, we aimed at agood representation....... For the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland and the floating ice tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier at about79 N, we incorporated a high-resolution digital bathymetry model considering original multibeam survey datafor the region. Radar data for surface topographies of the floating ice tongues...... for the geometry of Getz, Abbot, andFimbul ice shelf cavities. The data set is available in full and in regional subsets in NetCDF format from thePANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.856844....

  19. Pore-level determination of spectral reflection behaviors of high-porosity metal foam sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xia, Xin-Lin; Ai, Qing; Sun, Chuang; Tan, He-Ping

    2018-03-01

    Open cell metal foams are currently attracting attention and their radiative behaviors are of primary importance in high temperature applications. The spectral reflection behaviors of high-porosity metal foam sheets, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and directional-hemispherical reflectivity were numerically investigated. A set of realistic nickel foams with porosity from 0.87 to 0.97 and pore density from 10 to 40 pores per inch were tomographied to obtain their 3-D digital cell network. A Monte Carlo ray-tracing method was employed in order to compute the pore-level radiative transfer inside the network within the limit of geometrical optics. The apparent reflection behaviors and their dependency on the textural parameters and strut optical properties were comprehensively computed and analysed. The results show a backward scattering of the reflected energy at the foam sheet surface. Except in the cases of large incident angles, an energy peak is located almost along the incident direction and increases with increasing incident angles. Through an analytical relation established, the directional-hemispherical reflectivity can be related directly to the porosity of the foam sheet and to the complex refractive index of the solid phase as well as the specularity parameter which characterizes the local reflection model. The computations show that a linear decrease in normal-hemispherical reflectivity occurs with increasing porosity. The rate of this decrease is directly proportional to the strut normal reflectivity. In addition, the hemispherical reflectivity increases as a power function of the incident angle cosine.

  20. Effects of welding parameters on friction stir spot welding of high density polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Mustafa Kemal; Yukler, Ahmet Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic illustration of the cross section of a friction stir spot weld and (b) Geometry of the weld bonded area, x: nugget thickness and y: the thickness of the upper sheet. Highlights: → Welding parameters affect the FSSW nugget formation and the strength of the joint. → Melting of polyethylene occurred in the vicinity of the tool pin. → The joint that fractures with a pull nugget failure mode has a higher strength. -- Abstract: Friction stir spot welding parameters affect the weld strength of thermoplastics, such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets. The effects of the welding parameters on static strength of friction stir spot welds of high density polyethylene sheets were investigated. For maximizing the weld strength, the selection of welding parameters is very important. In lap-shear tests two fracture modes were observed; cross nugget failure and pull nugget failure. The tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth and dwell time were determined to be important in the joint formation and its strength. The joint which had a better strength fails with a pull nugget failure morphology. Weld cross section image analysis of the joints were done with a video spectral comparator. The plunge rate of the tool was determined to have a negligible effect on friction stir spot welding.

  1. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  2. Compressive pre-stress effects on magnetostrictive behaviors of highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia R. Downing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Ga (Galfenol and Fe-Al (Alfenol are rare-earth-free magnetostrictive alloys with mechanical robustness and strong magnetoelastic coupling. Since highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets along orientations have been developed with magnetostrictive performances of ∼270 ppm and ∼160 ppm, respectively, they have been of great interest in sensor and energy harvesting applications. In this work, we investigate stress-dependent magnetostrictive behaviors in highly textured rolled sheets of NbC-added Fe80Al20 and Fe81Ga19 alloys with a single (011 grain coverage of ∼90%. A compact fixture was designed and used to introduce a uniform compressive pre-stress to those thin sheet samples along a [100] direction. As compressive pre-stress was increased to above 100 MPa, the maximum observed magnetostriction increased 42% in parallel magnetostriction along the stress direction, λ//, in highly textured (011 Fe81Ga19 thin sheets for a compressive pre-stress of 60 MPa. The same phenomena were observed for (011 Fe80Al20 (maximum increase of 88% with a 49 MPa compressive stress. This trend is shown to be consistent with published results on the effect of pre-stress on magnetostriction in rods of single crystal and textured polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloy of similar compositions, and single crystal data gathered using our experimental set up. Interestingly, the saturating field (Hs does not vary with pre-stresses, while the saturating field in rod-shaped samples of Fe-Ga increases with an increase of pre-stress. This suggests that for a range of compressive pre-stresses, thin sheet samples have larger values of d33 transduction coefficients and susceptibility than rod-shaped samples of similar alloy compositions, and hence they should provide performance benefits when used in sensor and actuator device applications. Thus, we discuss potential reasons for the unexpected trends in Hs with pre-stress, and present preliminary results from tests conducted

  3. [Estimation of the consumption frequency of high glucose corn syrup by patients with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semków-Pochwatko, Aneta; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Czarnecka, Danuta

    Hypertension is a major health problem in modern times, due to its high prevalence. This is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which are the main cause of death in developed countries. The component of prevention and non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension is a proper diet. More and more often an adequate supply of sugars in the diet is emphasized. In recent years particular attention was paid to the consumption of HFCS (high fructose corn syrup), which is present in many processed foods. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of consumption of HFCS products among patients with hypertension. The study involved 108 people diagnosed with hypertension, who attended to the Hypertensive Clinic in Krakow. The study was conducted in the form of Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) of 24 selected beverages and solid products, which are a source of HFCS. In addition, the survey included 6 questions about nutrition knowledge on HFCS. The examination took place from October 2014. to March 2015. The vast majority of patients indicated consumption of products with HFSC. The most popular products proved to be sweets (especially chocolate bars, wafers) and fruit drinks and nectars. Frequent consumption of cola drinks was also observed, which were more often chosen by men than women. Younger respondents (<55 years old) more often than respondents over 55. years old chose sweets. At the same time our survey indicated unsatisfactory level of nutritional knowledge on HFCS among patients. The consumption of HFCS in patients with hypertension is common, at low knowledge of its harmful effects on health. Therefore there is apparent need for dietary education of patients with hypertension in this area.

  4. Hypertension and Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Hypertension A disease that often goes undetected. What is hypertension? Hypertension, also called high blood pressure , is a condition in which the arteries of ...

  5. Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARTNERSHIPS Meet our Fundraising Partners Tweet Welcome Intracranial hypertension (IH) is the general term for the neurological ... high. (Old names for IH include Benign Intracranial Hypertension and Pseudotumor Cerebri). The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation ...

  6. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT perfor...

  7. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Drobner, Juliane; Fischer, Tina; Werner, Sarah; Linke, Axel; Mangner, Norman; Schuler, Gerhard; Adams, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a key risk factor for heart failure, with the latter characterized by diaphragm muscle weakness that is mediated in part by increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we used a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model to determine whether hypertension could independently induce diaphragm dysfunction and further investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sham-treated (n = 11), DOCA-salt-treated (n = 11), and DOCA-salt+HIIT-treated (n = 15) mice were studied over 4 wk. Diaphragm contractile function, protein expression, enzyme activity, and fiber cross-sectional area and type were subsequently determined. Elevated blood pressure confirmed hypertension in DOCA-salt mice independent of HIIT (P HIIT. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression tended to decrease (∼30%; P = 0.06) in DOCA-salt vs. sham- and DOCA-salt+HIIT mice, whereas oxidative stress increased (P HIIT further prevented direct oxidant-mediated diaphragm contractile dysfunction (P hypertension induces diaphragm contractile dysfunction via an oxidant-mediated mechanism that is prevented by HIIT.-Bowen, T. S., Eisenkolb, S., Drobner, J., Fischer, T., Werner, S., Linke, A., Mangner, N., Schuler, G., Adams, V. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice. © FASEB.

  8. Graphene sheets/cobalt nanocomposites as low-cost/high-performance catalysts for hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fei; Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2012-01-01

    The production of clean and renewable hydrogen through the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride has received much attention owing to increasing global energy demands. Graphene sheets/cobalt (GRs/Co) nanocomposites, which are highly efficient catalysts, have been prepared using a one-step solvothermal method in ethylene glycol. Co 2+ salts were converted to Co nanoparticles, which were simultaneously inserted into the graphene layers with the reduction of graphite oxide sheets to GRs. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The maximum saturation magnetization value reached 80.8 emu g −1 , meaning they are more suitable for magnet-controlled generation of H 2 than noble metal catalysts. The catalytic activity of the composite was investigated by the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride in aqueous solution both with and without a GRs support. It was found that the high electronic conductive GRs support increased the hydrogen generation rate (about two times) compared with pure cobalt. The improved hydrogen generation rate, low cost and uncomplicated recycling makes the GRs/Co nanocomposites promising candidates as catalysts for hydrogen generation. Highlights: ► Graphene sheets/cobalt nanocomposites were prepared by a one-step solvothermal method. ► The maximum saturation magnetization value of the composites reached 80.8 emu g −1 . ► The graphene support greatly increased the catalytic activity of cobalt. ► An easily removed, recycled and controlled functional filter was obtained.

  9. High prevalence of occult left heart disease in scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Benjamin D; Shimony, Avi; Langleben, David; Hirsch, Andrew; Rudski, Lawrence; Schlesinger, Robert; Eisenberg, Mark J; Joyal, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Boutet, Kim; Serban, Alexandrina; Masetto, Ariel; Baron, Murray

    2013-10-01

    Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult left-heart disease in patients with scleroderma and pulmonary hypertension. In patients with pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure (mean PAP)≥25 mmHg), differentiation between pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension has been made according to pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) less than or more than 15 mmHg, respectively. We performed a retrospective chart review of 107 scleroderma patients. All patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension had routine right or left heart catheterisation with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measurement pre-/post-fluid challenge. We extracted demographic, haemodynamic and echocardiographic data. Patients were classified into one of four groups: haemodynamically normal (mean PAP15 mmHg); occult PVH (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg, LVEDP>15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge); and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg and LVEDP≤15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge). 53 out of 107 patients had pulmonary hypertension. Based on the PAWP-based definition, 29 out of 53 had PAH and 24 out of 53 had PVH. After considering the resting and post-fluid-challenge LVEDP, 11 PAH patients were reclassified as occult PVH. The occult PVH group was haemodynamically, echocardiographically and demographically closer to the PVH group than the PAH group. PVH had high prevalence in our scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension population. Distinguishing PAH from PVH with only PAWP may result in some PVH patients being misclassified as having PAH.

  10. High blood pressure six weeks postpartum after hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term is associated with chronic hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, V. S.; Hermes, W.; Franx, A.; Koopmans, C. M.; van Pampus, M. G.; Mol, B. W.; de Groot, C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Hypertension in pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Blood pressure monitoring in women who experienced hypertension in pregnancy after puerperium has been suggested to be important for early detection and prevention of CVD. The aim of this study is to

  11. Transformation of localized necking of strain space into stress space for advanced high strength steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakwattanaset, Aeksuwat; Suranuntchai, Surasak

    2018-03-01

    Normally, Forming Limit Curves (FLCs) can’t explain for shear fracture better than Damage Curve, this article aims to show the experimental of Forming Limit Curve (FLC) for Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) sheets grade JAC780Y with the Nakazima forming test and tensile tests of different sample geometries. From these results, the Forming Limit Curve (strain space) was transformed to damage curve (stress space) between plastic strain and stress triaxiality. Therefore, Stress space transformed using by Hill-48 and von-Mises yield function. This article shows that two of these yield criterions can use in the transformation.

  12. Biomass derived nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sheets for supercapacitors with high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cunjing; Wu, Dapeng; Wang, Hongju; Gao, Zhiyong; Xu, Fang; Jiang, Kai

    2018-08-01

    A facile potassium chloride salt-locking technique combined with hydrothermal treatment on precursors was explored to prepare nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sheets in air from biomass. Benefiting from the effective synthesis strategy, the as-obtained carbon possesses a unique nitrogen-doped thin carbon sheet structure with abundant hierarchical pores and large specific surface areas of 1459 m 2  g -1 . The doped nitrogen in carbon framework has a positive effect on the electrochemical properties of the electrode material, the thin carbon sheet structure benefits for fast ion transfer, the abundant meso-pores provide convenient channels for rapid charge transportation, large specific surface area and lots of micro-pores guarantee sufficient ion-storage sites. Therefore, applied for supercapacitors, the carbon electrode material exhibits an outstanding specific capacitance of 451 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 in a three-electrode system. Moreover, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor based on two identical carbon electrodes also displays high specific capacitance of 309 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 , excellent rate capacity and remarkable cycling stability with 99.3% of the initial capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at 5 A -1 . The synthesis strategy avoids expensive inert gas protection and the use of corrosive KOH and toxic ZnCl 2 activated reagents, representing a promising green route to design advanced carbon electrode materials from biomass for high-capacity supercapacitors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on graphene oxide sheets as high-performance electrochromic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xueting; Sun, Shibin; Dong, Lihua; Hu, Xiong; Yin, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochromic mechanism of tungsten oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide composite. - Highlights: • A novel inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid composite was prepared. • The hybrid composite has sandwich-like structure. • The hybrid composite exhibited high-quality electrohcromic performance. - Abstract: In this work, we report the synthesis of a novel hybrid electrochromic composite through nucleation and growth of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires on graphene oxide sheets using a facile solvothermal route. The competition between the growth of tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduction of graphene oxide sheets leads to the formation of sandwich-structured tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite. Due to the strongly coupled effect between the ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets, the novel electrochromic composite exhibited high-quality electrochromic performance with fast color-switching speed, good cyclic stability, and high coloration efficiency. The present tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite represents a new approach to prepare other inorganic-reduced graphene oxide hybrid materials for electrochemical applications

  14. High prevalence of hypertension and its selected risk factors among adult tribal population in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Tapas; Kavishwar, Arvind; Sharma, Ravendra K; Rao, P Vinay

    2017-10-01

    A community based cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors like salt intake, 24-h urinary sodium excretion and body mass index (BMI) among tribal population of Mandla District, Central India. A total of 3090 individuals, from 1258 house hold drawn from 33 sampled villages and 12 urban wards were studied for blood pressure measurements and clinical examination, while 414 urine samples were collected for estimation of 24-h sodium excretion. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the associations of BMI, urinary sodium output and other risk factors with hypertension. Across the sample, 28.2% of males and 23.6% of females had either stage-I or stage-II hypertension. More than 8% of subjects  25 were considerably more to have high blood pressure. Salt intake is directly related to the hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly greater among those whose salt intake was more than 10 g per day. A positive association between urine sodium excretion and blood pressure was observed. The results of the present study show that the tribal population is also affected by the life style diseases at par with the non-tribal population.

  15. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD- induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg or captopril (15 mg/kg all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO and endothelin (ET levels.

  16. Geologic isolation of nuclear waste at high latitudes: the role of ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; McIntosh, J.; Iverson, N.; Neuzil, C.E.; Bense, V.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste from the biosphere requires special consideration in countries at high latitudes (>40°N) owing to the possibility of future episodes of continental glaciation (Talbot 1999). It is now widely recognized that Pleistocene continental glaciations have had a profound effect on rates of sediment erosion (Cuffey & Paterson 2010) and deformation including tectonic thrusting (Pedersen 2005) as well as groundwater flow (Person et al. 2007; Lemieux et al. 2008a,b,c). In addition, glacial mechanical loads may have generated anomalous, or fossil, pore pressures within certain clay-rich confining units (e.g. Vinard et al. 2001). Because high-level nuclear wastes must be isolated from the biosphere as long as 1 million years (McMurry et al. 2003), the likelihood of one or more continental ice sheets overrunning high-latitude sites must be considered.

  17. Synthesis of alumina nano-sheets via supercritical fluid technology with high uranyl adsorptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Yu; Jun Wang; Zhanshuang Li; Qi Liu; Milin Zhang; Hongbin Bai; Caishan Jiao; Jun Wang; Lianhe Liu

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide is beneficial to the synthesis of superior ultrafine and uniform materials due to its high chemical stability, low viscosity, high diffusivity, and 'zero' surface tension. γ-Alumina nano-sheets were obtained by a simple hydrothermal route in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and nitrogen sorption isotherm were employed to characterize the samples. Alumina as-prepared has a high specific surface area of up to 200 ± 6 m 2 g -1 , which presents a high adsorption capacity (4.66 ± 0.02 mg g -1 ) for uranyl ions from aqueous solution. Furthermore, the adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. (authors)

  18. Essential hypertension vs. secondary hypertension among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Banker, Ashish; Shete, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed Sharukh; Tyson, John E; Barratt, Michelle S; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Milewicz, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the proportions and correlates of essential hypertension among children in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic. We evaluated 423 consecutive children and collected demographic and clinical history by retrospective chart review. We identified 275 (65%) hypertensive children (blood pressure >95th percentile per the "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents") from 423 children referred to the clinic for history of elevated blood pressure. The remainder of the patients had normotension (11%), white coat hypertension (11%), prehypertension (10%), and pending diagnosis (3%). Among the 275 hypertensive children, 43% (n = 119; boys = 56%; median age = 12 years; range = 3-17 years) had essential hypertension and 57% (n = 156; boys = 66%; median age = 9 years; range = 0.08-19 years) had secondary hypertension. When compared with those with secondary hypertension, those with essential hypertension had a significantly older age at diagnosis (P = 0.0002), stronger family history of hypertension (94% vs. 68%; P secondary hypertension. The phenotype of essential hypertension can present as early as 3 years of age and is the predominant form of hypertension in children after age of 6 years. Among children with hypertension, those with essential hypertension present at an older age, have a stronger family history of hypertension, and have lower prevalence of preterm birth. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Practical research on junior high school mathematics about students' learning processes : using 'reflective sheet' (the Math Journal) et al.

    OpenAIRE

    吉岡, 睦美; 重松, 敬一

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the case study of mathematics education for Junior High School students' learning processes focusing students' metacognition and knowledge using 'Reflective Sheet' (the Math Journal) et al.. The metacognition is rather than direct action on the environment and the perception that target cognitive function and cognitive recognition of that, and say what happens in the mind. Especially, we use Reflective Sheet which is formed to check students' cognitive and metacognit...

  20. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeners, Maarten P.; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Ulu, Arzu; Lopez Sepulveda, Rocio; Morisseau, Christophe; Braam, Branko; Hammock, Bruce D.; Joles, Jaap A.

    Koeners MP, Wesseling S, Ulu A, Sepulveda RL, Morisseau C, Braam B, Hammock BD, Joles JA. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300: E691-E698, 2011. First published January 25, 2011; doi:

  1. The most intense current sheets in the high-speed solar wind near 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John J.

    2017-03-01

    Electric currents in the solar wind plasma are investigated using 92 ms fluxgate magnetometer data acquired in a high-speed stream near 1 AU. The minimum resolvable scale is roughly 0.18 s in the spacecraft frame or, using Taylor's "frozen turbulence" approximation, one proton inertial length di in the plasma frame. A new way of identifying current sheets is developed that utilizes a proxy for the current density J obtained from the derivatives of the three orthogonal components of the observed magnetic field B. The most intense currents are identified as 5σ events, where σ is the standard deviation of the current density. The observed 5σ events are characterized by an average scale size of approximately 3di along the flow direction of the solar wind, a median separation of around 50di or 100di along the flow direction of the solar wind, and a peak current density on the order of 0.5 pA/cm2. The associated current-carrying structures are consistent with current sheets; however, the planar geometry of these structures cannot be confirmed using single-point, single-spacecraft measurements. If Taylor's hypothesis continues to hold for the energetically dominant fluctuations at kinetic scales 1high-speed wind occur at electron scales, although the peak current densities at kinetic and electron scales are predicted to be nearly the same as those found in this study.

  2. High-Throughput Light Sheet Microscopy for the Automated Live Imaging of Larval Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan; Logan, Savannah; Dudley, Christopher; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    The zebrafish is a model organism with a variety of useful properties; it is small and optically transparent, it reproduces quickly, it is a vertebrate, and there are a large variety of transgenic animals available. Because of these properties, the zebrafish is well suited to study using a variety of optical technologies including light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), which provides high-resolution three-dimensional imaging over large fields of view. Research progress, however, is often not limited by optical techniques but instead by the number of samples one can examine over the course of an experiment, which in the case of light sheet imaging has so far been severely limited. Here we present an integrated fluidic circuit and microscope which provides rapid, automated imaging of zebrafish using several imaging modes, including LSFM, Hyperspectral Imaging, and Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy. Using this system, we show that we can increase our imaging throughput by a factor of 10 compared to previous techniques. We also show preliminary results visualizing zebrafish immune response, which is sensitive to gut microbiota composition, and which shows a strong variability between individuals that highlights the utility of high throughput imaging. National Science Foundation, Award No. DBI-1427957.

  3. A global, high-resolution data set of ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and ocean bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Arndt, Jan Erik; Savstrup Kristensen, Steen; Mayer, Christoph; Morlighem, Mathieu; Steinhage, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the polar ice sheets by interacting with the ice shelves in Antarctica and with the marine-terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland. Given that the flux of warm water onto the continental shelf and into the sub-ice cavities is steered by complex bathymetry, a detailed topography data set is an essential ingredient for models that address ice-ocean interaction. We followed the spirit of the global RTopo-1 data set and compiled consistent maps of global ocean bathymetry, upper and lower ice surface topographies, and global surface height on a spherical grid with now 30 arcsec grid spacing. For this new data set, called RTopo-2, we used the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO_2014) as the backbone and added the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean version 3 (IBCAOv3) and the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) version 1. While RTopo-1 primarily aimed at a good and consistent representation of the Antarctic ice sheet, ice shelves, and sub-ice cavities, RTopo-2 now also contains ice topographies of the Greenland ice sheet and outlet glaciers. In particular, we aimed at a good representation of the fjord and shelf bathymetry surrounding the Greenland continent. We modified data from earlier gridded products in the areas of Petermann Glacier, Hagen Bræ, and Sermilik Fjord, assuming that sub-ice and fjord bathymetries roughly follow plausible Last Glacial Maximum ice flow patterns. For the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland and the floating ice tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier at about 79° N, we incorporated a high-resolution digital bathymetry model considering original multibeam survey data for the region. Radar data for surface topographies of the floating ice tongues of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and Zachariæ Isstrøm have been obtained from the data centres of Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Operation Icebridge (NASA

  4. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalpando, I. [Centro de Investigacion de los Recursos Naturales, Antigua Normal Rural, Salaices, Lopez, Chihuahua (Mexico); John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B., E-mail: isaelav@hotmail.com [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14-4AS (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  5. High geothermal heat flux measured below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew T; Mankoff, Kenneth D; Tulaczyk, Slawek M; Tyler, Scott W; Foley, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The geothermal heat flux is a critical thermal boundary condition that influences the melting, flow, and mass balance of ice sheets, but measurements of this parameter are difficult to make in ice-covered regions. We report the first direct measurement of geothermal heat flux into the base of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), below Subglacial Lake Whillans, determined from the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of sediment under the lake. The heat flux at this site is 285 ± 80 mW/m(2), significantly higher than the continental and regional averages estimated for this site using regional geophysical and glaciological models. Independent temperature measurements in the ice indicate an upward heat flux through the WAIS of 105 ± 13 mW/m(2). The difference between these heat flux values could contribute to basal melting and/or be advected from Subglacial Lake Whillans by flowing water. The high geothermal heat flux may help to explain why ice streams and subglacial lakes are so abundant and dynamic in this region.

  6. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalpando, I.; John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B.

    2017-01-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  7. High geothermal heat flux measured below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew T.; Mankoff, Kenneth D.; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Tyler, Scott W.; Foley, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The geothermal heat flux is a critical thermal boundary condition that influences the melting, flow, and mass balance of ice sheets, but measurements of this parameter are difficult to make in ice-covered regions. We report the first direct measurement of geothermal heat flux into the base of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), below Subglacial Lake Whillans, determined from the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of sediment under the lake. The heat flux at this site is 285 ± 80 mW/m2, significantly higher than the continental and regional averages estimated for this site using regional geophysical and glaciological models. Independent temperature measurements in the ice indicate an upward heat flux through the WAIS of 105 ± 13 mW/m2. The difference between these heat flux values could contribute to basal melting and/or be advected from Subglacial Lake Whillans by flowing water. The high geothermal heat flux may help to explain why ice streams and subglacial lakes are so abundant and dynamic in this region. PMID:26601210

  8. High resolution transmission electron microscopic study of nanoporous carbon consisting of curved single graphite sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, L.N.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    A high resolution transmission electron microscopic study of a nanoporous carbon rich in curved graphite monolayers is presented. Observations of very thin regions. including the effect of tilting the specimen with respect to the electron beam, are reported. The initiation of single sheet material on an oriented graphite substrate is also observed. When combined with image simulations and independent measurements of the density (1.37g cm -3 ) and sp 3 /sp 2 +sp 2 bonding fraction (0.16), these observations suggest that this material is a two phase mixture containing a relatively low density aggregation of essentially capped single shells like squat nanotubes and polyhedra, plus a relatively dense 'amorphous' carbon structure which may be described using a random-Schwarzite model. Some negatively-curved sheets were also identified in the low density phase. Finally, some discussion is offered regarding the growth mechanisms responsible for this nanoporous carbon and its relationship with the structures of amorphous carbons across a broad range of densities, porosities and sp 3 /sp 2 +sp 3 bonding fractions

  9. Flexural Behavior of High-Volume Steel Fiber Cementitious Composite Externally Reinforced with Basalt FRP Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCCs are characterized by unique tensile strain hardening and multiple microcracking behaviors. The HPFRCC, which demonstrates remarkable properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, durability, stiffness, and thermal resistance, is a class of fiber cement composite with fine aggregates. It can withstand tensile stresses by forming distributed microcracks owing to the embedded fibers in the concrete, which improve the energy absorption capacity and apparent ductility. This high energy absorbing capacity can be enhanced further by an external stiff fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. Basalt fabric is externally bonded as a sheet on concrete materials to enhance the durability and resistance to fire and other environmental attacks. This study investigates the flexural performance of an HPFRCC that is externally reinforced with multiple layers of basalt FRP. The HPFRCC considered in the study contains steel fibers at a volume fraction of 8%.

  10. [Effects of high intensity interval training on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, María Angélica; Mancilla, Rodrigo; Martínez, Sergio; Díaz, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Exercise training may reduce blood pressure. To determine the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise protocol on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Eleven men and 27 women aged 46.4 ± 9.8 years were divided in two groups according to their blood pressure. Sixteen were classified as normotensive and 22 as hypertensive. All attended an exercise program with 3 sessions per week for a total of 24 sessions. Each session consisted of one minute of intense exercise performed on a stationary bike, followed by an inactive pause lasting two minutes. This cycle was repeated 10 times and it was thus called 1 * 2 * 10. Blood pressure, weight (kg) and body fat were assessed. In the hypertensive group, there was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure from 145.4 ± 9.0 to 118.3 ± 15.6 mm Hg (p hypertension in a period of two months and 24 sessions.

  11. Different antihypertensive effect of beta-blocking drugs in low and normal-high renin hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralberg, B E; Tolagen, K

    1976-05-31

    The treatment response to beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs was compared in two groups of patients with primary (essential) hypertension and different renin levels. Each group consisted of 25 patients and was equally distributed regarding age, severity and stage of hypertension. In the first group (group 1), the mean upright plasma renin activity was 0.8 ng ml-1h-1 (range 0.3 to 1.5) and the patients were considered to have low renin hypertension. In the other group (group 2) the patients had a mean plasma renin activity of 2.1 ng ml-1h-1 (range 1.1 to 5.1) and were considered to have normal to high renin hypertension. In both groups the patients were initially treated with beta-blocking drugs; in group 1 with a beta-blocker corresponding to an average dose of 311 mg propranolol a day for at least eight weeks and in group 2 with propranolol 320 mg a day in a fixed dose for eight weeks. The hypotensive response differed significantly between the two groups (p less than 0.001). In group 1 the pretreatment blood pressure was 197/117 mm Hg supine and 198/120 mm Hg standing. During treatment blood pressure decreased only 5/3 mm Hg supine and 9/5 mm Hg standing. The pretreatment blood pressure in group 2 was 187/114 mm Hg supine and 186/117 mm Hg standing. Beta-blocking therapy reduced blood pressure 36/23 and 34/18 mm Hg, respectively (both p less than 0.001). Pulse rates fell significantly in the two groups, both in the lying and standing positions. In 17 patients with low renin hypertension (group 1), a volume-depleting drug was added (spironolactone, 14 patients; thiazides, 3 patients) and this achieved a marked fall in blood pressure levels of 38/16 mm Hg supine and 37/19 mm Hg standing (both p less than 0.001). These results suggest the following: (1) Most patients with normal to high plasma renin activity respond well to moderate doses of propranolol. (2) Propranolol given in the same doses is almost without antihypertensive effect in patients with low renin

  12. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  13. 75 FR 70205 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-560-823] Certain Coated Paper... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (certain coated paper) from... duty investigation of certain coated paper from Indonesia. See Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High...

  14. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Egert, Josef

    This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion) from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  15. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhavy Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  16. Structural and mechanical behaviour of severe plastically deformed high purity aluminium sheets processed by constrained groove pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S.S.; Raghu, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High purity aluminium sheets constrained groove pressed up to plastic strain of 5.8. • Microstructural evolution studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. • Ultrafine grained structure with grain size ∼900 nm achieved in sheets. • Yield strength increased by 5.3 times and tensile strength doubled after first pass. • Enhanced deformation homogeneity seen with increased accumulated plastic strain. - Abstract: High purity aluminium sheets (∼99.9%) are subjected to intense plastic straining by constrained groove pressing method successfully up to 5 passes thereby imparting an effective plastic strain of 5.8. Transmission electron microscopy studies of constrained groove pressed sheets divulged significant grain refinement and the average grain sizes obtained after five pass is estimated to be ∼0.9 μm. In addition to that, microstructural evolution of constrained groove pressed sheets is characterized by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis employing Williamson–Hall method and the results obtained fairly concur with electron microscopy findings. The tensile behaviour evolution with increased straining indicates substantial improvement of yield strength by ∼5.3 times from 17 MPa to 90 MPa during first pass corroborated to grain refinement observed. Marginal increase in strengths is noticed during second pass followed by minor drop in strengths attributed to predominance of dislocation recovery is noticed in subsequent passes. Quantitative assessment of degree of deformation homogeneity using microhardness profiles reveal relatively better strain homogeneity at higher number of passes

  17. Hypertension: high prevalence and a positive association with obesity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth in far north Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Danielle; Raulli, Alexandra; Pratt, Rohan; Fagan, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension and other chronic disease risks are common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults but there is little evidence regarding the epidemiology of these risk factors during adolescence. This study examines the prevalence of pre-hypertension, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15-24 years living in remote Indigenous communities in north Queensland. In so doing, it aims to better inform the approach to cardiovascular disease in this population. This is a descriptive study that retrospectively examines health service data from a program of community screening, the Young Persons Check (YPC). Participants were 1,883 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15-24 years who attended for a YPC in 11 remote communities in north Queensland between March 2009 and April 2011. Overall, the prevalence of pre-hypertension was 34.0%; stage I hypertension was 17.7% and stage II hypertension was 3.3%. The prevalence of elevated waist circumference was 47.6%, overweight or obesity 45.9%, elevated triglycerides 18.3%, decreased HDL 54.8% and proteinuria 24.3%. The prevalence of hypertension (stage I or II) among Torres Strait Islander males was 34.1%, Aboriginal males 26.9%, Torres Strait Islander females 12.6% and Aboriginal females 13.0%. Hypertension was associated with sex (males) (OR= 4.37, p<0.000), overweight (OR=2.46, p<0.000), obesity (OR=4.59, p<0.000) and elevated triglycerides (OR=2.38, p<0.000). Pre-hypertension, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk in this population is highly prevalent. Hypertension was particularly prevalent among male participants. The results reiterate the importance of early life experience in cardiovascular disease prevention. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Portal hypertension in children: High-risk varices, primary prophylaxis and consequences of bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duché, Mathieu; Ducot, Béatrice; Ackermann, Oanez; Guérin, Florent; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Bernard, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Primary prophylaxis of bleeding is debated for children with portal hypertension because of the limited number of studies on its safety and efficacy, the lack of a known endoscopic pattern carrying a high-risk of bleeding for all causes, and the assumption that the mortality of a first bleed is low. We report our experience with these issues. From 1989 to 2014, we managed 1300 children with portal hypertension. Endoscopic features were recorded; high-risk varices were defined as: grade 3 esophageal varices, grade 2 varices with red wale markings, or gastric varices. Two hundred forty-six children bled spontaneously and 182 underwent primary prophylaxis. The results of primary prophylaxis were reviewed as well as bleed-free survival, overall survival and life-threatening complications of bleeding. High-risk varices were found in 96% of children who bled spontaneously and in 11% of children who did not bleed without primary prophylaxis (pportal hypertension. Life-threatening complications of bleeding were recorded in 19% of children with cirrhosis and high-risk varices who bled spontaneously. Ten-year probabilities of bleed-free survival after primary prophylaxis in children with high-risk varices were 96% and 72% for non-cirrhotic causes and cirrhosis respectively. Ten-year probabilities of overall survival after primary prophylaxis were 100% and 93% in children with non-cirrhotic causes and cirrhosis respectively. In children with portal hypertension, bleeding is linked to the high-risk endoscopic pattern reported here. Primary prophylaxis of bleeding based on this pattern is fairly effective and safe. In children with liver disease, the risk of bleeding from varices in the esophagus is linked to their large size, the presence of congestion on their surface and their expansion into the stomach but not to the child's age nor to the cause of portal hypertension. Prevention of the first bleed in children with high-risk varices can be achieved by surgery or endoscopic

  19. Testing new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    of a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems for advanced high strength steels and stainless steels. The methodology is presented and applied to an industrial case, where different tribo-systems are tested. A universal sheet tribotester has been developed, which can run automatically repetitive......Testing of new tribo-systems in sheet metal forming has become an important issue due to new legislation, which forces industry to replace current, hazardous lubricants. The present paper summarizes the work done in a recent PhD project at the Technical University of Denmark on the development...

  20. [Efficiency of high-volume hemofiltration in patients with severe sepsis and intracranial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaeva, T S; Berdnikov, A P; Goncharenko, S I; Denisova, E A

    2014-01-01

    We performed a retrospective study in 68 patients (144 procedures) with severe sepsis and intracranial hypertension measured by the pressure in the central retinal vein. The patients underwent high-volume hemofiltration (HV-HF) for extrarenal indications. Increased pressure in the central retinal vein was accompanied by critical points of cerebral perfusion pressure and the growth of neurological deficit with inhibition level of consciousness to coma 1. In this case, IHV-HF may be associated with the formation of the critical points of cerebral perfihsion and severe disorders of microcirculation and the lack of resolution of tissue hypoperfusion. In case of intracranial hypertension IHV-HF is not effective in the category of patients where there is a combination ΔpCO2 > 5.9 mm Hg level and GCS <10 points.

  1. Salt-assisted direct exfoliation of graphite into high-quality, large-size, few-layer graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Liyong; Li, Mingjian; Tao, Xiaoming; Xie, Zhuang; Zhou, Xuechang; Raju, Arun P A; Young, Robert J; Zheng, Zijian

    2013-08-21

    We report a facile and low-cost method to directly exfoliate graphite powders into large-size, high-quality, and solution-dispersible few-layer graphene sheets. In this method, aqueous mixtures of graphite and inorganic salts such as NaCl and CuCl2 are stirred, and subsequently dried by evaporation. Finally, the mixture powders are dispersed into an orthogonal organic solvent solution of the salt by low-power and short-time ultrasonication, which exfoliates graphite into few-layer graphene sheets. We find that the as-made graphene sheets contain little oxygen, and 86% of them are 1-5 layers with lateral sizes as large as 210 μm(2). Importantly, the as-made graphene can be readily dispersed into aqueous solution in the presence of surfactant and thus is compatible with various solution-processing techniques towards graphene-based thin film devices.

  2. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsueh Pai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg, and decreased pup weight (~50% and size (~24%, but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  3. High-resolution ice thickness and bed topography of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Doyle, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    We present ice thickness and bed topography maps with high spatial resolution (250 to 500 m) of a and-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of ~12000 km2 and cover the whole ablation area of the out...

  4. 75 FR 70206 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-560-824] Certain Coated Paper... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (certain coated paper) from... Department published its final determination in the countervailing duty investigation of certain coated paper...

  5. 75 FR 75663 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... suitable for high quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin... square meter; whether gloss grade, satin grade, matte grade, dull grade, or any other grade of finish... distinguish it from `text.' \\2\\ One of the key measurements of any grade of paper is brightness. Generally...

  6. High-speed blanking of copper alloy sheets: Material modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Ch.; Ahzi, S.; Daridon, L.

    2006-08-01

    To optimize the blanking process of thin copper sheets ( ≈ 1. mm thickness), it is necessary to study the influence of the process parameters such as the punch-die clearance and the wear of the punch and the die. For high stroke rates, the strain rate developed in the work-piece can be very high. Therefore, the material modeling must include the dynamic effects.For the modeling part, we propose an elastic-viscoplastic material model combined with a non-linear isotropic damage evolution law based on the theory of the continuum damage mechanics. Our proposed modeling is valid for a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Finite Element simulations, using the commercial code ABAQUS/Explicit, of the blanking process are then conducted and the results are compared to the experimental investigations. The predicted cut edge of the blanked part and the punch-force displacement curves are discussed as function of the process parameters. The evolution of the shape errors (roll-over depth, fracture depth, shearing depth, and burr formation) as function of the punch-die clearance, the punch and the die wear, and the contact punch/die/blank-holder are presented. A discussion on the different stages of the blanking process as function of the processing parameters is given. The predicted results of the blanking dependence on strain-rate and temperature using our modeling are presented (for the plasticity and damage). The comparison our model results with the experimental ones shows a good agreement.

  7. Vertically Aligned Graphene Sheets Membrane for Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Generation of Clean Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panpan; Li, Jing; Lv, Lingxiao; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2017-05-23

    Efficient utilization of solar energy for clean water is an attractive, renewable, and environment friendly way to solve the long-standing water crisis. For this task, we prepared the long-range vertically aligned graphene sheets membrane (VA-GSM) as the highly efficient solar thermal converter for generation of clean water. The VA-GSM was prepared by the antifreeze-assisted freezing technique we developed, which possessed the run-through channels facilitating the water transport, high light absorption capacity for excellent photothermal transduction, and the extraordinary stability in rigorous conditions. As a result, VA-GSM has achieved average water evaporation rates of 1.62 and 6.25 kg m -2 h -1 under 1 and 4 sun illumination with a superb solar thermal conversion efficiency of up to 86.5% and 94.2%, respectively, better than that of most carbon materials reported previously, which can efficiently produce the clean water from seawater, common wastewater, and even concentrated acid and/or alkali solutions.

  8. High-capacity conductive nanocellulose paper sheets for electrochemically controlled extraction of DNA oligomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Razaq

    Full Text Available Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg(-1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30-50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m(2 g(-1 of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT(6, (dT(20, and (dT(40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules.

  9. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M.; Crump, Erica M.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet con...

  10. Up-scalable sheet-to-sheet production of high efficiency perovskite module and solar cells on 6-in. substrate using slot die coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Giacomo, Francesco; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Fledderus, Henri; Bruijnaers, Bardo J.; Verhees, Wiljan J.H.; Dorenkamper, Maarten S.; Veenstra, Sjoerd C.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; Merckx, Tamara; Aernouts, Tom; Andriessen, Ronn; Galagan, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Scalable sheet-to-sheet slot die coating processes have been demonstrated for perovskite solar cells and modules. The processes have been developed on 6 in. × 6 in. glass/ITO substrates for two functional layers: the perovskite photo-active layer and the Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer. Perovskite

  11. Hypertensive retinopathy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... retina from high blood pressure is called hypertensive retinopathy. It occurs as the existing high blood pressure ... flame hemorrhages and cotton wool spots. As hypertensive retinopathy progresses, hard exudates can appear around the macula ...

  12. Optimal use of β-blockers in high-risk hypertension: A guide to dosing equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet B McGill

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Janet B McGillDepartment of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Hypertension is the number one diagnosis made by primary care physicians, placing them in a unique position to prescribe the antihypertensive agent best suited to the individual patient. In individuals with diabetes mellitus, blood pressure (BP levels > 130/80 mmHg confer an even higher risk for cardiovascular and renal disease, and these patients will benefit from aggressive antihypertensive treatment using a combination of agents. β‑blockers are playing an increasingly important role in the management of hypertension in high-risk patients. β‑blockers are a heterogeneous class of agents, and this review presents the differences between β‑blockers and provides evidence-based protocols to assist in understanding dose equivalence in the selection of an optimal regimen in patients with complex needs. The clinical benefits provided by β‑blockers are only effective if patients adhere to medication treatment long term. β‑blockers with proven efficacy, once-daily dosing, and lower side effect profiles may become instrumental in the treatment of hypertensive diabetic and nondiabetic patients.Keywords: antihypertensive, blood pressure, atenolol, carvedilol, labetalol, metoprolol, nebivolol

  13. High resolution light-sheet based high-throughput imaging cytometry system enables visualization of intra-cellular organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Raju; Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2014-09-01

    Visualization of intracellular organelles is achieved using a newly developed high throughput imaging cytometry system. This system interrogates the microfluidic channel using a sheet of light rather than the existing point-based scanning techniques. The advantages of the developed system are many, including, single-shot scanning of specimens flowing through the microfluidic channel at flow rate ranging from micro- to nano- lit./min. Moreover, this opens-up in-vivo imaging of sub-cellular structures and simultaneous cell counting in an imaging cytometry system. We recorded a maximum count of 2400 cells/min at a flow-rate of 700 nl/min, and simultaneous visualization of fluorescently-labeled mitochondrial network in HeLa cells during flow. The developed imaging cytometry system may find immediate application in biotechnology, fluorescence microscopy and nano-medicine.

  14. Advanced Sulfur Cathode Enabled by Highly Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-02-10

    Herein, we report a synthesis of highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with ultrahigh pore volume (5.4 cm(3)/g) via a simple thermally induced expansion strategy in absence of any templates. The wrinkled graphene sheets are interwoven rather than stacked, enabling rich nitrogen-containing active sites. Benefiting from the unique pore structure and nitrogen-doping induced strong polysulfide adsorption ability, lithium-sulfur battery cells using these wrinkled graphene sheets as both sulfur host and interlayer achieved a high capacity of ∼1000 mAh/g and exceptional cycling stability even at high sulfur content (≥80 wt %) and sulfur loading (5 mg sulfur/cm(2)). The high specific capacity together with the high sulfur loading push the areal capacity of sulfur cathodes to ∼5 mAh/cm(2), which is outstanding compared to other recently developed sulfur cathodes and ideal for practical applications.

  15. High Arctic Holocene temperature record from the Agassiz ice cap and Greenland ice sheet evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Benoit S; Fisher, David A; Milne, Glenn A; Vinther, Bo M; Tarasov, Lev; Huybrechts, Philippe; Lacelle, Denis; Main, Brittany; Zheng, James; Bourgeois, Jocelyne; Dyke, Arthur S

    2017-06-06

    We present a revised and extended high Arctic air temperature reconstruction from a single proxy that spans the past ∼12,000 y (up to 2009 CE). Our reconstruction from the Agassiz ice cap (Ellesmere Island, Canada) indicates an earlier and warmer Holocene thermal maximum with early Holocene temperatures that are 4-5 °C warmer compared with a previous reconstruction, and regularly exceed contemporary values for a period of ∼3,000 y. Our results show that air temperatures in this region are now at their warmest in the past 6,800-7,800 y, and that the recent rate of temperature change is unprecedented over the entire Holocene. The warmer early Holocene inferred from the Agassiz ice core leads to an estimated ∼1 km of ice thinning in northwest Greenland during the early Holocene using the Camp Century ice core. Ice modeling results show that this large thinning is consistent with our air temperature reconstruction. The modeling results also demonstrate the broader significance of the enhanced warming, with a retreat of the northern ice margin behind its present position in the mid Holocene and a ∼25% increase in total Greenland ice sheet mass loss (∼1.4 m sea-level equivalent) during the last deglaciation, both of which have implications for interpreting geodetic measurements of land uplift and gravity changes in northern Greenland.

  16. Derivation of high spatial resolution albedo from UAV digital imagery: application over the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jonathan C.; Hubbard, Alun; Box, Jason E.; Brough, Stephen; Cameron, Karen; Cook, Joseph M.; Cooper, Matthew; Doyle, Samuel H.; Edwards, Arwyn; Holt, Tom; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram; Jones, Christine; Pitcher, Lincoln H.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Smith, Laurence C.; Stibal, Marek; Snooke, Neal

    2017-05-01

    Measurements of albedo are a prerequisite for modelling surface melt across the Earth's cryosphere, yet available satellite products are limited in spatial and/or temporal resolution. Here, we present a practical methodology to obtain centimetre resolution albedo products with accuracies of 5% using consumer-grade digital camera and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies. Our method comprises a workflow for processing, correcting and calibrating raw digital images using a white reference target, and upward and downward shortwave radiation measurements from broadband silicon pyranometers. We demonstrate the method with a set of UAV sorties over the western, K-sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The resulting albedo product, UAV10A1, covers 280 km2, at a resolution of 20 cm per pixel and has a root-mean-square difference of 3.7% compared to MOD10A1 and 4.9% compared to ground-based broadband pyranometer measurements. By continuously measuring downward solar irradiance, the technique overcomes previous limitations due to variable illumination conditions during and between surveys over glaciated terrain. The current miniaturization of multispectral sensors and incorporation of upward facing radiation sensors on UAV packages means that this technique will likely become increasingly attractive in field studies and used in a wide range of applications for high temporal and spatial resolution surface mapping of debris, dust, cryoconite and bioalbedo and for directly constraining surface energy balance models.

  17. Interactive desktop analysis of high resolution simulations: application to turbulent plume dynamics and current sheet formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, John; Mininni, Pablo; Norton, Alan; Rast, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The ever increasing processing capabilities of the supercomputers available to computational scientists today, combined with the need for higher and higher resolution computational grids, has resulted in deluges of simulation data. Yet the computational resources and tools required to make sense of these vast numerical outputs through subsequent analysis are often far from adequate, making such analysis of the data a painstaking, if not a hopeless, task. In this paper, we describe a new tool for the scientific investigation of massive computational datasets. This tool (VAPOR) employs data reduction, advanced visualization, and quantitative analysis operations to permit the interactive exploration of vast datasets using only a desktop PC equipped with a commodity graphics card. We describe VAPORs use in the study of two problems. The first, motivated by stellar envelope convection, investigates the hydrodynamic stability of compressible thermal starting plumes as they descend through a stratified layer of increasing density with depth. The second looks at current sheet formation in an incompressible helical magnetohydrodynamic flow to understand the early spontaneous development of quasi two-dimensional (2D) structures embedded within the 3D solution. Both of the problems were studied at sufficiently high spatial resolution, a grid of 504 2 by 2048 points for the first and 1536 3 points for the second, to overwhelm the interactive capabilities of typically available analysis resources

  18. Improvements in processing characteristics and engineering properties of wood flour-filled high density polyethylene composite sheeting in the presence of hollow glass microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris Yalcin; Steve E Amos; Andrew S D Souza; Craig M Clemons; I Sedat Gunes; Troy K Ista

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass microspheres were introduced into wood flour/high density polyethylene composites by melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder. The prepared composites were subsequently converted to extruded profiles in order to obtain composite sheeting. The presence of hollow glass microspheres highly reduced the density of the extruded sheets down to 0.9 g/cc, while...

  19. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lin, Yu-Ju; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Huang, Li-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and high-fat (HF) intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In ...

  20. Quantitative neuroanatomy of all Purkinje cells with light sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico eSilvestri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the cytoarchitecture of mammalian central nervous system on a brain-wide scale is becoming a compelling need in neuroscience. For example, realistic modeling of brain activity requires the definition of quantitative features of large neuronal populations in the whole brain. Quantitative anatomical maps will also be crucial to classify the cytoarchtitectonic abnormalities associated with neuronal pathologies in a high reproducible and reliable manner. In this paper, we apply recent advances in optical microscopy and image analysis to characterize the spatial distribution of Purkinje cells across the whole cerebellum. Light sheet microscopy was used to image with micron-scale resolution a fixed and cleared cerebellum of an L7-GFP transgenic mouse, in which all Purkinje cells are fluorescently labeled. A fast and scalable algorithm for fully automated cell identification was applied on the image to extract the position of all the fluorescent Purkinje cells. This vectorized representation of the cell population allows a thorough characterization of the complex three-dimensional distribution of the neurons, highlighting the presence of gaps inside the lamellar organization of Purkinje cells, whose density is believed to play a significant role in autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, clustering analysis of the localized somata permits dividing the whole cerebellum in groups of Purkinje cells with high spatial correlation, suggesting new possibilities of anatomical partition. The quantitative approach presented here can be extended to study the distribution of different types of cell in many brain regions and across the whole encephalon, providing a robust base for building realistic computational models of the brain, and for unbiased morphological tissue screening in presence of pathologies and/or drug treatments.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM showed that silicon nanoparticles inserted into graphene sheets were homogeneous and had better layered structure than the bare silicon nanoparticles. Graphene sheets improved high rate discharge capacity and long cycle-life performance. The initial capacity of the Si nanoparticles/graphene keeps above 850 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles at a rate of 100 mAg−1. The excellent cycle performances are caused by the good structure of the composites, which ensured uniform electronic conducting sheet and intensified the cohesion force of binder and collector, respectively.

  2. High blood pressure and associated risk factors as indicator of preclinical hypertension in rural West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Modou; Agbla, Schadrac C.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Hennig, Branwen J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is fast becoming a major public health problem across sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) and associated risk factors as indicator of preclinical hypertension in a rural Gambian population. We analyzed data on 6160 healthy Gambians cross-sectionally. Attention was given to 5 to <18-year olds (N = 3637), as data from sub-Saharan Africa on this young age group are scarce. High BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) above the 95th percentile for age-sex specific height z scores in <18-year olds employing population-specific reference values. Standard high BP categories were applied to ≥18-year olds. In <18-year olds, the multivariable analysis gave an adjusted high BP prevalence ratio of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92–0.98; P = 0.002) for age and 1.13 (95% CI 1.06–1.19; P < 0.0001) for weight-for-height z score (zWT-HT); sex and hemoglobin were not shown to affect high BP. In adults age 1.05 (95% CI 1.04–1.05; P < 0.0001), body mass index z score 1.28 (95% CI 1.16–1.40; P < 0.0001), hemoglobin 0.90 (95% CI 0.85–0.96; P < 0.0001) and high fasting glucose 2.60 (95% CI 2.02–3.36; P < 0.0001, though the number was very low) were confirmed as risk factors for high BP prevalence; sex was not associated. The reported high BP prevalence and associated risk factors in adults are comparable to other studies conducted in the region. The observed high BP prevalence of 8.2% (95% CI 7.4–9.2) in our generally lean young Gambians (<18 years) is alarming, given that high BP tracks from childhood to adulthood. Hence there is an urgent need for further investigation into risk factors of pediatric high BP/hypertension even in rural African settings. PMID:28353557

  3. Benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamerson, Kenneth; Weber, Michael A; Bakris, George L; Dahlöf, Björn; Pitt, Bertram; Shi, Victor; Hester, Allen; Gupte, Jitendra; Gatlin, Marjorie; Velazquez, Eric J

    2008-12-04

    The optimal combination drug therapy for hypertension is not established, although current U.S. guidelines recommend inclusion of a diuretic. We hypothesized that treatment with the combination of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker would be more effective in reducing the rate of cardiovascular events than treatment with an ACE inhibitor plus a thiazide diuretic. In a randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 11,506 patients with hypertension who were at high risk for cardiovascular events to receive treatment with either benazepril plus amlodipine or benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide. The primary end point was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for angina, resuscitation after sudden cardiac arrest, and coronary revascularization. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. The trial was terminated early after a mean follow-up of 36 months, when the boundary of the prespecified stopping rule was exceeded. Mean blood pressures after dose adjustment were 131.6/73.3 mm Hg in the benazepril-amlodipine group and 132.5/74.4 mm Hg in the benazepril-hydrochlorothiazide group. There were 552 primary-outcome events in the benazepril-amlodipine group (9.6%) and 679 in the benazepril-hydrochlorothiazide group (11.8%), representing an absolute risk reduction with benazepril-amlodipine therapy of 2.2% and a relative risk reduction of 19.6% (hazard ratio, 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.90; Pbenazepril-amlodipine combination was superior to the benazepril-hydrochlorothiazide combination in reducing cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension who were at high risk for such events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00170950.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  4. Long-Term Reduction of High Blood Pressure by Angiotensin II DNA Vaccine in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Nakagami, Futoshi; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Kyutoku, Mariko; Shimamura, Munehisa; Kurinami, Hitomi; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2015-07-01

    Recent research on vaccination has extended its scope from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, including Alzheimer disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to design DNA vaccines for high blood pressure and eventually develop human vaccine therapy to treat hypertension. Plasmid vector encoding hepatitis B core-angiotensin II (Ang II) fusion protein was injected into spontaneously hypertensive rats using needleless injection system. Anti-Ang II antibody was successfully produced in hepatitis B core-Ang II group, and antibody response against Ang II was sustained for at least 6 months. Systolic blood pressure was consistently lower in hepatitis B core-Ang II group after immunization, whereas blood pressure reduction was continued for at least 6 months. Perivascular fibrosis in heart tissue was also significantly decreased in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. Survival rate was significantly improved in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. This study demonstrated that Ang II DNA vaccine to spontaneously hypertensive rats significantly lowered high blood pressure for at least 6 months. In addition, Ang II DNA vaccines induced an adequate humoral immune response while avoiding the activation of self-reactive T cells, assessed by ELISPOT assay. Future development of DNA vaccine to treat hypertension may provide a new therapeutic option to treat hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Analysis of Welding Zinc Coated Steel Sheets in Zero Gap Configuration by 3D Simulations and High Speed Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Holger; Kägeler, Christian; Otto, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael

    Welding of zinc coated sheets in zero gap configuration is of eminent interest for the automotive industry. This Laser welding process would enable the automotive industry to build auto bodies with a high durability in a plain manufacturing process. Today good welding results can only be achieved by expensive constructive procedures such as clamping devices to ensure a defined gad. The welding in zero gap configuration is a big challenge because of the vaporised zinc expelled from the interface between the two sheets. To find appropriate welding parameters for influencing the keyhole and melt pool dynamics, a three dimensional simulation and a high speed imaging system for laser keyhole welding have been developed. The obtained results help to understand the process of the melt pool perturbation caused by vaporised zinc.

  6. Higher surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by high - resolution climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Janneke; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Meijgaard, Erik; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Box, Jason E.; Bales, Roger C.

    2009-01-01

    High‐resolution (∼11 km) regional climate modeling shows total annual precipitation on the Greenland ice sheet for 1958–2007 to be up to 24% and surface mass balance up to 63% higher than previously thought. The largest differences occur in coastal southeast Greenland, where the much higher

  7. African American Students and U.S. High Schools. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the statistics of the status of the African American students living in the continental United States in terms of: population; graduation, dropouts, and preparedness; schools, segregation, and teacher quality; and special, gifted, and college preparatory education. According to the National Center for Education…

  8. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  9. Denervation of pulmonary artery during mitral valve surgery in patients with high pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Богачев-Прокофьев

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Pulmonary hypertension impairs the mitral valve and often leads to more severe symptoms of heart failure, low exercise tolerance and thus higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of simultaneous radiofrequency ablation of ganglionated plexi of the pulmonary artery in patients with high pulmonary hypertension during mitral valve surgery.Methods. The inclusion criteria were based on patients’ echocardiography/right heart catheterization data. The main criteria were mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥40 mm Hg at rest and a positive reactive test with nitric oxide inhalation. From January 2014 to May 2015, 14 patients underwent radiofrequency denervation of the pulmonary artery in addition to planned mitral valve surgery. Mean patient age was 53.4±7.8 years, with 57.1% of patients being females.Results. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 116±12 minutes, mean cross-clamp time was 95±13 minutes, and mean ablation time amounted to 9.5±3.1 minutes. Pulmonary artery pressure decreased significantly from a mean of 56.5±9.8 mmHg to 32.0±7.3 mmHg immediately after the operation (p<0.001, and to 28.4±5.2 mmHg and 29.7±4.4 mmHg on the first and third days at ICU respectively. Mean ICU stay was 3.1±1.2 days. There were neither early deaths nor specific complications.Conclusions. Simultaneous radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary artery ganglionated plexi when performing mitral valve surgery in patients with pulmonary hypertension is a safe and effective procedure. Further research and long-term follow-up would help to determine whether a decrease in the mean pressure of the pulmonary artery can be interpreted as a clinical advantage.

  10. Thin Air Resulting in High Pressure: Mountain Sickness and Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Manuel; Tello, Khodr; Sommer, Natascha; Gall, Henning; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir

    2017-01-01

    With rising altitude the partial pressure of oxygen falls. This phenomenon leads to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude. Since more than 140 million people permanently live at heights above 2500 m and more than 35 million travel to these heights each year, understanding the mechanisms resulting in acute or chronic maladaptation of the human body to these circumstances is crucial. This review summarizes current knowledge of the body's acute response to these circumstances, possible complications and their treatment, and health care issues resulting from long-term exposure to high altitude. It furthermore describes the characteristic mechanisms of adaptation to life in hypobaric hypoxia expressed by the three major ethnic groups permanently dwelling at high altitude. We additionally summarize current knowledge regarding possible treatment options for hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by reviewing in vitro, rodent, and human studies in this area of research. PMID:28522921

  11. Nitrogen-enriched carbon sheets derived from egg white by using expanded perlite template and its high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiucun; Liu, Yinqin; Li, Wenjun; Xu, Liqun; Yang, Huan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen-enriched carbon sheets were synthesized using egg white as a unique carbon source and expanded perlite as a novel template. The as-prepared material was further used as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications, demonstrating excellent supercapacitance with a maximum gravimetric specific capacitance of 302 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in a 3-electrode setup for a sample carbonized at 850 °C and activated for 6 h. Moreover, the carbon sheet-based capacitor with 2-symmetric electrodes showed an excellent cycle life (2% loss at 0.1 A g-1 after 10 000 cycles). The excellent performance may be attributed to the combination of the 3D carbon structure and the highly concentrated doped nitrogen component from the natural egg source for superior pseudocapacitance.

  12. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...

  13. Comprehensive optical and data management infrastructure for high-throughput light-sheet microscopy of whole mouse brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllenbroich, M Caroline; Silvestri, Ludovico; Onofri, Leonardo; Costantini, Irene; Hoff, Marcel Van't; Sacconi, Leonardo; Iannello, Giulio; Pavone, Francesco S

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive mapping and quantification of neuronal projections in the central nervous system requires high-throughput imaging of large volumes with microscopic resolution. To this end, we have developed a confocal light-sheet microscope that has been optimized for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of structurally intact clarified whole-mount mouse brains. We describe the optical and electromechanical arrangement of the microscope and give details on the organization of the microscope management software. The software orchestrates all components of the microscope, coordinates critical timing and synchronization, and has been written in a versatile and modular structure using the LabVIEW language. It can easily be adapted and integrated to other microscope systems and has been made freely available to the light-sheet community. The tremendous amount of data routinely generated by light-sheet microscopy further requires novel strategies for data handling and storage. To complete the full imaging pipeline of our high-throughput microscope, we further elaborate on big data management from streaming of raw images up to stitching of 3-D datasets. The mesoscale neuroanatomy imaged at micron-scale resolution in those datasets allows characterization and quantification of neuronal projections in unsectioned mouse brains.

  14. High-throughput isotropic mapping of whole mouse brain using multi-view light-sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jun; Li, Yusha; Zhao, Fang; Ping, Junyu; Liu, Sa; Yu, Tingting; Zhu, Dan; Fei, Peng

    2018-02-01

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) uses an additional laser-sheet to illuminate selective planes of the sample, thereby enabling three-dimensional imaging at high spatial-temporal resolution. These advantages make LSFM a promising tool for high-quality brain visualization. However, even by the use of LSFM, the spatial resolution remains insufficient to resolve the neural structures across a mesoscale whole mouse brain in three dimensions. At the same time, the thick-tissue scattering prevents a clear observation from the deep of brain. Here we use multi-view LSFM strategy to solve this challenge, surpassing the resolution limit of standard light-sheet microscope under a large field-of-view (FOV). As demonstrated by the imaging of optically-cleared mouse brain labelled with thy1-GFP, we achieve a brain-wide, isotropic cellular resolution of 3μm. Besides the resolution enhancement, multi-view braining imaging can also recover complete signals from deep tissue scattering and attenuation. The identification of long distance neural projections across encephalic regions can be identified and annotated as a result.

  15. Unveiling climate and ice-sheet history from drilling in high-latitude margins and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escutia Dotti, Carlota

    2010-05-01

    Polar ice is an important component of the climate system, affecting global sea level, ocean circulation and heat transport, marine productivity, and albedo. During the last decades drilling in the Arctic (IODP ACEX and Bering Expeditions) and in Antarctica (ODP Legs 178, 188, IODP Expedition 318 and ANDRILL) has revealed regional information about sea ice and ice sheets development and evolution. Integration of this data with numerical modeling provide an understanding of the early development of the ice sheets and their variability through the Cenozoic. Much of this work points to atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases concentrations as important triggering mechanism driving the onset of glaciation and subsequent ice volume variability. With current increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations resulting in rapidly rising global temperatures, studies of polar climates become increasingly prominent on the research agenda. Despite of the relevance of the high-latitudes in the global climate systems, the short- and long-term history of the ice sheets and sea-ice and its relationships with paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic, and sea level changes is still poorly understood. A multinational, multiplatform scientific drilling strategy is being developed to recover key physical evidence from selected high-latitude areas. This strategy is aimed at addressing key knowledge gaps about the role of polar ice in climate change, targeting questions such as timing of events, rates of change, tipping points, regional variations, and northern vs. southern hemispheres (in phase or out-of-phase) variability. This data is critical to provide constrains to sea-ice and ice sheet models, which are the basis for forecasting the future of the cryosphere in a warming world.

  16. Hypertension after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowolski, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension increases the cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). In chapter 2 we found that hypertension was highly prevalent in adult (77.2%), paediatric (62.7%) and young adult (86.4%) KTRs. Transition from the paediatric to adult care did not affect hypertension and there

  17. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (-5.93 ± 6.25 vs. -1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (-6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (-7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control.

  18. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Attenuated Maternal High-Fructose Combined with Post-Weaning High-Salt Diets-Induced Hypertension in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of food high in fructose and salt is associated with the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can originate from early life. Melatonin, a pleiotropic hormone, regulates blood pressure. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose combined with post-weaning high-salt diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND or a 60% fructose diet (HF during pregnancy and the lactation period. Male offspring were on either the ND or a high-salt diet (HS, 1% NaCl from weaning to 12 weeks of age and were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HF/ND, ND/HS, HF/HS, and HF/HS+melatonin. Melatonin (0.01% in drinking water was administered during pregnancy and lactation. We observed that maternal HF combined with post-weaning HS diets induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which was attenuated by maternal melatonin therapy. The beneficial effects of maternal melatonin therapy on HF/HS-induced hypertension related to regulating several nutrient-sensing signals, including Sirt1, Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkab2, Pparg, and Ppargc1a. Additionally, melatonin increased protein levels of mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR, decreased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine levels, and increased the l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. The reprogramming effects by which maternal melatonin therapy protects against hypertension of developmental origin awaits further elucidation.

  19. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects one third of U.S. adults and is a leading cause of heart disease and stroke. A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  20. Optimizing the Parameters in Heat Treatment for Achieving High Hardness and Efficient Bending of Thin BS 2014 Aluminium Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Priyadarshini B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work targets in setting a standard heat treatment procedure for obtaining high hardness values of the order of 80 HRB in BS 2014 aluminium alloy sheets of 2mm thick commonly used in aerospace industries. A hardness range of 60HRB to 72HRB is possible in low thickness sheets as stated in the standard BS EN 485-2:2013. Experiments were performed to achieve higher hardness values by controlling the heat treatment temperatures thereby understanding the ageing mechanism of the Al-Cu alloy to a wider extent. The validated process sequence in turn resulted in complications where bending of the sheets resulted in cracking. Further investigation was performed and it was found that the BS 2014 alloy has to be bent within two hours of solution annealing in order to have an efficient bending. The results showed that the natural ageing is so rapid in this alloy, which strengthens the material so quickly by the formation of CuAl2 precipitates, thereby, demanding the bending procedure to be performed before the growth of precipitates becomes dominant.

  1. Surface dose measurements under stretched, perforated thermoplast sheets and under protective wound dressings for high energy photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenraus, J.; Christ, G.

    2000-01-01

    Patient fixation masks made of perforated thermoplast sheets are widely used in radiotherapy. These masks in particular serve to immobilize the head and neck region during radiation treatment. We placed samples made of differently stretched, perforated mask material on the surface of a white polystyrene (RW3) phantom and measured for high energy photon beams from Co-60 radiation up to 25 MV bremsstrahlung the dose increase resulting from the build-up under the hole and bridge areas. Depending on the energy of the incident beam and the thickness of the stretched mask material we observed a dose increase under the bridges at the phantom surface of 55% up to 140% compared to the dose without a layer of mask material. Under a hole the dose increase is almost half the value found under a bridge. However, deeper than 1 mm under the phantom surface this difference in dose increase under holes and bridges decreases to less than 10%. The mean dose increase under a perforated thermoplast sheet is lower than the dose increase under a homogeneous sheet made of the same material with the same mean thickness. Radiation induced skin lesions or an ulcerating tumour, respectively, may require a protective wound dressing under a patient fixation mask during radiation therapy. Choosing a thin hydrocolloid wound dressing the additional dose increase of the skin, compared to the dose increase due to the fixation mask, can be kept low. (orig.) [de

  2. High-Resolution Digitization of the Film Archive of SPRI/NSF/TUD Radar Sounding of the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, D. M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Mackie, E. J.; Vega, K. I.; Emmons, J. R.; Winstein, K.; Bingham, R. G.; Benham, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    The airborne radio echo sounding data collected during the SPRI/NSF/TUD surveys of the Antarctic Ice Sheet in the late nineteen sixties and early seventies were recorded on a combination of 35mm and super-8 mm black-and-white optical film. These data represent the oldest extant continent-scale geophysical observations of ice thickness, internal layering and conditions beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. As such, when compared with modern radar sounding observations, they offer a unique opportunity to investigate temporal changes in ice sheet conditions across half a century. However, the storage of these data on film, paper-prints, and scans of those prints have made such comparison at the full radiometric and geometric resolution of the data difficult. To address this challenge, we utilized a state-of-the-art high-resolution Hollywood film scanning system to digitize the entire SPRI/NSF/TUD optical film archive. This has resulted in over two million digital images with information at the full spatial and brightness-level resolution of the original film. We present the process and results of this scanning as well as the current progress in formatting, registering, and positioning these data for release and use by the wider radio glaciological community. We also discuss the glaciological insights enabled by this effort.

  3. Factors associated with high probability of target blood pressure non-achievement in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Zhemanyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the topic issue of modern cardiology is factors of target blood pressure level non-achievement clarifying due to a better understanding how we can reduce cardiovascular complications. The aim of the study is to determine the factors of poor blood pressure control using the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters and adenosine 5'-diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation parameters in patients with arterial hypertension. Material and methods. The study involved 153 patients with essential hypertension (EH stage II, II degree. The ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed in patients during at least two of first-line antihypertensive drugs in optimal daily doses usage by the ABPM bifunctional device (Incart, S.-P., R.F.. Platelet aggregation was carried out using light transmittance aggregation by optical analyzer (Solar, R.B. with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (Sigma-Aldrich at final concentration of 10.0 × 10-6 mol / L. The first group were inadequately controlled essential hypertensive individuals with high systolic or/and diastolic BP level according to the ABPM results, and the second one were patients with adequately controlled EH. Groups of patients were comparable in age (60.39 ± 10.74 years vs. 62.80 ± 9.63; p = 0.181, respectively. In the group of EH patients who reached the target level of blood pressure, women predominated (60% vs. 39.81%; p = 0.021, respectively. We used the binary logistic regression analysis to determine the predictors of target blood pressure level poor reaching using ABPM and platelet aggregation parameters. Results According to the univariate logistic regression analysis, the dependent factors influencing the target blood pressure level poor reaching are the average diurnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP (OR = 44.8; diurnal variability of systolic blood pressure (SBP (OR = 4.4; square index of hypertension for diurnal periods SBP (OR = 318.9; square index of hypertension for diurnal

  4. High incidence of secondary hypertension in patients referred for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2014-01-01

    . Thus, 91 patients were screened, and of those 51 were found to be candidates for renal denervation. Forty patients were not candidates, of which secondary hypertension was the most common cause (n = 10). Only 51% of patients referred for renal denervation were eligible for treatment. The prevalence...... of secondary hypertension was 10% of the referred population. Secondary hypertension should therefore be considered in the evaluation of candidates for renal denervation.......Percutaneous renal denervation is a new treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension and little is known about the eligibility of patients referred. 100 consecutive patients were referred for renal denervation from March 2011 through September 2012. Clinical data were prospectively...

  5. 2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qunting; Yang, Shubin; Feng, Xinliang

    2011-12-08

    2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors are prepared from the direct growth of FeOOH nanorods on the surface of graphene and the subsequent electrochemical transformation of FeOOH to Fe(3)O(4). The Fe(3)O(4) @RGO nanocomposites exhibit superior capacitance (326 F g(-1)), high energy density (85 Wh kg(-1)), large power, and good cycling performance in 1 mol L(-1) LiOH solution. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Exercise Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  7. High Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension Complicates the Care of Infants with Omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Shandee; Baerg, Joanne; Deming, Douglas; St Peter, Shawn D; Hopper, Andrew; Goff, Donna A

    2017-01-01

    Omphalocele is one of the most common abdominal wall defects. Many newborn infants born with omphalocele present with significant respiratory distress at birth, requiring mechanical ventilatory support, and have clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Little information exists on the prevalence of and risk factors associated with pulmonary hypertension in this cohort of infants. To describe the prevalence of and risk factors associated with pulmonary hypertension among infants with omphalocele. This is a multicenter retrospective chart review of demographic data and clinical characteristics of infants with omphalocele admitted to the neonatal intensive care units of Loma Linda University Children's Hospital and Children's Mercy Hospital between 1994 and 2011. Echocardiogram images were reviewed for pulmonary hypertension, and statistical analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with the presence of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed in 32/56 (57%) infants with omphalocele. Compared to infants without pulmonary hypertension, infants with pulmonary hypertension were more likely to have a liver-containing defect (16/32 [50%] vs. 5/24 [21%], p = 0.03), require intubation at birth (18/32 [56%] vs. 6/24 [17%], p = 0.03), and die during initial hospitalization (12/32 [38%] vs. 2/24 [8%], p = 0.01). The majority of infants with omphalocele have evidence of pulmonary hypertension which is associated with increased mortality. Echocardiograms to screen for pulmonary hypertension should be obtained at ≥2 days of life in infants with omphalocele, especially in those with liver within the omphalocele sac and/or in those infants who require intubation at birth to screen for pulmonary hypertension. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Nitrogen-doped two-dimensional porous carbon sheets derived from clover biomass for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cunjing; Wu, Dapeng; Wang, Hongju; Gao, Zhiyong; Xu, Fang; Jiang, Kai

    2017-09-01

    Highly porous carbon sheets were prepared from fresh clover stems under air atmosphere via a facile potassium chloride salt-sealing technique, which not only avoids using the high cost inert gas protection but also spontaneously introduce multi-level porosity into the carbon structure taking advantage of the trace of oxygen in the molten salt system. The as-obtained porous carbon sheets possess high specific surface area of 2244 m2 g-1 and interconnected hierarchical pore structures from micro-to macro-scale, which provide abundant storage active sites and fast ion diffusion channels. In addition, the spontaneously formed N (2.55 at%) and O (6.94 at%) doping sites not only improve the electron conductivity of the electrode but also enhance the specific capacitance by introducing pseudocapacitance. When employed as supercapacitor electrodes, a high specific capacitance of 436 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and an excellent rate capacity with capacitance remaining 290 F g-1 at 50 A g-1 are demonstrated. Furthermore, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor delivers a high specific capacitance of 420 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, excellent energy density of 58.4 Wh kg-1 and good cycling stability which retains 99.4% of the initial capacitance at 5 A g-1 after 30,000 cycles.

  9. High-frequency hearing loss, occupational noise exposure and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Huang, Kuei-Hung; Chen, Ren-Yin; Lai, Jim-Shoung; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2011-04-25

    The association between occupational noise exposure and hypertension is inconsistent because of an exposure bias caused by outer-ear measurements of noise levels among workers. This study used hearing loss values (HLVs) measured at 4 kHz and 6 kHz in both ears as a biomarker to investigate the chronic effects of noise exposure on hypertension in 790 aircraft-manufacturing workers. Participants were divided into a high hearing loss (HL) group (n = 214; average HLVs ≥ 30 decibel [dB] at 4 kHz or 6 kHz bilaterally; 83.1 ± 4.9 A-weighted decibel [dBA]), a median HL group (n = 302; 15 ≤ average HLVs workers had 1.48-fold (95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.02-2.15; p = 0.040) and 1.46-fold (95%CI = 1.03-2.05; p = 0.031) higher risks of hypertension relative to the low HL workers. Employment duration was significantly and positively correlated with the risk of hypertension among workers with average HLVs ≥ 15 dB at 4 kHz (p hearing loss is a good biomarker of occupational noise exposure and that noise-induced hearing loss may be associated with the risk of hypertension.

  10. High Prevalence and Low Awareness of Hypertension in a Market Population in Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma I. Ulasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A community-based study put the prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria at 32.8%. Market workers in Nigeria lead sedentary life style and often depend on salt-laden fast food while at work. Method. An unselected population of market workers were screened for hypertension and its risk factors by a pretested, structured questionnaire, clinical examination, and laboratory investigation. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 140 and/or ≥ 90 mmHg or being on drug therapy. Results. Forty-two percent of the screened population were hypertensive. Of this number, 70.6% did not know they were hypertensive before the screening. More males than females (=.022 were hypertensive. Prevalence of hypertension increased with age from 5.4% in the age group <20 years to 80% in the age group ≥70 years. Conclusion. The prevalence of hypertension in market workers in this study was 42%, and the majority of them were unaware of their disease.

  11. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Sychowski Shirley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. Methods This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru ® automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150

  12. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  13. Current and highsheets in CIR streams: statistics and interaction with the HCS and the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Thirty events of CIR streams (corotating interaction regions between fast and slow solar wind) were analyzed in order to study statistically plasma structure within the CIR shear zones and to examine the interaction of the CIRs with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and the Earth's magnetosphere. The occurrence of current layers and high-beta plasma sheets in the CIR structure has been estimated. It was found that on average, each of the CIR streams had four current layers in its structure with a current density of more than 0.12 A/m2 and about one and a half high-beta plasma regions with a beta value of more than five. Then we traced how and how often the high-speed stream associated with the CIR can catch up with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and connect to it. The interface of each fourth CIR stream coincided in time within an hour with the HCS, but in two thirds of cases, the CIR connection with the HCS was completely absent. One event of the simultaneous observation of the CIR stream in front of the magnetosphere by the ACE satellite in the vicinity of the L1 libration point and the Wind satellite in the remote geomagnetic tail was considered in detail. Measurements of the components of the interplanetary magnetic field and plasma parameters showed that the overall structure of the stream is conserved. Moreover, some details of the fine structure are also transferred through the magnetosphere. In particular, the so-called "magnetic hole" almost does not change its shape when moving from L1 point to a neighborhood of L2 point.

  14. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  15. Development of high strength steel sheets for crashworthiness; Shototsu anzen`yo kokyodo usu koban no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, K; Yamamoto, M; Mizui, N; Hirose, Y; Kojima, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    For frontal or rear members of automotive body, the most suitable high strength steel was investigated. Dynamic tensile test at strain-rate of 2000/s and crash test of hat-shape column at 4m/s were conducted for steel sheets with tensile strength ranging from 290 to 980 MPa. Dynamic tensile strength increases with increasing static one but the ratio of dynamic tensile strength to static one decreases. Tensile strength remarkably affects crash energy absorption of column and TRIP steel is superior to other steels with same tensile strength. 7 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  16. SECONDARY (ENDOCRINE HYPERTENSION: LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Yukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a  very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  17. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rostami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. METHODS: Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. RESULTS: In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045 was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS (P = 0.027, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c (P = 0.025, Apo B (P = 0.012 and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043 levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (−5.93 ± 6.25 vs. −1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (−6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002, FBS (−7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019 over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. CONCLUSION: High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control.    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA

  18. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. METHODS Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. RESULTS In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (−5.93 ± 6.25 vs. −1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (−6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (−7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. CONCLUSION High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control. PMID:26089927

  19. Effects of high dose olive leaf extract on haemodynamic and oxidative stress parameters in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekanski Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antihypertensive activity of natural antioxidant, olive leaf extract (OLE is known, but its influence on cardiovascular system when administered in a high dose has not been investigated yet. Our aim was to determine the acute effects of excessive intake of standardized OLE on blood pressure, heart rate and oxidative status in both spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive Wistar rats. Systolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff, pneumatic pulse detector, before, 60 and 120 minutes after intragastric OLE administration. Activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase in erythrocytes, as well as lipid peroxidation in plasma (pTBARS were measured at the same time points, spectrophotometrically. High-dose OLE did not influence blood pressure, heart rate and pTBARS in normotensive rats, while SOD, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities significantly increased. The same dose significantly decreased blood pressure in hypertensive rats, but increased pTBARS and SOD activity. Excessive oral intake of OLE induced moderate hypotensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats only, suggesting absence of harmful haemodynamic effects after oral overdose in both rats strain. However, its prooxidative role when given in high dose in hypertensive organism should not be neglected. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175096

  20. Prenatal Metformin Therapy Attenuates Hypertension of Developmental Origin in Male Adult Offspring Exposed to Maternal High-Fructose and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Widespread consumption of a Western diet, comprised of highly refined carbohydrates and fat, may play a role in the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can take origin from early life. Metformin is the preferred treatment for type 2 diabetes. We examined whether prenatal metformin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose plus post-weaning high-fat diets-induced hypertension of developmental origins via regulation of nutrient sensing signals, uric acid, oxidative stress, and the nitric oxide (NO pathway. Gestating Sprague–Dawley rats received regular chow (ND or chow supplemented with 60% fructose diet (HFR throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were onto either the ND or high-fat diet (HFA from weaning to 12 weeks of age. A total of 40 male offspring were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HFR/ND, ND/HFA, HFR/HFA, and HFR/HFA+metformin. Metformin (500 mg/kg/day was administered via gastric gavage for three weeks during the pregnancy period. Combined maternal HFR plus post-weaning HFA induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which prenatal metformin therapy prevented. The protective effects of prenatal metformin therapy on HFR/HFA-induced hypertension, including downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system, decrease in uric acid level, and reduction of oxidative stress. Our results highlighted that the programming effects of metformin administered prenatally might be different from those reported in adults, and that deserves further elucidation.

  1. [Secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice.

  2. Management of high blood pressure in Blacks: an update of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, John M; Sica, Domenic A; Bakris, George; Brown, Angela L; Ferdinand, Keith C; Grimm, Richard H; Hall, W Dallas; Jones, Wendell E; Kountz, David S; Lea, Janice P; Nasser, Samar; Nesbitt, Shawna D; Saunders, Elijah; Scisney-Matlock, Margaret; Jamerson, Kenneth A

    2010-11-01

    Since the first International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement on the "Management of High Blood Pressure in African American" in 2003, data from additional clinical trials have become available. We reviewed hypertension and cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment guidelines, pharmacological hypertension clinical end point trials, and blood pressure-lowering trials in blacks. Selected trials without significant black representation were considered. In this update, blacks with hypertension are divided into 2 risk strata, primary prevention, where elevated blood pressure without target organ damage, preclinical cardiovascular disease, or overt cardiovascular disease for whom blood pressure consistently secondary prevention, where elevated blood pressure with target organ damage, preclinical cardiovascular disease, and/or a history of cardiovascular disease, for whom blood pressure consistently blood pressure is ≤10 mm Hg above target levels, monotherapy with a diuretic or calcium channel blocker is preferred. When blood pressure is >15/10 mm Hg above target, 2-drug therapy is recommended, with either a calcium channel blocker plus a renin-angiotensin system blocker or, alternatively, in edematous and/or volume-overload states, with a thiazide diuretic plus a renin-angiotensin system blocker. Effective multidrug therapeutic combinations through 4 drugs are described. Comprehensive lifestyle modifications should be initiated in blacks when blood pressure is ≥115/75 mm Hg. The updated International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement on hypertension management in blacks lowers the minimum target blood pressure level for the lowest-risk blacks, emphasizes effective multidrug regimens, and de-emphasizes monotherapy.

  3. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin eTain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX exposure and high-fat (HF intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification.

  4. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bosse, John D.; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E. Dale; Pereira, Troy J.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Symons, J. David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-...

  5. Isolated Systolic Hypertension: A Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolated systolic hypertension: A health concern? Is having a high top number (systolic) blood pressure, but a normal bottom number (diastolic) ... mm Hg, you have a common type of high blood pressure called isolated systolic hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension can ...

  6. Interaction between diabetes mellitus and hypertension on risk of hearing loss in highly endogamous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla O A A; Abdulhadi, Khalid; Salahaldin, Ahmed H; Gansan, Loida

    2017-11-01

    that adults with DM and hypertension associated showed greater hearing impairment in highly endogamous population… Diabetic patients with hearing loss were likely to have high blood glucose and other risk factors like hypertension, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of high temperature and fiber diameter on the quasi static compressive behavior of metal fiber sintered sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Weidong, E-mail: swdgh@bit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Jianzhong; Tang, Huiping [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Non-ferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China)

    2017-04-06

    The compressive mechanical properties of the sintered sheets of continuous stainless steel fibers with different fiber diameters (8 µm, 12 µm, 28 µm) are investigated at temperatures from 298 K to 1073 K. The stress-strain curves of metal fiber sintered sheet (MFSS) are obtained by testing under uniaxial compression and 0.2% offset yield stress are determined. Inner micro-structures of the material are revealed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and microscopic computer tomography. The results indicates that fabrication technique and porosity are two principle factors affecting the yield strength of MFSS and the strength of MFSS is insensitive to the temperature below 873 K while softening occurs at temperature 1073 K. At relative high porosity (e.g. 77%), the material with small diameter fibers tends to have higher yield strength while at low porosity, MFSS's yield strength becomes high with the increase of the fiber diameter, which is probably attributed to the joint size, the surface appearance of fibers and prehardening generated during the manufacturing of MFSS. A simplified structure model taking joint size into consideration is established to explain the influence of the joint size on the yield strength of MFSS.

  8. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical. Results. Twenty participants (10 men completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1 there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2 the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P=0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

  9. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  10. A high-average power tapered FEL amplifier at submillimeter frequencies using sheet electron beams and short-period wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, S.W.; Radack, D.J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Booske, J.H.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.; Latham, P.E.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1990-01-01

    A high-average-power FEL amplifier operating at submillimeter frequencies is under development at the University of Maryland. Program goals are to produce a CW, ∼1 MW, FEL amplifier source at frequencies between 280 GHz and 560 GHz. To this end, a high-gain, high-efficiency, tapered FEL amplifier using a sheet electron beam and a short-period (superconducting) wiggler has been chosen. Development of this amplifier is progressing in three stages: (1) beam propagation through a long length (∼1 m) of short period (λ ω = 1 cm) wiggler, (2) demonstration of a proof-of-principle amplifier experiment at 98 GHz, and (3) designs of a superconducting tapered FEL amplifier meeting the ultimate design goal specifications. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Hyperbaric index in the primary prevention of hypertensive complications in high-risk pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero González, Alfonso; Uribe Moya, Silvia; Arenas Moncaleano, Ivan Gilberto; Borrajo Prol, María Paz; García García, María Jesús; López Sánchez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. In the Western World, PE affects 2-7% of pregnancies and is responsible for 50,000 deaths annually. Early detection is a priority as it can change the clinical course, but there are no biomarkers or instrumental methods with high sensitivity and specificity. Only the hyperbaric index has a sensitivity and specificity of 99% for early identification of pregnant women at risk of developing PE, but its use is not widespread. To assess the usefulness of the hyperbaric index in the primary prevention of hypertensive pregnancy complications in a public healthcare area. This is a retrospective study of pregnancies that occurred in our area during the period 2007-2012 (N=11,784). The diagnosis was established by the hyperbaric index and pregnant women at risk were treated with ASA at night. In pregnant patients referred to the nephrology clinic (38.2%), diagnosed as high-risk for PE, and treated with 100mg ASA/night (from week 17), the incidence of PE episodes was reduced by 96.94. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  13. Predictors of high central blood pressure in young with isolated systolic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchenko GD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available G D Radchenko, O O Torbas, Yu M Sirenko State Institute National Scientific Center, M.D. Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology, National Academy of Medical Science, Kyiv, Ukraine Objective: According to the European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension 2013 guidelines, evaluation of aortic blood pressure (BP is needed in young with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, but using special devices is not common, especially in Ukraine, where only a few centers have these devices. The purpose of our study was to identify the simple clinical predictors for differentiation (with or without elevated aortic systolic BP [SBP] of the young with ISH without the need for further extensive work-up. Patients and methods: The study included 44 young men (mean age: 32.2±1.3 years with office SBP ≥140 mmHg and office diastolic BP (DBP <90 mmHg (average: 153.4±2.1 mmHg and 83.4±1.7 mmHg, respectively. The following procedures were performed in all the subjects: body weight and height evaluation; measurement of office SBP, DBP, and heart rate; ambulatory BP monitoring; measurement of pulse wave velocity in arteries of elastic and muscle types and central SBP (cSBP; biochemical blood tests; electrocardiography; echocardiography; and carotid ultrasound investigations. Step-by-step multifactor regression analyses were used for finding the predictors of high cSBP. Results: Depending on the cSBP level, all the patients were divided into two groups: first group (n=17, subjects with normal cSBP, and second group (n=27, subjects with elevated cSBP. Patients in the second group were significantly older, with less height and higher body mass index; they had significantly higher levels of office SBP and DBP. Characteristics of target organ damage were within normal limits in both groups and did not differ significantly. Only pulse wave velocity in arteries of elastic type was significantly higher in the second group. The independent predictors of

  14. Role of nitric oxide and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and blood pressure in humans with essential hypertension: effect of high-intensity aerobic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Jensen, Lasse Gliemann; Thaning, Pia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and systemic blood pressure before and after 8 weeks of aerobic high-intensity training in individuals with essential hypertension (n=10) and matched healthy control subjects (n=11). Hypertensive subjects...

  15. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Applying Tip-bottomed Tool for Bending Advanced Ultra-high Strength Steel Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsomwang, Pusit; Borrisutthekul, Rattana; Klaiw-awoot, Ken; Pattalung, Aran

    2017-09-01

    This research was carried out aiming to investigate the application of a tip-bottomed tool for bending an advanced ultra-high strength steel sheet. The V-die bending experiment of a dual phase steel (DP980) sheet which had a thickness of 1.6 mm was executed using a conventional bending and a tip-bottomed punches. Experimental results revealed that the springback of the bent worksheet in the case of the tip-bottomed punch was less than that of the conventional punch case. To further discuss bending characteristics, a finite element (FE) model was developed and used to simulate the bending of the worksheet. From the FE analysis, it was found that the application of the tip-bottomed punch contributed the plastic deformation to occur at the bending region. Consequently, the springback of the worksheet reduced. In addition, the width of the punch tip was found to affect the deformation at the bending region and determined the springback of the bent worksheet. Moreover, the use of the tip-bottomed punch resulted in the apparent increase of the surface hardness of the bent worksheet, compared to the bending with the conventional punch.

  16. Derivation of High Spatial Resolution Albedo from UAV Digital Imagery: Application over the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Ryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of albedo are a prerequisite for modeling surface melt across the Earth's cryosphere, yet available satellite products are limited in spatial and/or temporal resolution. Here, we present a practical methodology to obtain centimeter resolution albedo products with accuracies of ±5% using consumer-grade digital camera and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technologies. Our method comprises a workflow for processing, correcting and calibrating raw digital images using a white reference target, and upward and downward shortwave radiation measurements from broadband silicon pyranometers. We demonstrate the method with a set of UAV sorties over the western, K-sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The resulting albedo product, UAV10A1, covers 280 km2, at a resolution of 20 cm per pixel and has a root-mean-square difference of 3.7% compared to MOD10A1 and 4.9% compared to ground-based broadband pyranometer measurements. By continuously measuring downward solar irradiance, the technique overcomes previous limitations due to variable illumination conditions during and between surveys over glaciated terrain. The current miniaturization of multispectral sensors and incorporation of upward facing radiation sensors on UAV packages means that this technique could become increasingly common in field studies and used for a wide range of applications. These include the mapping of debris, dust, cryoconite and bioalbedo, and directly constraining surface energy balance models.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydrous ruthenium oxide/graphene sheets for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Na; Tian, Jianhua; Shan, Zhongqiang; Chen, Kuan; Liao, Wenming

    2013-01-01

    Ruthenium oxide particles were supported on graphene sheets (GS) by hydrothermal and low temperature annealing process. The GS was prepared from graphene oxide by an expansion process and different expanding temperatures were studied and polystyrene sulfonate sodium was used as dispersion agent of hydrophobic GS. Different Ru content of the RuO 2 /GS composites on the influence of the electrochemical properties was studied. Atomic force microscope analysis was applied to test the layers of GS. The morphology of GS and RuO 2 /GS composites were confirmed by field emission transmission electron microscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and liquid-nitrogen cryosorption were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the GS and RuO 2 /GS. The RuO 2 /GS (Ru:40 wt%) composites used as electrode materials of supercapacitors exhibited a specific capacitance of 551 F/g at 1 A/g in 1 M H 2 SO 4 electrolyte. Besides, both the rate capability and cycle performance of RuO 2 /GS composites had a great improvement compared with GS

  18. 2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Qunting; Feng, Xinliang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Yang, Shubin [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-12-08

    2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors are prepared from the direct growth of FeOOH nanorods on the surface of graphene and the subsequent electrochemical transformation of FeOOH to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} rate at RGO nanocomposites exhibit superior capacitance (326 F g{sup -1}), high energy density (85 Wh kg{sup -1}), large power, and good cycling performance in 1 mol L{sup -1} LiOH solution. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. [Control of hypertension in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Alvarez, W; Mulaj, M; De Breucker, S; Leeman, M; Pepersack, T

    2006-09-01

    In a cross sectional study we determined prevalence of hypertension among institutionalized old subjects. Prevalence of hypertension was 69%. Among detected hypertensive patients, 76% received an antihypertensive drug treatment. 61% of the declared hypertensive patients and 80% of the treated hypertensive patients had their blood pressure controlled. The general practitioners should better detect and treat this common geriatric problem associated with a high comorbidity.

  20. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  1. Heteroatom Polymer-Derived 3D High-Surface-Area and Mesoporous Graphene Sheet-Like Carbon for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Haiyang; Wei, Min; D'Aloia, Alyssa; Wu, Gang

    2016-11-09

    Current supercapacitors suffer from low energy density mainly due to the high degree of microporosity and insufficient hydrophilicity of their carbon electrodes. Development of a supercapacitor capable of simultaneously storing as much energy as a battery, along with providing sufficient power and long cycle stability would be valued for energy storage applications and innovations. Differing from commonly studied reduced graphene oxides, in this work we identified an inexpensive heteroatom polymer (polyaniline-PANI) as a carbon/nitrogen precursor, and applied a controlled thermal treatment at elevated temperature to convert PANI into 3D high-surface-area graphene-sheet-like carbon materials. During the carbonization process, various transition metals including Fe, Co, and Ni were added, which play critical roles in both catalyzing the graphitization and serving as pore forming agents. Factors including post-treatments, heating temperatures, and types of metal were found crucial for achieving enhanced capacitance performance on resulting carbon materials. Using FeCl 3 as precursor along with optimal heating temperature 1000 °C and mixed acid treatment (HCl+HNO 3 ), the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 1645 m 2 g -1 was achieved on the mesopore dominant graphene-sheet-like carbon materials. The unique morphologies featured with high-surface areas, dominant mesopores, proper nitrogen doping, and 3D graphene-like structures correspond to remarkably enhanced electrochemical specific capacitance up to 478 Fg -1 in 1.0 M KOH at a scan rate of 5 mV s -1 . Furthermore, in a real two-electrode system of a symmetric supercapacitor, a specific capacitance of 235 Fg -1 using Nafion binder is obtained under a current density of 1 Ag -1 by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests in 6.0 M KOH. Long-term cycle stability up to 5000 cycles by using PVDF binder in electrode was systematically evaluated as a function of types of metals and current densities.

  2. Interlocking multi-material components made of structured steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight design is a major driving force of innovation, especially in the automotive industry. Using hybrid components made of two or more different materials is one approach to reduce the vehicles weight and decrease fuel consumption. As a possible way to increase the stiffness of multi-material components, this paper presents a process chain to produce such components made of steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium. Prior to the casting sequence the steel sheets are structured in a modified rolling process which enables continuous interlocking with the aluminium. Two structures manufactured by this rolling process are tested. The first one is a channel like structure and the second one is a channel like structure with undercuts. These undercuts enable the formation of small anchors when the molten aluminium fills them. The correlation between thickness reduction during rolling and the shape of the resulting structure was evaluated for both structures. It can be stated that channels with a depth of up to 0.5 mm and a width of 1 mm could be created. Undercuts with different size depending on the thickness reduction could be realised. Subsequent aluminium high-pressure die casting experiments were performed to determine if the surface structure can be filled gap-free with molten aluminium during the casting sequence and if a gap-free connection can be achieved after contraction of the aluminium. The casting experiments showed that both structures could be filled during the high-pressure die casting. The channel like structure results in a gap between steel and aluminium after contraction of the cast metal whereas the structure with undercuts leads to a good interlocking resulting in a gap-free connection.

  3. Multicomponent exercise decreases blood pressure, heart rate and double product in normotensive and hypertensive older patients with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Júnior, Hélio José; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Gonçalvez, Ivan de Oliveira; Brietzke, Cayque; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-02-26

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program on blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of uncontrolled and controlled normotensive and hypertensive older patients. The study included 183 subjects, 97 normotensives, of which 53 were controlled normotensives (CNS), and 44 uncontrolled normotensives (UNS), as well as 86 hypertensives, of which 43 were controlled hypertensives (CHS), and 43 uncontrolled hypertensives (UHS). Volunteers were recruited and blood pressure and heart rate measurements were made before and after a 6-month multicomponent exercise program. The program of physical exercise was performed twice a week for 26 weeks. The physical exercises program was based on functional and walking exercises. Exercise sessions were performed at moderate intensity. The results indicated that UHS showed a marked decrease in systolic (-8.0mmHg), diastolic (-11.1mmHg), mean (-10.1mmHg), and pulse pressures, heart rate (-6.8bpm), and double product (-1640bpmmmHg), when compared to baseline. Similarly, diastolic (-5.5mmHg) and mean arterial (-4.8mmHg) pressures were significantly decreased in UNS. Concomitantly, significant changes could be observed in the body mass index (-0.9kg/m 2 ; -1.5kg/m 2 ) and waist circumference (-3.3cm; only UHS) of UNS and UHS, which may be associated with the changes observed in blood pressure. In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that a 6-month multicomponent exercise program may lead to significant reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of normotensive and hypertensive patients with high blood pressure values. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Pulmonary arterial hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  5. High incidence of secondary hypertension in patients referred for renal denervation--the Copenhagen experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Bang, Lia Evi; Frimodt-Møller, Marie; Kelbæk, Henning; Sander, Mikael; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Percutaneous renal denervation is a new treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension and little is known about the eligibility of patients referred. 100 consecutive patients were referred for renal denervation from March 2011 through September 2012. Clinical data were prospectively extracted from letters and documents from referring clinics and from our physical examination. Of the 100 patients included, 68 were men and the mean age was 60 (± 12) years. Office blood pressure was 176 (± 28)/99 (± 19) mmHg and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure 156 (± 20)/88 (± 13) mmHg. The mean number of antihypertensive agents was 4.0 (± 1.6). Nearly four-fifths (82%) of the patients were categorized as having resistant hypertension based on the criteria stated by The American Heart Association's stated criteria. Nine patients declined interest in renal denervation before completing the clinical workup program. Thus, 91 patients were screened, and of those 51 were found to be candidates for renal denervation. Forty patients were not candidates, of which secondary hypertension was the most common cause (n = 10). Only 51% of patients referred for renal denervation were eligible for treatment. The prevalence of secondary hypertension was 10% of the referred population. Secondary hypertension should therefore be considered in the evaluation of candidates for renal denervation.

  6. [High percentage of obesity during childhood and adolescence and subsequent increases in childhood arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghetti, E; Carletti, M; Strisciuglio, P; Spagnolo, A

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of obesity, overweight and blood hypertension amongst children and adolescents. The study enrolled 2045 students between 6 and 17 years of age in three Italian cities, Varese (in the North), Rome (in the Center) and Catanzaro (in the South). The findings demonstrate that the obesity rate is 3.5% in the North, 6.1% in the Center and 8.8% in the South; these figures represent an increase both in the North and in the South. At the same time, the incidence of arterial hypertension has increased in respect to past years with 5.5% of the total study population diagnosed with hypertension over the 95 degrees percentile and 7.1% with borderline hypertension. Parental obesity has been demonstrated to be a key factor in determining the presence or level of obesity in their children. Obesity and arterial hypertension represent a worrisome departure point for a dangerous metabolic syndrome and hence require the full dedication of pediatricians in order to prevent the disease, with an urgent need for school interventions, support for a healthy diet and insistence on the necessity of adequate daily exercise.

  7. Efficient 3D conducting networks built by graphene sheets and carbon nanoparticles for high-performance silicon anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaosi; Yin, Ya-Xia; Cao, An-Min; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2012-05-01

    The utilization of silicon particles as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is hindered by their low intrinsic electric conductivity and large volume changes during cycling. Here we report a novel Si nanoparticle-carbon nanoparticle/graphene composite, in which the addition of carbon nanoparticles can effectively alleviate the aggregation of Si nanoparticles by separating them from each other, and help graphene sheets build efficient 3D conducting networks for Si nanoparticles. Such Si-C/G composite shows much improved electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity and cycling performance (ca. 1521 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 200 cycles), as well as a favorable high-rate capability.

  8. High-Fiber Diet and Acetate Supplementation Change the Gut Microbiota and Prevent the Development of Hypertension and Heart Failure in Hypertensive Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Nelson, Erin; Chu, Po-Yin; Horlock, Duncan; Fiedler, April; Ziemann, Mark; Tan, Jian K; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; El-Osta, Assam; Mackay, Charles R; Kaye, David M

    2017-03-07

    Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of hypertension, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effect of a high-fiber diet and supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid acetate on the gut microbiota and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Gut microbiome, cardiorenal structure/function, and blood pressure were examined in sham and mineralocorticoid excess-treated mice with a control diet, high-fiber diet, or acetate supplementation. We also determined the renal and cardiac transcriptome of mice treated with the different diets. We found that high consumption of fiber modified the gut microbiota populations and increased the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria independently of mineralocorticoid excess. Both fiber and acetate decreased gut dysbiosis, measured by the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and increased the prevalence of Bacteroides acidifaciens . Compared with mineralocorticoid-excess mice fed a control diet, both high-fiber diet and acetate supplementation significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures, cardiac fibrosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Acetate had similar effects and markedly reduced renal fibrosis. Transcriptome analyses showed that the protective effects of high fiber and acetate were accompanied by the downregulation of cardiac and renal Egr1 , a master cardiovascular regulator involved in cardiac hypertrophy, cardiorenal fibrosis, and inflammation. We also observed the upregulation of a network of genes involved in circadian rhythm in both tissues and downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in the heart. A diet high in fiber led to changes in the gut microbiota that played a protective role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The favorable effects of fiber may be explained by the generation and distribution of one of the main metabolites of the gut

  9. Hypertension in Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Mingshan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension and its role in the development of athe- rosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke, hypertension is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is limited knowledge of the prevalence of hypertension among seafarers who......, however, are known to have an excess morbidity and mortality from these disorders. This article addresses the prevalence of hypertension among Danish seafarers and discusses potential risk factors for hypertension in maritime settings. Materials and methods: A representative sample of 629 Danish seafarers...... who had statutory medical examinations was studied from the beginning of October 2011 to the end of June 2012. The medical examination included measurements of blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the study po- pulation was stratified by age, work place on board, smoking status, alcohol...

  10. Novel cellulose ester substrates for high performance flat-sheet thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ong, Rui Chin

    2015-01-01

    A novel hydrophilic cellulose ester with a high intrinsic water permeability and a water partition coefficient was discovered to construct membrane supports for flat-sheet thin film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes for water reuse and seawater desalination with high performance. The performance of TFC-FO membranes prepared from the hydrophilic cellulose ester containing a high degree of OH and a moderate degree of Pr substitutions clearly surpasses those prepared from cellulose esters and other polymers with moderate hydrophilicity. Post-treatments of TFC-FO membranes using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and glycerol followed by heat treatment further enhance the water flux without compromising the selectivity. Positron annihilation lifetime analyses have confirmed that the SDS/glycerol post-treatment increases the free volume size and fractional free volume of the polyamide selective layer. The newly developed post-treated TFC-FO membranes exhibit a remarkably high water flux up to 90 LMH when the selective layer is oriented towards the draw solution (i.e., PRO mode) using 1. M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. For seawater desalination, the membranes display a high water flux up to 35 LMH using a 2. M NaCl draw solution. These water fluxes exceeded the water fluxes achieved by other types of FO membranes reported in literatures. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Microstructural Developments Leading to New Advanced High Strength Sheet Steels: A Historical Assessment of Critical Metallographic Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, David K [CSM/ASPPRC; Thomas, Larrin S [CSM/ASPPRC; Taylor, Mark D [CSM/ASPPRC; De Moor, Emmanuel [CSM/ASPPRC; Speer, John G [CSM/ASPPRC

    2015-08-03

    In the past 30+ years significant advancements have been made in the development of higher strength sheet steels with improved combinations of strength and ductility that have enabled important product improvements leading to safer, lighter weight, and more fuel efficient automobiles and in other applications. Properties of the primarily low carbon, low alloy steels are derived through careful control of time-temperature processing histories designed to produce multiphase ferritic based microstructures that include martensite and other constituents including retained austenite. The basis for these developments stems from the early work on dual-phase steels which was the subject of much interest. In response to industry needs, dual-phase steels have evolved as a unique class of advanced high strength sheet steels (AHSS) in which the thermal and mechanical processing histories have been specifically designed to produce constituent combinations for the purpose of simultaneously controlling strength and deformation behavior, i.e. stress-strain curve shapes. Improvements continue as enhanced dual-phase steels have recently been produced with finer microstructures, higher strengths, and better overall formability. Today, dual phase steels are the primary AHSS products used in vehicle manufacture, and several companies have indicated that the steels will remain as important design materials well into the future. In this presentation, fundamental results from the early work on dual-phase steels will be reviewed and assessed in light of recent steel developments. Specific contributions from industry/university cooperative research leading to product improvements will be highlighted. The historical perspective provided in the evolution of dual-phase steels represents a case-study that provides important framework and lessons to be incorporated in next generation AHSS products.

  12. Contact Behavior of Composite CrTiSiN Coated Dies in Compressing of Mg Alloy Sheets under High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hard coatings have been adopted in cutting and forming applications for nearly two decades. The major purpose of using hard coatings is to reduce the friction coefficient between contact surfaces, to increase strength, toughness and anti-wear performance of working tools and molds, and then to obtain a smooth work surface and an increase in service life of tools and molds. In this report, we deposited a composite CrTiSiN hard coating, and a traditional single-layered TiAlN coating as a reference. Then, the coatings were comparatively studied by a series of tests. A field emission SEM was used to characterize the microstructure. Hardness was measured using a nano-indentation tester. Adhesion of coatings was evaluated using a Rockwell C hardness indentation tester. A pin-on-disk wear tester with WC balls as sliding counterparts was used to determine the wear properties. A self-designed compression and friction tester, by combining a Universal Testing Machine and a wear tester, was used to evaluate the contact behavior of composite CrTiSiN coated dies in compressing of Mg alloy sheets under high pressure. The results indicated that the hardness of composite CrTiSiN coating was lower than that of the TiAlN coating. However, the CrTiSiN coating showed better anti-wear performance. The CrTiSiN coated dies achieved smooth surfaces on the Mg alloy sheet in the compressing test and lower friction coefficient in the friction test, as compared with the TiAlN coating.

  13. Contact Behavior of Composite CrTiSiN Coated Dies in Compressing of Mg Alloy Sheets under High Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T S; Yao, S H; Chang, Y Y; Deng, J H

    2018-01-08

    Hard coatings have been adopted in cutting and forming applications for nearly two decades. The major purpose of using hard coatings is to reduce the friction coefficient between contact surfaces, to increase strength, toughness and anti-wear performance of working tools and molds, and then to obtain a smooth work surface and an increase in service life of tools and molds. In this report, we deposited a composite CrTiSiN hard coating, and a traditional single-layered TiAlN coating as a reference. Then, the coatings were comparatively studied by a series of tests. A field emission SEM was used to characterize the microstructure. Hardness was measured using a nano-indentation tester. Adhesion of coatings was evaluated using a Rockwell C hardness indentation tester. A pin-on-disk wear tester with WC balls as sliding counterparts was used to determine the wear properties. A self-designed compression and friction tester, by combining a Universal Testing Machine and a wear tester, was used to evaluate the contact behavior of composite CrTiSiN coated dies in compressing of Mg alloy sheets under high pressure. The results indicated that the hardness of composite CrTiSiN coating was lower than that of the TiAlN coating. However, the CrTiSiN coating showed better anti-wear performance. The CrTiSiN coated dies achieved smooth surfaces on the Mg alloy sheet in the compressing test and lower friction coefficient in the friction test, as compared with the TiAlN coating.

  14. Identification of high-risk patients and outcome in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surie, S.

    2016-01-01

    CTEPH is life threatening, but by means of PEA potentially a curable form of pulmonary hypertension. We studied whether the current detection strategies are sufficient to recognize CTEPH patients, or should a more extensive systematic search be adopted. We concluded that current detection strategies

  15. Cardiovascular Protective Effects of Adjunctive Alternative Medicine (Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata in High-Risk Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension in association with diabetes (DM, renal impairment (RI, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. We hypothesize, traditional herbal medicines Danshen and Gegen (D&G have beneficial effects on atherogenesis in these high-risk hypertensive subjects. Subjects and Methods. 90 asymptomatic hypertensive subjects associated with LVH (63.3%, DM (62.2%, or RI (30% were randomized to receive D&G herbal capsules 1 gm/day, 2 gm/day, or identical placebo capsules in double-blind and parallel fashion for 12 months. Brachial flow-mediated dilation (endothelium-dependent dilation, FMD and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT were measured by ultrasound. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences in Windows 16.0. Results. Their mean age was 55±8 years, and 74.4% were male. After 12 months of adjunctive therapies and compared with baseline, there were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, hematological, glucose, and creatinine profiles in both placebo and D&G groups. FMD improved significantly during D&G (P=0.0001 and less so after placebo treatment (P=0.001. There was a mild but significant decrease in carotid IMT after D&G (P<0.001 but no significant changes after placebo. A trend of better improvement in FMD after higher versus lower D&G dosages was seen. D&G were well tolerated, with no significant adverse events or blood biochemistry changes. Conclusion. D&G adjunctive treatment was well tolerated and significantly improved atherogenesis in high-risk hypertensive patients, with potential in primary atherosclerosis prevention.

  16. Carbon nanofibers with radially grown graphene sheets derived from electrospinning for aqueous supercapacitors with high working voltage and energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Qiu, Yejun; Yu, Jie; Deng, Xianyu; Dai, Chenglong; Bai, Xuedong

    2013-05-01

    Improvement of energy density is an urgent task for developing advanced supercapacitors. In this paper, aqueous supercapacitors with high voltage of 1.8 V and energy density of 29.1 W h kg-1 were fabricated based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and Na2SO4 electrolyte. The CNFs with radially grown graphene sheets (GSs) and small average diameter down to 11 nm were prepared by electrospinning and carbonization in NH3. The radially grown GSs contain between 1 and a few atomic layers with their edges exposed on the surface. The CNFs are doped with nitrogen and oxygen with different concentrations depending on the carbonizing temperature. The supercapacitors exhibit excellent cycling performance with the capacity retention over 93.7% after 5000 charging-discharging cycles. The unique structure, possessing radially grown GSs, small diameter, and heteroatom doping of the CNFs, and application of neutral electrolyte account for the high voltage and energy density of the present supercapacitors. The present supercapacitors are of high promise for practical application due to the high energy density and the advantages of neutral electrolyte including low cost, safety, low corrosivity, and convenient assembly in air.

  17. Impaired suppression of plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides by acute hyperglycaemia-induced hyperinsulinaemia and alterations in high density lipoproteins in essential hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; vanTol, A; vanHaeften, TW; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. Essential hypertension may be associated with abnormalities in free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride metabolism, which could lead to alterations in high density lipoproteins (HDL). Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key

  18. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup

  19. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2012-10-12

    Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences

  20. Synergistic Effect between Ultra-Small Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide sheets for the Application in High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghuan; Wang, Rutao; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-06-08

    Nanoscale electrode materials including metal oxide nanoparticles and two-dimensional graphene have been employed for designing supercapacitors. However, inevitable agglomeration of nanoparticles and layers stacking of graphene largely hamper their practical applications. Here we demonstrate an efficient co-ordination and synergistic effect between ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for synthesizing ideal electrode materials. On one hand, to make the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles work at full capacity as an ideal pseudocapacitive material, RGO sheets are employed as an suitable substrate to anchor these nanoparticles against agglomeration. As a consequence, an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 1717 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) is achieved. On the other hand, to further facilitate ion transfer within RGO sheets as an ideal electrical double layer capacitor material, the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles are introduced among RGO sheets as the recyclable sacrificial spacer to prevent the stacking. The resulting RGO sheets exhibit superior rate capability with a high capacitance of 182 F g(-1) at 100 A g(-1). On this basis, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled using the two materials, delivering a superior energy density of 75 Wh kg(-1) and an ultrahigh power density of 40 000 W kg(-1).

  1. Cyclic fatigue of a high-strength corrosion-resistant sheet TRIP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terent'ev, V. F.; Alekseeva, L. E.; Korableva, S. A.; Prosvirnin, D. V.; Pankova, M. N.; Filippov, G. A.

    2014-04-01

    The mechanical properties of 0.3- and 0.8-mm-thick high-strength corrosion-resistant TRIP steel having various levels of strength properties are studied during static and cyclic loading in the high-cycle fatigue range. The fatigue fracture surface is analyzed by fractography, and the obtained results demonstrate ductile and quasi-brittle fracture mechanisms of this steel depending on the strength properties of the steel and the content of deformation martensite in it.

  2. Therapeutic Exercise and Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    patients but may not reduce the BP of normotensive individual. Exercise function ... and mortality in all age groups; it also creates major social, personal and financial ... drug therapy by as symptomatic hypertensive and high cost of drugs particularly in a ..... Events in hypertensive patients randomized to doxagosin versus.

  3. Depressor effect of the young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. in high-salt induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Sankar; Yahiro, Eiji; Uehara, Yoshinari; Kuroda, Rieko; Hirano, Yoshio; Nagata, Kaori; Miura, Shinichiro; Saku, Keijiro; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-06-01

    A novel chymase inhibitor has been reported to have depressor effect in salt-induced hypertension. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that chymase inhibitory dried young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper (PPH) or young leaves extract of Polygonum hydropiper (PHE) could reduce salt-induced hypertension. In this study, 8-wk old wild-type mice were allocated into three experiments and experiment I included groups, I- normal water drinking, II- high salt (2% NaCl) water (HSW) drinking, and III- HSW plus PPH (500 mg kg -1 , orally) for 12-wk. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline and weekly up to wk-12. In experiment II, mice were given HSW for 12-wk followed by 8-wk treatment with PPH plus HSW (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg kg -1 for groups I, II, III and IV, respectively). BP and HR were measured at baseline and monthly until wk-12, following weekly for 8-wk. Experiment III comprised of four groups of mice for 12-wk HSW and 8-wk treatment with PHE plus HSW (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg -1 for groups I-IV, respectively). BP and HR were measured at baseline and monthly up to wk-12, following weekly for 8-wk. Significant reduction in BP and HR were observed in mice treated with PPH (500 mg kg -1 ) compared to HSW control. PPH reduced BP and HR dose dependently in hypertensive mice and the higher dose showed maximum reduction. PHE at its maximum dose (20 mg kg -1 ) significantly suppressed BP and HR. Over all, we found that the young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper suppressed salt-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. High-intensity interval and endurance training are associated with divergent skeletal muscle adaptations in a rodent model of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle is extremely adaptable to a variety of metabolic challenges, as both traditional moderate-intensity endurance (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases oxidative potential in a coordinated manner. Although these responses have been clearly demonstrated in healthy individuals, it remains to be determined whether both produce similar responses in the context of hypertension, one of the most prevalent and costly diseases worldwide. Therefore, in the current study, we used the Dahl sodium-sensitive rat, a model of hypertension, to determine the molecular responses to 4 wk of either ET or HIIT in the red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles. In the RG, both ET and HIIT increased the content of electron transport chain proteins and increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) content in type I fibers. Although both intensities of exercise shifted fiber type in RG (increased IIA, decreased IIX), only HIIT was associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and an increase in HIF-1α proteins. In the WG, both ET and HIIT increased markers of the electron transport chain; however, HIIT decreased SDH content in a fiber-specific manner. ET increased type IIA, decreased IIB fibers, and increased capillarization, while, in contrast, HIIT increased the percentage of IIB fibers, decreased capillary-to-fiber ratios, decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and increased hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. Altogether, these data show that unlike in healthy animals, ET and HIIT have divergent effects in the skeletal muscle of hypertensive rats. This suggests ET may be optimal at improving the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in animals with hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Favourable hypotensive effect after standardised tomato extract treatment in hypertensive subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasińska, Beata; Osińska, Angelika; Krasińska, Aleksandra; Osiński, Maciej; Rzymski, Piotr; Tykarski, Andrzej; Krasiński, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) diseases remain a leading global cause of death. Lowering blood pressure (BP) reduces the risk of CV complications, especially stroke and acute coronary events, and it delays the progression of kidney disease. Adequate non-pharmacological treatment improves the effectiveness of the antihypertensive therapy. A Mediterranean diet with high content of vegetables (rich in tomatoes) is associated with a reduced CV risk. The main objective of the present study was to assess whether the addition of standardised tomato extract (STE) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to standard antihypertensive therapy can improve BP control in patients with arterial hypertension (HT). The study involved 82 high-risk hypertensive patients. Patients with primary HT at high to a very high total CV risk were randomised in a blinded fashion to one of two groups, i.e. the ASA and STE group. The patients had two visits, a baseline visit and one after four weeks of treatment. In all the patients, during each visit, clinical BP and ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM) were performed. Platelet aggregation was determined using the VerifyNow analyser. After four weeks of treatment in the STE group, there was a statistically significant reduction in 24-h systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure values measured in ABPM (p high CV risk. This effect, together with the anti-aggregatory effect, may indicate the pleiotropic effect of tomato extract. This fact justifies further research into functional foods and gives new insights into STE as a food supplement that could have new therapeutic and prophylactic uses for the treatment of hypertensive patients with high CV risk and especially with obesity.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Mass Produced High Quality Few Layered Graphene Sheets via a Chemical Method

    KAUST Repository

    Khenfouch, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. It is a zero band gap semimetal with very unique physical and chemical properties which make it useful for many applications such as ultra-high-speed field-effect transistors, p-n junction diodes, terahertz oscillators, and low-noise electronic, NEMS and sensors. When the high quality mass production of this nanomaterial is still a big challenge, we developed a process which will be an important step to achieve this goal. Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray system were investigated to characterize and examine the quality of this product.

  7. Mechanisms of joint and microstructure formation in high power ultrasonic spot welding 6111 aluminium automotive sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakavos, D.; Prangnell, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) is difficult to apply to aluminium automotive alloys. High power ultrasonic spot welding (HP-USW) is a new alternative method which is extremely efficient, using ∼2% of the energy of RSW. However, to date there have been few studies of the mechanisms of bond formation and the material interactions that take place with this process. Here, we report on a detailed investigation where we have used X-ray tomography, high resolution SEM, and EBSD, and dissimilar alloy welds, to track the interface position and characterise the stages of weld formation, and microstructure evolution, as a function of welding energy. Under optimum conditions high quality welds are produced, showing few defects. Welding proceeds by the development and spread of microwelds, until extensive plastic deformation occurs within the weld zone, where the temperature reaches ∼380 deg. C. The origin of the weld interface 'flow features' characteristic of HP-USW are discussed.

  8. Unexpected finding of a high prevalence of perinatal hypertension in a rural Haitian village: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce C Gagliano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are associated with maternal mortality worldwide. In Haiti, the risk of perinatal maternal death is high with sparse data concerning the prevalence of gestational hypertension (HTN reported from remote regions. Maternal morbidity associated with HTN-related sequellae will place a strain on the family unit. Thus, it is vital to the health of mothers as well as the rural communities to gain a better understanding of HTN with the goal of decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality in areas without access to advanced healthcare. Methods In this study, we measured the prevalence of HTN in perinatal women in the Thomazeau region of Haiti who presented to a regional clinic staffed by volunteer international providers. Retrospective pre- and postpartum data was analyzed from 436 women who presented between January 2013 and July 2015. Additionally, a subset of current (June-July 2015 prepartum (n=200 and postpartum (n=82 women had a urinalysis performed to access for proteinuria and other urine markers. Demographic data collected included blood pressure, age, weight, height, gravidity, and parity. The criteria for HTN was defined as two blood pressure readings taken at separate time points with systolic and diastolic pressures greater than 140 and 90 mmHg, respectively. Results In this cohort of 436 women, 57 (13.1% met the criteria of HTN before giving birth and 98 (22.5% afterwards. Of the women found to be hypertensive, 64 (65.3% of the hypertensive women after birth had not been hypertensive prepartum. Within the two-week current period assessing 282 women, 3 (1.5% prepartum and 13 (15.9% postpartum women with HTN had trace proteinuria. Conclusions In this cohort of rural women, we describe an unusually high prevalence of new onset postpartum HTN. As complications of gestational HTN including preeclampsia and eclampsia may contribute to perinatal morbidity and mortality for both mother and baby in

  9. VS4 Nanoparticles Anchored on Graphene Sheets as a High-Rate and Stable Electrode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Qiang; Zhao, Yingying; Yu, Yanhao; Bian, Xiaofei; Wang, Xudong; Wei, Yingjin; Gao, Yu; Chen, Gang

    2018-02-22

    The size and conductivity of the electrode materials play a significant role in the kinetics of sodium-ion batteries. Various characterizations reveal that size-controllable VS 4 nanoparticles can be successfully anchored on the surface of graphene sheets (GSs) by a simple cationic-surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method. When used as an electrode material for sodium-ion batteries, these VS 4 @GS nanocomposites show large specific capacity (349.1 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles), excellent long-term stability (84 % capacity retention after 1200 cycles), and high rate capability (188.1 mAh g -1 at 4000 mA g -1 ). A large proportion of the capacity was contributed by capacitive processes. This remarkable electrochemical performance was attributed to synergistic interactions between nanosized VS 4 particles and a highly conductive graphene network, which provided short diffusion pathways for Na + ions and large contact areas between the electrolyte and electrode, resulting in considerably improved electrochemical kinetic properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in high rate curietherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, C.

    2009-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of high rate curietherapy. Several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  11. Flexural Behavior of High-Volume Steel Fiber Cementitious Composite Externally Reinforced with Basalt FRP Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Seungwon Kim; Cheolwoo Park

    2016-01-01

    High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCCs) are characterized by unique tensile strain hardening and multiple microcracking behaviors. The HPFRCC, which demonstrates remarkable properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, durability, stiffness, and thermal resistance, is a class of fiber cement composite with fine aggregates. It can withstand tensile stresses by forming distributed microcracks owing to the embedded fibers in the concrete, which improve the energy...

  12. 75 FR 29364 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin (China or other clay), calcium carbonate... of 80 or higher; weighing not more than 340 grams per square meter; whether gloss grade, satin grade...

  13. Hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in elderly people at high risk for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Michael; Luo, Xiaodong; Schmeidler, James; Dahlman, Karen; Lesser, Gerson T; Grossman, Hillel; Haroutunian, Vahram; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension (HTN) have been shown to increase the risk of Alzheimer disease. The current study investigated whether individuals with HTN are more susceptible to increased cognitive decline and whether the influence of HTN on cognitive decline varied as a function of dementia severity. A total of 224 nursing home and assisted living residents, with a mean age of 84.9 (±7.6) years, were assessed longitudinally with Mini Mental State Exams (MMSEs) and Clinical Dementia Ratings (CDR). Baseline dementia status was defined by the CDR score. As described in , MMSE scores in persons with HTN and questionable dementia (CDR = 0.5) declined significantly faster than nonhypertensive questionably demented persons. Hypertensive participants did not decline significantly faster than nonhypertensive participants in persons with intact cognition (CDR = 0) or frank dementia (CDR ≥ 1). These results suggest an increased risk of subsequent cognitive decline in hypertensive individuals who are especially vulnerable to developing dementia and raises the possibility that avoiding or controlling HTN might reduce the rate of cognitive decline in cognitively vulnerable individuals, potentially delaying their conversion to full-fledged dementia.

  14. Hypertension in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, and a highly prevalent condition in both men and women. However, the prevalence of hypertension is predicted to increase more among women than men. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can induce hypertension in a small group of women and, increase CV risk especially among those with hypertension. Both COC-related increased CV risk and blood pressure (BP) returns to pretreatment levels by 3 months of its discontinuation. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on BP are controversial, and COCs and HRT containing the new generation progestin drospirenone are preferred in women with established hypertension. Despite the high incidence of cancer in women, CV disease remains the major cause of death in women and comparable benefit of antihypertensive treatment have been demonstrated in both women and men.

  15. Characterizing Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel Sheet Using Automated High-Resolution Laue X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Barnett, Matthew; Stevenson, Andrew; Hutchinson, Bevis

    2017-11-01

    Controlling texture in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel sheet is critical for optimization of its magnetization performance. A new automated laboratory system, based on X-ray Laue diffraction, is introduced as a rapid method for large scale grain orientation mapping and texture measurement in these materials. Wide area grain orientation maps are demonstrated for both macroetched and coated GO steel sheets. The large secondary grains contain uniform lattice rotations, the origins of which are discussed.

  16. Prevalence of hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus: impact of the tightening definition of high blood pressure and association with confounding risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakov, Emma; Norymberg, Clara; Osher, Esther; Koffler, Michael; Tordjman, Karen; Greenman, Yona; Stern, Naftali

    2006-01-01

    The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) has recommended a downward shift in target blood pressure to definition of hypertension at 130/80 mm Hg. The authors performed a retrospective chart analysis of 2227 type 2 diabetes patients treated in one hospital-based and two community-based clinics in central Israel to determine the prevalence of hypertension as a function of three diagnostic threshold levels. The prevalence of hypertension in this cohort was 60.2%, 76.5%, and 85.8% at blood pressure thresholds of 140/90, 130/85, and 130/80 mm Hg respectively. Hypertension prevalence increased with age, reaching a rate of 94.4% in patients aged 80 years or more when the cutoff value of 130/80 mm Hg was used. At this cutoff, 93.3% and 86.6% of patients with a body mass index over or under 30 kg/m(2), respectively, were diagnosed with hypertension. As hypertension appears to eventually afflict the vast majority of diabetic patients, the minority of subjects not developing hypertension emerges as a unique group, which potentially deserves further in-depth study.

  17. Room Temperature Shear Band Development in Highly Twinned Wrought Magnesium AZ31B Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jon; Miles, Michael; Fullwood, David; Adams, Brent; Khosravani, Ali; Mishra, Raja K.

    2013-01-01

    Failure mechanisms were studied in wrought AZ31B magnesium alloy after forming under different strain paths. Optical micrographs were used to observe the shear band formation and regions of high twin density in samples strained under uniaxial, biaxial, and plane strain conditions. Interrupted testing at 4 pct effective strain increments, until failure, was used to observe the evolution of the microstructure. The results showed that shear bands, with a high percentage of twinned grains, appeared early in the samples strained under biaxial or plane strain tension. These bands are similar to those seen in uniaxial tension specimens just prior to failure where the uniaxial tensile ductility was much greater than that observed for plane strain or biaxial tension conditions. A forming limit diagram for AZ31B, which was developed from the strain data, showed that plane strain and biaxial tension had very similar limit strains; this contrasts with materials like steel or aluminum alloys, which typically have greater ductility in biaxial tension compared to plane strain tension.

  18. Investigation on dissimilar laser welding of advanced high strength steel sheets for the automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, M., E-mail: matteo.rossini@unibz.it [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Spena, P. Russo, E-mail: pasquale.russospena@unibz.it [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Cortese, L., E-mail: luca.cortese@unibz.it [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Matteis, P., E-mail: paolo.matteis@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Firrao, D., E-mail: donato.firrao@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2015-03-25

    To support the use of advanced high strength steels in car body design and fabrication, an investigation was carried out on dissimilar butt laser welding between TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steels, Dual Phase (DP) steels, hot stamping boron (22MnB5) steels, and TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels. The base materials and the weldments were fully characterized by means of metallography, microhardness, and tensile tests. Digital image analysis was also used to provide additional information on the local strain field in the joint during the tensile tests. Fractographic examination was finally performed on the fracture surfaces of the tensile samples. The dissimilar joints between the DP, 22MnB5, and TRIP steels exhibit good resistance properties. On the contrary, the dissimilar joints encompassing the TWIP steel exhibit poor mechanical strength and fail along the weld seam by intergranular fracture, probably due to presence of Mn segregations. Therefore, the laser welding of TWIP steel with other advanced high strength steels is not recommended without the use of proper metal fillers. Dissimilar laser welding of DP, TRIP and 22MnB5 combinations, on the contrary, can be a solution to assemble car body parts made of these steel grades.

  19. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets and their highly efficient photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunwoo; Hong, Jin-Yong; Kang, Haeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanorods were successfully decorated on the surface of graphene sheets. ► Population of TiO 2 nanorods can be controlled by changing experimental conditions. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets have an expanded light absorption range. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanorod-decorated graphene sheets photocatalysts with different TiO 2 nanorods population have been synthesized by a simple non-hydrolytic sol–gel approach. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the TiO 2 nanorods are well-dispersed and successfully anchored on the graphene sheet surface through the formation of covalent bonds between Ti and C atoms. The photocatalytic activities are evaluated in terms of the efficiencies of photodecomposition and adsorption of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The as-synthesized TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photodecomposition efficiency compared to the pristine TiO 2 nanorods and the commercial TiO 2 (P-25, Degussa) under visible-light. It is believed that this predominant photocatalytic activity is due to the synergistic contribution of both a retarded charge recombination rate caused by a high electronic mobility of graphene and an increased surface area originated from nanometer-sized TiO 2 nanorods. Furthermore, photoelectrochemical study is performed to give deep insights into the primary roles of graphene that determines the photocatalytic activity.

  20. New tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno

    that the performance of the workpiece materials have to improve in order to satisfy higher strength and lower weight requirements. This however leads to challenges in the forming operation, especially when high surface expansion and elevated strain are involved. The challenge is to achieve long production run...... Tribotester was developed. A production process was selected at Grundfos, which is currently running with chlorinated paraffin oil. The process includes a deep drawing and two subsequent re-drawings in a progressive tool. The process was numerically analyzed to investigate the tribological conditions....... A suitable laboratory test (BUT test) was selected to simulate the production process. The BUT test was numerically analyzed to verify that the tribological conditions are close to the production process ones. A few interesting new tribo-systems were selected to be investigated in the BUT test. Some of them...

  1. Brachytherapy. High dose rate brachytherapy - Radiation protection: medical sheet ED 4287

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celier, D.; Aubert, B.; Vidal, J.P.; Biau, A.; Lahaye, T.; Gauron, C.; Barret, C.; Boisserie, G.; Branchet, E.; Gambini, D.; Gondran, C.; Le Guen, B.; Guerin, C.; Nguyen, S.; Pierrat, N.; Sarrazin, T.; Donnarieix, D.

    2010-02-01

    After having indicated the required authorization to implement brachytherapy techniques, this document presents the various aspects and measures related to radiation protection when performing high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatments. It presents the concerned personnel, describes the operational process, indicates the associated hazards and the risk related to ionizing radiation, and describes how the risk is to be assessed and how exposure levels are to be determined (elements of risk assessment, delimitation of controlled and monitored areas, personnel classification, and choice of the dose monitoring method). It describes the various components of a risk management strategy (risk reduction, technical measures regarding the installation and the personnel, training and information, prevention and medical monitoring). It briefly presents how risk management is to be assessed, and mentions other related risks (biological risk, handling and posture, handling of heavy loads, mental workload, chemical risk)

  2. Grain structure, texture and mechanical property evolution of automotive aluminium sheet during high power ultrasonic welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddadi, Farid; Tsivoulas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    High power ultrasonic spot welding (HPUSW) is a joining technique which is performed within less than a second and provides a more energy-efficient alternative to friction stir spot welding (FSSW), which is considered a longer cycle manufacturing process for joining automotive alloys. To date, only a few reports exist on the deformation mechanisms that take place during high power ultrasonic spot welding. In this work, dynamic recrystallization and grain growth were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). HPUSW causes extensive deformation within the weld zone where the temperature increases to 440 °C. An ultra-fine grain structure was observed in a thin band of flat weld interface within a short welding time of 0.10 s. With increasing welding time the interface was displaced and ‘folds’ or ‘crests’ appeared together with shear bands. The weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal and eventually to a convoluted wave-like pattern when the tool fully penetrated the workpiece, having a wavelength of ~ 1 mm after 0.40 s. Finally, the microstructure and texture varied significantly depending on the location within the weld. Although the texture near the weld interface was relatively weak, a shift was observed with increasing welding time from an initially Cube-dominated texture to one where the typical β-fibre Brass component prevailed. - Highlights: •Lap shear strength of ~2.9 kN was achieved in 0.30 sec welding time. •Temperature approached 440 °C along the weld centreline for the highest welding time. •The texture near the teeth was dominated by Brass, P and S components at optimum condition. •The weld interface showed typical β-fibre deformation texture at optimum condition.

  3. Grain structure, texture and mechanical property evolution of automotive aluminium sheet during high power ultrasonic welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadi, Farid, E-mail: farid.haddadi@gmail.com [Clemson University–International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR), #347, 4 Research Drive, Greenville, SC 29607 (United States); School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tsivoulas, Dimitrios, E-mail: dim.tsivoulas@gmail.com [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Clean Energy/Nuclear Services, Amec Foster Wheeler, 601 Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Warrington WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    High power ultrasonic spot welding (HPUSW) is a joining technique which is performed within less than a second and provides a more energy-efficient alternative to friction stir spot welding (FSSW), which is considered a longer cycle manufacturing process for joining automotive alloys. To date, only a few reports exist on the deformation mechanisms that take place during high power ultrasonic spot welding. In this work, dynamic recrystallization and grain growth were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). HPUSW causes extensive deformation within the weld zone where the temperature increases to 440 °C. An ultra-fine grain structure was observed in a thin band of flat weld interface within a short welding time of 0.10 s. With increasing welding time the interface was displaced and ‘folds’ or ‘crests’ appeared together with shear bands. The weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal and eventually to a convoluted wave-like pattern when the tool fully penetrated the workpiece, having a wavelength of ~ 1 mm after 0.40 s. Finally, the microstructure and texture varied significantly depending on the location within the weld. Although the texture near the weld interface was relatively weak, a shift was observed with increasing welding time from an initially Cube-dominated texture to one where the typical β-fibre Brass component prevailed. - Highlights: •Lap shear strength of ~2.9 kN was achieved in 0.30 sec welding time. •Temperature approached 440 °C along the weld centreline for the highest welding time. •The texture near the teeth was dominated by Brass, P and S components at optimum condition. •The weld interface showed typical β-fibre deformation texture at optimum condition.

  4. 3D polyaniline porous layer anchored pillared graphene sheets: enhanced interface joined with high conductivity for better charge storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Pandiaraj; Anothumakkool, Bihag; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-04-15

    Here, we report synthesis of a 3-dimensional (3D) porous polyaniline (PANI) anchored on pillared graphene (G-PANI-PA) as an efficient charge storage material for supercapacitor applications. Benzoic acid (BA) anchored graphene, having spatially separated graphene layers (G-Bz-COOH), was used as a structure controlling support whereas 3D PANI growth has been achieved by a simple chemical oxidation of aniline in the presence of phytic acid (PA). The BA groups on G-Bz-COOH play a critical role in preventing the restacking of graphene to achieve a high surface area of 472 m(2)/g compared to reduced graphene oxide (RGO, 290 m(2)/g). The carboxylic acid (-COOH) group controls the rate of polymerization to achieve a compact polymer structure with micropores whereas the chelating nature of PA plays a crucial role to achieve the 3D growth pattern of PANI. This type of controlled interplay helps G-PANI-PA to achieve a high conductivity of 3.74 S/cm all the while maintaining a high surface area of 330 m(2)/g compared to PANI-PA (0.4 S/cm and 60 m(2)/g). G-PANI-PA thus conceives the characteristics required for facile charge mobility during fast charge-discharge cycles, which results in a high specific capacitance of 652 F/g for the composite. Owing to the high surface area along with high conductivity, G-PANI-PA displays a stable specific capacitance of 547 F/g even with a high mass loading of 3 mg/cm(2), an enhanced areal capacitance of 1.52 F/cm(2), and a volumetric capacitance of 122 F/cm(3). The reduced charge-transfer resistance (RCT) of 0.67 Ω displayed by G-PANI-PA compared to pure PANI (0.79 Ω) stands out as valid evidence of the improved charge mobility achieved by the system by growing the 3D PANI layer along the spatially separated layers of the graphene sheets. The low RCT helps the system to display capacitance retention as high as 65% even under a high current dragging condition of 10 A/g. High charge/discharge rates and good cycling stability are the other

  5. Upward Shift and Steepening of the Blood Pressure Response to Exercise in Hypertensive Subjects at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Sergio; Faini, Andrea; Baratto, Claudia; Bilo, Grzegorz; Macarlupu, Josè Luis; Lang, Morin; Revera, Miriam; Lombardi, Carolina; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-06-09

    Acute exposure to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia induces a blood pressure rise in hypertensive humans, both at rest and during exercise. It is unclear whether this phenomenon reflects specific blood pressure hyperreactivity or rather an upward shift of blood pressure levels. We aimed at evaluating the extent and rate of blood pressure rise during exercise in hypertensive subjects acutely exposed to high altitude, and how these alterations can be counterbalanced by antihypertensive treatment. Fifty-five subjects with mild hypertension, double-blindly randomized to placebo or to a fixed-dose combination of an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan 80 mg) and a calcium-channel blocker (nifedipine slow release 30 mg), performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test at sea level and after the first night's stay at 3260 m altitude. High-altitude exposure caused both an 8 mm Hg upward shift ( P blood pressure/oxygen consumption relationship during exercise, independent of treatment. Telmisartan/nifedipine did not modify blood pressure reactivity to exercise (blood pressure/oxygen consumption slope), but downward shifted ( P blood pressure and oxygen consumption by 26 mm Hg, both at sea level and at altitude. Muscle oxygen delivery was not influenced by altitude exposure but was higher on telmisartan/nifedipine than on placebo ( P blood pressure response to exercise. The effect of the combination of telmisartan/nifedipine slow release outweighed these changes and was associated with better muscle oxygen delivery. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01830530. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Bubble-Sheet-Like Interface Design with an Ultrastable Solid Electrolyte Layer for High-Performance Dual-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Panpan; Wang, Meng; Li, Na; Zhu, Haili; Ding, Xuan; Tang, Yongbing

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a bubble-sheet-like hollow interface design on Al foil anode to improve the cycling stability and rate performance of aluminum anode based dual-ion battery is reported, in which, a carbon-coated hollow aluminum anode is used as both anode materials and current collector. This anode structure can guide the alloying position inside the hollow nanospheres, and also confine the alloy sizes within the hollow nanospheres, resulting in significantly restricted volumetric expansion and ultrastable solid electrolyte interface (SEI). As a result, the battery demonstrates an excellent long-term cycling stability within 1500 cycles with ≈99% capacity retention at 2 C. Moreover, this cell displays an energy density of 169 Wh kg -1 even at high power density of 2113 W kg -1 (10 C, charge and discharge within 6 min), which is much higher than most of conventional lithium ion batteries. The interfacial engineering strategy shown in this work to stabilize SEI layer and control the alloy forming position could be generalized to promote the research development of metal anodes based battery systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Development of highly porous flat sheet polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaery, Salim A.

    2017-05-01

    With the increase of population every year, fresh water scarcity has rapidly increased and it is reaching a risky level, particularly in Africa and the Middle East. Desalination of seawater is an essential process for fresh water generation. One of the methods for desalination is membrane distillation (MD). MD process separates an aqueous liquid feed across a porous hydrophobic membrane to produce pure water via evaporation. Polyvinlidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes reinforced with a polyester fabric were fabricated as potential candidates for MD. Non-solvent induced phase separation coupled with steam treatment was used to prepare the PVDF membranes. A portion of the prepared membrane was coated with Teflon (AF2400) to increase its hydrophobicity. In the first study, the fabricated membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and other techniques, and they were evaluated using direct contact MD (DCMD). The fabricated membranes showed a porous sponge-like structure with some macrovoids. The macrovoid formation and the spongy structure in the membrane cross-sections contributed significantly to a high permeate flux as they provide a large space for vapor water transport. The modified PVDF membranes with steaming and coating exhibited a permeate flux of around 40 L/h m2 (i.e. 27-30% increase to the control PVDF membrane) at temperatures of 60 °C (feed) and 20 °C (permeate). This increase in the permeate flux for the modified membranes was mainly attributed to its larger pore size on the bottom surface. In the second study, the control PVDF membrane was tested in two different module designs (i.e. semi-circular pipe and rectangular duct module designs). The semi-circular module design (turbulent regime) exhibited a higher permeate flux, 3-fold higher than that of the rectangular duct module design (laminar regime) at feed temperature of 60 °C. Furthermore, a heat energy balance was performed for each module design to determine the temperature

  8. Hypertension, a health economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer, Luis; Cueto, Liliana

    2008-06-01

    The economic aspects of hypertension are critical to modern medicine. The medical, economic, and human costs of untreated and inadequately controlled hypertension are enormous. Hypertension is distributed unequally and with iniquity in different countries and regions of the world. Treatment of hypertension requires an investment over many years to prolong disease-free quality years of life. The high prevalence and high cost of the disease impacts on the microeconomics and macroeconomics of countries and regions. The criteria used for inclusion in clinical guidelines for hypertension impact on the cost and cost/utility of diagnosis or treatment.

  9. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  10. Polar conic current sheets as sources and channels of energetic particles in the high-latitude heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi; Kislov, Roman; Zelenyi, Lev; Obridko, Vladimir; Kharshiladze, Alexander; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Sokół, Justyna; Grzedzielski, Stan; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Malandraki, Olga

    2017-04-01

    The existence of a large-scale magnetically separated conic region inside the polar coronal hole has been predicted by the Fisk-Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and co-workers (Burger et al., ApJ, 2008). Recently, long-lived conic (or cylindrical) current sheets (CCSs) have been found from Ulysses observations at high heliolatitudes (Khabarova et al., ApJ, 2017). The characteristic scale of these structures is several times lesser than the typical width of coronal holes, and the CCSs can be observed at 2-3 AU for several months. CCS crossings in 1994 and 2007 are characterized by sharp decreases in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole and strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. The finding is confirmed by restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines that reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles both in 1994 and 2007. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis also confirms the existence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. The occurrence of long-lived CCSs in the high-latitude solar wind could shed light on how energetic particles reach high latitudes. Energetic particle enhancements up to tens MeV were observed by Ulysses at edges of CCSs both in 1994 and 2007. In 1994 this effect was clearer, probably due to technical reasons. Accelerated particles could be produced either by magnetic reconnection at the edges of a CCS in the solar corona or in the solar wind. We discuss the role of high-latitude CCSs in propagation of energetic particles in the heliosphere and revisit previous studies of energetic particle enhancements at high heliolatitudes. We also suggest that the existence of a CCS can modify the distribution of the solar wind as a function of heliolatitude and consequently impact ionization

  11. Hip circumference is associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol response following statin therapy in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio-Magalhães, J A; Ferreira-Sae, M C; Souza, F A; Grespan-Magossi, A M; Schreiber, R; Velloso, L A; Geloneze, B; Franchini, K G; Nadruz, W

    2011-10-01

    This report investigated the relationship between anthropometric measurements of body fat distribution and lipid response to statins in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive patients. We prospectively examined 129 subjects who used either simvastatin 20 mg/day (no.=83) or atorvastatin 10 mg/day (no.=46) for 3 months. Anthropometry included evaluation of body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip-ratio. Significant decreases in LDL (pcorrelation between waist circumference and HDLcholesterol levels was detected (r=-0.18; p=0.04). Conversely, a direct relationship between hip circumference and HDLcholesterol response to statins was found in the whole sample (r=0.24; p=0.006), while no other anthropometric measurement displayed significant correlation with lipid changes. The association between HDL-cholesterol response and hip circumference was further confirmed by stepwise regression analysis adjusted for baseline HDL-cholesterol levels, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and waist circumference. Hip circumference, a surrogate marker of peripheral adiposity, is associated with HDL-cholesterol changes following statin therapy in hypertensive patients.

  12. Blood pressure control is similar in treated hypertensive patients with optimal or with high-normal albuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Lucas, Silvia; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    Although elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with cardiovascular prognosis and high blood pressure (BP), it is unknown whether differences in BP control could also exist between patients with different grades of UAE, even in the normal range. We sought to explore the association between different levels of UAE and BP control in treated hypertensive patients. A cohort of 1,200 treated hypertensive patients was evaluated. Clinical data, including 2 office BP measurements and UAE averaged from 2 samples, were recorded. Albuminuria was categorized into 4 groups: G0 (UAE <10mg/g), G1 (UAE 10-29 mg/g), G2 (UAE 30-299 mg/g), and G3 (UAE ≥300 mg/g). Forty-three percent of patients had systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg. Median UAE was significantly higher (20.3 vs. 11.7 mg/g; P < 0.001) in these patients than in controlled hypertensive patients (BP<140/90 mm Hg). When UAE was categorized into the 4 groups, there were differences in BP control among groups (P < 0.001).The proportion of noncontrolled patients in G2 (52.3%) was significantly higher than in G0 (36.8%) and G1 (41.5%) (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Importantly, no significant differences were observed between G0 and G1 (P = 0.18) or between G2 and G3 (P = 0.48). With G0 as the reference group, the odds ratio of lack of BP control for the G2 group after adjustment for confounders was 1.40 (95% confidence interval =1.16-1.68; P < 0.001). Lack of BP control is more prevalent among patients with microalbuminuria than in patients with normoalbuminuria. No significant difference was seen between patients with optimal or high-normal UAE. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya M Holloway

    Full Text Available There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05, and promoted a 20% (P<0.05 increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05, and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05. In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05 and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05. HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05, in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  14. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M; Crump, Erica M; Rowland, Neil E

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or "junk food" diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance.

  15. Mineralocorticoid hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension affects about 10 - 25% of the population and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The renin-angiotensin system is frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension, be it primary or secondary. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism increases with the severity of hypertension, from 2% in patients with grade 1 hypertension to 20% among resistant hypertensives. Mineralcorticoid hypertension includes a spectrum of disorders ranging from renin-producing pathologies (renin-secreting tumors, malignant hypertension, coarctation of aorta, aldosterone-producing pathologies (primary aldosteronism - Conns syndrome, familial hyperaldosteronism 1, 2, and 3, non-aldosterone mineralocorticoid producing pathologies (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Liddle syndrome, deoxycorticosterone-secreting tumors, ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH syndrome, congenitalvadrenal hyperplasia, and drugs with mineraocorticoid activity (locorice, carbenoxole therapy to glucocorticoid receptor resistance syndromes. Clinical presentation includes hypertension with varying severity, hypokalemia, and alkalosis. Ratio of plasma aldosterone concentraion to plasma renin activity remains the best screening tool. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling is the best diagnostic test coupled with a CT scan. Treatment is either surgical (adrenelectomy for unilateral adrenal disease versus medical therapy for idiopathic, ambiguous, or bilateral disease. Medical therapy focuses on blood pressure control and correction of hypokalemia using a combination of anti-hypertensives (calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers and potassium-raising therapies (mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist or potassium sparing diuretics. Direct aldosterone synthetase antagonists represent a promising future therapy.

  16. High-Performance Ttransparent and Stretchable All-Solid Supercapacitors Based on Highly Aligned Carbon Nanotube Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    supercapacitors based on poly ( ionic liquid )- modified graphene electrodes. ACS Nano 5, 436–442 (2011). 34. Denisa, H.-J. et al. Highly stable performance of...Niu, Z. et al. A repeated halving approach to fabricate ultrathin single-walled carbon nanotube films for transparent supercapacitors. Small 9, 518–524...PVA-H3PO4/CNT/PDMS multilayer film in either a parallel (Figure 1b) or cross (Figure 1c) configuration, leading to highly transparent devices to be

  17. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  18. A Nacre-Like Carbon Nanotube Sheet for High Performance Li-Polysulfide Batteries with High Sulfur Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Ze; Lv, Wei; He, Yan-Bing; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Guangmin; Dong, Liubing; Niu, Shuzhang; Zhang, Chen; Lyu, Ruiyang; Wang, Cong; Shi, Huifa; Zhang, Wenjie; Kang, Feiyu; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for next-generation electric vehicles because of their high-energy density. However, the poor cyclic stability, especially at a high sulfur loading, is the major obstacles retarding their practical use. Inspired by the nacre structure of an abalone, a similar configuration consisting of layered carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix and compactly embedded sulfur is designed as the cathode for Li-S batteries, which are realized by a well-designed unidirectional freeze-drying approach. The compact and lamellar configuration with closely contacted neighboring CNT layers and the strong interaction between the highly conductive network and polysulfides have realized a high sulfur loading with significantly restrained polysulfide shuttling, resulting in a superior cyclic stability and an excellent rate performance for the produced Li-S batteries. Typically, with a sulfur loading of 5 mg cm -2 , the assembled batteries demonstrate discharge capacities of 1236 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C, 498 mAh g -1 at 2 C and moreover, when the sulfur loading is further increased to 10 mg cm -2 coupling with a carbon-coated separator, a superhigh areal capacity of 11.0 mAh cm -2 is achieved.

  19. An evaluation of highly insulated cold zinc roofs in a moderate humid region - Part II: Corrosion behavior of zinc sheeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, R.; Janssens, A.; Carmeliet, J.; Bogaerts, W.; Hens, H.

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper [Zheng et al., Hygrothermal Performance, Part I; Const Building Mater, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp. 49-59], the hygrothermal performances of four well-insulated cold zinc roofs were evaluated. This paper investigates the corrosion behavior of the zinc sheeting used in the roofs. The

  20. 75 FR 70203 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Error Memo. In addition, one of the ministerial errors affected the calculation of the labor rate, which... quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin (china or other...; whether gloss grade, satin grade, matte grade, dull grade, or any other grade of finish; whether or not...

  1. 75 FR 30370 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin (China or other clay), calcium... brightness level of 80 or higher;\\2\\ weighing not more than 340 grams per square meter; whether gloss grade... typically is referred to as [revaps]cover,' to distinguish it from [revaps]text.''' \\2\\ One of the key...

  2. The Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Relation to Age, Body Mass Index, and Physical Activity Among High School Girls in Daniel Susa, Iran 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayatinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension is the most common public health problem that its prevalence increases along with the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents. It also has a direct relationship with cardiovascular diseases in adults. Objectives This study was performed to determine the prevalence of hypertension among high school girls in Susa, Iran and its relation to age, body mass index, and physical activity. Patients and Methods In this cross sectional study, 400 female students aged 15 - 19 years were selected using multistage cluster random sampling method. Their height, weight, and blood pressure (blood pressure was measured twice while in sitting position were measured by standard methods. The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ was used to score their physical activity. The individual questionnaire was completed by essential question toward hypertension. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 22 using descriptive indexes and the Chi-square and Pearson tests while P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension is 5% and 40.3% in the high school girls, respectively. The frequency of age ranges between 14 and 18 years, with the highest frequency belonged to the age of 16 years. Also, there was a significant relationship between age and increase in blood pressure (P = 0.022. Direct significant linear relationship and difference were reported between hypertension and exercise (P = 0.025, as well as body mass index (P = 0.036. Conclusions The results showed a high prevalence of hypertension in girls with little difference with regard to ethnic groups, indicating that the use of training programs to adjust and modify lifestyle attitudes not only is effective in reducing hypertension, but also can prevent the adolescents’ susceptibility to the diseases that cause disability, increased living costs and weakened family ties.

  3. High Intensity Interval and Endurance Training Have Opposing Effects on Markers of Heart Failure and Cardiac Remodeling in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M.; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L.; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (PHIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (PHIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease. PMID:25803693

  4. Magnetic characterization of the stator core of a high-speed motor made of an ultrathin electrical steel sheet using the magnetic property evaluation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohachiro Oka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the application areas for electric motors have been expanding. For instance, electric motors are used in new technologies such as rovers, drones, cars, and robots. The motor used in such machinery should be small, high-powered, highly-efficient, and high-speed. In such motors, loss at high-speed rotation must be especially minimal. Eddy-current loss in the stator core is known to increase greatly during loss at high-speed rotation of the motor. To produce an efficient high-speed motor, we are developing a stator core for a motor using an ultrathin electrical steel sheet with only a small amount of eddy-current loss. Furthermore, the magnetic property evaluation for efficient, high-speed motor stator cores that use conventional commercial frequency is insufficient. Thus, we made a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system to evaluate the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core. This system was composed of high-speed A/D converters, D/A converters, and a high-speed power amplifier. In experiments, the ultrathin electrical steel sheet dramatically suppressed iron loss and, in particular, eddy-current loss. In addition, a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system accurately evaluated the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core.

  5. Magnetic characterization of the stator core of a high-speed motor made of an ultrathin electrical steel sheet using the magnetic property evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mohachiro; Enokizono, Masato; Mori, Yuji; Yamazaki, Kazumasa

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the application areas for electric motors have been expanding. For instance, electric motors are used in new technologies such as rovers, drones, cars, and robots. The motor used in such machinery should be small, high-powered, highly-efficient, and high-speed. In such motors, loss at high-speed rotation must be especially minimal. Eddy-current loss in the stator core is known to increase greatly during loss at high-speed rotation of the motor. To produce an efficient high-speed motor, we are developing a stator core for a motor using an ultrathin electrical steel sheet with only a small amount of eddy-current loss. Furthermore, the magnetic property evaluation for efficient, high-speed motor stator cores that use conventional commercial frequency is insufficient. Thus, we made a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system to evaluate the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core. This system was composed of high-speed A/D converters, D/A converters, and a high-speed power amplifier. In experiments, the ultrathin electrical steel sheet dramatically suppressed iron loss and, in particular, eddy-current loss. In addition, a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system accurately evaluated the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core.

  6. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  7. LCZ696, Angiotensin II Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor, Ameliorates High-Salt-Induced Hypertension and Cardiovascular Injury More Than Valsartan Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiroaki; Sueta, Daisuke; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Hasegawa, Yu; Nakagawa, Takashi; Lin, BoWen; Ogawa, Hisao; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2015-12-01

    LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, has recently been demonstrated to exert more beneficial effects on hypertensive or heart failure patients than conventional renin-angiotensin system blockers. However, the mechanism underlying the benefit of LCZ696 remains to be understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of LCZ696 compared with valsartan on hypertension and cardiovascular injury. (i) Using telemetry, we compared the hypotensive effect of LCZ696 and valsartan in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) that were fed a high-salt diet followed by a low-salt diet. (ii) We also examined the comparative effect of LCZ696 and valsartan on salt loaded SHRcp, a model of metabolic syndrome. (i) LCZ696 exerted a greater blood pressure (BP) lowering effect than valsartan in SHR regardless of high-salt or low-salt intake. Additive BP reduction by LCZ696 was associated with a significant increase in urinary sodium excretion and sympathetic activity suppression. (ii) LCZ696 significantly ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation, coronary arterial remodeling, and vascular endothelial dysfunction in high-salt loaded SHRcp compared with valsartan. LCZ696 caused greater BP reduction than valsartan in SHR regardless of the degree of salt intake, which was associated with a significant enhancement in urinary sodium excretion and sympathetic activity suppression. Furthermore, an additive BP lowering effect of LCZ696 led to greater cardiovascular protection in hypertensive rats. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Biomarkers in white-coat hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Catherine Ann

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the 1960s provided new insights into the nature of high blood pressure disorders. Blood pressure is now categorised into four quadrants:normotension, masked hypertension, hypertension and white-coat hypertension. In white-coat hypertension blood pressure is elevated when taken at the doctor’s office but normal if taken outside the doctor’s office. Several controversies are associated with white-coat hypertension, which are discuss...

  9. Hypertension and liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren

    2004-01-01

    to increased arterial blood pressure. Subjects with established arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin......Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic...... hemodynamics in cirrhosis. The most characteristic findings in cirrhotic patients are vasodilatation with low systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output, high arterial compliance, secondary activation of counterregulatory systems (sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...

  10. Hypertension hos gravide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Johansen, Marianne; Kamper, Anne Lise

    2009-01-01

    There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...

  11. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  12. Pressure Points: Preventing and Controlling Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Pressure Points: Preventing and Controlling Hypertension Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... diagnosed with high blood pressure." Aditional Information On Hypertension MedlinePlus: High blood pressure: http://www.nlm.nih. ...

  13. A Novel 2D Porous Print Fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 Sheet with High Performance as the Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Suyue; Zhang, Peigen; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Shen, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Anode materials are very crucial in lithium ion batteries. Exploring the simple and low cost production of anodes with excellent electrochemical performance remains a great challenge. Here, we used natural flower spikes of Typha orientalis as the bio-templates and organizers to prepare a novel two-dimensional (2D) porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheet with thickness of about 30 nm. The prepared large-area sheets were orderly assembled by many nanosheets or nanoparticles, and two kinds of pore structures, such as pores with average diameter of about 50 nm or pore channels with aspect ratio of ca. 4, presented between adjacent nanosheets. The pre-treatment by ammonium for flower spikes has a great effect on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the products. As the anode material for lithium ion battery (LIB), the as-obtained porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheets show an initial discharge capacity of 2264 mA h g"−"1 and the specific capacity of 1028 mA h g"−"1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1, which is higher than the theoretical capacity of α-Fe_2O_3 (1007 mA h g"−"1). This highly reversible capacity is attributed to the very thin large-area sheet structure, and many pores or pore channels among the interconnected nanosheets, which could increase lithium-ion mobility, facilitate the transport of electrons and shorten the distance for Li"+ diffusion, and also buffer large volume changes of the anodes during lithium insertion and extraction at the same time. The synthesis process is very simple, providing a low-cost production approach toward high-performance energy storage materials.

  14. Comparison of benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide in high-risk patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Dahlof, Bjorn; Jamerson, Kenneth; Weber, Michael A; Kelly, Roxzana Y; Hester, Allen; Hua, Tsushung; Zappe, Dion; Pitt, Bertram

    2013-07-15

    Combination therapy with benazepril 40 mg and amlodipine 10 mg (B+A) has been shown to be more effective than benazepril 40 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg (B+H) in reducing cardiovascular (CV) events in high-risk patients with stage 2 hypertension with similar blood pressure reductions. In the present post hoc analysis, we evaluated whether B+A is more effective than B+H for reducing CV events in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) at baseline in a subgroup analysis of the Avoiding Cardiovascular events through COMbination therapy in Patients LIving with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) study. The main trial randomized 11,506 patients. Of those, 5,744 received B+A and 5,762 received B+H. Of the 11,506 patients, 5,314 (46%) were classified as having CAD at baseline. The mean patient follow-up period was 35.7 months for the B+A group and 35.6 months for the B+H group. The primary end point was the interval to the first event of composite CV morbidity and mortality. At baseline, significant differences were present between the 5,314 with CAD and the 6,192 without CAD. The patients with CAD had a lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, a lower incidence of diabetes, and greater incidence of dyslipidemia. However, no baseline differences were found between the randomized B+A and B+H groups. In the patients with CAD, an 18% reduction occurred in the hazard ratio for CV events (primary end point) with B+A versus B+H (p = 0.0016). In a prespecified secondary analysis of the composite end point, including only CV death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, the hazard ratio in the patients with CAD was reduced by 25% (p = 0.0033) in the B+A group compared with the B+H group. B+A was more effective than B+H at comparable blood pressure reductions for reducing CV events in patients, regardless of the presence of CAD. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the combination of B+A should be preferentially used for older patients with high

  15. Comparison of Conventional Deep Drawing, Hydromechanical Deep-Drawing and High Pressure Sheet Metal Forming by Numerical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oender, I. Erkan; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2005-01-01

    Increasing use of new technologies in automotive and aircraft applications requires intensive research and developments on sheet metal forming processes. This study focuses on the assessment of sheet hydroforming, hydro-mechanical deep drawing and conventional deep-drawing processes by performing a systematic analysis by numerical simulations. Circular, elliptic, rectangular and square cross-section cups have been selected for the geometry spectrum. Within the range of each cross section, depth, drawing ratio and fillet radii have been altered systematically. St14 stainless steel has been used as the material throughout the study. The deformation behavior has been described by an elasto-plastic material model and all numerical simulations have been carried out by using a dynamic-explicit commercial finite element code. During the analyses each workpiece is produced by the three competing processes. The analyses results such as sheet thickness distribution, necking, forming of radii etc., are used for assessing the success of each forming process alternative. The analyses revealed that depending on the workpiece geometry and dimensional properties certain processes are preferable for obtaining satisfactory products. The process windows for each process have been established based on the analyzed parameters of the three different product geometries. This data is expected to be useful for selecting the appropriate production process for a given workpiece geometry

  16. Increased oxidative stress and severe arterial remodeling induced by permanent high-flow challenge in experimental pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel Elie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension (PH has previously been demonstrated and recently, immune-modulating dendritic cells (DCs infiltrating arterial lesions in patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH and in experimental monocrotaline-induced PH have been reported. Occurrence of perivascular inflammatory cells could be linked to local increase of oxidative stress (OS, as it has been shown for systemic atherosclerosis. The impact of OS on vascular remodeling in PH is still to be determined. We hypothesized, that augmented blood-flow could increase OS and might thereby contribute to DC/inflammatory cell-recruitment and smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation. Methods We applied a monocrotaline-induced PH-model and combined it with permanent flow-challenge. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to following groups: control, monocrotaline-exposure (MCT, monocrotaline-exposure/pneumonectomy (MCT/PE. Results Hemodynamic exploration demonstrated most severe effects in MCT/PE, corresponding in histology to exuberant medial and adventitial remodeling of pulmonary muscular arteries, and intimal remodeling of smaller arterioles; lung-tissue PCR evidenced increased expression of DCs-specific fascin, CD68, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, RANTES, fractalkine in MCT/PE and to a lesser extent in MCT. Major OS enzyme NOX-4 was maximal in MCT/PE. Antioxidative stress enzymes Mn-SOD and glutathion-peroxidase-1 were significantly elevated, while HO-1 showed maximal expression in MCT with significant decrease in MCT/PE. Catalase was decreased in MCT and MCT/PE. Expression of NOX-4, but also of MN-SOD in MCT/PE was mainly attributed to a highly increased number of interstitial and perivascular CXCR4/SDF1 pathway-recruited mast-cells. Stress markers malonedialdehyde and nitrotyrosine were produced in endothelial cells, medial smooth muscle and perivascular leucocytes of hypertensive vasculature

  17. Porous Ni3(NO3)2(OH)4 nano-sheets for supercapacitors: Facile synthesis and excellent rate performance at high mass loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingjie; Cui, Mangwei; Kang, Litao; Li, Taotao; Yun, Shan; Du, Jing; Xu, Shoudong; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    For supercapacitors, pores in electrode materials can accelerate chemical reaction kinetics by shortening ion diffusion distances and by enlarging electrolyte/electrode interfaces. This article describes a simple one-step route for the preparation of pure-phase porous Ni3(NO3)2(OH)4 nano-sheets by directly heating a mild Ni(NO3)2 and urea solution. During heating, urea decomposed into NH3·H2O, which provided a suitable alkaline environment for the formation of Ni3(NO3)2(OH)4 nano-sheets. Meanwhile, the side product, NH4NO3, created numerous pores as a pore-forming agent. After NH4NO3 removal, the specific surface areas and pore volumes of products were boosted by ∼180-times (from 0.61 to 113.12 m2/g) and ∼90-times (from 3.40 × 10-3 to 3.17 × 10-1 m2/g), respectively. As a cathode material of supercapacitor, the porous Ni3(NO3)2(OH)4 nano-sheets exhibited a high specific capacitance of 1094 F/g at an ultrahigh mass loading of 17.55 mg/cm2, leading to an impressive areal capacitance of 19.2 F/cm2. Furthermore, a Ni3(NO3)2(OH)4 nano-sheet//commercial active carbon asymmetric supercapacitor was constructed and delivered an energy density of 33.2 Wh/Kg at a power density of 190.5 W/Kg, based on the mass of active materials on both electrodes.

  18. Enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care in a rural primary care setting in Nigeria: perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina O. Odusola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective: We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care, in the context of a community-based health insurance programme in rural Nigeria. Design: Qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews with primary care staff (n = 11 and health insurance managers (n=4. Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. Results: Both stakeholder groups perceived health insurance as an important facilitator for implementing high-quality hypertension care because it covered costs of care for patients and provided essential resources and incentives to clinics: guidelines, staff training, medications, and diagnostic equipment. Perceived inhibitors included the following: high staff workload; administrative challenges at facilities; discordance between healthcare provider and insurer on how health insurance and provider payment methods work; and insufficient fit between some guideline recommendations and tools for patient education and characteristics/needs of the local patient population. Perceived strategies to address inhibitors included the following: task-shifting; adequate provider payment benchmarking; good provider–insurer relationships; automated administration systems; and tailoring guidelines/patient education. Conclusions: By providing insights into perspectives of primary care providers and health insurance managers, this study offers information on potential strategies for implementing high-quality hypertension care for insured patients in SSA.

  19. Enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care in a rural primary care setting in Nigeria: perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odusola, Aina O; Stronks, Karien; Hendriks, Marleen E; Schultsz, Constance; Akande, Tanimola; Osibogun, Akin; van Weert, Henk; Haafkens, Joke A

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care, in the context of a community-based health insurance programme in rural Nigeria. Qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews with primary care staff (n = 11) and health insurance managers (n=4). Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. Both stakeholder groups perceived health insurance as an important facilitator for implementing high-quality hypertension care because it covered costs of care for patients and provided essential resources and incentives to clinics: guidelines, staff training, medications, and diagnostic equipment. Perceived inhibitors included the following: high staff workload; administrative challenges at facilities; discordance between healthcare provider and insurer on how health insurance and provider payment methods work; and insufficient fit between some guideline recommendations and tools for patient education and characteristics/needs of the local patient population. Perceived strategies to address inhibitors included the following: task-shifting; adequate provider payment benchmarking; good provider-insurer relationships; automated administration systems; and tailoring guidelines/patient education. By providing insights into perspectives of primary care providers and health insurance managers, this study offers information on potential strategies for implementing high-quality hypertension care for insured patients in SSA.

  20. Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Natsuki; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Izumi, Reishi; Mashima, Keiichi; Toki, Misako; Kobayashi, Asako; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Satoru; Kusachi, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

  1. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  2. Enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care in a rural primary care setting in Nigeria: perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odusola, A.O.; Stronks, K.; Hendriks, M.E.; Schultsz, C.; Akande, T.; Osibogun, A.; van Weert, H.; Haafkens, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective: We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and

  3. Enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care in a rural primary care setting in Nigeria: perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odusola, Aina O.; Stronks, Karien; Hendriks, Marleen E.; Schultsz, Constance; Akande, Tanimola; Osibogun, Akin; Weert, Henk van; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and

  4. Endokrin hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Ibsen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma-aldosterone-to-renin ......Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma...

  5. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E Dale; Pereira, Troy J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-HF had lower (P vs. 159 ± 3 mmHg) but a similar degree of cardiac hypertrophy (33.4 ± 0.4 vs. 33.1 ± 0.4 heart weight/tibia length, mg/mm). Mesenteric arteries and the entire aorta were used to assess vascular function and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling, respectively. Endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) relaxation of mesenteric arteries was improved (P vs. SHR-C, whereas contraction (potassium chloride, phenylephrine) was reduced (P vs. SHR-C. Plasma glucose, insulin, and homoeostatic model of insulin assessment were lower (P vs. SHR-C, whereas peripheral insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test) was similar. After a 10-h fast, insulin stimulation (2 U/kg ip) increased (P vs. SHR-HF. In conclusion, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduced blood pressure and improved arterial function in SHR without producing signs of insulin resistance or altering insulin-mediated signaling in the heart, skeletal muscle, or vasculature.

  6. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Qi-Fang; Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-06-15

    The publication of the first non-randomised proof-of-concept trial of renal denervation as a treatment modality in treatment-resistant hypertension set the stage for a search for novel devices with the expectation that technology would reduce the burden of hypertension by reducing or eliminating the costly and lifelong use of blood pressure lowering medications. As we demonstrate in this review, this idea so attractive to manufacturers and invasive cardiologists and radiologists overlooked decades of careful pathophysiological research in a disease, which still remains enigmatic but remains the major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide. To make our point, we first reviewed the prevalence and risks associated with treatment-resistant hypertension. Next, we highlighted the key points required for the diagnosis of treatment-resistant hypertension, including the recording of the ambulatory blood pressure and the assessment of adherence to medication. Finally, we summarised new insights in the management of treatment-resistant hypertension by medication and devices and in the future research. Throughout our review, we focused on new evidence became available since 2013. Our conclusion is that optimising medical treatment based on simple algorithms remains the state of the art in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  7. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  8. Experimental results of a sheet-beam, high power, FEL amplifier with application to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The experimental study of sheet-beam FELs as candidate millimeter-wave sources for heating magnetic fusion plasmas has achieved a major milestone. In a proof-of-principle, pulsed experiment, saturated FEL amplifier operation was achieved with 250 kW of output power at 86 GHz. Input microwave power was 1 kW, beam voltage was 450 kV and beam current was 17 A. The planar wiggler had a peak value of 3.8 kG, a period of 0.96 cm and was 71 cm long. The linear gain of 30 dB, saturated gain of 24 dB and saturated efficiency of 3% all are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Follow-on work would include development of a thermionic sheet-beam electron-gun compatible with CW FEL operation, adding a section of tapered wiggler to increase the output power to levels in excess of 1 megawatt, and increasing the FEL frequency.

  9. High Prevalence of Hypertension in a Danish Population Telemedical Home Measurement of Blood Pressure in Citizens Aged 55–64 Years in Holstebro County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Torsten; Bech, Jesper Nørgaard; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Home blood pressure (HBP) is prognostically superior to office BP (OBP) and similar to ambulatory BP measurements. We determined the prevalence of hypertension using HBP with telemedical data transmission in the municipality of Holstebro, Denmark (57,000 citizens). METHODS Using the Civil Registration System, we invited citizens aged 55–64 years to have their OBP and HBP measured using telemedical data transmission. Elevated OBP was defined as ≥140/90mm Hg. HBP was measured 3 times daily on 3 consecutive days with 3 measurements on each occasion. HBP was the mean of all measurements on day 1 and 3, and hypertension was defined as ≥135/85mm Hg. RESULTS We included 3,102 citizens who had performed at least 12 HBP measurements during day 2 and 3. Group 1: (n = 1,464, 47%) had both normal OBP and HBP. Group 2: (n = 838, 27%) had both elevated OBP and HBP indicating persistent hypertension. Group 3: (n = 560, 18%) had elevated OBP and normal HBP indicating white coat hypertension (WCH). Group 4: (n = 240, 8%) had normal OBP and elevated HBP indicating masked hypertension (MH). Thus, 1,078 (35%, groups 2 and 4) were untreated or insufficiently treated. Awareness of hypertension was registered in 950 patients (31%) and of these 49% had a normal HBP. CONCLUSIONS This is the first large-scale study to eliminate completely reporting bias by using telemedical transmission of BP data. One third of citizens in the age group 55–64 years had an abnormally high HBP, and one fourth either had WCH or MH. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identification number: NCT02355392 PMID:26208671

  10. EFFECTS OF CARVEDILOL AND METOPROLOL ON VEGETATIVE REGULATION OF HEART AND MICROCIRCULATION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND HIGH BODY MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Kiselev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on vegetative regulation of heart and microcirculatory vessels in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degrees and high body mass/obesity.Material and methods. Patients with HT of 1-2 degrees (n=25; aged 51±8 y.o. were included in the study. Registration of 0,1 Hz-fluctuations in heart rhythm variability and microcirculation change was performed during passive orthostatic test at spontaneous breath (duration of each test stage 10 min. Synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms was estimated by calculation of phases difference and a numerical measure of synchronization. Frequency estimations of heart rhythm variability spectrum were performed in high and low frequency ranges additionaly.Results. Carvedilol and metoprolol have the comparable antihypertensive effect and influence on vegetative regulation of cardiovascular system in patients with HT. Both drugs have negative influence on synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms in initially high systolic blood pressure level (>150 mm Hg.Conclusion. Carvedilol and metoprolol have comparable influence on synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms in cardiovascular system.

  11. Value of high spatial and high temporal resolution magnetic resonance angiography for differentiation between idiopathic and thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian; Eichinger, Monika [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Fink, Christian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Borst, Mathias M.; Meyer, F. Joachim; Gruenig, Ekkehard [University Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Differentiation between different forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is essential for correct disease management. The goal of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of high spatial resolution MR angiography (SR-MRA) and time-resolved MRA (TR-MRA) to differentiate between patients with chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Ten PH patients and five volunteers were examined. Twenty TR-MRA data sets (TA 1.5 s) and SR-MRA (TA 23 s) were acquired. TR-MRA data sets were subtracted as angiography and perfusion images. Evaluation comprised analysis of vascular pathologies on a segmental basis, detection of perfusion defects, and bronchial arteries by two readers in consensus. Technical evaluation comprised evaluation of image quality, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements, and contrast-media passage time. Visualization of the pulmonary arteries was possible down to a subsegmental (SR-MRA) and to a segmental (TR-MRA) level. SR-MRA outperformed TR-MRA in direct visualization of intravascular changes. Patients with IPAH predominantly showed tortuous pulmonary arteries while in CTEPH wall irregularities and abnormal proximal-to-distal tapering was found. Perfusion images showed a diffuse pattern in IPAH and focal defects in CTEPH. TR-MRA and SR-MRA resulted in the same final diagnosis. Both MRA techniques allowed for differentiation between IPAH and CTEPH. Therefore, TR-MRA can be used in the clinical setting, especially in dyspneic patients. (orig.)

  12. Changes in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in High-, Middle-, and Low-Income Countries: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifkova, Renata; Fodor, George; Wohlfahrt, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to critically evaluate recent publications on hypertension treatment and control in regions by income. Prevalence of hypertension is increasing worldwide, most prominently in low-income countries. Awareness, treatment, and control are most successful in North America while remaining a challenge in middle- and low-income countries. Easy access to medical care and aggressive use of pharmacotherapy are the key strategies which have proved to be successful in reducing the burden of hypertension on the population level.

  13. Potential benefits of some antioxidant nutrients in reducing the high levels of some biochemical variables associated with induced hypertension in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; Abdel-Moneim, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    In a preliminary trial, the changes in selected biochemical blood variables which are thought to represent risk factors coincident with hypertension were compared between a group of normal control male albino rats (normotensive) and other group suffered from hypertension induced artificially by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Also, in this study, the effects of four antioxidant nutrients on the same variables were tested in order to show to what extent these nutrients are valid to control the levels of these variables without any deleterious effects after treatment. Co-enzyme Q 10 , taurine or carnitine were daily injected intraperitoneally for two weeks to three groups of hypertensive rats with doses of 50, 500 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Garlic oil (200 mg / kg) was given to another hypertensive rats by oral intubation. The fourth group received a combination of all the above mentioned nutrients. Another hypertensive group was left without any treatment and served as recovery group. Fasting blood samples were drawn at 2 and 4 weeks after the terminal of the treatments. The results obtained revealed that the induced hypertension caused significant (P<0.001) increase of blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatin phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1, angiotensin- II, total cholesterol (T Chol), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) as compared with their relevant levels in the control normotensive rats which injected with normal saline. All nutrients used had significant (P<0.05) lowering effects on the activities of serum cardiac enzymes (LDH and CPK) besides AST, but the reduction was more evident when a combination of all nutrients was used as compared with their corresponding levels of the recovery hypertensive group. As a function of interval, the activities of all enzymes were declined significantly (P<0.05) with the advancement of time. The same

  14. Relationship between initial therapy and blood pressure control for high-risk hypertension patients in the UK: a retrospective cohort study from the THIN general practice database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Sharada; Juhasz, Attila; Puelles, Jorge; Tierney, Travis S

    2017-07-28

    To examine the UK practice patterns in treating newly diagnosed hypertension and to determine whether subgroups of high-risk patients are more or less likely to follow particular therapeutic protocols and to reach blood pressure goals. Retrospective cohort study. This study examined adults in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) UK general practice medical records database who were initiated on medication for hypertension. 48 131 patients with essential hypertension diagnosed between 2008 and 2010 who were registered with a participating practice for a minimum of 13 months prior to, and 6 months following, initiation of therapy. We excluded patients with gestational hypertension or secondary hypertension. Patients were classified into risk groups based on blood pressure readings and comorbid conditions. Odds of receiving single versus fixed or free-drug combination therapy and odds of achieving blood pressure control were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The vast majority of patients (95.8%) were initiated on single drug therapy. Patients with high cardiovascular risk (patients with grade 2-3 hypertension or those with high normal/grade 1 hypertension plus at least one cardiovascular condition pretreatment) had a statistically significant benefit of starting immediately on combination therapy when blood pressure control was the desired goal (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.42) but, surprisingly, were less likely than patients with no risk factors to receive combination therapy (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.59). Our results suggest that combination therapy may be indicated for patients with high cardiovascular risk, who accounted for 60.6% of our study population. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline CG34 of 2006 (in effect during the study period) recommended starting with single drug class therapy for most patients, and this advice does seem to have been followed even in cases where a more aggressive approach might

  15. Pre-Hypertension and Hypertension in Adolescence: How much ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is an important worldwide public-health challenge because of its high frequency and concomitant risks of cardiovascular and kidney disease. Previous studies have documented that hypertension may begin in adolescence, perhaps even in childhood. Objectives: This study set out to determine ...

  16. Hypertensive target organ damage in Ghanaian civil servants with hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Addo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of detection, treatment and control of hypertension have repeatedly been reported from sub Saharan Africa, potentially increasing the likelihood of target organ damage.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1015 urban civil servants aged > or = 25 years from seven central government ministries in Accra, Ghana. Participants diagnosed to have hypertension were examined for target organ involvement. Hypertensive target organ damage was defined as the detection of any of the following: left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by electrocardiogram, reduction in glomerular filtration rate, the presence of hypertensive retinopathy or a history of a stroke.Of the 219 hypertensive participants examined, 104 (47.5% had evidence of target organ damage. The presence of target organ damage was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The odds of developing hypertensive target organ damage was five to six times higher in participants with blood pressure (BP > or = 180/110 mmHg compared to those with BP < 140/90 mmHg, and there was a trend to higher odds of target organ damage with increasing BP (p = 0.001. Women had about lower odds of developing target organ damage compared to men.The high prevalence of target organ damage in this working population associated with increasing blood pressure, emphasises the need for hypertension control programs aimed at improving the detection of hypertension, and importantly addressing the issues inhibiting the effective treatment and control of people with hypertension in the population.

  17. Two-step electrodeposition construction of flower-on-sheet hierarchical cobalt hydroxide nano-forest for high-capacitance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanlu; Gao, Zan; Ma, Jing; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xingming; Liu, Lianhe

    2013-11-28

    A novel flower-on-sheet hierarchical morphology of α-Co(OH)2 nanostructures was achieved via an easy two-step synthesis strategy. The method is based on first a galvanostatic electrodeposition (GE) of vertically aligned interconnected Co(OH)2 nanosheets to form a branch layer and second a potentiostatic electrodeposition (PE) of Co(OH)2 microflowers on the obtained branch layer from the secondary growth of their sheet-like precursors. The formation mechanism of this special PE time-dependent nanostructure was proposed and their morphology-dependent supercapacitor properties were also investigated. For a given areas mass loading, high specific capacitances of 1822 F g(-1) have been achieved for the electrode obtained after 200 s GE followed by a 300 s PE in a three-electrode configuration, and it maintained 91% of its initial capacity after 1000 constant-current charge/discharge cycles. Even when the discharge current density was increased from 1 to 50 mA cm(-2), the capacitance was still as high as 1499 F g(-1), indicating an excellent rate performance of the fabricated electrodes. The high performances of the electrodes are attributed to the special porous structure, 3D hierarchical morphology, vertical aligned orientation, and low contact resistance between active material and charge collector.

  18. Silver Nanoparticle-Decorated Shape-Memory Polystyrene Sheets as Highly Sensitive Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates with a Thermally Inducible Hot Spot Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Zebasil Tassew; Yang, Jyisy

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with a thermally inducible hot spot effect for sensitive measurement of Raman-active molecules was successfully fabricated from silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-decorated shape-memory polystyrene (SMP) sheets. To prepare the SERS substrate, SMP sheets were first pretreated with n-octylamine for effective decoration with AgNPs. By varying the formulation and condition of the reduction reaction, AgNP-decorated SMP (Ag@SMP) substrates were successfully prepared with optimized particle gaps to produce inducible hot spot effects on thermal shrink. High-quality SERS spectra were easily obtained with enhancement factors higher than 10 8 by probing with aromatic thiols. Several Ag@SMP substrates produced under different reaction conditions were explored for the creation of inducible hot spot effects. The results indicated that AgNP spacing is crucial for strong hot spot effects. The suitability of Ag@SMP substrates for quantification was also evaluated according to the detection of adenine. Results confirmed that prepared Ag@SMP substrates were highly suitable for quantitative analysis because they yielded an estimated limit of detection as low as 120 pg/cm 2 , a linear range of up to 7 ng/cm 2 , and a regression coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9959. Ag@SMP substrates were highly reproducible; the average relative standard deviation for all measurements was less than 10%.

  19. The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association vs Hypertension Canada High Blood Pressure Guidelines and Potential Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Rémi; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Vallée, Michel

    2018-05-01

    In this report we examine the differences between the 2017 Hypertension Canada and 2017 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) blood pressure (BP) guidelines regarding the proportions of individuals with a diagnosis of hypertension, BP above thresholds for treatment initiation, and BP below targets using the CARTaGENE cohort. Compared with the 2017 Canadian guidelines, the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines would result in increases of 8.7% in hypertension diagnosis and 3.4% of individuals needing treatment, with 17.2% having a different BP target. In conclusion, implementing the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guidelines in Canada could result in major effects for millions of Canadians. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of antecedent hypertension and follow-up blood pressure on outcomes after high-risk myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thune, J.J.; Signorovitch, J.; Velazquez, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    myocardial infarction in the Valsartan in Myocardial Infarction Trial. We assessed the relationship between antecedent hypertension and outcomes and the association between elevated (systolic: >140 mm Hg) or low blood pressure (systolic:

  1. Project "Hypertension Alert."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Emma Lou

    1983-01-01

    "Hypertension Alert," a 1979-80 blood pressure screening-awareness project of the Yonkers, New York Public Schools, is described. Data is analyzed in tables for ethnic composition, and range of blood pressure readings for the high school, junior high school, and elementary school students tested. (Author/JMK)

  2. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pulmonary Hypertension - High Blood Pressure in the Heart-to-Lung System Updated:Jan ... Pressure" This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  3. Renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Sos, T.A.; Nielsen, S.L.; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Cornell Univ., New York

    1989-01-01

    Hypertension constitutes a major health problem and the challenge is to identify patients having 'surgically' curable renal vascular disease among the majority with so-called essential hypertension. The best of unsatisfactory diagnostic tests are renography and plasma renin activity both before and during angiotensin II blockade. The necessity of better screening tests has increased because of the recent advances in surgical techniques and especially percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty. The latter has definitely become the method of choice for correction of suspected hemodynamically significant artery stenoses whenever technically feasible. With improved angioplasty techniques the risk of treating renal artery stenosis without hemodynamic and clinical importance (so-called cosmetic repair) has increased. Unfortunately randomized trials including surgery versus angioplasty are not available. It should be kept in mind that only after correction of the stenosis is achieved and the blood pressure has become normal, can the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension be made with certainty. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of knowledge about hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Węgorowski

    2017-07-01

    Patient knowledge about hypertension and its effects can affect the effectiveness of treatment. Medical education should be of paramount importance for medical staff, with particular attention to the self-control of blood pressure by patients. In summary, it is important to note that due to the high risk of complications, both treatment and prevention of hypertension are important.

  5. Vascular inflammatory cells in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease.

  6. Stepwise high-throughput virtual screening of Rho kinase inhibitors from natural product library and potential therapeutics for pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Yan, Ji; Xu, Jian; Fan, Xi-Zhen; Sun, Xian-Lin; Chen, Kang-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating disease characterized by progressive elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and vascular resistance due to pulmonary vasoconstriction and vessel remodeling. The activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway plays a central role in the pathologic progression of PH and thus the Rho kinase, an essential effector of the ROCK pathway, is considered as a potential therapeutic target to attenuate PH. In the current study, a synthetic pipeline is used to discover new potent Rho inhibitors from various natural products. In the pipeline, the stepwise high-throughput virtual screening, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)-based rescoring, and kinase assay were integrated. The screening was performed against a structurally diverse, drug-like natural product library, from which six identified compounds were tested to determine their inhibitory potencies agonist Rho by using a standard kinase assay protocol. With this scheme, we successfully identified two potent Rho inhibitors, namely phloretin and baicalein, with activity values of IC50 = 0.22 and 0.95 μM, respectively. Structural examination suggested that complicated networks of non-bonded interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces, and van der Waals contacts across the complex interfaces of Rho kinase are formed with the screened compounds.

  7. Childhood hypertension: what does the radiologist contribute?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, Derek [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Hypertension may be essential (primary) or secondary to a variety of causes. The most important risk factors for essential hypertension are obesity and a family history of high BP, but there are also associations with sleep apnoea, low birth weight and prematurity. The most important cause of secondary hypertension in childhood is chronic renal disease. (orig.)

  8. Childhood hypertension: what does the radiologist contribute?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, Derek

    Hypertension may be essential (primary) or secondary to a variety of causes. The most important risk factors for essential hypertension are obesity and a family history of high BP, but there are also associations with sleep apnoea, low birth weight and prematurity. The most important cause of secondary hypertension in childhood is chronic renal disease. (orig.)

  9. Pregnancy with Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neelam; Negi, Neha; Aggarwal, Aakash; Bodh, Vijay; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2014-01-01

    Even though pregnancy is rare with cirrhosis and advanced liver disease, but it may co-exist in the setting of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension as liver function is preserved but whenever encountered together is a complex clinical dilemma. Pregnancy in a patient with portal hypertension presents a special challenge to the obstetrician as so-called physiological hemodynamic changes associated with pregnancy, needed for meeting demands of the growing fetus, worsen the portal hypertension thereby putting mother at risk of potentially life-threatening complications like variceal hemorrhage. Risks of variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation increase many fold during pregnancy. Optimal management revolves round managing the portal hypertension and its complications. Thus management of such cases requires multi-speciality approach involving obstetricians experienced in dealing with high risk cases, hepatologists, anesthetists and neonatologists. With advancement in medical field, pregnancy is not contra-indicated in these women, as was previously believed. This article focuses on the different aspects of pregnancy with portal hypertension with special emphasis on specific cause wise treatment options to decrease the variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation. Based on extensive review of literature, management from pre-conceptional period to postpartum is outlined in order to have optimal maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:25755552

  10. Adaptation, allometry, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, A B; Schork, N J

    1994-08-01

    Essential hypertension is a "disease of civilization" but has a clear genetic component. From an evolutionary perspective, persistence in the human genome of elements capable of raising blood pressure presupposes their adaptive significance. Recently, two hypotheses that explicitly appeal to selectionist arguments, the "slavery" and "thrifty gene" theories, have been forwarded. We find neither completely successful, and we advance an alternative explanation of the adaptive importance of genes responsible for hypertension. We propose that blood pressure rises during childhood and adolescence to subserve homeostatic needs of the organism. Specifically, we contend that blood pressure is a flexible element in the repertoire of renal homeostatic mechanisms serving to match renal function to growth. The effect of modern diet and lifestyle on human growth stimulates earlier and more vigorous development, straining biologically necessary relationships between renal and general somatic growth and requiring compensation via homeostatic mechanisms preserved during evolution. Prime among such mechanisms is blood pressure, which rises as a compensation to maintain renal function in the face of greater growth. Since virtually all members of acculturated societies share in the modern lifestyle, the demands imposed by accelerated growth and development result in a populational shift to higher blood pressures, with a consequent increase in the prevalence of hypertension. We propose that hypertension is the product of maladaptation of highly genetically conserved mechanisms subserving important biological homeostatic needs. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying hypertension will require approaches that examine the developmental processes linking growth to blood pressure.

  11. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development......Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  12. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101.74... claims: sodium and hypertension. (a) Relationship between sodium and hypertension (high blood pressure). (1) Hypertension, or high blood pressure, generally means a systolic blood pressure of greater than...

  13. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-05-16

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The mesopores inside the clusters provide enough room for the expansion and contraction of SnO2 QDs during charge/discharge process while the integral structure of the clusters can be maintained. The wrapping RGO sheets act as electrolyte barrier and conductive reinforcement. When used as an anode, the resultant composite (MQDC-SnO2/RGO) shows an extremely high reversible capacity of 924 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 100 mA g(-1), superior capacity retention (96%), and outstanding rate performance (505 mAh g(-1) after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1)). Importantly, the materials can be easily scaled up under mild conditions. Our findings pave a new way for the development of metal oxide towards enhanced lithium storage performance.

  14. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The mesopores inside the clusters provide enough room for the expansion and contraction of SnO2 QDs during charge/discharge process while the integral structure of the clusters can be maintained. The wrapping RGO sheets act as electrolyte barrier and conductive reinforcement. When used as an anode, the resultant composite (MQDC-SnO2/RGO) shows an extremely high reversible capacity of 924 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1, superior capacity retention (96%), and outstanding rate performance (505 mAh g−1 after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g−1). Importantly, the materials can be easily scaled up under mild conditions. Our findings pave a new way for the development of metal oxide towards enhanced lithium storage performance. PMID:27181691

  15. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  16. Dynamics of Radially Expanding Liquid Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2018-04-01

    The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions. We anticipate these results to not only lead to more accurate predictions of the final drop-size distribution but also enable more efficient designs of atomizers.

  17. Hypercortisolism in obesity-associated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Amy G; Nimkevych, Oksana; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is prevalent worldwide and associated with co-morbidities that result in increased cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is the most prevalent obesity comorbidity associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Obesity hypertension is a distinct subtype of essential hypertension. While endogenous Cushing's syndrome is an uncommon cause of both obesity and hypertension, the recent recognition of other hypercortisolemic states has raised the profile of hypercortisolism as an important contributor in obesity hypertension. The high prevalence of exogenous, iatrogenic, pseudo, and subclinical Cushing's syndromes makes hypercortisolism an important diagnostic consideration in the evaluation and management of patients with obesity hypertension who are resistant to conventional management. Available data suggest that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system modulating antihypertensives have the best efficacy in hypercortisolism-mediated obesity hypertension. Strategies aimed at reducing cortisol production and action also have utility. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and management options available for glucocorticoid-mediated obesity hypertension.

  18. Effect of Self-monitoring and Medication Self-titration on Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, Richard J.; Mant, Jonathan; Haque, M. Sayeed; Bray, Emma P.; Bryan, Stirling; Greenfield, Sheila M.; Jones, Miren I.; Jowett, Sue; Little, Paul; Penaloza, Cristina; Schwartz, Claire; Shackleford, Helen; Shovelton, Claire; Varghese, Jinu; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Self-monitoring of blood pressure with self-titration of antihypertensives (self-management) results in lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but there are no data about patients in high-risk groups.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of self-monitoring with self-titration of antihypertensive medication compared with usual care on systolic blood pressure among patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease.\\ud \\ud DESIGN, SETTING, AN...

  19. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J.; Presson, Robert G.; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute ...

  20. High selenium exposure lowers the odds ratios for hypertension, stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with mercury exposure among Inuit in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue Feng; Eccles, Kristin M; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-05-01

    Selenium (Se) has been reported to protect against the neurotoxicity of mercury (Hg). However, the effect of Se against Hg on cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. Inuit living in the Arctic have high exposure to both Se and Hg through their marine mammal and fish rich traditional diet. To characterize the co-exposure of Hg and Se among Inuit in Canada and to assess the associations between Hg, Se and cardiovascular health outcomes, including stroke, hypertension, and myocardial infarction (MI). Data was collected from the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (IHS) conducted in 2007 and 2008. Blood Se and Hg were measured, and self-report cardiovascular health outcomes were collected through a questionnaire interview from 2169 adults aged 18 and above. The mean age was 42.4years, and 38.7% of the participants were male. The geometric means (GM) of blood Se and total Hg were 319.5μg/L and 7.0μg/L, respectively. The crude prevalence of heart attack, stroke and hypertension were 3.55%, 2.36%, and 24.47% respectively. Participants were categorized into 4 exposure groups according to blood Hg (high: ≥7.8μg/L; low: <7.8μg/L), and Se (high: ≥280μg/L; low: <280μg/L). The odds ratio (OR) of cardiovascular outcomes were estimated using general linearized models. Results showed the low Se and high Hg group had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (OR=1.76 for hypertension, 1.57 for stroke, and 1.26 for MI. However, the prevalence was decreased in both the high Se and low Hg group (OR=0.57 for hypertension, 0.44 for stroke, and 0.27 for MI) and the high Se and high Hg group (OR=1.14 for hypertension, 0.31 for stroke, and 0.80 for MI). The high Se and low Hg group had the lowest prevalence of cardiovascular outcomes, except for stroke. These results provide evidence that Se may exhibit a protective effect against Hg on cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Yanagihara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB, has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (<5 mg/kg in rats. To address the issue, telmisartan (2 mg/kg and olmesartan (2 mg/kg, another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fed a high fat diet (HFD. HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (<5 mg/kg in rats. This study showed that 2 mg/kg of telmisartan and olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions.

  2. [Cardiovascular recovery during intermittent exercise in highly-adherent partic pants with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Álvarez, Cristian; Martínez, Cristian; Salas, Andrés; Sade, Farid; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    Despite the evidence supporting metabolic benefits of high intensity interval exercise (HIIT), there is little information about the cardiovascular response to this type of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension (HTA). To analyze the changes in heart rate at rest, at the onset and at the end of each interval of training, after twelve weeks of a HIIT program in T2D and HTA patients. Twenty-three participants with T2D and HTA (20 women) participated in a controlled HIIT program. Fourteen participants attended 90% of more session of exercise and were considered as adherent. Adherent and non-adherent participants had similar body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure. A “1x2x10” (work: rest-time: intervals) HIIT exercise protocol was used both as a test and as training method during twelve weeks. The initial and finishing heart rate (HR) of each of the ten intervals before and after the intervention were measured. After twelve weeks of HIIT intervention, adherent participants had a significant reduction in the heart rate at the onset of exercise, and during intervals 4, 5, 8 and 10. A reduction in the final heart rate was observed during intervals 8 and 10. In the same participants the greatest magnitude of reduction, at the onset or end of exercise was approximately 10 beats/min. No significant changes in BMI, resting heart rate and blood pressure were observed. A HIIT program reduces the cardiovascular effort to a given work-load and improves cardiovascular recovery after exercise.

  3. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun M. Adeoye; Adewole Adebiyi; Bamidele O. Tayo; Babatunde L. Salako; Adesola Ogunniyi; Richard S. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% fema...

  4. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...

  5. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun M. Adeoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% female, hypertensive, aged 18 and above were recruited into the study from two centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Hypertension was identified using JNCVII definition and was further grouped into four subtypes: controlled hypertension (CH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH. Results. Systolic-diastolic hypertension was the most prevalent. Whereas SDH (77.6% versus 73.5% and IDH (4.9% versus 4.7% were more prevalent among females, ISH (10.1% versus 6.2% was higher among males (P=0.048. Female subjects were more obese (P<0.0001 and SDH was prevalent among the obese group. Conclusion. Gender and obesity significantly influenced the distribution of the hypertension subtypes. Characterization of hypertension by subtypes in genetic association studies could lead to identification of previously unknown genetic variants involved in the etiology of hypertension. Large-scale studies among various ethnic groups may be needed to confirm these observations.

  6. Development of advanced high strength tantalum base alloys. Phase 3: Influence of metallurgical condition on the mechanical properties of ASTAR-811C sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, R. L.; Buckman, R. W., Jr.; Harrod, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Metallurgical condition was shown to have a significant effect on the creep properties of ASTAR-811C (Ta-8W-1Re-0.7Hf-0.025C) sheet. Cold worked material exhibited creep rates 30 times higher than solution annealed material and 10 times greater than for recrystallized material. Both grain size and the carbide morphology changes as the final annealing temperature was raised from 3000 F to 3600 F. However, the lowest creep rates were achieved for material which retained the high temperature form of the Ta2C precipitate. Samples with GTA weldments had essentially identical properties as recrystallized base metal. Cooling rates from 3600 F of 5, 50, and 800 F deg/min. had little effect on the 2000 and 2400 F creep behavior of ASTAR-811C.

  7. Flower-, wire-, and sheet-like MnO2-deposited diatomites: Highly efficient absorbents for the removal of Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yucheng; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jinshu; Zheng, Guangwei; Wu, Junshu; Dai, Hongxing

    2015-03-01

    Flower-, wire-, and sheet-like MnO2-deposited diatomites have been prepared using a hydrothermal method with Mn(Ac)2, KMnO4 and/or MnSO4 as Mn source and diatomite as support. Physical properties of the materials were characterized by means of numerous analytical techniques, and their behaviors in the adsorption of chromium(VI) were evaluated. It is shown that the MnO2-deposited diatomite samples with different morphologies possessed high surface areas and abundant surface hydroxyl groups (especially the wire-like MnO2/diatomite sample). The wire-like MnO2/diatomite sample showed the best performance in the removal of Cr(VI), giving the maximum Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of 101 mg/g. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Synopsis of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Hypertension Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert M; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-03-06

    In November 2017, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) released a clinical practice guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure (BP) in adults. This article summarizes the major recommendations. In 2014, the ACC and the AHA appointed a multidisciplinary committee to update previous reports of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The committee reviewed literature and commissioned systematic reviews and meta-analyses on out-of-office BP monitoring, the optimal target for BP lowering, the comparative benefits and harms of different classes of antihypertensive agents, and the comparative benefits and harms of initiating therapy with a single antihypertensive agent or a combination of 2 agents. This article summarizes key recommendations in the following areas: BP classification, BP measurement, screening for secondary hypertension, nonpharmacologic therapy, BP thresholds and cardiac risk estimation to guide drug treatment, treatment goals (general and for patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and advanced age), choice of initial drug therapy, resistant hypertension, and strategies to improve hypertension control.

  9. Relationships between high-sensitive C-reactive protein and markers of arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients. Differences by sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Marcos Manuel A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and arterial stiffness according to sex in patients with arterial hypertension. Methods A case-series study was carried out in 258 hypertensive patients without antecedents of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Nephelometry was used to determine hs-CRP. Office or clinical and home blood pressures were measured with a validated OMRON model M10 sphygmomanometer. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed with the SpaceLabs 90207 system. Pulse wave velocity (PWV and central and peripheral augmentation index (AIx were measured with the SphygmoCor system, and a Sonosite Micromax ultrasound unit was used for automatic measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index and home arterial stiffness index were calculated as “1-slope” from the within-person regression analysis of diastolic-on-systolic ambulatory blood pressure. Results Central and peripheral AIx were greater in women than in men: 35.31 ± 9.95 vs 26.59 ± 11.45 and 102.06 ± 20.47 vs 85.97 ± 19.13, respectively. IMT was greater in men (0.73 ± 0.13 vs 0.69 ± 0.10. hs-CRP was positively correlated to IMT (r = 0.261, maximum (r = 0.290 and to peripheral AIx (r = 0.166 in men, and to PWV in both men (r = 0.280 and women (r = 0.250. In women, hs-CRP was negatively correlated to central AIx (r = −0.222. For each unit increase in hs-CRP, carotid IMT would increase 0.05 mm in men, and PWV would increase 0.07 m/sec in men and 0.08 m/sec in women, while central AIx would decrease 2.5 units in women. In the multiple linear regression analysis, hs-CRP explained 10.2% and 6.7% of PWV variability in women and men, respectively, 8.4% of carotid IMT variability in men, and 4.9% of central AIx variability in women. Conclusions After adjusting for age, other

  10. Mapping whole-brain activity with cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Paciscopi, Marco; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Frasconi, Paolo; Hyman, Bradley T.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Mapping neuronal activity patterns across the whole brain with cellular resolution is a challenging task for state-of-the-art imaging methods. Indeed, despite a number of technological efforts, quantitative cellular-resolution activation maps of the whole brain have not yet been obtained. Many techniques are limited by coarse resolution or by a narrow field of view. High-throughput imaging methods, such as light sheet microscopy, can be used to image large specimens with high resolution and in reasonable times. However, the bottleneck is then moved from image acquisition to image analysis, since many TeraBytes of data have to be processed to extract meaningful information. Here, we present a full experimental pipeline to quantify neuronal activity in the entire mouse brain with cellular resolution, based on a combination of genetics, optics and computer science. We used a transgenic mouse strain (Arc-dVenus mouse) in which neurons which have been active in the last hours before brain fixation are fluorescently labelled. Samples were cleared with CLARITY and imaged with a custom-made confocal light sheet microscope. To perform an automatic localization of fluorescent cells on the large images produced, we used a novel computational approach called semantic deconvolution. The combined approach presented here allows quantifying the amount of Arc-expressing neurons throughout the whole mouse brain. When applied to cohorts of mice subject to different stimuli and/or environmental conditions, this method helps finding correlations in activity between different neuronal populations, opening the possibility to infer a sort of brain-wide 'functional connectivity' with cellular resolution.

  11. Predicting Pulsar Scintillation from Refractive Plasma Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Dana; Pen, Ue-Li

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic and secondary spectra of many pulsars show evidence for long-lived, aligned images of the pulsar that are stationary on a thin scattering sheet. One explanation for this phenomenon considers the effects of wave crests along sheets in the ionized interstellar medium, such as those due to Alfvén waves propagating along current sheets. If these sheets are closely aligned to our line-of-sight to the pulsar, high bending angles arise at the wave crests and a selection effect causes alignment of images produced at different crests, similar to grazing reflection off of a lake. Using geometric optics, we develop a simple parameterized model of these corrugated sheets that can be constrained with a single observation and that makes observable predictions for variations in the scintillation of the pulsar over time and frequency. This model reveals qualitative differences between lensing from overdense and underdense corrugated sheets: Only if the sheet is overdense compared to the surrounding interstellar medium can the lensed images be brighter than the line-of-sight image to the pulsar, and the faint lensed images are closer to the pulsar at higher frequencies if the sheet is underdense, but at lower frequencies if the sheet is overdense.

  12. High Prevalence of Obesity, Hypertension, Hyperlipidemia, and Diabetes Mellitus in Japanese Outpatients with Schizophrenia: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Takuro; Suzuki, Yutaro; Yamazaki, Manabu; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Mori, Takao; Ozeki, Yuji; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Minami, Yoshitake; Okamoto, Kurefu; Sagae, Toyoaki; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have significantly shorter life expectancy than the general population, and a problem they commonly face is an unhealthy lifestyle, which can lead to obesity and metabolic syndrome. There is a very clear need to determine the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus which are components of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia, but there has been a paucity of large-scale studies examining this situation in Japan. The aim of our study was to address this need. We conducted a large-scale investigation of the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus using a questionnaire in 520 outpatient facilities and 247 inpatient facilities of the Japan Psychiatric Hospitals Association between January 2012 and July 2013. There were 7,655 outpatients and 15,461 inpatients with schizophrenia. The outpatients had significantly higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus than the inpatients. The prevalence of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia was higher in inpatients than outpatients. Age-specific analysis showed the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus among outpatients to be 2- to 3-fold higher than among inpatients. In individuals aged ≥60 years, the prevalence of obesity and DM among outpatients was about 3-fold higher than among inpatients. Japanese outpatients with schizophrenia were more likely to have physical risk such as obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus than inpatients. The physical risk to patients with schizophrenia may be affected by environmental parameters, such as type of care. The physical risk to Japanese patients with schizophrenia demands greater attention.

  13. Three-dimensional graphene sheets with NiO nanobelt outgrowths for enhanced capacity and long term high rate cycling Li-ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Waipeng; Zhang, Yingmeng; Key, Julian; Shen, Pei Kang

    2018-03-01

    An efficient synthesis method to grow well attached NiO nanobelts from 3D graphene sheets (3DGS) is reported herein. Ni-ion exchanged resin provides the initial Ni reactant portion, which serves both as a catalyst to form 3DGS and then as a seeding agent to grow the NiO nanobelts. The macroporous structure of 3DGS provides NiO containment to achieve a high cycling stability of up to 445 mAh g-1 after 360 cycles (and >112% capacity retention after 515 cycles) at a high current density of 2 A g-1. With a 26.8 wt.% content of NiO on 3DGS, increases in specific and volumetric capacity were 41.6 and 75.7% respectively over that of 3DGS at matching current densities. Therefore, the seeded growth of NiO nanobelts from 3DGS significantly boosts volumetric capacity, while 3DGS enables high rate long term cycling of the NiO. The high rate cycling stability of NiO on 3DGS can be attributed to (i) good attachment and contact to the large surface of 3DGS, (ii) high electron conductivity and rapid Li-ion transfer (via the interconnected, highly conductive graphitized walls of 3DGS) and (iii) buffering void space in 3DGS to contain volume expansion of NiO during charge/discharge.

  14. Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of PAH therapies. Data Extraction Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Data Synthesis Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with PAH have been applied for the benefit of children with PAH. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no PAH medications approved for children in the US by the FDA. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with PAH are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for PAH in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with PAH. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of PAH as infusions (intravenous and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and is commonly used in the treatment of PAH in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with PAH. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators are the first drug class to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Literature and data supporting the

  15. A STUDY OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND KIDNEY FUNCTION TEST IN NEWLYDIAGNOSED HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramswaroop

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As per the fact sheet published by World Health Organisation, South East Asia, nearly one billion people have high blood pressure and are one of the most common causes of premature death worldwide. About one third of the adult population in the South East Asia region is having hypertension. In our country, the number of people with hypertension are undiagnosed and untreated, so early detection and treatment of hypertension will decrease the complication of hypertension and premature death due to it. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram, from May 2015 to August 2017. This study was started with an aim to know that electrocardiographic abnormalities and kidney function at the time of diagnosis of hypertension in a patient in coastal Andhra Pradesh. RESULTS We have found ECG changes in both the stages of hypertensive group patients. In stage-1 hypertensive group patients, out of 80 patients, 6 patients having sinus tachycardia, 2 having sinus bradycardia, 4 patients having left bundle-branch block and 6 having right bundle-branch block. ST elevation was found in 1 patient and ST depression was found in 8 patients. AV block was present in 2 patients. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present in 1 patient and left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 4 patients. T-wave inversion was found in 4 patients. In stage-2 hypertensive patients, sinus tachycardia in 6 patients and bradycardia in 1 patient, LBBB was found in 8 patients. ST depression was found in 6 patients and ST elevation was found in 2 patients out of 40 patients. AV block was present in 3 patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy patients 16 out of 40, but right ventricular hypertrophy was only 1. T-wave inversion was found in 6 patients. CONCLUSION In our study, we have found that stage-2 hypertensive patients have higher BMI, serum urea and creatinine than stage-1

  16. Novel cellulose ester substrates for high performance flat-sheet thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ong, Rui Chin; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung; de Wit, Jos S.; Helmer, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    and seawater desalination with high performance. The performance of TFC-FO membranes prepared from the hydrophilic cellulose ester containing a high degree of OH and a moderate degree of Pr substitutions clearly surpasses those prepared from cellulose esters

  17. Leptin Mediate High Fat Diet Sensitization of Angiotensin II-elicited Hypertension by Upregulating the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhongming; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Felder, Robert B.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased circulating levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, which can increase sympathetic nerve activity and raise blood pressure. A previous study revealed that rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) have an enhanced hypertensive response to subsequent angiotensin (Ang) II administration that is mediated at least in part by increased activity of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). The present study tested whether leptin mediates this HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension by interacting with brain RAS and PICs mechanisms. Rats fed a HFD for 3 weeks had significant increases in white adipose tissue mass, plasma leptin levels and mRNA expression of leptin and its receptors in the lamina terminalis (LT) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Central infusion of a leptin receptor antagonist during HFD feeding abolished HFD sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension. Furthermore, central infusion of leptin mimicked the sensitizing action of HFD. Concomitant central infusions of the AT1-R antagonist irbesartan, the TNF-α synthesis inhibitor pentoxifylline, or the inhibitor of microglial activation minocycline prevented the sensitization produced by central infusion of leptin. RT-PCR analysis indicated that either HFD or leptin administration upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the RAS and PICs in the LT and PVN. The leptin antagonist and the inhibitors of AT1-R, TNF-α synthesis and microglial activation all reversed the expression of these genes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by leptin through upregulation of central RAS and PICs. PMID:27021010

  18. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  19. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  20. Hypertension in Patients with Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vinicius Barbosa de; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade, E-mail: wolney@cardiol.br [Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  1. Hypertension in Patients with Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vinicius Barbosa de; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

  2. Does exercise pulmonary hypertension exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund M; Chemla, Denis; Whyte, Kenneth; Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst; Herve, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension using a mean pulmonary artery pressure threshold of greater than 30 mmHg was abandoned following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008, as this definition was not supported by evidence and healthy individuals frequently exceed this threshold. Meanwhile, the clinical value of exercise pulmonary hemodynamic testing has also been questioned. Recent data support the notion that an abnormal pulmonary hemodynamic response during exercise (or exercise pulmonary hypertension) is associated with symptoms and exercise limitation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the development of exercise pulmonary hypertension include increased vascular resistance, excessive elevation in left atrial pressure and/or increased volume of trapped air during exercise, resulting in a steep rise in pulmonary artery pressure relative to cardiac output. Recent evidence suggests that exercise pulmonary hypertension may be defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure surpassing 30 mmHg together with a simultaneous total pulmonary resistance exceeding 3 WU. Exercise pulmonary hypertension is a clinically relevant entity and an improved definition has been suggested based on new evidence. Exercise pulmonary hemodynamics may help unmask early or latent disease, particularly in populations that are at high risk for the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Evaluation of interlocking bond strength between structured 1.0338 steel sheets and high pressure die cast AlMg5Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-material components open up new possibilities for functional design. Such components combine beneficial physical properties of different materials in a single component as for instance chemical resistance, high strength or low density. The challenge is a reliable bond between both materials to enable a long term usage. This paper deals with a form closure connection to ensure a solid connection between steel strips and high pressure die cast aluminium. Two different sizes of channel structures with width ratios of 1.0 and 1.35 are produced on a steel sheet. An ensuing flat rolling pass is performed to create undercuts with a width of up to 50 µm, enabling an interlocking of the molten aluminium in the concluding casting process. For both rolling processes the resulting geometry is analysed depending on the thickness reduction. In a subsequent high pressure die casting process, aluminium is applied resulting in a complete form filling for the coarser structure. Comparing structures with and without undercuts, only structures suited with undercuts remain gap-free after solidification contraction. The finer structure could not be filled completely; nevertheless these structures result in shear strength of up to 45 MPa transversal to the channel-direction.

  4. Neonatal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-03-01

    Neonatal hypertension (HT) is a frequently under reported condition and is seen uncommonly in the intensive care unit. Neonatal HT has defined arbitrarily as blood pressure more than 2 standard deviations above the base as per the age or defined as systolic BP more than 95% for infants of similar size, gestational age and postnatal age. It has been diagnosed long back but still is the least studied field in neonatology. There is still lack of universally accepted normotensive data for neonates as per gestational age, weight and post-natal age. Neonatal HT is an important morbidity that needs timely detection and appropriate management, as it can lead to devastating short-term effect on various organs and also poor long-term adverse outcomes. There is no consensus yet about the treatment guidelines and majority of treatment protocols are based on the expert opinion. Neonate with HT should be evaluated in detail starting from antenatal, perinatal, post-natal history, and drug intake by neonate and mother. This review article covers multiple aspects of neonatal hypertension like definition, normotensive data, various etiologies and methods of BP measurement, clinical features, diagnosis and management.

  5. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  6. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  7. A focus on paediatric hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Bassareo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension can begin early in childhood, as occasional increases in blood pressure or abnormal blood pressure responses to physical or emotional stress. High blood pressure in juvenile age is defined as a blood pressure repeatedly above the 95th percentile of specific nomograms. Its worldwide prevalence ranges from 1% to about 10%. The purpose of this paper is to perform an overview about characteristics, diagnosis, risk factors, therapy, and prognosis of paediatric hypertension.

  8. Determination of accurate 1H positions of an alanine tripeptide with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures by high resolution 1H solid state NMR and GIPAW chemical shift calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Koji; Suzuki, Furitsu; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ohata, Takuya; Aoki, Akihiro; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Kaji, Hironori; Shimizu, Tadashi; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2012-11-25

    The accurate (1)H positions of alanine tripeptide, A(3), with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures could be determined by highly resolved (1)H DQMAS solid-state NMR spectra and (1)H chemical shift calculation with gauge-including projector augmented wave calculations.

  9. Thermal design and validation of radiation detector for the ChubuSat-2 micro-satellite with high-thermal-conductive graphite sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeil; Miyata, Kikuko; Nagano, Hosei

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes thermal design of the radiation detector (RD) for the ChubuSat-2 with the use of high-thermal-conductive materials. ChubuSat-2 satellite is a 50-kg-class micro-satellite joint development with Nagoya University and aerospace companies. The main mission equipment of ChubuSat-2 is a RD to observe neutrons and gamma rays. However, the thermal design of the RD encounters a serious problem, such as no heater for RD and electric circuit alignment constrain. To solve this issue, the RD needs a new thermal design and thermal control for successful space missions. This paper proposes high-thermal-conductive graphite sheets to be used as a flexible radiator fin for the RD. Before the fabrication of the device, the optimal thickness and surface area for the flexible radiator fin were determined by thermal analysis. Consequently, the surface area of flexible radiator fin was determined to be 8.6×104 mm2. To verify the effects of the flexible radiator fin, we constructed a verification model and analyzed the temperature distributions in the RD. Also, the thermal vacuum test was performed using a thermal vacuum chamber, which was evacuated at a pressure of around 10-4 Pa, and its internal temperature was cooled at -80 °C by using a refrigerant. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the flexible radiator fin is effective. And the thermal vacuum test results are presented good correlation with the analysis results.

  10. Optimized Flow Sheet for a Reference Commercial-Scale Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; E. A. Harvego; J. S. Herring

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results from the development and optimization of a reference commercial scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.176 - 10 6 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm-cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 49.07% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.45 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. The information presented in this report is intended to establish an optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant so that parameters can be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics

  11. Energy-switching potential energy surface for the water molecule revisited: A highly accurate singled-sheeted form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, B R L; Rodrigues, S P J; Varandas, A J C

    2008-07-28

    A global ab initio potential energy surface is proposed for the water molecule by energy-switching/merging a highly accurate isotope-dependent local potential function reported by Polyansky et al. [Science 299, 539 (2003)] with a global form of the many-body expansion type suitably adapted to account explicitly for the dynamical correlation and parametrized from extensive accurate multireference configuration interaction energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The new function mimics also the complicated Sigma/Pi crossing that arises at linear geometries of the water molecule.

  12. Physician perception of blood pressure control and treatment behavior in high-risk hypertensive patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Banegas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We examined physician perception of blood pressure control and treatment behavior in patients with previous cardiovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension as defined by European Guidelines. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 321 primary care physicians throughout Spain consecutively studied 1,614 patients aged ≥18 years who had been diagnosed and treated for hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg, and had suffered a documented cardiovascular event. The mean value of three blood pressure measurements taken using standardized procedures was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Mean blood pressure was 143.4/84.9 mmHg, and only 11.6% of these cardiovascular patients were controlled according to 2007 European Guidelines for Hypertension Management target of <130/80 mmHg. In 702 (49.2% of the 1426 uncontrolled patients, antihypertensive medication was not changed, and in 480 (68.4% of these cases this was due to the physicians judgment that blood pressure was adequately controlled. In 320 (66.7% of the latter patients, blood pressure was 130-139/80-89 mmHg. Blood pressure level was the main factor associated (inversely with no change in treatment due to physician perception of adequate control, irrespective of sociodemographic and clinical factors. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians do not change antihypertensive treatment in many uncontrolled cardiovascular patients because they considered it unnecessary, especially when the BP values are only slightly above the guideline target. It is possible that the guidelines may be correct, but there is also the possibility that the care by the physicians is appropriate since BP <130/80 mmHg is hard to achieve, and recent reviews suggest there is insufficient evidence to support such a low BP target.

  13. Detection of high-sensitivity troponin in outpatients with stable pulmonary hypertension identifies a subgroup at higher risk of adverse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K; McCullagh, Brian N; Segurado, Ricardo; McGorrian, Catherine; Keane, Elizabeth; Keaney, John; Fitzgibbon, Maria N; Mahon, Niall G; Murray, Patrick T; Gaine, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    The detection of elevations in cardiorenal biomarkers, such as troponins, B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalins, are associated with poor outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure. Less is known about the association of these markers with adverse events in chronic right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary hypertension, or whether their measurement may improve risk assessment in the outpatient setting. We performed a cohort study of 108 patients attending the National Pulmonary Hypertension Unit in Dublin, Ireland, from 2007 to 2009. Cox proportional hazards analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine predictors of mortality and hospitalization. Death or hospitalization occurred in 50 patients (46.3%) during the median study period of 4.1 years. Independent predictors of mortality were: 1) decreasing 6-minute walk test (6MWT; hazard ratio [HR] 12.8; P < .001); 2) BNP (HR 6.68; P < .001); and 3) highly sensitive troponin (hsTnT; HR 5.48; P < .001). Adjusted hazard analyses remained significant when hsTnT was added to a model with BNP and 6MWT (HR 9.26, 95% CI 3.61-23.79), as did the predictive ability of the model for death and rehospitalization (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.90). Detection of troponin using a highly sensitive assay identifies a pulmonary hypertension subgroup with a poorer prognosis. hsTnT may also be used in a risk prediction model to identify patients at higher risk who may require escalation of targeted pulmonary vasodilator therapies and closer clinical surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Late evaluation of the relationship between morphological and functional renal changes and hypertension after non-operative treatment of high-grade renal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Júnior Gerson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the anatomical and functional renal alterations and the association with post-traumatic arterial hypertension. Methods The studied population included patients who sustained high grades renal injury (grades III to V successfully non-operative management after staging by computed tomography over a 16-year period. Beyond the review of medical records, these patients were invited to the following protocol: clinical and laboratory evaluation, abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, DMSA renal scintigraphy, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The hypertensive patients also were submitted to dynamic renal scintigraphy (99mTc EC, using captopril stimulation to verify renal vascular etiology. Results Of the 31 patients, there were thirteen grade III, sixteen grade IV (nine lacerations, and seven vascular lesions, and two grade V injuries. All the patients were asymptomatic and an average follow up post-injury of 6.4 years. None had abnormal BUN or seric creatinine. The percentage of renal volume reduction correlates with the severity as defined by OIS. There was no evidence of renal artery stenosis in Magnetic Resonance angiography (MRA. DMSA scanning demonstrated a decline in percentage of total renal function corresponding to injury severity (42.2 ± 5.5% for grade III, 35.3 ± 12.8% for grade IV, 13.5 ± 19.1 for grade V. Six patients (19.4% had severe compromised function ( Conclusions Late results of renal function after conservative treatment of high grades renal injuries are favorable, except for patients with grades IV with vascular injuries and grade V renal injuries. Moreover, arterial hypertension does not correlate with the grade of renal injury or reduction of renal function.

  15. Impact of gestational diabetes mellitus and high maternal weight on the development of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease: a population-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, P; Savu, A; Nerenberg, K A; Donovan, L E; Chik, C L; Ryan, E A; Johnson, J A

    2015-02-01

    To examine the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and high maternal weight and the risk of development of chronic disease. Women with singleton deliveries between April 1999 and March 2010 in Alberta, Canada, were categorized according to pre-pregnancy weight (overweight ≥ 91 kg) and GDM status. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes, as well as the long-term incidence of maternal diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease were examined. Of 240 083 women, 213 765 (89%) had no GDM and were not overweight (reference group), 17 587 (7.3%) were overweight only, 7332 (3%) had GDM only and 1399 (0.6%) had GDM and were overweight. Significant differences in Caesarean section rates, induction rates and birthweight were observed across the four groups. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, diabetes incidence was 36% in the GDM and overweight, 18.8% in the GDM only, 4.8% in the overweight only and 1.1% in the reference group. With respect to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the GDM and overweight group had the highest rates (26.8% and 3.1%, respectively) and the reference group had the lowest rates (5.8% and 1.0%, respectively). However, rates were similar in the GDM only (14.9% and 1.9%, respectively) and overweight only groups (14.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Not surprisingly, the presence of both high maternal weight and GDM compounds the risk of developing diabetes. However, the association between overweight alone and GDM alone and hypertension and cardiovascular disease appears similar suggesting a need for effective interventions to manage both these conditions to improve the health of these patients. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  16. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  17. Prevalence of high altitude pulmonary hypertension among the natives of Spiti Valley--a high altitude region in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Prakash Chand; Marwaha, Rajeev; Asotra, Sanjeev; Kandoria, Arvind; Ganju, Neeraj; Sharma, Rajesh; Kumar, Ravi V; Bhardwaj, Rajeev

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) and its predisposing factors among natives of Spiti Valley. A cross-sectional survey study was done on the permanent natives of Spiti Valley residing at an altitude of 3000 m to 4200 m. Demographic characteristics, health behavior, anthropometrics, and blood pressure were recorded. Investigations included recording of 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG), SaO2 with pulse oximeter, spirometry and echocardiography study, and measurement of Hb levels using the cynmethhemoglobin method. HAPH was diagnosed using criteria; tricuspid regurgitation (TR) gradient of ≥46 mmHg. ECG evidence of RV overload on 12 lead ECG was documented based on presence of 2 out of 3 criteria; R>S in V1, right axis deviation or RV strain, T wave inversion in V1 and V2. Data of 1087 subjects were analyzed who were free of cardiorespiratory diseases to determine the prevalence of HAPH and its predisposing factors. HAPH was recorded in 3.23% (95% C.I. of 0.9-8.1%) and ECG evidence of right ventricular (RV) overload was 1.5% in the study population. Prevalence of HAPH was not different in men and women 2.63% vs. 3.54% p<0.2. Age (Z statistics of 3.4 p<0.0006), hypoxemia (Z statistics of 2.9 p<0.002), and erythrocythemia (Z statistics of 4.7 p<0.003) were independently associated with HAPH. Altitude of residence was not found to be significantly associated with HAPH, although there was a trend of increasing prevalence with increasing altitude. It can be concluded that HAPH is prevalent in 3.23% of natives of Spiti Valley. Increasing age, erythrocythemia and hypoxemia are independent predisposing factors.

  18. Diabetes and hypertension markedly increased the risk of ischemic stroke associated with high serum resistin concentration in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Ryoichi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. The relationship between resistin and coronary artery disease is highly controversial, and the information regarding resistin and ischemic stroke is limited. In the present study, the association between serum resistin concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD was investigated in a general Japanese population. Methods A total of 3,201 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or older (1,382 men and 1,819 women were divided into quintiles of serum resistin, and the association between resistin and CVD was examined cross-sectionally. The combined effect of either diabetes or hypertension and high serum resistin was also assessed. Serum resistin was measured using ELISA. Results Compared to those without CVD, age- and sex-adjusted mean serum resistin concentrations were greater in subjects with CVD (p = 0.002 or ischemic stroke (p Conclusion Elevated serum resistin concentration appears to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, especially lacunar and atherothrombotic infarction in the general Japanese population. The combination of high resistin and the presence of either diabetes or hypertension increased the risk of ischemic stroke.

  19. Does being under treatment improve knowledge attitude practice for hypertension: A hospital-based study from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies suggest that approximately half of patients with raised blood pressure (BP are undetected, that half of those detected are not treated, and that half of those treated are not controlled, famously described as the “rule of halves.” Importantly, the cornerstone of the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases is early detection and drug treatment (antihypertensive of patients with high BP. Studies across populations in developed world have shown that awareness and management of high BP levels are far from optimal. The present study was planned with the aim to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP regarding hypertension in hypertensive patients visiting Tertiary Care Hospital in North-West India. Materials and Methods: Already diagnosed hypertensive patients seeking care at the tertiary care center were selected for this study. The participants were recruited using consecutive sampling technique. All participants were interviewed with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire after obtaining a written informed consent. The components of the KAP were recorded using a score sheet. Results: In all, 394 hypertensive patients of whom majority (239/394; 61% were males, were included in the study. The KAP score among the study subjects was 88.4%, 90.83%, and 95.83%, respectively. Males had higher knowledge about normal BP levels which was statistically significant (P < 0.01. Among the attitude, regular intake of anti-hypertensive drugs, regular investigations, lifestyle changes, avoidance of salt and allopathic medicines being the best for the treatment of hypertension were found to be significant statistically (P < 0.01. Conclusion: The high score among the study population can be attributed to the fact that all study participants were diagnosed patients of hypertension seeking care in a tertiary care hospital.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Recent Snow Accumulation Across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Using Ultra-High Frequency Radar and Shallow Firn Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, D. G.; Rupper, S.; Forster, R. R.; Miège, C.; Brewer, S.; Koenig, L.

    2017-12-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) could be a substantial source of future sea level rise, with 3+ meters of potential increase stored in the ice sheet. Adequate predictions of WAIS contributions, however, depend on well-constrained surface mass balance estimates for the region. Given the sparsity of available data, such estimates are tenuous. Although new data are periodically added, further research (both to collect more data and better utilize existing data) is critical to addressing these issues. Here we present accumulation data from 9 shallow firn cores and 600 km of Ku band radar traces collected as part of the Satellite Era Antarctic Traverse (SEAT) 2011/2012 field season. Using these data, combined with similar data collected during the SEAT 2010/2011 field season, we investigate the spatial variability in accumulation across the WAIS Divide and surrounding regions. We utilize seismic interpretation and 3D visualization tools to investigate the extent and variations of laterally continuous internal horizons in the radar profiles, and compare the results to nearby firn cores. Previous results show that clearly visible, laterally continuous horizons in radar returns in this area do not always represent annual accumulation isochrones, but can instead represent multi-year or sub-annual events. The automated application of Bayesian inference techniques to averaged estimates of multiple adjacent radar traces, however, can estimate annually-resolved independent age-depth scales for these radar data. We use these same automated techniques on firn core isotopic records to infer past snow accumulation rates, allowing a direct comparison with the radar-derived results. Age-depth scales based on manual annual-layer counting of geochemical and isotopic species from these same cores provide validation for the automated approaches. Such techniques could theoretically be applied to additional radar/core data sets in polar regions (e.g. Operation IceBridge), thereby

  1. Managing hypertension by polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Camps, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Some polyphenols, obtained from plants of broad use, induce a favorable endothelial response in hypertension and beneficial effects in the management of other metabolic cardiovascular risks. Previous studies in our laboratories using the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa as a source of polyphenols show that significant effects on hypertension are noticeable in humans only when provided in high amounts. Available data are suggestive in animal models and ex vivo experiments, but data in humans are difficult to acquire. Additionally, and despite the low bioavailability of polyphenols, intervention studies provide evidence for the protective effects of secondary plant metabolites. Assumptions on public health benefits are limited by the lack of scientific knowledge, robust data derived from large randomized clinical trials, and an accurate assessment of the bioactive components provided by common foodstuff. Because it is likely that clinical effects are the result of multiple interactions among different polyphenols rather than the isolated action of unique compounds, to provide polyphenol-rich botanical extracts as dietary supplements is a suggestive option. Unfortunately, the lack of patent perspectives for the pharmaceutical industries and the high cost of production and release for alimentary industries will hamper the performance of the necessary clinical trials. Here we briefly discuss whether and how such limitations may complicate the extensive use of plant-derived products in the management of hypertension and which steps are the necessary to deal with the predictable complexity in a possible clinical practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. High Sensitive and Selective Sensing of Hydrogen Peroxide Released from Pheochromocytoma Cells Based on Pt-Au Bimetallic Nanoparticles Electrodeposited on Reduced Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxia Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a high sensitive and selective hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 sensor was successfully constructed with Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles (Pt-Au NPs/reduced graphene sheets (rGSs hybrid films. Various molar ratios of Au to Pt and different electrodeposition conditions were evaluated to control the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles. Upon optimal conditions, wide linear ranges from 1 µM to 1.78 mM and 1.78 mM to 16.8 mM were obtained, with a detection limit as low as 0.31 µM. Besides, due to the synergetic effects of the bimetallic NPs and rGSs, the amperometric H2O2 sensor could operate at a low potential of 0 V. Under this potential, not only common anodic interferences induced from ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine, but also the cathodic interference induced from endogenous O2 could be effectively avoided. Furthermore, with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12 as model, the proposed sensor had been successfully used in the detection of H2O2 released from the cancer cells. This method with wide linear ranges and excellent selectivity can provide a promising alternative for H2O2 monitoring in vivo in the fields of physiology, pathology and diagnosis.

  3. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  4. Hypertension in women

    OpenAIRE

    Hage, Fadi G; Mansur, Sulaf J; Xing, Dongqi; Oparil, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in both men and women. The prevalence and severity of hypertension rise markedly with age, and blood pressure control becomes more difficult with aging in both genders, particularly in women. In addition, there are forms of hypertension that occur exclusively in women, e.g., hypertension related to menopause, oral contraceptive use, or pregnancy (e.g., chronic hypertension, gestationa...

  5. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  6. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  7. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  8. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  9. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  10. [Hypertension during pregnancy: Epidemiology, definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy has several forms that differ by their mechanisms and their consequences for mothers and fetus. Chronic hypertension is defined by SBP≥140mm Hg or DBP≥90mm Hg before pregnancy or before the 20th week of amenorrhea. Gestational hypertension is defined by SBP≥140mm Hg or DBP≥90mm Hg during or after the 20th week of amenorrhea. Preeclampsia is the occurrence of hypertension and proteinuria after 20weeks of amenorrhea. Severe preeclampsia is accompanied by clinical signs and symptoms indicating visceral pain. The HELLP syndrome is a severe preeclampsia accompanied by intravascular hemolysis and hepatic cytolysis. Eclampsia is characterized by seizures of the tonic-clonic type. A chronic hypertension is observed in 1-5% of pregnancies. Gestational hypertension without proteinuria appears in 5-6% of pregnancies. A preeclampsia develops in 1-2% of pregnancies, but much more frequently (up 34%) in the presence of risk factors. High blood pressure during pregnancy remains, by its complications, the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Systolic hypertension in adult nigerians with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opadijo, O.G.; Salami, T.A.T.; Sanya, E.O.; Omotoso, A.B.O.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of both systolic and diastolic hypertensions in relation to age and their impacts on target organ among adult Nigerians with hypertension. Newly diagnosed adult hypertensives, with blood pressure 140/90mm Hg, taken twice with mercury column sphygmomanometer at 3 weeks interval, were studied. The total number of hypertensive patients treated over this period was also taken into consideration. The newly diagnosed hypertensives were classified using JNC VI classification. The frequency of occurrence of target organ damage such as Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH), heart failure, renal impairment etc. was charted according to systolic and or diastolic pressures. The occurrence of systolic or diastolic blood pressure was also related with the age of the patients. Blood metabolic parameters were compared in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures for their possible contributory role. Two thousand seven hundred and ninety-two adult hypertensive patients were managed over the study period. Of them, 218 (7.8%) were newly diagnosed and studied. There were 94 males and 124 females. Seventy-seven (35.3%) were aged 60 years and above with equal frequency in the gender. One hundred and seventy-eight (81.7%) cases had combined systolic and diastolic pressures. Twenty-nine (13.3%) patients had systolic hypertension. Twenty-five (86.2%) of these 29 were aged 50 years and above and 20 (69.0%) were aged 60 years and above. Eleven (5.0%) patients had isolated diastolic hypertension and they were all in the age bracket 40-49 years. Systolic blood pressure was found to be rising with advancing age while diastolic blood pressure peaked at mid 40's and declined. Target organ damage occurred more frequently with systolic hypertension and advancing age than with diastolic hypertension. Systolic hypertension occurred more frequently in this series of adult Nigerians with hypertension. It was higher with advancing age and associated with more target organ

  12. The mechanistic exploration of porous activated graphene sheets-anchored SnO2 nanocrystals for application in high-performance Li-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingchang; Ji, Xiaobo; Lu, Fang; Chen, Qiyuan; Banks, Craig E

    2013-09-28

    Porous activated graphene sheets have been for the first time exploited herein as encapsulating substrates for lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes. The as-fabricated SnO2 nanocrystals-porous activated graphene sheet (AGS) composite electrode exhibits improved electrochemical performance as an anode material for LIBs, such as better cycle performance and higher rate capability in comparison with graphene sheets, activated graphene sheets, bare SnO2 and SnO2-graphene sheet composites. The superior electrochemical performances of the designed anode can be ascribed to the porous AGS substrate, which improves the electrical conductivity of the electrode, inhibits agglomeration between particles and effectively buffers the strain from the volume variation during Li(+)-intercalation-de-intercalation and provides more cross-plane diffusion channels for Li(+) ions. As a result, the designed anode exhibits an outstanding capacity of up to 610 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles and a good rate performance of 889, 747, 607, 482 and 372 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 mA g(-1), respectively. This work is of importance for energy storage as it provides a new substrate for the design and implementation of next-generation LIBs exhibiting exceptional electrochemical performances.

  13. [Resistant hypertension: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, N F

    2018-02-04

    An estimated 10% to 20% of hypertensive patients could be considered resistant to treatment (RH). These are patients who are not controlled using three drugs, at the maximum tolerated doses, including a diuretic, as well as those with high blood pressure controlled using four or more drugs. The term is used to identify patients that might benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic consideration. The term 'refractory hypertension' has recently been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure. It refers to patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximum treatment. The first studies of this phenotype indicate that it is rare and affects less than 5% of patients with RH. Adherence to or compliance with medical treatment is key to defining resistant hypertension. Closer attention has been paid to clinical and experimental research since the first scientific statement for the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of RH from the American Heart Association, and in the European guidelines, was published in 2008. This review will set out the concepts relating to prevalence, prognosis and compliance and cover the latest developments on this subject. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  15. Muon Excess at Sea Level during the Progress of a Geomagnetic Storm and High-Speed Stream Impact Near the Time of Earth's Heliospheric Sheet Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Navia, C. E.; de Oliveira, M. N.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Kopenkin, V.; Sinzi, T.

    2017-08-01

    In this article we present results of studying the association between the muon flux variation at ground level, registered by the New-Tupi muon telescopes (22° 53'00'' S, 43° 06'13' W; 3 m above sea level), and the geomagnetic storm on 25 - 29 August 2015 that has raged for several days as a result of a coronal mass ejection (CME) impact on Earth's magnetosphere. A sequence of events started with an M3.5 X-ray class flare on 22 August 2015 at 21:19 UTC. The New-Tupi muon telescopes observed a Forbush decrease (FD) triggered by this geomagnetic storm, which began on 26 August 2015. After Earth crossed the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), an increase in particle flux was observed on 28 August 2015 by spacecraft and ground-level detectors. The observed peak was in temporal coincidence with the impact of a high-speed stream (HSS). We study this increase, which has been observed with a significance above 1.5% by ground-level detectors in different rigidity regimes. We also estimate the lower limit of the energy fluence injected on Earth. In addition, we consider the origin of this increase, such as acceleration of particles by shock waves at the front of the HSS and the focusing effect of the HCS crossing. Our results show possible evidence of a prolonged energetic (up to GeV energies) particle injection within the Earth atmosphere system, driven by the HSS. In most cases, these injected particles are directed to the polar regions. However, the particles from the high-energy tail of the spectrum can reach mid-latitudes, and this could have consequences for the atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the creation of NOx species may be enhanced, and this can lead to increased ozone depletion. This topic requires further study.

  16. New therapies for arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Beniamino; Santolamazza, Caterina; Rubattu, Speranza; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Arterial hypertension is the most common chronic disease in developed countries and it is the leading risk factor for stroke, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure and peripheral artery disease. Its prevalence appears to be about 30-45% of the general population. Recent European guidelines estimate that up to 15-20% of the hypertensive patients are not controlled on a dual antihypertensive combination and they require three or more different antihypertensive drug classes to achieve adequate blood pressure control. The guidelines confirmed that diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are suitable for the initiation and maintenance of antihypertensive treatment, either as monotherapy or in combination therapy. Very few antihypertensive agents have reached the market over the last few years, but no new therapeutic class has really emerged. The long-term adherence to cardiovascular drugs is still low in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the issue of compliance is persistently high in hypertension, despite the fixed-dose combination therapy. As a consequence, a cohort of high-risk hypertensive population, represented by patients affected by refractory and resistant hypertension, can be identified. Therefore, the need of controlling BP in high-risk patients may be addressed, in part, by the development of new drugs, devices and procedures that are designed to treat hypertension and comorbidities. In this review we will comprehensively discuss the current literature on recent therapeutic advances in hypertension, including both medical therapy and interventional procedures.

  17. Microalbuminuria and sRAGE in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients Treated with Nifedipine/Telmisartan Combination Treatment: A Substudy of TALENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colomba Falcone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some antihypertensive drugs have also renoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that go beyond their effect on blood pressure. It has been suggested that microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR are associated with circulating levels of the soluble form of the receptor, sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycation ends-products. In the present analysis, we used data from the TALENT study to evaluate soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE plasma levels in patients with hypertension and high-cardiovascular risk-treated nifedipine and telmisartan in combination. Treatment with nifedipine-telmisartan significantly decreased mean systolic and diastolic ambulatory blood pressure and resulted in a significant increase in sRAGE plasma concentrations after 24 weeks of therapy. We concluded that in hypertensive patients with early-stage renal disease, sRAGE concentrations are not influenced by either microalbuminuria or GFR. Long-term treatment with a combination of nifedipine-telmisartan may have a beneficial effect increasing sRAGE plasma levels, thus exerting an atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  19. Current epidemiology of hypertension in Port Harcourt metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current epidemiology of hypertension in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State ... the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital formed the cohort for this study. ... is high and only a small fraction of hypertensives are aware of their condition.

  20. Preparation of high bioactivity multilayered bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets for myocardial infarction using a 3D-dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingwei; Zhang, Jianhua; Qin, Zixi; Fan, Zepei; Lu, Cheng; Chen, Baoxin; Zhao, Jupeng; Li, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Fei; Lin, Xi; Wu, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Cell sheet techniques offer a promising future for myocardial infarction (MI) therapy; however, insufficient nutrition supply remains the major limitation in maintaining stem cell bioactivity in vitro. In order to enhance cell sheet mechanical strength and bioactivity, a decellularized porcine pericardium (DPP) scaffold was prepared by the phospholipase A2 method, and aspartic acid was used as a spacer arm to improve the vascular endothelial growth factor crosslink efficiency on the DPP scaffold. Based on this scaffold, multilayered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets were rapidly constructed, using RAD16-I peptide hydrogel as a temporary 3D scaffold, and cell sheets were cultured in either the 3D-dynamic system (DCcs) or the traditional static condition (SCcs). The multilayered structure, stem cell bioactivity, and ultrastructure of DCcs and SCcs were assessed. The DCcs exhibited lower apoptosis, lower differentiation, and an improved paracrine effect after a 48 h culture in vitro compared to the SCcs. Four groups were set to evaluate the cell sheet effect in rat MI model: sham group, MI control group, DCcs group, and SCcs group. The DCcs group improved cardiac function and decreased the infarcted area compared to the MI control group, while no significant improvements were observed in the SCcs group. Improved cell survival, angiogenesis, and Sca-1 + cell and c-kit + cell amounts were observed in the DCcs group. In conclusion, the DCcs maintained higher stem cell bioactivity by using the 3D-dynamic system to provide sufficient nutrition, and transplanting DCcs significantly improved the cardiac function and angiogenesis. This study provides an efficient method to prepare vascular endothelial growth factor covalent decellularized pericardium scaffold with aspartic acid, and a multilayered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheet is constructed on it using a 3D-dynamic system. The dynamic nutrition supply showed a significant benefit on BMSC bioactivity

  1. Hydro mechanical deep-drawing and high pressure sheet metal forming as forming technologies for the production of complex parts made of magnesium sheet metal AZ31B-0; Hydromechanisches Tiefziehen und Hochdruckblechumformung als Verfahren zur Herstellung komplexer Bauteile aus Magnesiumfeinblechen des Typs AZ31B-0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehweger, B.; Richter, G.; Duering, M.; Karabet, A. [Lehrstuhlleiter, BTU Cottbus, Lehrstuhl Konstruktion und Fertigung, Konrad-Wachsmann Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Sviridov, A.; Hartmann, H.; Richter, U. [Forschungs- und Qualitaetszentrum Oderbruecke gGmbH Eisenhuettenstadt (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Semi - finished sheet - metal products made of magnesium alloys such as AZ31B are known as better deformable at temperatures in the range of 175 C - 240 C. By means of hydroforming technologies, as there are hydro mechanical deep-drawing and high pressure sheet metal forming, the influence of different forming parameters on the forming results has been investigated. A more complex experimental geometry was deformed applying forming temperatures of 175 C, 200 C, 225 C and 240 C and accordingly adjusted forces of the blank holder. Concerning the applied forming - methods and experimental parameters the forming results have been evaluated and compared regarding the decrease of sheet thickness and the development of small radii. For some experimental parts, which have been deformed by means of high pressure sheet metal forming at temperatures of 175 C and 225 C, supplementary investigations have been carried out in order to determine the evolution of characteristic surface values in dependence on the forming operation. On the basis of these results practical recommendations for the limits of application of aforementioned forming technologies for AZ31B-0 magnesium sheet metal are given. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Eine gute Umformbarkeit von Blechhalbzeugen aus Magnesiumknetlegierungen stellt sich bekanntlich bei Anwendung von Umformtemperaturen im Bereich von 175 C - 240 C ein. Anhand der wirkmedienbasierten Umformverfahren hydromechanisches Tiefziehen und Hochdruckblechumformung ist an handelsueblichen AZ31B-0 Feinblechen die Einstellung unterschiedlicher Umformparameter erprobt worden. Unter Verwendung von Umformtemperaturen von 175 C, 200 C, 225 C und 240 C und entsprechend angepassten Niederhalterdruecken ist eine praxisnahe Versuchsgeometrie ''Minihood'' ausgeformt worden. Im Hinblick auf angewendete Umformverfahren und Versuchsparameter wurde an den Versuchsbauteilen die Blechdickenabnahme und die

  2. Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheets by Rectangular Mechanical Clinching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Mori, K.; Kato, T.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanical clinching has the advantage of low running costs. However, the joint strength is not high. To improve the maximum load of the joined sheets by a mechanical clinching, square and rectangular mechanical clinching were introduced. In the mechanical clinching, the two sheets are mechanically joined by forming an interlock between the lower and upper sheets by the punch and die. The joined length with the interlock was increased by the rectangular punch and die. The deforming behaviours of the sheets in the mechanical clinching were investigated, and then the interlock in the sheets had distribution in the circumference of the projection. Although the interlocks were formed in both projection side and diagonal, the interlock in the diagonal was smaller because of the long contact length between the lower sheet and the die cavity surface. The maximum load of the joined sheets by the rectangular mechanical clinching was two times larger than the load by the round mechanical clinching.

  3. What Is IH (Intracranial Hypertension)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Store What is IH? What is IH? Intracranial hypertension literally means that the pressure of cerebrospinal fluid ( ... is too high. “Intracranial” means “within the skull.” “Hypertension” means “high fluid pressure.” To understand how this ...

  4. Wealth and cardiovascular health: a cross-sectional study of wealth-related inequalities in the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in high-, middle- and low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Benjamin; McKee, Martin; Balabanova, Dina; AlHabib, Khalid F; Avezum, Alvaro Jr; Bahonar, Ahmad; Ismail, Noorhassim; Chifamba, Jephat; Chow, Clara K; Corsi, Daniel J; Dagenais, Gilles R; Diaz, Rafael; Gupta, Rajeev; Iqbal, Romaina; Kaur, Manmeet; Khatib, Rasha; Kruger, Annamarie; Kruger, Iolanthe Marike; Lanas, Fernando; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Minfan, Fu; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mony, Prem K; Oguz, Aytekin; Palileo-Villanueva, Lia M; Perel, Pablo; Poirier, Paul; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Rensheng, Lei; Rosengren, Annika; Soman, Biju; Stuckler, David; Subramanian, S V; Teo, Koon; Tsolekile, Lungiswa P; Wielgosz, Andreas; Yaguang, Peng; Yeates, Karen; Yongzhen, Mo; Yusoff, Khalid; Yusuf, Rita; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-12-08

    Effective policies to control hypertension require an understanding of its distribution in the population and the barriers people face along the pathway from detection through to treatment and control. One key factor is household wealth, which may enable or limit a household's ability to access health care services and adequately control such a chronic condition. This study aims to describe the scale and patterns of wealth-related inequalities in the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in 21 countries using baseline data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study. A cross-section of 163,397 adults aged 35 to 70 years were recruited from 661 urban and rural communities in selected low-, middle- and high-income countries (complete data for this analysis from 151,619 participants). Using blood pressure measurements, self-reported health and household data, concentration indices adjusted for age, sex and urban-rural location, we estimate the magnitude of wealth-related inequalities in the levels of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in each of the 21 country samples. Overall, the magnitude of wealth-related inequalities in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control was observed to be higher in poorer than in richer countries. In poorer countries, levels of hypertension awareness and treatment tended to be higher among wealthier households; while a similar pro-rich distribution was observed for hypertension control in countries at all levels of economic development. In some countries, hypertension awareness was greater among the poor (Sweden, Argentina, Poland), as was treatment (Sweden, Poland) and control (Sweden). Inequality in hypertension management outcomes decreased as countries became richer, but the considerable variation in patterns of wealth-related inequality - even among countries at similar levels of economic development - underscores the importance of health systems in improving hypertension management for all

  5. Influence of Mg doping on ZnO nanoparticles decorated on graphene oxide (GO) crumpled paper like sheet and its high photo catalytic performance under sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhane, P. K.; Sonawane, S. H.; Sonawane, G. H.; Patil, S. P.; Huse, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles decorated on graphene oxide (GO) sheets were synthesized by a wet impregnation method. The effect of Mg doping on ZnO and ZnO-GO composite has been evaluated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Williamson-Hall Plot (Wsbnd H Plot), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The physical parameters of as-prepared samples were estimated by XRD data. FESEM and HR-TEM images showed the uniform distribution of nanoparticles on GO crumpled paper like sheet. Solar light photocatalytic activities of samples were evaluated spectrophotometrically by the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and indigo carmine (IC) solution. Mgsbnd ZnO decorated on GO sheets exhibit excellent catalytic efficiency compared to all other prepared samples under identical conditions, degrading PNP and IC nearly 99% within 60 min under sunlight. The effective degradation by Mgsbnd ZnO decorated on GO sheet would be due to extended solar light absorption, enhanced adsorptivity on the composite catalyst surface and efficient charge separation of photo-induced electrons. Finally, plausible mechanism was suggested with the help of scavengers study.

  6. High performance electrode material for supercapacitors based on α-Co(OH)2 nano-sheets prepared through pulse current cathodic electro-deposition (PC-CED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mustafa; Rashidi, Amir; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the well-defined nano-sheets of α-Co(OH)2 were prepared through the cathodic electrosynthesis from an additive-free aqueous cobalt nitrate bath. The pulse current cathodic electro-deposition (PC-CED) was used as the means for the controlling the OH- electrogeneration on the cathode surface. The characteristics and electrochemical behavior of the prepared cobalt hydroxide were also assessed through SEM, TEM, XRD, BET, and IR. The results proved the product to be composed of crystalline pure α phase of cobalt hydroxide with sheet-like morphology at nanoscale. Evaluations of the electrochemical behaviour of the α-Co(OH)2 nano-sheets revealed that they are capable to delivering the specific capacitance of 1122 F g-1 at a discharge load of 3 A g-1 and SC retention of 84% after 4000 continues discharging cycles, suggesting the nano-sheets as promising candidates for use in electrochemical supercapacitors. Further, the method used for the preparation of the compounds enjoys the capability of being scaled up. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Immunization of rabbits with synthetic peptides derived from a highly conserved β-sheet epitope region underneath the receptor binding site of influenza A virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ideno S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoji Ideno,1,3 Kaoru Sakai,1 Mikihiro Yunoki,2–4 Ritsuko Kubota-Koketsu,3,5 Yuji Inoue,3 Shota Nakamura,6 Teruo Yasunaga,6 Yoshinobu Okuno,5 Kazuyoshi Ikuta3 1Infectious Pathogen Research Section, Central Research Laboratory, Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Kobe, Japan; 2Research and Development Promotion Section, Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Veterinary Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan; 5Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa, Japan; 6Department of Genome Informatics, Genome Information Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan Background: There is increasing concern about the speed with which health care providers can administer prophylaxis and treatment in an influenza pandemic. Generally, it takes several months to manufacture an influenza vaccine by propagation of the virus in chicken eggs or cultured cells. Newer, faster protocols for the production of vaccines that induce broad-spectrum immunity are therefore highly desirable. We previously developed human monoclonal antibody B-1 that shows broadly neutralizing activity against influenza A virus H3N2. B-1 recognizes an epitope region that includes an antiparallel β-sheet structure underneath the receptor binding site of influenza hemagglutinin (HA. In this study, the efficacy of a synthetic peptide vaccine derived from this epitope region against influenza A was evaluated. Materials and methods: Two peptides were synthesized, the upper and lower peptides. These peptides comprise amino acid residues 167–187 and 225–241, respectively, of the B-1 epitope region of HA, which is involved in

  8. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  9. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  10. Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    As the worldwide prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, the primary prevention of hypertension has become an important global public health initiative. Physical activity is commonly recommended as an important lifestyle modification that may aid in the prevention of hypertension. Recent epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated a consistent, temporal, and dose-dependent relationship between physical activity and the development of hypertension. Experimental evidence from interventional studies have further confirmed a relationship between physical activity and hypertension as the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure reduction have been well characterized in recent years. Despite the available evidence strongly supporting a role for physical activity in the prevention of hypertension, many unanswered questions regarding the protective benefits of physical activity in high-risk individuals, the factors that may moderate the relationship between physical activity and hypertension, and the optimal prescription for hypertension prevention remain. We review the most recent evidence for the role of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension and discuss recent studies that have sought to address these unanswered questions. PMID:24052212

  11. The "Pulse Time Index of Norm" highly correlates with the left ventricular mass index in patients with arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posokhov, Igor N; Kulikova, Natalya N; Starchenkova, Irina V; Grigoricheva, Elena A; Evdokimov, Vitaly V; Orlov, Artemy V; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, as measured by the pulse wave velocity (PWV), is recommended for routine use in clinical practice as an important parameter for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk.1 New 24-hour monitors (eg, with Vasotens technology; Petr Telegin Company, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation) provide single PWV measurements as well as several PWV measurements over a period of 24 hours.2 Such 24-hour pulse wave analysis led to the development of the novel Pulse Time Index of Norm (PTIN), which is defined as the percentage of a 24-hour period during which the PWV does not exceed the 10 m/second PWV threshold. The aim of this study is to test the new PTIN for correlation with the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Oscillometrically generated waveform files (n=137) used for clinical research studies were reanalyzed using the new 2013 version of the Vasotens technology program, which enables PTIN calculations. A good correlation (r=-0.72) between the PTIN and the LVMI was shown, which was significantly above the blood pressure load (r=0.41). The PTIN generated by the Vasotens technology can be recommended as an indicator of end organ damage via hypertension.

  12. Hypertensive heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  13. Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/ by guest on June 19, 2018 Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy Ellen W. Seely, MD; Cynthia Maxwell, ... M any women have been diag- nosed with hypertension (blood pressure Ͼ 140/ 90 mm Hg) when ...

  14. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  15. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  16. Maskeret hypertension i graviditeten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Margit Bistrup; Thingaard, Ebbe; Andersen, Anita Sylvest

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of blood pressure is therefore an essential part of prenatal care. Masked hypertension, where blood pressure levels are elevated at home despite normal blood pressure levels...... monitored in a clinical setting, may lead to cardiovascular and obstetric complications equal to those of sustained hypertension. This article discusses masked hypertension and the need for further investigation of blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy....

  17. Maskeret hypertension i graviditeten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Margit Bistrup; Thingaard, Ebbe; Andersen, Anita Sylvest

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of blood pressure is therefore an essential part of prenatal care. Masked hypertension, where blood pressure levels are elevated at home despite normal blood pressure levels monit...... monitored in a clinical setting, may lead to cardiovascular and obstetric complications equal to those of sustained hypertension. This article discusses masked hypertension and the need for further investigation of blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy....

  18. Thermal oxidation induced degradation of carbon fiber reinforced composites and carbon nanotube sheet enhanced fiber/matrix interface for high temperature aerospace structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammad Hamidul

    Recent increase in the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite, especially for high temperature applications in aerospace primary and secondary structures along with wind energy and automotive industries, have generated new challenges to predict its failure mechanisms and service life. This dissertation reports the experimental study of a unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced bismaleimide (BMI) composites (CFRC), an excellent candidate for high temperature aerospace components, undergoing thermal oxidation at 260 °C in air for over 3000 hours. The key focus of the work is to investigate the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber BMI composite subjected to thermal aging in three key aspects - first, studying its bulk flexural properties (in macro scale), second, characterizing the crack propagation along the fiber direction, representing the interfacial bonding strength between fiber and matrix (in micro scale), and third, introducing nano-structured materials to modify the interface (in nano scale) between the carbon fiber and BMI resin and mechanical characterization to study its influence on mitigating the aging effect. Under the first category, weight loss and flexural properties have been monitored as the oxidation propagates through the fiber/matrix interface. Dynamic mechanical analysis and micro-computed tomography analysis have been performed to analyze the aging effects. In the second category, the long-term effects of thermal oxidation on the delamination (between the composite plies) and debonding (between fiber and matrix) type fracture toughness have been characterized by preparing two distinct types of double cantilever beam specimens. Digital image correlation has been used to determine the deformation field and strain distribution around the crack propagation path. Finally the resin system and the fiber/matrix interface have been modified using nanomaterials to mitigate the degradations caused by oxidation. Nanoclay modified

  19. Effects of Acidic Polysaccharides from Gastrodia Rhizome on Systolic Blood Pressure and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Im; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

    2012-01-01

    The effects of acidic polysaccharides purified from Gastrodia rhizome on blood pressure and serum lipid levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Acidic polysaccharides were purified from crude polysaccharides by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. Thirty-six male SHR were randomly divided into three groups: Gastrodia rhizome crude polysaccharide (A), acidic polysaccharide (B) groups, and a control group (C). A 5-week oral administration of all treatment groups was performed daily in 3- to 8-week-old SHRs with a dose of 6 mg/kg of body weight/day. After 5 weeks of treatment, total cholesterol in the acidic polysaccharide group, at 69.7 ± 10.6 mg/dL, was lower than in the crude polysaccharide group (75.0 ± 6.0 mg/dL) and the control group (89.2 ± 7.4 mg/dL). In addition, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the acidic polysaccharide group were lower than in the crude polysaccharide and control groups. The atherogenic index of the acidic polysaccharide group was 46.3% lower than in the control group. Initial blood pressure after the initial three weeks on the high-fat diet averaged 195.9 ± 3.3 mmHg among all rats. Compared with the initial blood pressure, the final blood pressure in the control group was increased by 22.8 mmHg, whereas it decreased in the acidic polysaccharide group by 14.9 mmHg. These results indicate that acidic polysaccharides from Gastrodia rhizome reduce hypertension and improve serum lipid levels. PMID:22312280

  20. Effects of Acidic Polysaccharides from Gastrodia Rhizome on Systolic Blood Pressure and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Do Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acidic polysaccharides purified from Gastrodia rhizome on blood pressure and serum lipid levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Acidic polysaccharides were purified from crude polysaccharides by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. Thirty-six male SHR were randomly divided into three groups: Gastrodia rhizome crude polysaccharide (A, acidic polysaccharide (B groups, and a control group (C. A 5-week oral administration of all treatment groups was performed daily in 3- to 8-week-old SHRs with a dose of 6 mg/kg of body weight/day. After 5 weeks of treatment, total cholesterol in the acidic polysaccharide group, at 69.7 ± 10.6 mg/dL, was lower than in the crude polysaccharide group (75.0 ± 6.0 mg/dL and the control group (89.2 ± 7.4 mg/dL. In addition, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the acidic polysaccharide group were lower than in the crude polysaccharide and control groups. The atherogenic index of the acidic polysaccharide group was 46.3% lower than in the control group. Initial blood pressure after the initial three weeks on the high-fat diet averaged 195.9 ± 3.3 mmHg among all rats. Compared with the initial blood pressure, the final blood pressure in the control group was increased by 22.8 mmHg, whereas it decreased in the acidic polysaccharide group by 14.9 mmHg. These results indicate that acidic polysaccharides from Gastrodia rhizome reduce hypertension and improve serum lipid levels.

  1. Risk Assessment and Prevention of Hypertension in Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X; Lee, Minsun; Bhimla, Aisha; Tan, Yin; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Yeh, Ming Chin; Aczon, Hermie

    2017-08-01

    Despite that Filipino Americans represent an important target group for hypertension, health behaviors associated with hypertension in this population have not been well studied. Two hundred Filipino Americans from eight community-based organizations completed the study. Information was collected to determine whether modifiable behavioral factors, as well as acculturation and demographic characteristics, were associated with hypertension status in Filipino Americans. Approximately 67% of Filipino Americans were hypertensive. Logistic regression analysis showed that adding salt, physical inactivity, and old age were significantly associated with hypertension status after controlling for other covariates. The present study confirmed a high rate of hypertension among Filipino Americans and demonstrates the association of hypertension status with behavioral factors. These findings highlight the need for targeted interventions to prevent and manage hypertension in this high-risk community by facilitating health behaviors, particularly, salt reduction and physical activity.

  2. Hypertension in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ungar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories: chronic hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, pre-eclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and gestational hypertension. A relative paucity of investigative data, as well as the frequent difficulty in making an etiological diagnosis, may lead to problems in its management. This case report analyses current concepts regarding the hypertensive disorders of gestation, focusing on chronic hypertension. Chronic hypertension is defined as blood pressure exceeding 140/90 mmHg before pregnancy or before 20 weeks gestation. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may cause maternal and fetal morbidity and remain a leading source of maternal mortality. A prompt diagnosis is needed also because hypertension may be an indicator of pre-eclampsia, a condition which can evolve into serious complications. Maintaining blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg is recommended, although treatment should be determined on an individual basis. Many anti-hypertensive agents appear to be safe for use during pregnancy: methildopa has been the most studied of the anti-hypertensive drugs and has the best safety record. Labetalol, idralazine and nifedipine also have been found to be safe; ACE-inhibitors are absolutely contraindicated, because they are associated with intrauterine growth retardation.

  3. Genetik og hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tarnow, Lisa; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2009-01-01

    Monogenic forms of hypertension are very rare, but have a well-characterized heredity. Primary hypertension is very common with a complex and polygenic heredity. Primary hypertension arises due to an interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Its heredity is unknown, although...

  4. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. This podcast discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  5. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  6. The "Pulse Time Index of Norm" highly correlates with the left ventricular mass index in patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posokhov IN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Igor N Posokhov,1 Natalya N Kulikova,2 Irina V Starchenkova,2 Elena A Grigoricheva,3 Vitaly V Evdokimov,3 Artemy V Orlov,4 Anatoly N Rogoza5 On behalf of The BPLab-Vasotens Registry Collaborators 1Hemodynamic Laboratory Ltd, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia; 23rd Republican Hospital, Saransk, Russia; 3Chelyabinsk State Medical Academy, Chelyabinsk, Russia; 4National Research Nuclear University MEPhl, Moscow, Russia; 5Cardiology Research Center, Moscow, Russia Background: Arterial stiffness, as measured by the pulse wave velocity (PWV, is recommended for routine use in clinical practice as an important parameter for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk.1 New 24-hour monitors (eg, with Vasotens® technology; Petr Telegin Company, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation provide single PWV measurements as well as several PWV measurements over a period of 24 hours.2 Such 24-hour pulse wave analysis led to the development of the novel Pulse Time Index of Norm (PTIN, which is defined as the percentage of a 24-hour period during which the PWV does not exceed the 10 m/second PWV threshold. The aim of this study is to test the new PTIN for correlation with the left ventricular mass index (LVMI. Methods: Oscillometrically generated waveform files (n=137 used for clinical research studies were reanalyzed using the new 2013 version of the Vasotens technology program, which enables PTIN calculations. Results: A good correlation (r=−0.72 between the PTIN and the LVMI was shown, which was significantly above the blood pressure load (r=0.41. Conclusion: The PTIN generated by the Vasotens technology can be recommended as an indicator of end organ damage via hypertension. Keywords: pulse wave velocity, ambulatory, 24-hour, monitoring, PTIN, arterial stiffness, LVMI

  7. [Arterial hypertension secondary to endocrine disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Anna; Zulewski, Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Endocrine hypertension offers a potentially curative therapy if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. In contrast to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension especially in the elderly, the classical endocrine causes remain a rare entity. Among patients with arterial hypertension the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma is less than 1%. Primary hyperaldosteronism is more frequent with a reported prevalence of up to 9%. In order to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially harmful evaluations and therapies due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of the critical endocrine tests it is mandatory to limit the exploration for endocrine causes to preselected patients with high pretest probability for an endocrine disorder. Younger age at manifestation of arterial hypertension or drug resistant hypertension together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  8. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  9. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  10. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  11. NTPR Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  12. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  13. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  14. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  15. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of lower Paleozoic sheet sandstones in central North America: The role of special conditions of cratonic interiors in development of stratal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Anthony C.; Miller, J.F.; McKay, R.M.; Palmer, A.R.; Taylor, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Well-known difficulties in applying sequence stratigraphic concepts to deposits that accumulated across slowly subsiding cratonic interior regions have limited our ability to interpret the history of continental-scale tectonism, oceanographic dynamics of epeiric seas, and eustasy. We used a multi-disciplinary approach to construct a high-resolution stratigraphic framework for lower Paleozoic strata in the cratonic interior of North America. Within this framework, these strata proved readily amenable to modern sequence stratigraphic techniques that were formulated based on successions along passive margins and in foreland basins, settings markedly different from the cratonic interior. Parasequences, parasequence stacking patterns, systems tracts, maximum flooding intervals, and sequence-bounding unconformities can be confidently recognized in the cratonic interior using mostly standard criteria for identification. The similarity of cratonic interior and foreland basin successions in size, geometry, constituent facies, and local stacking patterns of nearshore parasequences is especially striking. This similarity indicates that the fundamental processes that establish shoreface morphology and determine the stratal expression of retreat and progradation were likewise generally the same, despite marked differences in tectonism, physiography, and bathymetry between the two settings. Our results do not support the widespread perception that Paleozoic cratonic interior successions are so anomalous in stratal geometries, and constitute such a poor record of time, that they are poorly suited for modern sequence stratigraphic analyses. The particular arrangement of stratal elements in the cratonic interior succession we studied is no more anomalous or enigmatic than the variability in architecture that sets all sedimentary successions apart from one another. Thus, Paleozoic strata of the cratonic interior are most appropriately considered as a package that belongs in a

  16. Prevalence of Hypertension in HIV/AIDS Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART Compared with HAART-Naive Patients at the Limbe Regional Hospital, Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Akem Dimala

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS patients but has also been associated with increased metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases. Data on the association between HAART and hypertension (HTN in Africa are scarce.Primarily to compare the prevalence of HTN in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART and HAART-naïve patients in Limbe, Cameroon; and secondarily to assess other socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with HTN in this population.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Limbe Regional Hospital HIV treatment center between April and June 2013, involving 200 HIV/AIDS patients (100 on first-line HAART regimens for at least 12 months matched by age and sex to 100 HAART-naïve patients. HTN was defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg.The prevalence of HTN in patients on HAART was twice (38%; 95% CI: 28.5-48.3 that of the HAART-naïve patients (19%; 95% CI, 11.8-28.1, p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking, family history of HTN, and BMI-defined overweight, HAART was associated with HTN, the adjusted odds ratio of the HAART-treated versus HAART-naïve group was 2.20 (95% CI: 1.07-4.52, p = 0.032. HTN was associated with older age and male gender, in the HAART group and with BMI-defined overweight in the HAART-naïve group.The prevalence of hypertension in HIV/AIDS patients in Limbe stands out to be elevated, higher in patients on HAART compared to those not on treatment. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors should be routinely monitored. Other factors such as diet, weight control and physical exercise should also be considered.

  17. Idiopathic portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Kyun; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kim, Heung Chul; Hur, Hun; Eom, Kyeung Tae; Namkung, Sook; Park, Man Soo; Hwang, Woo Chul; Lee, Kwan Seop

    1996-01-01

    To describe the radiologic findings of idiopathic portal hypertension and to find the points of differentiation between idiopathic portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. Four portograms in five patients who for four years had suffered from pathologically confirmed idiopathic portal hypertension were retrospectively analyzed and compared with a portogram obtained from a control subject with liver cirrhosis. Portographic finding s of idiopathic portal hypertension were paucity of medium-sized portal branches, irregular and obtuse-angled division of peripheral branches, abrupt interruption and an avascular area beneath the liver margin. A portogram of idiopathic portal hypertension may be useful in differentiation this and liver cirrhosis

  18. Thallium-201 stress imaging in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, D.S.; Francis, C.K.; Black, H.R.; Wackers, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the potential effect of hypertension on the results of thallium-201 stress imaging in patients with chest pain, 272 thallium-201 stress tests performed in 133 hypertensive patients and 139 normotensive patients over a 1-year period were reviewed. Normotensive and hypertensive patients were similar in age, gender distribution, prevalence of cardiac risk factors (tobacco smoking, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus), medications, and clinical symptoms of coronary disease. Electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy were present in 16 hypertensive patients. Stepwise probability analysis was used to determine the likelihood of coronary artery disease for each patient. In patients with mid to high likelihood of coronary disease (greater than 25% probability), abnormal thallium-201 stress images were present in 54 of 60 (90%) hypertensive patients compared with 51 of 64 (80%) normotensive patients. However, in 73 patients with a low likelihood of coronary disease (less than or equal to 25% probability), abnormal thallium-201 stress images were present in 21 patients (29%) of the hypertensive group compared with only 5 of 75 (7%) of the normotensive patients (p less than 0.001). These findings suggest that in patients with a mid to high likelihood of coronary artery disease, coexistent hypertension does not affect the results of thallium-201 exercise stress testing. However, in patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease, abnormal thallium-201 stress images are obtained more frequently in hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients

  19. Development of powder metallurgy 2XXX series Al alloy plate and sheet materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications, FY 1983/1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to fabricate and evaluate PM 2124 Al alloy plate and sheet materials according to NASA program goals for damage tolerance and fatigue resistance. Previous research has indicated the outstanding strength-toughness relationship available with PM 2124 Al-Zr modified alloy compositions in extruded product forms. The range of processing conditions was explored in the fabrication of plate and sheet gage materials, as well as the resultant mechanical and metallurgical properties. The PM composition based on Al-3.70 Cu-1.85 Mg-0.20 Mn with 0.60 wt. pct. Zr was selected. Flat rolled material consisting of 0.250 in. thick plate was fabricated using selected thermal mechanical treatments (TMT). The schedule of TMT operations was designed to yield the extreme conditions of grain structure normally encountered in the fabrication of flat rolled products, specifically recrystallized and unrecrystallized. The PM Al alloy plate and sheet materials exhibited improved strength properties at thin gages compared to IM Al alloys, as a consequence of their enhanced ability to inhibit recrystallization and grain growth. In addition, the PM 2124 Al alloys offer much better combinations of strength and toughnessover equivalent IM Al. The alloy microstructures were examined by optical metallographic texture techniques in order to establish the metallurgical basis for these significant property improvements.

  20. Management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complex disease with a high mortality. Management of this disease is underpinned by supportive and general therapies delivered by multidisciplinary teams in specialist centres. In recent years, a number of PAH-specific therapies have improved patient outcomes. This article will discuss the management of PAH in the context of relevant recently published studies in this area.

  1. Intraabdominal hypertension og abdominalt kompartmentsyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Morten; Hillingsø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various...

  2. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  3. Socioeconomic inequality in hypertension in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mansooreh; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Asgari, Fereshteh; Alami, Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension covers a large portion of burden of diseases, especially in the developing countries. The unequal distribution of hypertension in the population may affect 'health for all' goal. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic inequality of hypertension in Iran and to identify its influencing factors. We used data from Iran's surveillance system for risk factors of noncommunicable diseases which was conducted on 89 400 individuals aged 15-64 years in 2005. To determine the socioeconomic status of participants, a new variable was created using a principal component analysis. We examined hypertension at different levels of this new variable and calculated slop index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (C) for hypertension. We then applied Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis to determine the causes of inequality. The SII and C for hypertension were -32.3 and -0.170, respectively. The concentration indices varied widely between different provinces in Iran and was lower (more unequal) in women than in men. There was significant socioeconomic inequality in hypertension. The results of decomposition indicated that 40.5% of the low-socioeconomic group (n = 18190) and 16.4% of the high-socioeconomic group (n = 16335) had hypertension. Age, education level, sex and residency location were the main associated factors of the difference among groups. According to our results, there was an inequality in hypertension in Iran, so that individuals with low socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Age was the most contributed factor in this inequality and women in low-socioeconomic group were the most vulnerable people for hypertension.

  4. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbe, Guillermo; Pastor, Irene; Franco, Jonathan

    2018-04-23

    High blood pressure is a problem with elevated prevalence in the world population. The acute forms of presentation are "hypertensive crises," which represent a frequent cause for emergency room and primary care consultations. Hypertensive crises are divided into hypertensive emergencies and hypertensive urgencies, depending on whether or not there is acute damage to the target organ, respectively. Each situation has a different prognosis and treatment. More specifically, hypertensive emergencies are potentially serious and usually require rapid reductions in blood pressure, whereas hypertensive urgencies can be treated as outpatients by reducing blood pressure in hours or days. A significant number of patients who consult medical professionals regarding a hypertensive crisis do not have a prior diagnosis of hypertension; therefore, it is important to periodically monitor blood pressure levels in the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Shahar, Suzana; Ng, Chee Kyun; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.54), an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61), and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51), glucose (OR = 1.92), and triglycerides (OR = 1.27) significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects. PMID:29367559

  6. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  7. [Severe hypertension: definition and patients profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Jean-Jacques

    2013-05-01

    Severe arterial hypertension gathers relatively different clinical situations explained by the heterogeneity of the definitions of this clinical setting. From a medical point of view, severe hypertension is a short course situation defined by very high values of blood pressure corresponding to grade 3 hypertension. In France, until 2011, the social security also included in the definition of severe HTA chronic situations characterized by moderate blood pressure values requiring at least triple anthihypertensive therapies associated with a clinical or infraclinical target organ damages. These clinical profiles, much more frequent than grade 3 hypertension, allowed the full reimbursement of care costs for these patients. In France, it is estimated that 10% of hypertensive patients present a severe form with an annual incidence of 50,000 patients. The patients with severe hypertension have an increased cardiovascular morbidity justifying a closer clinical monitoring. From an economic point of view, these severe forms of hypertension have a higher cost of care, explained primarily by a more frequent need of specialized referrals, radiological exams and hospitalizations. This excess cost justified the existence of a full coverage of induced costs by the social security, since the incidence of severe hypertension is more frequent in the low social categories, and in patients with economic fragility.

  8. Secondary hypertension: the ways of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gian P; Seccia, Teresa M; Pessina, Achille C

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of secondary hypertension is lower than that of primary (essential) hypertension, but it is likely that it has been underestimated because appropriate tests were not generally performed. Hence, before embarking on a search for secondary hypertension physicians are generally advised to select populations of patients with a high pre-test probability of secondary forms of hypertension in order to maximize the positive predictive value and the gain in "ruling in" of the diagnostic tests. Based on updated information on prevalence and pathophysiology we herein critically review the general diagnostic strategy and the management of the main forms of secondary hypertension. In particular, strategies for identifying primary aldosteronism, the most frequent form of endocrine secondary hypertension, and for determining its unilateral or bilateral causes are discussed in details, because of the differences of treatment that requires adrenalectomy in the unilateral forms and mineralocorticoid receptor blockade in the bilateral forms. The tests available for the diagnosing pheochromocytoma (pheo), which is much rarer but extremely important to identify, as it can be fatal if unrecognized are also discussed, with emphasis on the recent developments in genetic testing. Renovascular hypertension is also a common curable form of hypertension, which should be identified as early as possible to avoid the onset of cardiovascular target organ damage and events, is also discussed.

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension in Pregnancy: Critical Care Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Bassily-Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is common in critical care settings and in presence of right ventricular failure is challenging to manage. Pulmonary hypertension in pregnant patients carries a high mortality rates between 30–56%. In the past decade, new treatments for pulmonary hypertension have emerged. Their application in pregnant women with pulmonary hypertension may hold promise in reducing morbidity and mortality. Signs and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension are nonspecific in pregnant women. Imaging workup may have undesirable radiation exposure. Pulmonary artery catheter remains the gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary hypertension, although its use in the intensive care unit for other conditions has slowly fallen out of favor. Goal-directed bedside echocardiogram and lung ultrasonography provide attractive alternatives. Basic principles of managing pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure are maintaining right ventricular function and reducing pulmonary vascular resistance. Fluid resuscitation and various vasopressors are used with caution. Pulmonary-hypertension-targeted therapies have been utilized in pregnant women with understanding of their safety profile. Mainstay therapy for pulmonary embolism is anticoagulation, and the treatment for amniotic fluid embolism remains supportive care. Multidisciplinary team approach is crucial to achieving successful outcomes in these difficult cases.

  10. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Lifestyle Modifications to Prevent and Control Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, Fariba; Dalili, Nooshin; Jamalian, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the most important, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. High salt intake may predispose children to develop hypertension later. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide would result in a major improvement in public health. Regarding smoking as another risk factor, there are various strategies that can be used to promote smoking cessation. Physicians are in an excellent position to help their patients stop smoking. Targeted weight loss interventions in population subgroups might be more effective for the prevention of hypertension than a general-population approach. A diet rich in high-potassium fruit and vegetables is strongly recommended. Fresh products are best; normal potassium content is reduced when foods are canned or frozen. Calcium supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive individuals during chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition and high calcium diet enhances vasorelaxation in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension. Magnesium should be considered by anyone seeking to prevent or treat high blood pressure. The foundation for a healthy blood pressure consists of a healthy diet, adequate exercise, stress reduction, and sufficient amounts of potassium and magnesium, but further investigations are required before making definitive therapeutic recommendations on magnesium use. Alcohol usage is a more frequent contributor to hypertension than is generally appreciated. For hypertensive patients in whom stress appears to be an important issue, stress management should be considered as an intervention. Individualized cognitive behavioral interventions are more likely to be effective than single-component interventions.

  12. Using the emergency department as a screening site for high blood pressure. A method for improving hypertension detection and appropriate referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, J; Green, L; Levine, D M; Gibson, G; Gurley, H T

    1987-08-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a high blood pressure protocol for use in emergency departments (ED) to enhance detection of those patients appropriate for subsequent referral. The protocol involves two serial blood pressure measurements and a patient interview to determine: 1) previous history of high blood pressure (HBP), 2) treatment in past year for HBP, and 3) usual source of medical care. The accuracy of patient reporting was validated by comparison with the patients' hospital record (reflecting outpatient and inpatient visits). Results indicate that these self-reports have high levels of sensitivity (range 90-100%) and specificity (range 79-96%). Use of the additional patient information increased the sensitivity of the screening protocol in identifying when and where a patient should be referred. Use of this methodology indicates that the protocol is a simple and effective method for HBP screening. The findings also suggest that the ED is an ideal site for screening the "hard-to-reach" hypertensive population.

  13. 'I believe high blood pressure can kill me:' using the PEN-3 Cultural Model to understand patients' perceptions of an intervention to control hypertension in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Gyamfi, Joyce; Quakyi, Nana Kofi; Ntim, Micheal; Addison, Abigail; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2017-07-04

    Currently in Ghana, there is an on-going task-shifting strategy in which nurses are trained in hypertension management. While this study will provide useful information on the viability of this approach, it is not clear how patients in the intervention perceive hypertension, the task-shifting strategy, and its effects on blood pressure management. The objective of this paper is to examine patients' perceptions of hypertension and hypertension management in the context of an on-going task-shifting intervention to manage blood pressure control in Ghana. Forty-two patients participating in the Task Shifting Strategy for Hypertension program (23 males, 19 females, and mean age 61. 7 years) completed in-depth, qualitative interviews. Interviews were transcribed, and key words and phrases were extracted and coded using the PEN-3 Cultural Model as a guide through open and axial coding techniques, thus allowing rich exploration of the data. Emergent themes included patients' perceptions of hypertension, which encompassed misperceptions of hypertension and blood pressure control. Additional themes included enablers and barriers to hypertension management, and how the intervention nurtured lifestyle change associated with blood pressure control. Primary enabling factors included the supportive nature of TASSH nurses, while notable barriers were financial constraints and difficulty accessing medication. Nurturing factors included the motivational interviewing and patient counseling which instilled confidence in the patients that they could make lasting behavior changes. This study offers a unique perspective of blood pressure control by examining how patients view an on-going task-shifting initiative for hypertension management. The results of this study shed light on factors that can help and hinder individuals in low-resource settings with long-term blood pressure management.

  14. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  15. A collaborative cardiologist-pharmacist care model to improve hypertension management in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irons BK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physician led collaborative drug therapy management utilizing clinical pharmacists to aid in the medication management of patients with hypertension has been shown to improve blood pressure control. With recommendations for lower blood pressures in patients with coronary artery disease, a cardiologist-pharmacist collaborative care model may be a novel way to achieve these more rigorous goals of therapy. Objective: The purpose of this project was to evaluate this type of care model in a high cardiac risk patient population. Methods: A retrospective cohort study determined the ability of a cardiologist-pharmacist care model (n=59 to lower blood pressure and achieve blood pressure goals (< 130/80 mmHg in patients with or at high risk for coronary artery disease compared to usual cardiologist care (n=58 in the same clinical setting. Results: The cardiologist-pharmacist care model showed a higher percentage of patients obtaining their goal blood pressure compared to cardiologist care alone, 49.2% versus 31.0% respectively, p=0.0456. Greater reductions in systolic blood pressure (-22 mmHg versus -12 mmHg, p=0.0077 and pulse pressure (-15 mmHg versus -7 mmHg, p=0.0153 were noted in the cardiologist-pharmacist care model. No differences in diastolic blood pressure were found. There was a shorter duration of clinic follow-up (7.0 versus 13.2 months, p=0.0013 but a higher frequency of clinic visits (10.7 versus 3.45, p<0.0001 in the cardiologist-pharmacist care model compared to usual care. The number of antihypertensive agents used did not change over the time period evaluated. Conclusion: This study suggests a team-based approach to hypertensive care using a collaborative cardiologist-pharmacist care model improves blood pressure from baseline in a high cardiac risk patient population and was more likely to obtain more stringent blood pressure goals than usual care.

  16. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  17. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  19. Sheet pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  20. Relativistic current sheets in electron-positron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenitani, S.

    2008-01-01

    The current sheet structure with magnetic field reversal is one of the fundamental structure in space and astrophysical plasmas. It draws recent attention in high-energy astrophysical settings, where relativistic electron-positron plasmas are considered. In this talk we will review the recent progress of the physical processes in the relativistic current sheet. The kinetic stability of a single current sheet, the nonlinear behavior of these instabilities, and recent challenges on the multi current sheet systems are introduced. We will also introduce some problems of magnetic reconnection in these relativistic environments. (author)

  1. Evaluation of BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Rosati, Alessandra; M, De Marco; Basile, Anna; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Falco, Antonia; Turco, Maria C

    2018-03-01

    BAG3 is a member of human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins and plays a role in apoptosis, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and autophagy. The aim of this study was to evaluate BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients. We enrolled 209 Caucasian adults, of both sex, 18-75 years of age, 77 were healthy controls, 62 were affected by hypertension, and 70 were affected by hypertension and type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent an assessment that included medical history, physical examination, vital signs, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, measurements of systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ), triglycerides (TG), transaminases, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and BAG3. We observed higher blood pressure values in hypertensive, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. As expected, FPG and HbA 1c were higher in diabetic hypertensive patients, compared to the other two groups. No Tg levels differences were recorded among the three groups. Hs-CRP was higher in diabetic hypertensive patients compared to healthy subjects. Finally, BAG3 levels were higher in hypertensives, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. We observed higher levels of BAG3 in hypertensive patients compared to healthy controls, and even higher levels in hypertensive diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. This paper could be the first of a long way to identify potential involvement of deregulated BAG3 levels in cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Ben L; Koh, Christopher; Heller, Theo

    2018-05-01

    Noncirrhotic portal hypertension represents a heterogeneous group of liver disorders that is characterized by portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis. The purpose of this review is to serve as a guide on how to approach a patient with noncirrhotic portal hypertension with a focus on recent developments. Recent studies pertaining to noncirrhotic portal hypertension have investigated aetiological causes, mechanisms of disease, noninvasive diagnostic modalities, clinical characteristics in the paediatric population and novel treatment targets. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension is an underappreciated clinical entity that can be difficult to diagnosis without a healthy suspicion. Diagnosis then relies on a comprehensive understanding of the causes and clinical manifestations of this disease, as well as a careful interpretation of the liver biopsy. Noninvasive approaches to diagnosis may play a significant role moving forward in this disease. Treatment in NCPH remains largely targeted at the individual sequalae of portal hypertension.

  3. Pediatric portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Clarissa Barbon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Pediatric portal hypertension management is a team approach between the patient, the patient's family, the primary caregiver, and specialty providers. Evidence-based practice guidelines have not been established in pediatrics. This article serves as a review for the primary care NP in the management of pediatric portal hypertension, discussing the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of pediatric portal hypertension, diagnostic tests, and treatment and management options. PMID:28406835

  4. Hypertension og hyperlipidaemi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Steen; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are well-established and partially overlapping risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Analyses of cardiovascular morbidity in relationship to changes in blood pressure and in serum cholesterol levels have shown that combined reduction of both risk factors...... are important to achieve a reduction in morbidity. Statins have been shown to be effective in preventing both coronary and cerebrovascular events in both hypertensive and normotensive cases. Consequently, most recent guidelines recommend that statin treatment be considered in hypertensive patients aged less...

  5. THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY OF A CURRENT SHEET IN THE HIGH SOLAR CORONA: EVIDENCE FOR RECONNECTION IN THE LATE STAGE OF THE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Webb, David, E-mail: rkwon@gmu.edu [ISR, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Motivated by the standard flare model, ray-like structures in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been often interpreted as proxies of the reconnecting current sheet connecting the CME with the postflare arcade. We present the three-dimensional properties of a post-CME ray derived from white light images taken from three different viewing perspectives on 2013 September 21. By using a forward modeling method, the direction, cross section, and electron density are determined within the heliocentric distance range of 5–9 R {sub ⊙}. The width and depth of the ray are 0.42 ± 0.08 R {sub ⊙} and 1.24 ± 0.35 R {sub ⊙}, respectively, and the electron density is (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}, which seems to be constant with height. Successive blobs moving outward along the ray are observed around 13 hr after the parent CME onset. We model the three-dimensional geometry of the parent CME with the Gradual Cylindrical Shell model and find that the CME and ray are coaxial. We suggest that coaxial post-CME rays, seen in coronagraph images, with successive formation of blobs could be associated with current sheets undergoing magnetic reconnection in the late stage of CMEs.

  6. Polyacrylonitrile Fibers Anchored Cobalt/Graphene Sheet Nanocomposite: A Low-Cost, High-Performance and Reusable Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Huang, Guoji; Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt and its composites are known to be active and inexpensive catalysts in sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrolysis to generate clean and renewable hydrogen energy. A novel fiber catalyst, cobalt/graphene sheet nanocomposite anchored on polyacrylonitrile fibers (Co/GRs-PANFs), which can be easily recycled and used in any reactor with different shapes, were synthesized by anchoring cobalt/graphene (Co/GRs) on polyacrylonitrile fibers coated with graphene (GRs-PANFs) at low temperature. The unique structure design effectively prevents the inter-sheet restacking of Co/GRs and fully exploits the large surface area of novel hybrid material for generate hydrogen. And the extra electron transfer path supplied by GRs on the surface of GRs-PANFs can also enhance their catalysis performances. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was investigated by the hydrolysis of NaBH4 in aqueous solution with GRs-PANFs. GRs powders and Co powders were used as control groups. It was found that both GRs and fiber contributed to the hydrogen generation rate of Co/GRs-PANFs (3222 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)), which is much higher than that of cobalt powders (915 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)) and Co/GRs (995 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)). The improved hydrogen generation rate, low cost and uncomplicated recycling make the Co/GRs-PANFs promising candidate as catalysts for hydrogen generation.

  7. Highly-sensitive aptasensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer between l-cysteine capped ZnS quantum dots and graphene oxide sheets for the determination of edifenphos fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Majid; Mirroshandel, Aazam A

    2017-10-15

    With the advantages of excellent optical properties and biocompatibility, single-strand DNA-functionalized quantum dots have been widely applied in biosensing and bioimaging. A new aptasensor with easy operation, high sensitivity, and high selectivity was developed by immobilizing the aptamer on water soluble l-cysteine capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs). Graphene oxide (GO) sheets are mixed with the aptamer-QDs. Consequently, the aptamer-conjugated QDs bind to the GO sheets to form a GO/aptamer-QDs ensemble. This aptasensor enables the energy transfer based on a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the QDs to the GO sheets, quenching the fluorescence of QDs. The GO/aptamer-QDs ensemble assay acts as a "turn-on'' fluorescent sensor for edifenphos (EDI) detection. When GO was replaced by EDI, the fluorescence of QDs was restored and its intensity was proportional to the EDI concentration. This GO-based aptasensor under the optimum conditions exhibited excellent analytical performance for EDI determination, ranging from 5×10 -4 to 6×10 -3 mg L -1 with the detection limit of 1.3×10 -4 mgL -1 . Furthermore, the designed aptasensor exhibited excellent selectivity toward EDI compared to other pesticides and herbicides with similar structures such as diazinon, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, butachlor and chlordane. Good reproducibility and precision (RSD =3.9%, n =10) of the assay indicates the high potential of the aptasensor for quantitative trace analysis of EDI. Moreover, the results demonstrate the applicability of the aptasensor for monitoring EDI fungicide in spiked real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 42. Hypertension: Morbidity review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzullah khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, eye abnormalities and end stage renal disease, which require proper counseling and management of patients.

  9. The new hypertension guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph H

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has published guidelines annually since 2000. The CHEP guidelines are a model of concise, comprehensive, up-to-date, evidence-rated guidelines for physicians who diagnose and treat hypertension. The guidelines address measurement of blood pressure and the definition of hypertension, secondary hypertension evaluation and treatment, and blood pressure targets and medication choices in patients with and without compelling indications. This review describes CHEP's process for developing guidelines and provides an overview of the 2013 recommendations. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Hypertension in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Tagle V, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Mónica; Valdés, Gloria

    2013-02-01

    The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.

  11. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  12. W-Band Sheet Beam Klystron Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Burke, A.; Jensen, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Krasnykh, A.; Neubauer, M.; Phillips, R.; Rauenbuehler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Sheet beam devices provide important advantages for very high power, narrow bandwidth RF sources like accelerator klystrons (1). Reduced current density and increased surface area result in increased power capabi1ity, reduced magnetic fields for focusing and reduced cathode loading. These advantages are offset by increased complexity, beam formation and transport issues and potential for mode competition in the ovennoded cavities and drift tube. This paper will describe the design issues encountered in developing a 100 kW peak and 2 kW average power sheet beam k1ystron at W-band including beam formation, beam transport, circuit design, circuit fabrication and mode competition.

  13. Flapping dynamics of a thin liquid sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivukkarasan, M.; Kumaran, Dhivyaraja; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Multi-phase flow physics Group Team

    2017-11-01

    We attempt to delineate and describe the complete evolution of a thin soap film when air is blown through a nozzle in the normal direction. The sequence of events and its intrinsic dynamics are captured using high speed imaging. By careful observation, it was observed that multiple mechanisms occur in the same system and each event is triggered by an independent mechanism. The events include (a) flapping of a liquid sheet and pinching of the bubble, (b) onset of rupture on the liquid sheet, (c) formation of ligaments and (d) ejection of drops. From this study, it is shown that these events are predominantly governed by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Taylor - Culick law, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and capillary instability, respectively. The present experiments can be considered as an extension to the previous studies on soap films as well as thin flapping sheets which has direct relevance to coaxial atomizers used in aircraft applications.

  14. Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table

  15. Dipole-sheet multipole magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dipole-sheet formalism can be used to describe both cylindrical current-sheet multipole magnets and cylindrical-bore magnets made up of permanent magnet blocks. For current sheets, the formalism provides a natural way of finding a finite set of turns that approximate a continuous distribution. The formalism is especially useful In accelerator applications where large-bore, short, high-field-quality magnets that are dominated by fringe fields are needed. A further advantage of the approach is that in systems with either open or cylindrically symmetric magnetic boundaries, analytical expressions for the three-dimensional fields that are suitable for rapid numerical evaluation can be derived. This development is described in some detail. Also, recent developments in higher-order particle-beam optics codes based on the formalism are described briefly

  16. Hypertension control in brazilian publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, Natália de Alencar; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo, E-mail: pierin@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de Enfermagem, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Hypertension is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence and cardiovascular complications. Its treatment is aimed at reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, its goal being to maintain blood pressure levels below 140/90 mm Hg. Hypertension control in Brazil is low, and nationwide rates are unknown. The objective of this review was to provide an overview on hypertension control in Brazil from publications in a database. We identified 45 publications. In population-based studies, the highest control rate (57.6%) was reported in a multicenter study in 100 municipalities and the city of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state (52.4%), while the lowest rates (around 10%) were identified in microregions of the Rio Grande do Sul state and in the city of Tubarão, Santa Catarina state. In conclusion, the studies assessed showed a wide variation in hypertension control rates. It is worth noting that the comparison between studies was a major limiting factor, because of the different methods used.

  17. Hypertension control in brazilian publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, Natália de Alencar; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence and cardiovascular complications. Its treatment is aimed at reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, its goal being to maintain blood pressure levels below 140/90 mm Hg. Hypertension control in Brazil is low, and nationwide rates are unknown. The objective of this review was to provide an overview on hypertension control in Brazil from publications in a database. We identified 45 publications. In population-based studies, the highest control rate (57.6%) was reported in a multicenter study in 100 municipalities and the city of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state (52.4%), while the lowest rates (around 10%) were identified in microregions of the Rio Grande do Sul state and in the city of Tubarão, Santa Catarina state. In conclusion, the studies assessed showed a wide variation in hypertension control rates. It is worth noting that the comparison between studies was a major limiting factor, because of the different methods used

  18. Modelling of aluminium sheet forming at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Huetink, Han

    2004-01-01

    The formability of Al–Mg sheet can be improved considerably, by increasing the temperature. By heating the sheet in areas with large shear strains, but cooling it on places where the risk of necking is high, the limiting drawing ratio can be increased to values above 2.5. At elevated temperatures,

  19. Bessel light sheet structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshirvani Allahabadi, Golchehr

    Biomedical study researchers using animals to model disease and treatment need fast, deep, noninvasive, and inexpensive multi-channel imaging methods. Traditional fluorescence microscopy meets those criteria to an extent. Specifically, two-photon and confocal microscopy, the two most commonly used methods, are limited in penetration depth, cost, resolution, and field of view. In addition, two-photon microscopy has limited ability in multi-channel imaging. Light sheet microscopy, a fast developing 3D fluorescence imaging method, offers attractive advantages over traditional two-photon and confocal microscopy. Light sheet microscopy is much more applicable for in vivo 3D time-lapsed imaging, owing to its selective illumination of tissue layer, superior speed, low light exposure, high penetration depth, and low levels of photobleaching. However, standard light sheet microscopy using Gaussian beam excitation has two main disadvantages: 1) the field of view (FOV) of light sheet microscopy is limited by the depth of focus of the Gaussian beam. 2) Light-sheet images can be degraded by scattering, which limits the penetration of the excitation beam and blurs emission images in deep tissue layers. While two-sided sheet illumination, which doubles the field of view by illuminating the sample from opposite sides, offers a potential solution, the technique adds complexity and cost to the imaging system. We investigate a new technique to address these limitations: Bessel light sheet microscopy in combination with incoherent nonlinear Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). Results demonstrate that, at visible wavelengths, Bessel excitation penetrates up to 250 microns deep in the scattering media with single-side illumination. Bessel light sheet microscope achieves confocal level resolution at a lateral resolution of 0.3 micron and an axial resolution of 1 micron. Incoherent nonlinear SIM further reduces the diffused background in Bessel light sheet images, resulting in

  20. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  1. Associations between HIV, highly active anti-retroviral therapy, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among maternal deaths in South Africa 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebitloane, Hannah M; Moodley, Jagidesa; Sartorius, Benn

    2017-02-01

    To explore potential relationships between HIV and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). A retrospective secondary analysis of maternal-deaths data from the 2011-2013 Saving Mothers Report from South Africa. The incidence of HIV infection amongst individuals who died owing to HDP was determined and comparisons were made based on HIV status and the use of HAART. Among 4452 maternal deaths recorded in the Saving Mothers report, a lower risk of a maternal deaths being due to HDP was observed among women who had HIV infections compared with women who did not have HIV (relative risk [RR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.64). Further, reduced odds of death being due to HDP were recorded among women with AIDS not undergoing HAART compared with women with HIV who did not require treatment (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.3-0.58). Notably, among all women with AIDS, a greater risk of death due to HDP was demonstrated among those who received HAART compared with those who did not (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.29). HIV and AIDS were associated with a decreased risk of HDP being the primary cause of death; the use of HAART increased this risk. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Gas isotope separation method using plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, K.; Takagi, K.; Fukvi, R.

    1988-03-01

    A high frequency electric field is applied to a plasma sheet with a frequency equal to the cyclotronic frequency of the ions to be separated. Because of resonance the cyclotronic radius of the isotope has increased and the electric charge is eliminated by collision with a separator and the isotope is separated in neutral particles [fr

  3. Perforation of metal sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Jens Erik

    simulation is focused on the sheet deformation. However, the effect on the tool and press is included. The process model is based on the upper bound analysis in order to predict the force progress and hole characteristics etc. Parameter analyses are divided into two groups, simulation and experimental tests......The main purposes of this project are:1. Development of a dynamic model for the piercing and performation process2. Analyses of the main parameters3. Establishing demands for process improvements4. Expansion of the existing parameter limitsThe literature survey describes the process influence...

  4. Hypertension Canada's 2016 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurement, Diagnosis, Assessment of Risk, Prevention, and Treatment of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander A; Nerenberg, Kara; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; McBrien, Kerry; Zarnke, Kelly B; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Cloutier, Lyne; Gelfer, Mark; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Milot, Alain; Bolli, Peter; Tremblay, Guy; McLean, Donna; Tobe, Sheldon W; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; Feldman, Ross D; Selby, Peter; Pipe, Andrew; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; McFarlane, Philip A; Oh, Paul; Hegele, Robert A; Khara, Milan; Wilson, Thomas W; Penner, S Brian; Burgess, Ellen; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Campbell, Norman R C; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Prebtani, Ally; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Grégoire, Jean C; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra; Lear, Scott A; Moullec, Gregory; Gupta, Milan; Magee, Laura A; Logan, Alexander G; Harris, Kevin C; Dionne, Janis; Fournier, Anne; Benoit, Geneviève; Feber, Janusz; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S; Rabi, Doreen M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension Canada's Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines Task Force provides annually updated, evidence-based recommendations to guide the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension. This year, we present 4 new recommendations, as well as revisions to 2 previous recommendations. In the diagnosis and assessment of hypertension, automated office blood pressure, taken without patient-health provider interaction, is now recommended as the preferred method of measuring in-office blood pressure. Also, although a serum lipid panel remains part of the routine laboratory testing for patients with hypertension, fasting and nonfasting collections are now considered acceptable. For individuals with secondary hypertension arising from primary hyperaldosteronism, adrenal vein sampling is recommended for those who are candidates for potential adrenalectomy. With respect to the treatment of hypertension, a new recommendation that has been added is for increasing dietary potassium to reduce blood pressure in those who are not at high risk for hyperkalemia. Furthermore, in selected high-risk patients, intensive blood pressure reduction to a target systolic blood pressure ≤ 120 mm Hg should be considered to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in hypertensive individuals with uncomplicated, stable angina pectoris, either a β-blocker or calcium channel blocker may be considered for initial therapy. The specific evidence and rationale underlying each of these recommendations are discussed. Hypertension Canada's Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines Task Force will continue to provide annual updates. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Temperature and Sheet Temper on Isothermal Solidification Kinetics in Clad Aluminum Brazing Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Michael J.; Whitney, Mark A.; Wells, Mary A.; Winkler, Sooky

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal solidification (IS) is a phenomenon observed in clad aluminum brazing sheets, wherein the amount of liquid clad metal is reduced by penetration of the liquid clad into the core. The objective of the current investigation is to quantify the rate of IS through the use of a previously derived parameter, the Interface Rate Constant (IRC). The effect of peak temperature and initial sheet temper on IS kinetics were investigated. The results demonstrated that IS is due to the diffusion of silicon (Si) from the liquid clad layer into the solid core. Reduced amounts of liquid clad at long liquid duration times, a roughened sheet surface, and differences in resolidified clad layer morphology between sheet tempers were observed. Increased IS kinetics were predicted at higher temperatures by an IRC model as well as by experimentally determined IRC values; however, the magnitudes of these values are not in good agreement due to deficiencies in the model when applied to alloys. IS kinetics were found to be higher for sheets in the fully annealed condition when compared with work-hardened sheets, due to the influence of core grain boundaries providing high diffusivity pathways for Si diffusion, resulting in more rapid liquid clad penetration.

  6. Recognition and Management of Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Branko; Taler, Sandra J; Rahman, Mahboob; Fillaus, Jennifer A; Greco, Barbara A; Forman, John P; Reisin, Efrain; Cohen, Debbie L; Saklayen, Mohammad G; Hedayati, S Susan

    2017-03-07

    Despite improvements in hypertension awareness and treatment, 30%-60% of hypertensive patients do not achieve BP targets and subsequently remain at risk for target organ damage. This therapeutic gap is particularly important to nephrologists, who frequently encounter treatment-resistant hypertension in patients with CKD. Data are limited on how best to treat patients with CKD and resistant hypertension, because patients with CKD have historically been excluded from hypertension treatment trials. First, we propose a consistent definition of resistant hypertension as BP levels confirmed by both in-office and out-of-office measurements that exceed appropriate targets while the patient is receiving treatment with at least three antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, at dosages optimized to provide maximum benefit in the absence of intolerable side effects. Second, we recommend that each patient undergo a standardized, stepwise evaluation to assess adherence to dietary and lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications to identify and reduce barriers and discontinue use of substances that may exacerbate hypertension. Patients in whom there is high clinical suspicion should be evaluated for potential secondary causes of hypertension. Evidence-based management of resistant hypertension is discussed with special considerations of the differences in approach to patients with and without CKD, including the specific roles of diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and the current place of emerging therapies, such as renal denervation and baroreceptor stimulation. We endorse use of such a systematic approach to improve recognition and care for this vulnerable patient group that is at high risk for future kidney and cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  8. Working with Design: A Package for Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebich, Paul D.

    1974-01-01

    The author describes a design approach used to study sheet metal layout in junior high and high school mechanical drafting courses. Students observe packaging in stores, study package construction, and design and produce their own packages. (EA)

  9. [Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in the Czech population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Peter; Krajčoviechová, Alena; Bruthans, Jan; Cífková, Renata

    Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are inter-related ad mutually potentiating cardiovascular risk factors, which, when occurring together, strongly accelerate atherosclerosis and significantly increase cardiovascular risk.The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence and control of both risk factors in the Czech population. A 1 % population random sample aged 40-64 years was examined within the Czech post-MONICA in 2006-2009. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication. Hypercholesterolemia was defined according to cardiovascular risk and LDL-cholesterol levels or use of lipid-lowering drugs. In a group of 2 508 persons (51 % of females), hypertension was found in 52 % and hypercholesterolemia in 40 % of examined individuals. Both risk factors occurred together in 30 % of subjects. While lipid-lowering drugs were used by 39 % of individuals with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, target LDL-cholesterol were achieved by only 42 % of treated individuals. Only a total of 10 % individuals with both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia achieved target levels for both risk factors. Treatment and control of hypercholesterolemia in patients with hypertension remains unsatisfactory in the Czech Republic. Taking into account the high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and the substantial increase in cardiovascular risk, lipid-lowering drugs should be considered in each patient with hypertension.Key words: antihypertensive drugs - Czech post-MONICA - lipid-lowering drugs - SCORE - target values - total cardiovascular risk.

  10. Noncirrotisk intrahepatisk portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Fialla, Annette; Havelund, Troels

    2007-01-01

    Non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension is characterized by portal hypertension in the absence of liver cirrhosis or portal vein thrombosis. The disease is common in the East and rarely seen in the West. Two cases with oesophageal varices are described. The histopathology is heterogeneous...... but includes vascular lesions and portal fibrosis. Patient management follows the current recommendations for variceal bleeding....

  11. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart). This type of pulmonary hypertension was called “secondary pulmonary hypertension” but is now referred to as PH, because the cause is known to be from lung disease, heart disease, or chronic thromboemboli (blood clots). Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) used to be ...

  12. Patterns of left ventricular remodeling among patients with essential and secondary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Radulescu,Dan; Stoicescu,Laurentiu; Buzdugan,Elena; Donca,Valer

    2013-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure causes left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a negative prognostic factor among hypertensive patients. Aim: To assess left ventricular geometric remodeling patterns in patients with essential hypertension or with hypertension secondary to parenchymal renal disease. Material and Methods: We analyzed data from echocardiograms performed in 250patients with essential hypertension (150 females) and 100 patients with secondary hypertension (60 females). The interven...

  13. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  14. High blood pressure - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  15. Application of Hydroforming Process in Sheet Metal Formation

    OpenAIRE

    GRIZELJ, Branko; CUMIN, Josip; ERGIĆ, Todor

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the theory and application of a hydroforming process. Nowadays automobile manufacturers use high strength sheet metal plates. This high strength steel sheet metal plates are strain hardened in the process of metal forming. With the use of high strength steel, cars are made lightweight, which is intended for low fuel consumption because of high energy prices. Some examples of application of a hydroforming process are simulated with FEM.

  16. Food Patterns, Lifestyle, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Arjmand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High blood pressure (BP is considered as a strong predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD Environmental and genetic factors may have a role in high blood pressures. Nutrition has a potential role in the prevention of hypertension and its sequelae. Effect of lowering blood pressure by modification of complex dietary patterns may be the result of synergism between the various components of certain foods or food combinations rather than of the specific effect of a particular nutrient. Vegetarian Diet, Mediterranean Diet, and Dash Diet are three food patterns which have been associated with lowering BP. Vegetarian Diet are characterized by high intake of legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. A relatively high polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio will make by this kind of diet. Low fat content and high potassium, magnesium, and fiber content of this diet, all factors possibly cooperating to the reduction of blood pressure. Mediterranean Diet has low animal and dairy products as well as saturated fatty acids and cholesterol; it is rich in plant food, legumes, fiber, and antioxidant vitamins with olive oil as the main source of fat. The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH is a success process in control of hypertension, which emphasizes vegetables and fruits and dairy foods with low-fat, it also includes more nuts, poultry, fish, and, whole grains and lower amounts of red meat, fats, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages. DASH diet is poorer in total and saturated fat and cholesterol and richer in potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber in comparison to the habitual Western diet. In conclusion, although multiple dietary factors can influence on BP and each factor has a modest effect; the combined effects of those factors can be substantial. In the current study, we review food patterns, lifestyle, and their relationship with hypertension and the possible mechanisms involved.

  17. Sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women (gestational diabetes and hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Fatemeh; Sehhatiei Shafaei, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is one of the most basic human requirements. This research aims at determining the status of sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran, in 2015. This research was a sectional study done on 364 qualified women in 28-36 weeks of pregnancy suffering from mild preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The sampling was done as convenience. Personal-social-midwifery questionnaire, Pittsburg sleep quality, and quality of life in pregnancy (QOL-ORAV) were used for gathering data. Multivariate linear regression model was used for determining the relationship between sleep quality and its subsets with quality of life and controlling confounders. In the current study, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 96.4%. Mean (SD) of the total score of sleep quality was 10.1 (4.1) and the total score of quality of life was 61.7 (17.3). According to Pearson's correlation test, there was statistically significant relationship between quality of life and sleep quality and all its subsets except sleep duration and use of sleep medication (p quality of life. The findings of current research show that sleep quality is low among high-risk pregnant women and quality of life is medium. So, it is necessary that required training is given by health cares for improving sleep quality and quality of life to mothers.

  18. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25761188

  19. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS:: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS:: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION:: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  20. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5,868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  1. [Psychological approaches in hypertension management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall-Barbry, Gaëlle; Consoli, Silla M

    2006-06-01

    Stress factors, especially high levels of occupational stress, are associated with hypertension. Several so-called psychological techniques have been applied to hypertension: biofeedback, relaxation techniques (Schultz' autogenic training, Jacobson's progressive relaxation), transcendental meditation, and cognitive behavioral techniques for stress management. Randomized studies show that the best results come from cognitive behavioral methods, whether or not they include relaxation techniques. Other forms of psychotherapy (such as psychoanalysis) may be useful, although their benefits for blood pressure have not been tested in controlled trials. Patients should be informed about the personal benefits they may obtain from psychological treatment. Indications are hyperreactivity to stress, high levels of occupational stress, and difficulty in tolerating or complying with antihypertensive drugs.

  2. Pregnancy in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Olsson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite advanced therapies, maternal mortality in women with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH remains high in pregnancy and is especially high during the post-partum period. However, recent data indicates that morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and after birth have improved for PAH patients. The current European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines recommend that women with PAH should not become pregnant. Therefore, the risks associated with pregnancy must be emphasised and counselling offered to women at the time of PAH diagnosis and to women with PAH who become pregnant. Early termination should be discussed. Women who choose to continue with their pregnancy should be treated at specialised pulmonary hypertension centres with experience in managing PAH during and after pregnancy.

  3. Pregnancy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Karen M; Channick, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Despite advanced therapies, maternal mortality in women with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains high in pregnancy and is especially high during the post-partum period. However, recent data indicates that morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and after birth have improved for PAH patients. The current European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines recommend that women with PAH should not become pregnant. Therefore, the risks associated with pregnancy must be emphasised and counselling offered to women at the time of PAH diagnosis and to women with PAH who become pregnant. Early termination should be discussed. Women who choose to continue with their pregnancy should be treated at specialised pulmonary hypertension centres with experience in managing PAH during and after pregnancy. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  4. Recent development of non-oriented electrical steel sheet for automobile electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshihiko; Kohno, Masaaki; Honda, Atsuhito

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes non-oriented electrical steel sheet for automobile motors and reactors. Electrical steel sheets for energy efficient motors show high magnetic flux density and low iron loss. They are suitable for HEV traction motors and EPS motors. A thin-gauge electrical steel sheet and a gradient Si steel sheet show low iron loss in the high-frequency range. Therefore, the efficiency of high-frequency devices can be greatly improved. Since a 6.5% Si steel sheet possesses low iron loss and zero magnetostriction, it contributes to reduce the core loss and audible noise of high-frequency reactors

  5. Buckling of Aluminium Sheet Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegadekatte, Vishwanath; Shi, Yihai; Nardini, Dubravko

    Wrinkling is one of the major defects in sheet metal forming processes. It may become a serious obstacle to implementing the forming process and assembling the parts, and may also play a significant role in the wear of the tool. Wrinkling is essentially a local buckling phenomenon that results from compressive stresses (compressive instability) e.g., in the hoop direction for axi-symmetric systems such as beverage cans. Modern beverage can is a highly engineered product with a complex geometry. Therefore in order to understand wrinkling in such a complex system, we have started by studying wrinkling with the Yoshida buckling test. Further, we have studied the buckling of ideal and dented beverage cans under axial loading by laboratory testing. We have modelled the laboratory tests and also the imperfection sensitivity of the two systems using finite element method and the predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  6. Hypertension in children and adolescents: epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Manu; Krishnakumar, R

    2013-03-01

    High blood pressure is one among the leading contributors to burden of disease globally. Approximately 54 % of stroke and 47 % of ischemic heart disease events worldwide were attributable to high blood pressure in the year 2001. There is deficiency of data on the long-term outcome of hypertension in children. In spite of this, there is sufficient evidence to suspect that the health risks of hypertension in pediatric patients are substantial. Hypertension in childhood is known to result in hypertension in young adulthood. The epidemiology of hypertension in children is well represented from various studies conducted across continents. Factors like methodological issues in measurement, socio demographic differences, adiposity levels and ethnicity appear to influence the distribution of blood pressure as well as prevalence of hypertension in children. The etio-pathogenesis of essential (primary) hypertension is multi-factorial in origin. Obesity, insulin resistance, activation of sympathetic nervous system, alterations in sodium homeostasis, renin-angiotensin system changes, changes in vascular smooth muscle structure and reactivity, high serum uric acid levels, genetic factors and fetal programming have been reported to contribute to this disorder. The causes of secondary hypertension vary with age. Renal disorders and coarctation of the aorta are the most common causes of hypertension in children up to age 6 y. In older children, renal parenchymal disease remains the most frequent cause of increased blood pressure. Other causes of hypertension in children are relatively rare and include systemic arteritis and certain tumours, endocrine dysfunction, and neurologic disorders.

  7. Awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among Filipino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursua, Rhodora; Aguilar, David; Wyatt, Laura; Tandon, Shiv Darius; Escondo, Kirklyn; Rey, Mariano; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2014-03-01

    Filipino Americans have high rates of hypertension, yet little research has examined hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in this group. In a community-based sample of hypertensive Filipino American immigrants, we identify 1) rates of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control; and 2) factors associated with awareness, treatment, and control. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from health screenings collected from 2006 to 2010. A total of 566 hypertensive Filipino immigrants in New York City, New York and Jersey City, New Jersey. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. Participants were included in analysis if they were hypertensive, based on: a past physician diagnosis, antihypertensive medication use, and/or high blood pressure (BP) screening measurements. Demographic variables included sex, age, time in the United States, location of residence, and English spoken language fluency. Health-related variables included self-reported health, insurance status, diabetes diagnosis, high cholesterol diagnosis, clinical measures (body mass index [BMI], glucose, and cholesterol), exercise frequency, smoking status, cardiac event history, family history of cardiac event, and family history of hypertension. Among the hypertensive individuals, awareness, treatment, and control rates were suboptimal; 72.1 % were aware of their status, 56.5 % were on medication, and only 21.7 % had controlled BP. Factors related to awareness included older age, worse self-reported health, family history of hypertension, and a diagnosis of high cholesterol or diabetes; factors related to treatment included older age, longer time lived in the United States, and being a non-smoker; having health insurance was found to be the main predictor of hypertension control. Many individuals had other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; 60.4 % had a BMI ≥25, 12.0 % had at-risk glucose measurements and 12.8 % had cholesterol ≥ 240. Hypertensive Filipinos exhibit poor

  8. Immune regulation of systemic hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and preeclampsia: shared disease mechanisms and translational opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Salema; Ormiston, Mark L

    2017-12-01

    Systemic hypertension, preeclampsia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are diseases of high blood pressure in the systemic or pulmonary circulation. Beyond the well-defined contribution of more traditional pathophysiological mechanisms, such as changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, to the development of these hypertensive disorders, there is substantial clinical evidence supporting an important role for inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of each of these three conditions. Over the last decade, work in small animal models, bearing targeted deficiencies in specific cytokines or immune cell subsets, has begun to clarify the immune-mediated mechanisms that drive changes in vascular structure and tone in hypertensive disease. By summarizing the clinical and experimental evidence supporting a contribution of the immune system to systemic hypertension, preeclampsia, and PAH, the current review highlights the cellular and molecular pathways that are common to all three hypertensive disorders. These mechanisms are centered on an imbalance in CD4 + helper T cell populations, defined by excessive Th17 responses and impaired T reg activity, as well as the excessive activation or impairment of additional immune cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, CD8 + T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. The identification of common immune mechanisms in systemic hypertension, preeclampsia, and PAH raises the possibility of new therapeutic strategies that target the immune component of hypertension across multiple disorders. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Management of hypertension in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Oparil, Suzanne

    2012-03-13

    Hypertension is the most-prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypertension is highly prevalent among older adults (≥65 years), and aging of the population will substantially increase the prevalence of this condition. Age-related endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness contribute to the increased prevalence of hypertension, particularly systolic hypertension, among the elderly. The incidence of some forms of secondary hypertension also increases with age, mainly owing to the use of drugs (especially NSAIDs that have pressor effects) and the presence of chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and renal artery stenosis. Guidelines differ in thresholds and goals for antihypertensive drug therapy in the elderly because of a paucity of high-level evidence from randomized controlled trials and inconsistencies in the definition of 'elderly'. Medical treatment of hypertension reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the elderly, and all guidelines recommend lifestyle modifications and medical treatment for elderly patients whose blood pressure exceeds prescribed thresholds and who are at moderate or high cardiovascular disease risk. In the absence of comorbidities, which constitute 'compelling indications' for the use of specific antihypertensive drugs or drug classes, no clear evidence exists to support recommendations for the use of particular antihypertensive-drug classes in older adults.

  10. Effect of felodipine on myocardial and renal injury induced by aldosterone-high salt hypertension in uninephrectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Matsubara

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently shown that calcium channel blockers might have a protective effect on cardiac fibrogenesis induced by aldosterone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of felodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, against heart and kidney damage caused by aldosterone-high sodium intake in uninephrectomized rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: CNEP (uninephrectomized + 1% NaCl in the drinking water, N = 9; ALDO (same as CNEP group plus continuous infusion of 0.75 µg/h aldosterone, N = 12; ALDOF (same as ALDO group plus 30 mg·kg-1·day-1 felodipine in the drinking water, N = 10. All results were compared with those of age-matched, untreated rats (CTL group, N = 10. After 6 weeks, tail cuff blood pressure was recorded and the rats were killed for histological analysis. Blood pressure (mmHg was significantly elevated (P < 0.05 in ALDO (180 ± 20 and ALDOF (168 ± 13 compared to CTL (123 ± 12 and CNEP (134 ± 13. Heart damage (lesion scores - median and interquartile range was 7.0 (5.5-8.0 in ALDO and was fully prevented in ALDOF (1.5; 1.0-2.0. Also, left ventricular collagen volume fraction (% in ALDOF (2.9 ± 0.5 was similar to CTL (2.9 ± 0.5 and CNEP (3.4 ± 0.4 and decreased compared to ALDO (5.1 ± 1.6. Felodipine partially prevented kidney injury since the damage score for ALDOF (2.0; 2.0-3.0 was significantly decreased compared to ALDO (7.5; 4.0-10.5, although higher than CTL (null score. Felodipine has a protective effect on the myocardium and kidney as evidenced by decreased perivascular inflammation, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis.

  11. Electron energization in the geomagnetic tail current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Electron motion in the distant tail current sheet is evaluated and found to violate the guiding center approximation at energies > or approx. =100 eV. Most electrons within the energy range approx.10 -1 -10 2 keV that enter the current sheet become trapped within the magnetic field reversal region. These electrons then convect earthward and gain energy from the cross-tail electric field. If the energy spectrum of electrons entering the current sheet is similar to that of electrons from the boundary layer surrounding the magnetotail, the energy gain from the electric field produces electron energy spectra comparable to those observed in the earth's plasma sheet. Thus current sheet interactions can be a significant source of particles and energy for plasma sheet electrons as well as for plasma sheet ions. A small fraction of electrons within the current sheet has its pitch angles scattered so as to be ejected from the current sheet within the atmospheric loss cone. These electrons can account for the electron precipitation near the high-latitude boundary of energetic electrons, which is approximately isotropic in pitch angle up to at least several hundred keV. Current sheet interaction should cause approximately isotropic auroral precipitation up to several hundred keV energies, which extends to significantly lower latitudes for ions than for electrons in agreement with low-altitude satellite observations. Electron precipitation associated with diffuse aurora generally has a transition at 1-10 keV to anisotropic pitch angle distributions. Such electron precipitation cannot be explained by current sheet interactions, but it can be explained by pitch angle diffusion driven by plasma turbulence

  12. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  13. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  14. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  15. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  16. Pulmonary hypertension CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels

  17. A CASE REPORT: HYPERTENSION IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagung Desy Kristiyani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in pregnancy is 15 percent of the comorbid of pregnancy and one of the threehighest causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in childbirth. This can be either ChronicHypertension, Gestational Hypertension,and developed further into Preeclampsia orEclampsia. In Indonesia, the mortality and morbidity of hypertension in pregnancy is alsostill quite high. This is caused not only by the etiology that is stillunclear, but also bychildbirth care that is still handled by non-medical officers and referral system which hasnot been perfect. This case report discusses about Severe Preeclampsia with ImpendingEclampsiaon a 28 years old pregnant woman, supporting urinalysis examination showedprotein and ketones in the urine, blood chemistry examination also obtained an increase ofthe liver enzyme and lactate dehydrogenase . In these patients is done handling atermination of pregnancy by Sectio Caesarea method.

  18. Managing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Samuel; Nissen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is a common problem in the diabetic population with estimates suggesting a prevalence exceeding 60%. Comorbid hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with high rates of macrovascular and microvascular complications. These two pathologies share overlapping risk factors, importantly central obesity. Treatment of hypertension is unequivocally beneficial and improves all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, and microvascular outcomes including nephropathy and retinopathy. Although controversial, current guidelines recommend a target blood pressure in the diabetic population of diabetes. Management of blood pressure in patients with diabetes includes both lifestyle modifications and pharmacological therapies. This article reviews the evidence for management of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and provides a recommended treatment strategy based on the available data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of severe hypertension in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Janis M; Flynn, Joseph T

    2017-12-01

    Blood pressure is considered a vital sign, as values too low or too high can be related with serious morbidity and mortality. In neonates, normal blood pressure values undergo rapid changes, especially in premature infants, making the recognition of abnormal blood pressures more challenging. Severe hypertension can occur in neonates and infants and is a medical emergency, often manifesting with congestive heart failure or other life-threatening complications. The cause or risk factors for the hypertension can usually be identified and may guide management. Most classes of antihypertensive medications have been used in the neonatal population. For severe hypertension, intravenous short-acting medications are preferred for a controlled reduction of blood pressure. In this article, we focus on identification, aetiology and management of severe hypertension in the newborn. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Effective selection of hypertensive patients for angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Voorde, F.; Derkx, F.H.M.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; Segaar, R.W.; de Wind, A.; Pieterman, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors prospectively observed 373 severe hypertensives with either diastolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 105 and age ≤ 40, or BP with three drugs ≥ 105 (regardless of age). Excluded were patients who were older than 75 or who had creatinine >400. History, physical examination, and laboratory data were used to identify high-yield criteria for arteriography. All patients underwent angiography as the gold standard; angiography showed 127 unilateral renal artery stenoses, 73 bilateral renal artery stenoses, and 173 (nonstenosed) essential hypertensives. The authors constructed a logistic regression model of height, weight, age, smoking, and hypertension duration, which could be used to identify 90% of stenosed patients with 50% fewer angiographies in the essential hypertensives

  1. Prediction of cardiovascular outcome by estimated glomerular filtration rate and estimated creatinine clearance in the high-risk hypertension population of the VALUE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruilope, Luis M; Zanchetti, Alberto; Julius, Stevo; McInnes, Gordon T; Segura, Julian; Stolt, Pelle; Hua, Tsushung A; Weber, Michael A; Jamerson, Ken

    2007-07-01

    Reduced renal function is predictive of poor cardiovascular outcomes but the predictive value of different measures of renal function is uncertain. We compared the value of estimated creatinine clearance, using the Cockcroft-Gault formula, with that of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula, as predictors of cardiovascular outcome in 15 245 high-risk hypertensive participants in the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial. For the primary end-point, the three secondary end-points and for all-cause death, outcomes were compared for individuals with baseline estimated creatinine clearance and estimated GFR or = 60 ml/min using hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Coronary heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, age, sex and treatment effects were included as covariates in the model. For each end-point considered, the risk in individuals with poor renal function at baseline was greater than in those with better renal function. Estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault) was significantly predictive only of all-cause death [hazard ratio = 1.223, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.076-1.390; P = 0.0021] whereas estimated GFR was predictive of all outcomes except stroke. Hazard ratios (95% CIs) for estimated GFR were: primary cardiac end-point, 1.497 (1.332-1.682), P cause death, 1.231 (1.098-1.380), P = 0.0004. These results indicate that estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated with the MDRD formula is more informative than estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault) in the prediction of cardiovascular outcomes.

  2. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute and chronic responses to HIIT vs. CExT in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced mild PAH. Six weeks of treadmill training (5 times/wk) were performed, as either 30 min HIIT or 60 min low-intensity CExT. To characterize acute hemodynamic responses to the two approaches, novel recordings of simultaneous pulmonary and systemic pressures during running were obtained at pre- and 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk post-MCT using long-term implantable telemetry. MCT-induced decrement in maximal aerobic capacity was ameliorated by both HIIT and CExT, with less pronounced pulmonary vascular remodeling and no increase in RV inflammation or apoptosis observed. Most importantly, only HIIT lowered RV systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy, and total pulmonary resistance, and prompted higher cardiac index that was complemented by a RV increase in the positive inotrope apelin and reduced fibrosis. HIIT prompted a markedly pulsatile pulmonary pressure during running and was associated with greater lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase after 6 wk. We conclude that HIIT may be superior to CExT for improving hemodynamics and maladaptive RV hypertrophy in PAH. HIIT's superior outcomes may be explained by more favorable pulmonary vascular endothelial adaptation to the pulsatile HIIT stimulus.

  3. High performance of visible-NIR broad spectral photocurrent application of monodisperse PbSe nanocubes decorated on rGO sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorban Shiravizadeh, A.; Elahi, S. M.; Sebt, S. A.; Yousefi, Ramin

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the photoresponse performance of monodisperse PbSe nanocubes in the range of visible and near-infrared (NIR) (400-1500 nm) regions was enhanced by reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A simple cost-effective method is presented to synthesize monodisperse PbSe nanocubes (NCs) that are decorated on the rGO sheets. By the addition of PbSe/rGO nanocomposites with different rGO concentrations, pristine PbSe NCs were synthesized with the same method. Microscopy images showed that the size of NCs was smaller than the exciton Bohr radius (46 nm) of PbSe bulk. Therefore, the UV-Vis-IR spectroscopy result revealed that the PbSe/rGO samples had absorption peaks in the NIR region around 1650 nm and showed a blue shift compared to the absorption peak of the PbSe bulk. J-V measurements of the samples indicated that monodisperse PbSe/rGO nanocomposites had a higher resistance than the other samples under dark condition. On the other hand, the resistance of the monodisperse PbSe/rGO nanocomposites decreased under different light source illuminations while the resistance of the other samples was increased under illumination. Photodetector measurements indicated that the monodisperse morphology of the PbSe NCs enhanced the photoresponse speed and photocurrent intensity. In addition, responsivity (R) and detectivity (D*) of the samples were higher in the NIR region.

  4. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  5. Effects of transverse temperature field nonuniformity on stress in silicon sheet growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataga, P. A.; Hutchinson, J. W.; Chalmers, B.; Bell, R. O.; Kalejs, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    Stress and strain rate distributions are calculated using finite element analysis for steady-state growth of thin silicon sheet temperature nonuniformities imposed in the transverse (sheet width) dimension. Significant reductions in residual stress are predicted to occur for the case where the sheet edge is cooled relative to its center provided plastic deformation with high creep rates is present.

  6. Self-inhibiting growth of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langen, Peter Lang; Solgaard, Anne Munck; Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2012-01-01

    The build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from ice-free conditions is studied in an ice sheet model (ISM) driven by fields from an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) to demonstrate the importance of coupling between the two components. Experiments where the two are coupled off-line...... are augmented by one where an intermediate ice sheet configuration is coupled back to the GCM. Forcing the ISM with GCM fields corresponding to the ice-free state leads to extensive regrowth which, however, is halted when the intermediate recoupling step is included. This inhibition of further growth is due...... to a Föhn effect of moist air parcels being lifted over the intermediate ice sheet and arriving in the low-lying Greenland interior with high temperatures. This demonstrates that two-way coupling between the atmosphere and the ice sheet is essential for understanding the dynamics and that large scale...

  7. Association of Parental Hypertension With Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compa......, in this community-based sample of young, nonhypertensive adults, we observed greater arterial stiffness in offspring of parents with hypertension. These observations are consistent with higher vascular stiffness at an early stage in the pathogenesis of hypertension.......High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We...... compared arterial tonometry measures in a sample of 1564 nonhypertensive Framingham Heart Study third-generation cohort participants (mean age: 38 years; 55% women) whose parents were enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. A total of 468, 715, and 381 participants had 0 (referent), 1, and 2 parents...

  8. Hypertension og nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling B; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...

  9. Hypertension og nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling B; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice....

  10. Hypertension and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal failure. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many types of cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation......) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit of comprehensively reviewing the available evidence...

  11. Role of the Immune System in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pons, Hector; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    High blood pressure is present in more than one billion adults worldwide and is the most important modifiable risk factor of death resulting from cardiovascular disease. While many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, a role of the immune system has been firmly established by a large number of investigations from many laboratories around the world. Immunosuppressive drugs and inhibition of individual cytokines prevent or ameliorate experimental hypertension, and studies in genetically-modified mouse strains have demonstrated that lymphocytes are necessary participants in the development of hypertension and in hypertensive organ injury. Furthermore, immune reactivity may be the driving force of hypertension in autoimmune diseases. Infiltration of immune cells, oxidative stress, and stimulation of the intrarenal angiotensin system are induced by activation of the innate and adaptive immunity. High blood pressure results from the combined effects of inflammation-induced impairment in the pressure natriuresis relationship, dysfunctional vascular relaxation, and overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. Imbalances between proinflammatory effector responses and anti-inflammatory responses of regulatory T cells to a large extent determine the severity of inflammation. Experimental and human studies have uncovered autoantigens (isoketal-modified proteins and heat shock protein 70) of potential clinical relevance. Further investigations on the immune reactivity in hypertension may result in the identification of new strategies for the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-02-01

    Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11-12 years old. To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method: We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15-16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. Laser Indirect Shock Welding of Fine Wire to Metal Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Huang, Tao; Luo, Yapeng; Liu, Huixia

    2017-09-12

    The purpose of this paper is to present an advanced method for welding fine wire to metal sheet, namely laser indirect shock welding (LISW). This process uses silica gel as driver sheet to accelerate the metal sheet toward the wire to obtain metallurgical bonding. A series of experiments were implemented to validate the welding ability of Al sheet/Cu wire and Al sheet/Ag wire. It was found that the use of a driver sheet can maintain high surface quality of the metal sheet. With the increase of laser pulse energy, the bonding area of the sheet/wire increased and the welding interfaces were nearly flat. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that the intermetallic phases were absent and a short element diffusion layer which would limit the formation of the intermetallic phases emerging at the welding interface. A tensile shear test was used to measure the mechanical strength of the welding joints. The influence of laser pulse energy on the tensile failure modes was investigated, and two failure modes, including interfacial failure and failure through the wire, were observed. The nanoindentation test results indicate that as the distance to the welding interface decreased, the microhardness increased due to the plastic deformation becoming more violent.

  14. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  15. [Arterial hypertension due to altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Wolfgang; Trapp, Michael; Miggitsch, Eva Maria; Krakher, Tiziana; Riedlbauer, Rita; Roher, Peter; Schwaberger, Günther

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of blood pressure under hypoxic conditions depends on individual factors, altitude and duration of stay at altitude. While most humans are normotensive at higher altitudes, a few will react with moderate hypertension or hypotension. Excessive elevation of arterial blood pressure is not even to be expected below 4,000 m. Rather, several weeks' stay at higher altitude will decrease systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest as well as during physical exertion. A high-altitude treatment for rehabilitation purposes at moderate altitude may be recommended for patients with cardio-circulatory disorders. Improvements can last several months even after returning to accustomed altitudes. Furthermore, endurance-trained hypertensive patients with pharmacologically controlled arterial blood pressure might be able to participate in mountain treks without additional health risk.

  16. Predictors of cardiac morbidity in diabetic, new-onset diabetic and non-diabetic high-risk hypertensive patients: The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksnes, Tonje A; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Rostrup, Morten; Holzhauer, Björn; Hua, Tsushung A; Julius, Stevo

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic and new-onset diabetic patients with hypertension have higher cardiac morbidity than patients without diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether baseline predictors of cardiac morbidity, the major constituent of the primary endpoint in the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial, were different in patients with diabetes and new-onset diabetes compared to patients without diabetes. In total, 15,245 high-risk hypertensive patients in the VALUE trial were followed for an average of 4.2 years. At baseline, 5250 patients were diabetic by the 1999 World Health Organization criteria, 1298 patients developed new-onset diabetes and 8697 patients stayed non-diabetic during follow-up. Cardiac morbidity was defined as a composite of myocardial infarction and heart failure requiring hospitalization, and baseline predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate stepwise Cox regression analyses. History of coronary heart disease (CHD) and age were the most important predictors of cardiac morbidity in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. History of CHD, history of stroke and age were the only significant predictors of cardiac morbidity in patients with new-onset diabetes. Predictors of cardiac morbidity, in particular history of CHD and age, were essentially the same in high-risk hypertensive patients with diabetes, new-onset diabetes and without diabetes who participated in the VALUE trial.

  17. Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayer, Stephen A; Liu, Yang

    2010-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension presenting in the neonatal period can be due to congenital heart malformations (most commonly associated with obstruction to pulmonary venous drainage), high output cardiac failure from large arteriovenous malformations and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Of these, the most common cause is PPHN. PPHN develops when pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) remains elevated after birth, resulting in right-to-left shunting of blood through foetal circulatory pathways. The PVR may remain elevated due to pulmonary hypoplasia, like that seen with congenital diaphragmatic hernia; maldevelopment of the pulmonary arteries, seen in meconium aspiration syndrome; and maladaption of the pulmonary vascular bed as occurs with perinatal asphyxia. These newborn patients typically require mechanical ventilatory support and those with underlying lung disease may benefit from high-frequency oscillatory ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Direct pulmonary vasodilators, such as inhaled nitric oxide, have been shown to improve the outcome and reduce the need for ECMO. However, there is very limited experience with other pulmonary vasodilators. The goals for anaesthetic management are (1) to provide an adequate depth of anaesthesia to ablate the rise in PVR associated with surgical stimuli; (2) to maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation; and (3) to be prepared to treat a pulmonary hypertensive crisis--an acute rise in PVR with associated cardiovascular collapse.

  18. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  19. Secondary hypertension in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-05-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as sleep apnea, are common causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Other causes include the following: Congestive heart failure Birth defects in the heart Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (blood clots in the pulmonary arteries) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ...