WorldWideScience

Sample records for sheet cleaner technology

  1. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  2. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method |applied to eliminate or significantly reduce hazardous waste generation. Source reduction includes product changes and source control. Source control can be further characterized as input material changes, technology...

  3. Evaluation of the cleaner technology programme

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    The report presents an independent evaluation of the Danish development programme for cleaner technology 1986-1989 and of the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1990-1992. The evaluation focuses on the results of technology development and implementation projects, on an examination...... of the dissemination of cleaner technology solutions achieved in six industrial branches, and on the overall programme and its effects, in particular environmental impacts, but also results in the form of employment, environmental export, strenghtening of Danish know-how etc....

  4. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REPLACEMENTS

    This guide describes available and emerging cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce emissions and wastes from paint and coatings applications. Environmental concerns and increasing costs of organic chemicals and metals are leading to changes in the formulation of organic ...

  5. Cleaner Technology in Denmark - support measures and regulatory efforts

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Danish cleaner technology support policies have been successful in fostering innovations that reduce the invironmental impact of products and production. But the lack of enforcement support for cleaner technology in environmental permits has limited the overall impact....

  6. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    Relunia, Estrella D.; Mateo, Alejandro J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  7. Cleaner technology diffusion: case studies, modeling and policy. Editorial

    Montalvo Corral, C.; Kemp, R.

    2008-01-01

    The development and application of cleaner technologies (environmental technologies) offer multiple benefits for the adopter: reduced emissions, less waste and cost savings from reduced resource use and savings on waste costs. The question here is: if cleaner technologies offer such great benefits

  8. On Cleaner Technologies in a Transboundary Pollution Game

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, a cleaner technology (i.e., a decrease in the emission to output ratio) induces each country to increase its emissions and ultimately can yield a higher level of pollution and reduce social welfare.

  9. Cleaner Technologies and the Stability of International Environmental Agreements

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper shows that, if countries are farsighted when deciding whether to defect from a coalition, then the implementation of cleaner technologies may jeopardize the chances of reaching an international environmental agreement. The grand coalition may be destabilized by the

  10. Guide to cleaner coal technology-related web sites

    Davidson, R; Jenkins, N; Zhang, X [IEA Coal Research - The Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The 'Guide to Cleaner Coal Technology-Related Web Sites' is a guide to web sites that contain important information on cleaner coal technologies (CCT). It contains a short introduction to the World Wide Web and gives advice on how to search for information using directories and search engines. The core section of the Guide is a collection of factsheets summarising the information available on over 65 major web sites selected from organizations worldwide (except those promoting companies). These sites contain a wealth of information on CCT research and development, technology transfer, financing and markets. The factsheets are organised in the following categories. Associations, research centres and programmes; Climate change and sustainable development; Cooperative ventures; Electronic journals; Financial institutions; International organizations; National government information; and Statistical information. A full subject index is provided. The Guide concludes with some general comments on the quality of the sites reviewed.

  11. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation in the Impl...... to improve the firms' environmental activities (e.g. setting up environmental policies, targets and action plans, implementing new procedures and technologies).......The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation...... in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing...

  12. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  13. Reactive adsorption: A cleaner technology in nuclear power plants

    Marton, G.; Szanya, T.; Hanak, L.

    1996-01-01

    Cleaner technology prefers work with minimal loss and the wastes cause the less environmental damages. In the spirit of the previous sentence in the present paper reactive adsorption is investigated for the removal of radioactive nuclides from nuclear power plant decontamination solutions. During alkaline, oxidative decontamination of nuclear power plant equipment a radioactive solution is produced. Owing to the storing difficulties of radioactive solutions it is necessary to develop a method for the in situ treatment of radioactive, alkaline, oxidative decontamination solutions, and for the concentration of radioactive components. Reactive adsorption seems to be promising for this purpose. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Radiation technology helps China’s industries make water cleaner

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    China is pursuing the use of radiation technology as part of its wastewater treatment methods to further efforts to manage industrial waste in an environmentally friendly way. “Treating the water that comes from our industries is very important, so we have been doing this for a long time. Now we want to become better at making our water cleaner,” said Jianlong Wang, Vice-President of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “We are receiving a lot of support from the IAEA to use electron beam based technologies to help us get rid of various water pollutants that the other methods cannot do on their own.”

  15. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  16. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...

  17. General wisdom concerning the factors affecting the adoption of cleaner technologies: a survey 1990-2007

    Montalvo Corral, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaner technologies (CT) have recently received much attention in diverse media and policy agendas. This comes out of the clear role they play in environmental protection and sustainability and the large potential to contribute to economic growth and competitiveness. The realization of both

  18. Printed Wiring Board Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive

    This document presents comparative risk, competitiveness, and resource requirements on technologies for performing the “making holes conductive” function during printed wiring board manufacturing.

  19. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  1. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  2. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  3. Water resources protection today: end-of-pipe technology and cleaner production. Case study of the Czech Odra River watershed.

    Chour, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on integrated watershed-based protection and sustainable use of water resources to increase the effectiveness of water pollution abatement. The approach includes improvements in end-of-pipe waste-water treatment technologies and implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) principles and policies within the watershed. An example of the general effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the Czech Odra River Cleaner Production Project where reductions in pollution were achieved with improved industrial production. The CP theme is worth considering as an important challenge for the IWA.

  4. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Siriwardena, Kanchana; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, Ram M.; Attalage, Rahula A.

    2006-01-01

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  5. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N. [Hanoi Univ. of Technology (Viet Nam)

    1996-12-31

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  6. Cell sheet technology and cell patterning for biofabrication

    Hannachi, Imen Elloumi; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-01

    We have developed cell sheet technology as a modern method for the fabrication of functional tissue-like and organ-like structures. This technology allows for a sheet of interconnected cells and cells in full contact with their natural extracellular environment to be obtained. A cell sheet can be patterned and composed according to more than one cell type. The key technology of cell sheet engineering is that a fabricated cell sheet can be harvested and transplanted utilizing temperature-responsive surfaces. In this review, we summarize different aspects of cell sheet engineering and provide a survey of the application of cell sheets as a suitable material for biofabrication and clinics. Moreover, since cell micropatterning is a key tool for cell sheet engineering, in this review we focus on the introduction of our approaches to cell micropatterning and cell co-culture to the principles of automation and how they can be subjected to easy robotics programming. Finally, efforts towards making cell sheet technology suitable for biofabrication and robotic biofabrication are also summarized. (topical review)

  7. Cutting cleaner

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  8. Technology strategy and the balance sheet: 3 points to consider.

    Waldron, David J

    2005-05-01

    Most hospitals use technology strategically to differentiate themselves from their competition. The rapid rate of change in healthcare technologies necessitates development of a technology life-cycle management program. Having access to flexible sources of capital appropriate to each category of technology assets allows liabilities and assets to be matched on a "balanced" balance sheet.

  9. Research Status on the Heterogeneous Sheet Connection Forming Technology

    SHI Wen-yong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous sheet connection forming is one of the effective ways to realize lightweight in many fields,such as equipment manufacturing and transportation. However, there are obvious differences in the material properties,when using the traditional connection methods,there is a certain technical bottlenecks. In this paper, the technological characteristics and research status of the welding method and mechanical connection method are discussed in detail,such as the TIC welding and the laser welding. The advantages and development potential of the technology are introduced in the field of the heterogeneous sheet connection,in combination with the industry development and the use demand,the development of the heterogeneous sheet connection technology is expected,to provide the technical support for the research and development of new heterogeneous sheet connection technology.

  10. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  11. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  12. Next Generation Air Measurement Technologies Fact Sheet

    EPA is advancing lower cost and portable air measurement technology to enhance monitoring capabilities for complying with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The technology is providing mobile and stationary real-time measurement capabilities.

  13. Solar Energy Technologies Office Fact Sheet

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2018-03-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) supports early-stage research and development to improve the affordability, reliability, and performance of solar technologies on the grid. The office invests in innovative research efforts that securely integrate more solar energy into the grid, enhance the use and storage of solar energy, and lower solar electricity costs.

  14. IN SITU GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR BUILDING CLEANER AND GREENER ENVIRONMENT

    Md. Faruque Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is abundant everywhere in the world. It certainly would be a great benefit for human being once it is produced by a sophisticated technology. Consequently, it would be the biggest console for earth considering environmental sustainability. Unfortunately, the current status of commercial production of geothermal energy primarily from hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma are limited to a few countries due to technological difficulties and production cost. This paper describes a simple technology where an in situ geothermal plant assisted by a heat pump would act as a high-temperature production (>150°C to provide excellent capacity of energy generation. The issue related to costs is interestingly cheaper on production, comparing to other technologies, such as solar, hydro, wind, and traditional geothermal technology as described in this article. Therefore, it is suggested that heat pump assisted in situ geothermal energy sources has a great potentiality to be a prime energy source in near future. Since the technology has a number of positive characteristics (simple, safe, and provides continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity and benign environmental attributes (zero emissions of CO2, SOx, and NOx, it certainly would be an interesting technology in both developed, and developing countries as an attractive option to produce clean energy to confirm a better environment.

  15. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  16. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example

    ZHOU Ying

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, producing the safe, high quality and nutritious vegetable products has become the common goal of the food producers and consumers. In doing so, Chinese government vigorously promotes clean production technology of vegetables for the source control and production process control. Unfortunately, lots of vegetables residues are still thrown away after the harvest, which has caused severe environmental pollution in producing areas. Vegetable waste composting technology, an important technology of vegetable cleaner production, has low requirements for technology conditions and is suitable for the promotion of rural households. But it needs additional investment costs including retting pond construction costs during application process and its personal income is less than the social benefits brought by the technology itself, which makes it difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers to adapt cleaner technology and the technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingent valuation method(CVM to understand the farmers' willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay(WTP by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha

    2015-01-01

    the complete life cycle modeling of CCTs. The advanced technologies include super-critical (super-C), ultra super-critical (USC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The results show that the higher efficiency technologies have lower potential impacts. Compared with the average level of power...... generation technology, CO2 emissions reduction is 6.4% for super-C, 37.4% for USC and 61.5% for IGCC. Four coal power scenarios are developed based on the assumption of potential investment power for CCTs in 2020, which are super-C, USC, USC and old low efficiency generation substitution by USC, IGCC...... and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CO2 emissions intensity is 1.93 kg/kWh for super-C, 1.69 kg/kWh for USC, 1.59 kg/kWh for USC + replacement and 1.29 kg/kWh for IGCC + CCS. The CO2 emissions intensity was 1.95 kg/kWh in 2010, which had decreased 5.5% compared with the level in 2005. The energy...

  18. Teaching Professionals Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology Combining Educational Learning and Practice Learning

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Rasmussen, Bent Hesse

    2001-01-01

    -ordinating efficient management of environmental problems and technological processes of change in companies, and within the area of planning and co-ordinating relevant public regulation. Two of the major cornerstones in the education of Environmental Management are 1) the education should provide the students......The objective of the education of Environmental Manager is to make the student able to understand and co-ordinate solutions of environmental problems within the industrial sector and the public authorities. As such the education aims at qualifying the student both within the area of planning and co...... with new scientific theories and methods that relate to their field of practice. And 2) the education should bring in and develop new competencies and perspectives that can act as renewable elements in the students’ practical work. Among other things this means that the education becomes a place where...

  19. Cleaner heat from wood. TULISIJA research programme for wood firing technology 1997-1999

    1998-01-01

    There are 1.3 million wood-burning fireplaces in Finnish homes. The interest in using fireplaces for heating of dwellings has recently been growing strongly. Some 5.6 million cubic meters of firewood is burned in domestic stoves and fireplaces annually. This corresponds to a total of 7.5 terawatthours of energy and amounts to 13 % of all energy used for heating in Finland. The aim of the TULISIJA research programme for wood firing technology (1997-1999) is to assist manufacturers in their efforts to develop the most emission-free, yet efficient, wood firing equipment in the world. Detailed objectives of the TULISIJA programme are: (1) To produce modelling capabilities for the evaluation of different fireplace designs. Capabilities are produced for utilising computer simulation for investigation of the emissions of small-size fireplaces. (2) To establish a measuring place for fireplaces, where manufacturers' equipment designs can be reliably tested according to different standards is to be built, through which the Finnish manufacturers may obtain approvals for their products for different market areas. (3) To enhance co-operation between manufacturers and research institutions. Within the programme, the expertise of researchers in universities and other research institutes is made available to manufacturers - and vice versa. Equally important is the utilisation of international co-operation and making new connections

  20. RAPID FREEFORM SHEET METAL FORMING: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEM VERIFICATION

    Kiridena, Vijitha [Ford Scientific Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States); Verma, Ravi [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States); Gutowski, Timothy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, John [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2018-03-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a transformational RApid Freeform sheet metal Forming Technology (RAFFT) in an industrial environment, which has the potential to increase manufacturing energy efficiency up to ten times, at a fraction of the cost of conventional technologies. The RAFFT technology is a flexible and energy-efficient process that eliminates the need for having geometry-specific forming dies. The innovation lies in the idea of using the energy resource at the local deformation area which provides greater formability, process control, and process flexibility relative to traditional methods. Double-Sided Incremental Forming (DSIF), the core technology in RAFFT, is a new concept for sheet metal forming. A blank sheet is clamped around its periphery and gradually deformed into a complex 3D freeform part by two strategically aligned stylus-type tools that follow a pre-described toolpath. The two tools, one on each side of the blank, can form a part with sharp features for both concave and convex shapes. Since deformation happens locally, the forming force at any instant is significantly decreased when compared to traditional methods. The key advantages of DSIF are its high process flexibility, high energy-efficiency, low capital investment, and the elimination of the need for massive amounts of die casting and machining. Additionally, the enhanced formability and process flexibility of DSIF can open up design spaces and result in greater weight savings.

  1. Cleaner Production in the mining

    Pinto Martinez, Elias

    2004-01-01

    The control politics of the environmental contamination have substantially changed from the 80, toward new preventive tendencies that make the question. That we make with the residuals? What can we make for not generating residuals? On this position, the topic of clean production, it really indicates environmentally a production cleaner, to generate a more respectful final product with the environment, as a result of a process that incorporates in each one of the phases of the life cycle of products the best environmental practices. The national politics of cleaner production was approved in August of 1997 by the environmental national advice, it was formulated like an answer to the solution of the environmental problem of the productive sectors that looks for fundamentally to prevent the contamination in its origin, instead of treating her once generated, with significant results for the construction of the real possibilities of sustainability and competitiveness. Their implementation requires of the government like of the productive sectors, fundamentally, because the environmental problems have become very complex for its control, only through direct regulation, and because to reach the sustainable development of the productive activities implies to face the new challenges of the national and international competitiveness, considering that the environmental administration is a source of opportunities and not an obstacle. In the practice the application of the concept of cleaner production, so much in the current systems of production like in the products and services, it doesn't mean a substitution in strict sense for other different, but improving them continually, under the expert that the new technologies will be cleaner. Of here that production cleans it profiles as the goal that will be reached with the new investments, as long as the systematic search of the continuous improvement, corresponds to the concept of cleaner production that obeys a dynamic and

  2. Elaboration of the technology of forming a conical product of sheet metal

    W. Matysiak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a general knowledge about spinning draw pieces of sheets, one of multi-operational processes of spinning a sheet metal conical product without machining. The objective of the work was to elaborate both the technology of forming conical products of sheet metal and execution of technological tests as well as to determine the technological parameters for the process of spinning a conical insert. As a result of the investigations, the products with improved mechanical properties, stricter execution tolerance and low roughness have been obtained. The series of 200 prototype conical inserts for the shipbuilding industry have been made.

  3. Metal cleaner poisoning

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  4. Cleaner products : new tools, players and relationships

    Remmen, Arne

    focus in the Product Oriented Environmental Initiative. The purpose of this evaluation has been to assess experience from the initiatives to date against the intentions of the action plan, and to provide constructive input to help flesh out a future product-oriented initiative, including the activities...... linked to the new programme for cleaner products. The evaluation has focused on three selected sectors and on inter-sector product-oriented projects carried out under the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1993-97. The investigation has been carried out at the request of the Council for Recycling...

  5. Cleaner fossil power generation in the 21st century: a technology strategy for carbon capture and storage

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    The document describes how the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) components of the United Kingdom Government's Carbon Abatement Technologies (CATs) Strategy should be developed and extended, with particular reference to a 2020 target for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) commercialisation and the 2050 UK Committee on Climate Change (CCC) dioxide target. It sets out a strategy for RD&D through the establishment of a collaborative programme linking industry, and academia, and involving different funding sources. The proposed RD& D programme has seven strategic themes: Power plant: focus on cost, increasing efficiency, biomass co-firing; Capture technologies: focus on cost, efficiency penalty, waste heat utilisation; storage: focus on security, monitoring and verification; transport: focus on logistics and transport network; whole system: focus on risks, transient capability, economics, environmental issues; advanced and novel capture technologies; and underpinning technology support. 11 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Careers "Fact Sheets" for clinical engineering & biomedical technology.

    Pacela, A F

    1991-01-01

    Three Careers "Fact Sheets" include information on CE and BMET job titles, job descriptions, and certification. These materials are intended to aid in furthering professional recognition for Clinical Engineers and BMETs, and may be useful in communicating with Administration or Human Resources departments.

  7. Technological problems connected with execution of the protection sheets for nuclear power sets WWER-1000

    Hajutin, J.G.; Kriczewskij, A.Z.

    1977-01-01

    The choice of the structure and the prestressing system of the R.C. protection sheet for nuclear power sets WWER-1000 is motivated. The technological problems arised during the execution stage, as well as the technological line producing the tendons to prestress the structure by up winding are presented. (author)

  8. Application of cell sheet technology to bone marrow stromal cell transplantation for rat brain infarct.

    Ito, Masaki; Shichinohe, Hideo; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplantation enhances functional recovery after cerebral infarct, but the optimal delivery route is undetermined. This study was aimed to assess whether a novel cell-sheet technology non-invasively serves therapeutic benefits to ischemic stroke. First, the monolayered cell sheet was engineered by culturing rat BMSCs on a temperature-responsive dish. The cell sheet was analysed histologically and then transplanted onto the ipsilateral neocortex of rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at 7 days after the insult. Their behaviours and histology were compared with those in the animals treated with direct injection of BMSCs or vehicle over 4 weeks post-transplantation. The cell sheet was 27.9 ± 8.0 μm thick and was composed of 9.8 ± 2.4 × 10 5 cells. Cell sheet transplantation significantly improved motor function when compared with the vehicle-injected animals. Histological analysis revealed that the BMSCs were densely distributed to the neocortex adjacent to the cerebral infarct and expressed neuronal phenotype in the cell sheet-transplanted animals. These findings were almost equal to those for the animals treated with direct BMSC injection. The attachment of the BMSC sheet to the brain surface did not induce reactive astrocytes in the adjacent neocortex, although direct injection of BMSCs profoundly induced reactive astrocytes around the injection site. These findings suggest that the BMSCs in cell sheets preserve their biological capacity of migration and neural differentiation. Cell-sheet technology may enhance functional recovery after ischaemic stroke, using a less invasive method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Dismantlement, Remedial action

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part C, Robotics/automation, Waste management

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  11. Institutionalising cleaner production in China: the cleaner production promotion law

    Mol, A.P.J.; Liu Yi,

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, cleaner production was introduced in China, in the beginning especially via development aid projects. From 1992 to 1997 the focus was strongly on the introduction of cleaner production methodology, the training of personnel and the implementation of demonstration projects at the

  12. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  13. FY2000 Hanford Technology Deployment Accomplishments Fact Sheets

    WIBLE, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Cleaning up the Hanford Site is one of the top priorities for the U. S. Department of Energy. The department is continually looking for ways to expedite cleanup and reduce costs. During Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. Hanford Site staff deployed 24 new technologies, which produced an estimated lifecycle cost savings of 479 million dollars. This is a clear indicator of the impacts new technology has had and will have on the cleanup efforts. The Hanford Site cleanup is focused on the following: Restoring the Columbia River Corridor; Building and operating the tank waste treatment complex to complete the cleanup of highly radioactive tank waste at Hanford; and Transitioning the Central Plateau. Applying innovative science and technology from national laboratories, universities, and private industry is critical to our complex cleanup mission. The 24 new technologies deployed in FY 2000 are significantly higher than our goal of 14 technological deployments. Eleven of these technologies supported restoring the Columbia River Corridor, and seven were involved with the remediation of radioactive tank waste. These deployments produced valuable information to determine the effectiveness of the new technologies in the field and the efficiencies gained over existing cleanup methods. In several cases, the technology deployed presented a solution to a problem where a clear path of remediation had not yet been determined. New and innovative technologies will play a significant role in the cleanup of the Hanford Site and enable remediation to be done more efficiently. Technology is being developed at a staggering pace. This requires excellent communication throughout the scientific and industry arenas. To effect this communication, we have implemented a technology needs process in conjunction with the multi-year work planning process. Through the combination of these two processes, technology developments and deployments address the near-term technology needs and enable us to plan for the

  14. U.S. EPA Federal Technology Transfer Program Fact Sheet

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), enacted by Congress in 1986 and building on previous legislation, improves access to federal laboratories by non-federal organizations for research and development opportunities.

  15. Metal-Detergent/Cleaner Compatibility

    Hindin, Barry

    1994-01-01

    ...) such as CFC-1 13 or 1,1,1 Trichioroethane (TCA) in their cleaning and degreasing procedures. During the last few years, AGMC has been evaluating alternative, environmentally acceptable chemicals to replace their ODC cleaners...

  16. A technology to improve formability for aluminum alloy thin-wall corrugated sheet component hydroforming

    Lang Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosively forming projectile (EFP had been traditional adopted for the aluminum thin-walled corrugated sheet, whose deformation range is large but the formability is poor, and this process usually has problems of poor surface quality, long manufacturing cycle and high cost. The active hydroforming process was suggested to solve these issues during EFP. A new technology named as blank bulging by turning the upside down active hydroforming technology was proposed to overcome difficulties in non-uniform thickness distribution and cracking failure of corrugated sheet during the conventional hydroforming process. Both numerical simulations and experiments were conducted for this new technology. The result show that the deformation capacity of aluminum alloys can be improved effectively, and the more uniform distribution of wall thickness was obtained by this new method. It is conducted that the new method is universal for thin-walled, shallow drawing parts with complex section.

  17. Using digital communication technology fails to improve longitudinal evaluation of an HIV prevention program aimed at Indian truck drivers and cleaners.

    Schneider, John A; Kondareddy, Divya; Gandham, Sabitha; Dude, Annie M

    2012-07-01

    HIV prevention programs for truck drivers and cleaners (TDC) in India are limited. Longitudinal follow-up presents an obstacle to program effectiveness evaluation. We asked 3,028 TDC in a truck-driver HIV prevention program in Hyderabad to leave a cellular telephone number; we contacted participants 6 months after the intervention to assess sexual risk behavior change. Married, older, and better educated participants were more likely to leave phone numbers. Only 6.5% of TDC were reachable after 6 months. Longitudinal follow-up of this mobile sub-population remains a challenge, and more effective methods for evaluating HIV prevention programs are needed.

  18. Successes emerge in search for cleaner processes

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Faced with mounting public and regulatory pressures, many chemical producers have long adopted pollution reduction efforts. But increasingly, firms are eyeing fundamental process changes to achieve cleaner technologies. In addition to environmental benefits, the promised economic payoffs are clear: higher yields and an escape from soaring waste treatment and disposal costs. Having such technologies, says Paolo Galli, Montecatini's (Milan) director/corporate research, is a tremendous tool. It's becoming an increasingly important competitive element. Indeed, suggests David Hyde, ICI's (London) manager/environmental technology, everyone is looking to use cleaner technologies for a competitive advantage. A number of leading technology groups, including UOP (Des Plaines, IL), are working on replacing hydrofluoric acid (HF) with solid catalysts in alkylation processes. Although it is technologically tough to replace HF or alternative sulfuric acid technology, the rewards could be huge in producing high-octane fuel additives. Catalytica (Mountain View, CA), for one, is building a pilot plant with partners Neste (Helsinki) and Du Pont's Conoco. The company has developed a process to manufacture high-purity DMC by direct synthesis from carbom monoxide, methanol, and oxygen. The medium-pressure process uses a copper salts catalyst system; EniChem says the only significant by-product is carbon dioxide, and there are no chlorinated impurities

  19. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section

  20. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections

  1. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  2. Technical fact sheets on the impacts of new energy efficiency technologies and measures in ice rinks

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents energy efficiency facts on ice rinks and arenas to advise and inform refrigeration and building professionals. The aim of the paper was to facilitate estimation and compare impacts of various energy efficiency measures and new technologies on the consumption of energy and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A computer-based tool modelling ice rink energy consumption was constructed based on DOE-2.1E software. The simulation tool was developed to study the sensitivity of various eco-energetic technologies applied to arenas. Results of the simulations have made it possible to construct 8 facts sheets, including information on simulated heat exchange; calculation of energy consumption for heating and refrigeration; the incorporation of several types of Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems; and to show various strategies of operation. To account for the effects of ice within a building, calculation routines in the form of functional values were added. The model addressed the following parameters: climate; characteristics of the envelope; lighting power and intensity; temperature of the resurfacing water; ice sheet temperature; humidity level of the ice rink; fresh air intake; emissivity index of the ceiling above the ice sheet; refrigeration systems according to type, capacity, output and operation mode; capacity output and operation mode of the air heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system; and capacity, output and operation mode of the domestic and resurfacing hot water heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system. Fact sheets were presented for the type of technology; description; direct or indirect benefits; energy-savings potential; environmental impacts; specific comments from specialists; and a set of charts to facilitate comprehension. tabs., figs.

  3. Reducing the cost of MWT module technology based on conductive back-sheet foils

    Bennett, I.J.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    MWT cell and module technology has shown to result in modules with a higher power output than H-pattern modules and to be suitable for use with thin and fragile cells. In this work, the use of low-cost module materials and their effect on module performance and reliability has been assessed. These materials include a conductive back-sheet patterned by milling with no silver plating at the contacts on the foil and no isolation coating on the copper and a low-silver content conductive adhesive. The sensitivity of module performance for the anti-corrosion coating on the copper of the conductive back-sheet is measured, as is the reliability in climate chamber testing of mini-modules made with these materials. The results show that these low cost materials can be used to manufacture module with good performance and reliability. Options are given for further cost reduction.

  4. Fuel cell technology for classroom instruction. Basic principles, experiments, work sheets. 2. ed.

    Voigt, Cornelia; Hoeller, Stefan; Kueter, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    This book provides a clear introduction and overview to fuel cell technology and its associated subject areas. Examples of experiments using solar cells, electrolysis and fuel cells convey the knowledge for forthcoming tests in an understandable manner. The preparation of classroom experiments is made considerably easier for the teacher thanks to the experiment work sheets. These contain the necessary information concerning the material, set-up and execution of the experiment, and questions for evaluation purposes. Online-Shop The training documents and student work sheets combine the basic knowledge, questions and answers, and are ideal for copying. A comprehensive glossary at the end of the book explains all the important technical terms. (orig.)

  5. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  6. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  7. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  8. New technology for sulfide reductions and increased oil recovery: Petroleum project fact sheet

    NONE

    1999-12-14

    This Fact Sheet is written for the Inventions and Innovations Program about a new technology for sulfide reduction and increased oil recovery. The new technology, called Bio-Competitive Exclusion (BCX), results in greater oil production and prevents the production of corrosive hydrogen sulfide in oil and gas reservoirs. This BCX process is initiated and maintained by a new product, called Max-Well 2000, in which nutrients are custom designed to stimulate targeted beneficial microorganisms that live in every oil and gas reservoir. Rapid growth of these microorganisms excludes activity of harmful sulfide-producing bacteria and produces by-products that serve as effective tertiary oil recovery agents and as sulfide degradation agents. Oil and gas production is both increased and sweetened.

  9. Inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner

    Schuster, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    For applications requiring the filtration of air contaminated with enriched uranium, plutonium or other transuranium compounds, it appears desirable to collect the material in a fashion more amenable to recovery than is now practical when material is collected on HEPA filters. In some instances, it may also be desirable to use an air cleaner of this type to substantially reduce the loading to which HEPA filters are subjected. A theoretical evaluation of such an air cleaner considers the interaction between an electrically neutral particle, dielectric or conducting, with an inhomogeneous electric field. An expression is derived for the force exerted on a particle in an electrode configuration of two concentric cylinders. Equations of motion are obtained for a particle suspended in a laminar flow of air passing through this geometry. An electrical quadrupole geometry is also examined and shown to be inferior to the cylindrical one. The results of two separate configurations of the single cell prototypes of the proposed air cleaner are described. These tests were designed to evaluate collection efficiencies using mono-disperse polystyrene latex and polydisperse NaCl aerosols. The advantages and problems of such systems in terms of a large scale air cleaning facility will be discussed

  10. Fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner aerosols.

    Veit, F; Martz, W; Birngruber, C G; Dettmeyer, R B

    2018-04-23

    Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner. Essentially the autopsy revealed a cerebral oedema with encephalomalacia, no coagulated blood as well as increased blood and tissue fluid content of the lung. Toxicological analysis revealed brake cleaner fluid in the lung, gastric content and heart blood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  12. Technologies for Distributed Energy Resources. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Technical Assistance Fact Sheet

    Pitchford, P.; Brown, T.

    2001-01-01

    This four-page fact sheet describes distributed energy resources for Federal facilities, which are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Distributed energy resources include both existing and emerging energy technologies: advanced industrial turbines and microturbines; combined heat and power (CHP) systems; fuel cells; geothermal systems; natural gas reciprocating engines; photovoltaics and other solar systems; wind turbines; small, modular biopower; energy storage systems; and hybrid systems. DOE FEMP is investigating ways to use these alternative energy systems in government facilities to meet greater demand, to increase the reliability of the power-generation system, and to reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  13. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study...... on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...... is ‘to formulate, establish and develop a comprehensive "National Cleaner Production Promotion Program" for Malaysia’....

  14. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B, Remedial action, robotics/automation, waste management

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WN) problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remediation, decontamination, and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume 3 B provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (Remedial Action Robotics and Automation, Waste Management) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than each technology in Vol. 2. The TEDS are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each data sheet. Volume 3 can be used in two ways: (1) technologies that are identified from Vol. 2 can be referenced directly in Vol. 3 by using the TEDS codes, and (2) technologies and general technology areas (alternatives) can be located in the index in the front of this volume.

  15. An overview of cleaner fish use in Ireland.

    Bolton-Warberg, M

    2017-11-21

    Sea lice infestations represent one of the most significant challenges facing the salmon farming industry, giving rise to lost production, additional costs of treatment and potential negative interactions with wild stocks. At present, cleaner fish, which actively remove lice from salmon, are an effective, biological, long-term option which has been adopted by many countries. In Ireland, several key studies were conducted in the 1990s on the use of wild-caught wrasse (corkwing, goldsinny and rock cook) as cleaner fish in experimental and commercial scale trials. More recently, the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG), at their marine research facility in Carna (CRS), has undertaken applied research on ballan wrasse and lumpsucker. Currently, CRS is providing lumpsucker juveniles and research and development for the Irish salmon industry with support from BIM (Ireland's Seafood Development Agency) and Marine Harvest Ireland. There is a large amount of research currently being carried out in this area in all countries that are utilizing cleaner fish technology. The current focus in Ireland is the development of a native lumpsucker broodstock to facilitate its sustainable production. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research, challenges and use of cleaner fish in Ireland. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. AIS/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip Casting: Anticipating New Routes To Steel Sheet

    Prof. Alan W. Camb; Prof. Anthony Rollett

    2001-08-31

    To determine the potential for strip casting in the steel industry and to develop the fundamental knowledge necessary to allow the role of strip casting in the modern steel industry to be understood. Based upon a study of carbon steel strip castings that were either produced for the program at British Steel or were received from a pre-commercial production machine, the following conclusions were made. Strip casting of carbon steels is technically feasible for sheet material from slightly less than 1 mm thick to 3 mm thick, and, assuming that it is economically viable, it will be first applied in carbon steel markets that do not require stringent surface quality or extensive forming. The potential of strip casting as a casting process to be developed for steel castings is very high as the cast strip has some very novel characteristics. Direct cast carbon strip has better surface quality, shape and profile than any other casting process currently available. The more rapidly solidified structure of direct cast strip tends to be strong with low ductility; however, with adequate thermal treatment, it is possible to develop a variety of properties from the same grade. The process is more amenable at this time to production tonnages per year of the order of 500,000 tons and as such will first find niche type applications. This technology is an additional technology for steel production and will be in addition to, rather than a replacement for, current casting machines.

  17. Reconstructing the image of the cleaner

    Jorcho van Vlijmen; Toine van den Hoogen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article shows the relevance of an insider’s perspective on workers in the cleaning industry (cleaners). It explains how the ways in which cleaners create meaning in their work can be explored. These findings help to create added value for FM. Theory: Organisational theory describes a

  18. 7 CFR 2902.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industrial cleaners. 2902.49 Section 2902.49... Items § 2902.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as..., floors, walls, and other production-related work areas. The cleaning products within this item are...

  19. Cleaner Coal in China [Chinese Version

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness

  20. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming Analysis, Simulation and Engineering Applications

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Li-zhong; Zhu, Yi-guo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the application of innovative steel concepts in the automotive industry has increased steadily. Numerical simulation technology of hot forming of high-strength steel allows engineers to modify the formability of hot forming steel metals and to optimize die design schemes. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming focuses on hot and cold forming theories, numerical methods, relative simulation and experiment techniques for high-strength steel forming and die design in the automobile industry. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming introduces the general theories of cold forming, then expands upon advanced hot forming theories and simulation methods, including: • the forming process, • constitutive equations, • hot boundary constraint treatment, and • hot forming equipment and experiments. Various calculation methods of cold and hot forming, based on the authors’ experience in commercial CAE software f...

  1. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    Ahmad, I.; Batool, S.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  2. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology.

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Visser, G; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    Sun, Z.H.I.; Xiao, Y.; Sietsma, J.; Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G.; Yang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process

  4. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    Sun, Z.H.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Xiao, Y. [Ironmaking Department, R and D, Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G. [Business Development, Van Gansewinkel Groep BV, 5657 DH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  5. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    2010-01-01

    ... procurement applies are: (i) General purpose cleaners. Carpet and upholstery cleaners formulated for use in... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products... upholstery cleaners shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of...

  6. New directions in the science and technology of advanced sheet explosive formulations and the key energetic materials used in the processing of sheet explosives: Emerging trends.

    Talawar, M B; Jangid, S K; Nath, T; Sinha, R K; Asthana, S N

    2015-12-30

    This review presents the work carried out by the international community in the area of sheet explosive formulations and its applications in various systems. The sheet explosive is also named as PBXs and is a composite material in which solid explosive particles like RDX, HMX or PETN are dispersed in a polymeric matrix, forms a flexible material that can be rolled/cut into sheet form which can be applied to any complex contour. The designed sheet explosive must possess characteristic properties such as flexible, cuttable, water proof, easily initiable, and safe handling. The sheet explosives are being used for protecting tanks (ERA), light combat vehicle and futuristic infantry carrier vehicle from different attacking war heads etc. Besides, sheet explosives find wide applications in demolition of bridges, ships, cutting and metal cladding. This review also covers the aspects such as risks and hazard analysis during the processing of sheet explosive formulations, effect of ageing on sheet explosives, detection and analysis of sheet explosive ingredients and the R&D efforts of Indian researchers in the development of sheet explosive formulations. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no review article published in the literature in the area of sheet explosives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2011-01-01

    hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work......PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...

  8. Education and Manpower development for Cleaner Production

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the needs for education and training for dissemination and implementation of cleaner production. Expericne from training in companies and training of officials from public authorities and from integration into engineering, business and management and social science curricula...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Cleaners

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners that are effective as of July...

  10. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  11. TECHNOLOGY OF REVERSE-BLAST CORROSION CLEANING OF STEEL SHEETS PRIOR TO LASER CUTTING

    A. N. Zguk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of surface cleaning against corrosion influences on efficiency in realization of a number of technological processes. While using bentonite clays in power fluid reverse-blast cleaning ensures formation of anticorrosion protective coating with light absorbing properties on the cleaned surface and prevents formation of the repeated corrosion. The paper presents results of the investigations pertaining to influence of reverse-blast cleaning parameters of steel sheets on quality of the cleaned surface prior to laser cutting. Processing conditions, applied compositions of power fluid and also properties of the protective film coatings on the cleaned surface have been given in the paper. The paper considers topography, morphology and chemical composition of the given coating while applying complex metal micrographic, X-ray diffraction and electronic and microscopic investigations. A complex of laser cutting (refer to gas lasers with output continuous capacity of 2.5/4.0 kW has been applied for experimental works to evaluate influence of the formed surface quality on efficiency of laser cutting process. Specimens having dimension 120×120 mm, made of steel Ст3пс, with thickness from 3 to 10 mm have been prepared for the experiments. An analysis has shown that the application of reverse-blast cleaning ensures higher speed in laser cutting by a mean of 10–20 %. The investigations have made it possible to determine optimum cleaning modes: distance from a nozzle to the surface to be cleaned, jet velocity, pressure. It has been revealed that after drying of the specimens processed by power fluid based on water with concentrations of bentonite clay and calcined soda a protective film coating with thickness of some 5–7 µm has been formed on the whole cleaned specimen surfaces. Chemical base of the coating has been formed by the elements which are included in the composition of bentonite clay being the basic component of the power fluid. 

  12. Teaching Professionals Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Thorsen, Nils

    -ters. The target groups are professional environmental managers working in businesses including consultants, governmental institutions and organizations. To get access to the education the students must have a technical/nature science competence at master level or bachelor level combined with relevant job...... experience. Generally participants have had 5-15 years of practical experience and are in the position of a internal or external job change towards new tasks that require new knowledge, methodologies or management/co-ordination skills. The education of "Masters of Environmental Management" (MEM) started...

  13. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Improved Surface Quality of Exposed Automotive Sheet Steels

    John G. Speer; David K. Matlock; Noel Meyers; Young-Min Choi

    2002-10-10

    Surface quality of sheet steels is an important economic and technical issue for applications such as critical automotive surfaces. This project was therefore initiated to develop a more quantitative methodology for measuring surface imperfections, and to assess their response to forming and painting, particularly with respect to their visibility or invisibility after painting. The objectives were met, and included evaluation of a variety of imperfections present on commercial sheet surfaces or simulated using methods developed in the laboratory. The results are expected to have significant implications with respect to the methodology for assessing surface imperfections, development of quantitative criteria for surface inspection, and understanding and improving key painting process characteristics that influence the perceived quality of sheet steel surfaces.

  14. Investigation into Composites Property Effect on the Forming Limits of Multi-Layer Hybrid Sheets Using Hydroforming Technology

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Guan, Shiwei; Alexandrov, Seigei; Zeng, Yipan

    2018-04-01

    Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs) such as Kevlar reinforced aluminum laminate (ARALL), Carbon reinforced aluminum laminate (CARALL), and Glass reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) offer great potential for weight reduction applications in automobile and aerospace construction. In order to investigate the feasibility for utilizing such materials in the form of laminates, sheet hydroforming technology are studied under the condition of uniform blank holder force for three-layered aluminum and aluminum-composite laminates using orthogonal carbon and Kevlar as well as glass fiber in the middle. The experimental results validate the finite element results and they exhibited that the forming limit of glass fiber in the middle is the highest among the studied materials, while carbon fiber material performs the worst. Furthermore, the crack modes are different for the three kinds of fiber materials investigated in the research. This study provides fundamental guidance for the selection of multi-layer sheet materials in the future manufacturing field.

  15. Radial-rotation profile forming: A new processing technology of incremental sheet metal forming

    Laue, Robert; Härtel, Sebastian; Awiszus, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    Incremental forming processes (i.e., spinning) of sheet metal blanks into cylindrical cups are suitable for lower lot sizes. The produced cups were frequently used as preforms to produce workpieces in further forming steps with additional functions like profiled hollow parts [1]. The incremental forming process radial-rotation profile forming has been developed to enable the production of profiled hollow parts with low sheet thinning and good geometrical accuracy. The two principal forming steps are the production of the preform by rotational swing-folding [2] and the subsequent radial profiling of the hollow part in one clamping position. The rotational swing-folding process is based on a combination of conventional spinning and swing-folding. Therefore, a round blank rotates on a profiled mandrel and due to the swinging of a cylindrical forming tool, the blank is formed to a cup with low sheet thinning. In addition, thickening results at the edge of the blank and wrinkling occurs. However, the wrinkles are formed into the indentation of the profiled mandrel and can be reshaped as an advantage in the second process step, the radial profiling. Due to the rotation and continuous radial feed of a profiled forming tool to the profiled mandrel, the axial profile is formed in the second process step. Because of the minor relative movement in axial direction between tool and blank, low sheet thinning occurs. This is an advantage of the principle of the process.

  16. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    Kazuki Iwaoka; Tetsuo Ishikawa; Hidenori Yonehara; Shinji Tokonami

    2013-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the f p increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  17. Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

    Valíček J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction Δh and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction Δh, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy lowcarbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in

  18. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    Bratasida, D.L. [BAPEDAL, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  19. RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTION AND FORM IN VACUUM CLEANERS DESIGN

    RADU Ștefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how robotic vacuum cleaner works, describing their cleaning capabilities and additional features. The paper illustrates advantages of using robotic vacuum cleaners that have intelligent programming and a vacuum cleaning system, the components of a robotic vacuum cleaner. The paper develops aspects concerning to create 2D scale models for the evaluation of specific features of the new components for a prototype robotic vacuum cleaner.

  20. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal...

  1. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  2. Electronic air cleaners and the indoor environment

    Krafthefer, B.

    1986-01-01

    The growing awareness over the quality of air in the indoor environment is driving the search for effective control methods for the contaminants of concern. Electronic air cleaners can control such pollutants as dust, pollen, tobacco smoke, radon decay products, and other particulates. This paper presents an examination of the various types of electronic air cleaners and their effects on indoor pollutants. It also examines the mechanism for contaminant removal, the relationship of the efficiency to the characteristics of the contaminant, and what type of contaminants can be controlled with the electronic air cleaner, with particular emphasis placed on the removal of radon decay products. From a study on radon product removal in residences, the electronic air cleaner was found to have an efficiency of up to 70%. Not only was there a reduction in the residential working level, but the fluctuations in the working level were also reduced. With this information, they can better understand how to solve the air treatment problem of the inhabited space. 17 references, 8 figures

  3. HYDRO-ABRASIVE JET CLEANING TECHNOLOGY OF STEEL SHEETS DESIGNED FOR LASER CUTTING

    I. V. Kachanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations executed by the BNTU “Shipbuilding and hydraulics” department have shown that rather efficient implementation of the requirements to the metal sheet surface designed for laser cutting can be achieved by using hydro-abrasive jet cleaning while applying water pump equipment with the range of pressure – 20–40 MPa. Type of working fluid plays a significant role for obtaining surface of the required quality. The conducted experiments have demonstrated that the efficient solution of the assigned problems can be ensured by using a working fluid containing bentonite clay, surface-active agent polyacrylamide, soda ash and the rest water.

  4. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B: Decontamination, robotics/automation, waste management

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the decontamination, robotics/automation, and WM data sheets

  5. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A: Characterization, dismantlement

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the characterization and dismantlement data sheets.

  6. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A: Characterization, dismantlement

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the characterization and dismantlement data sheets

  7. A Case Study of Air Cleaner by the Intelligent Interaction and Emotion

    Cao, Huai; Sun, Yuwen

    2018-02-01

    The pure and fresh air can not only contribute to our physical and mental health, but also can be beneficial to ease the pressure and relax the mood. The vertical intelligent air cleaner can remove the harmful gases from the air and absorb the suspended particles in the air, especially all kinds of the bacteria and viruses. The air cleaner is good for improving the air quality of the indoor and maintaining the health of the people. The designing of the vertical air cleaner is as follows: The designing of the vertical intelligent make full use of the developed air purification technology. The smart home is inserted into the work. Simultaneously, in the aspect of the design of intelligent products, the intelligent interactive processes are scientifically planned. Moreover, the emotional design and the user experience are fully considered, which can enhance the comprehensive design ability.

  8. Effect of design and technology on the efficiency of ultrasonic facilities for sheet cleaning

    Lubyanitskij, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    Various techniques are reviewed for enhancing the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning of various items, such as sheets, and for lowering the energy consumption of the process. It is important to maintain a specified spacing between the item to be cleaned and the supersound projector, to remove the contaminants accumulating in the surface layer of the solution and to provide an adequate combination between the ultrasonic and the mechanical cleaning means. It is noted that the injection of the surfactants directly into the cleaning zone lowers the intensity of foaming without affecting the quality of cleaning. In some cases the cleaning is even speeded up due to an improvement in conditions for the transmission of acoustic waves in areas at some distance from the converter

  9. Synthesis of alumina nano-sheets via supercritical fluid technology with high uranyl adsorptive capacity

    Jing Yu; Jun Wang; Zhanshuang Li; Qi Liu; Milin Zhang; Hongbin Bai; Caishan Jiao; Jun Wang; Lianhe Liu

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide is beneficial to the synthesis of superior ultrafine and uniform materials due to its high chemical stability, low viscosity, high diffusivity, and 'zero' surface tension. γ-Alumina nano-sheets were obtained by a simple hydrothermal route in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and nitrogen sorption isotherm were employed to characterize the samples. Alumina as-prepared has a high specific surface area of up to 200 ± 6 m 2 g -1 , which presents a high adsorption capacity (4.66 ± 0.02 mg g -1 ) for uranyl ions from aqueous solution. Furthermore, the adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. (authors)

  10. Fact Sheet for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities Residual Risk and Technology Review

    proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities to address the results of the residual risk and technology review

  11. Catalytic processes for cleaner fuels

    Catani, R.; Marchionna, M.; Rossini, S.

    1999-01-01

    More stringent limitations on vehicle emissions require different measurement: fuel reformulation is one of the most important and is calling for a noticeable impact on refinery assets. Composition rangers of the future fuels have been defined on a time scale. In this scenario the evolution of catalytic technologies becomes a fundamental tool for allowing refinery to reach the fixed-by-law targets. In this paper, the refinery process options to meet each specific requirements of reformulated fuels are surveyed [it

  12. Determination and ranking cleaner production criteria by using analytic hierarchy process (Case study: Latif paper products company

    Yaghob Asadizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production process is an environmentally friendly approach that attempts to reduce waste and energy consumption then reduce environmental pollutions of industrial processes to provide the possibility of sustainable production in industrial units. To achieve this goal and alignment with cleaner production strategies, paper industries should consider reducing wastes of production processes and irregular consumption of energy as a priority in their programs. In this research Analytic Hierarchy Process has been applied and a three level hierarchy model was structured to facilitate the cleaner production process in Latif paper products firm. Using a literature review and field study, the proposed model provided a framework for cleaner production implementation in the firm. Results showed priorities of the main criteria of cleaner production are process change, product modification, implementation of preventive maintenance system, resititution and man force capitals respectively. Process change criterion allocated 40 percent of the total weighing value and has the highest priority in implementation of cleaner production strategy. Existence of industrial automation and its technology level which is a sub criterion of process change has the highest priority among 31 sub criteria. Also some of higher priority sub criteria such as use of higher quality inclusion and implementation of calibration system are related to process change. Therefore, to achieve cleaner production goals and implementation of its strategic objectives it is necessary to pay more attention to this criterion. Inconsistency ratio of the research is 0.06 which indicates the results are compatible. The results of this research can be used to accelerate the implementation of cleaner production process in Iran’s pulp and paper industry.

  13. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A, Characterization, decontamination, dismantlement

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  14. Technology Can Help Young Children Succeed. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c70

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Parents of young children with disabilities are discovering that carefully selected computer software and mobile apps can provide many benefits such as improved self-esteem, a longer attention span, and inclusion among family and other children that help their children succeed at home and in school. PACER's Simon Technology Center (STC) can help…

  15. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical

  16. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  17. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  18. Energy Innovation Portal Brings DOE Technologies to the Market (Fact Sheet)

    2011-10-01

    For venture capitalists, energy entrepreneurs, and industry veterans, finding the right renewable energy or energy efficiency solution used to be like looking for a needle in a haystack. Now, a searchable treasure trove of innovative U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technologies is available. Created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the online Energy Innovation Portal helps businesses and entrepreneurs access the intellectual property of DOE's 17 national laboratories and other research partners.

  19. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  20. Cleaner Production Applied in a Small Furniture Industry in Brazil: Addressing Focused Changes in Design to Reduce Waste

    Carlos Mario Gutiérrez Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wood industry is known for being among the biggest resource consumers, having a relatively low yield. The wood furniture industry as part of the wood industry also remains a big generator of residues and a big consumer of resources. Diverse solutions and technologies have been developed to deal with the residues generated, but those technologies are mostly applied at the end of the production chain with limited results. Cleaner production represents a program based on continuous strategies applied to a more sustainable use of materials and energy, minimizing waste and pollution. This paper presents a case study of a cleaner production program developed in a small furniture industry in Salvador de Bahia, Brazil, applying the concepts of cleaner production with parameters of ecodesign developed for the furniture industry. The object of study was the production of a wooden chair made from eucalyptus wood. The application of the cleaner production program and ecodesign parameters allowed a detailed characterization of the waste, resulting in opportunities for a reduction of the use of raw material by 30%, a reduction in waste by 49% and allowing a reduction in energy by 36% due to simplification of the productive process. Among the strategies applied were reshaping pieces, redesigning, and the substitution of materials. The results suggest that despite the existence of more complex environmental methods and approaches, the application of cleaner production plus ecodesign parameters could be more achievable for micro and small furniture industries.

  1. Decontamination sheet

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  2. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  3. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct....... The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...

  4. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  5. Epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in the healthcare sector.

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng

    2008-09-01

    The cleaning profession has been associated with multiple ergonomic and chemical hazards which elevate the risk for occupational injury. This study investigated the epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in healthcare work settings in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Incidents of occupational injury among cleaners, resulting in lost time from work or medical care, over a period of 1 year in two healthcare regions were extracted from a standardized operational database and with person-years obtained from payroll data. Detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modeling. A total of 145 injuries were identified among cleaners, with an annual incidence rate of 32.1 per 100 person-years. After adjustment for age, gender, subsector, facility, experience and employment status, Poisson regression models demonstrated that a significantly higher relative risk (RR) of all injury, musculoskeletal injury and cuts was associated with cleaning work in acute care facilities, compared with long-term care facilities. Female cleaners were at a higher RR of all injuries and contusions than male cleaners. A lower risk of all injury and allergy and irritation incidents among part-time or casual workers was found. Cleaners with >10 years of experience were at significantly lower risk for all injury, contusion and allergy and irritation incidents. Cleaners were found to be at an elevated risk of all injury categories compared with healthcare workers in general.

  6. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  7. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen......, presenting figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention...... towards sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project ‘A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner...

  8. [Effectiveness and limits of the cleaners steam in hospitals].

    Meunier, O; Meistermann, C; Schwebel, A

    2009-05-01

    We assessed bactericidal activity of the cleaners steam used for the bio-cleaning of the hospital surfaces. We performed of samples (Rodac) before and after use of cleaner steam and compared with bactericidal effect of disinfecting detergent used in hospital for surfaces. We studied this effectiveness for different time of steam contact. Finally, we wanted to prove, by air sampling, that aero-bio-contamination was possible generated by using cleaners steam. We show that bactericidal effect of the cleaner steam is superior of some tested disinfecting detergent, for the treatment of one square meter till 2 min. This effectiveness diminishes to be just identical in that some disinfecting detergent when use of the cleaner steam is up to two or four square meters surfaces till 2 min. On the other hand, the cleaner steam is less efficient in terms of bacterial destruction when the time of contact steam-soil is superior in 2 min for six square meter surface. The air bacterial pollution, generated by the use of the cleaner steam, is restricted and not significantly augmented if measured in 44 cm above the soil in the course of cleaning. The cleaner steam is indeed a very good equipment for the cleaning of surfaces but it is necessary to respect a time of minimal contact of 2 min for four square meters surfaces treaties to acquire an antibacterial effect at least so important as that acquired with used disinfecting detergent. The disinfection of surfaces is then user-dependent and the time of requested contact is can be not compatible with hospital obligations.

  9. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  10. Hospital trash: cleaners speak of their role in disease prevention.

    Messing, K

    1998-06-01

    Feminist researchers have contrasted the caring provided by women in hospitals with a more fragmented "curing" approach, which they identify with the predominantly male professions of medicine and surgery. The author spoke with hospital cleaners about their jobs and their health. Several themes emerged: the invisibility of the cleaning function, lack of respect for cleaners, representations of cleaning as undemanding, and assumptions that women's work in cleaning is particularly easy. Cleaners use various strategies to combat these stereotypes but receive little help from administrators or fellow employees. There is a hierarchy in the status of Québec hospital workers with curing (doctors) at the top, followed by caring and healing (nurses, therapists, and attendants), and hygiene (cleaners, sterilizers, and launderers) at the bottom. Authority hierarchies in health care are not related to gender in a simple way, although there is discrimination against women cleaners. The fact that cleaning, especially cleaning performed by women, is invisible to managers, other hospital personnel, and patients has important consequences for cleaners' and for patients' health.

  11. Evaluation of electrolytic alkaline cleaners by evaporative-rate analysis

    Hamilton, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A method has been developed by which electrolytic alkaline cleaners used in large volumes in steel mills can be evaluated for their ability to clean rolling oil from steel strip without the necessity of large-scale mill trials. The method is evaporative-rate analysis, which can be used to determine the relative amount of residual oil on steel strip after cleaning. The procedure consists in placing a droplet of a solution of a volatile, radioactive, carbon-14 tagged organic compound dissolved in a more volatile solvent, on the surface of the metal, where it forms a ternary solution with any oil on the surface. The amount of oil in this ternary solution affects the rate of evaporation of the tagged compound. The rate of evaporation, monitored by a Geiger-Mueller detector, is a measure of the cleanliness of the surface. A number of commercial alkaline cleaners, both solids and liquids, were evaluated over a range of concentrations. Results indicated that the effectiveness of commercial alkaline cleaners varies greatly, and is a function of the cleaner concentration, cleaner composition, and polarity of cleaning. The presence of antifoaming agents also affects cleaning ability. The results of this study indicate that evaporative-rate analysis is a rapid and effective method for evaluating cleaners

  12. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on radioisotope production and radiation technology contributing to better health care and a cleaner environment

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotope and radiation technology finds numerous applications in a wide variety of fields, most importantly in medicine, industry, agriculture and the environment. However, in order to take full advantage of the benefits offered by this technology, it is essential to provide the necessary infrastructure as well as qualified personnel. The IAEA strives to promote worldwide availability of products and facilities in order to offer the benefits of radioisotope products and radiation technology to developing countries. In particular, the IAEA helps Member States to achieve self-sufficiency in the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, strengthen quality assurance practices and regulatory compliance as well as facilitate human resources development. The multipronged need based approach includes providing advice, assistance and capacity building support for: Development, production and quality assurance of reactor and accelerator based medical isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for both the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, especially cancer; Establishment of irradiation facilities and utilization of gamma radiation, electron beam and X ray technology for varied applications, including tackling pollutants, wastewater treatment, sterilization of medical products, disinfestation of food grains, and synthesis and characterization of advanced materials; Application of radiation and isotopes in industrial process management.

  13. Sustainability and cleaner production: a study on the implications competitive advantage in business

    Jaqueline Guimarães Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between the adoption of environmental management system in the business and the competitive advantages that can result from this process. Therefore, the effects are discussed the emergence of a model of sustainable development and the role and opportunities of the company that perspective. Being theoretical, the aim of this paper is to discuss the potential contributions that the implementation of cleaner production technology can offer to the enterprise competitive strategy. To elucidate these relationships are discussed concepts relating to the introduction of an environmental management system, which emphasized the use of environmental measures, specifically the inherent Cleaner Production that aim to reduce the environmental impacts of industrial production, eliminating waste and reducing costs. Moreover, the concept of competitive advantage is crafted light of assumptions Porter on profitability from cost reduction and product differentiation. The findings indicate that the introduction of the Cleaner Production to reduce costs and add value to the image of the product, is an instrument of competitiveness that allows the company to differentiate and gain competitive advantage.

  14. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Suwanpayak N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, FD Ismail3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney, and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.Keywords: optical trapping, blood dialysis, blood cleaner, human kidney manipulation

  15. EVALUATION AND ACTIONS OF CLEANER PRODUCTION IN GALVANIC INDUSTRY OF THE VILLA CLARA PROVINCE

    Petra G. Velazco Pedroso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the assessment results accomplished in different processes of the galvanic industry are presented and it is taking into account the application of good practices and measures of Cleaner Production. The main critical points in the processes of metallic coating were identified; and the characterization of the effluents generated by the installation is done. A number of technological changes in the processes are proposed, as well as the introduction of cleaner production measures which contribute to increase the efficiency and safety of processes, reduce risks and improvements to internal operations. It provides advantages of economic, environmental and social nature for the galvanic industry due to the minimizing of the impacts on environment, because the sewage and its pollutant load are reduced. Besides, we can save water, energy and raw materials. The economic evaluation showed the feasibility of applying the Cleaner Production (PML measures proposed with a Net Present Value (NPV of $109 696.26, and an Internal Rate of Return (IRR of 64 % value and payback period lower than two years.

  16. Electric power in the competitive market - Investing capital for cleaner energy generation still a rewarding business? New perspectives for electrical energy efficiency improvement, the cogeneration technology, and renewable energy generation

    Schwanhold, E.

    2000-01-01

    The meeting gathered policymakers, members of the energy industry, the business consulting professions, and scientific institutes and relevant technology companies. New perspectives have been discussed in the context of required framework conditions and processes that have to/can be put in place, or further developed, in order to create a concrete basis or stronger incentives for realisation of climate protection and environmental policy goals in the energy sector. There have been two panel discussions on the issue of whether investing in clean generation technologies will be rewarding. Five papers each presented to these panels have been analysed and prepared for separate retrieval from the database, as well as five papers each of the discussion forum A, ''New perspectives for energy efficiency measures and contracting partnerships'', and the discussion forum B, ''New perspectives for distributed power generation with CHP systems''. From the discussion forum C, ''New perspectives for renewable energy sources'', one paper has been prepared for separate retrieval. (CB) [de

  17. Development of self-running underwater cleaner for nuclear facilities

    Ito, Haruo; Mizutani, Takeshi; Miki, Masamichi

    1979-01-01

    A self-running underwater cleaner for removing sediment accumulated on the bottoms of water tanks in nuclear power stations by remote operation was developed. This cleaner is used in the state maintaining the shielding effect of water against radiation as water is filled in equipment pits, and by the remote operation using cables, it runs freely in water and sucks bottom sediment. The sediment is transported through a drain hose to a treating facility in a power station, and treated in a lump. The cleaner is composed of the carriage with electric steering wheels and driving wheels and a high head submerged pump. Front and rear suction mouths are provided, and suck sediment with high speed water flow while scraping with rubber boards. The cleaner can be used in the water depth of 7 m, and as the results of practical test, it was confirmed that the decontaminating effect and maneuverability were very good so that the sediment at the corner was scarcely left behind, and the effects of labor saving and the reduction of exposure of employees were large. The fundamental experiments were carried out on the running mechanism, the coefficient of friction in water, and the construction of suction mouth. The trial manufacture of the under water cleaner, the water tank experiment and the test in the Mamaoka No. 1 plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  19. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    Lenneis, Verena

    The main aim of this article-based PhD thesis was to explore the recreational physical activity participation of female cleaners – an occupational group mainly consisting of minority ethnic women from non-western countries. As the PhD project was integrated in and financially supported...... by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... and employed different theories, they drew a coherent picture: the interviewees’ everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark had a decisive influence on their opportunities to engage in recreational physical activity: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive...

  20. Cleaner metallurgical industry in Serbia: a road to the sustainable development

    D. Panias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the sustainable development has been a global and fundamental objecttive, a metallurgical industrial sector faces some of the most difficult sustainability challenges of any industrial sector. On the other hand, the metallurgical production in Serbia is a very important part of the economy. Due to present facilities and technologies, metallurgical companies face a great challenge to fulfill the requirements introduced by legislature referring to the cleaner production and sustainable development. The state of art in the production, facilities, pollution with some answers to imposed challenges is presented.

  1. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether...... an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form...

  2. Planning of the evaluation of cleaner production experiences in the CEPITA companies

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95......The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95...

  3. CARMINIC ACID EXTRACTION FROM USING COCHINEAL CLEANER TECHNOLOGY

    Erazo, Erazo; Cárdenas Ruiz, R.; Woolcott Hurtado, J.; y Caso Huamaní, J. C.; J., M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new process for the extraction of carminic acid (ACAR) from cochineal using mass- separating agent R300 (MSA R300) and an organic solvent with affinity only with the ACAR. En este trabajo se presenta un nuevo procedimiento para la extracción de ácido carmínico (ACAR) a partir de la cochinilla utilizando un agente de separación másico R300 (MSA R300) y un solvente orgánico con afinidad sólo con el ACAR.

  4. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR AQUEOUS CLEANER RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES

    This generic verification protocol has been structured based on a format developed for ETV-MF projects. This document describes the intended approach and explain plans for testing with respect to areas such as test methodology, procedures, parameters, and instrumentation. Also ...

  5. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    2011-11-17

    ... Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection... response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with... code: C-14J, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the River Forest Dry Cleaners Site...

  6. Evaluation of several air cleaners for reducing indoor radon progeny

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Montassier, N.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past several years, studies have been made of the effectiveness of several kinds of air cleaners in removing radon decay products from indoor air using a recently developed automated, semi-continuous measurement system that can determine the activity-weighted size distributions in occupied homes. Measurements of activity-weighted size distributions and radon concentrations were made every 90 min in a home with a high air exchange rate. A week-long series of measurements was made for the home with no cleaner operating and a similar set of measurements were made for each of the air cleaners. Two different types of air cleaners were tested in this study; filtration units (two different designs from two different manufacturers) and two ion generator/fan systems (identical design NO-RAD systems, but from two different manufacturers). It was found that the filtration units resulted in a median reduction in exposure of 15% and 36% for the two units and corresponding dose reductions of 32% and 53%. The two NO-RAD systems produced 37% and 10% reductions in the median exposure, but the reductions in the median dose were 49% and 46%. (author)

  7. Determination of Ammonia in Household Cleaners: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses three techniques for assessing amount of ammonia present in household cleaners. Because of disadvantages with these methods, the thermometric titration technique is suggested in which students judge the best buy based on relative cost of ammonia present in samples. Laboratory procedures, typical results, and reactions involved…

  8. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same so...

  9. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. 7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated... the purposes of this rule. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content requirement for all hand cleaners and/or sanitizers shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the...

  11. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  12. Actual problems of municipal cleaner’s waste waters

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner’s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  13. Toward cleaner, quieter skies: An international debate

    Aylesworth, H. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes infrastructure and technology changes in the aerospace industry aimed at reducing fuel consumption and nitrous oxide emissions. Growth of total air traffic is predicted over the next 20 years; however, emissions are predicted to grow less rapidly due to increased fuel efficiency and operational productivity. Engine technology leading to fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and noise reduction is described. Regulations pertinent to these issues are outlined, and international efforts in these areas are also briefly described. 4 figs.

  14. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    Canevari, G.P.; Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation

  15. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  16. Assistive Technology for Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children with Disabilities. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c212

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that assistive technology (AT) can help young children with disabilities to learn developmental skills. Its use may help infants and toddlers to improve in many areas such as: (1) social skills including sharing and taking turns; (2) communication skills; (3) attention span; (4) fine and gross motor skills; and (5) self confidence…

  17. Customization creates more efficient, cleaner rigs

    Budd, G.

    2002-08-01

    Technological advances in drilling equipment are essential to improving efficiency in the oilpatch; getting the technological upper hand on the competition is no less important for drilling equipment manufacturers than for actors in other sectors of the industry. While off-the-shelf uniformity that reduces unit cost has been the trend in fabricating field gas compression modules, custom manufacturing has become very popular in the rig manufacturing sector. Examples from Crown Energy Technologies and Tesco Corporation, both of Calgary, Aecon Industrial's Edmonton operations, PCL Industrial Construction Ltd of Nisku, and Toromont Process Systems of Houston and Calgary are described to illustrate the widespread demand for customized drilling rigs, including the growing preference for electric drives. Top drive systems, as opposed to rotary drives also have become very popular; six out of ten rigs are sold with electric top drives today compared with fewer than 10 rigs a decade ago. At the same time, Tesco has recently signed a deal with Conoco Inc to construct three revolutionary drilling rigs using Tesco's proprietary Casing Drilling Technology, which uses standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe, allowing operators to simultaneously drill, case and evaluate oil and gas wells. Aecon and PCL Industrial Construction have had much demand for customized spools and modules particularly from the oil sands industry, while Toromont Process Systems is also expanding its Calgary facilities to meet the demand for its dual gas compression equipment used by power stations for gas compression and co-generation, natural gas refrigeration and specialty gas processing.

  18. The photon and the vacuum cleaner

    Walmsley, I.A.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum technologies based on optics often rely on photon bunching and measurement with feed forward to achieve an effective nonlinear interaction between otherwise transparent particles. The efficacy of this strategy for implementing nonlinear interactions requires pure state single photon wave packets. These, however, are not so easy to come by. In this talk I will discussed some methods and tools that enable the preparation of such state. (author)

  19. Cleaner production analysis in a company of the red ceramic segment

    Dayanna dos Santos Costa Maciel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to analyze the productive process of a red ceramic segment industry in relation to the Cleaner Production (CP, based on the theoretical model proposed by National Center of Clean Technologies (CTNL, 2003b. As for the methodology, is classified as exploratory and descriptive, using the case study method. For this purpose, data was collected primary and secondary, the primers were obtained through semi-structured interviews with the owner and manager of production and a questionnaire administered to the owner. As for the secondary data, they were obtained through the company's environmental license, reports, documents, audits, standards and web searches, among others. As results were found in a waste around 10% of manufactured products (bricks, tiles and blocks;  Emission of pollutants such as ash and gases (CO2; High consumption of natural resources such as clay, water, electricity and firewood. This situation is being modified in the function of actions which are taken to obtain a cleaner production.

  20. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  1. Cleaners in reducing the hazards of indoor radon decay products

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; Wasiolek, P.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three types of air cleaners on the concentration and size distribution of radon progeny in a normally occupied house. Using an automated, semi-continuous, graded-screen array system and a radon monitor, the activity size distribution and radon concentration was measured and the exposure of the occupants of the home to radon could be assessed. The dose model developed as part of the recently released U.S. National Academy of Sciences report was used to related the exposure to deposited dose in the tissue of the bronchial epithelium. Thus, the effectiveness of the air cleaners in reducing both exposure and dose were evaluated. (author)

  2. Trochanteric Stress Fracture in a Female Window Cleaner

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Song, Jyewon

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur at various sites in the femur including the head, neck, shaft, supracondylar and condylar regions. To the best of our knowledge, stress fracture occurring in the trochanteric region has not been previously reported. We report here a case of trochanteric stress fracture in a 53-year-old female window cleaner treated with hip nailing without adverse consequences. Careful consideration of this entity is needed when evaluating patients who have repetitive jumping up and...

  3. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure

    Mohammad Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied. Methods: 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×. Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory. Results: Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage. Conclusion: Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.

  4. Preparation of BAT (best available technology) instruction sheets for the EIPPC Directive; Erarbeiten von BVT(Beste-Verfuegbare-Technik)-Merkblaettern zur EG-IVU-Richtlinie

    Lange, M.; Reichel, A. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24/09/1996, which deals with integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC Directive), aims for a high standard of protection for the environment as a whole: thus, it makes the construction of large industrial plants contingent on an integrated licensing procedure with public participation. Determining emission limit values on the basis of the best available technology (BAT) forms the core element of the licensing procedure. The requirements of the IPPC Directive are to be transposed into national law by 30/10/1999. To provide a framework for Article 16 (2), the European Commission has swiftly and purposefully organised an exchange of information for determining what is to be considered the best technology available. This has involved the preparation of BTA instruction sheets for industrial sectors affected by the IPPC Directive. This paper reports on the organisational structure and content of the information exchange accompanying the preparation of the BAT instruction sheets. It also provides information on the goals and organisation of the German contribution, in which the Federal Environmental Office plays a pivotal role as ''National Focal Point''. [German] Die Richtlinie 96/61/EG des Rates vom 24.09.1996 ueber die integrierte Vermeidung und Verminderung der Umweltverschmutzung (IVU-Richtlinie) zielt auf ein hohes Schutzniveau fuer die Umwelt als Ganzes; sie verlangt fuer grosse Industrieanlagen eine integrierte Genehmigung mit Oeffentlichkeitsbeteiligung. Kernelement der Anlagengenehmigung ist die Festlegung von Emissionsgrenzwerten auf der Grundlage der Besten Verfuegbaren Techniken (BVT). Die Anforderungen der IVU-Richtlinie sind bis zum 30.10.1999 in nationales Recht umzusetzen. Die Europaeische Kommission hat fruehzeitig und zielstrebig zur Ausfuellung von Artikel 16(2) im Hinblick auf die Ermittlung der Besten Verfuegbaren Techniken einen Informationsaustausch organisiert. Dabei werden BVT

  5. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  6. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  7. GASN sheets

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  8. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  9. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    Shaver, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  10. Regenerating using aqueous cleaners with ozone and electrolysis

    McGinness, Michael P.

    1994-02-01

    A new process converts organic oil and grease contaminates in used water based cleaners into synthetic surfactants. This permits the continued use of a cleaning solution long after it would have been dumped using previously known methods. Since the organic soils are converted from contaminates to cleaning compounds the need for frequent bath dumps is totally eliminated. When cleaning solutions used in aqueous cleaning systems are exhausted and ready for disposal, they will always contain the contaminates removed from the cleaned parts and drag-in from prior cleaning steps. Even when the cleaner is biodegradable these contaminants will frequently cause the waste cleaning solution to be a hazardous waste. Chlorinated solvents are rapidly being replaced by aqueous cleaners to avoid the new ozone-depletion product-labeling-law. Many industry standard halocarbon based solvents are being completely phased out of production, and their prices have nearly tripled. Waste disposal costs and cradle-to-grave liability are also major concerns for industry today. This new process reduces the amount of water and chemicals needed to maintain the cleaning process. The cost of waste disposal is eliminated because the water and cleaning compounds are reused. Energy savings result by eliminating the need for energy currently used to produce and deliver fresh water and chemicals as well as the energy used to treat and destroy the waste from the existing cleaning processes. This process also allows the cleaning bath to be maintained at the peak performance of a new bath resulting in decreased cycle times and decreased energy consumption needed to clean the parts. This results in a more efficient and cost effective cleaning process.

  11. Transition to an intelligent use of cleaner biomass stoves

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Vicent, Estela D.

    2016-01-01

    are relevant issues to save energy and avoid greenhouse gas (CO2e) emissions. This work compares the operating performance of 3 types of biomass stoves used in Europe in their interaction with dwellings. Field studies were conducted in 24 houses in Portugal and Denmark to analyse wood-burning behaviours......In Europe, inappropriate user behaviours in the operation of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) results in substantial energy losses where fireplaces and conventional stoves are major contributors to undue emissions of health damaging fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The design and adoption of cleaner WBSs...

  12. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    Most of us pass along kiosks, pubs, dry cleaners, turn street corners, rise up stairways on a daily basis, in a sort of spatial anaesthesia. These spaces that facilitates our everyday existence are ‘worn half-invisible by use’, thereby not given due attention. Through his occupation with the infra...... and people of the neighbourhood coexist through events in real-time and depositions over time. The infra-ordinary as a spatial discourse interrogates and acknowledges the latent qualities of the common and seemingly banal, yet vitally important, spatial materiality of everyday life, as an alternative...

  13. Measurement of flow inside a vacuum cleaner head

    Iguchi, Ryotaro; Ban, Hisataka; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Vacuum cleaner head with rotating brushes is widely used as a home appliance. Although it efficiently collects dusts from the floor, flow field of the air and motion of the dust inside the head have not been fully investigated. In this study, we performed 3D-PIV (particle tracking velocimetry) measurement of velocity field inside the head. Water was used as working fluid, which allows a use of fluorescent particle to reduce unwanted reflection from the brushes and inner surface of the head. Mean velocity field and turbulence statistics in the head with and without the brush will be presented.

  14. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  15. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  16. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  17. A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report 1

    Wangel, Arne

    This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded...

  18. China and Cleaner Coal. A marriage of necessity destined for failure?

    Seaman, John

    2012-04-01

    For China, coal is a crucial source of abundant, indigenous and affordable energy and is a pillar of economic and social stability. From a logic of energy security, and because the industry itself maintains a formidable political presence through the sheer fact of its history and size, this resource will continue to play a central role in the country's energy mix. But in order to respond to the growing need to reduce the burden of coal use on the environment and the Chinese population, and to prevent catastrophic climate change, both Chinese leaders and the industry itself have faced a certain reality - coal must become cleaner. This has led to a tenuous compromise between those in China advocating for the use of coal as a matter of economic necessity and social stability (security of supply, reliable and cheap electricity, and indigenous energy technologies) and those who strive for more environmentally sustainable growth (and thus emphasize 'clean' coal). The convergence of these two concepts has spurred a major shift towards newer, more efficient, though still highly polluting technologies - notably larger scale, hotter burning supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal-fired plants. But it has also spawned a number of demonstration-scale projects in various cutting-edge technologies to include coal gasification and carbon capture and storage (CCS), which promise vast improvements in CO_2 and other, toxic emissions if widely adopted. Indeed, mitigating climate change while continuing to rely heavily on coal will only be possible if carbon can successfully be captured and stored on a broad scale. The push to develop new coal technologies opens doors for both foreign and Chinese businesses to work together, potentially creating new market opportunities at home and abroad. Chinese companies can receive much-needed capital and expertise, while foreign companies and researchers are given the chance to test and develop technologies at a level of speed and scale that

  19. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  20. Ultra-Stable, New Generation Q-Switched Monolithic Laser Cleaners for Fine Art Conservation

    Brioschi, F.; Salvadeo, P.

    The increasing use of laser cleaners in fine art conservation boosts the demand on improvements of the laser performances. More power and more wavelengths are required by the current applications, while laser should be more reliable, rugged and compact. The characteristics and performances of a new generation of laser cleaners are presented as a result of a dedicated research and development program.

  1. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners betwee...

  2. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  3. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL CLEANER EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold growth is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the prob...

  4. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...

  5. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    2010-07-01

    ... of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. 761.378 Section 761.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards and...

  6. Technology

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  7. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  8. Participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a 1-year worksite intervention preventingphysical deterioration

    Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2012-01-01

    differences in participation among immigrant and Danish cleaners throughout a 1-year randomised controlled study tailored to cleaners and carried out in predominantly female workplaces. No significant differences in ethnicity were found in consent and participation throughout the 1-year intervention. Dropout...... was equally distributed among Danish and immigrant cleaners. This study indicates that a worksite health promotion intervention among a female-dominated, high-risk occupation such as cleaning can be equally appealing for Danes and immigrants. Statement of Relevance: This study provides insight about...... participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a worksite health promotion intervention in a predominantly female occupation. For attaining high participation and low dropout in future worksite health promotion interventions among cleaners, the intervention ought to not only target the ethnic background...

  9. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  10. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - Development of production technology of thin film solar cells. Development of production technology of application type new structure thin film solar cells (Development of production technology of high efficiency hybrid thin films/sheet solar cells); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Oyogata shinkozo hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, (Kokoritsu hybrid gata hakumaku / sheet taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of realizing low cost and high efficiency hybrid thin films/sheet solar cells, the R and D were carried out, and the FY 2000 results were reported. As to the formation technology of the upper cell, the following technologies were developed and the results contributory to the heightening of efficiency were obtained: technology for improvement of cell characteristics by gap widening of p layer, technology for optimization of formation conditions of i layer corresponding to the hybrid solar cell, technology for heightening of current by the intermediate ZnO layer just under the upper cell. Relating to the development of formation technology of high quality microcrystal thin films, it was indicated that the microcrystal silicon thin film had the conformity effective also for polycrystal silicon, and at the same time, the conversion efficiency of 12.8% and release voltage of 0.579V were obtained by the cell using the cast polycrystal board. In the thin film/polycrystal sheet hybrid solar cell in which all these technologies were integrated, the conversion efficiency of 12.0% was achieved, and the possibility was verified of achieving the target efficiency of 14% by further improvement of FF. (NEDO)

  11. Hydro mechanical deep-drawing and high pressure sheet metal forming as forming technologies for the production of complex parts made of magnesium sheet metal AZ31B-0; Hydromechanisches Tiefziehen und Hochdruckblechumformung als Verfahren zur Herstellung komplexer Bauteile aus Magnesiumfeinblechen des Typs AZ31B-0

    Viehweger, B.; Richter, G.; Duering, M.; Karabet, A. [Lehrstuhlleiter, BTU Cottbus, Lehrstuhl Konstruktion und Fertigung, Konrad-Wachsmann Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Sviridov, A.; Hartmann, H.; Richter, U. [Forschungs- und Qualitaetszentrum Oderbruecke gGmbH Eisenhuettenstadt (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Semi - finished sheet - metal products made of magnesium alloys such as AZ31B are known as better deformable at temperatures in the range of 175 C - 240 C. By means of hydroforming technologies, as there are hydro mechanical deep-drawing and high pressure sheet metal forming, the influence of different forming parameters on the forming results has been investigated. A more complex experimental geometry was deformed applying forming temperatures of 175 C, 200 C, 225 C and 240 C and accordingly adjusted forces of the blank holder. Concerning the applied forming - methods and experimental parameters the forming results have been evaluated and compared regarding the decrease of sheet thickness and the development of small radii. For some experimental parts, which have been deformed by means of high pressure sheet metal forming at temperatures of 175 C and 225 C, supplementary investigations have been carried out in order to determine the evolution of characteristic surface values in dependence on the forming operation. On the basis of these results practical recommendations for the limits of application of aforementioned forming technologies for AZ31B-0 magnesium sheet metal are given. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Eine gute Umformbarkeit von Blechhalbzeugen aus Magnesiumknetlegierungen stellt sich bekanntlich bei Anwendung von Umformtemperaturen im Bereich von 175 C - 240 C ein. Anhand der wirkmedienbasierten Umformverfahren hydromechanisches Tiefziehen und Hochdruckblechumformung ist an handelsueblichen AZ31B-0 Feinblechen die Einstellung unterschiedlicher Umformparameter erprobt worden. Unter Verwendung von Umformtemperaturen von 175 C, 200 C, 225 C und 240 C und entsprechend angepassten Niederhalterdruecken ist eine praxisnahe Versuchsgeometrie ''Minihood'' ausgeformt worden. Im Hinblick auf angewendete Umformverfahren und Versuchsparameter wurde an den Versuchsbauteilen die Blechdickenabnahme und die

  12. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Nilsson, Hanna M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Meany, Brendan [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Ticey, Jeremy [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Sun, Chuan-Fu [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Wang, YuHuang [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Cumings, John [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.

  13. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  14. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  15. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  16. Evaluation of the efficiency of denture cleaners for removing denture adhesives.

    Harada-Hada, Kae; Hong, Guang; Abekura, Hitoshi; Murata, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    We developed a new scoring index for assessing the removability of denture adhesives and evaluated the removal efficiency of denture cleaners. Although our understanding of the importance of denture care is increasing, little is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of denture cleaners on denture adhesives. Therefore, guidelines for proper cleaning are necessary. We used five denture cleaner solutions on two cream adhesives, one powder adhesive and one cushion adhesive. After immersion in the denture cleaners for a designated time, we evaluated the area of the sample plate still covered by denture adhesive. Cream adhesives were removed more completely after immersion in majority of the denture cleaners than in water. Powder adhesive was removed more quickly than cream adhesives. Cushion adhesive was not removed by immersion in either the denture cleaners or water control. Some denture cleaners could liquefy cream adhesives more than water, but these differences were not observed in case of powder and cushion adhesives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  18. Implementing cleaner production in an automotive company: an application of material input per unit of service tool to measure environmental and economic advantages

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact reduction has been a growing concern of the automotive industry. One of the main challenges is to implement Cleaner Production as a tool to reduce environmental impacts and provide financial profits. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the environmental impact and economic gains by implementing Cleaner Production, using an unexplored approach, in a company of the automotive sector. The research approach used was a case study, carried out by observation and semi-structured surveys. The production process chosen was updated, so technologies were changed to reduce biotic and abiotic disposal. For the analysis of environmental impacts, the ‘Material Input Per Unit of Service’ tool (MIPS was used, in which data was used to calculate: annual net profit; return on investment (% and return on investment for a period. The results showed that Cleaner Production implementation focusing on changing technology in the production process caused a 75% reduction in environmental impact, and a 62.7% decrease in production costs. Although of this study considers only one case to test the procedure applicability, it can be easily repeated in other more complex systems, by merely making the necessary adjustments due to the complexity of the processes involved.

  19. Technological innovation and sustainable development: The experience of Italian companies; Innovazione tecnologica e sviluppo sostenibile: le esperienze delle imprese italiane

    Malaman, R. [Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan (Italy)]|[Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Nearly 200 case studies of cleaner innovation technologies developed or adopted by Italian companies have been analysed after the building of an appropriate database. The article summarises the results of this analysis. Initially, the concept of cleaner technologies is introduced, and theoretical aspects related to generation and diffusion of cleaner technologies are discussed, including obstacles to the development, technological opportunities, market demand and appropriate conditions. Then, some features of cleaner innovative technologies are analysed from the database: localisation, size and sectorial distribution of innovative companies. evolutive stage of companies behaviour, the role of environmental policy, the capabilities of the national innovative system, the distribution of change technologies according to Pavitt`s tassonomy. The final paragraph includes some reflection on the use of innovation policy to promote cleaner innovative technologies.

  20. Cleaner production options for reducing industrial waste: the case of batik industry in Malang, East Java-Indonesia

    Sirait, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to conduct cleaner production options for improving the environmental performance during the production of batik industry, the case of UKM batik, Malang, East Java. Batik industry is one of small and medium textile industry which has contribution to economic growth in Malang. However, during production the batik, it generates wastewater that has potential to decrease the environmental performance. Wastewater from Celaket batik industry has BOD, COD, TSS, and pH level is far larger than the threshold of water quality standard as a result of use chemical substance during the dyes processing. In order to prevent generating wastewater, this study utilized cleaner production options, such as substitution of input material.Substitution of input material for dyes process was implemented by replacement chemical dyes (e.g.indigosol, nafthol, rapid) with natural dyes (e.g. Indigofero Tintoria). Modifying of technology/equipment was conducted by developing wastewater treatment equipment to reduce waste of batik production. The implementation of this strategy was carried out by changing input material from chemical dyes with natural dyes. The CP uptake could reduce significantly the environmental impact in term of reduction of COD, BOD, and TSS.

  1. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    Barriga, P; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA6009 (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5x10{sup -3} for {+-}10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  2. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    -operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...... figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards...... sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production'....

  3. The importance of integrated system design for the effectiveness of portable air cleaners in airborne infection

    Van Reenen, T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent study into the effectiveness of portable air cleaners (PACs), as an infection control measure against TB, delivered unexpectedly low results. That finding initiated a further study to understand the contribution of system...

  4. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...

  5. Increased participation among cleaners as a strategy to improve quality and occupational health

    Öhrling, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Like many other industries, today the cleaning industry is affected more than ever by competition and pressure toward low prices, which leads to a nonadvantageous situation for cleaners. These days many Swedish municipalities choose to outsource cleaning service in order to save money, although the situation for the cleaners appears to be worsening. The aim of this paper is to evaluate an alternative organizational structure within a Swedish public cleaning division to investigate how good wo...

  6. Quality care means valuing care assistants, porters, and cleaners too.

    Toynbee, P

    2003-12-01

    All too often, the focus of the very clever strategy papers produced in the upper reaches of the health department is on the next grand plan. Some of these reforms have been catastrophic for the quality of service that patients experience at ward level. Of these, the contracting out culture introduced in the 1980s and the 1990s has been the worst. Researching my book, Hard work-life in low pay Britain, I took six jobs at around the minimum wage, including work as a hospital porter, as a hospital cleaner, and as a care assistant. These are jobs at the sharp end, up close and very personal to the patients, strongly influencing their experiences of the services they were using. Yet they are low paid, undervalued jobs that fall below the radar of the policy makers. In hospitals they need to be brought back in-house and integrated into a team ethos. Paying these people more would cost more, but it would also harvest great rewards by using their untapped commitment.

  7. Reputation management promotes strategic adjustment of service quality in cleaner wrasse.

    Binning, Sandra A; Rey, Olivia; Wismer, Sharon; Triki, Zegni; Glauser, Gaétan; Soares, Marta C; Bshary, Redouan

    2017-08-21

    Adjusting one's behaviour in response to eavesdropping bystanders is considered a sophisticated social strategy, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, cooperate by eating ectoparasites off "client" fishes, or cheat (i.e. bite) and eat client mucus. Image scoring by bystander clients generally causes cleaners from socially-complex (i.e. high cleaner and client abundance; high client species richness) habitats to increase levels of cooperation. However, some individuals may periodically provide tactile stimulation to small resident clients, which attract bystanders close that are bitten, a form of tactical deception. Cortisol injection can reproduce this pattern. Here, we tested whether cleaners from socially-complex versus simple habitats respond differently to cortisol injections in terms of their cleaning interactions with clients. We found that only cleaners from the socially-complex habitat respond to cortisol injection with strategies functioning as tactical deception: i.e. increased tactile stimulation to small clients and increased cheating of large clients relative to small ones. At the socially-simple site, where reputation management is less important, cortisol-treated fish increased their overall levels of cheating, especially of small clients. Thus, strategic adjustments to cooperative behaviour and tactical deception are likely context-dependent, forming part of general reputation management abilities in cleaner wrasse.

  8. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Vucurovic, Damjan G.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  9. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Vucurovic, Damjan G.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  10. Ice sheet in peril

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  11. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  12. Nuclear criticality safety calculations for a K-25 site vacuum cleaner

    Shor, J.T.; Haire, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    A modified Nilfisk model GSJ dry vacuum cleaner is used throughout the K-25 Site to collect dry forms of highly enriched uranium (HEU). When vacuuming, solids are collected in a cyclone-type separator vacuum cleaner body. Calculations were done with the SCALE (KENO V.a) computer code to establish conditions at which a nuclear criticality event might occur if the vacuum cleaner was filled with fissile solution. Conditions evaluated included full (12-in. water) reflection and nominal (1-in. water) reflection, and full (100%) and 20% 235 U enrichment. Validation analyses of SCALE/KENO and the SCALE 27-group cross sections for nuclear criticality safety applications indicate that a calculated k eff + 2σ eff + 2σ ≥ 0.9605 is considered unsafe and may be critical. Critical conditions were calculated to be 70 g U/L for 100% 235 U and full 12-in. water reflection. This corresponds to a minimum critical mass of approximately 1,400 g 235 U for the approximate 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. The actual volume of the vacuum cleaner is smaller than the modeled volume because some internal materials of construction were assumed to be fissile solution. The model was an overestimate, for conservatism, of fissile solution occupancy. At nominal reflection conditions, the critical concentration in a vacuum cleaner full of UO 2 F 2 solution was calculated to be 100 g 235 U/L, or 2,000 g mass of 100% 235 U. At 20% 235 U for the 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. At 15% 235 U enrichment and full reflection, critical conditions were not reached at any possible concentration of uranium as a uranyl fluoride solution. At 17.5% 235 U enrichment, criticality was reached at approximately 1,300 g U/L which is beyond saturation at 25 C

  13. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    RA Abbas; RAM Hammam; SS El-Gohary; LME Sabik; MS Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egyp...

  14. Carbon sheet pumping

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  15. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR......). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation...... of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. Practitioner Summary: This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high...

  16. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  17. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  18. Radiation protecting sheet

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  19. Global ice sheet modeling

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  20. Energy information sheets

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  1. Laser cleaner development for decontamination of the primary water cooling system at nuclear power plants

    Minehara, Eisuke

    2010-01-01

    We recently have performed the feasibility studies to develop laser cleaners utilizing several laser oscillator and amplifier systems like femto-second free-electron lasers, water-jet guided lasers, Q-switched YAG lasers, fiber lasers. Whenever we used to clean the RI-contaminated surface using the lasers, we should focus enough laser power in the surface to evaporate instantly without melting. Therefore, as the contaminated being deeply located into the surface could be removed using any one set of the lasers, we found that every trial of laser cleaning could remove very well the RI contamination being located deeply. Our cold decontamination test using a model sample being Cobalt plated successfully has been performed to show a very high decontamination factor. In order to develop an usable laser cleaner, we plan to develop the prototype laser cleaner next year. (author)

  2. What characterizes cleaners sustaining good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work?

    Holtermann, A; Blangsted, A K; Christensen, H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate characteristics of cleaners with good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work. METHODS: One hundred and 41 female seniority cleaners participated. Twenty-five reported no musculoskeletal symptoms, whereas 83...... reported severe symptoms in the low back, neck shoulders or upper limbs. The groups were of matching age, height, body weight and seniority (19 years). Muscular strength was recorded by isometric maximal voluntary contractions on a day without pain. Exposure to physical risk factors at work, psychosocial...... work factors, and leisure time physical activity were assessed by a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: Cleaners with good musculoskeletal health were not reporting different exposure to physical risk factors at work or leisure time physical activity, but had higher muscular strength and reported higher...

  3. Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners

    Binderup, Asbjørn Thalund; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2011-01-01

    back regions (27 points). LTSA was defined as ten or more consecutive workdays with sick leave. RESULTS: The PPT maps revealed the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical sensitivity among cleaners. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper back within the last 7 days correlated......BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12...... months among cleaners. METHODS: About 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. Subsequently, PPTs were measured at (1) tibialis anterior (control location, 1 point), (2) the neck-shoulder (48 points) and (3) the low...

  4. Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R) : [fact sheet

    2017-05-19

    The ITS JPO is the U.S. Department of Transportations primary advocate and national leader for ITS research, development, and future deployment of connected vehicle technologies, focusing on intelligent vehicles, intelligent infrastructure, and th...

  5. Evaluation of cleaner production audit in pharmaceutical production industry: case study of the pharmaceutical plant in Dalian, P. R. China

    Li, Zhi-dong [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Zhang, Shu-shen; Zhang, Yun [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Zhang, Yong; Wei, Li [Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2011-02-15

    The pharmaceutical industry in China makes an important contribution to the national economy. However, the associated pollution problems cause gradual deterioration of the environment and impact adversely on the local community. Cleaner production (CP) technology, an effective way to reduce waste emission and save resources, has been widely employed in the pharmaceutical industry in the developed countries. Such technologies have been applied in a number of factories in China, although there is no integrated assessment and implementation procedure for implementing CP technologies in pharmaceutical plants. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed here. CP is a powerful tool for decreasing waste production, limiting environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. Moreover, the return on investment in CP is quick, so it would seem that CP activities should be very much in demand by enterprises. Reality is less optimistic: frequently only limited interest is expressed, even after an explanation; business people hesitate to become actively involved. The processes in the pharmaceutical production industry produce a vast amount of waste, including wastewater with high concentrations of organic substances (the principal component), solid waste, and organic off-gas. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed in this study. Having consideration to environmental impacts and economic efficiency, four groups of medium/high cost CP options were screened in an integrated assessment. To verify the proposed options, a case study was conducted in Degussa Luyuan, Northeast China. The characteristics of resource consumption and waste emission during the production process were identified. The proposed options were evaluated according to different aspects. An integrated CP system based on the proposed options was designed and then implemented in the factory. In three years of practical use, the productivity and

  6. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  7. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end

  8. Increased Participation Among Cleaners as a Strategy to Improve Quality and Occupational Health

    Therese Öhrling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, today the cleaning industry is affected more than ever by competition and pressure toward low prices, which leads to a nonadvantageous situation for cleaners. These days many Swedish municipalities choose to outsource cleaning service in order to save money, although the situation for the cleaners appears to be worsening. The aim of this paper is to evaluate an alternative organizational structure within a Swedish public cleaning division to investigate how good work environment for cleaners can be combined with economical savings for a municipality. Like many other cleaning organizations, both national and international, the present cleaning division has been struggling for a long time with high levels of sick leave and early retirements. After years of unsuccessful attempts to improve the situation by reducing the physical load, cleaning managers made a decision to broaden their strategy by changing the structure of their organization. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative methods have been applied to identify and understand the effects of the organizational change, both on an individual level and on an organizational level. The results show that the organizational change, which leads to increased participation and autonomy for the cleaners, in combination with a high degree of social support, had a positive effect on job satisfaction, work motivation, and pride among the cleaners. Sick leave within the division has decreased, and both the quality and efficiency of the cleaning service have increased. It can be concluded that there are other alternative organizational structures that could be applied within the public sector and prove advantageous, both for the individual cleaners and for the municipality. Further research of similar organizational structures within the private cleaning sector is recommended.

  9. 10 CFR 609.8 - Term sheets and conditional commitments.

    2010-01-01

    ... Project Sponsor and the Eligible Lender or other Holder express agreement with the terms and conditions... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Term sheets and conditional commitments. 609.8 Section 609... EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.8 Term sheets and conditional commitments. (a) DOE, after review and...

  10. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.gallegoschmid@manchester.ac.uk; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  11. Evaluation of cleaner production options in dyeing and printing industry: Using combination weighting method

    Kang, Hong; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Haochen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Qin, Chenglu

    2018-03-01

    The textile industry has a high environmental impact so that implementing cleaner production audit is an effective way to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. But the evaluation method in current cleaner production audit divided the evaluation of CPOs into two parts: environment and economy. The evaluation index system was constructed from three criteria of environment benefits, economy benefits and product performance; weights of five indicators were determined by combination weights of entropy method and factor weight sorting method. Then efficiencies were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the best alkali recovery option was the nanofiltration membrane method (S=0.80).

  12. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  13. The Urban Function of the Infraordinary: Dry Cleaners as Social Vertexes

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and physical...... interface through which (non-)events unfold, trajectories thickens and people of the neighbourhood coexists as familiar strangers (Milgram 2010; Paulos and Goodman 2004) through events in real-time and deposits over time. It is a semi-public space and an implosion of the external neighbourhood, partly...

  14. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  15. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark

    Carneiro, Isabella G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte D. N.; Jørgensen, Marie B.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. METHODS: This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners...

  16. Early retirement among Danish female cleaners and shop assistants according to work environment characteristics and upper extremity complaints

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christensen, Michael Victor

    2016-01-01

    -year cohort study with registry-based follow-up of 1430 female cleaners and 579 shop assistants. In subsequent analyses of female cleaners, disability pension and voluntary early retirement were modeled according to work characteristics and upper extremity complaints. RESULTS: The adjusted hazard rate...

  17. GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS DURING APPLICATION OF A WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    The paper gives results of tests in a controlled environment test room to measure concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and particles during application of a cleaner to realistic surfaces (counter tops, glass, walls). (NOTE: Users of water-based cleaners applied with hand-pump spray...

  18. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate.

    Abbas, R A; Hammam, R A M; El-Gohary, S S; Sabik, L M E; Hunter, M S

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20) and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango), was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  19. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    RA Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20 and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. Results: The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango, was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Conclusion: Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  20. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  1. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    Shu, Z.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into a useable pressing-powder for tile pressing. The key stages, filter-pressing and granulation (consisting of spray-mixing and rolling treatment, are specially studied. The pressing-powder properties and pressing/firing behavior, and, energy/water consumption and pollution emission data are presented, and a comparison between the new process and the existing spray-drying process is made. This new process has been found to be feasible and provides a pressing-powder with suitable properties, together with lower energy/water consumption and pollution emission (particulate matter and CO2.

    En ese trabajo se presenta un proceso alternativo y más ecológico para la preparación de polvo de prensas por molienda vía húmeda de las materias primas. En este proceso la eliminación del agua de la suspensión obtenida en la etapa de molienda, en vez de realizarse por secado por atomización, se lleva a cabo en dos etapas, en una primera etapa dos tercios de esta suspensión se filtro-prensan, posteriormente se secan y molturan hasta obtener un polvo seco micronizado. Este material seco se introduce por la parte superior de una torre granuladora, en la que se pulveriza el tercio de la suspensión restante por la parte inferior, de forma que las gotas adsorben sobre su superficie las partículas secas formando gránulos, que posteriormente se compactan por rodamiento (“rolling”, y finalmente se secan hasta la humedad requerida para el prensado. En

  2. Comparative Analysis of Welded and Adhesive Joints Strength Made of Acid-Resistant Stainless Steel Sheets

    Izabela Miturska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the selected results of strength tests on the effectiveness of bonding high-alloy steel 1.4310. Sheet steel is one of the materials that are difficult to activate energy. Effective joining of it is difficult, requires selection of the appropriate bonding technology. The paper focuses on the comparative tests the shear strength of one-single lap welded and bonded joints. The welding process was performed 3 groups of samples TIG welding and argon, where the variable value of the welding process was current: 60A, 70A, 80A. The adhesion process was performed in 6 groups of samples which differed in the method of surface preparation and the type of the adhesive. Adhesive joints were made by using adhesive of epoxy resin and a hardener: Epidian 61/TFF at a mass ratio of 100:22 and Epidian 61/IDA at a mass ratio of 100:40. As a way of surface preparation applied 3 different, but simplified and environmentally friendly methods of surface preparation: degreasing with using cleaner Loctite 7061, abrasive machining with P320 and degreasing and grinding with abrasive T800 and degreasing were used. Make joints and curing the adhesive joints were carried out at ambient temperature. Analyzed the joints were tested destructive - which set out the shear strength, in accordance with DIN EN 1465 on the testing machine Zwick / Roell Z150. Based on the results of research it was found that better results were obtained for the maximum welded joints, but this result was similar to the maximum value of the strength of the adhesive bond.

  3. Evaluation of the Possibility of Obtaining Tube-to-Tube Sheet Welded Joints of 15Cr5Mo Steel by Alternative Technological Process

    Rizvanov, R. G.; Mulikov, D. Sh.; Karetnikov, D. V.; Fairushin, A. M.; Tokarev, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of joints of chrome-molybdenum steel, obtained by rotary friction welding. On their basis, conclusions were drawn about the weldability of this type of steel by friction welding, and also the applicability of this welding technology in the manufacture of heat exchange equipment.

  4. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  5. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new structure and development of high-efficiency hybrid thin film/sheet solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shin kozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kokoritsu hybrid gata usumaku / sheet taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop low-cost and high-efficiency hybrid thin film/sheet solar cells, research and development has been performed. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research is related to a hybrid construction, in which the upper cells of amorphous silicon thin film are formed on the lower cells bonded with micro-crystalline silicon thin film relative to a poly-crystalline silicon sheet. In the technology to form the upper cells, a pin-construction using amorphous silicon thin film made by using the plasma CVD process was adopted, whereas an open circuit voltage of 1.45V, a short circuit current of 13.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, and a conversion efficiency of 13.5% were obtained. In the technology to form the substrate for the lower cells, formation of flat silicon thin plate that can be peeled off was identified as a result of adopting the construction in which a graphite substrate is provided on a rotating cooling body of 12-prism type. With regard to the technology to bond and form the lower cells, electrical properties of hetero-bonded cells were discussed, and an open circuit voltage of 0.605V and a conversion efficiency of 14.3% were obtained as a result of enhancing the film quality and optimizing the film thickness. (NEDO)

  6. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  7. Safety advice sheets

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  8. Third quarterly report and final report within the counterpart subcontract no. 97/219: Support to the National Cleaner Production Centre, Tanzania

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The report analyses barriers and incentivres to cleaner production in Tanznaia based on experiences in three demonstration projects with around 25 companies.An outline for a policy study on cleaner production in Tanzania and for the strengthening of cleaner production in Tanzania is given....

  9. Effects of Friction Reduction on Fiber Damage in a Saw-Type Lint Cleaner

    U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

  10. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr -1 . Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr -1 . The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables

  11. Too tired for exercise? The work and leisure of female cleaners in Denmark

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2017-01-01

    on the relevant literature on women’s work–life balance and (migrant) women’s participation in LTPA, we approached their work and leisure from an intersectionality perspective and explored if and how female cleaners engaged in LTPA and which constraints impeded their involvement. The interviewees’ narratives...

  12. Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners.

    Medina-Ramón, M; Zock, J P; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Basagaña, X; Schwartz, J; Burge, P S; Moore, V; Antó, J M

    2006-06-01

    Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaners have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. The short-term effects of cleaning exposures on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were investigated in domestic cleaners with respiratory disorders. In a panel study, 43 female domestic cleaners with a recent history of asthma and/or chronic bronchitis completed a 2-week diary, collecting information on respiratory symptoms, PEF and cleaning exposures. Mixed regression models were used to assess daily changes in symptoms and PEF associated with specific cleaning exposures. The probability of having work-related asthma was individually assessed by a computerised diagnostic system and an occupational asthma expert. Lower respiratory tract symptoms were more common on working days and were predominantly associated with exposure to diluted bleach, degreasing sprays/atomisers and air fresheners. Associations with upper respiratory tract symptoms and PEF were less apparent. Eleven (30%) subjects scored positively for work-related asthma. It is concluded that exposure to certain irritant cleaning products aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms in female domestic cleaners with asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  13. Lipophilic Super-Absorbent Swelling Gels as Cleaners for Use on Weapons Systems and Platforms

    2014-02-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropa- nol, acetonitrile, and dichloromethane were obtained from Acros Organics (Morris Plains, NJ). Dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ) and 1...1. In the following solvents , swelling degree did not change in both heating and cooling processes: water, DMSO , methanol, ethanol, isopropanol...available alkylstyrene copolymer (imbiber beads). The cleaning ability of the gels was compared with the standard solvent cleaner trichloroethylene

  14. TNO moving forward ... to a safer, cleaner and more efficient mobility

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an impression of how we are contributing to cleaner, safer and more efficient mobility in Europe, helping our customers from concept to implementation and from engineering solutions to strategic advice. Our knowledge is derived to a significant extent from European research

  15. Implementing Cleaner Production as an Environmental Management Efforts in Small Industries of Cassava Chips

    Rahmadyanti Erina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is one of the major driving factors for Indonesian economy, especially in food processing industries. The cassava-based industry is one type of food and beverage industry with chips as its major product. The limitations of knowledge caused their activities to only aim at pursuing economic benefits and ignoring the environmental balance. The most appropriate preventive method used, according to the characteristics of SMEs in Indonesia, is Cleaner Production. This study aims to reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by the waste production of small chips industries by implementing cleaner production. The method used in this study is quick scanning by analyzing mass balance, energy, and utilities that aim to find an inefficient process to minimize losses. Implementation of cleaner production may include good housekeeping, reducing, and reusing. Based on the assessment of alternative eligibility criteria, the equipment modifications are the main factor in implementing cleaner production that drives the profits by providing efficiency of cutting as much as 80 percent and optimizes the profits into 57.62 kg in a month or 691.44 kg in a year. If the price of cassava chips is IDR 40,000 in a kg, then it would save IDR 27,657,600 in a year.

  16. Using Pipe Cleaners to Bring the Tree of Life to Life

    Halverson, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, such as the "Tree of Life," are commonly found in biology textbooks and are often used in teaching. Because students often struggle to understand these diagrams, I developed a simple, inexpensive classroom model. Made of pipe cleaners, it is easily manipulated to rotate branches, compare topologies, map complete lineages,…

  17. Region specific changes in nonapeptide levels during client fish interactions with allopatric and sympatric cleaner fish.

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Mazzei, Renata; André, Gonçalo I; Morais, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships are crucially dependent on individual ability to learn and remember ecologically relevant cues. However, the way animals recognize cues before engaging in any social interaction and how their response is regulated by brain neuromodulators remains unclear. We examined the putative involvement of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), acting at different brain regions, during fish decision-making in the context of cooperation, by trying to identify how fish distinguish and recognize the value of other social partners or species. We hypothesized that the behavioural responses of cleaner fish clients to different social contexts would be underlain by changes in brain AVT and IT levels. We have found that changes in AVT at the level of forebrain and optic tectum are linked with a response to allopatric cleaners (novel or unfamiliar stimuli) while those at cerebellum are associated with the willingness to be cleaned (in response to sympatric cleaners). On the other hand, higher brain IT levels that were solely found in the diencephalon, also in response to allopatric cleaners. Our results are the first to implicate these nonapeptides, AVT in particular, in the assessment of social cues which enable fish to engage in mutualistic activities.

  18. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    Barriga, Pablo [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Woolley, Andrew [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Zhao Chunnong [Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University, Mount Lawley, WA 6050 (Australia); Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2004-03-07

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented.

  19. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    Barriga, Pablo; Woolley, Andrew; Zhao Chunnong; Blair, David G

    2004-01-01

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented

  20. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In operating the air-cleaner for a long time, people in a quiet enclosed space expect low sound at low operational levels for a routine cleaning of air. However, in the condition of high operational levels of the cleaner, a powerful yet nonannoying sound is desired, which is connected to a feeling...... of an immediate cleaning of pollutants. In this context, it is important to evaluate and design the air-cleaner noise to satisfy such contradictory expectations from the customers. In this study, a model for evaluating the sound quality of air-cleaners of mechanical type was developed based on objective...... and subjective analyses. Sound signals from various aircleaners were recorded and they were edited by increasing or decreasing the loudness at three wide specific-loudness bands: 20-400 Hz (0-3.8 barks), 400-1250 Hz (3.8-10 barks), and 1.25- 12.5 kHz bands (10-22.8 barks). Subjective tests using the edited...

  1. CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu

    2003-04-07

    Apr 7, 2003 ... CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu .... Dr Joshi believes that blending science and a recognition of the social ... One example of where AMESH was applied was in analyzing why the ward ...

  2. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three-dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k-∊ turbulence model of three-dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  3. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three‐dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k‐ε turbulence model of three‐ dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  4. Physical Fitness of Cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, November 2012

    Adi Wibisono Sulistijo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning is an occupation that is carried out worldwide in many different environments. Cleaning workers (cleaners often have low occupational skills and belong to the less advantaged educational and socioeconomic groups. Because of the high physical work demands and low cardiorespiratory fitness, cleaners have the risk to have cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the 5 components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition of cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to all cleaners (31 persons of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. The subjects were tested for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition. The results were categorized using the standard of Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. Results: From 31 subjects, cardiorespiratory endurance was in poor category (50%. Shoulder and hand muscle endurance was in poor category (54.8% and stomach muscle endurance was in very poor category (67.7%. Hand−grip muscular strength was in very poor category: right hand (80.7% and left hand (87.1%. Back muscle strength was in poor category (58.1%. Leg muscular strength was in very poor category (48.4%. Flexibility was in a very good category (97% and body composition was also in a good category (54.8%. Conclusions: From 5 components of cleaners’ physical fitness, 3 components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance and muscular strength are in poor and very poor category.

  5. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  6. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 3: Silicon sheet: Wafers and ribbons

    Briglio, A.; Dumas, K.; Leipold, M.; Morrison, A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the Silicon Sheet Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was the development of one or more low cost technologies for producing silicon sheet suitable for processing into cost-competitive solar cells. Silicon sheet refers to high purity crystalline silicon of size and thickness for fabrication into solar cells. Areas covered in the project were ingot growth and casting, wafering, ribbon growth, and other sheet technologies. The task made and fostered significant improvements in silicon sheet including processing of both ingot and ribbon technologies. An additional important outcome was the vastly improved understanding of the characteristics associated with high quality sheet, and the control of the parameters required for higher efficiency solar cells. Although significant sheet cost reductions were made, the technology advancements required to meet the task cost goals were not achieved.

  7. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  8. Energy information sheets

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  9. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  10. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  11. Cholera Fact Sheet

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  12. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  13. NTPR Fact Sheets

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  14. Production (information sheets)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  15. Hibernia fact sheet

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  16. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  17. Sheet-bulk metal forming – forming of functional components from sheet metals

    Merklein Marion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview on the application of sheet-bulk metal forming operations in both scientific and industrial environment. Beginning with the need for an innovative forming technology, the definition of this new process class is introduced. The rising challenges of the application of bulk metal forming operations on sheet metals are presented and the demand on a holistic investigation of this topic is motivated. With the help of examples from established production processes, the latest state of technology and the lack on fundamental knowledge is shown. Furthermore, perspectives regarding new research topics within sheet-bulk metal forming are presented. These focus on processing strategies to improve the quality of functional components by the application of process-adapted semi-finished products as well as the local adaption of the tribological system.

  18. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  19. Electric power in the competitive market - Investing capital for cleaner energy generation still a rewarding business? New perspectives for electrical energy efficiency improvement, the cogeneration technology, and renewable energy generation; Strom im Wettbewerb - Lohnen sich Investitionen in saubere Energien noch? Neue Perspektiven fuer effiziente Stromnutzung, Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und Erneuerbare Energien. Tagungsband

    Schwanhold, E. [comp.

    2000-07-01

    The meeting gathered policymakers, members of the energy industry, the business consulting professions, and scientific institutes and relevant technology companies. New perspectives have been discussed in the context of required framework conditions and processes that have to/can be put in place, or further developed, in order to create a concrete basis or stronger incentives for realisation of climate protection and environmental policy goals in the energy sector. There have been two panel discussions on the issue of whether investing in clean generation technologies will be rewarding. Five papers each presented to these panels have been analysed and prepared for separate retrieval from the database, as well as five papers each of the discussion forum A, ''New perspectives for energy efficiency measures and contracting partnerships'', and the discussion forum B, ''New perspectives for distributed power generation with CHP systems''. From the discussion forum C, ''New perspectives for renewable energy sources'', one paper has been prepared for separate retrieval. (CB) [German] Die Tagung war eine Diskussionsplattform fuer Teilnehmer aus den Bereichen Politik, Energiewirtschaft und wirtschaftsberatende Berufe, Forschungsinstitute und Technologieunternehmen. Neue Perspektiven wurden diskutiert im Zusammenhang mit den Rahmenbedingungen und Moeglichkeiten, die entwickelt oder verstaerkt werden koennen/muessen, um eine konkrete Basis oder staerkere Anreize zur Verwirklichung der Ziele der Klima- und Umweltschutzpolitik in der Energiewirtschaft zu schaffen. Es gab ein Diskussionsforum zur Frage der Wirtschaftlichkeit von Investitionen in saubere Energieerzeugungstechnologien und Energieeffizienz, hiervon wurden 5 Beitraege als Einzelaufnahmen in die Datenbank aufgenommen. Ebenfalls vom Forum A, ''Neue Perspektiven fuer Stromeinsparung und Contracting'', und Forum B, &apos

  20. Fueling our future: four steps to a new, reliable, cleaner, decentralized energy supply based on hydrogen and fuel cells

    Evers, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' This manuscript demonstrates the possible driving factors and necessary elements needed to move Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (H2/FC) to worldwide commercialisation. Focusing not only on the technology itself, we look at the 'bigger picture' explaining how certain trends have impacted the progress of new technologies developments in the past. In this process, the consumer has played and will continue to play the key and leading role. We also examine different Distributed Generation scenarios including distributed generation via fuel cells for automotive applications which may be the catalyst to the Hydrogen Economy. One possible step could be the use of Personal Power Cars equipped with Fuel Cells which not only drive on Hydrogen, but also supply (while standing) electricity /heat to residential and commercial buildings. With 1.3 billion potential customers, P.R. China is one country where such a scenario may fit. The up-and-coming Chinese H2/FC industry deals with applied fundamental research such as advances in Hydrogen production from Natural Gas, Methanol and Gasoline. The current activities in P.R. China certain to further accelerate the trend towards the coming Hydrogen Economy, together with the steps necessary to achieve a new reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on H2/FC are examined. (author)

  1. Report on Project Action Sheet PP05 task 3 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Republic of Korea Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST).

    Snell, Mark Kamerer

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of Task 3 of Project Action Sheet PP05 between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Republic of Korea (ROK) Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST) for Support with Review of an ROK Risk Evaluation Process. This task was to have Sandia National Laboratories collaborate with the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) on several activities concerning how to determine the Probability of Neutralization, PN, and the Probability of System Effectiveness, PE, to include: providing descriptions on how combat simulations are used to determine PN and PE; comparisons of the strengths and weaknesses of two neutralization models (the Neutralization.xls spreadsheet model versus the Brief Adversary Threat-Loss Estimator (BATLE) software); and demonstrating how computer simulations can be used to determine PN. Note that the computer simulation used for the demonstration was the Scenario Toolkit And Generation Environment (STAGE) simulation, which is a stand-alone synthetic tactical simulation sold by Presagis Canada Incorporated. The demonstration is provided in a separate Audio Video Interleave (.AVI) file.

  2. Evaluation of room air cleaners for the reduction of exposure and dose to indoor radon progeny

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Wasiolek, P.

    1994-01-01

    Since the proximate source of dose to the cells of the bronchial epithelium is the deposited radon progeny, the exposure and resulting dose could be reduced if the radon decay products were effectively removed from the indoor atmosphere. Thus, room air cleaners could be effective in reducing the risks associated with indoor radon. However, because of the short half-life of 218 Po, it grows back quickly and in the altered aerosol conditions that are produced by the presence of an air cleaner, the exposure/dose conditions as well as the magnitude of the dose can be substantially changed. To examine the nature of the exposure of individuals in normally occupied homes and to determine the effect of various types of room air cleaners on the exposure to and dose from the indoor radon progeny, a series of measurements have been made using an automated graded screen array system. Two extended experiments were performed in homes in Arnprior, Ontario and Parishville, NY, in which filtration systems, a positive ion electrostatic precipitator, and ioniser/fan systems have been tested for their ability to remove both airborne radioactivity and particles. In both experiments, measurements were made over one week periods with an air cleaner operating and the distributions of exposure are compared with measurements of the background conditions when no cleaner is functioning. The doses to both basal and secretory cells of the bronchial epithelium in the first eight generations of the bronchus were calculated using the model developed by James and their distributions are compared among the various exposure conditions. In most cases the presence of the air cleaner reduced the exposure to radon progeny. However, the reductions in dose were generally substantially smaller than the reductions in exposure. In the intercomparisons of the two filtration units and the two identical ioniser/fan systems, the units generally behaved in a similar manner. The results of this substantial set of

  3. Introducing of chrome less protection technology for hot dip galvanized and plasticised sheet in cold mill A.D. plant mill in Skopje

    Panovska, Liljana; Arsovski, Angel; Sekuloski, Predrag

    2003-01-01

    From the experiences of many well known companies, but also having in mind the legislative of the European Union about the direction which will take in the future and using our own experiences we have come to a conclusion that the process of substitution compounds in which the chromium is found in a shape of its hexavalent ion, as an imperative, as for better environmental protection, so far accomplishing economic effects, and improvement of the products. In other words, we have in plan to make changes in the existing technology for passivation of the galvanized coils and the preparation of the pre-painted coils before the process of applying primer, by ejecting chromate compounds in which chromium is hexavalent and its substitution with non-harmful compounds. Also we predict substitution of the standard chromate primer with universal chromate-free primer. There are planned laboratory experiments in some of the institutes of the companies, which manufacture chemical products of this type (Henkel, BASF, Akzo Nobel and others) as well as semi-industrial and industrial trials at our plant. In the frame of this project the focus will be in a direction of inventing pigments that do not contain strontium chromate that will provide best correlative characteristics in a function of the quality of the pre-painted product. Introducing a green label on the products will mean direct ecological influences (no need of an expensive procedures for reduction and refining) on the environment. Putting out of use the means, which contain hexavalent chromium gives benefits in the possibility of finding sophisticated buyers (manufactures of house-holding products and their decoration) as well as more aggressive marketing appearance on the West European market. (Original)

  4. Power ultrasound-assisted cleaner leather dyeing technique: influence of process parameters.

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2004-03-01

    The application of power ultrasound to leather processing has a significant role in the concept of "clean technology" for leather production. The effect of power ultrasound in leather dyeing has been compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound and conventional drumming. The power ultrasound source used in these experiments was ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz). The effect of various process parameters such as amount of dye offer, temperature, and type of dye has been experimentally found out. The effect of presonication of dye solution as well as leather has been studied. Experiments at ultrasonic bath temperature were carried out to find out the combined thermal as well as stirring effects of ultrasound. Dyeing in the presence of ultrasound affords about 37.5 (1.8 times) difference as increase in % dye exhaustion or about 50% decrease in the time required for dyeing compared to dyeing in the absence of ultrasound for 4% acid red dye. About 29 (1.55 times) increase in % dye exhaustion or 30% reduction in time required for dyeing was observed using ultrasound at stationary condition compared with conventional dynamic drumming conditions. The effect of ultrasound at constant temperature conditions with a control experiment has also been studied. The dye exhaustion increases as the temperature increases (30-60 degrees C) and better results are observed at higher temperature due to the use of ultrasound. Presonication of dye solution or crust leather prior to the dyeing process has no significant improvement in dye exhaustion, suggesting ultrasound effect is realized when it is applied during the dyeing process. The results indicate that 1697 and 1416 ppm of dye can be reduced in the spent liquor due to the use of ultrasound for acid red (for 100 min) and acid black (for 3 h) dyes, respectively, thereby reducing the pollution load in the effluent stream. The color yield of the leather as inferred from the reflectance measurement indicates that dye offer can

  5. Technology for America's economic growth : a new direction to build economic strength

    1993-02-22

    Investing in technology is investing in America's future: a growing economy with more high-skill, high-wage jobs for American workers; a cleaner environment where energy efficiency increases profits and reduces pollution; a stronger, more competitive...

  6. Film sheet cassette

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  7. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  8. Information sheets on energy

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  9. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  10. Sheet pinch devices

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  11. Cleaner fuels for the improvement of air quality

    Catani, R.; Marchionna, M.; Rossini, S.

    1998-01-01

    Harder standards of quality of the air and the consequent limits on the emissions involve the necessity to adopt various measures: programs for inspection/maintenance, technological advance on motors and catalytic mufflers and the reformulation of fuel. This last one is not the only solution but plays a remarkable role, because it has an immediate effect on the quality of the air. As result of that, the present paper explains the main variations that will regard the composition of ben zine and diesel oil

  12. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Faber, Anne; Hansen, Jørgen V.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain......, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT), cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) or a reference group (REF). Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work...... intervention appeared effective for reducing chronic neck/shoulder pain among the female cleaners. It is recommended that future interventions among similar high-risk job groups focus on the implementation aspects of the interventions to maximise outcomes more distal from the intervention such as work ability...

  13. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The workplace is regarded as an ideal setting for health promotion, not least because large sections of the population, including “high risk groups”, can be reached. One group which is reportedly in great demand of health promotion is that of female (migrant) cleaners – the participants in our...... factors constrained and which supported participation. The interviews revealed a high degree of appreciation for the training but also pointed to a number of constraints which were embedded into the participants’ biographies and everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark. Most women had no previous...... experience with sport and exercise and struggled with the high demands at work and a “second shift” at home. As a consequence, most participants found the training too time- and energy-consuming. We conclude that exercise programmes should preferably be conducted at the workplace and during working hours....

  14. Upper-limit on the Advanced Virgo output mode cleaner cavity length noise

    Bonnand, R.; Ducrot, M.; Gouaty, R.; Marion, F.; Masserot, A.; Mours, B.; Pacaud, E.; Rolland, L.; Was, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Virgo detector uses two monolithic optical cavities at its output port to suppress higher order modes and radio frequency sidebands from the carrier light used for gravitational wave detection. These two cavities in series form the output mode cleaner. We present a measured upper limit on the length noise of these cavities that is consistent with the thermo-refractive noise prediction of 8×10-16~m~Hz-1/2 at 15 Hz. The cavity length is controlled using Peltier cells and piezo-electric actuators to maintain resonance on the incoming light. A length lock precision of 3.5×10-13 m is achieved. These two results are combined to demonstrate that the broadband length noise of the output mode cleaner in the 10-60 Hz band is at least a factor 10 below other expected noise sources in the Advanced Virgo detector design configuration.

  15. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation

    Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions. PMID:22548260

  16. Field evaluation and health assessment of air cleaners in removing radon decay products in domestic environments

    Li, Chih-Shan.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, field evaluations of two types of air cleaners were conducted in three single-family houses. The measurements included radon concentration, particle number concentration, and concentration and size distribution of radon decay products. The influence on the behavior of radon decay products by various indoor particles both with and without the air cleaning systems was investigated. A room model was used to calculate the changes in the aerosol parameters caused by the operation of the air cleaners. Using the James dosimetric models (1989 and 1990), the changes in the hourly bronchial dose rate per Bq m -3 radon for men, women, and children can be estimated for various domestic environments. 94 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs

  17. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal ways in which occupational health and safety can be integrated in environmental cleaner production projects. Of particular interest are those cleaner production projects that are run by the Danish government's environmental assistance agency, Danced......, in South Africa.The study explores two main avenues of integration. First, integrating through better planning, focussing at the tools and procedures in use by Danced for project management -- integrating occupational health and safety into the project specification, so to speak.Second, integrating...... occupational health and safety into the environmental activities that take place at company level. Two ways of doing so are explored, the main distinction being company size. For large companies, integration of management systems may be attractive. For small companies, integration into a less formal network...

  18. Level of self-reported neck/shoulder pain and biomechanical workload in cleaners

    Madeleine, Pascal; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between self-reported pain, muscular activity and postural load during cleaning tasks. Eighteen cleaners performed usual cleaning tasks in both a laboratory and a lecture room. The level of perceived pain in the neck-shoulder region......-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes during cleaning tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the angular distributions were computed to characterize postures and movements. Pain tended to play a significant role on RMS of left/right trapezius and left...... erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Cleaners with low pain level exhibited higher muscular activity during cleaning. Pain played or tended to play a significant role on PE of left and right erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Pain played a significant role on the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile (P...

  19. Control and automatic alignment of the output mode cleaner of GEO 600

    Prijatelj, M; Grote, H; Degallaix, J; Hewitson, M; Affeldt, C; Leong, J; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Wittel, H; Willke, B; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Hild, S; Freise, A, E-mail: mirko.prijatelj@aei.mpg.d [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    The implementation of a mode cleaner at the output port of the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector will be part of the upcoming transition from GEO 600 to GEO-HF. Part of the transition will be the move from a heterodyne readout to a DC readout scheme. DC readout performance will be limited by higher order optical modes and control sidebands present at the output port. For optimum performance of DC readout an output mode cleaner (OMC) will clean the output beam of these contributions. Inclusion of an OMC will introduce new noise sources whose magnitudes needed to be estimated and for which new control systems will be needed. In this article we set requirements on the performance of these control systems and investigate the simulated performance of different designs.

  20. Sustainability in pelletizing iron ore through the Industrial Ecology and Cleaner Production Program

    Cristiano Farias Coelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the practices of a pelletizing iron ore industry with respect to adoption of pollution prevention measures, suggested by applying the concepts of Cleaner Production and Material Flow Analysis. The technical procedure adopted was the case study, the data collection was done through direct observation, with field research and literature review. The main results were obtained from analysis of company reports available to the public, but require a more detailed quantification of data. The study concludes that the identification of environmental opportunities is possible through the proposed implementation of Cleaner Production program, which provides better results when combined with the precepts of the industrial ecology tool, the Material Flow Analysis.

  1. Equal-sign lepton pairs: a cleaner W-signal in panti p collisions

    Abud, M.; Gatto, R.; Savoy, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the observation of the energetic equal-sign dileptons in high-energy panti p colliding beams may provide for a cleaner way of detecting the W. It is assumed that the most energetic dileptons come from the semileptonic decays of the t- and b-quarks. The authors calculate the dilepton signal from weak interaction and compare it with the strong interaction background as predicted by QCD. (Auth.)

  2. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Raziye Montazerolfaraj; Hakime Selsele Vaziri; Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush; Alireza Arsalan; Tahere Zarabie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM) techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Tex...

  3. Life-History Traits and Population Structure of Pederson Cleaner Shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni.

    Gilpin, Jessica A; Chadwick, Nanette E

    2017-12-01

    Cleaner organisms perform key functional roles in reducing rates of parasitism in marine communities. Pederson cleaner shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni are major cleaners of reef fishes in the tropical western Atlantic and form obligate symbioses with host sea anemones. Information about their life-history traits would contribute to understanding how symbiosis impacts life-history evolution in crustaceans, but little is known about patterns of growth and reproduction in this anemone shrimp. We quantified growth, sexual reproduction, senescence, and mortality in individuals of A. pedersoni under laboratory conditions and their abundance and population size structure on coral reefs in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Von Bertalanffy growth curves were fitted to the data to determine age-size relationships, and the Beverton-Holt model was used to estimate mortality rates and size at maximum yield. Individuals grew rapidly when young, then slowed their growth after reaching sexual maturity at ~6 months. Individuals were gonochoric, with males attaining significantly smaller body sizes and shorter life spans than did females. Prior to death at <2 years, members of both genders exhibited senescence during which they ceased reproducing, shrank (females only), and decreased their activity levels over ~1-4 weeks. Field populations were abundant and composed mostly of juveniles during both years examined. Populations appeared to be stable but highly dynamic in terms of individuals, reaching maximum yield at 4 months of age. We conclude that obligate symbiosis with large sea anemones and cleaner mutualism with reef fishes both contribute to explaining aspects of the life history of Pederson shrimps, especially their apparent mating system of pure-search polygynandry. This life-history information also provides a scientific basis for sustainable fishery management and aquaculture of this key coral reef organism.

  4. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  5. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in A Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention ca...

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of vacuum cleaners for the integrated control of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia

    E. N. Ramires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some venomous spiders of the genus Loxosceles can reach high population densities inside and around houses. In Brazil, most spider accidents are related to Loxosceles intermedia. Control of loxoscelism should utilize integrated pest management tools, such as vacuum cleaners, to eliminate egg sacs, webs and spiders. The present study tested the efficacy of one type of vacuum cleaner (for professional and domestic use in the control of L. intermedia populations. Cockroaches (Pycnoscelus surinamensis were used in some tests for comparison. Vacuuming using standard accessories or a paper tube resulted in the death of all female (n=60, male (n=60, young (n=60 and just-hatched (n=60 L. intermedia, and all egg sacs (n=5 were destroyed. The removal of the plastic plate present at the bottom of the vacuuming tube inside the machine allowed some spiders to survive the vacuuming process. When kept inside a vacuum bag full of dust and debris, adult females (n=10 survived for 10 days; however, significant mortality was observed among male (n=10 and young individuals (n=10. Addition of cornstarch to the vacuum bag did not affect the spiders (n=20. Vacuum cleaners, such as the one used in the present investigation, are promising tools for integrated management of L. intermedia and other spiders in domestic environments.

  7. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms.

    Gingins, Simon; Marcadier, Fanny; Wismer, Sharon; Krattinger, Océane; Quattrini, Fausto; Bshary, Redouan; Binning, Sandra A

    2018-01-01

    Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners"). Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right) in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Brazed Zinc-Coated Structured Sheet Metal

    A. Nikitin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc brazing has, in comparison to arc welding, the advantage of less heat input while joining galvanized sheet metals. The evaporation of zinc is reduced in the areas adjacent to the joint and improved corrosion protection is achieved. In the automotive industry, lightweight design is a key technology against the background of the weight and environment protection. Structured sheet metals have higher stiffness compared to typical automobile sheet metals and therefore they can play an important role in lightweight structures. In the present paper, three arc brazing variants of galvanized structured sheet metals were validated in terms of the corrosion behavior. The standard gas metal arc brazing, the pulsed arc brazing, and the cold metal transfer (CMT® in combination with a pulsed cycle were investigated. In experimental climate change tests, the influence of the brazing processes on the corrosion behavior of galvanized structured sheet metals was investigated. After that, the corrosion behavior of brazed structured and flat sheet metals was compared. Because of the selected lap joint, the valuation of damage between sheet metals was conducted. The pulsed CMT brazing has been derived from the results as the best brazing method for the joining process of galvanized structured sheet metals.

  9. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark.

    Carneiro, Isabella G; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners, 144 Danish and 132 non-Western immigrant cleaners. Cumulative sickness absences during a 6-month period from administrative records were subdivided into no sickness absence (0 days), low occurrence of sickness absence (1-10 days) and high occurrence of sickness absence (over 10 days). Measures of health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence. No association between health and low occurrence of sickness absence was found. The findings confirm the importance of health for high occurrence of sickness absence, in both ethnic groups. Moreover, low occurrence of sickness absence was not related to the health conditions investigated.

  10. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  11. THE MOTRU MINING BASIN – GIS APPLICATION ON SHEET EROSION

    Anghel TITU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Motru Mining Basin – GIS Application on Sheet Erosion. The activation of the sheet erosion has important negative effects upon the soil profile. The anticipation of this geomorphologic process is important for taking some measures for protecting the susceptible areas. Within our study, we will carry out a quantitative estimation of the soil losses in the Motru Mining Basin, caused by the activation of the sheet erosion mechanism. We will apply the classic methodology proposed by the ROMSEM model of the USLE type by using the GIS technology

  12. Perforation of metal sheets

    Steenstrup, Jens Erik

    simulation is focused on the sheet deformation. However, the effect on the tool and press is included. The process model is based on the upper bound analysis in order to predict the force progress and hole characteristics etc. Parameter analyses are divided into two groups, simulation and experimental tests......The main purposes of this project are:1. Development of a dynamic model for the piercing and performation process2. Analyses of the main parameters3. Establishing demands for process improvements4. Expansion of the existing parameter limitsThe literature survey describes the process influence...

  13. The local implementation of clean(er) fuels policies in Europe. A Handbook with guidelines. Final version

    Mulder, F.; Amara, Sliman Abu; Uustal, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Devriendt, N.; Rogulska, M.; Defranceschi, P.

    2009-05-01

    This handbook aims to guide the local/regional governments all over Europe who are involved in implementing clean(er) fuel policies in transport. The general challenge these governments are facing is how local policies on clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be made operational. Hence, how can the step be made from a vision on the strategic policy level, to a vision on the implementation of these policies. A local/regional policy on clean(er) fuels and vehicles is commonly part of the larger category 'sustainable transport policy', which in itself is part of a broader local environmental policy. The encompassing local/regional sustainable mobility policy will in most cases be based on the three well known main policy aims in this area: CO2 reduction; Improving the local air quality; and Improving the security of supply (locally often less stressed). This handbook will focus on the actual implementation of a clean(er) fuels and vehicles policy. It will describe the main challenges and how these can be overcome. It will describe how the market conditions for clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be created by establishing the vital market elements and which process is required to do so. And it will show how local enterprises can be involved and what the role of the local governments in this process can be. In order to identify the local success factors in overcoming the main challenges for implementation, case studies have been carried out in three European cities, namely Stockholm (Sweden), Graz (Austria) and Lille (France). The choice of these cities was based on their successes in implementing clean(er) fuel policies (although they followed different paths) and the fact that they managed to achieve ambitious clean(er) fuel/ clean(er) vehicle targets. These cities may thus be considered as ?good practice examples?. The case studies are based on existing literature, on multiple stakeholders? interviews in all three cities, and on two small surveys. The objectives of this

  14. Combining Education and Practice Learning in Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2004-01-01

    to overcome these problems are discussed. The educational principles are presented as a combination of educational learning and practice learning named as reflexive learning. The experience from working with reflexive learning is discussed and relation to the role it can play in creating profes......This chapter argues for a new role for universities in adding the training of (existing) professionals to the core agenda in parallel to academic education and scientific research. Based on experiences from Denmark new challenges both to academic knowledge and training are presented and way...

  15. Washability characteristics of residual coals obtained from solvent extraction: studies towards developing cleaner coal technology

    Giri, C.C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2004-07-01

    The washability characteristics of original Indian coals and solvent-extracted residual coals were studied by the float and sink technique. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the present study. Anthracene oil-extracted residual coals have lower percentage of reactions in the specific gravity range of 1.4 to 1.6 than the original coals, which indicates that the mineral matter is disassociated from the organic mass, and the anthracene oil-extracted residual coal is more suitable for washing than the original coal. The floatability behaviour of coal increases during NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) extraction. This indicates that coal changes its washability character during NMP extractions. As during NMP extraction the surface area of coal increases by creating fissures in the matrix, the chemical leaching technique would be more suitable to remove the mineral matter in the residual coals. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  17. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  18. Fueling our future: four steps to a new reliable, cleaner, decentralized energy supply based on Hydrogen and fuel cells

    Evers, A.

    2005-01-01

    In examining various market strategies, this presentation demonstrates the possible driving factors and necessary elements needed to move Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (H2/FC) to worldwide commercialisation. Focusing not only on the technology itself, this presentation looks at the 'bigger picture' explaining how certain trends have impacted the progress of new technologies developments in the past. The presentation demonstrates how these models can be applied to our present day situation. In this process, the consumer has played and will continue to play the key and leading role. Due to such strong influence, the consumer will ultimately fuel the future of H2/FC commercialisation by a desire for new and not yet discovered products and services. Examining different Distributed Generation scenarios, the catalyst to the Hydrogen Economy may be found through distributed generation via fuel cells. One possible step could be the use of Personal Power Cars equipped with Fuel Cells which not only drive on Hydrogen, but also supply (while standing) electricity /heat to residential and commercial buildings. The incentive for car owners driving and using these vehicles is twofold: either save (at his own home) or earn (at his office) money while their cars are parked and plugged into buildings via smart docking stations available at key parking sites. Cars parked at home in the garage will supply electricity to the homes and additionally, replace the function of the existing boiler. Car owners can earn money by selling the electricity generated (but not needed at that time) to the utilities and feed it into the existing electricity grid. The inter-dependability between supply and consumer-driven demand (or better, demand and supply) and other examples are explained. The steps necessary to achieve a new, reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on H2/FC are also presented and examined. (author)

  19. Stiffness Matrices and Anisotropy in the Trapezoidal Corrugated Composite Sheets

    Mohammad Golzar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the some applications like as morphing technology, high strain and anisotropic behavior are essential design requirements. The corrugated composite sheets due to their special geometries have potential to high deflection under axial loading through longitudinal direction of corrugation. In this research, the strain and the anisotropic behavior of corrugated composite sheets are investigated by fabricating glass/epoxy samples with trapezoidal geometries. For evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the composites the samples were subjected to tension and flexural tests in the longitudinal and transverse directions of corrugation. In order to determine anisotropic behavior of the corrugated sheets, two approaches were introduced: (1 tensile anisotropic (E* and (2 flexural anisotropic (D*. The anisotropic behavior and ultimate deflections were investigated theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, mechanical behaviors based on theoretical and experimental analysis including the elastic constants and stiffness matrices of trapezoidal corrugated composite sheets were studied and the results were verified by finite element method. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions were compared with those of experimental tests. Finally, the load-displacement curves of tensile tests in longitudinal direction of corrugation, the ultimate deflection and anisotropy behavior of these exclusive composite sheets in the corrugated composite sheets were studied experimentally. The experimental results of the trapezoidal corrugated sheets showed that one of the most important parameters in the ultimate strain was amplitude of the corrugation elements. Generally, increasing the amplitude and element per length unit of trapezoidal corrugated specimen led to higher ultimate strain.

  20. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  1. Airborne exposures associated with the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work.

    Fries, Michael; Williams, Pamela R D; Ovesen, Jerald; Maier, Andrew

    2018-04-19

    Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied. Both short-term (15 min) and task-based (≥1 hr) charcoal tube samples were collected in the breathing zone and adjacent work area and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THCs), toluene, and benzene. The majority of personal (N = 48) and area (N = 47) samples had detectable levels of THC and toluene, but no detections of benzene were found. For the personal short-term samples, average airborne concentrations ranged from 3.1 - 61.5 ppm (13.8-217.5 mg/m 3 ) for THC and 2.2 - 44.0 ppm (8.2-162.5 mg/m 3 ) for toluene, depending on the scenario. Compared to the personal short-term samples, average concentrations were generally 2 to 3 times lower for the personal task-based samples and 2 to 5 times lower for the area short-term samples. The highest exposures occurred when the garage bay doors were closed, floor fan was turned off, or greatest amount of brake cleaner was used. These findings add to the limited dataset on this topic and can be used to bound or approximate worker or consumer exposures from use of aerosol cleaning products with similar compositions and use patterns.

  2. Aeroacoustic characteristics and noise reduction of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner

    Jeon, Wan Ho; Rew, Ho Seon; Kim, Chang Joon [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner and its noise reduction method are studied in this paper. The major noise source of a vacuum cleaner is the centrifugal fan. The impeller of the fan rotates at over 30000 rpm, and generates very high-level noise. It was revealed that the dominant noise source is the aerodynamic interaction between the rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. The directivity of acoustic pressure showed that most of the noise propagates backward direction of the fan-motor assembly. In order to reduce the high tonal sound generated from the aerodynamic interaction, unevenly pitched impeller and diffuser, and tapered impeller designs were proposed and experiments were performed. Uneven pitch design of the impeller changes the sound quality while the overall Sound Power Level (SPL) and the performance remains similar. The effect of the tapered design of impeller was evaluated. The trailing edge of the tapered fan is inclined. This reduces the flow interaction between the rotating impeller and the stationary diffuser because of some phase shifts. The static efficiency of the new impeller design is slightly lower than the previous design. However, the overall SPL is reduced by about 4 dB(A). The SPL of the fundamental Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) is reduced by about 6 dB(A) and the 2{sup nd} BPF is reduced about 20 dB(A). The vacuum cleaner with the tapered impeller design produces lower noise level than the previous one, and the strong tonal sound was dramatically reduced.

  3. Aeroacoustic characteristics and noise reduction of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner

    Jeon, Wan Ho; Rew, Ho Seon; Kim, Chang Joon

    2004-01-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner and its noise reduction method are studied in this paper. The major noise source of a vacuum cleaner is the centrifugal fan. The impeller of the fan rotates at over 30000 rpm, and generates very high-level noise. It was revealed that the dominant noise source is the aerodynamic interaction between the rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. The directivity of acoustic pressure showed that most of the noise propagates backward direction of the fan-motor assembly. In order to reduce the high tonal sound generated from the aerodynamic interaction, unevenly pitched impeller and diffuser, and tapered impeller designs were proposed and experiments were performed. Uneven pitch design of the impeller changes the sound quality while the overall Sound Power Level (SPL) and the performance remains similar. The effect of the tapered design of impeller was evaluated. The trailing edge of the tapered fan is inclined. This reduces the flow interaction between the rotating impeller and the stationary diffuser because of some phase shifts. The static efficiency of the new impeller design is slightly lower than the previous design. However, the overall SPL is reduced by about 4 dB(A). The SPL of the fundamental Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) is reduced by about 6 dB(A) and the 2 nd BPF is reduced about 20 dB(A). The vacuum cleaner with the tapered impeller design produces lower noise level than the previous one, and the strong tonal sound was dramatically reduced

  4. The hydrodynamic basis of the vacuum cleaner effect in continuous-flow PCNL instruments: an empiric approach and mathematical model.

    Mager, R; Balzereit, C; Gust, K; Hüsch, T; Herrmann, T; Nagele, U; Haferkamp, A; Schilling, D

    2016-05-01

    Passive removal of stone fragments in the irrigation stream is one of the characteristics in continuous-flow PCNL instruments. So far the physical principle of this so-called vacuum cleaner effect has not been fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to empirically prove the existence of the vacuum cleaner effect and to develop a physical hypothesis and generate a mathematical model for this phenomenon. In an empiric approach, common low-pressure PCNL instruments and conventional PCNL sheaths were tested using an in vitro model. Flow characteristics were visualized by coloring of irrigation fluid. Influence of irrigation pressure, sheath diameter, sheath design, nephroscope design and position of the nephroscope was assessed. Experiments were digitally recorded for further slow-motion analysis to deduce a physical model. In each tested nephroscope design, we could observe the vacuum cleaner effect. Increase in irrigation pressure and reduction in cross section of sheath sustained the effect. Slow-motion analysis of colored flow revealed a synergism of two effects causing suction and transportation of the stone. For the first time, our model showed a flow reversal in the sheath as an integral part of the origin of the stone transportation during vacuum cleaner effect. The application of Bernoulli's equation provided the explanation of these effects and confirmed our experimental results. We widen the understanding of PCNL with a conclusive physical model, which explains fluid mechanics of the vacuum cleaner effect.

  5. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    experience with sport and exercise and struggled with the high demands at work and a “second shift” at home. As a consequence, most participants found the training too time- and energy-consuming. We conclude that exercise programmes should preferably be conducted at the workplace and during working hours....... factors constrained and which supported participation. The interviews revealed a high degree of appreciation for the training but also pointed to a number of constraints which were embedded into the participants’ biographies and everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark. Most women had no previous...

  6. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    Barriga, Pablo J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail: pbarriga@cyllene.uwa.edu.au; Zhao Chunnong [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Blair, David G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2005-06-06

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen.

  7. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    Barriga, Pablo J.; Zhao Chunnong; Blair, David G.

    2005-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen

  8. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    Environmental goals may be pursued narrow-mindedly with no attention paid to the workplace. This book examines combined approaches in cleaner production projects. It explores two main avenues. First, integration into the project specification. The planning tools in use by assistance agencies......, integration of management systems is an option. A study on the South African Nosa 5-Star system refutes earlier criticism of dismal performance of top-down systems. It is argued that integration at this level is viable. For small companies, less formalistic approaches are required. ILO's network concept WISE...

  9. Radiation processing of agricultural products: status and potential contribution to a cleaner environment

    Lapidot, M.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of radiation processing of agricultural products is briefly reviewed with special regard to those processes which may contribute to a cleaner environment. Radurization of poultry feed and poultry meat is shown to be a major contributor to the reduction of a significant public health problem-salmonellosis. Radiation sterilized animal feeds can be produced by processing garbage - a major environmental pollutant. Radicidation and radappertization are effective processes in the treatment of sludges and waste water, to prevent pollution of seas or ground. Radiation processes can effectively replace fungicides and insecticides in the treatment of agricultural crops and thus reduce environmental pollution. (author)

  10. Inhaling Difluoroethane Computer Cleaner Resulting in Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Kristen Calhoun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Difluoroethane is the active ingredient in various computer cleaners and is increasingly abused by teenagers due to its ease of access, quick onset of euphoric effects, and lack of detectability on current urine drug screens. The substance has detrimental effects on various organ systems; however, its effects on the kidneys remain largely unreported. The following case report adds new information to the developing topic of acute kidney injury in patients abusing difluoroethane inhalants. In addition, it is one of the first to show a possible relationship between prolonged difluoroethane abuse and the development of chronic kidney disease in the absence of other predisposing risk factors.

  11. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  12. Research on Computer Integrated Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Parts for Lithium Battery

    Pan Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium battery has been widely used as the main driving force of the new energy vehicle in recent years. Sheet metal parts are formed by means of pressure forming techniques with the characteristics of light weight, small size and high structural strength. The sheet metal forming has higher productivity and material utilization than the mechanical cutting, therefore sheet metal parts are widely used in many fields, such as modern automotive industry, aviation, aerospace, machine tools, instruments and household appliances. In this paper, taking a complex lithium battery box as an example, the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal parts is studied, and the digital integrated design and manufacturing process system is proposed. The technology is studied such as sheet metal design, unfolding, sheet nesting and laser cutting, CNC turret punch stamping programming, CNC bending etc. The feasibility of the method is verified through the examples of products and the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal box is completed.

  13. Jewelry cleaners

    ... care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider.

  14. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  15. Analysis of the potentiality for implementing of the cleaner production and adopting a sustainable consumption in the Cuban entrepreneurial system

    Tortosa Ferrer, Barbara Ivette; Orue Valdes, Sonia; Mena Ulecia, Karel

    2007-01-01

    The world economic development has conduced to increase the worsening of the environment as result of the natural resources pollution. The tendency has been toward the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, to increasing of the goods and services production, as well as, to elevated consumption. In this sense, many countries have planed environmental policies addressed to reducing of pollution introducing cleaner production practices and promoting the adoption of responsible consumption. This article shows the existing potentiality in a selected Cuban companies group for introducing and applying of the cleaner production, as well as, the adoption of a sustainable consumption start from analysis of the obtained results in short-term assessments (quick scans) carried out by the Cuban Environment Agency Focal Point of the National Cleaner Production Network in the period between 2004 and 2007

  16. Effect of Cell Sheet Manipulation Techniques on the Expression of Collagen Type II and Stress Fiber Formation in Human Chondrocyte Sheets.

    Wongin, Sopita; Waikakul, Saranatra; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong; Siriwatwechakul, Wanwipa; Viravaidya-Pasuwat, Kwanchanok

    2018-03-01

    Cell sheet technology is applied to human articular chondrocytes to construct a tissue-like structure as an alternative treatment for cartilage defect. The effect of a gelatin manipulator, as a cell sheet transfer system, on the quality of the chondrocyte sheets was investigated. The changes of important chondrogenic markers and stress fibers, resulting from the cell sheet manipulation, were also studied. The chondrocyte cell sheets were constructed with patient-derived chondrocytes using a temperature-responsive polymer and a gelatin manipulator as a transfer carrier. The properties of the cell sheets, including sizes, expression levels of collagen type II and I, and the localization of the stress fibers, were assessed and compared with those of the cell sheets harvested without the gelatin manipulator. Using the gelatin manipulator, the original size of the chondrocyte cell sheets was retained with abundant stress fibers, but with a decrease in the expression of collagen type II. Without the gelatin manipulator, although the cell shrinkage occurred, the cell sheet with suppressed stress fiber formation showed significantly higher levels of collagen type II. These results support our observations that stress fiber formation in chondrocyte cell sheets affected the production of chondrogenic markers. These densely packed tissue-like structures possessed a good chondrogenic activity, indicating their potential for use in autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat cartilage defects.

  17. The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO)

    Morin, P.; Howat, I. M.; Ahn, Y.; Porter, C.; McFadden, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent expansion of observational capacity from space has revealed dramatic, rapid changes in the Earth’s ice cover. These discoveries have fundamentally altered how scientists view ice-sheet change. Instead of just slow changes in snow accumulation and melting over centuries or millennia, important changes can occur in sudden events lasting only months, weeks, or even a single day. Our understanding of these short time- and space-scale processes, which hold important implications for future global sea level rise, has been impeded by the low temporal and spatial resolution, delayed sensor tasking, incomplete coverage, inaccessibility and/or high cost of data available to investigators. New cross-agency partnerships and data access policies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve the resolution of ice sheet observations by an order of magnitude, from timescales of months and distances of 10’s of meters, to days and meters or less. Advances in image processing technology also enable application of currently under-utilized datasets. The infrastructure for systematically gathering, processing, analyzing and distributing these data does not currently exist. Here we present the development of a multi-institutional, multi-platform observatory for rapid ice change with the ultimate objective of helping to elucidate the relevant timescales and processes of ice sheet dynamics and response to climate change. The Rapid Ice Sheet Observatory (RISCO) gathers observations of short time- and space-scale Cryosphere events and makes them easily accessible to investigators, media and general public. As opposed to existing data centers, which are structured to archive and distribute diverse types of raw data to end users with the specialized software and skills to analyze them, RISCO focuses on three types of geo-referenced raster (image) data products in a format immediately viewable with commonly available software. These three products are (1) sequences of images

  18. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms

    Simon Gingins

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter “cleaners”. Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  19. Impact of cleaner fuel use and improved stoves on acute respiratory infections: evidence from India.

    Lamichhane, Prabhat; Sharma, Anurag; Mahal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    The use of cleaner fuel and improved stoves has been promoted as a means to lower harmful emissions from solid fuels. However, little is known about how exclusive use of cleaner fuels, mixed fuel use and improved stoves influences children's health. We compared the impact of using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exclusively with mixed fuel use (LPG plus polluting fuels) and with exclusive use of polluting fuels on acute respiratory infections (ARI) among 16 157 children 0-4 years of age from households in the 2012 Indian Human Development Survey. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) procedures for multiple treatments were used for this evaluation. Children from households using LPG had a 5.0% lower probability of reporting ARI relative to exclusive users of polluting fuels, with larger effects (10.7%) in rural households. The probability of ARI in households using improved stoves and mixed fuel use was also lower in rural households, by 2.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The magnitude of effect varied across population subgroups, with the highest effects for children living in households living in kachha (low quality material) houses households identified as poor. Use of LPG and improved stoves lowered the probability of ARI among children younger than 5 years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Taxation on vehicle fuels: its impacts on switching to cleaner fuels

    Hung, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular consumption of fossil fuel contributes over 90% of air pollution in Hong Kong. A key strategy to improve Hong Kong's air quality is to discourage dirty fuels (e.g., leaded petrol and high-sulphur diesel) and to promote the use of clean fuels (e.g., low-sulphur diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). This paper presents the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the Government's clean fuel programs that offer tax subsidy to lower the consumption cost of such fuels. For the cases of unleaded petrol and ultra-low-sulphur diesel, lower fuel duties were offered so that the prices of these fuels were below those of leaded petrol and conventional diesel. Conventional petrol and diesel were phased out. In order to decide on the level of fuel duty concessions required to introduce LPG for taxis and bio-diesel for other vehicles, various Government-run trial programs were introduced to obtain cost estimates of using these alternative cleaner fuels. LPG using vehicles were subsequently exempted from the fuel duty in order to attract taxi and light bus operators to switch to LPG. It is apparent that the higher the subsidy, the faster is the rate at which switching to cleaner fuels takes place

  1. Vocational training courses as an intervention on change of work practice among immigrant cleaners.

    Jensen, Flemming W; Frydendall, Karen B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how knowledge and skills from vocational training courses on working techniques modified for immigrant cleaners are applied in practice and to identify factors that influence the implementation. The modifications of the standard course included language support with possibilities for translation and an extension of the duration of the course. The study is a prospective intervention study based on qualitative data. Data were collected as structured interviews and observations were carried out at the workplaces before and after the course. The study population included 31 immigrant cleaners from five different workplaces. Changes were observed in the use of working techniques (i.e., positioning of hands when using the floor mop). In some cases the use of the taught techniques was incorrect, partial, or only used part of the time. Interactions between individual factors (i.e., knowledge, awareness, capability, or work orientation) and environmental factors (i.e., equipment, time, workload, or physical surroundings) influenced the use of the techniques in practice. The course provided the participants with new working techniques through which some were able to reduce work related pain. However, with regard to incorrect and partial use of the working techniques, follow-up and post-training support is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Global ice sheet/RSL simulations using the higher-order Ice Sheet System Model.

    Larour, E. Y.; Ivins, E. R.; Adhikari, S.; Schlegel, N.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.

    2017-12-01

    Relative sea-level rise is driven by processes that are intimately linked to the evolution ofglacial areas and ice sheets in particular. So far, most Earth System models capable of projecting theevolution of RSL on decadal to centennial time scales have relied on offline interactions between RSL andice sheets. In particular, grounding line and calving front dynamics have not been modeled in a way that istightly coupled with Elasto-Static Adjustment (ESA) and/or Glacial-Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Here, we presenta new simulation of the entire Earth System in which both Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets are tightly coupledto an RSL model that includes both ESA and GIA at resolutions and time scales compatible with processes suchas grounding line dynamics for Antarctica ice shelves and calving front dynamics for Greenland marine-terminatingglaciers. The simulations rely on the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) and show the impact of higher-orderice flow dynamics and coupling feedbacks between ice flow and RSL. We quantify the exact impact of ESA andGIA inclusion on grounding line evolution for large ice shelves such as the Ronne and Ross ice shelves, as well asthe Agasea Embayment ice streams, and demonstate how offline vs online RSL simulations diverge in the long run,and the consequences for predictions of sea-level rise.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  3. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  4. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  5. Ice Sheet System Model as Educational Entertainment

    Perez, G.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the importance of polar ice sheets and their role in the evolution of Sea Level Rise (SLR), as well as Climate Change, is of paramount importance for policy makers as well as the public and schools at large. For example, polar ice sheets and glaciers currently account for 1/3 of the SLR signal, a ratio that will increase in the near to long-term future, which has tremendous societal ramifications. Consequently, it is important to increase awareness about our changing planet. In our increasingly digital society, mobile and web applications are burgeoning venues for such outreach. The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) is a software that was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CalTech/NASA, in collaboration with University of California Irvine (UCI), with the goal of better understanding the evolution of polar ice sheets. It is a state-of-the-art framework, which relies on higher-end cluster-computing to address some of the aforementioned challenges. In addition, it is a flexible framework that can be deployed on any hardware; in particular, on mobile platforms such as Android or iOS smart phones. Here, we look at how the ISSM development team managed to port their model to these platforms, what the implications are for improving how scientists disseminate their results, and how a broader audience may familiarize themselves with running complex climate models in simplified scenarios which are highly educational and entertaining in content. We also look at the future plans toward a web portal fully integrated with mobile technologies to deliver the best content to the public, and to provide educational plans/lessons that can be used in grades K-12 as well as collegiate under-graduate and graduate programs.

  6. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  7. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  8. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh

    2006-01-01

    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  9. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  10. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  11. Adolescent Literacy. Fact Sheet

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The nation's workforce is demanding ever more literate workers and citizens. As technology advances and the American economy grows increasingly knowledge based, individuals must be able to read, write, and communicate at higher levels in order to remain economic and social contributors. A student's level of literacy is a critical determinant of…

  12. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR USAGE OF PULTRUDED COMPOSITE SHEET PILES

    BURYA Alexander I.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the description of pultruded composite sheet piles. The article covers the production technology, advantages over other traditional materials, as well as environmental and economic prospects for expanding of the usage of composite sheet piling.

  14. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  16. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  17. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-randomised (work location; sex; age; length of service) to aerobic exercise [N = 57, 44.9 years, 75.4% female, body mass index (BMI) 26.2], receiving 2 weekly aerobic exercise sessions during 12 months, or a reference group (N = 59, 45.7 years, 76.3% female, BMI 27.1), receiving health-promoting lectures. Self.......2) in the aerobic exercise group compared to the reference group. Productivity and rating of exertion were unaltered. Analysis stratified on age showed significant effects only among the participants aged ≤ 45 years. CONCLUSIONS: After 12 months work ability improved and need for recovery decreased. A period of 4...

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  20. An experimental evaluation on air purification performance of Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air cleaner

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei; Sun, Yuexia

    2018-01-01

    was 96.8%, which indicated that the most of gaseous pollutants were not accumulated in the CAHP. The regeneration temperature for the wheel could affect the air purification performance of CAHP. At 70 °C of regeneration temperature, the air-cleaning efficiency reached 96.7%. Up to 70% of the outdoor air......The escalation of energy consumption in buildings and heightened concerns about acceptable indoor air quality stimulate interest in the usage of air cleaner as an adjunct for indoor environmental conditioning. A regenerative desiccant wheel integrated into a ventilation system termed Clean-Air Heat...... Pump (CAHP) can improve the air quality during the process of dehumidification without using additional energy. An experimental study in a field lab was performed to investigate the air cleaning performance of CAHP. Photoacoustic gas analyzer-INNOVA was used to characterize chemical removal of indoor...

  1. A randomised controlled trial among cleaners--effects on strength, balance and kinesiophobia

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ektor-Andersen, John; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    , and kinesiophobia from CBTr. The improved strength, postural balance and kinesiophobia may improve the cleaners' tolerance for high physical work demands. Future studies should investigate the potential in the combination of PCT and CBTr in a workplace intervention. Current controlled trials ISRCTN96241850....... training (PCT, n = 95), Cognitive behavioural theory-based training (CBTr, n = 99) and Reference group (REF, n = 100). Interventions were conducted during work hours for an average of 1 hour/week. Muscle strength was measured by maximal voluntary contractions in trunk/extension, and shoulder abduction....../elevation. Postural balance was measured on a force platform. Kinesiophobia was measured with Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Test and questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 3-month follow-up and analyses followed the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle with last observation carried forward in case of missing...

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    . The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise. Data collection......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have...... been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim...

  3. Politics design of cleaner production in the electric sector for the energy scenarios of Colombia

    Figueroa P, Woody; Smith Q, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Cleaner production (PML) in Colombia has been implemented as an agreement of wills between the companies of different productive sectors and the Colombian environment ministry. In the electric sector, the agreement of PML has been implemented with successes and difficulties. A concern that exists today among the companies of the electric sector involved in the agreement is about its long-term viability. Supported in the planning tool of scenarios, an analysis of the possible futures of PML in the Colombian electric sector, using the energy scenarios for Colombia (UPME, 2000), is made. PML policies are designed that will allow to analyze its long-term implementation. This work seeks to contribute in the long-term analysis about the evolution and tendencies of PML in the Colombian electric sector, according with the markets dynamics, trends and competitiveness that are gaining space in the international community

  4. On Jovian plasma sheet structure

    Khurana, K.K.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluate several models of Jovian plasma sheet structure by determining how well they organize several aspects of the observed Voyager 2 magnetic field characteristics as a function of Jovicentric radial distance. It is shown that in the local time sector of the Voyager 2 outbound pass (near 0300 LT) the published hinged-magnetodisc models with wave (i.e., models corrected for finite wave velocity effects) are more successful than the published magnetic anomaly model in predicting locations of current sheet crossings. They also consider the boundary between the plasma sheet and the magnetotail lobe which is expected to vary slowly with radial distance. They use this boundary location as a further test of the models of the magnetotail. They show that the compressional MHD waves have much smaller amplitude in the lobes than in the plasma sheet and use this criterion to refine the identification of the plasma-sheet-lobe boundary. When the locations of crossings into and out of the lobes are examined, it becomes evident that the magnetic-anomaly model yields a flaring plasma sheet with a halfwidth of ∼ 3 R J at a radial distance of 20 R J and ∼ 12 R J at a radial distance of 100 R J . The hinged-magnetodisc models with wave, on the other hand, predict a halfwidth of ∼ 3.5 R J independent of distance beyond 20 R J . New optimized versions of the two models locate both the current sheet crossings and lobe encounters equally successfully. The optimized hinged-magnetodisc model suggests that the wave velocity decreases with increasing radial distance. The optimized magnetic anomaly model yields lower velocity contrast than the model of Vasyliunas and Dessler (1981)

  5. Saving oiled mangroves using a new non-dispersing shoreline cleaner

    Teas, H.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.; Brown, C.D.; Glenn, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mangroves are ranked as one of the most sensitive marine environments. If mangroves are oiled and no further action is taken, the probability of mortality to the trees is high. One of the ways that viscous spilled oil can kill mangroves is by covering the breathing ports, called lenticels (red mangroves) and pneumatophores (black mangroves), and asphyxiating them by preventing flow of oxygen from the atmosphere into the roots. Mangroves can also be killed by continuous inundation of their prop roots or pneumatophores for a period of ten days to two weeks, but they can survive lenticel covering by water for a few hours at high tide - so there appears to be some grace period during which lenticels can be nonfunctional and the plant can still survive once lenticel function is restored. This suggests that if oil is removed from the breathing ports during the early days after a spill, the lenticels may be able to restore oxygen delivery to the roots and spare the mangroves. Such oils are poorly removed by the washing of tidal waters or by water sprays alone. So a new shoreline cleaner (Corexit 9580), which was specially developed during the cleanup of the Valdez spill in Alaska, was tested to determine its ability to help loosen the oil so it can be washed away with water. Laboratory experiments using excised prop roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were initially conducted to determine the feasibility of the approach. Subsequently experiments were carried out using about a hundred potted red mangroves at a test site in Florida. The prop roots, including the lenticels, were coated with a heavy oil (bunker C). After various periods of time, groups of oiled trees were treated with the shoreline cleaner to loosen and remove the oil deposit and then washed with seawater. The results showed that oiled trees could be saved by cleaning within seven days after oiling, indicating that the grace period after oiling extends for about one week

  6. Preservatives in Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Products, Topical Medications, and Household Cleaners in Spain.

    Pastor-Nieto, María Antonia; Alcántara-Nicolás, Francisco; Melgar-Molero, Virginia; Pérez-Mesonero, Raquel; Vergara-Sánchez, Aránzazu; Martín-Fuentes, Adriana; González-Muñoz, Patricia; de Eusebio-Murillo, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop. Phenoxyethanol, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate were very common in all the cosmetic product categories. Parabens were present in 16.1% of dermocosmetic products, 14.45% of cosmetic products available in supermarkets, 0.88% of cosmetic products available in the herbal shop, 5.18% of topical medications, and in none of the cleaning products. Isothiazolinones were identified in 2.56% of dermocosmetic products, 18% of cosmetic products in supermarkets, 7.9% of cosmetic products in the herbal shop, 63.63% of household cleaners, and in none of the topical medications. Formaldehyde releasers were detected in 5.76% of dermocosmetic products, 6.42% of cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 7.96% of cosmetic products sold in the herbal shop, 3.93% of topical medications, and 16.74% of household cleaners. Evaluation of the presence of preservatives in everyday products allows us to indirectly estimate exposure levels to each one. Measures restricting the use of the most problematic preservatives need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Factory. Materials and Methods: In this research, effective internal and external factors in cleaner production were identified by providing the required information through field visit and interview with industry managers and supervisors of raw materials’ warehouse. Finally, To form matrix of internal and external factors 17 important internal factors and 7 important external factors were identified and selected respectively.Then, QSPM matrix was formed to determine the attractiveness and priority of the selected strategies by using results of internal and external factors and SWOT matrixes. Results: According to the results, the total score of raw materials’ warehouse in Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE matrix is equal to 2.90 which shows the good situation of warehouse than the internal factors. However, the total score in External Factor Evaluation (EFE matrix is 2.14 and indicates the relative weak situation of warehouse than the external factors. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, continuity, monitor, and improvement of the general plan of qualitative control (QC of raw materials and laboratory as well as more emphasis on quality indexes according to its importance in the production processes were selected as the most important strategies. 

  8. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  9. A flexible tactile sensitive sheet using a hetero-core fiber optic sensor

    Fujino, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Hosoki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2014-05-01

    In this report, we have designed a tactile sensitive sheet based on a hetero-core fiber-optic sensor, which realize an areal sensing by using single sensor potion in one optical fiber line. Recently, flexible and wide-area tactile sensing technology is expected to applied to acquired biological information in living space and robot achieve long-term care services such as welfare and nursing-care and humanoid technology. A hetero-core fiber-optic sensor has several advantages such as thin and flexible transmission line, immunity to EMI. Additionally this sensor is sensitive to moderate bending actions with optical loss changes and is independent of temperature fluctuation. Thus, the hetero-core fiber-optic sensor can be suitable for areal tactile sensing. We measure pressure characteristic of the proposed sensitive sheet by changing the pressure position and pinching characteristic on the surface. The proposed tactile sensitive sheet shows monotonic responses on the whole sensitive sheet surface although different sensitivity by the position is observed at the sensitive sheet surface. Moreover, the tactile sensitive sheet could sufficiently detect the pinching motion. In addition, in order to realize the discrimination between pressure and pinch, we fabricated a doubled-over sensor using a set of tactile sensitive sheets, which has different kinds of silicon robbers as a sensitive sheet surface. In conclusion, the flexible material could be given to the tactile sensation which is attached under proposed sensitive sheet.

  10. Actions on climate change, Intended Reducing carbon emissions in China via optimal industry shifts: Toward hi-tech industries, cleaner resources and higher carbon shares in less-develop regions

    Fu, Xue; Lahr, Michael; Yaxiong, Zhang; Meng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses an optimal interregional input-output model to focus on how interregional industrial shifts alone might enable China to reduce carbon intensity instead of national shifts. The optimal industry shifts assure integration of all regions by regional products and goods in which carbon emissions are embodied via energy consumption. Generally speaking, high-tech industries concentrate in affluent regions to replace construction. Selected services increase output shares across most of regions. Meanwhile, energy-intensive manufacturing, rather than agriculture, decrease their shares to achieve the national annual growth constrained by nation’s carbon targets. Due to the need to decelerate energy use, carbon intensity goal puts particularly extreme pressure on less-developed regions to shutter heavy industries. Explicit shifts toward cleaner resources and renewable energy appear to be quite important for coal mines in Central China. - Highlights: • The model optimizes GDP constrained by industry-based emissions targets. • Scenario on carbon intensity, growth rate, energy mix, and technology advance. • Interregional I-O table informs technology, industry mix, and interregional trade. • China could raise the output of high-tech in South Coast and of selected services. • Shifts toward cleaner resources and renewable energy are important in the Central.

  11. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  12. Prediction of Path Deviation in Robot Based Incremental Sheet Metal Forming by Means of a New Solid-Shell Finite Element Technology and a Finite Elastoplastic Model with Combined Hardening

    Kiliclar, Yalin; Laurischkat, Roman; Vladimirov, Ivaylo N.; Reese, Stefanie

    2011-08-01

    The presented project deals with a robot based incremental sheet metal forming process, which is called roboforming and has been developed at the Chair of Production Systems. It is characterized by flexible shaping using a freely programmable path-synchronous movement of two industrial robots. The final shape is produced by the incremental infeed of the forming tool in depth direction and its movement along the part contour in lateral direction. However, the resulting geometries formed in roboforming deviate several millimeters from the reference geometry. This results from the compliance of the involved machine structures and the springback effects of the workpiece. The project aims to predict these deviations caused by resiliences and to carry out a compensative path planning based on this prediction. Therefore a planning tool is implemented which compensates the robots's compliance and the springback effects of the sheet metal. The forming process is simulated by means of a finite element analysis using a material model developed at the Institute of Applied Mechanics (IFAM). It is based on the multiplicative split of the deformation gradient in the context of hyperelasticity and combines nonlinear kinematic and isotropic hardening. Low-order finite elements used to simulate thin sheet structures, such as used for the experiments, have the major problem of locking, a nonphysical stiffening effect. For an efficient finite element analysis a special solid-shell finite element formulation based on reduced integration with hourglass stabilization has been developed. To circumvent different locking effects, the enhanced assumed strain (EAS) and the assumed natural strain (ANS) concepts are included in this formulation. Having such powerful tools available we obtain more accurate geometries.

  13. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  14. Optimal swimming of a sheet.

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  15. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  16. The quantitative inspection of iron aluminide green sheet using transient thermography

    Watkins, Michael L.; Hinders, Mark K.; Scorey, Clive; Winfree, William

    1999-01-01

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide, FeAl, sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet, either by cold rolling or tape casting FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The finished sheet is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of using active thermography to detect the flaws and heterogeneity within green powder composites (1)(2)(3). The production environment and physical characteristics of these composites provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. Thermography is non-contact and minimizes the potential damage to the fragile green sheet. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. In this paper, we will describe the application of thermography for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial process. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The formation of green sheet flaws and their transformation into defects within intermediate and finished sheet products will be described. A green sheet conformance criterion will be presented which would significantly reduce the probability of processing poor quality green sheet which contributes to higher waste and inferior bulk alloy sheet

  17. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, International Fact Sheet (Spanish)

    2010-08-01

    This English/Spanish fact sheet describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  18. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  19. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...

  20. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  1. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  2. The social balance sheet 2004

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2005-01-01

    Each year, in the 4th quarter’s Economic Review, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets. As all the social balance sheets are not yet available for 2004, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 38,530 enterprises employing around 1,331,000 workers in 2004. The main results of the analysis, in terms of employment, working hours, labour cost and tra...

  3. Sustainable Energy Technologies annual report 2003

    2003-01-01

    Calgary based Sustainable Energy Technologies is a public company that develops and manufactures alternative energy products that enable distributed renewable energy resources to be integrated with the existing electrical infrastructure. The company has moved from a development stage company to one that manufactures power electronic products that can compete globally and which will play an important role in the transition to a cleaner world. Achievements in the past year have included a joint effort with RWE Piller GmbH to develop a power electronics platform for a fuel cell inverter. Ten inverters were delivered to Nuvera Fuel Cells and were reported to have performed very well in the Avanti distributed generation fuel cell. The universality of the inverter was demonstrated when the same power electronics platform was used to support a 5 kW grid interactive converter for the solar power market. During the 18-month period ending on March 31, 2003, the company invested $1.5 million to create their first two commercial product lines, without net investment of shareholder equity. The objective for the future is to generate cash flow and earnings from sales into the solar power market and to build a leadership role in the stationary fuel cell industry. The major challenge will lie in product support and customer service. As the customer base expands, the company will invest in product-tracking software. This annual report includes an auditor's report, consolidated financial statements including balance sheets, statements of income and deficit, statements of cash flows, and notes to the consolidated financial statements. tabs

  4. Cleaner drive - Obstacles in the way of a market for a new generation of vehicles; Cleaner Drive. Hindernisse fuer die Markteinfuehrung von neuen Fahrzeug-Generationen. Bericht ueber die Beteiligung von e'mobile am EU-Projekt

    Schwegler, U. [e' mobile, der Schweizerische Verband fuer elektrische und effiziente Strassenfahrzeuge, Berne (Switzerland); Domeniconi, R. [AssoVEL2, Mendrisio (Switzerland); Kaufmann, J. [Kaufmann Consulting, Berne (Switzerland); Werfeli, A. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Association of Swiss Traffic Engineers describes work done within the framework of the fifth European Research Framework Programme involving the development of tools to speed up the introduction of a new generations of vehicles. This report lists the work done by the Swiss e'mobil organisation and discusses the limitations placed on the work by its international framework. The report presents the 'Cleaner Drive' environmental evaluation methods used for vehicles. This considers greenhouse-gas emissions and external costs. Factors not considered, noise and bio-fuels, are mentioned. A data-base based decision-support tool is introduced. The development of the 'Cleaner Drive' web site is described. A further chapter takes a look at efforts being made in the area of filling stations for gaseous fuels.

  5. Patterning nonisometric origami in nematic elastomer sheets

    Plucinsky, Paul; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; White, Timothy J.; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    Nematic elastomers dramatically change their shape in response to diverse stimuli including light and heat. In this paper, we provide a systematic framework for the design of complex three dimensional shapes through the actuation of heterogeneously patterned nematic elastomer sheets. These sheets are composed of \\textit{nonisometric origami} building blocks which, when appropriately linked together, can actuate into a diverse array of three dimensional faceted shapes. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that: 1) the nonisometric origami building blocks actuate in the predicted manner, 2) the integration of multiple building blocks leads to complex multi-stable, yet predictable, shapes, 3) we can bias the actuation experimentally to obtain a desired complex shape amongst the multi-stable shapes. We then show that this experimentally realized functionality enables a rich possible design landscape for actuation using nematic elastomers. We highlight this landscape through theoretical examples, which utilize large arrays of these building blocks to realize a desired three dimensional origami shape. In combination, these results amount to an engineering design principle, which we hope will provide a template for the application of nematic elastomers to emerging technologies.

  6. Laser-assisted micro sheet forming

    Holtkamp, Jens; Gillner, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    The fast growing market for micro technical products requires parts with increasing complexity. While sheet metal forming enables low cost mass production with short cycle times, it is limited by the maximum degree of deformation and the quality of the cut edge. The technology of warm forming partially eliminates these deficiencies. This operation takes place at elevated temperatures before structural transformation is initiated. It combines characteristic advantages of traditional cold and hot forming processes. Lasers as heat sources provide a high, selective and controllable energy input. The general difficulty of a uniform temperature distribution during the heating process can be reached by using an Axicon which generates an annulus on the sheet metal surface. The temperature of the workpiece, measured by a pyrometer, is tuned by a PI-Controller. A tool incorporating a multistage operation die is used for the manufacturing of up to three parts at the same time. The tool is integrated into a hydraulical press. A gearwheel made of the magnesium alloy AZ31 is chosen as metal demonstrator. The quality of these punched parts could be significantly improved at elevated temperatures

  7. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  8. Technology.

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  9. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    ... months 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Tosferina (pertussis) The best ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  10. Separate and unsanitary: African American women railroad car cleaners and the Women's Service Section, 1918-1920.

    Muhammad, Robin Dearmon

    2011-01-01

    The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners during this period but they were routinely denied adequate facilities, including toilets, locker rooms, and dining facilities throughout the railroad system. By raising the issues of facilities, workers' rights, and public health, these women shaped federal policy and widened the agenda of the WSS to include a direct attack on segregated workplaces. This article argues that African American women car cleaners launched an industrial campaign that wove together concerns about racism, sexism, and health issues, and successfully removed barriers to women working in a predominately male industry.

  11. The Forming of AISI 409 sheets for fan blade manufacturing

    Foroni, F. D.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    The necessity of adapting the standardized fan models to conditions of higher temperature has emerged due to the growth of concern referring to the consequences of the gas expelling after the Mont Blanc tunnel accident in Italy and France, where even though, with 100 fans in operation, 41 people died. The objective of this work is to present an alternative to the market standard fans considering a new technology in constructing blades. This new technology introduces the use of the stainless steel AISI 409 due to its good to temperatures of gas exhaust from tunnels in fire situation. The innovation is centered in the process of a deep drawing of metallic sheets in order to keep the ideal aerodynamic superficies for the fan ideal performance. Through the impression of circles on the sheet plane it is shown, experimentally, that, during the pressing process, the more deformed regions on the sheet plane of the blade can not reach the deformation limits of the utilized sheet material

  12. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise: a randomised cross-over study among female cleaners.

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Korshøj, Mette

    2018-02-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) is shown to increase the risk for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Conversely, aerobic exercise acutely lowers the blood pressure up to 25 h post exercise. However, it is unknown if this beneficial effect also apply for workers exposed to high levels of OPA. Cleaners constitute a relevant occupational group for this investigation because of a high prevalence of OPA and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the objective was to investigate the acute effects on ambulatory blood pressure from a single aerobic exercise session among female cleaners. Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed-models. After the aerobic exercise session, the 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.4 mmHg (p ABP was unaltered. During work hours, a lowered systolic ABP of 2.2 mmHg (p = 0.02) and a higher diastolic ABP of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h systolic ABP of 2.4 mmHg. Thus, an aerobic exercise session seems to be beneficial for lowering the risk of hypertension among cleaners.

  13. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  14. Thematic sheets on the nuclear energy

    Tevissen, E.; Galle, Ch.; L'Hostis, V.; Millard, A.; Moulin, Ch.; Mauchien, P.; Vitart, X.; Rivalier, P.; Diop, Ch.; Boullis, B.; Feron, D.; Santarini, G.; Lieven, Th.; Laffont, G.; Cachon, L.; Moulin, C.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents eleven description sheets of researches realized in the CEA laboratories. The following topics are concerned: the diffusion of tritiated water, iodine 125 and chlorine 36 in the Meuse/Haute-Marne rocks of the underground laboratory of Bure; effect of the granulates nature on the thermal and hydro mechanics behavior of concrete at high temperature (60-450 C); first validation of a damage model for reinforced concrete affected by the corrosion of its reinforcements; analysis of pollutants traces; centrifuge extractors of the high activity laboratory; the advanced partitioning; the disadvantages of the Monte-Carlo method in the radiation protection domain; the Purex process; materials damage by enzymes; the acoustic emission applied for the materials corrosion; the helium circuits technology for the gas cooled reactors; high level speciation. (A.L.B.)

  15. Formability of porous tantalum sheet-metal

    Nebosky, Paul S; Schmid, Steven R; Pasang, Timotius

    2009-01-01

    Over the past ten years, a novel cellular solid, Trabecular Metal T M , has been developed for use in the orthopaedics industry as an ingrowth scaffold. Manufactured using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on top of a graphite foam substrate, this material has a regular matrix of interconnecting pores, high strength, and high porosity. Manufacturing difficulties encourage the application of bending, stamping and forming technologies to increase CVD reactor throughput and reduce material wastes. In this study, the bending and forming behaviour of Trabecular Metal T M was evaluated using a novel camera-based system for measuring surface strains, since the conventional approach of printing or etching gridded patterns was not feasible. A forming limit diagram was obtained using specially fabricated 1.65 mm thick sheets. A springback coefficient was measured and modeled using effective hexagonal cell arrangements.

  16. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  17. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  18. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  19. On the possible eigenoscillations of neutral sheets

    Almeida, W.A.; Costa, J.M. da; Aruquipa, E.G.; Sudano, J.P.

    1974-12-01

    A neutral sheet model with hyperbolic tangent equilibrium magnetic field and hyperbolic square secant density profiles is considered. It is shown that the equation for small oscillations takes the form of an eigenvalue oscillation problem. Computed eigenfrequencies of the geomagnetic neutral sheet were found to be in the range of the resonant frequencies of the geomagnetic plasma sheet computed by other authors

  20. Sudden death involving inhalation of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) with spray cleaner: three case reports.

    Sakai, Kentaro; Maruyama-Maebashi, Kyoko; Takatsu, Akihiro; Fukui, Kenji; Nagai, Tomonori; Aoyagi, Miwako; Ochiai, Eriko; Iwadate, Kimiharu

    2011-03-20

    Spray cleaner is a cleaning product containing compressed 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) to blow dust off electric devices and other sensitive equipment; however, it is also inhaled to induce euphoria. This report describes three cases of death involving HFC-152a inhalation with spray cleaner under different circumstances. In case 1, death was during inhalation for euphoria with which led to having frostbite. In case 2, death may have been associated with suicidal intention. Case 3 was also considered an accidental autoerotic death. In all three cases, HFC-152a was detected at 99.2-136.2mg/l in blood samples, 94.5-191.9 mg/l in urine samples and 3.6-18.4 mg in the gastric contents according to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. To prevent death associated with HFC-152a inhalation from spray cleaner, the danger of the sudden death should be announced to people, given the ready availability of commercial products containing HFC-152a. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The theory of inventive problem solving integrated to the cleaner production: theoretical approach

    Flávio Issao Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts towards to reduction of environmental impact by enterprises are a solving problem process, which often need inventive solutions that generate environmental, technical and economic benefits. Hence, this research aimed to verify, through literature, and discuss the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ integration to cleaner production (CP strategies, in order to structure a new methodology for inventive solutions focused on reduction of effluents, waste and emissions. To perform this study, we proceeded a qualitative and descriptive research, with documentary data collection strategy. The results show predominance of CP level 1 researches, with greater focus on product improvement, a smaller quantity of process modification studies (level 1 and internal recycling (level 2, and no evidence of TRIZ utilization was obtained on level 3 (external recycling and biogenic cycles. The proposed integration is promising, since both methodologies aim ideal situation and problems’ reduction. At the end, opportunities were detected for application of TRIZ in production processes, by means of functional analysis and Ideal Final Result (IFR, being possible to direct teams towards optimization of technical systems.

  2. Skeletal Fluorosis Due To Inhalation Abuse of a Difluoroethane-Containing Computer Cleaner.

    Tucci, Joseph R; Whitford, Gary M; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Mumm, Steven; Keaveny, Tony M; Whyte, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal fluorosis (SF) is endemic in many countries and millions of people are affected worldwide, whereas in the United States SF is rare with occasional descriptions of unique cases. We report a 28-year-old American man who was healthy until 2 years earlier when he gradually experienced difficulty walking and an abnormal gait, left hip pain, loss of mobility in his right wrist and forearm, and progressive deformities including enlargement of the digits of both hands. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of his lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and the one-third forearm revealed bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores of +6.2, +4.8, +3.0, and -0.2, respectively. Serum, urine, and bone fluoride levels were all elevated and ultimately explained by chronic sniffing abuse of a computer cleaner containing 1,1-difluoroethane. Our findings reflect SF due to the unusual cause of inhalation abuse of difluoroethane. Because this practice seems widespread, particularly in the young, there may be many more such cases. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Application of cleaner production tools and failure modes and effects analysis in pig slaughterhourses

    J. M. Fonseca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production programs (CP and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA are tools used to improve the sustainability of industries, ensuring greater profitability, quality, reliability and safety of their products and services. The meat industry is among the most polluting industries because of the large amounts of organic waste produced during meat processing. The objective of this study was to combine the CP and FMEA tools and to apply them in a pig slaughterhouse in order to detect critical points along the production chain that have a major environmental impact and to establish corrective and preventive actions that could minimize these problems. The results showed that water is the most consumed resource by the industry and also the main producer of waste due to microbiological contamination with animal feces and blood and meat residues. All impacts were found to be real due to their daily occurrence in the industry. Their severity, occurrence, detection and coverage were classified as moderate and high, high, low and moderate, and moderate and high, respectively. The application of the CP and FMEA tools was efficient in identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts caused by the slaughter and processing of pork carcasses. Liquid slaughter effluents and solid wastes (blood and bones are the factors that pose the greatest risks to the environment. The substitution of treatment plant chemicals with decomposing microorganisms, composting, and the production of animal meal and feed from solid waste are appropriate measures the industry could adopt to minimize the contamination of water resources and soil.

  4. Optical design and suspension system of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    Kasuya, Junko; Winterflood, John; Li, Ju; Somiya, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    KAGRA is a Japanese large scale, underground, cryogenic gravitational telescope which is under construction in the Kamioka mine. For using cryogenic test masses, the sensitivity of KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce quantum noise, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC) at the output port that filters out junk light but allows the gravitational wave signal to go through. The requirement of the KAGRA OMC is even more challenging than other telescopes in the world since KAGRA plans to tune the signal readout phase so that the signal-to-noise ratio for our primary target source can be maximized. A proper selection of optical parameters and anti-vibration devices is required for the robust operation of the OMC. In this proceeding, we show our final results of modal-model simulations, in which we downselected the cavity length, the round-trip Gouy phase shift, the finesse, and the seismic isolation ratio for the suspended optics.

  5. Water Quality Improvement of Media Culture for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Cleaner Production Method

    Haeruddin; Supriharyono; Febrianto, S.

    2018-02-01

    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is known as a high adaptability and brackish water tolerance fish. This fish is also has a meat with high protein content, that ranges about 65 -75%. Generally the tilapia is cultured using a conventional system with high density. It is caused degradation of water quality of media culture, and finally increase mortality rate of fish cultured. The application of tilapia cultivation with cleaner production method by giving enzyme into the feed to upgrade the efficiency of feed utilization, presumed that could improve the water quality of cultivation media. It is due to the lower of feed and feces residues. Therefore the concentration of toxic compounds, such as ammonia, nitrite and sulfide, will be lower. The experiments were conducted for 35 days with a completely factorial randomized design. The first factor was the dosage of enzyme in the feed, consisting of 4 dosages, and the second factor was the duration of the test fish maintenance (5 weeks). Water quality variables examined included ammonia, nitrite and sulfide. The results showed that enzyme dosage had no significantly impact on ammonia, nitrite and sulfide concentrations in the test media culture. However, the feeding with enzyme in low dosage, resulted less concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide than it was without enzyme). The duration of fish cultured has significantly effect on the concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide in the test media. While it is no significantly correlation between dosage and duration of maintenance.

  6. Cleaner fuels for ships provide public health benefits with climate tradeoffs.

    Sofiev, Mikhail; Winebrake, James J; Johansson, Lasse; Carr, Edward W; Prank, Marje; Soares, Joana; Vira, Julius; Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Corbett, James J

    2018-02-06

    We evaluate public health and climate impacts of low-sulphur fuels in global shipping. Using high-resolution emissions inventories, integrated atmospheric models, and health risk functions, we assess ship-related PM 2.5 pollution impacts in 2020 with and without the use of low-sulphur fuels. Cleaner marine fuels will reduce ship-related premature mortality and morbidity by 34 and 54%, respectively, representing a ~ 2.6% global reduction in PM 2.5 cardiovascular and lung cancer deaths and a ~3.6% global reduction in childhood asthma. Despite these reductions, low-sulphur marine fuels will still account for ~250k deaths and ~6.4 M childhood asthma cases annually, and more stringent standards beyond 2020 may provide additional health benefits. Lower sulphur fuels also reduce radiative cooling from ship aerosols by ~80%, equating to a ~3% increase in current estimates of total anthropogenic forcing. Therefore, stronger international shipping policies may need to achieve climate and health targets by jointly reducing greenhouse gases and air pollution.

  7. Rancang Bangun Vacuum Cleaner Dengan Pengendali Nirkabel Menggunakan Modul Rf Data Transceiver Ys-1020ub Berbasis Mikrokontroler At89s52

    IGAP Raka Agung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebersihan merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk menjaga kesehatan kita, khususnya kebersihan rumah. Rumah yang bersih sangat mempengaruhi kesehatan para penghuninya. Debu adalah kotoran yang paling sering mengotori rumah kita terutama pada bagian lantai. Setiap hari kita harus membersihkan rumah dari debu yang ada pada lantai untuk menjaga kebersihan sekaligus kesehatan kita. Dalam membersihkan lantai rumah dari  debu sering menyita banyak waktu dan tenaga. Vacuum cleaner terkendali nirkabel menggunakan Modul RF Data Transceiver YS-1020UB berbasis mikrokontroler AT89S52 merupakan salah satu solusi untuk membersihkan lantai rumah dari kotoran debu.  Vacuum cleaner ini menggunakan enam buah motor DC yaitu dua motor DC penyedot debu, dua motor DC penentu arah maju, mundur, belok kanan, dan belok kiri, serta dua motor DC penentu arah geser kanan dan geser kiri.  Vacuum cleaner ini dapat dikendalikan dengan dua mode operasi yaitu mode manual dan otomatis. Pada mode manual vacuum cleaner ini dikendalikan menggunakan remote control, dengan tranmisi nirkabel memakai transceiver YS-1020UB. Sedangkan pada mode otomatis  vacuum cleaner ini menggunakan empat buah sensor jarak untuk menghindari tabrakan pada dinding.  Vacuum cleaner dengan pengendali nirkabel menggunakan modul RF Data Transceiver YS-1020UB berbasis mikrokontroler AT89S52 sudah bisa membersihkan debu lantai sehingga lantai bersih dari debu.

  8. Cryosphere Science Outreach using the Ice Sheet System Model and a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of Cryosphere Science within the larger context of Sea Level Rise is both a technical and educational challenge that needs to be addressed if the public at large is to trulyunderstand the implications and consequences of Climate Change. Within this context, we propose a new approach in which scientific tools are used directly inside a mobile/website platform geared towards Education/Outreach. Here, we apply this approach by using the Ice Sheet System Model, a state of the art Cryosphere model developed at NASA, and integrated within a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory, with the goal is to outreach Cryospherescience to K-12 and College level students. The approach mixes laboratory experiments, interactive classes/lessons on a website, and a simplified interface to a full-fledged instance of ISSM to validate the classes/lessons. This novel approach leverages new insights from the Outreach/Educational community and the interest of new generations in web based technologies and simulation tools, all of it delivered in a seamlessly integrated web platform. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  9. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  10. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  11. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  12. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Jansson, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  13. The light-sheet microscopy revolution

    Girkin, J. M.; Carvalho, M. T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reviews the rapid advances that have been made in one form of optical biological imaging in the last decade, namely that of light sheet microscopy. Although the concept was originally presented over one hundred years ago, at the time it was a methodology that lacked the technology to really make it a viable tool for practical everyday imaging in the biologist’s laboratory. However, since its re-discovery, it has started to transform in vivo and increasingly intact organ imaging in a number of areas of biology. This review looks back at the beginning of the method and then the crucial role that modern optical technology, frequently developed for other fields, has played in advancing the instrumentation. This paper will also look at the OpenSPIM route that was developed whereby, through the purchase of a few optical components, researchers have been able to develop their own bespoke instruments and we consider if this may be a route forward for the rapid development of other technological breakthroughs.

  14. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  15. A means to a cleaner environment: energy efficient platinum-containing fuel cells to be introduced commercially in the early 1990s

    Anon,

    1991-01-01

    The twelfth National Fuel Cell Seminar held in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. from 26th to 28th November 1990, was attended by 450 delegates from 17 countries, representing both developers and potential users worldwide. ''Fuel Cells - An Answer to a Cleaner Environment'' was the key theme running throughout the conference. This was strongly linked to the firm belief that fuel cells would make an important contribution to the world's energy needs over the next ten years as economically viable fuel cell power plants become commercialised. The conference heard that platinum containing phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are soon to be produced on a commercial basis. Both Fuji and Toshiba announced that they had opened PAFC production facilities in Japan during 1990. The key progress regarding development of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) was the announcement of a U.S. Government sponsored programme, to be led to General Motors, to produce a PEMFC powered motor vehicle. The conference reflected the growing extent of the multi-national collaborations that are now underway to develop fuel cell technologies. (author).

  16. Continuous improvement concepts as a link between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production: Case study in the generic pharmaceutical industry

    Boltić Zorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject and the research objective presented in this article is establishing of the relationship between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production in the generic pharmaceutical industry through the comprehensive concept of continuous improvement. This is mostly related to application of Lean and Six Sigma tools and techniques for process improvement and their link to other known concepts used in the industrial environment, especially manufacturing of generic pharmaceutical products from which two representative case studies were selected for comparative analysis, also considering relevant regulatory requirements in the field of quality management, as well as appropriate quality standards. Although the methodology discussed in this conceptual and practice oriented article is strongly related to chemical engineering, the focus is mainly on process industry, i.e. production systems, rather than any specific technological process itself. The scope of this research is an engineering approach to evaluation of the production systems in terms of continuous improvement concepts application, considering both quality aspects and efficiency of such systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  17. Improving China’s Environmental Performance through Adaptive Implementation—A Comparative Case Study of Cleaner Production in Hangzhou and Guiyang

    Ting Guan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines local policy implementation of Cleaner Production (CP in China. As the major policy implementer, China’s local government plays a crucial role in promoting CP. A better understanding of the factors affecting local government’s incentives regarding CP and different strategies available to the local government can help policy makers and implementers improve CP practices and other environmental policy outcomes. This paper uses the cases of Hangzhou and Guiyang to demonstrate that local conditions of policy implementation have a direct impact on the success of CP promotion. Based on 35 in-depth interviews, statistical data and internal government reports, we find that the location-based incentives of local government strongly influence their implementation strategies; and that the choices of different strategies can bring out various policy results. From this study, the identified location-based incentives are affected by energy resource endowment, economic development stage and technological competence. The successful implementation strategies involve using different policy instruments synthetically, regulating CP service organizations by controlling their qualifications, differentiating CP subsidizations, and improving transparency of project progress and outcomes.

  18. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  19. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  20. Manufacture of rings of 08Kh18N10T sheet for internal structures of WWER type reactors

    Fojta, A.; Nitka, B.

    1984-01-01

    Technology is presented of the manufacture of rings for the jacket, shaft, core catcher and shaft bottom of WWER-440 reactors produced by Vitkovice Steel Works. The rings are manufactured from sheets of austenitic steel 08Kh18N10T. The materials and technology problems are discussed of sheet production, ring welding technology and annealing following welding. The plastic properties are assessed of the welded joints and problems are outlined of ring production for WWER-1000 reactors. (B.S.)

  1. Experimental formability analysis of bondal sandwich sheet

    Kami, Abdolvahed; Banabic, Dorel

    2018-05-01

    Metal/polymer/metal sandwich sheets have recently attracted the interests of industries like automotive industry. These sandwich sheets have superior properties over single-layer metallic sheets including good sound and vibration damping and light weight. However, the formability of these sandwich sheets should be enhanced which requires more research. In this paper, the formability of Bondal sheet (DC06/viscoelastic polymer/DC06 sandwich sheet) was studied through different types of experiments. The mechanical properties of Bondal were determined by uniaxial tensile tests. Hemispherical punch stretching and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out to determine the forming limit diagram (FLD) of Bondal. Furthermore, cylindrical and square cup drawing tests were performed in dry and oil lubricated conditions. These tests were conducted at different blank holding forces (BHFs). An interesting observation about Bondal sheet deep drawing was obtaining of higher drawing depths at dry condition in comparison with oil-lubricated condition.

  2. Finite element simulation of laser cutting process of steel sheet

    Meško Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers are widely used in industry as cutting tools due to ultra flexibility of the cutting conditions, obtaining high quality end product, quick set up, non-mechanical contact between the workpiece and the tool, and small size of the heat affected zone. In the present study, laser gas assisted cutting process is examined. The laser cutting sheet solution is practically always very convenient compared to conventional technologies and brings the greatest cost savings in the manufacturing process.

  3. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P.

    2008-05-01

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  4. Prototypical model for tensional wrinkling in thin sheets

    Davidovitch, B.; Schroll, R. D.; Vella, D.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Cerda, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    The buckling and wrinkling of thin films has recently seen a surge of interest among physicists, biologists, mathematicians, and engineers. This activity has been triggered by the growing interest in developing technologies at ever-decreasing scales and the resulting necessity to control the mechanics of tiny structures, as well as by the realization that morphogenetic processes, such as the tissue-shaping instabilities occurring in animal epithelia or plant leaves, often emerge from mechanical instabilities of cell sheets. Although the most basic buckling instability of uniaxially compressed plates was understood by Euler more than two centuries ago, recent experiments on nanometrically thin (ultrathin) films have shown significant deviations from predictions of standard buckling theory. Motivated by this puzzle, we introduce here a theoretical model that allows for a systematic analysis of wrinkling in sheets far from their instability threshold. We focus on the simplest extension of Euler buckling that exhibits wrinkles of finite length--a sheet under axisymmetric tensile loads. The first study of this geometry, which is attributed to Lamé, allows us to construct a phase diagram that demonstrates the dramatic variation of wrinkling patterns from near-threshold to far-from-threshold conditions. Theoretical arguments and comparison to experiments show that the thinner the sheet is, the smaller is the compressive load above which the far-from-threshold regime emerges. This observation emphasizes the relevance of our analysis for nanomechanics applications.

  5. Prototypical model for tensional wrinkling in thin sheets

    Davidovitch, B.

    2011-10-31

    The buckling and wrinkling of thin films has recently seen a surge of interest among physicists, biologists, mathematicians, and engineers. This activity has been triggered by the growing interest in developing technologies at ever-decreasing scales and the resulting necessity to control the mechanics of tiny structures, as well as by the realization that morphogenetic processes, such as the tissue-shaping instabilities occurring in animal epithelia or plant leaves, often emerge from mechanical instabilities of cell sheets. Although the most basic buckling instability of uniaxially compressed plates was understood by Euler more than two centuries ago, recent experiments on nanometrically thin (ultrathin) films have shown significant deviations from predictions of standard buckling theory. Motivated by this puzzle, we introduce here a theoretical model that allows for a systematic analysis of wrinkling in sheets far from their instability threshold. We focus on the simplest extension of Euler buckling that exhibits wrinkles of finite length--a sheet under axisymmetric tensile loads. The first study of this geometry, which is attributed to Lamé, allows us to construct a phase diagram that demonstrates the dramatic variation of wrinkling patterns from near-threshold to far-from-threshold conditions. Theoretical arguments and comparison to experiments show that the thinner the sheet is, the smaller is the compressive load above which the far-from-threshold regime emerges. This observation emphasizes the relevance of our analysis for nanomechanics applications.

  6. Development of the Brazilian national sheet scintillator converter of neutron

    Barbosa, Andre Luis Nunes

    2008-03-01

    Both the national domain of the technology for the separation of rare earth elements and the large reserves of these minerals in Brazilian territory, motivated the study of national sheets scintillators converter of neutrons, using a granular mixture Gd 2 O 3 -Zn S:Ag. Three methodologies were used for the manufacture of such sheets, namely: deposition done with a compressed-air gun on a sheet of cellulose type CG3460-3M; fusion of granular mixture with EVA in the mixing chamber and deposition of granular mixture on the substrate of EVA. It was used the flux of the order of 4,46 x 10 5 neutrons thermic/cm 2 .s, coming from the channel irradiation, J-9, of the reactor Argonauta/IEN/CNEN and the radiographic film AA-400 Kodak Industrex. The performances of national scintillator neutrons converter sheets were analyzed and the images obtained with the, demonstrated that the methodologies proposed are technically feasible and can contribute to the reduction of cost of this technique for NDA, but which lack optimization is aimed at increasing the number of photons of light to allow its use in neutrongraphies in Real Time (NRTR). (author)

  7. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  8. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  9. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  10. Dynamics of Radially Expanding Liquid Sheets

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2018-04-01

    The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions. We anticipate these results to not only lead to more accurate predictions of the final drop-size distribution but also enable more efficient designs of atomizers.

  11. Man, society, technology

    Kistler, E.; Jaufmann, D.

    1990-01-01

    The acceptance of technological risks, which is discussed today mainly in the context of large-scale technologies, has become the subject of political argument, of power politics and also of negotiation. Its evaluation and assessment depend not least on the current atmosphere for decisions and the specific subject. Acceptance research - this is one of the central theses of this book - is not (only) a reactive instrument for later fine-tuning after the probability of risk is evident, but can also be more. However, it requires to this end 'cleaner' and more comprehensible methods; the recognition of its viability limits is also necessary. It provides then a possibility for a rational formulation of policies on the basis of a long-standing, and certainly partly superfluous technological-political dialogue. (orig.) [de

  12. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  13. Magnetic properties of sheet silicates

    Ballet, O.; Coey, J.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Susceptibility, magnetisation and Moessbauer measurements are reported for a representative selection of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Eight samples from the mica, vermiculite and smectite groups include examples diluted in iron which are paramagnetic at all temperatures, as well as iron-rich silicates which order magnetically below 10 K. Anisotropic susceptibility of crystals of muscovite, biotite and vermiculite is quantitatively explained with a model where the Fe 2+ ions lie in sites of effective trigonal symmetry, the trigonal axis lying normal to the sheets. The ferrous ground state is an orbital singlet. Ferric iron gives an isotropic contribution to the susceptibility. Fe 2+ -Fe 2+ exchange interactions are ferromagnetic with Gapprox. equal to2 K, whereas Fe 3+ -Fe 3+ coupling is antiferromagnetic in the purely ferric minerals. A positive paramagnetic Curie temperature for glauconite may be attributable to Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ charge transfer. Magnetic order was found to set in inhomogeneously for glauconite at 1-7 K. One biotite sample showed an antiferromagnetic transition at Tsub(N) = 7 K marked by a well-defined susceptibility maximum. Its magnetic structure, consisting of ferromagnetic sheets with moments in their planes coupled antiferromagnetically by other, weak interactions, resembles that found earlier for the 1:1 mineral greenalite. (orig.)

  14. Mitigation of the effective dose of radon decay products through the use of an air cleaner in a dwelling in Okinawa, Japan

    Kranrod, Chutima; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Janik, Miroslaw; Shingaki, Reina; Furukawa, Masahide; Chanyotha, Supitcha; Chankow, Nares

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements were conducted to assess the effects of an air cleaner on radon mitigation in a dwelling with a high radon concentration in Okinawa, Japan. The measurements included indoor radon concentration, individual radon progeny concentration, equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EECRn), unattached fraction, and size distribution of aerosol-attached radon progeny. These measurements were conducted in a 74 m 3 room with/without the use of an air cleaner. The results showed that the mean radon concentration during the measurement was quite high (301 Bq m -3 ). The operation of air cleaner decreased the radon progeny activity concentration, EECRn and equilibrium factor by 33%, 57% and 71%, respectively, whereas the unattached fraction increased by 174%. In addition, the activity concentration of attached radon progeny in the accumulation mode (50-2000 nm) was obviously deceased by 42%, when the air cleaner was operated. According to dosimetric calculations, the operation of air cleaner reduced the effective dose due to radon progeny by about 50%.

  15. Groundwater contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons in the soil vapour phase - risk assessment at a former dry cleaner site

    Danzer, J. [Boden-und-Grundwasser GbR, Sonthofen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g. Perchloroethene (PCE) were commonly used for dry cleaning purposes among other ones. Since they have a significant toxic potential they impose a serious risk to groundwater quality. Due to their physico-chemical properties - particularly high volatility and medium to high water solubility - and their low biodegradation potential they are highly mobile within the unsaturated soil (vapour phase) as well as within the groundwater. This poster (paper) presents data and calculations of a consultant's ''virtual every day'' work in order to assess the risk of groundwater contamination at a former dry cleaner site. (orig.)

  16. The ecological significance of juvenile Diplodus sargus as ectoparasite fish cleaners in the north-eastern Atlantic

    José Neto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning behaviour was recently described for the omnivorous species Diplodus sargus. Although previous studies have reported the existence of ectoparasites in the stomach contents of some individuals this commercially important fish was never considered a cleaner species. Here we make the first characterization of this behaviour based on field observations. This behaviour was exclusively performed by juvenile D. sargus and, until now, was only observed in confined or semi-confined areas such as coastal lagoons or harbours. Unexpectedly, cleaning rates and the number of individuals performing this behaviour largely exceeds the ones described for a sympatric cleaner fish (13.98 cleaning events/individual/hour compared to 5.08 in Centrolabrus exoletus. Clients belong to several fish families (e.g. Mugilidae, Sparidae and Labridae that include some of the most common species in coastal habitats. Frequently, clients request cleaning by tilting their body or remaining motionless near the surface while being cleaned (40% however, in most cases, the interaction ends because clients flee (46%. This could mean that D. sargus is also feeding on mucus and/or living tissue. These shifts between exploitation and cooperation have been frequently described for tropical reef species. Our results support cooperative behaviour, with a clear correlation between the number of nips per cleaning event or the number of nips to which the client reacted positively and cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.79, p<0.001; r=0.76, p<0.001, respectively. Furthermore, no correlation was detected between the number of jolts by the client fish and the cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.07, p=0.105 meaning that jolting does not increase with increased interaction time. In the future, the evaluation of the ecological importance of D. sargus as a cleaner species in the North-Eastern Atlantic, should proceed with field observations in

  17. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  18. Predicting Pulsar Scintillation from Refractive Plasma Sheets

    Simard, Dana; Pen, Ue-Li

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic and secondary spectra of many pulsars show evidence for long-lived, aligned images of the pulsar that are stationary on a thin scattering sheet. One explanation for this phenomenon considers the effects of wave crests along sheets in the ionized interstellar medium, such as those due to Alfvén waves propagating along current sheets. If these sheets are closely aligned to our line-of-sight to the pulsar, high bending angles arise at the wave crests and a selection effect causes alignment of images produced at different crests, similar to grazing reflection off of a lake. Using geometric optics, we develop a simple parameterized model of these corrugated sheets that can be constrained with a single observation and that makes observable predictions for variations in the scintillation of the pulsar over time and frequency. This model reveals qualitative differences between lensing from overdense and underdense corrugated sheets: Only if the sheet is overdense compared to the surrounding interstellar medium can the lensed images be brighter than the line-of-sight image to the pulsar, and the faint lensed images are closer to the pulsar at higher frequencies if the sheet is underdense, but at lower frequencies if the sheet is overdense.

  19. Uncertainty Quantification for Ice Sheet Science and Sea Level Projections

    Boening, C.; Schlegel, N.; Limonadi, D.; Schodlok, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.; Watkins, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better quantify uncertainties in global mean sea level rise projections and in particular upper bounds, we aim at systematically evaluating the contributions from ice sheets and potential for extreme sea level rise due to sudden ice mass loss. Here, we take advantage of established uncertainty quantification tools embedded within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) as well as sensitivities to ice/ocean interactions using melt rates and melt potential derived from MITgcm/ECCO2. With the use of these tools, we conduct Monte-Carlo style sampling experiments on forward simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet, by varying internal parameters and boundary conditions of the system over both extreme and credible worst-case ranges. Uncertainty bounds for climate forcing are informed by CMIP5 ensemble precipitation and ice melt estimates for year 2100, and uncertainty bounds for ocean melt rates are derived from a suite of regional sensitivity experiments using MITgcm. Resulting statistics allow us to assess how regional uncertainty in various parameters affect model estimates of century-scale sea level rise projections. The results inform efforts to a) isolate the processes and inputs that are most responsible for determining ice sheet contribution to sea level; b) redefine uncertainty brackets for century-scale projections; and c) provide a prioritized list of measurements, along with quantitative information on spatial and temporal resolution, required for reducing uncertainty in future sea level rise projections. Results indicate that ice sheet mass loss is dependent on the spatial resolution of key boundary conditions - such as bedrock topography and melt rates at the ice-ocean interface. This work is performed at and supported by the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Supercomputing time is also supported through a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere program.

  20. Study of laser bending of a preloaded Titanium alloy sheet

    Wang Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser bending of sheet metals with preload offers some attractive characteristics/merits, comparing to laser free bending without prestressing on the metals. The study reported in this paper was focused on a Titanium alloy which finds widespread applications in aerospace manufacturing. FE simulation of laser bending with prestressing on the Titanium alloy sheet was conducted for the analysis of the bending process and experiment carried out to verify the model and the result. It was shown that the simulation result is close to that measured in the experiment. Based on the computed result, the load-displacement curve was analysed and transmission efficiency of the elastic energy defined to evaluate the bending effect. These enhanced understanding of the mechanism of laser bending with a preload. A method for the optimization on technological parameters was further proposed. Referring to the deformation targeted, the preload value was determined through the FE simulation. The result showed that, on the premise that the specimen surface can be prevented from damaging, transmission efficiency of the elastic energy could reach to the maximum value through adjusting technological parameters of the laser system and deformation accuracy of the specimen could also be improved through this approach. The work presented in this paper may find its application in the manufacture of Titanium alloy sheets with a more cost-effective and a more precise way.

  1. Biscrolling nanotube sheets and functional guests into yarns.

    Lima, Márcio D; Fang, Shaoli; Lepró, Xavier; Lewis, Chihye; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Oh, Jiyoung; Rawat, Neema; Haines, Carter S; Haque, Mohammad H; Aare, Vaishnavi; Stoughton, Stephanie; Zakhidov, Anvar A; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-01-07

    Multifunctional applications of textiles have been limited by the inability to spin important materials into yarns. Generically applicable methods are demonstrated for producing weavable yarns comprising up to 95 weight percent of otherwise unspinnable particulate or nanofiber powders that remain highly functional. Scrolled 50-nanometer-thick carbon nanotube sheets confine these powders in the galleries of irregular scroll sacks whose observed complex structures are related to twist-dependent extension of Archimedean spirals, Fermat spirals, or spiral pairs into scrolls. The strength and electronic connectivity of a small weight fraction of scrolled carbon nanotube sheet enables yarn weaving, sewing, knotting, braiding, and charge collection. This technology is used to make yarns of superconductors, lithium-ion battery materials, graphene ribbons, catalytic nanofibers for fuel cells, and titanium dioxide for photocatalysis.

  2. Buckling of Aluminium Sheet Components

    Hegadekatte, Vishwanath; Shi, Yihai; Nardini, Dubravko

    Wrinkling is one of the major defects in sheet metal forming processes. It may become a serious obstacle to implementing the forming process and assembling the parts, and may also play a significant role in the wear of the tool. Wrinkling is essentially a local buckling phenomenon that results from compressive stresses (compressive instability) e.g., in the hoop direction for axi-symmetric systems such as beverage cans. Modern beverage can is a highly engineered product with a complex geometry. Therefore in order to understand wrinkling in such a complex system, we have started by studying wrinkling with the Yoshida buckling test. Further, we have studied the buckling of ideal and dented beverage cans under axial loading by laboratory testing. We have modelled the laboratory tests and also the imperfection sensitivity of the two systems using finite element method and the predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  3. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of bi & multi-layer graphene sheets from graphite by using exfoliation technique

    Xavier, Gauravi; Dave, Bhoomi; Khanna, Sakshum

    2018-05-01

    In recent times, researchers have turned to explore the possibility of using Supercritical Fluid (SCFs) system to penetrate into the inert-gaping of graphite and exfoliate it into a number of layer graphene sheets. The supercritical fluid holds excellent wetting surfaces with low interfacial tension and high diffusion coefficients. Although SCFs exfoliation approach looks promising to developed large scale & low-cost graphene sheet but has not received much attention. To arouse interest and reflection on this approach, this review is organized to summarize the recent progress in graphene production by SCF technology. Here we present the simplest route to obtained layers of graphene sheets by intercalating and exfoliating graphite using supercritical CO2 processing. The layers graphene nano-sheets were collected in dichloromethane (DCM) solution which prevents the restocking of sheets. The obtained graphene sheets show the desired characteristics and thus can be used in physical, chemical and biological sciences. Thus this method provides an effortless and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of layers of graphene sheets.

  5. Porcine Dental Epithelial Cells Differentiated in a Cell Sheet Constructed by Magnetic Nanotechnology

    Wataru Koto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are widely used in medical examinations, treatments, and basic research, including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. In this study, MNPs with magnetic force were applied to tissue engineering for dental enamel regeneration. The internalization of MNPs into the odontogenic cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. A combined cell sheet consisting of dental epithelial cells (DECs and dental mesenchymal cells (DMCs (CC sheet was constructed using magnetic force-based tissue engineering technology. The result of the iron staining indicated that MNPs were distributed ubiquitously over the CC sheet. mRNA expression of enamel differentiation and basement membrane markers was examined in the CC sheet. Immunostaining showed Collagen IV expression at the border region between DEC and DMC layers in the CC sheet. These results revealed that epithelial–mesenchymal interactions between DEC and DMC layers were caused by bringing DECs close to DMCs mechanically by magnetic force. Our study suggests that the microenvironment in the CC sheet might be similar to that during the developmental stage of a tooth bud. In conclusion, a CC sheet employing MNPs could be developed as a novel and unique graft for artificially regenerating dental enamel.

  6. Linkages from DOE’s Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Thomas, Patrick [1790 Analytics LLC., Haddonfield, NC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report uses bibliometric analysis, supported by interview and review of documents and databases, to trace linkages from knowledge outputs resulting from DOE's advances in vehicle engine combustion to downstream innovations in commercial diesel engines and other areas. This analysis covers the period from 1974 through 2008 (and in some cases to early 2009).

  7. Universities' New Role in Professional Training - Combining Education and Practice Learning in Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the experiences from the continued academic education in Environmental Management at DTU and identifies the demands that these types of professional educations forces on universities.......The article presents the experiences from the continued academic education in Environmental Management at DTU and identifies the demands that these types of professional educations forces on universities....

  8. Field evaluation of ZeroFly--an insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting against malaria vectors & its impact on malaria transmission in tribal area of northern Orissa.

    Sharma, S K; Upadhyay, A K; Haque, M A; Tyagi, P K; Mohanty, S S; Mittal, P K; Dash, A P

    2009-10-01

    Insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting is a new technology to control mosquitoes in emergency shelter places and also temporary habitations in different locations. Therefore, field studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of ZeroFly plastic sheeting treated with deltamethrin on prevailing disease vectors Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis and its impact on malaria transmission in one of the highly endemic areas of Orissa. The study was conducted in Birkera block of Sundargarh district, Orissa state. The study area comprised 3 villages, which were randomized as ZeroFly plastic sheet, untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area. ZeroFly plastic sheets and untreated plastic sheets were fixed in study and control villages respectively covering all the rooms in each household. Longitudinal studies were conducted on the bioefficacy with the help of cone bioassays, monitoring of the mosquito density through hand catch, floor sheet and exit trap collections and fortnightly domiciliary active surveillance in all the study villages. In ZeroFly plastic sheeting area, there was a significant reduction of 84.7 per cent in the entry rate of total mosquitoes in comparison to pre-intervention phase. There was 56.2 per cent immediate mortality in total mosquitoes in houses with ZeroFly sheeting. The overall feeding success rate of mosquitoes in the trial village was only 12.5 per cent in comparison to 49.7 and 51.1 per cent in villages with untreated plastic sheet and no sheet respectively. There was a significant reduction of 65.0 and 70.5 per cent in malaria incidence in ZeroFly plastic sheeting area as compared to untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area respectively. Our study showed that introduction of ZeroFly plastic sheets in a community-based intervention programme is operationally feasible to contain malaria especially in the high transmission difficult areas.

  9. Dichlorvos (DDVP residue removal from tomato by washing with tap and ozone water, a commercial detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner

    Ali HESHMATI

    Full Text Available Abstract Dichlorvos (DDVP is one of the most consumption chlorinated organophosphate insecticide used on tomato. The knowledge about the influence of postharvest household processes on the levels of DDVP residues in vegetables is required to estimate dietary exposure. In this study, the removal of sprayed dichlorvos (DDVP on tomato by washing with tap, ozonated water (in dosages of 2, 4 and 6 mg ozone/L, a commercial detergent solution (in concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and ultrasonic cleaner (with power of 100, 200 and 300 W was investigated. DDVP residue was determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Washing processes led to the significant reduction of DDVP. The gradual increase in the percentage of the removal was observed due to increment of washing time, ozone dosage, and concentration of detergent solution as well as ultrasonic power. The maximum removal percentage of DDVP after 15 min of washing with tap and ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner was 30.7, 91.9, 70.7, and 88.9%, respectively. In general, results indicated washing with tap, ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaning are effective methods for removal of DDVP from tomato and reduction of its dietary exposure without influence on product quality.

  10. Associations between psychological demands, decision latitude, and job strain with smoking in female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas.

    Rugulies, Reiner; Scherzer, Teresa; Krause, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of the work environment on smoking among women holding low-paid jobs in the service sector. To study the associations between the components of the demand-control model with smoking in hotel room cleaners. We conducted a survey on work and health among 776 female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and smoking were analyzed with multivariate regression analyses. Psychosocial work characteristics were associated with smoking after adjustment for covariates. Effect estimates were substantially reduced by additional adjustment for ethnicity, but remained significant for high psychological demands and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.97, p = 0.02), high job strain and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.87, p = 0.04), and high job strain and smoking intensity (coefficient = 3.52, p = 0.03). When analyses were restricted to Hispanic workers and further adjusted for place of birth, low decision latitude (coefficient = 3.94, p = 0.04) and high job strain (coefficient = 4.57, p = 003) were associated with smoking intensity but not with smoking status. Workplace smoking cessation programs may benefit from a primary prevention component reducing job strain among service workers. More research is needed on perceived and objective differences in psychosocial work characteristics across ethnic, immigrant, and other social groups within the same occupation.

  11. Effort-reward imbalance at work and self-rated health of Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Krause, Niklas; Rugulies, Reiner; Maslach, Christina

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) at work and self-rated health (SF-36) among 941 Las Vegas hotel room cleaners (99% female, 84% immigrant). Logistic regression models adjust for age, health behaviors, physical workload and other potential confounders. 50% reported ERI and 60% poor or fair general health. Significant associations were found between ERI and all SF-36 health measures. Workers in the upper quartile of the efforts/rewards ratio were 2-5 times more likely to experience poor or fair general health, low physical function, high levels of pain, fatigue, and role limitations due to physical and mental health problems. The cross-sectional design limits causal interpretation of these associations. However, the development of interventions to reduce ERI and to improve general health among room cleaners deserves high priority considering that both high ERI and low self-rated health have predicted chronic diseases and mortality in prospective studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The effects of crude oil and the effectiveness of cleaner application following oiling on US Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh plants.

    Pezeshki, S R; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in two different marsh habitats in Louisiana coastal wetlands to evaluate the effects of oiling (using South Louisiana Crude oil, SLC) and the effectiveness of a shoreline cleaner (COREXIT 9580) in removing oil from plant canopies. The study sites represented two major marsh habitats; the brackish marsh site was covered by Spartina patens and the freshwater marsh was covered by Sagittaria lancifolia. Field studies were conducted in each habitat using replicated 5.8 m2 plots that were subjected to three treatments; oiled only, oiled + cleaner (cleaner was used 2 days after oiling), and a control. Plant gas exchange responses, survival, growth, and biomass accumulation were measured. Results indicated that oiling led to rapid reductions in leaf gas exchange rates in both species. However, both species in 'oiled + cleaned' plots displayed improved leaf conductance and CO2 fixation rates. Twelve weeks after treatment initiation, photosynthetic carbon fixation in both species had recovered to normal levels. Over the short-term, S. patens showed more sensitivity to oiling with SLC than S. lancifolia as was evident from the data of the number of live shoots and above-ground biomass. Above-ground biomass remained significantly lower than control in S. patens under 'oiled' and 'oiled + cleaned' treatments while it was comparable to controls in S. lancifolia. These studies indicated that the cleaner removed oil from marsh grasses and alleviated the short-term impact of oil on gas exchange function of the study plants. However, use of cleaner had no detectable effects on above-ground biomass production or regeneration at the end of the first growing season in S. patens. Similarly, no beneficial effects of cleaner on carbon fixation and number of live shoots were apparent beyond 12 weeks in S. lancifolia.

  13. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  14. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  15. Advanced friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.

    2012-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  16. Advanced friction modeling in sheet metal forming

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  17. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.Q.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a

  18. Molding cork sheets to complex shapes

    Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    Partially cured cork sheet is easily formed to complex shapes and then final-cured. Temperature and pressure levels required for process depend upon resin system used and final density and strength desired. Sheet can be bonded to surface during final cure, or can be first-formed in mold and bonded to surface in separate step.

  19. Pressure balance between lobe and plasma sheet

    Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.

    1990-01-01

    Using eight months of AMPTE/IRM plasma and magnetic field data, the authors have done a statistical survey on the balance of total (thermal and magnetic) pressure in the Earth's plasma sheet and tail lobe. About 300,000 measurements obtained in the plasma sheet and the lobe were compared for different levels of magnetic activity as well as different distances from the Earth. The data show that lobe and plasma sheet pressure balance very well. Even in the worst case they do not deviate by more than half of the variance in the data itself. Approximately constant total pressure was also seen during a quiet time pass when IRM traversed nearly the whole magnetotail in the vertical direction, from the southern hemisphere lobe through the neutral sheet and into the northern plasma sheet boundary layer

  20. Experimental investigation of the stability of a moving radial liquid sheet

    Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh

    2013-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to understand the stability of moving radial liquid sheets formed by the head-on impingement of two co-linear water jets using laser induced fluorescence technique (LIF). Acoustic sinusoidal fluctuations were introduced at the jet impingement point and we measured the displacement of the center line of the liquid sheet (sinuous mode) and the thickness variation (varicose mode) of the disturbed liquid sheet. Our experiments show that the sinuous disturbances grow as they are convected outward in the radial direction even in the smooth regime (We theory by Tirumkudulu and Paramati (Communicated to Phys. Of Fluids, 2013) which accounts for the inertia of the liquid phase and the surface tension force in a radial liquid sheet while neglecting the inertial effects due to the surrounding gas phase. The authors acknowledge the financial assistance from Indo-French Center for Pro- motion of Advanced Research and also Indian institute of technology Bombay.

  1. Folded Sheet Versus Transparent Sheet Models for Human Symmetry Judgments

    Jacques Ninio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the mysteries of human symmetry perception, reaction time data were collected on the detection of symmetry or repetition violations, in the context of short term visual memory studies. The histograms for reaction time distributions are rather narrow in the case of symmetry judgments. Their analysis was performed in terms of a simple kinetic model of a mental process in two steps, a slow one for the construction of the representation of the images to be compared, and a fast one, in the 50 ms range, for the decision. There was no need for an additional ‘mental rotation’ step. Symmetry seems to facilitate the construction step. I also present here original stimuli showing a color equalization effect across a symmetry axis, and its counterpart in periodic patterns. According to a “folded sheet model”, when a shape is perceived, the brain automatically constructs a mirror-image representation of the shape. Based in part on the reaction time analysis, I present here an alternative “transparent sheet” model in which the brain constructs a single representation, which can be accessed from two sides, thus generating simultaneously a pattern and its mirror-symmetric partner. Filtering processes, implied by current models of symmetry perception could intervene at an early stage, by nucleating the propagation of similar perceptual groupings in the two symmetric images.

  2. Key technologies book

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  3. Explaining Environmental Kuznets Curves : How Pollution Induces Policy and New Technologies

    Smulders, J.A.; Bretschger, L.

    2000-01-01

    Production often causes pollution as a by-product.Once pollution problems become too severe, regulation is introduced by political authorities which forces the economy to make a transition to cleaner production processes.We model this transition as a change in "general purpose technology" (GPT) and

  4. Tube sheet design for PFBR steam generator

    Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Top and bottom tube sheets of PFBR Steam Generators have been analysed with 3D and axisymmetric models using CASTEM Programs. Analysis indicates that the effects of piping reactions at the inlet/outlet nozzles on the primary stresses in the tube sheets are negligible and the asymmetricity of the deformation pattern introduced in the tube sheet by the presence of inlet/outlet and manhole nozzles is insignificant. The minimum tube sheet thicknesses for evaporator and reheater are 135 mm and 75 mm respectively. Further analysis has indicated the minimum fillet radius at the junction of tube sheet and dished end should be 20 mm. Simplified methodology has been developed to arrive at the number of thermal baffles required to protect the tube sheet against fatigue damage due to thermal transient. This method has been applied to PFBR steam generators to determine the required number of thermal baffles. For protecting the bottom tube sheet of evaporator against the thermal shock due to feed water and secondary pump trip, one thermal shield is found to be sufficient. Further analysis is required to decide upon the actual number to take care of the severe thermal transient, following the event of sudden dumping of water/steam, immediately after the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  5. Proposal of an environmental performance index to assess solid waste treatment technologies

    Goulart Coelho, Hosmanny Mauro; Lange, Liséte Celina; Coelho, Lineker Max Goulart

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposal of a new concept in waste management: Cleaner Treatment. ► Development of an index to assess quantitatively waste treatment technologies. ► Delphi Method was carried out so as to define environmental indicators. ► Environmental performance evaluation of waste-to-energy plants. - Abstract: Although the concern with sustainable development and environment protection has considerably grown in the last years it is noted that the majority of decision making models and tools are still either excessively tied to economic aspects or geared to the production process. Moreover, existing models focus on the priority steps of solid waste management, beyond waste energy recovery and disposal. So, in order to help the lack of models and tools aiming at the waste treatment and final disposal, a new concept is proposed: the Cleaner Treatment, which is based on the Cleaner Production principles. This paper focuses on the development and validation of the Cleaner Treatment Index (CTI), to assess environmental performance of waste treatment technologies based on the Cleaner Treatment concept. The index is formed by aggregation (summation or product) of several indicators that consists in operational parameters. The weights of the indicator were established by Delphi Method and Brazilian Environmental Laws. In addition, sensitivity analyses were carried out comparing both aggregation methods. Finally, index validation was carried out by applying the CTI to 10 waste-to-energy plants data. From sensitivity analysis and validation results it is possible to infer that summation model is the most suitable aggregation method. For summation method, CTI results were superior to 0.5 (in a scale from 0 to 1) for most facilities evaluated. So, this study demonstrates that CTI is a simple and robust tool to assess and compare the environmental performance of different treatment plants being an excellent quantitative tool to support Cleaner Treatment implementation.

  6. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  7. Plasma sheet behavior during substorms

    Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Auroral or magnetic substorms are periods of enhanced auroral and geomagnetic activity lasting one to a few hours that signify increased dissipation of energy from the magnetosphere to the earth. Data acquired during the past decade from satellites in the near-earth sector of the magnetotail have suggested that during a substorm part of the plasma sheet is severed from earth by magnetic reconnection, forming a plasmoid, i.e., a body of plasma and closed magnetic loops, that flows out of the tail into the solar wind, thus returning plasma and energy that have earlier been accumulated from the solar wind. Very recently this picture has been dramatically confirmed by observations, with the ISEE 3 spacecraft in the magnetotail 220 R/sub E/ from earth, of plasmoids passing that location in clear delayed response to substorms. It now appears that plasmoid release is a fundamental process whereby the magnetosphere gives up excess stored energy and plasma, much like comets are seen to do, and that the phenomena of the substorm seen at earth are a by-product of that fundamental process

  8. Radiation dominated relativistic current sheets

    Jaroschek, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic Current Sheets (RCS) feature plasma instabilities considered as potential key to magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation in Poynting flux dominated plasma flows. We show in a series of kinetic plasma simulations that the physical nature of non-linear RCS evolution changes in the presence of incoherent radiation losses: In the ultra-relativistic regime (i.e. magnetization parameter sigma = 104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density) the combination of non-linear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the Relativistic Tearing Mode (RTM). As direct consequence the RTM prevails over the Relativistic Drift Kink (RDK) Mode as competitive RCS instability. This is in contrast to the previously studied situation of weakly relativistic RCS (sigma ∼ 1) where the RDK is dominant and most of the plasma is thermalized. The simulations witness the typical life cycle of ultra-relativistic RCS evolving from a violent radiation induced collapse towards a radiation quiescent state in rather classical Sweet-Parker topology. Such a transition towards Sweet-Parker configuration in the late non-linear evolution has immediate consequences for the efficiency of magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation. Ceasing dissipation rates directly affect our present understanding of non-linear RCS evolution in conventional striped wind scenarios. (author)

  9. Outreach/education interface for Cryosphere models using the Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory

    Larour, E. Y.; Halkides, D. J.; Romero, V.; Cheng, D. L.; Perez, G.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decade, great strides have been made in the development of models capable of projecting the future evolution of glaciers and the polar ice sheets in a changing climate. These models are now capable of replicating some of the trends apparent in satellite observations. However, because this field is just now maturing, very few efforts have been dedicated to adapting these capabilities to education. Technologies that have been used in outreach efforts in Atmospheric and Oceanic sciences still have not been extended to Cryospheric Science. We present a cutting-edge, technologically driven virtual laboratory, geared towards outreach and k-12 education, dedicated to the polar ice sheets on Antarctica and Greenland, and their role as major contributors to sea level rise in coming decades. VISL (Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory) relies on state-of-the art Web GL rendering of polar ice sheets, Android/iPhone and web portability using Javascript, as well as C++ simulations (back-end) based on the Ice Sheet System Model, the NASA model for simulating the evolution of polar ice sheets. Using VISL, educators and students can have an immersive experience into the world of polar ice sheets, while at the same exercising the capabilities of a state-of-the-art climate model, all of it embedded into an education experience that follows the new STEM standards for education.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  10. World-sheet gauge fields in superstrings

    Porrati, M.; Tomboulis, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the introduction of world-sheet 2-dimensional gauge fields in a manner consistent with world-sheet supersymmetry. We obtain the effective string action resulting from the exact integration over the world-sheet gauge fields to show that it generally describes string models with spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries with continuous breaking parameters. We examine the question of spacetime supersymmetry spontaneous breaking, and show that breaking with continuous, in particular arbitrarily small breaking parameters does not occur; only breaking for discrete values of parameters is possible. (orig.)

  11. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  12. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  13. Advanced Algal Systems Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-06-01

    Research and development (R&D) on advanced algal biofuels and bioproducts presents an opportunity to sustainably expand biomass resource potential in the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) Advanced Algal Systems Program is carrying out a long-term, applied R&D strategy to lower the costs of algal biofuel production by working with partners to develop revolutionary technologies and conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential

  14. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 1 - Overview

    2000-11-01

    This fact sheet outlines the principles underlying Canada's position at the sixth Conference of Parties (COP6) regarding climate change. Capsule descriptions of the Canadian view on carbon sinks (advocating a broader inclusion of sink activities), application of the flexibility mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and International Emissions Trading), the issue of compliance (Canada favoring strong incentives to ensure compliance), and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to enhance their contribution to fighting climate change (Canada acknowledging that capacity building and technology transfer needs to be a central part of the global approach to combating climate change)

  15. Field Performance Test of an Air-Cleaner with Photocatalysis-Plasma Synergistic Reactors for Practical and Long-Term Use

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A practical and long-term usable air-cleaner based on the synergy of photocatalysis and plasma treatments has been developed. A field test of the air-cleaner was carried out in an office smoking room. The results were compared to previously reported laboratory test results. Even after a treatment of 12,000 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke, the air-cleaner maintained high-level air-purification activity (98.9% ± 0.1% and 88% ± 1% removal of the total suspended particulate (TSP and total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations, respectively at single-pass conditions. Although the removal ratio of TSP concentrations was 98.6% ± 0.2%, the ratio of TVOC concentrations was 43.8% after a treatment of 21,900 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke in the field test. These results indicate the importance of suitable maintenance of the reactors in the air-cleaner during field use.

  16. Technological trends in energy industry

    Martin Moyano, R.

    1995-01-01

    According to the usual meaning, technological trends are determined by main companies and leading countries with capacity for the development and marketing of technology. Presently, those trends are addressed to: the development of cleaner and more efficient process for fossil fuels utilization (atmospheric and pressurized fluidized beds, integrated gasification in combined cycle, advanced combined cycles, etc), the development of safer and more economic nuclear reactors; the efficiency increase in both generation and utilisation of energy, including demand side management and distribution automation; and the reduction of cost of renewable energies. Singular points of these trends are: the progress in communication technologies (optical fibre, trucking systems, etc.); the fuel cells; the supercritical boilers; the passive reactors; the nuclear fusion; the superconductivity; etc. Spain belongs to the developed countries but suffer of certain technology shortages that places it in a special situation. (Author)

  17. Work-Related Pain and Injury and Barriers to Workers’ Compensation Among Las Vegas Hotel Room Cleaners

    Scherzer, Teresa; Rugulies, Reiner; Krause, Niklas

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of work-related pain and injury and explored barriers to and experiences of reporting among workers. Methods. We surveyed 941 unionized hotel room cleaners about work-related pain, injury, disability, and reporting. Results. During the past 12 months, 75% of workers in our study experienced work-related pain, and 31% reported it to management; 20% filed claims for workers’ compensation as a result of work-related injury, and 35% of their claims were denied. Barriers to reporting injury included “It would be too much trouble” (43%), “I was afraid” (26%), and “I didn’t know how” (18%). An estimated 69% of medical costs were shifted from employers to workers. Conclusions. The reasons for underreporting and the extent of claim denial warrant further investigation. Implications for worker health and the precise quantification of shifting costs to workers also should be addressed. PMID:15727981

  18. Work-related pain and injury and barriers to workers' compensation among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Scherzer, Teresa; Rugulies, Reiner; Krause, Niklas

    2005-03-01

    We examined the prevalence of work-related pain and injury and explored barriers to and experiences of reporting among workers. We surveyed 941 unionized hotel room cleaners about work-related pain, injury, disability, and reporting. During the past 12 months, 75% of workers in our study experienced work-related pain, and 31% reported it to management; 20% filed claims for workers' compensation as a result of work-related injury, and 35% of their claims were denied. Barriers to reporting injury included "It would be too much trouble" (43%), "I was afraid" (26%), and "I didn't know how" (18%). An estimated 69% of medical costs were shifted from employers to workers. The reasons for underreporting and the extent of claim denial warrant further investigation. Implications for worker health and the precise quantification of shifting costs to workers also should be addressed.

  19. Disparities by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status in occupational health experiences among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Premji, Stéphanie; Krause, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    We examined disparities in workers' occupational health experiences. We surveyed 941 unionized Las Vegas hotel room cleaners about their experiences with work-related pain and with employers, physicians, and workers' compensation. Data were analyzed for all workers and by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status. Hispanic and English as second language (ESL) workers were more likely than their counterparts to report work-related pain and, along with immigrant workers, to miss work because of this pain. Hispanic, ESL, and immigrant workers were not consistently at a disadvantage with regard to their own responses to work-related pain but were so with respect to reported responses by workers' compensation, physicians, and employers. There are indications of disparities in occupational health experiences within this job title. The use of different group classifications, while implying different mechanisms, produced similar results. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Lipophilic super-absorbent swelling gels as cleaners for use on weapons systems and platforms

    Increasingly stringent environmental regulations on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) demand the development of disruptive technologies for cleaning weapons systems and platforms. Currently employed techniques such as vapor degreasing, solvent, aqueous, or blast c...

  1. Lipophilic super-absorbent polymer gels as surface cleaners for oil and grease

    Increasingly stringent environmental regulations on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) demand the development of disruptive technologies for cleaning weapons systems and platforms. Currently employed techniques such as vapor degreasing, solvent, aqueous, or blast ...

  2. Exploring the Stakeholders Salience for the adoption the Principles and Tools of Cleaner Production in Brazil Companies

    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The key objective of this paper is to show the primary environmental influences exerted by the government, economic agents and society on companies for the implementation of the principles and tools of cleaner production (CP, and the attributes (power, legitimacy and urgency used by stakeholders to coerce companies into adopting these principles. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was the application of an exploratory survey in 102 Brazilian companies and the multi-varied evaluation of data by means of multiple correspondent analysis. Findings – The study shows that some principles of CP are little used by companies in Brazil. Concerning the influences on the adoption of CP, the government, economic agents and society are singled out as the important influencers. The government influence is manifest through the adoption of environmental regulating measures (power in conjunction with sincere actions in environmental education (influence. The economic agents possess the power, legitimacy and urgency to influence the adoption of CP. Society’s influences are less relevant, in that Brazilian society has much less awareness of sustainable production and consumption as compared to other countries. Practical implications – This study shows that it is vital that Brazilian society learns more about sustainable production, because a society with no environmental conscience is a society with little means to demand the implementation of CP. Originality/value – The results of the study represent an important theoretical contribution in that, at present, there is little literature on the relationship between stakeholders and Cleaner Production. This is the first study in Brazil to address the subject.

  3. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  4. Single clay sheets inside electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Sun, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    Nanofibers were prepared from polymer solution with clay sheets by electrospinning. Plasma etching, as a well controlled process, was used to supply electrically excited gas molecules from a glow discharge. To reveal the structure and arrangement of clay layers in the polymer matrix, plasma etching was used to remove the polymer by controlled gasification to expose the clay sheets due to the difference in reactivity. The shape, flexibility, and orientation of clay sheets were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Additional quantitative information on size distribution and degree of exfoliation of clay sheets were obtained by analyzing electron micrograph of sample after plasma etching. Samples in various forms including fiber, film and bulk, were thinned by plasma etching. Morphology and dispersion of inorganic fillers were studied by electron microscopy.

  5. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  6. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  7. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  8. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  9. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  10. Energized Oxygen : Speiser Current Sheet Bifurcation

    George, D. E.; Jahn, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A single population of energized Oxygen (O+) is shown to produce a cross-tail bifurcated current sheet in 2.5D PIC simulations of the magnetotail without the influence of magnetic reconnection. Treatment of oxygen in simulations of space plasmas, specifically a magnetotail current sheet, has been limited to thermal energies despite observations of and mechanisms which explain energized ions. We performed simulations of a homogeneous oxygen background, that has been energized in a physically appropriate manner, to study the behavior of current sheets and magnetic reconnection, specifically their bifurcation. This work uses a 2.5D explicit Particle-In-a-Cell (PIC) code to investigate the dynamics of energized heavy ions as they stream Dawn-to-Dusk in the magnetotail current sheet. We present a simulation study dealing with the response of a current sheet system to energized oxygen ions. We establish a, well known and studied, 2-species GEM Challenge Harris current sheet as a starting point. This system is known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection upon thinning of the current sheet. We added a uniform distribution of thermal O+ to the background. This 3-species system is also known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection. We add one additional variable to the system by providing an initial duskward velocity to energize the O+. We also traced individual particle motion within the PIC simulation. Three main results are shown. First, energized dawn- dusk streaming ions are clearly seen to exhibit sustained Speiser motion. Second, a single population of heavy ions clearly produces a stable bifurcated current sheet. Third, magnetic reconnection is not required to produce the bifurcated current sheet. Finally a bifurcated current sheet is compatible with the Harris current sheet model. This work is the first step in a series of investigations aimed at studying the effects of energized heavy ions on magnetic reconnection. This work differs

  11. 某精细化工企业清洁生产审核实践研究%Cleaner Production Audit on A Fine Chemical Company

    冯俊丽; 张时佳

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes the cleaner production of a company as example to expound the necessity and practical signifi-cance of carrying out cleaner production audit in fine chemical industry. According to eight existing issues of this company, the study provides practical low and high cost clean production project, totally 28 items. After calculating the economic, environmen-tal and social benefit of each project,the practical values of cleaner production audit to a company were pointed out, giving direc-tion of energy-saving emission reduction and low carbon development. This audit discusses the specific practice of cleaner pro-duction in fine chemical industry and it has guiding significance of practicing cleaner production in this domain.%以某企业的清洁生产审核为例,阐述分析精细化工行业开展清洁生产审核的必要性及实践意义.针对该企业存在的八方面问题,提出切实可行的无低费及中高费清洁生产方案共计28项,经核算各方案的经济、环境、社会效益,指出企业开展清洁生产审核的实际价值,为企业节能减排、低碳发展指明方向.本次审核初步探讨了清洁生产在精细化工行业的具体实践,对该行业清洁生产的践行具有一定的指导意义.

  12. Copper contamination in thin stainless steel sheet

    Holbert, R.K. Jr.; Dobbins, A.G.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The standard welding technique used at Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for joining thin stainless sheet is the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process. One of the reoccurring problems with the sheet welds is surface cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Metallography shows that the cracks are only about 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) deep which is significant in a 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) thick sheet. Thus, welding requirements do not permit any surfacing cracking as detected by a fluorescent dye penetrant test conducted on every part after welding. Surface cracks have been found in both of the two most common weld designs in the thin sheet fabricated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These butt joints are welded between two 0.25 mm thick stainless steel sheets and a tube with eyelet welded to a 25 mm (0.98 in.) thick sheet. The weld between the two sheets is made on a semiautomatic seam welding unit, whereas the tube-to-eyelet-to-sheet welds are done manually. The quality of both welds is very dependent on the welding procedure and the way the parts are placed in the weld fixturing. Metallographic examination has indicated that some welded parts with surface cracking in the weld region had copper particles on the surface, and the question of copper contamination has been raised. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe, the existence of copper in an around the surface cracks has been verified. The copper is on the surface of the parts prior to welding in the form of small dust particles

  13. Effects of electromechanical resonance on photocatalytic reduction of the free-hanging graphene oxide sheets

    Ostovari, F.; Abdi, Y.; Darbari, S.; Ghasemi, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present a simple, low-temperature method which is compatible with standard technology, to achieve graphene-based devices in large quantity. In this approach we take advantage of photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 to achieve photocatalytic reduction of chemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO) sheets. TiO 2 nanoparticles have been deposited on GO sheets hanging from Au/SiO 2 /Si interdigital electrodes to realize TiO 2 /GO heterostructures. We investigated photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles in the presence of UV-illumination, to reduce the GO sheets. Based on the Raman spectroscopy, the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the number of C–O bonds. Electrical measurements show that graphene sheets with the controlled electrical conductivity were obtained, so that higher illumination time led to higher conductivity and better reduction of GO sheets. Also, strain-induced photocatalytic reduction of the GO sheets has been investigated by their electrical characteristics. It has been shown for the first time that the electromechanical-induced strain enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the fabricated TiO 2 /GO heterostructure significantly.

  14. Effects of electromechanical resonance on photocatalytic reduction of the free-hanging graphene oxide sheets

    Ostovari, F.; Abdi, Y., E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darbari, S. [Tarbiat Modarres University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, F. [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In this report we present a simple, low-temperature method which is compatible with standard technology, to achieve graphene-based devices in large quantity. In this approach we take advantage of photocatalytic behavior of TiO{sub 2} to achieve photocatalytic reduction of chemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO) sheets. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been deposited on GO sheets hanging from Au/SiO{sub 2}/Si interdigital electrodes to realize TiO{sub 2}/GO heterostructures. We investigated photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the presence of UV-illumination, to reduce the GO sheets. Based on the Raman spectroscopy, the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the number of C-O bonds. Electrical measurements show that graphene sheets with the controlled electrical conductivity were obtained, so that higher illumination time led to higher conductivity and better reduction of GO sheets. Also, strain-induced photocatalytic reduction of the GO sheets has been investigated by their electrical characteristics. It has been shown for the first time that the electromechanical-induced strain enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the fabricated TiO{sub 2}/GO heterostructure significantly.

  15. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  16. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  17. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets

    Kuijian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  18. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.  Q.; Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  19. Performance and Effectiveness of Portable Air Cleaners in an Office Room

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, many people work in an office environment. Air pollutants, including particles and gases, are generated by humans and by different devices that are used in offices. Pollutants can also enter an office room with the air supplied from outdoors. It has been established that air pollutants...... and particles in an office room. The particle removal effectiveness of the technologies was also determined in order to clarify their ability to remove UFPs (ultrafine particles) in the office room. The tested five air cleaning technologies are non-thermal plasma, corona discharge ionizer, portable air purifier......, electrostatic fibrous filter and three-dimensional fibrous filter. The interior surfaces of the office room emit low levels of volatile organic compounds, since the office room has not been refurbished for about two decades. The results showed that the particle removal effectiveness of the technologies...

  20. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except for... of this part. Balance sheets filed under this rule shall comply with the following provisions: Assets...