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Sample records for shearwater puffinus griseus

  1. Potential geographic distribution and conservation of Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri in Brazil

    Ana Cecília P.A. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri Lesson 1839 is a tropical seabird occurring mainly between southern Canada and the southeast coast of Brazil. Puffinus lherminieri is considered Critically Endangered on the Brazilian Red List because it only occurs in two known localities, both of which contain very small populations. However, many offshore islands along the Brazilian coast are poorly known and the discovery of new colonies would be of considerable significance for the conservation of this species. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential geographic distribution of Audubon's Shearwater in Brazil, based on ecological niche model (ENM using Maxent algorithm with layers obtained from AquaMaps environmental dataset. The ENM was based on 37 records for reproduction areas in North and South America. The model yielded a very broad potential distribution, covering most of the Atlantic coast ranging from Brazil to the US. When filtered for islands along the Brazilian coast, the model indicates higher levels of environmental suitability near the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia. However, P. lherminieri prefers islands in environments with warm saline water. Thus, based on the influence of currents that act on the Brazilian coast we can infer undiscovered colonies are most likely to occur on islands on coast of Bahia, Espírito Santo and extreme north of the Rio de Janeiro. These should be intensively surveyed while the islands south of Cabo Frio should be discarded. The existence of new populations would have profound effects on the conservation status of this enigmatic and rarely seen seabird.

  2. Diving of great shearwaters (Puffinus gravis in cold and warm water regions of the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Robert A Ronconi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the most widespread seabirds in the world, shearwaters of the genus Puffinus are also some of the deepest diving members of the Procellariiformes. Maximum diving depths are known for several Puffinus species, but dive depths or diving behaviour have never been recorded for great shearwaters (P. gravis, the largest member of this genus. This study reports the first high sampling rate (2 s of depth and diving behaviour for Puffinus shearwaters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Time-depth recorders (TDRs were deployed on two female great shearwaters nesting on Inaccessible Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, recording 10 consecutive days of diving activity. Remote sensing imagery and movement patterns of 8 males tracked by satellite telemetry over the same period were used to identify probable foraging areas used by TDR-equipped females. The deepest and longest dive was to 18.9 m and lasted 40 s, but most (>50% dives were <2 m deep. Diving was most frequent near dawn and dusk, with <0.5% of dives occurring at night. The two individuals foraged in contrasting oceanographic conditions, one in cold (8 to 10°C water of the Sub-Antarctic Front, likely 1000 km south of the breeding colony, and the other in warmer (10 to 16°C water of the Sub-tropical Frontal Zone, at the same latitude as the colony, possibly on the Patagonian Shelf, 4000 km away. The cold water bird spent fewer days commuting, conducted four times as many dives as the warm water bird, dived deeper on average, and had a greater proportion of bottom time during dives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: General patterns of diving activity were consistent with those of other shearwaters foraging in cold and warm water habitats. Great shearwaters are likely adapted to forage in a wide range of oceanographic conditions, foraging mostly with shallow dives but capable of deep diving.

  3. Physical and chemical effects of ingested plastic debris on short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, in the North Pacific Ocean

    Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the plastics ingested by short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, that were accidentally caught during experimental fishing in the North Pacific Ocean in 2003 and 2005. The mean mass of plastics found in the stomach was 0.23 g per bird (n = 99). Plastic mass did not correlate with body weight. Total PCB (sum of 24 congeners) concentrations in the abdominal adipose tissue of 12 birds ranged from 45 to 529 ng/g-lipid. Although total PCBs or higher-chlorinated congeners, ...

  4. Geolocators Reveal Migration and Pre-Breeding Behaviour of the Critically Endangered Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus

    Guilford, Tim; Wynn, Russell; McMinn, Miguel; Rodríguez, Ana; Fayet, Annette; Maurice, Lou; Jones, Alice; Meier, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    Using combined miniature archival light and salt-water immersion loggers, we characterise the year-round individual at-sea movements of Europe's only critically endangered seabird, the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, for the first time. Focusing on the non-breeding period, we show that all of the 26 breeding birds tracked from their breeding site on Mallorca in the Mediterranean Sea successfully made a 2–4 month migration into the Atlantic Ocean, where they utilised well-defined core areas off Portuguese and French coasts. As well as identifying high-risk areas in the Atlantic, our results confirm that breeding birds spend most of the year concentrated around productive waters of the Iberian shelf in the western Mediterranean. Migration phenology appeared largely unrelated to the subsequent (distinctly synchronous) breeding attempt, suggesting that any carry-over effects were compensated for during a long pre-laying period spent over winter in the Mediterranean. Using the light and salt-water immersion data alone we were also able to characterise the pattern of pre-laying visits to the colony in considerable detail, demonstrating that breeding pairs appear to coordinate their over-day visits using a high frequency of night-time visits throughout the winter. Our study shows that geolocation technology is a valuable tool for assessing the spatial distribution of risks to this critically endangered species, and also provides a low-impact method for remotely observing the detailed behaviour of seabird species that may be sensitive to disturbance from traditional study methods. PMID:22470471

  5. Breeding biology of a winter-breeding procellariiform in the North Atlantic, the Macaronesian shearwater Puffinus lherminieri baroli.

    Fagundes, Ana Isabel; Ramos, Jaime A; Ramos, Urtelinda; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H

    2016-10-01

    The breeding success of burrow-nesting seabirds may be influenced by both nest site characteristics and oceanographic conditions influencing food availability at sea. In this study we describe the breeding biology of the winter-breeding Macaronesian shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri baroli), including nest site characteristics and interspecific competition. We also evaluate the possible effects of changing oceanographic conditions on breeding phenology and breeding success. The study was carried out over two breeding seasons on two islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. Oceanographic characteristics differed between years. On a regional scale, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was low and negative in 2011, and on a local scale, birds used areas with significantly lower values of chlorophyll a concentration and significantly higher values of sea surface temperature anomalies. Hatching success was higher in 2012 than in 2011. At both colonies, egg cracking was the main cause of hatching failure, but in 2011 several eggs on Selvagem Grande were deserted. In 2012 birds laid earlier and chicks had longer wings and were heavier. At both colonies, nests that were deeper, were sheltered from prevailing winds and had small chambers and a soil substrate had a higher probability of being used successfully by the birds. Nests occupied solely by Macaronesian shearwaters were much deeper and had less volume than nests shared with other species. Our study suggests that the breeding success of Macaronesian shearwaters is strongly related to nest site characteristics and that at-sea environmental conditions exert a strong influence on reproductive parameters, with birds breeding in a poor year (evaluated in terms of lower marine productivity) laying much later and their chicks growing at a slower rate than in a good year. The influence of nest site characteristics and environmental conditions may be very important for understanding the breeding

  6. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals

    Lavers, Jennifer L.; Bond, Alexander L.; Hutton, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p < 0.05). More than 60% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13–3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. - Highlights: • Proportion of the shearwater population ingesting plastic increased over four years. • Shearwater body condition is negatively influenced by the amount of ingested plastic. • Shearwater contaminant load is positively related to the amount of ingested plastic. • Many chicks exceed international targets for ingested plastic after a single feeding. • Plastic ingestion in this study is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate. - Flesh-footed Shearwaters ingest large quantities of marine plastic, which is correlated with poor body condition and increased concentrations of trace metals such as chromium

  7. Recent changes in the summer distribution of the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus off western France

    Pierre Yésou

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Surveys carried out in the 1980s showed that 8,000-10,000 Balearic shearwaters regularly gathered in inshore waters of central and northern Biscay, particularly off the coast of Vendée and in the Mor-Braz area, western France. This distribution, apparently linked to particular oceanographical conditions (thermal front, was strikingly overlapping with that of clupeid fish, particularly anchovies. Recent surveys (1999-2000 have shown that the species has become far less numerous in these "traditional" haunts. Conversely, its abundance has increased in the western Channel, some hundreds of kilometres to the North, during the 1990s. Reasons for this northward shift (e.g. changes in prey distribution due to fishing activities or water warming in Biscay remain hypothetical and further study is needed.

  8. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals.

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L; Hutton, Ian

    2014-04-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13-3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island.

    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  10. Shearwater foraging in the Southern Ocean: the roles of prey availability and winds.

    Ben Raymond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sooty (Puffinus griseus and short-tailed (P. tenuirostris shearwaters are abundant seabirds that range widely across global oceans. Understanding the foraging ecology of these species in the Southern Ocean is important for monitoring and ecosystem conservation and management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tracking data from sooty and short-tailed shearwaters from three regions of New Zealand and Australia were combined with at-sea observations of shearwaters in the Southern Ocean, physical oceanography, near-surface copepod distributions, pelagic trawl data, and synoptic near-surface winds. Shearwaters from all three regions foraged in the Polar Front zone, and showed particular overlap in the region around 140 degrees E. Short-tailed shearwaters from South Australia also foraged in Antarctic waters south of the Polar Front. The spatial distribution of shearwater foraging effort in the Polar Front zone was matched by patterns in large-scale upwelling, primary production, and abundances of copepods and myctophid fish. Oceanic winds were found to be broad determinants of foraging distribution, and of the flight paths taken by the birds on long foraging trips to Antarctic waters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The shearwaters displayed foraging site fidelity and overlap of foraging habitat between species and populations that may enhance their utility as indicators of Southern Ocean ecosystems. The results highlight the importance of upwellings due to interactions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current with large-scale bottom topography, and the corresponding localised increases in the productivity of the Polar Front ecosystem.

  11. A switch in the Atlantic Oscillation correlates with inter-annual changes in foraging location and food habits of Macaronesian shearwaters (Puffinus baroli) nesting on two islands of the sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Ramos, Jaime A.; Isabel Fagundes, Ana; Xavier, José C.; Fidalgo, Vera; Ceia, Filipe R.; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2015-10-01

    Changes in oceanographic conditions, shaped by changes in large-scale atmospheric phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), alters the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Such signals are readily captured by marine top predators, given that their use of foraging habitats and diets change when the NAO changes. In this study we assessed sexual, seasonal and annual (2010/11-2012/13) differences in diet, trophic and isotopic niche (using δ15N and δ13C values of whole blood, 1st primary, 8th secondary and breast feathers), foraging locations and oceanographic variation within foraging areas for Macaronesian shearwaters' (Puffinus baroli) during two years of contrasting NAO values, and between two sub-tropical islands 330 km apart in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. These two locations provide contrasting oceanographic foraging regimes for the birds, because the second colony is much closer to the African coast (375 vs 650 km), and, therefore, to the upwelling area of the Canary Current. There was a marked environmental perturbation in 2010/2011, related with a negative NAO Index and lower marine productivity (lower concentration of Chlorophyll a). This event corresponded to the Macaronesian shearwaters feeding farther north and west, which was readily seen in change of both δ15N and δ13C values, and in a higher intake of cephalopods. Diet and stable isotopes did not differ between sexes. Regurgitation analysis indicate a dominance of cephalopods in both islands, but prey fish were important for Selvagem Grande in 2012 and cephalopods for Cima Islet in 2011. Both δ15N and δ13C values were significantly higher for Cima Islet than for Selvagem Grande, irrespective of year, season and tissue sampled. SIBER analysis showed smaller isotopic niches for the breeding period. Our study suggests that during years of poor environmental conditions Macaronesian shearwaters shift their foraging location to more pelagic waters

  12. Predictive ethoinformatics reveals the complex migratory behaviour of a pelagic seabird, the Manx Shearwater

    Freeman, Robin; Dean, Ben; Kirk, Holly; Leonard, Kerry; Phillips, Richard A.; Perrins, Chris M.; Guilford, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of animals in the wild is fundamental to conservation efforts. Advances in bio-logging technologies have offered insights into the behaviour of animals during foraging, migration and social interaction. However, broader application of these systems has been limited by device mass, cost and longevity. Here, we use information from multiple logger types to predict individual behaviour in a highly pelagic, migratory seabird, the Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). Using behavioural states resolved from GPS tracking of foraging during the breeding season, we demonstrate that individual behaviours can be accurately predicted during multi-year migrations from low cost, lightweight, salt-water immersion devices. This reveals a complex pattern of migratory stopovers: some involving high proportions of foraging, and others of rest behaviour. We use this technique to examine three consecutive years of global migrations, revealing the prominence of foraging behaviour during migration and the importance of highly productive waters during migratory stopover. PMID:23635496

  13. Gota úrica visceral em bobo-pequeno (Puffinus puffinus no sul do Brasil

    D. Fink

    Full Text Available RESUMO A gota úrica visceral é uma doença que acomete répteis, aves e mamíferos. Caracteriza-se por depósitos de cristais de urato e ácido úrico em diferentes órgãos da região visceral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso de gota úrica visceral em um indivíduo de bobo-pequeno (Puffinus puffinus encontrado morto no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. No período de 20 de agosto de 2015 a 20 de abril de 2016, as praias dos municípios de Araquari, Barra do Sul, São Francisco do Sul e Itapoá foram monitoradas diariamente para o registro e a recuperação de tetrápodes marinhos mortos, incluindo aves marinhas. Foram encontrados e necropsiados 84 indivíduos. Um deles apresentou o pericárdio aderido ao miocárdio e com a coloração esbranquiçada. Os rins, o fígado e os pulmões continham inúmeros pontos esbranquiçados. A ocorrência dessa patologia na espécie foi de 1,19%. Trata-se do primeiro relato de bobo-pequeno com gota úrica visceral encontrado no Brasil.

  14. Breeding short-tailed shearwaters buffer local environmental variability in south-eastern Australia by foraging in Antarctic waters.

    Berlincourt, Maud; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Establishing patterns of movements of free-ranging animals in marine ecosystems is crucial for a better understanding of their feeding ecology, life history traits and conservation. As central place foragers, the habitat use of nesting seabirds is heavily influenced by the resources available within their foraging range. We tested the prediction that during years with lower resource availability, short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) provisioning chicks should increase their foraging effort, by extending their foraging range and/or duration, both when foraging in neritic (short trips) and distant oceanic waters (long trips). Using both GPS and geolocation data-loggers, at-sea movements and habitat use were investigated over three breeding seasons (2012-14) at two colonies in southeastern Australia. Most individuals performed daily short foraging trips over the study period and inter-annual variations observed in foraging parameters where mainly due to few individuals from Griffith Island, performing 2-day trips in 2014. When performing long foraging trips, this study showed that individuals from both colonies exploited similar zones in the Southern Ocean. The results of this study suggest that individuals could increase their foraging range while exploiting distant feeding zones, which could indicate that short-tailed shearwaters forage in Antarctic waters not only to maintain their body condition but may also do so to buffer against local environmental stochasticity. Lower breeding performances were associated with longer foraging trips to distant oceanic waters in 2013 and 2014 indicating they could mediate reductions in food availability around the breeding colonies by extending their foraging range in the Southern Ocean. This study highlights the importance of foraging flexibility as a fundamental aspect of life history in coastal/pelagic marine central place foragers living in highly variable environments and how these foraging strategies are use to

  15. Identifying Important Atlantic Areas for the conservation of Balearic shearwaters: Spatial overlap with conservation areas

    Pérez-Roda, Amparo; Delord, Karine; Boué, Amélie; Arcos, José Manuel; García, David; Micol, Thierry; Weimerskirch, Henri; Pinaud, David; Louzao, Maite

    2017-07-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered one of the main tools in both fisheries and conservation management to protect threatened species and their habitats around the globe. However, MPAs are underrepresented in marine environments compared to terrestrial environments. Within this context, we studied the Atlantic non-breeding distribution of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) breeding in Eivissa during the 2011-2012 period based on global location sensing (GLS) devices. Our objectives were (1) to identify overall Important Atlantic Areas (IAAs) from a southern population, (2) to describe spatio-temporal patterns of oceanographic habitat use, and (3) to assess whether existing conservation areas (Natura 2000 sites and marine Important Bird Areas (IBAs)) cover the main IAAs of Balearic shearwaters. Our results highlighted that the Atlantic staging (from June to October in 2011) dynamic of the southern population was driven by individual segregation at both spatial and temporal scales. Individuals ranged in the North-East Atlantic over four main IAAs (Bay of Biscay: BoB, Western Iberian shelf: WIS, Gulf of Cadiz: GoC, West of Morocco: WoM). While most individuals spent more time on the WIS or in the GoC, a small number of birds visited IAAs at the extremes of their Atlantic distribution range (i.e., BoB and WoM). The chronology of the arrivals to the IAAs showed a latitudinal gradient with northern areas reached earlier during the Atlantic staging. The IAAs coincided with the most productive areas (higher chlorophyll a values) in the NE Atlantic between July and October. The spatial overlap between IAAs and conservation areas was higher for Natura 2000 sites than marine IBAs (areas with and without legal protection, respectively). Concerning the use of these areas, a slightly higher proportion of estimated positions fell within marine IBAs compared to designated Natura 2000 sites, with Spanish and Portuguese conservation

  16. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus

    Philips, Jennifer D.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Pawloski, Jeffrey L.; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    2003-01-01

    The Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) is an exclusively cephalopod-consuming delphinid with a distinctive vertical indentation along its forehead. To investigate whether or not the species echolocates, a female Risso's dolphin was trained to discriminate an aluminum cylinder from a nylon sphere (experiment 1) or an aluminum sphere (experiment 2) while wearing eyecups and free swimming in an open-water pen in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The dolphin completed the task with little difficulty despite being blindfolded. Clicks emitted by the dolphin were acquired at average amplitudes of 192.6 dB re 1 μPa, with estimated sources levels up to 216 dB re 1 μPa-1 m. Clicks were acquired with peak frequencies as high as 104.7 kHz (Mfp=47.9 kHz), center frequencies as high as 85.7 kHz (Mf0=56.5 kHz), 3-dB bandwidths up to 94.1 kHz (MBW=39.7 kHz), and root-mean-square bandwidths up to 32.8 kHz (MRMS=23.3 kHz). Click durations were between 40 and 70 μs. The data establish that the Risso's dolphin echolocates, and that, aside from slightly lower amplitudes and frequencies, the clicks emitted by the dolphin were similar to those emitted by other echolocating odontocetes. The particular acoustic and behavioral findings in the study are discussed with respect to the possible direction of the sonar transmission beam of the species.

  18. Improvement of transformation efficiency by strategic circumvention of restriction barriers in Streptomyces griseus.

    Suzuki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Shunji; Osada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2011-07-01

    DNA methylation in Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350 was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis and bisulfite-based analysis to reveal two methylation sites, 5'-GC5mCGGC-3' and 5'-GAG5mCTC-3'. The methylation was reconstituted in Escherichia coli by simultaneous expression of S. griseus SGR4675 and S. achromogenes M.SacI. The E. coli cells produced plasmids that mimicked the methylation profile of S. griseus DNA, which was readily introduced into S. griseus. The results of this study raise the possibility of a promising approach to establish efficient transformation in several streptomycetes.

  19. Fatal attraction of short-tailed shearwaters to artificial lights.

    Airam Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Light pollution is increasing around the world and altering natural nightscapes with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. A severe ecological perturbation caused by artificial lights is mass mortalities of organisms, including seabird fledglings that are attracted to lights at night on their first flights to the sea. Here, we report on the number of fledging short-tailed shearwaters Ardenna tenuirostris found grounded in evening and morning rescue patrols conducted at Phillip Island, Australia, during a 15-year period (1999-2013. We assessed factors affecting numbers of grounded birds and mortality including date, moon phase, wind direction and speed, number of visitors and holiday periods. We also tested experimentally if birds were attracted to lights by turning the lights off on a section of the road. Of 8871 fledglings found, 39% were dead or dying. This mortality rate was 4-8 times higher than reported elsewhere for other shearwater species, probably because searching for fledglings was part of our systematic rescue effort rather than the opportunistic rescue used elsewhere. Thus, it suggests that light-induced mortality of seabirds is usually underestimated. We rescued more birds (dead and alive in peak fledging, moonless and windy nights. Mortality increased through the fledging period, in the mornings and with increased traffic on holiday periods. Turning the road lights off decreased the number of grounded birds (dead and alive. While moon, wind and time are uncontrolled natural constraints, we demonstrated that reduction of light pollution and better traffic management can mitigate artificial light-induced mortality.

  20. A ribonuclease from the wild mushroom Boletus griseus.

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2006-10-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and cospecific for poly A and poly U was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus griseus. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of RNases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus and Lentinus edodes. The RNase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and Affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on CM-cellulose. The enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum between 60 and 70 degrees C and a pH optimum at 3.5.

  1. Migratory routes and at-sea threats to Pink-footed Shearwaters

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Hodum, Peter; Colodro, Valentina; Carle, Ryan; López, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) is a seabird with a breeding range restricted to three islands in Chile and an estimated world population of approximately 56,000 breeding individuals (Muñoz 2011, Oikonos unpublished data). Due to multiple threats on breeding colonies and at-sea, Pink-footed Shearwaters are listed as Endangered by the government of Chile (Reglamento de Clasificación de Especies, 2011), Threatened by the government of Canada (Environment Canada 2008), and are listed under Appendix 1 of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP 2013). A principal conservation concern for the species is mortality from fisheries bycatch during the breeding and non-breeding seasons; thus, identification of areas of overlap between at-sea use by Pink-footed Shearwaters and fisheries is a high priority conservation objective (Hinojosa Sáez and Hodum 1997, Mangel et al. 2013, ACAP 2013). During the non-breeding period, Pink-footed Shearwaters range as far north as Canada, although little was known until recently about migration routes and important wintering areas where fisheries bycatch could be a risk. Additionally, Pink-footed Shearwaters face at-sea threats during the non-breeding season off the west coast of North America. Recently, areas used by wintering Pink-footed Shearwaters have been identified as areas of interest for developing alternative energy offshore in North America (e.g., floating wind generators; Trident Winds 2016). The goal of our study was to track Pink-footed Shearwater post-breeding movements with satellite tags to identify timing and routes of migration, locate important non-breeding foraging habitats, and determine population distribution among different wintering regions.

  2. Lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on Streptomyces griseus spores

    Podgorskaya, M.E.; Tulina, G.G.; Serdechnaya, A.I.; Matselyukh, B.P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on spores of prototrophic and auxotrophic strains of Streptomyces griseus. Relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons is higher than that of γ-rays and depends on beam energy. Neutrons of 22-50 MeV induce Streptomyces griseus mutations more frequently (by one order of magnitude) than neutrons of 1.4-1.6 MeV do. The obtained mutants can be used in studying Streptomyces griseus genetics

  3. Attendance of scavenging seabirds at trawler discards off Galicia, Spain

    Julio Valeiras

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of scavenger seabirds at fishing trawlers was studied off Galicia, Spain. A total of 9,368 seabirds of 23 species were recorded during 92 fishing operations in 1998 and 1999. The most common species were the yellow-legged and lesser black-backed gull (Larus cachinnans and L. fuscus, Sabine´s gull (L. sabini, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus, the great shearwater (Puffinus gravis, sooty shearwater (P. griseus, the Manx and Balearic shearwater (P. puffinus and P. mauretanicus, the great skua (Catharacta skua and terns (mainly Sterna hirundo and S. paradisaea. Other species occurred in small numbers: Leach´s petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus, the little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis, Cory´s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea, the parasitic skua (Stercorarius parasiticus, the pomarine skua (S. pomarinus, the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus, the glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus, the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, the sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis, the black tern (Chlidonias niger, the guillemot (Uria aalge and the little auk (Alle alle. The maximum number of seabirds recorded at a haul was 320. The maximum number of a particular species ranged from 120 great shearwaters to 250 yellow-legged/lesser black-backed gulls during a single haul. The differences in ship-follower species abundance are related to migratory movements but fisheries could also have a strong influence at a smaller scale on the distribution of seabirds off Galicia. The degree to which seabirds rely on fishery discards as food was not quantified, but may be important for several species.

  4. Habitat suitability modeling for the endangered Hawaiian petrel on Kauai and analysis of predicted habitat overlap with the Newell’s shearwater

    Jeff R. Troy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis is endemic to the main Hawaiian Islands and has undergone a breeding range contraction since the arrival of humans. Using abiotic and biotic environmental variables, we developed a terrestrial habitat suitability model for the species on the island of Kauai based on contemporary sites where the species is known (or strongly suspected to nest, as well as a habitat/threat-isolation index that combined predictions from this suitability model with spatial information on two anthropogenic threats to the species. After accounting for large-scale relative spatial positioning of sites in modeling procedures, the habitat suitability model suggests that the probability that a location on Kauai could be suitable for Hawaiian petrel nesting activity increases with increasing mean annual wind speed, and may also increase somewhat with increasing slope and native vegetation cover. The habitat suitability model (which does not incorporate spatial information on anthropogenic threats to the species predicts approximately 74 km2 of Kauai, mostly in the interior of the island, as being potentially suitable with predicted probability > 0.7 for Hawaiian petrel terrestrial activity, and about 35 km2 with predicted probability > 0.9. Encouragingly, almost 50 km2 of land with predicted probability > 0.7 and almost 24 km2 with predicted probability > 0.9 is currently protected, being located on either government or private reserve land. Based on the habitat/threat-isolation index, most land predicted to be both suitable (based on environmental variables and as isolated from threats as a large number of the known contemporary Hawaiian petrel sites, is found in government and private reserves. Some degree of predicted habitat overlap between the Hawaiian petrel and Newell’s shearwater (Puffinus newelli, another Hawaiian seabird of conservation concern, suggests that some of the same larger tracts of land

  5. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands

    Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

  6. Studies on biological reduction of chromate by Streptomyces griseus

    Poopal, Ashwini C.; Laxman, R. Seeta

    2009-01-01

    Chromium is a toxic heavy metal used in various industries and leads to environmental pollution due to improper handling. The most toxic form of chromium Cr(VI) can be converted to less toxic Cr(III) by reduction. Among the actinomycetes tested for chromate reduction, thirteen strains reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), of which one strain of Streptomyces griseus (NCIM 2020) was most efficient showing complete reduction within 24 h. The organism was able to use a number of carbon sources as electron donors. Sulphate, nitrate, chloride and carbonate had no effect on chromate reduction during growth while cations such as Cd, Ni, Co and Cu were inhibitory to varying degrees. Chromate reduction was associated with the bacterial cells and sonication was the best method of cell breakage to release the enzyme. The enzyme was constitutive and did not require presence of chromate during growth for expression of activity. Chromate reduction with cell free extract (CFE) was observed without added NADH. However, addition of NAD(P)H resulted in 2-3-fold increase in activity. Chromate reductase showed optimum activity at 28 deg. C and pH 7.

  7. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages...

  8. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  9. Diet, dietary selectivity and density of South American grey fox, Lycalopex griseus, in Central Chile.

    Muñoz-Pedreros, Andrés; Yáñez, José; Norambuena, Heraldo V; Zúñiga, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    The South American grey fox Lycalopex griseus is a canid widely distributed in southern South America; however, some aspects of its biology are still poorly known. We studied the diet and density of L. griseus in the Lago Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, in Central Chile. The trophic niche breadth was B = 6.16 (B sta = 0.47) and prey diversity was H' = 2.46 (H max ' = 3.17, J' = 0.78). The highest proportions of prey consumed in the diet were Oryctolagus cuniculus (52.21%) and other mammals (32.78%). We compared these results with a latitudinal gradient of diet results for this species in Chile. L. griseus eats mostly mammals (>90% of total prey), consuming the rodent Phyllotis darwini and reptiles in the northern zone; Oryctolagus cuniculus, Octodon degus and Abrocoma bennetti in the central zone; Abrothrix spp. and lagomorphs in the southern zone; and Lepus capensis and Ovis aries in the austral zone. The estimated density of L. griseus in Lago Peñuelas NR was 1.3 foxes/km 2 . © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of the possible proteomic application of trypsin from Streptomyces griseus

    Štosová, T.; Šebela, M.; Řehulka, Pavel; Šedo, O.; Havliš, J.; Zdráhal, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 376, č. 1 (2008), s. 94-102 ISSN 0003-2697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : MALDI-TOF MS * Streptomyces griseus * trypsin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.088, year: 2008

  11. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory’s shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Carrasco, María Nazaret

    2012-01-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic character- istics, in the gut content of dead Cory’s shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97 ± 3.97 mg) compared with ...

  12. Estado del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 (Mammalia: Canidae en el Perú

    Elena Vivar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se sustenta la presencia del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 en la costa sur del Perú en base a información morfológica externa y craneal. Esta especie es de similar tamaño a L. sechurae (Thomas, 1900 pero diferenciable en una mayor longitud del hocico y menor amplitud del cráneo; esta diferencia es respaldada en un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Se sugiere que la población del zorro gris en el Perú podría constituir una subespecie nueva de L. griseus por encontrarse más al norte de su distribución tradicionalmente conocida y separada de otras subespecies por el Desierto de Atacama en el norte de Chile, notable barrera biogeográfica.

  13. Detection and properties of A-factor-binding protein from Streptomyces griseus

    Miyake, K.; Horinouchi, S.; Yoshida, M.; Chiba, N.; Mori, K.; Nogawa, N.; Morikawa, N.; Beppu, T.

    1989-01-01

    The optically active form of tritium-labeled A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone), a pleiotropic autoregulator responsible for streptomycin production, streptomycin resistance, and sporulation in Streptomyces griseus, was chemically synthesized. By using the radioactive A-factor, a binding protein for A-factor was detected in the cytoplasmic fraction of this organism. The binding protein had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 26,000, as determined by gel filtration. Scatchard analysis suggested that A-factor bound the protein in the molar ratio of 1:1 with a binding constant, Kd, of 0.7 nM. The number of the binding protein was roughly estimated to be 37 per genome. The inducing material virginiae butanolide C (VB-C), which has a structure very similar to that of A-factor and is essential for virginiamycin production in Streptomyces virginiae, did not inhibit binding. In addition, no protein capable of specifically binding 3 H-labeled VB-C was found in S. griseus. Together with the observation that VB-C had almost no biological activity on the restoration of streptomycin production or sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant of S. griseus, these results indicated that the binding protein had a strict ligand specificity. Examination for an A-factor-binding protein in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces lividans showed the absence of any specifically binding protein

  14. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae) species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

    Alvarado-Sizzo, Hernán; Casas, Alejandro; Parra, Fabiola; Arreola-Nava, Hilda Julieta; Terrazas, Teresa; Sánchez, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  15. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

    Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo

    Full Text Available The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  16. Breaking the routine: individual Cory's shearwaters shift winter destinations between hemispheres and across ocean basins

    Dias, Maria P.; Granadeiro, José P.; Phillips, Richard A.; Alonso, Hany; Catry, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that migratory species are particularly vulnerable to rapid environmental changes arising from human activity. Species are expected to vary in their capacity to respond to these changes: long-distance migrants and those lacking variability in migratory traits are probably at considerable disadvantage. The few studies that have assessed the degree of plasticity in behaviour of marine animals suggest that fidelity to non-breeding destinations is usually high. In the present study, we evaluated individual flexibility in migration strategy of a highly pelagic seabird, the Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea. Geolocation data from 72 different migrations, including 14 birds that were tracked for more than one non-breeding season, showed a remarkable capacity to change winter destinations between years. Although some birds exhibited high site fidelity, others shifted from the South to North Atlantic, from the western to eastern South Atlantic, and from the Atlantic to Indian Ocean. Individuals also showed flexibility in stopover behaviour and migratory schedule. Although their K-selected life-history strategy has the disadvantage that the chances of microevolution are slight if circumstances alter rapidly, these results suggest that Cory's shearwaters may be in a better position than many other long-distance migrants to face the consequences of a changing environment. PMID:21106591

  17. A study of stomach contents of Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) (Aves: Procellariidae), from the Macaronesian Islands

    Hartog, den J.C.; Clarke, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Data are presented on the diet of Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) resulting from stomach investigations based on 18 birds from Hierro (Canary Islands), 5 from Selvagem Grande (Selvagens or Salvage Islands), 2 from São Miguel and 1 from São Jorge (Azores), collected

  18. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea).

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Nazaret Carrasco, María

    2012-10-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic characteristics, in the gut content of dead Cory's shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97±3.97mg) compared with other petrel species. We found no relationships between plastic loads and body condition or body size, but negative effects may be hidden or delayed. We propose to use the fledglings stranded by light pollution to carry out more precise studies to understand the potential hidden costs of plastic ingestion; and to monitor in a long-term the marine debris to develop management actions for the control of pollution at the marine environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [2H26]-1-epi-Cubenol, a completely deuterated natural product from Streptomyces griseus

    Christian A. Citron

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During growth on fully deuterated medium the volatile terpene [2H26]-1-epi-cubenol was released by the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. This compound represents the first completely deuterated terpene obtained by fermentation. Despite a few previous reports in the literature the operability of this approach to fully deuterated compounds is still surprising, because the strong kinetic isotope effect of deuterium is known to slow down all metabolic processes in living organisms. Potential applications of completely labelled compounds from natural sources in structure elucidation, biosynthetic or pharmacokinetic investigations are discussed.

  20. Pulmonary fungal infection caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    Elad, Daniel; Morick, Danny; David, Dan; Scheinin, Aviad; Yamin, Gilad; Blum, Shlomo; Goffman, Oz

    2011-05-01

    Neoscytalidium dimidiatum was isolated from two 12-18 cm abscesses in the lung and the mediastinal lymph nodes of a stranded Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). Histopathologic examination of samples of these organs revealed the presence of hyphae and sclerotic body-like fungal elements. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was recovered from the dolphin's organs which also were found to contain numerous Monorygma grimaldii cysts. No histopathological signs of morbillivirus infection were seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of N. dimidiatum infection in a sea mammal.

  1. Genetic segregation in a high-yielding streptomycin-producing strain of Streptomyces griseus.

    Roth, M; Schwalenberg, B; Reiche, R; Noack, D; Geuther, R; Eritt, I

    1982-01-01

    The streptomycin-producing Streptomyces griseus HP spontaneously segregated non-reverting derivatives with altered phenotypes. Clones characterized by increased spore formation and decreased streptomycin production were found. Two other types of derivatives were defective in aerial mycelium and streptomycin formation as well, but differed in the capacity to synthesize a yellow pigment. These derivatives were examined with respect to further properties. The stability of S. griseus HP was investigated in relation to conditions of continuous culture. Both at 26 and 30 degrees C, under glycerol and NH4Cl limitation a rapid segregation and enrichment of streptomycin-non-producing derivatives occurred. At 34 degrees C and glycerol limitation segregation began only after about 35 generations of continuous culture. In NH4Cl-limited chemostats the original strain was stable during 80 generations. In the course of the continuous culture experiments it was shown that the onset of genetic segregation within mycelia can be detected before it becomes obvious in colonies grown from the mycelia. This was achieved by fractionation of the mycelia by protoplast formation and subsequent plating on regeneration medium allowing colony growth and differentiation.

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the spotless smooth-hound Mustelus griseus (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae).

    Chen, Xiao; Peng, Zaiqing; Pan, Lianghao; Shi, Xiaofang; Cai, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Mustelus griseus was first determined in this study. It is 16,754 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region with the typical gene order in vertebrates. Overall nucleotide base composition of the mitogenome is 30.7% A, 24.9% C, 14.0% G and 30.3% T. After aligning, it comes to us that the mitogenomic portions of M. griseus are very similar to those of Mustelus manazo, ranging from 86.92% (control region) to 100% (tRNA-His and tRNA-Leu2). The origin of L-strand replication (OL) is identified between tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Cys genes. The control region is located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes, containing one termination-associated sequence (TAS) and three short conserved sequences (CSB 1-3).

  3. Geographical PCB and DDT patterns in shearwaters (Calonectris sp.) breeding across the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean archipelagos.

    Roscales, Jose L; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; González-Solís, Jacob; Jiménez, Begoña

    2010-04-01

    Although seabirds have been proposed as useful biomonitors for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in marine environments, their suitability is still unclear. To understand the geographic variability and the influence of seabird trophic ecology in OC levels, we analyzed PCBs, DDTs, delta(13)C, and delta(15)N in the blood of adult Calonectris shearwaters throughout a vast geographic range within the northeast Atlantic Ocean (from Cape Verde to Azores) and the Mediterranean Sea (from the Alboran Sea to Crete). OC concentrations were greater in birds from the Mediterranean than in those from the Atlantic colonies, showing higher and lower chlorinated PCB profiles, respectively. This large-scale pattern may reflect the influence of historical European runoffs in the Mediterranean basin and diffused sources for OCs in remote Atlantic islands. Spatial patterns also emerged within the Atlantic basin, probably associated with pollutant long-range transport and recent inputs of DDT in the food webs of shearwaters from Cape Verde and the Canary islands. Moreover, a positive association of OC concentrations with delta(15)N within each locality points out diet specialization as a major factor explaining differences in OCs at the intraspecific level. Overall, this study highlights wide range breeding seabirds, such as Calonectris shearwaters, as suitable organisms for biomonitoring large geographic trends of organochlorine contamination in the marine environment.

  4. Selectivity of flesh-footed shearwaters for plastic colour: Evidence for differential provisioning in adults and fledglings.

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-02-01

    The ingestion of plastic by seabirds has been used as an indicator of population and ocean health. However, few studies have examined adults and juveniles of the same species concurrent with the availability of plastic in the local marine environment. In King George Sound (KGS), Western Australia, 13% of adult flesh-footed shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) and 90% of fledglings contained plastic items in their digestive tract. On Lord Howe Island (LHI), New South Wales, 75% of adult shearwaters and 100% of fledglings contained plastic. Ingested items were assessed using Jaccard's Index (where J = 0 indicates complete dissimilarity and J = 1 complete similarity). The colour of items ingested by self- and chick-provisioning shearwaters from KGS exhibited broad overlap with plastic available in the local environment (J = 0.78-0.80), and plastic in adults and fledglings from LHI were less similar to those available (J = 0.31-0.58). Additional data on seabird colour selection would improve our understanding of the factors influencing the behaviour of ingesting plastic, and its contribution to the decline of some species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    Paiva, Vitor H; Geraldes, Pedro; Rodrigues, Isabel; Melo, Tommy; Melo, José; Ramos, Jaime A

    2015-01-01

    Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers) and trophic (stable isotope analysis) ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models), existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs) and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing). During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird Areas. Further

  6. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    Vitor H Paiva

    Full Text Available Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers and trophic (stable isotope analysis ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models, existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing. During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird

  7. Hearing abilities and sound reception of broadband sounds in an adult Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    Mooney, T Aran; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Ketten, Darlene R; Jen, I-Fan

    2015-08-01

    While odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. Yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. This work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this species receives sound. Jaw hearing thresholds were lowest (most sensitive) at two locations along the anterior, midline region of the lower jaw (the lower jaw tip and anterior part of the throat). Responses were similarly low along a more posterior region of the lower mandible, considered the area of best hearing in bottlenose dolphins. Left- and right-side differences were also noted suggesting possible left-right asymmetries in sound reception or differences in ear sensitivities. The results indicate best hearing pathways may vary between the Risso's dolphin and other odontocetes measured. This animal received sound well, supporting a proposed throat pathway. For Risso's dolphins in particular, good ventral hearing would support their acoustic ecology by facilitating echo-detection from their proposed downward oriented echolocation beam.

  8. The Maturation of Skulls in Postnatal Risso’s Dolphins (Grampus griseus from Taiwanese Waters

    Ing Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fusion between bones is a useful indicator of skeletal and sexual maturity for cetacean specimens preserved in museum collections. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to examine the degree of fusion between bony elements in skulls of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus Cuvier, 1812 from Taiwanese waters; and second, to analyze the relationship between skull maturity, body length, sexual maturity, and estimated age, with the aim of determining a useful skull predictor for maturity in Risso’s dolphins. The stage of fusion of 20 superficial sutures or joints between selected skull bones was examined on 33 clean, dry skulls, which were salvaged from stranded or bycaught dead Risso’s dolphins in Taiwanese waters during the years of 1994 – 2001. The bones of the caudoventral braincase fused early in development (basioccipital-exoccipital synchondrosis, supraoccipital- exoccipital suture, whereas fusion along the nuchal crest (fronto-interparietal and fronto-parietal sutures occurred later. Some sutures remained open in some adult specimens (lacrimal/maxilla-frontal, squamosal-parietal, squamosal-exoccipital sutures, and the intermandibular symphysis. Bilateral asymmetry of the fusion process was not detected. Advanced fusion occurred in the fronto-interparietal suture along the medial aspect of the nuchal crest, and in the rostral nasal-frontal and distal maxilla-incisive sutures at total body length > 250 cm, and may be useful skull indicators of sexual maturity.

  9. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.

    Itsumi Nakamura

    Full Text Available We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes, indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats.

  10. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus in Thailand.

    Jaruwan Khonmee

    Full Text Available Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi, an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females; and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS, a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05. Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal (p<0.05. Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species.

  11. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats.

  12. Cucullanus pargi sp. n. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus off the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    González-Solís, David; Tuz-Paredes, Vielka M; Quintal-Loria, Miguel A

    2007-09-01

    A new nematode species, Cucullanus pargi sp. n., is described from the intestine and pyloric caeca of the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus), off the southern Quintana Roo coast, Mexico. This species shows similar morphological features as cucullanids occurring in marine and brackish-water fishes; however, it differs from all other species in the length of spicules, arrangement and number of caudal papillae, position of the excretory pore and deirids. Cucullanus pargi is the third species of this genus described from fishes in Mexico and the second one from Mexican marine fishes.

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in maricultured fish, Lates calcarifer (Barramudi), Lutjanus campechanus (red snapper) and Lutjanus griseus (grey snapper).

    Nasyitah Sobihah, Nasri; Ahmad Zaharin, Aris; Khairul Nizam, Mohammad; Ley Juen, Looi; Kyoung-Woong, Kim

    2018-04-01

    Mariculture fish contains a rich source of protein, but some species may bioaccumulate high levels of heavy metals, making them unsafe for consumption. This study aims to identify heavy metal concentration in Lates calcarifer (Barramudi), Lutjanus campechanus (Red snapper) and Lutjanus griseus (Grey snapper). Three species of mariculture fish, namely, L. calcarifer, L. campechanus and L. griseus were collected for analyses of heavy metals. The concentration of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) was determined using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution of heavy metals mean concentration in muscle is Zn > Fe > As > Se > Cr > Cu > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd for L. calcarifer, Fe > Zn > Cr > As > Ni > Mn > Se > Cu > Pb > Cd for L. campechanus and Fe > Zn > Cr > Ni > Se > Cu > As > Mn > Pb > Cd for L. griseus. Among all of the species under investigation, the highest concentration of Fe was found in the muscle tissue of L. campechanus (19.985 ± 1.773 mg kg -1 ) and liver tissue of L. griseus (58.248 ± 8.736 mg kg -1 ). Meanwhile, L. calcarifer has the lowest concentration of Cd in both muscle (0.007 ± 0.004 mg kg -1 ) and liver tissue (0.027 ± 0.016 mg kg -1 ). The heavy metal concentration in muscle tissue is below the permissible limit guidelines stipulated by the Food & Agriculture Organization, 1983 and Malaysia Food Act, 1983. The concentration of heavy metals varies significantly among fish species and tissues. L. campechanus was found to have a higher ability to accumulate heavy metals as compared to the other two species (p heavy metals compared to muscle tissue (p heavy metal concentration in mariculture fish must be performed to prevent acute and chronic food intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeled prevalance of seabirds and relative abundance of cetaceans in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 1980-04-01 to 1988-10-01 (NCEI Accession 0130025)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a compilation of modeled seabird prevalence predictions for a selection of species including Razorbill (Alca torda), Greater Shearwater (Puffinus...

  15. A large inversion in the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus caused by replicative transposition of a new Tn3 family transposon.

    Murata, M; Uchida, T; Yang, Y; Lezhava, A; Kinashi, H

    2011-04-01

    We have comprehensively analyzed the linear chromosomes of Streptomyces griseus mutants constructed and kept in our laboratory. During this study, macrorestriction analysis of AseI and DraI fragments of mutant 402-2 suggested a large chromosomal inversion. The junctions of chromosomal inversion were cloned and sequenced and compared with the corresponding target sequences in the parent strain 2247. Consequently, a transposon-involved mechanism was revealed. Namely, a transposon originally located at the left target site was replicatively transposed to the right target site in an inverted direction, which generated a second copy and at the same time caused a 2.5-Mb chromosomal inversion. The involved transposon named TnSGR was grouped into a new subfamily of the resolvase-encoding Tn3 family transposons based on its gene organization. At the end, terminal diversity of S. griseus chromosomes is discussed by comparing the sequences of strains 2247 and IFO13350.

  16. A report of an aquatic beetle Eretes griseus (Fabricius, 1781 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Dytiscinae: Eretini from the Western Ghats and other parts of Maharashtra, India

    Sayali D. Sheth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This note is the first authentic record of the dytiscid species Eretes griseus (Fabricius, 1781 from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. It was found only from three localities (essentially isolated temporary pools out of 50+ localities sampled so far in the year 2013-2014. We provide light microscopic images of the habitus, SEM images of important diagnostic characteristics and also clarify the status and distribution of this species in India. 

  17. Lack of A-factor production induces the expression of nutrient scavenging and stress-related proteins in Streptomyces griseus.

    Birkó, Zsuzsanna; Swiatek, Magdalena; Szájli, Emília; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Vijgenboom, Erik; Penyige, András; Keseru, Judit; van Wezel, Gilles P; Biró, Sándor

    2009-10-01

    The small gamma-butyrolactone A-factor is an important autoregulatory signaling molecule for the soil-inhabiting streptomycetes. Starvation is a major trigger for development, and nutrients are provided by degradation of the vegetative mycelium via a process of programmed cell death, reusing proteins, nucleic acids, and cell wall material. The A-factor regulon includes many extracellular hydrolases. Here we show via proteomics analysis that many nutrient-scavenging and stress-related proteins were overexpressed in an A-factor non-producing mutant of Streptomyces griseus B-2682. Transcript analysis showed that this is primarily due to differential transcription of the target genes during early development. The targets include proteins relating to nutrient stress and environmental stress and an orthologue of the Bacillus sporulation control protein Spo0M. The enhanced expression of these proteins underlines the stress that is generated by the absence of A-factor. Wild-type developmental gene expression was restored to the A-factor non-producing mutant by the signaling protein Factor C in line with our earlier observation that Factor C triggers A-factor production.

  18. Uso, manejo y conservación de Stenocereus griseus (Haworth Buxb. en la Alta Guajira colombiana

    Soraya Villalobos Hernández

    2006-07-01

    categorías de daño, de las cuales las más importantes son las ocasionadas por corte con machete (tipo I, insectos (Tipo II y cabras (Tipo III. El uso actual de Stenocereus griseus se restringe a la colecta de la madera seca (“yotojoro” para construcción de viviendas tradicionales en la cultura Wayuu; la colecta de frutos en temporada de cosecha y la cosecha de tallos jóvenes para alimento de cabras y cercas vivas. La demanda anual de “yotojoro” está sujeta a la necesidad de construcción de los habitantes del área, que es definida como ocasional. El método actual de cosecha y extracción del mismo no está generando desequilibrio local en el mantenimiento de la especie. La demanda de cardones para cercas vivas y pastoreo es constante durante todo el año y generan el mayor impacto de daño. Finalmente, se discuten los principales problemas de conservación de la especie, y se recomienda establecer alternativas de manejo para las actividades de pastoreo, dado que con el ritmo actual de extracción, la población de cactus está expuesta a una inminente disminución local.

  19. Observations on abundance of bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, in an urban waterway in Puget Sound, 2003-2005.

    Griffing, Denise; Larson, Shawn; Hollander, Joel; Carpenter, Tim; Christiansen, Jeff; Doss, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus, is a widely distributed but poorly understood large, apex predator. Anecdotal reports of diver-shark encounters in the late 1990's and early 2000's in the Pacific Northwest stimulated interest in the normally deep-dwelling shark and its presence in the shallow waters of Puget Sound. Analysis of underwater video documenting sharks at the Seattle Aquarium's sixgill research site in Elliott Bay and mark-resight techniques were used to answer research questions about abundance and seasonality. Seasonal changes in relative abundance in Puget Sound from 2003-2005 are reported here. At the Seattle Aquarium study site, 45 sixgills were tagged with modified Floy visual marker tags, along with an estimated 197 observations of untagged sharks plus 31 returning tagged sharks, for a total of 273 sixgill observations recorded. A mark-resight statistical model based on analysis of underwater video estimated a range of abundance from a high of 98 sharks seen in July of 2004 to a low of 32 sharks seen in March of 2004. Both analyses found sixgills significantly more abundant in the summer months at the Seattle Aquarium's research station.

  20. Morfometría externa y reparto de recursos en zorros simpátricos (Pseudalopex culpaeus y P. griseus) en el sureste de la Patagonia Argentina

    Zapata, Sonia C.; Procopio, Diego E.; Martínez-Peck, Rolando; Zanón, Juan I.; Travaini, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Estudios previos han demostrado que el tamaño corporal de zorros grises o chillas (Pseudalopex griseus) y colorados o culpeos (P. culpaeus) es similar en alopatría, y que en simpatría se produce una divergencia en el tamaño de ambos zorros. El aumento en la diferencia del tamaño corporal entre las dos especies hacia la porción más austral de su distribución (Patagonia Argentina y sur de Chile) permitiría una especialización hacia diferentes recursos favoreciendo su coexistencia. Sin embargo, ...

  1. L-Asparaginase from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29: optimization of process variables using factorial designs and molecular characterization of L-asparaginase gene

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Vijaya Raghavan, Rangamaran; Dharani, Gopal; Valsalan Vinithkumar, Nambali; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-07-01

    Marine actinobacteria are known to be a rich source for novel metabolites with diverse biological activities. In this study, a potential extracellular L-asparaginase was characterised from the Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29. Box-Behnken based optimization was used to determine the culture medium components to enhance the L-asparaginase production. pH, starch, yeast extract and L-asparagine has a direct correlation for enzyme production with a maximum yield of 56.78 IU mL-1. A verification experiment was performed to validate the experiment and more than 99% validity was established. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 and the enzyme production was increased threefold (123 IU mL-1) over the native strain. The ansA gene sequences reported in this study encloses several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein.

  2. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  3. Descripción de la dieta del zorro gris, Pseudalopex griseus (Canidae) (Gray, 1869), en el Parque Nacional Sierra de las quijadas, San Luis, Argentina

    Núñez, María Beatriz; Bozzolo, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    La dieta de Pseudalopex griseus (Gray, 1869) fue estudiada mediante el análisis de heces recolectadas en el Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas. El parque representa un ambiente semiárido, con regímenes hídricos estacionalmente marcados. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el ítem más abundante durante todo el año es el Orden Coleoptera (estación seca 26%; estación húmeda 31%). En la estación seca, el ítem más abundante fueron las cactáceas (12%) y en la húmeda las leguminosas (25%). Otr...

  4. Carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 enrichment in coastal forest foliage from nutrient-poor and seabird-enriched sites in southern New Zealand

    Hawke, D.J.; Newman, J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of nutrient inputs from breeding seabirds on forest foliage δ 13 C and δ 15 N, we collected foliage samples from two contrasting locations. Olearia lyallii forest on North East Island at The Snares hosts large numbers of (in particular) breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus). At Mason Bay (Rakiura/Stewart Island), samples of Brachyglottis rotundifolia, Griselinia littoralis, and Dracophyllum longifolium were collected from two strata within diverse dune forest and one stratum from the open dunes. The δ 13 C results were typical of C 3 plants and did not differ significantly between Mason Bay and North East Island. In contrast, the δ 15 N results from Mason Bay (mean ± standard deviation, -6.1 ± 1.7 permille) were significantly lower than expected for temperate forest (95% confidence interval of difference, 2.7-3.9 permille), and dramatically lower (19.1-21.5 permille) than North East Island where enrichments (+14.2 ± 3.1 permille) were among the highest ever reported for vegetation. (author). 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. A possible early muttonbirder's fire on Poutama, a Rakiura titi island, New Zealand

    Hawke, D.; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Wixon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Muttonbirding for sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) on islands around Rakiura is an ongoing traditional activity of local Maori. There is little archaeological evidence to pinpoint the onset of large-scale birding, so some researchers have suggested that widespread systematic muttonbirding only began in protohistoric times. We present AMS radiocarbon data from an archaeological fire found 65 cm subsurface on Poutama, an island off Rakiura. Duplicate analyses of charcoal and a single analysis of underlying peat were used to date the fire, constrained by C accumulation calculations and chemical and isotopic analysis. By comparing C:N ratios and C accumulation calculations with literature values, the peat result (176 ± 55 BP) was shown to be invalid because of contamination via bioturbation. The combined charcoal radiocarbon data were consistent with being estimates of a single value (326 ± 42 BP). After calibration, the fire was dated at AD 1470-1660 (95% confidence interval). Carbon-13 analysis was consistent with charcoal from different individual plants. The C accumulation rate (61-96 g C m -2 yr -1 ) was at the upper end of literature values, consistent with a high nutrient and well-oxygenated soil environment. Our results highlight the need for more systematic data collection and experimentation to better assess the time of onset of systematic muttonbirding. (author). 46 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Comparative ecotoxicity of potential biofuels to water flea (Daphnia magna), zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) V79 cells.

    Heger, Sebastian; Du, Miaomiao; Bauer, Kevin; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2018-08-01

    The ecotoxicity of two biofuel candidates (1‑octanol and 2‑butanone) was investigated by an integrative test strategy using three bioassays: the acute immobilisation test with water flea (D. magna), the fish embryo acute toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the in vitro micronucleus assay with Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) V79 cells. The median effective concentration (EC 50 ) values were 14.9±0.66mgL -1 for 1‑octanol, and 2152.1±44.6mgL -1 for 2‑butanone in the D. magna test. Both 1‑octanol and 2‑butanone caused teratogenic and lethal effects on zebrafish embryos, while exposure to 1‑octanol significantly induced these effects at concentrations ≥2.0mgL -1 . These results indicate that 1‑octanol exert much higher ecotoxicity than 2‑butanone to D. magna and zebrafish embryos. Moreover, both 1‑octanol and 2‑butanone did not cause significant genotoxic effects, while their metabolites significantly induced micronuclei in V79 cells. The present study proposed an integrative test approach to evaluate the potential ecotoxicity of biofuels using simple, quick and inexpensive bioassays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bio-Physical Coupling of Seabirds and Prey with a Dynamic River Plume

    Phillips, E. M.; Horne, J. K.; Zamon, J. E.; Adams, J.

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater plumes and plume density fronts are important regions of bio-physical coupling. On the west coast of North America, discharge from the Columbia River into the northern California Current creates a large, dynamic plume and multiple plume fronts. These nutrient-rich, productive waters fuel primary and secondary production, supporting a wide variety of small pelagic prey fish, large populations of Pacific salmon, seabirds, and marine mammals. To determine the influence of the Columbia River plume on marine predators, we analyzed at-sea seabird counts, in situ environmental data, surface trawl densities of prey fish, and acoustic backscatter measurements collected from research vessels in May and June 2010-2012. Concurrent distribution patterns of satellite-tagged sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) and common murres (Uria aalge) were compared with seabird counts from ship surveys. To evaluate plume use by satellite-tagged birds, daily surface salinity values from SELFE hindcast models were extracted at each tag location. Both seabird species occurred in plume waters disproportionate to the total surveyed area, concentrating in the river plume when river flow and plume volume decreased. Murres were consistently within 20 km of the geographic mean center of the river plume. In contrast, shearwaters consistently occurred 100 km to the north of the plume center, where high densities of prey fish occur. Although acoustically detected prey also occurred in greater densities within the plume when volume decreased, surface catches of prey in the plume did not vary with changing plume conditions. Geographic indices of colocation (GIC) were low between murres and prey species caught in surface trawls, whereas GICs were >0.5 between shearwaters and prey species including squid (Loligo opalescens), juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon. We conclude that the river plume and associated fronts are identifiable, predictable, and

  8. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi).

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L

    2011-09-01

    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  9. Capacidad protectora de myrciaria dubia "camu camu" ante el daño genético inducido por estrés oxidativo, evaluado in vitro, en la línea celular de ovario de "hámster chino" cricetulus griseus e in vivo drosophila melanogaster “mosca de la fruta”

    Gutierrez Bustamante, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that carcinogen and mutagens act through oxidatives mechanisms that they damage to the DNA, in this research we evaluate the protective capacity of Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” in vitro in an system constituted by cellular line CHO - K1 of ovary of hamster chinese Cricetulus griseus as well as in a system in vivo with Drosophila melanogaster. For test the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity in vitro we used the aberrations chromosomal Test (AC) we used “camu camu” 3 doses (1,0;...

  10. Occurrence of plastic particles in procellariiforms, south of São Paulo state (Brazil

    Edison Barbieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds ingest plastic particles floating on the surface of the world's oceans. The birds can ingest plastic particles that they mistakenly identify as prey items. Alternatively, plastics can be taken up in the stomach contents of prey species. Plastic is often passed from parents to chicks in regurgitated food. In this study, individual petrels and albatrosses brought in by the tide onto Ilha Comprida beach between January 2000 and December 2002 were collected. Ilha Comprida, a barrier island in southern São Paulo, Brazil, was traversed by car along a transect of 70 kilometers. A total of 110 birds of 10 species were collected and 64.54% had plastic particles in their stomach. Frequencies of occurrence were Macronectes giganteus (64.28%, Thalassarche melanophrys (73.07%, Thalassarche chlororhinchos (44.44%, Puffinus puffinus (85.71%, Puffinus gravis (7.41%, Puffinus griseus (63.63%, Fumarus glacialoides (33.33%, Daption capensis (75%, Pachyptila belcheri (33.33%, Procellaria aequinoctialis (25%. These results demonstrated the extent of contamination with plastic and the possible harmful effects on seabirds.As aves marinhas ingerem partículas plásticas que ficam flutuando na superfície dos oceanos. Estes animais podem ingerir as partículas plásticas confundindo com as presas. Alternativamente os plásticos podem vir de presas, as quais os contêm em seus estômagos. Os plásticos podem ainda, serem passados dos pais para os ninhegos, quando regurgitam o alimento. Neste trabalho foram coletados indivíduos de petréis e albatrozes ao longo da praia da Ilha Comprida entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Para tanto a Ilha Comprida, uma ilha de barreira situada no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, foi percorrida de carro ao longo de um transecção de 70 quilômetros.Foram coletados 110 indivíduos de aves de 10 espécies, das quais 64.54% continham partículas plásticas em seus estômagos. As Freqüências de ocorrências foram

  11. Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans.

    Ryan, Peter G

    2008-08-01

    I compare plastic ingested by five species of seabirds sampled in the 1980s and again in 1999-2006. The numbers of ingested plastic particles have not changed significantly, but the proportion of virgin pellets has decreased 44-79% in all five species: great shearwater Puffinus gravis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata, white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina and white-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria. The populations sampled range widely in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. The most marked reduction occurred in great shearwaters, where the average number of pellets per bird decreased from 10.5 to 1.6. This species migrates between the South and North Atlantic each year. Similar decreases in virgin pellets have been recorded in short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris in the Pacific Ocean and northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. More data are needed on the relationship between plastic loads in seabirds and the density of plastic at sea in their foraging areas, but the consistent decrease in pellets in birds suggests there has been a global change in the composition of small plastic debris at sea over the last two decades.

  12. Accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals in tissues of seabirds ingesting marine plastics.

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2013-04-15

    We analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in abdominal adipose of oceanic seabirds (short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris) collected in northern North Pacific Ocean. In 3 of 12 birds, we detected higher-brominated congeners (viz., BDE209 and BDE183), which are not present in the natural prey (pelagic fish) of the birds. The same compounds were present in plastic found in the stomachs of the 3 birds. These data suggested the transfer of plastic-derived chemicals from ingested plastics to the tissues of marine-based organisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of marine debris in marine birds from the North Atlantic.

    Provencher, Jennifer F; Bond, Alexander L; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Courchesne, Sarah J; Gilchrist, H Grant; Jamieson, Sarah E; Merkel, Flemming R; Falk, Knud; Durinck, Jan; Mallory, Mark L

    2014-07-15

    Marine birds have been found to ingest plastic debris in many of the world's oceans. Plastic accumulation data from necropsies findings and regurgitation studies are presented on 13 species of marine birds in the North Atlantic, from Georgia, USA to Nunavut, Canada and east to southwest Greenland and the Norwegian Sea. Of the species examined, the two surface plungers (great shearwaters Puffinus gravis; northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of ingested plastic (71% and 51%, respectively). Great shearwaters also had the most pieces of plastics in their stomachs, with some individuals containing as many of 36 items. Seven species contained no evidence of plastic debris. Reporting of baseline data as done here is needed to ensure that data are available for marine birds over time and space scales in which we see changes in historical debris patterns in marine environments (i.e. decades) and among oceanographic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zincophorin – biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus and antibiotic properties

    Walther, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zincophorin is a polyketide antibiotic that possesses potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including human pathogens. While a number of total syntheses of this highly functionalized natural product were reported since its initial discovery, the genetic basis for the biosynthesis of zincophorin has remained unclear. In this study, the co-linearity inherent to polyketide pathways was used to identify the zincophorin biosynthesis gene cluster in the genome of the natural producer HKI 0741. Interestingly, the same locus is fully conserved in the streptomycin-producing actinomycete IFO 13350, suggesting that the latter bacterium is also capable of zincophorin biosynthesis. Biological profiling of zincophorin revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of the Gram-positive bacterium . The antibacterial effect, however, is accompanied by cytotoxicity. Antibiotic and cytotoxic activities were completely abolished upon esterification of the carboxylic acid group in zincophorin.

  15. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging tropical pelagic seabirds

    Work, Thierry M.

    1996-01-01

    I established reference values for weight, hematology, and serum chemistry for seven species of free-ranging Hawaiian tropical pelagic seabirds comprising three orders (Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes) and six families (Procellariidae, Phaethontidae, Diomedeidae, Sulidae, Fregatidae, and Laridae). Species examined included 84 Hawaiian dark-rumped petrels (Pterodoma phaeopygia), 90 wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), 151 Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis), 69 red-footed boobies (Sula sula), 154 red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda), 90 great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), and 72 sooty terns (Sterna fuscata). Hematocrit, total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Among and within species, hematology and chemistry values varied with age, sex, season, and island of collection. Despite this variation, order-wide trends were observed.

  16. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird.

    Shoji, A; Aris-Brosou, S; Culina, A; Fayet, A; Kirk, H; Padget, O; Juarez-Martinez, I; Boyle, D; Nakata, T; Perrins, C M; Guilford, T

    2015-10-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Behavioural mapping of a pelagic seabird: combining multiple sensors and a hidden Markov model reveals the distribution of at-sea behaviour

    Dean, Ben; Freeman, Robin; Kirk, Holly; Leonard, Kerry; Phillips, Richard A.; Perrins, Chris M.; Guilford, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The use of miniature data loggers is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movements and habitat preferences of pelagic seabirds. However, objectively interpreting behavioural information from the large volumes of highly detailed data collected by such devices can be challenging. We combined three biologging technologies—global positioning system (GPS), saltwater immersion and time–depth recorders—to build a detailed picture of the at-sea behaviour of the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) during the breeding season. We used a hidden Markov model to explore discrete states within the combined GPS and immersion data, and found that behaviour could be organized into three principal activities representing (i) sustained direct flight, (ii) sitting on the sea surface, and (iii) foraging, comprising tortuous flight interspersed with periods of immersion. The additional logger data verified that the foraging activity corresponded well to the occurrence of diving. Applying this approach to a large tracking dataset revealed that birds from two different colonies foraged in local waters that were exclusive, but overlapped in one key area: the Irish Sea Front (ISF). We show that the allocation of time to each activity differed between colonies, with birds breeding furthest from the ISF spending the greatest proportion of time engaged in direct flight and the smallest proportion of time engaged in foraging activity. This type of analysis has considerable potential for application in future biologging studies and in other taxa. PMID:23034356

  18. Remotely sensed wind speed predicts soaring behaviour in a wide-ranging pelagic seabird.

    Gibb, Rory; Shoji, Akiko; Fayet, Annette L; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2017-07-01

    Global wind patterns affect flight strategies in many birds, including pelagic seabirds, many of which use wind-powered soaring to reduce energy costs during at-sea foraging trips and migration. Such long-distance movement patterns are underpinned by local interactions between wind conditions and flight behaviour, but these fine-scale relationships are far less well understood. Here we show that remotely sensed ocean wind speed and direction are highly significant predictors of soaring behaviour in a migratory pelagic seabird, the Manx shearwater ( Puffinus puffinus ). We used high-frequency GPS tracking data (10 Hz) and statistical behaviour state classification to identify two energetic modes in at-sea flight, corresponding to flap-like and soar-like flight. We show that soaring is significantly more likely to occur in tailwinds and crosswinds above a wind speed threshold of around 8 m s -1 , suggesting that these conditions enable birds to reduce metabolic costs by preferentially soaring over flapping. Our results suggest a behavioural mechanism by which wind conditions may shape foraging and migration ecology in pelagic seabirds, and thus indicate that shifts in wind patterns driven by climate change could impact this and other species. They also emphasize the emerging potential of high-frequency GPS biologgers to provide detailed quantitative insights into fine-scale flight behaviour in free-living animals. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been st...

  1. The sixgill shark Hexanchus griseus is one of the most common ...

    denise

    2002-11-01

    Pisces, Selachii) de Angola. Notas Cent. Biol. Aquat. Trop., Lisboa 32: 1–23. SPRINGER, S. 1967 — Social organization of shark populations. In Sharks, Skates, and Rays. Gilbert, P. W., Mathewson, R. F. and D. P. Rall (Eds).

  2. Production of vitamin B12 and labeled vitamin B12 by Streptomyces griseus

    Mazaheri Tehrani, M.; Ghorbanzadeh Mashkani, S.; Tajer Mohammad Ghazvini, P.; Nazari, A.; Aflakee, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of labeled vitamin B 12 with one strain of actinomycet in a novel synthetic medium by batch fermentation method was investigated. After releasing vitamin B 12 from microbial cells, the solution containing cobalamin analogues was fixed on amberlite XAD-4 exchanger and eluted by various solutions. Vitamin B 12 in the collected fractions were measured by HPLC method and also in order to confirm the existence of cobalamin compounds in the samples, TLC technique was used. In the optimal conditions, production of vitamin B 12 by this microorganism was 1456μg/1. The best recoveries of vitamin B 12 from the column were obtained when the column was eluted by ethanol followed by acetone. The R f , values for cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin, produced by this microorganism were the same as the standard values of R f . The desorption of labeled vitamine B 12 was carried out by different eluants, including acetone, ethanol (absolute), ethanol 25% and deionized water. The activity of labeled vitamin B 12 was 8.55, 6.90, 0.79, 5.75 Bq/ml, respectively. Therefore, the total specific activity of 21.99 Bq/ml was obtained for labeled vitamin B 12 .

  3. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus at a Bait Station.

    Bryan McNeil

    Full Text Available This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species' worldwide distribution and evolutionary success.

  4. Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): aerial seabird and marine mammal surveys off northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Mason, John W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    counted (19,033) with Common Murres (Uria aalge) representing the majority of individuals counted (70.4% of total). The remaining six most abundant taxa included: Surf/White-winged Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata/M. fusca; 4.8% of total), Herring/Thayer’s Gulls (Larus argentatus/L. thayeri; 3.8% of total), Cassin’s Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus; 3.8% of total), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens; 3.7% of total), Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla; 2.0% of total), and Western Gulls (Larus occidentalis; 1.9% of total). During summer, five species comprised >95% of the total number of birds counted (17,063) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (54.1% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus; 34.4% of total). The remaining most abundant three taxa included: Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 3.3% of total), Western Gulls (2.1% of total), and Leach’s Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa; 1.1% of total). During fall, nine species comprised >85% of the total number of birds counted (23,376) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (50.0% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (10.5% of total). The remaining seven taxa included Cassin’s Auklets (5.2% of total), Surf/White-winged Scoters (5.1% of total), Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (3.8% of total), Red/Red-necked Phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius/P. lobatus; 3.2% of total), California Gulls (Larus californicus; 3.1% of total), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis; 2.7% of total), and Sabine’s Gulls (Xema sabini; 2.2% of total). Throughout the entire PaCSEA survey area, average densities (± SE) at sea for all marine birds combined were similar between fall (23.7 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and winter (24.0 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and least during summer (16.3 ± 2.2 birds km-2). Marine bird densities at sea varied according to bathymetric domain and season. Throughout the entire PaCSEA study area average densities (± SE) for all marine birds combined were greatest over the inner-shelf domain

  5. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  6. Isotopic characterization of flight feathers in two pelagic seabirds: Sampling strategies for ecological studies

    Wiley, Anne E.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Stricker, Craig A.; James, Helen F.; Gandhi, Hasand

    2010-01-01

    We wish to use stable-isotope analysis of flight feathers to understand the feeding behavior of pelagic seabirds, such as the Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) and Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli). Analysis of remiges is particularly informative because the sequence and timing of remex molt are often known. The initial step, reported here, is to obtain accurate isotope values from whole remiges by means of a minimally invasive protocol appropriate for live birds or museum specimens. The high variability observed in D13C and D15N values within a feather precludes the use of a small section of vane. We found the average range within 42 Hawaiian Petrel remiges to be 1.3‰ for both D13C and D15N and that within 10 Newell’s Shearwater remiges to be 1.3‰ and 0.7‰ for D13C and D15N, respectively. The D13C of all 52 feathers increased from tip to base, and the majority of Hawaiian Petrel feathers showed an analogous trend in D15N. Although the average range of DD in 21 Hawaiian Petrel remiges was 11‰, we found no longitudinal trend. We discuss influences of trophic level, foraging location, metabolism, and pigmentation on isotope values and compare three methods of obtaining isotope averages of whole feathers. Our novel barb-sampling protocol requires only 1.0 mg of feather and minimal preparation time. Because it leaves the feather nearly intact, this protocol will likely facilitate obtaining isotope values from remiges of live birds and museum specimens. As a consequence, it will help expand the understanding of historical trends in foraging behavior

  7. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  8. The distribution of seabirds and fish in relation to ocean currents in the southeastern Chukchi Sea

    Piatt, John F.; Wells, John L.; MacCharles, Andrea; Fadely, Brian S.; Montevecchi, W.A.; Gaston, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late August 1988, we studied the distribution of seabirds in the southeastern Chukchi Sea, particularly in waters near a major seabird colony at Cape Thompson. Foraging areas were characterized using hydrographic data obtained from hydroacoustic surveys for fish. Murres (Uria spp.) and Black-legged Kitttiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding at Cape Thompson fed mostly on Arctic cod, which are known from previous studies to be the most abundant pelagic fish in the region. Our hydroacoustic surveys revealed that pelagic fish were distributed widely, but densities were estimated to be low (e.g., 0.1-10 g∙m-3) throughout the study area and a few schools were recorded. Large feeding flocks of murres and kittiwakes were observed over fish schools with densities estimated to exceed 15 g∙m-3. Fish densities were higher in shallow Alaska Coastal Current waters than offshore in Bering Sea waters, and most piscivorous seabirds foraged in coastal waters. Poor kittiwake breeding success and a low frequency of fish in murre and kittiwake stomachs in late August suggested that fish densities were marginal for sustaining breeding seabirds at that time. Planktivorous Least Auklets Aethia pusilla and Parakeet Auklets Cyclorrhynchus psittacula foraged almost exclusively in Bering Sea waters. Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris and Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata foraged in transitional waters at the front between Coastal and Bering Sea currents.

  9. Status and distribution of migrating and breeding marine birds in north Lebanon

    Jarade, Gh.R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of marine birds in the northern part of Lebanon recorded 2681 individuals, distributed over 86 species. Among them 35 are foreshore species, 18 coastal, 6 maritime, 9 ducks, 6 herons, 9 various saltwater related species and 3 terrestrial. The highest density is shown by the yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis and common blackheaded gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. The globally vulnerable yelkouan shearwater Puffinus yelkouan, an endemic species to the Mediterranean, appears on the 9th rank in the classification of seabird species from the more to the least abundant, highlighting as such, beside other 6 globally near threatened species, the role that Lebanon can play in improving the conservation status of these species. Regarding the phenological status of species, 48 are passage migrant/winter visitors, 31 passage migrants, 5 winter visitors and 2 vagrant species. The surveys revealed that three coastal seabird species (Armenian gull Larus armenicus, slender-billed gull Chroicocephalus genei and sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis) and one ubiquist species (Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria) are not rare as it was believed in previous papers but fairly common winter visitors. The study identified the yellow-legged gull breeding population to be 160 couples, and confirmed the second and third breeding records of the little ringed plover Charadrius dubius.(author)

  10. A Review of Plastic-Associated Pressures: Cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Australian Shearwaters as Case Studies

    Maria Cristina Fossi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of debris on marine fauna occur throughout the marine ecosystems, with adverse impacts documented on over 1,400 species; impacts can be divided into those arising from entanglement, and those from ingestion. Ingestion of, and entanglement in, debris has been documented in over 60% of all cetacean species. Seabirds are also impacted by debris predominately through entanglement and ingestion, with the number of species negatively impacted increasing from 138 to 174 over the past two decades. In the marine environment, cetaceans and seabirds are widely regarded as reliable sentinels due to their position near the top of the marine food web, conspicuous nature, and reliance on marine resources; for this reason, this paper is focused on seabirds and cetaceans as sentinels of ocean change. In particular, two case studies are considered in relation to different levels of environmental anthropogenic impact: the cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea and seabirds of eastern Australia. Here we describe two recent studies used to diagnose the toxicological stress related to debris-associated pressures in cetaceans and seabirds. These studies highlight the diversity and scale of impacts being felt by marine species and the role these organisms can play in our society as charismatic sentinels of ocean health. Seabirds and marine mammals are exposed, in these key areas, to a variety of adversities that potentially decrease their survival or reproductive success. These include weather, food shortages, predators, competitors, parasites, disease, and human-induced effects and plastic pollution. Each factor affects seabirds and marine mammals in a different way, but more importantly, factors can also interact and create impacts far greater than any one factor alone. The Australian and Mediterranean case studies presented here emphasize the need to consider multiple sources of mortality when developing management plans for the conservation of vulnerable species.

  11. Neonatal oocyte development and selective oocyte-killing by X-rays in the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus

    Tateno, H.; Mikamo, K. (Asahikawa Medical Coll. (Japan). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1984-02-01

    The process of ovarian development in neonatal Chinese hamsters aged between 0 and 16 days was studied histologically and quantitatively in both a non-irradiated group and an irradiated group. In the latter, ovaries were exposed to a single dose of 1 Gy X-rays on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after birth. All oocytes on day 0 were at pachytene, and nearly all of them seemed to develop to dictyate by day 10. A quantitative analysis of age-dependent changes in the distribution of oocytes showed that a marked spontaneous degeneration of oocytes took place twice, i.e. during pachytene (day 0 to day 4) and dictyate (day 12 to day 14). Oocytes of this species were found to be very radioresistant at pachytene, but to become sharply sensitive during the phases between diplotene and early dictyate, suffering an almost complete oocyte-killing after 1 Gy. However, they recovered radioresistance after the onset of the resting stage. The changing aspects of radiosensitivity in the Chinese hamster were shown to be far more marked than in the mouse and the rat, which have been observed by previous investigators.

  12. tmRNA Abundance in Streptomyces aureofaciens, S. griseus and S. collinus under Stress-Inducing Conditions

    Palečková, Petra; Felsberg, Jürgen; Bobek, Jan; Mikulík, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2007), s. 463-470 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces aureofaciens * tmrna * tetracycline Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  13. tmRNA of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces griseus during the growth and in the presence of antibiotics

    Palečková, Petra; Bobek, Jan; Mikulík, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2009), s. 114-122 ISSN 1751-7907 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0106; GA ČR GA310/07/1009 Grant - others:XE(XE) EC Integrated project ActinoGEN LSHM-2004-005224 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : tmrna * antibiotics * protein synthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Carry-over effects on the annual cycle of a migratory seabird: an experimental study.

    Fayet, Annette L; Freeman, Robin; Shoji, Akiko; Kirk, Holly L; Padget, Oliver; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. Here we investigate carry-over effects induced by a controlled, bidirectional manipulation of the duration of reproductive effort on the migratory, wintering and subsequent breeding behaviour of a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus. By cross-fostering chicks of different age between nests, we successfully prolonged or shortened by ∼25% the chick-rearing period of 42 breeding pairs. We tracked the adults with geolocators over the subsequent year and combined migration route data with at-sea activity budgets obtained from high-resolution saltwater-immersion data. Migratory behaviour was also recorded during non-experimental years (the year before and/or two years after manipulation) for a subset of birds, allowing comparison between experimental and non-experimental years within treatment groups. All birds cared for chicks until normal fledging age, resulting in birds with a longer breeding period delaying their departure on migration; however, birds that finished breeding earlier did not start migrating earlier. Increased reproductive effort resulted in less time spent at the wintering grounds, a reduction in time spent resting daily and a delayed start of breeding with lighter eggs and chicks and lower breeding success the following breeding season. Conversely, reduced reproductive effort resulted in more time resting and less time foraging during the winter, but a similar breeding phenology and success compared with control birds the following year, suggesting that

  15. Marine bird abundance around the Pribilof Islands: A multi-year comparison

    Jahncke, Jaime; Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Decker, Mary Beth; Hunt, George L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We examined trends in the abundance and distribution of 12 species of marine birds around the Pribilof Islands, southeastern Bering Sea, over the period from 1977 to 2004. We contrasted patterns among piscivores and planktivores and related these to known and hypothesized changes in the abundance and distribution of prey in the vicinity of the islands. Planktivorous and piscivorous species of marine birds showed different patterns of abundance over time. Planktivorous seabirds that breed away from the Pribilof Islands (e.g., short-tailed shearwaters [ Puffinus tenuirostris], fork-tailed storm-petrels [ Oceanodroma furcata] and red phalaropes [ Phalaropus fulicarius]) were scarce in the 1970s, were abundant in the 1980s, and declined in abundance in the 1990s and from 1999 to 2004. Planktivorous alcids combined (parakeet [ Aethia psittacula], crested [ A. cristatella] and least [ A. pusilla]) that breed on the Pribilof Islands showed a similar remarkable four-fold increase from the 1970s to the 1980s, but then a small increase into the 1990s followed by a rapid decline in the 2000s to numbers similar to those present during the 1970s. The abundance of piscivores kittiwakes ( Rissa spp.) and murres ( Una spp.) was high in the 1970s and declined through the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. In 1999 and 2004, the total number of all seabirds at sea around the Pribilof Islands was well below the numbers seen at any other survey period. We hypothesize that changes in the abundances and types of seabirds present through time reflect changes in the structure of the marine ecosystem of the eastern Bering Sea shelf. We suggest that changes in pathways of energy flow may be responsible for these shifts, though the possibility that there has been a reduction in productivity cannot be ruled out given the scarcity of available data.

  16. Spatial variation in egg size of a top predator: Interplay of body size and environmental factors?

    Louzao, Maite; Igual, José M.; Genovart, Meritxell; Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Oro, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    It is expected that nearby populations are constrained by the same ecological features shaping in turn similarity in their ecological traits. Here, we studied the spatio-temporal variability in egg size among local populations of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, a top marine predator endemic to the western Mediterranean region. Specifically we assessed whether this trait was influenced by maternal body size, as an indicator of a genetic component, and feeding ecology (through stable-carbon and nitrogen-isotope measurements), as an indicator of environmental factors. We found that egg size varied among local populations, an unexpected result at such a small spatial scale. Body size differences at the local population level only partially explained such differences. Blood isotope measurements also differed among local populations. Values of δ 15N suggested inter-population differences in trophic level, showing a similar general pattern with egg size, and suggesting a nutritional link between them whereby egg size was affected by differences in feeding resources and/or behaviour. Values of δ 13C suggested that local populations did not differ in foraging habits with respect to benthic- vs. pelagic-based food-webs. Egg size did not vary among years as did breeding performance, suggesting that a differential temporal window could affect both breeding parameters in relation to food availability. The absence of a relationship between breeding performance and egg size suggested that larger eggs might only confer an advantage during harsh conditions. Alternatively parental quality could greatly affect breeding performance. We showed that inter-population differences in egg size could be influenced by both body size and environmental factors.

  17. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico

    González-Solís, D.; Moravec, František; Tuz Paredes, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2007), s. 1132-1135 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Dentiphilometra * Mexico Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.129, year: 2007

  18. Pilot-plant cultivation of Streptomyces griseus producing homologues of nonactin by precursor-directed biosynthesis and their identification by LC/MS-ESI

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Prell, Aleš; Spížek, Jaroslav; Sigler, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 8 (2010), s. 524-529 ISSN 0021-8820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : liquid chromatography/MS-ESI * pilot-plant cultivation * precursor-directed biosynthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.628, year: 2010

  19. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hana; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, N.P.; Yanes-Roca, C.; Main, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (2013), s. 124-130 ISSN 2213-2244 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200961250 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mangrove snapper * Fisheries * Juvenile pathology * Glomerulonephritis * Mortality * Myxozoa Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  20. Costs and benefits of trap-neuter-release and euthanasia for removal of urban cats in Oahu, Hawaii.

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Cox, Linda J; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to determine whether it is more cost-effective to control feral cat abundance with trap-neuter-release programs or trap and euthanize programs. Using STELLA 7, systems modeling software, we modeled changes over 30 years in abundance of cats in a feral colony in response to each management method and the costs and benefits associated with each method . We included costs associated with providing food, veterinary care, and microchips to the colony cats and the cost of euthanasia, wages, and trapping equipment in the model. Due to a lack of data on predation rates and disease transmission by feral cats the only benefits incorporated into the analyses were reduced predation on Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus). When no additional domestic cats were abandoned by owners and the trap and euthanize program removed 30,000 cats in the first year, the colony was extirpated in at least 75% of model simulations within the second year. It took 30 years for trap-neuter-release to extirpate the colony. When the cat population was supplemented with 10% of the initial population size per year, the colony returned to carrying capacity within 6 years and the trap and euthanize program had to be repeated, whereas trap-neuter-release never reduced the number of cats to near zero within the 30-year time frame of the model. The abandonment of domestic cats reduced the cost effectiveness of both trap-neuter-release and trap and euthanize. Trap-neuter-release was approximately twice as expensive to implement as a trap and euthanize program. Results of sensitivity analyses suggested trap-neuter-release programs that employ volunteers are still less cost-effective than trap and euthanize programs that employ paid professionals and that trap-neuter-release was only effective when the total number of colony cats in an area was below 1000. Reducing the rate of abandonment of domestic cats appears to be a more effective solution for reducing the abundance of feral cats.

  1. 3 CFR 8336 - Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National...

    2010-01-01

    ... Napoleon wrasse (Chelinus), sharks of several species, and large schools of the Bumphead parrotfish.... All three islands afford unique opportunities to conduct climate change research at the equator, far... international significance: Wedge-tailed Shearwaters, Christmas Shearwaters, Red-tailed Tropicbirds, Brown...

  2. RE-SONANCE

    Island Press/Shearwater Books. Washington ... the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard ... energy depletion, economic collapse, limited ... Books like this one should be made compulsory read- ing, instead of, not in addition to, one of the.

  3. New records of truffle fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Turkey

    Aziz Turkoglu; Michael Angelo. Castellano

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus (Hawker) A.H.Sm., Hymenogaster griseus Vittad., Hymenogaster olivaceous Vittad., Hymenogaster thwaitesii Berk. & Broome, and Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. We also report a new...

  4. 78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    2013-08-13

    ... 15. The purpose of Regulatory Amendment 15 and this final rule is to provide socio-economic benefits... griseus Mahogany snapper, Lutjanus mahogoni Dog snapper, Lutjanus jocu Lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris...

  5. Living on the Bark

    IAS Admin

    of bark provides a waterproof layer on which water drops contain- ing fungal spores ..... Grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis and S. griseus), red squir- rel (S. vulgaris ... cotton (Abroma angustum) is useful in treatment of gynaecological ailments.

  6. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  7. The Cetaceans of Ghana, a Validated Faunal Checklist | Van ...

    ... S. longirostris longirostris*, S. attenuata, S. frontalis, Delphinus capensis capensis*, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Grampus griseus, Peponocephala electra*, Feresa attenuata**, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Orcinus orca*, Pseudorca crassidens*, Kogia sima**, Physetermacrocephalus*, Ziphius cavirostris** ...

  8. Rutes migratòries i àrees d'hivernada del virot gros Calonectris Diomedea des Pantaleu (Mallorca)

    Oro, Daniel; Genovart, Meritxell; Igual, José Manuel; Ruiz, Xavier; González-Solís, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering areas of Cory’s shearwaters Calonectris diomedea from es Pantaleu (Mallorca). Here we show the migratory trips through the Atlantic Ocean of 8 Cory’s shearwaters breeding at es Pantaleu islet (P.N. de sa Dragonera, Majorca) during the winter of 2002-2003. The majority of the birds preferred the coasts of the Sahara and of Mauritania and to a lesser extent those of Namibia, corresponding to two zones of oceanic upwelling of cold and very productive waters (Canary...

  9. 77 FR 75601 - Boundary Expansion of Cordell Bank and Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuaries; Intent...

    2012-12-21

    ... shearwaters that travel tens of thousands of miles. Food that results from the Point Arena upwelling center... 13, 2013 at the Point Arena High School. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments on this document... area encompasses the Point Arena upwelling center that consistently produces the most intense upwelling...

  10. Levantamento das aves marinhas no percurso Rio de Janeiro: Bahia (Brasil A survey of the marine birds in the route Rio de Janeiro: Bahía (Brazil

    Elias Pacheco Coelho

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine birds were surveyed between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, latitudes 24º44'S and 17º50'S, from July to September 1984. Sixteen species were recorded belonging to six families, with most sightings occurring between 24º44'S and 22º3$'S. Data suggest two distinct communities, the more southerly one is represented by Daption capense and the one further north by Puffinus gravis.

  11. Short Communication A near mass stranding of cetaceans in St ...

    A group of 70 false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens and 124 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp., and a separate group of 13 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus, assembled close inshore off a known mass-stranding site in St Helena Bay, South Africa, in October 2003. However, only a single Risso's dolphin attempted to ...

  12. Investigation of trophic level and niche partitioning of 7 cetacean species by stable isotopes, and cadmium and arsenic tissue concentrations in the western Pacific Ocean

    Liu, J.-Y.; Chou, L.-S.; Chen, M.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Muscular δ 13 C and δ 15 N data of cetaceans were used to identify their ecological niche • Inshore–offshore distribution pattern was found for four sympatric neritic odontocetes. • Horizontal and vertical movements found in sympatric odontocetes as they grow. • Taiwan’s Chinese white dolphins is an exclusive fish eater. • Prey-derived As- and Cd-induced health threats were found for some dolphins. - Abstract: A total of 24 stranded or bycatch cetaceans, including Balaenoptera omurai, Lagenodelphis hosei, Kogia sima, Stenella attenuata, Grampus griseus, Neophocaena phocaenoides, and Sousa chinensis, were collected from 2001 to 2011 in Taiwan. Using the muscular δ 13 C and δ 15 N data, three ecological groups were identified as the oceanic baleen whale, the neritic, and the coastal toothed whale groups, coinciding with their taxonomy, feeding habits and geographical distribution. A horizontal inshore to offshore distribution was found for the sympatric neritic toothed dolphins, G. griseus, K. sima, S. attenuata, and L. hosei in the outermost offshore waters, accompanying their growth. For the first time we identify Taiwan’s Chinese white dolphin, S. chinensis, as an exclusive fish eater. Cd and As bioaccumulated in the G. griseus, L. hosei and S. attenuata increase as they grow. Prey-derived As- and Cd-induced health threats were found in L. hosei, and G. griseus

  13. Animal Research International - Vol 13, No 1 (2016)

    Bird species of Mouau with special emphasis on foraging behavior of the northern grey-headed sparrow (Passer griseus) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Oghale O'woma OKORE, Chidinma AMADI, 2338-2344 ...

  14. Rumen escape protein in grass and grass silage deterimened with a nylon bag and an enzymatic technique

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for six grasses and 16 grass silages using a nylon bag technique and an in vitro technique using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation observed between

  15. Identification of 2,4-toluenediisocyanate (2,4-TDI) adducts with globin and albumin

    Mráz, J.; Šimek, Petr; Nohová, H.; Boušková, Š.; Gálová, E.; Linhart, I.; Šmejkal, J.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (1998), s. 40-41 [International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health /4./. 23.09.1998-25.09.1998, Seoul] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA313/96/0375 Keywords : Streptomyces griseus Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  16. Some observations on the reproductive biology of the sixgill shark ...

    Observations are made of the maturation status of 81 male and 88 female sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus from southern African waters. Males mature at about 310 cm total length (TL) with the calcification of the terminal cartilage elements of the claspers. Determination of maturity for females was problematic, but most ...

  17. Rapid Isolation and Molecular Detection of Streptomycin-Producing Streptomycetes

    M Motovali-bashi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Streptomyces species are mycelial, aerobic gram-positive bacteria that are isolated from soil and produce a diverse range of antibiotics. Streptomyces griseus produces the antibiotic, streptomycin and forms spores even in a liquid culture. The gene cluster for the production of Streptomycin antibiotic contains strR gene that encodes StrR, a pathway-specific regulator. Then, this pathway-specific regulator induces transcription of other streptomycin production genes in the gene cluster. The overall aim of this work was rapid isolation and molecular detection of streptomycin-producing Streptomycetes, especially S. griseus, from Iranian soils in order to manipulate them for increased production of streptomycin. Methods: This research used new initiative half-specific medium for isolation of Streptomycetes from natural environments, called FZmsn. The fifty colonies of Streptomyces strains grown on the surface of FZmsn medium isolated from environmental samples were defined on the basis of their morphological characteristics and light microscope studies. A set of primers was designed to detect strR by OLIGO software. Results: In colony-PCR reactions followed by gel electrophoresis, 6 colonies from Streptomyces strains colonies were detected as S. griseus colonies. Conclusion: These native Streptomyces strains will be used for genetic manipulation of S. griseus in order to increase production levels of streptomycin.

  18. Proposals for revival of Streptomyces setonii and reclassification of S. fimicarius as a later synonym of S. setonii and S. albovinaceus as a later synonym of S. globisporus based on combined 16S rRNA-gyrB gene analysis

    The 16S rRNA and gyrB genes of 22 Streptomyces species belonging to the Streptomyces griseus cluster were sequenced, and their taxonomic positions were re-evaluated. For correct analysis, all of the publicly available sequences of the species were collected and compared with those obtained in this s...

  19. Coevolution of antibiotic production and counter-resistance in soil bacteria.

    Laskaris, Paris; Tolba, Sahar; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Wellington, Elizabeth M; Wellington, Liz

    2010-03-01

    We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources.

  20. Growth behavior of off-flavor-forming microorganisms in apple juice.

    Siegmund, Barbara; Pöllinger-Zierler, Barbara

    2007-08-08

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Streptomyces griseus griseus are two bacteria species that are frequently found in apple juice as spoilage bacteria. They both show thermoacidophilic behavior, adapting to the low pH of the juices and being able to survive high temperatures. They are able to regerminate in the shelf-stable product and spoil the juice by the formation of off-flavor compounds (i.e., guaiacol and 2,6-dibromophenol as metabolites of A. acidoterrestris and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-methylisoborneol, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and geosmin as important metabolites of S. griseus). In this study the growth behavior of the strains and the impact on apple juice were investigated under different conditions (i.e., temperature, oxygen supply, and mutual influence of the strains). The off-flavor formation was monitored by GC-MS after headspace SPME and subsequent calculation of the odor activity values. The results showed that S. griseus grows and consequently spoils the product even at 4 degrees C, whereas A. acidoterrestris needs at least room temperature to show significant growth. Limited oxygen supply did not significantly reduce off-flavor formation for any of the strains. The simultaneous presence of the strains in the juice reduced the growth of both species; nevertheless, off-flavor was detected.

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of light streamer tori-lines and characteristics of bait attacks by seabirds in the western North Pacific.

    Noriyosi Sato

    Full Text Available To improve the effectiveness of tori-lines it is necessary to evaluate the ability of tori-lines to mitigate seabird bycatch and determine what kind of seabird species gather during line settings, attack the bait and are incidentally caught. We conducted two experiments in the western North Pacific and examined the effectiveness for seabird mitigation of light streamer tori-lines which have no long streamers but many light (short streamers and are mainly used in the North Pacific area. Firstly, the effectiveness of two different types of tori-line (light streamer (1 m and long streamer (up to 7 m tori-line and of two different colors (yellow and red of light streamers for seabird bycatch avoidance was evaluated using 567 sets based on data from 20 offshore surface commercial longliners. No significant difference in the bycatch number between the different tori-line types and streamer colors was found. Secondly, we investigated the characteristics of the seabird bycatch in the North Pacific and the effectiveness of three different types of streamers (light, hybrid and modified light types by detailed observations of seabird attacks using a chartered longline vessel. Although the appearance rate of albatrosses and shearwaters were 40.9% and 27.7%, Laysan albatross was the main seabird species that followed the vessel but shearwaters seldom followed the vessel and did not aggregate during line setting. In all attacks on bait observed during line settings, 81% and 7% were by albatrosses and shearwaters, respectively. In the number of primary attacks by Laysan albatrosses which attacked most aggressively of all seabirds, there were no significant differences among the tori-line types. No individuals of shearwater were caught. The results of both experiments indicated that light streamer tori-lines were as effective as tori-lines with long streamers for mitigating seabird bycatch in the North Pacific.

  2. Estimating population size of a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird using acoustic monitoring and habitat mapping

    Steffen Oppel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.

  3. Buying years to extinction: is compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch a sufficient conservation measure for long-lived seabirds?

    José Manuel Igual

    Full Text Available Along the lines of the 'polluter pays principle', it has recently been proposed that the local long-line fishing industry should fund eradication of terrestrial predators at seabird breeding colonies, as a compensatory measure for the bycatch caused by the fishing activity. The measure is economically sound, but a quantitative and reliable test of its biological efficacy has never been conducted. Here, we investigated the demographic consequences of predator eradication for Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, breeding in the Mediterranean, using a population model that integrates demographic rates estimated from individual life-history information with experimental measures of predation and habitat structure. We found that similar values of population growth rate can be obtained by different combinations of habitat characteristics, predator abundance and adult mortality, which explains the persistence of shearwater colonies in islands with introduced predators. Even so, given the empirically obtained values of survival, all combinations of predator abundance and habitat characteristics projected a decline in shearwater numbers. Perturbation analyses indicated that the value and the sensitivity of shearwater population growth rates were affected by all covariates considered and their interactions. A decrease in rat abundance delivered only a small increase in the population growth rate, whereas a change in adult survival (a parameter independent of rat abundance had the strongest impact on population dynamics. When adult survival is low, rat eradication would allow us to "buy" years before extinction but does not reverse the process. Rat eradication can therefore be seen as an emergency measure if threats on adult survival are eliminated in the medium-term period. For species with low fecundity and long life expectancy, our results suggest that rat control campaigns are not a sufficient, self-standing measure to compensate the biological toll

  4. Distribution of marine birds on the mid- and North-Atlantic US outer continental shelf. Technical progress report, January 1978-July 1980

    Powers, K.D.; Pittman, G.L.; Fitch, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    The species composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds on continental shelf waters from Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy were examined using ships-of-opportunity. Northern Fulmar, Cory's Shearwater, Greater Shearwater, Sooty Shearwater, Wilson's Storm-Petrel, Gannet, Red Phalarope, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, and Black-legged Kittiwake were the most abundant and common species. These species were ecologically dominant within the bird community in numbers and biomass. Georges Bank and Gulf of Marine regions generally had greatest estimates of standing stock and biomass; whereas, in the Middle Atlantic region these estimates were consistently lowest. Species diversity throughout the study area was greatest in spring and least in fall. Oceanic fronts at the continental shelf break and at Nantucket Shoals influenced the distribution of Wilson's Storm-Petrels and Red Phalaropes. Fishing activities were particularly important to Larus gull distribution. Fishes, squids, and crustaceans were the most important groups of prey items in diets of nine bird species. An oiled bird or pollution index was developed. According to the index, frequency of oiled birds was greatest in winter and spring, and gulls made up the majority of species with oiled plumages.

  5. Seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and Macaronesian waters: a review and a way forward

    John Cooper

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A country-by-country review of seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and in Macaronesian waters shows a paucity of data. Of 12 Mediterranean countries known to undertake longlining, seabird mortality is only reported for six: France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain and Tunisia. Seabird mortality from longlining has been reported from the Azores (Portugal but not from the other Macaronesian Islands. Only for one country, Spain, is information on the levels of mortality available, suggesting that 4-6% of the local breeding population of Cory´s shearwater Calonectris diomedea may be killed annually, a level considered unsustainable for the long-term persistence of colonies. Cory´s shearwater is the most commonly affected species, although a number of Larus gull species are also being caught. There is insufficient knowledge to conclude whether any seabird species is at conservation risk within the region, but concern is expressed for Cory´s shearwater. It is recommended that Mediterranean and Macaronesian countries conduct assessments of their longline fisheries and seabird mortality in terms of the Food and Agriculture Organization´s International Plan of Action - Seabirds. Regional fishery organisations, such as ICCAT and GFCM, should commence the collection of seabird mortality data. A longline action plan for the affected seabird species should be produced.

  6. Export of Cytochrome P450 105D1 to the Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli

    Kaderbhai, Mustak A.; Ugochukwu, Cynthia C.; Kelly, Steven L.; Lamb, David C.

    2001-01-01

    CYP105D1, a cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseus, was appended at its amino terminus to the secretory signal of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and placed under the transcriptional control of the native phoA promoter. Heterologous expression in E. coli phosphate-limited medium resulted in abundant synthesis of recombinant CYP105D1 that was translocated across the bacterial inner membrane and processed to yield authentic, heme-incorporated P450 within the periplasmic space. Cell ext...

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15623-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available F079138_3( AF079138 |pid:none) Streptomyces venezuelae methymycin... 32 0.026 CT573213_2489( CT573213 |pid:n...) Streptomyces griseus subsp. gris... 44 0.030 AF015823_1( AF015823 |pid:none) Streptomyces venezuelae venA ...d:none) Leptosphaeria maculans HDX1 (HDX1)... 36 0.058 AF079138_6( AF079138 |pid:none) Streptomyces venezuela

  8. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analysis we determined the trophic differences among Caranx latus, Oligoplites saurus, Trachinotus falcatus, Synodus foetens, Lutjanus griseus, and Strongylura notata. C. latus, O. saurus, S. foetens, and S. notate, which are ichthyophagous species (>80% by number. L. griseus feeds mainly on crustaceans (>55% and fish (35%, while T. falcatus feeds on mollusks (>50% bivalves, >35% gastropods. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM showed differences in the diet of all species. Cluster analysis, based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix revealed three groups; one characterized by the ichthyophagous guild (S. notata, S. foetens, C. latus, and O. saurus, other group formed by the crustacean consumers (L. griseus, and the third, composed by the mollusk feeder (T. falcatus. Species of the ichthyophagous guild showed overlap in their diets, which under conditions of low prey abundance may trigger competition, hence affecting juvenile stages of these marine species that use coastal lagoons to feed and grow.

  9. Fine-scale tracking and diet information of a marine predator reveals the origin and contrasting spatial distribution of prey

    Alonso, Hany; Granadeiro, José P.; Dias, Maria P.; Catry, Teresa; Catry, Paulo

    2018-03-01

    The distribution of many marine organisms is still poorly understood, particularly in oceanic regions. Seabirds, as aerial predators which cover extensive areas across the oceans, can potentially be used to enhance our knowledge on the distribution and abundance of their prey. In this study, we combined tracking data and dietary data from individual Cory's shearwaters Calonectris borealis (n = 68) breeding in Selvagens archipelago, Madeira, Portugal, during the chick-rearing periods of 2011 and 2016, in order to infer prey origin within shearwaters' main foraging areas. The digestion state of each prey item in the diet was assessed and classified; and compared to digestion states from known prey items fed to captive birds. In a novel approach, we combined tracking data with information on the prey digestion duration and data on the transit times from foraging grounds to the colony to estimate the location of prey capture. We found a consistent heterogeneity in prey distribution across four different marine domains: Selvagens, deep-sea, seamounts, and continental shelf. In oceanic areas, the chub mackerel Scomber colias, the main prey of Cory's shearwaters, was strongly associated with seamounts and insular shelves, whereas oceanic species like pilot-fish, flying-squid, flying-fish were clearly associated with deep-sea waters. Sardines Sardina pilchardus, anchovies Engraulis encrasicolus and other coastal species were associated with the African shelf. Prey origin assignment was robust across three different sets of assumptions, and was also supported by information on the digestion state of prey collected over a large independent sampling period (671 samples, collected in 2008-2010). The integration of fine-scale dietary and foraging trip data from marine predators provides a new framework to gain insights into the distribution and abundance of prey species in poorly known oceanic areas.

  10. Estimating Regions of Oceanographic Importance for Seabirds Using A-Spatial Data.

    Grant Richard Woodrow Humphries

    Full Text Available Advances in GPS tracking technologies have allowed for rapid assessment of important oceanographic regions for seabirds. This allows us to understand seabird distributions, and the characteristics which determine the success of populations. In many cases, quality GPS tracking data may not be available; however, long term population monitoring data may exist. In this study, a method to infer important oceanographic regions for seabirds will be presented using breeding sooty shearwaters as a case study. This method combines a popular machine learning algorithm (generalized boosted regression modeling, geographic information systems, long-term ecological data and open access oceanographic datasets. Time series of chick size and harvest index data derived from a long term dataset of Maori 'muttonbirder' diaries were obtained and used as response variables in a gridded spatial model. It was found that areas of the sub-Antarctic water region best capture the variation in the chick size data. Oceanographic features including wind speed and charnock (a derived variable representing ocean surface roughness came out as top predictor variables in these models. Previously collected GPS data demonstrates that these regions are used as "flyways" by sooty shearwaters during the breeding season. It is therefore likely that wind speeds in these flyways affect the ability of sooty shearwaters to provision for their chicks due to changes in flight dynamics. This approach was designed to utilize machine learning methodology but can also be implemented with other statistical algorithms. Furthermore, these methods can be applied to any long term time series of population data to identify important regions for a species of interest.

  11. An assessment of oceanic seabird abundance and distribution off the southern Brazilian coast using observations obtained during deep-water fishing operations.

    Branco, J O; Fracasso, H A A; Pérez, J A A; Rodrigues-Filho, J L

    2014-08-01

    The use of discarded fish over baited hooks used in longline fishery, and fish caught in gillnets, as a food source for gulls, albatrosses and petrels has been intensively studied in northern and southern oceans. This study describes the occurrence and abundance of seabirds observed from 20 foreign vessels which operated during the period between July 2001 and May 2005, off the southeastern and southern Brazilian coast. A total of 353,557 seabirds were observed; comprising eight families and 28 species. The most abundant species was Procellaria conspicillata followed by Daption capense, Puffinus gravis, Thalassarche melanophrys and Oceanites oceanicus. Ten species of seabirds (392 individual birds) were incidentally captured in gillnets; and 122 birds (9 species) by longline hooks, with P. gravis, D. capense and Procellaria aequinoctialis having the largest capture rates.

  12. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ18Ocalc and δ13Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ18Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in 18O relative to 16O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ18Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ18Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ13Ccalc and δ18Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ13Ccalc and high δ18Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  13. The use of marine reserves in evaluating the dive fishery for the warty sea cucumber, Parastichopus parvimensis in California, U.S.A

    Schroeder, S.C.; Reed, D.C.; Kushner, D.J.; Estes, J.A.; Ono, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe an instance of unusual, agonistic behavior in a flock of migrant Short-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus) . We compare this behavior to that of other flocks feeding at the same time at other locations in the same estuary and then present evidence suggesting that this behavior resulted from the patchy distribution of the probable foraging resource of this flock, eggs of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus). We propose that an extremely patchy resource has increased the agonistic behavior within the flock by increasing the variation in foraging success among individuals.

  14. Elk3 from hamster-a ternary complex factor with strong transcriptional repressor activity

    Hjortoe, G.M.; Weilguny, D.; Willumsen, Berthe Marie

    2005-01-01

    the transcription of genes that are activated during entry into G1. We have isolated the Cricetulus griseus Elk3 gene from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and investigated the transcriptional potential of this factor. Transient transfections revealed that, in addition to its regulation of the c......-fos promoter, Elk3 from CHO cells seems to inhibit other promoters controlling expression of proteins involved in G1/S phase progression; Cyclin D1 and DHFR. As has been described for the Elk3 homologs Net (Mouse) and Sap-2 (Human), the results of the present study further indicate that hamster Elk3...

  15. A-Factor and Phosphate Depletion Signals Are Transmitted to the Grixazone Biosynthesis Genes via the Pathway-Specific Transcriptional Activator GriR▿ †

    Higashi, Tatsuichiro; Iwasaki, Yuko; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2007-01-01

    Grixazone (GX), which is a diffusible yellow pigment containing a phenoxazinone chromophore, is one of the secondary metabolites under the control of A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone) in Streptomyces griseus. GX production is also induced by phosphate starvation. The whole biosynthesis gene cluster for GX was cloned and characterized. The gene cluster consisting of 13 genes contained six transcriptional units, griT, griSR, griR, griAB, griCDEFG, and griJIH. During cul...

  16. Taxonomy and Biogeography without frontiers - WhatsApp, Facebook and smartphone digital photography let citizen scientists in more remote localities step out of the dark.

    Suprayitno, Nano; Narakusumo, Raden Pramesa; von Rintelen, Thomas; Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Taxonomy and biogeography can benefit from citizen scientists. The use of social networking and open access cooperative publishing can easily connect naturalists even in more remote areas with in-country scientists and institutions, as well as those abroad. This enables taxonomic efforts without frontiers and at the same time adequate benefit sharing measures. We present new distribution and habitat data for diving beetles of Bali island, Indonesia, as a proof of concept. The species Hydaticus luczonicus Aubé, 1838 and Eretes griseus (Fabricius, 1781) are reported from Bali for the first time. The total number of Dytiscidae species known from Bali is now 34.

  17. The Level of AdpA Directly Affects Expression of Developmental Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor ▿ †

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Kois-Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Masiewicz, Paweł; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    AdpA is a key regulator of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. In contrast to Streptomyces griseus, relatively little is known about AdpA protein functions in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we report for the first time the translation accumulation profile of the S. coelicolor adpA (adpASc) gene; the level of S. coelicolor AdpA (AdpASc) increased, reaching a maximum in the early stage of aerial mycelium formation (after 36 h), and remained relatively stable for the next several hour...

  18. Summer Distribution, Relative Abundance and Encounter Rates of Cetaceans in the Mediterranean Waters off Southern Italy (Western Ionian Sea and Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    R. SANTORO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 and summer 2011, weekly cetacean surveys were undertaken in “passing mode”, using ferries as platform of opportunity, along the “fixed line transect” between Catania and Civitavecchia (Southern Italy. Of the 20 species of cetaceans confirmed for the Mediterranean sea, 8 were sighted within the survey period: 7 species represented by Mediterranean subpopulations (Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Grampus griseus, Tursiops truncatus and Ziphius cavirostris and one considered visitor (Steno bredanensis. We had a total of 220 sightings during the 2010 and a total of 240 sightings in the 2011. The most frequent species was S. coeruleoalba. By the comparison of the data from the two sampling seasons, a significant increase of D. delphis sightings and a decrease of sightings of B. physalus and P. macrocephalus was observed from 2010 to 2011. While all the other species were observed in both sampling seasons, Z. cavirostris and Steno bredanensis were observed only during 2011. The presence of mixed groups of odontocetes was documented too: we sighted groups composed by S. coeruleoalba and D. delphis, by S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus, and by S. coeruleoalba and G. griseus. The results of this research add useful information on cetacean species in a very poorly known area and highlight the need to standardize large scale and long term monitoring programs in order to detect variation in presence, abundance and distribution of cetaceans populations and understand the effect of anthropogenic factors.

  19. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Tatiana Lemos Bisi

    Full Text Available To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13C and δ(15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13C values. The highest δ(15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13C values, but similar δ(15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  20. The sequence and X-ray structure of the trypsin from Fusarium oxysporum.

    Rypniewski, W R; Hastrup, S; Betzel, C; Dauter, M; Dauter, Z; Papendorf, G; Branner, S; Wilson, K S

    1993-06-01

    The trypsin from Fusarium oxysporum is equally homologous to trypsins from Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces erythraeus and to bovine trypsin. A DFP (diisopropylfluorophosphate) inhibited form of the enzyme has been crystallized from 1.4 M Na2SO4, buffered with citrate at pH 5.0-5.5. The crystals belong to space group P2(1) with cell parameters a = 33.43 A, b = 67.65 A, c = 39.85 A and beta = 107.6 degrees. There is one protein molecule in the asymmetric unit. X-ray diffraction data to a resolution of 1.8 A were collected on film using synchrotron radiation. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using models of bovine and S. griseus trypsins and refined to an R-factor of 0.141. The overall fold is similar to other trypsins, with some insertions and deletions. There is no evidence of the divalent cation binding sites seen in other trypsins. The covalently bound inhibitor molecule is clearly visible.

  1. New specimens and records of chondrichthyan fishes (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes off the Mexican Pacific coast Nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de peces cartilaginosos (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes de la costa del Pacífico mexicano

    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available New specimens and new records of occurrence for 10 species of chondrichthyan (elasmobranch and chimaeroid fishes previously unknown or little documented for the continental shelf of the Mexican Pacific are reported. This contribution provides the first record of Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, and Bathyraja trachura for the Mexican Pacific, as well as new specimens of Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, and Raja velezi for the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula, including the intermediate record within the known distribution range for Apristurus kampae, and the southernmost record for Raja inornata.Se reportan nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de concurrencia para 10 especies de elasmobranquios previamente desconocidos o con muy poca documentación en aguas del Pacífico mexicano. Esta contribución ofrece el primer registro de Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, y Bathyraja trachura en el Pacífico mexicano; así como nuevos ejemplares de Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai y Raja velezi en la costa occidental de la península de Baja California, con la inclusión del registro intermedio en el ámbito de distribución conocida para Apristurus kampae, y el registro más meridional para Raja inornata.

  2. The impact of regulations on the development of oil spill recovery vessels

    Bianchi, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Past, present, and future regulations have imposed and may continue to impose serious and unnecessary restraints on the design, construction, and operation of oil spill recovery vessels (OSRVs). OSRVs have been regulated as tankers under 46 CFR Subchapter D regulations. The application of these regulations to the design and construction of the Clean Sound Cooperative's Shearwater and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's Valdez Star and other vessels through the design approval and inspection processes of the American Bureau of Shipping and United States Coast Guard illustrate some of the problems. Present regulations do not encourage the development of new OSRVS. The regulations regarding OSRVs should be reevaluated. Committees of OSRV designers and users as well as regulators should evaluate comments and recommendations before incorporating them in the design of new OSRVS

  3. Combined spatio-temporal impacts of climate and longline fisheries on the survival of a trans-equatorial marine migrant.

    Raül Ramos

    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of human activities and their derivable consequences, such as global warming or direct wildlife mortality, is increasingly relevant in our changing world. Due to their particular life history traits, long-lived migrants are amongst the most endangered and sensitive group of animals to these harming effects. Our ability to identify and quantify such anthropogenic threats in both breeding and wintering grounds is, therefore, of key importance in the field of conservation biology. Using long-term capture-recapture data (34 years, 4557 individuals and year-round tracking data (4 years, 100 individuals of a trans-equatorial migrant, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea, we investigated the impact of longline fisheries and climatic variables in both breeding and wintering areas on the most important demographic trait of this seabird, i.e. adult survival. Annual adult survival probability was estimated at 0.914±0.022 on average, declining throughout 1978-1999 but recovering during the last decade (2005-2011. Our results suggest that both the incidental bycatch associated with longline fisheries and high sea surface temperatures (indirectly linked to food availability; SST increased mortality rates during the long breeding season (March-October. Shearwater survival was also negatively affected during the short non-breeding season (December-February by positive episodes of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. Indirect negative effects of climate at both breeding (SST and wintering grounds (SOI had a greater impact on survival than longliner activity, and indeed these climatic factors are those which are expected to present more unfavourable trends in the future. Our work underlines the importance of considering both breeding and wintering habitats as well as precise schedules/phenology when assessing the global role of the local impacts on the dynamics of migratory species.

  4. Sequencing Cyclic Peptides by Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    Mohimani, Hosein; Yang, Yu-Liang; Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most effective antibiotics (e.g., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. While hundreds of biomedically important cyclic peptides have been sequenced, the computational techniques for sequencing cyclic peptides are still in their infancy. Previous methods for sequencing peptide antibiotics and other cyclic peptides are based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and require large amount (miligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Recently, development of mass spectrometry based methods has provided some hope for accurate sequencing of cyclic peptides using picograms of materials. In this paper we develop a method for sequencing of cyclic peptides by multistage mass spectrometry, and show its advantages over single stage mass spectrometry. The method is tested on known and new cyclic peptides from Bacillus brevis, Dianthus superbus and Streptomyces griseus, as well as a new family of cyclic peptides produced by marine bacteria. PMID:21751357

  5. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test.

  6. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples.

    Elbendary, Afaf Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan Mohamed; El-Hariri, Mahmoud Darderi; Seida, Ahmed Adel; Moussa, Ihab Mohamed; Mubarak, Ayman Salem; Kabli, Saleh A; Hemeg, Hassan A; El Jakee, Jakeen Kamal

    2018-01-01

    Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms ( S. aureus , Bacillus cereus , E. coli , K. pneumoniae , P. aeruginosa , S. Typhi, C. albicans , A. niger and A. flavus ). By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae , Kocuria rosea , Streptomyces griseus , Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria . Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture's supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  7. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples

    Afaf Ahmed Elbendary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms (S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. Typhi, C. albicans, A. niger and A. flavus. By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria rosea, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria. Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture’s supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  8. Using fecal profiles of bile acids to assess habitat use by threatened carnivores in the Maulino forest of central Chile Empleo del perfil de ácidos biliares fecales para evaluar uso del hábitat por carnívoros amenazados en el bosque maulino de Chile central

    CARLA GUERRERO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and habitat use by carnivores can be assessed by studying their tracks or feces. If these methods are to be used confidently, they should not only unequivocally discriminate among species, but should also render the same patterns of spatial distributions. We assessed the fulfillment of these requirements with five carnivores inhabiting the Maulino forest of central Chile: Galictis cuja, Oncifelis guigna, Pseudalopex culpaeus, Pseudalopex griseus, and Puma concolor. Fecal bile acid thin layer chromatographic profiles were assessed, and shown to be species-specific, invariant within samples of a given individual and among individuals of a given species, but consistently different across species. The spatial distribution of feces in mixed stands of native forests and exotic pine plantations in the coastal Maule region of central Chile was compared with the expected distribution according to habitat offer, and also with the expected distribution based on earlier track records. The results revealed that Pseudalopex culpaeus makes extensive use of pine plantations; Oncifelis guigna prefers native forests, and Pseudalopex griseus thrives in pine plantations, native forests, and patches of native forest, in proportion to habitat availability. Results from scat distribution were similar to those obtained by tracks records. Feces and tracks were thus useful indicators of habitat use by carnivores, and could be used complementarily to study species with conservation problemsEl uso del hábitat por carnívoros puede ser examinado a partir de la distribución de sus huellas y fecas. Para que ambas aproximaciones sean usadas en forma segura y complementaria, ellas deberían no solamente discriminar inequívocamente entre especies, sino que también deberían entregar la misma información sobre los patrones de distribución espacial. Analizamos el cumplimiento de estos requisitos con cinco especies de carnívoros en el bosque maulino de Chile

  9. Varamiento de cetáceos en Tacna, Perú (2002-2010

    José Pizarro-Neyra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan datos de varamientos de cetáceos producidos entre abril del año 2002 y enero de 2010 en las localidades de Los Palos, Vila-vila, Morro Sama e Ite, ubicadas en la región Tacna. Los resultados indican que: 85% de los ejemplares varados corresponden a Phocoena spinipinnis, 8% a Tursiops truncatus, y el resto a cetáceos de las especies: Grampus griseus, Eubalaena australis y Physeter macrocephalus. Los varamientos de cetáceos grandes solo se observaron en Los Palos, mientras la mayor cantidad de varamientos observados se produjeron en Ite (80%. La causa del varamiento de algunas marsopas (P. spinipinnis es la captura incidental en redes usadas por la pesca artesanal. Se relaciona el varamiento de P. macrocephalus con anomalías de la temperatura superficial del mar.

  10. Bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, B

    2006-01-01

    for phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in Streptomyces griseus by immunoaffinity chromatography identified bacterial SSBs as a novel target of bacterial tyrosine kinases. Since genes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) have not been recognized in streptomycetes, and SSBs from Streptomyces coelicolor (Sc......SSB) and Bacillus subtilis (BsSSB) share 38.7% identity, we used a B.subtilis protein-tyrosine kinase YwqD to phosphorylate two cognate SSBs (BsSSB and YwpH) in vitro. We demonstrate that in vivo phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB occurs on tyrosine residue 82, and this reaction is affected antagonistically...... by kinase YwqD and phosphatase YwqE. Phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB increased binding almost 200-fold to single-stranded DNA in vitro. Tyrosine phosphorylation of B.subtilis, S.coelicolor and Escherichia coli SSBs occured while they were expressed in E.coli, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation...

  11. [The effect of enzymatic treatment using proteases on properties of persistent sodium current in CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampus].

    Lun'ko, O O; Isaiev, D S; Maxymiuk, O P; Kryshtal', O O; Isaieva, O V

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of proteases, widely used for neuron isolation in electrophysiological studies, on the amplitude and kinetic characteristics of persistent sodium current (I(NaP)) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Properties of I(NaP) were studied on neurons isolated by mechanical treatment (control group) and by mechanical and enzymatic treatment using pronase E (from Streptomyces griseus) or protease type XXIII (from Aspergillus oryzae). We show that in neurons isolated with pronase E kinetic of activation and density of I(NaP) was unaltered. Enzymatic treatment with protease type XXIII did not alter I(NaP) activation but result in significant decrease in I(NaP) density. Our data indicates that enzymatic treatment using pronase E for neuron isolation is preferable for investigation of I(NaP).

  12. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime.

  13. Human exploitation assisting a threatened species? The case of muttonbirders and Buller's albatross.

    Susan M Waugh

    Full Text Available Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller's albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere, New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori, which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17-40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies. Muttonbirding is a traditional practice that has continued for centuries, with up to 120 tonnes of offal discharged to the sea annually during the present day harvest. It coincides with the energetically-demanding early chick period for the albatrosses. Our finding suggests that the offal may be an important, but overlooked element in the albatross diet. As an important supplementary food for the albatrosses it is likely to have contributed to the 3% per annum growth of their populations since the first comprehensive population surveys in 1969.

  14. Does by-catch pose a threat for the conservation of seabird populations in the southern Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean? A questionnaire based survey of local fisheries

    G. KARRIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies worldwide have shown that incidental catches (by-catch of seabirds in fishing gear might pose a considerable risk for the conservation of their populations. Nevertheless reliable data on by-catch rates of seabirds in European marine ecosystems are patchy and need to be improved. This study constitutes a first attempt at the evaluation of by-catch rates in the southern Ionian Sea. Data were obtained by distributing a specific questionnaire to the fishers of Zakynthos Island. 150 professional fishers (representing 90% of the local fishing fleet participated in the research, and were interviewed during July-December 2010. The information collected showed that commercial longline and (to a lesser extent gillnet fishery gears caused incidental catches mostly of Scopoli’s Shearwater and Mediterranean Shag. The temporal analysis of the incidental bird mortality showed that seabirds were more susceptible to be trapped in fishery gears set around sunrise during spring and summer whereas spatial analysis of by-catch data indicated variations in the number of seabirds caught in different fishery areas.

  15. Development of oilfield facilities on a nature reserve

    Long, P.J.; Long, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Airlie Island which is a small (26 hectare) sand cay, located 35km north of Onslow in Western Australia. In common with other islands in the region, Airlie is a nesting site for seabirds and turtles, but its two primary conservation resources are the large Wedge-tailed Shearwater rookery which covers 64% of the island and an endemic skink species. Its conservation values have prompted the Western Australian State Government to declare the entire island a nature reserve set apart for the preservation of flora and fauna. In 1987 Western Mining Corporation Pty Ltd. developed the South Pepper and North herald oilfields and part of this development included the siting of an oil terminal on Airlie Island. It may be expected that the conservation resources of the island and the Company's requirements for land would be incompatible. However, a careful study of the local environment and the creation of a detailed plan to manage this environment resulted in an acceptable compromise

  16. Interspecies and spatial trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds

    Roscales, Jose L.; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob; Calabuig, Pascual; Jimenez, Begona

    2011-01-01

    PAHs were analyzed in the liver of 5 species of pelagic seabirds (Procellariiformes) from the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The main objective was to assess the trophic and geographic trends of PAHs in seabirds to evaluate their suitability as bioindicators of chronic marine pollution by these compounds. Although higher levels of PAHs have been described in the Mediterranean compared to other oceanic regions, we did not find significant spatial patterns and observed only minor effects of the geographic origin on seabird PAHs. However, we found significant higher PAH levels in petrel compared to shearwater species, which could be related to differences in their exploitation of mesopelagic and epipelagic resources, respectively, and the vertical dynamic of PAHs in the water column. Overall, although this study enhances the need of multi-species approaches to show a more comprehensive evaluation of marine pollution, seabirds emerged as poor indicators of pelagic chronic PAH levels. - Highlights: → PAHs in pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology. → Geographic origin shows a minor effect over PAH levels in pelagic seabirds. → Pelagic seabirds seem to be poor indicators of chronic PAH levels. - PAH levels in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology but a minor influence of their geographic origin.

  17. Population Structure and Dispersal Patterns within and between Atlantic and Mediterranean Populations of a Large-Range Pelagic Seabird

    Genovart, Meritxell; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Igual, José Manuel; Bauzà-Ribot, Maria del Mar; Rabouam, Corinne; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal is critically linked to the demographic and evolutionary trajectories of populations, but in most seabird species it may be difficult to estimate. Using molecular tools, we explored population structure and the spatial dispersal pattern of a highly pelagic but philopatric seabird, the Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea. Microsatellite fragments were analysed from samples collected across almost the entire breeding range of the species. To help disentangle the taxonomic status of the two subspecies described, the Atlantic form C. d. borealis and the Mediterranean form C. d. diomedea, we analysed genetic divergence between subspecies and quantified both historical and recent migration rates between the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins. We also searched for evidence of isolation by distance (IBD) and addressed spatial patterns of gene flow. We found a low genetic structure in the Mediterranean basin. Conversely, strong genetic differentiation appeared in the Atlantic basin. Even if the species was mostly philopatric (97%), results suggest recent dispersal between basins, especially from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (aprox. 10% of migrants/generation across the last two generations). Long-term gene flow analyses also suggested an historical exchange between basins (about 70 breeders/generation). Spatial analysis of genetic variation indicates that distance is not the main factor in shaping genetic structure in this species. Given our results we recommend gathering more data before concluded whether these taxa should be treated as two species or subspecies. PMID:23950986

  18. Positive Interactions among Foraging Seabirds, Marine Mammals and Fishes and Implications for Their Conservation

    Richard R. Veit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of “positive interactions” among species in structuring communities. For seabirds, an important kind of positive interaction is the use of birds of the same species, birds of other species, and other marine predators such as cetaceans, seals and fishes as cues to the presence of prey. The process by which a single bird uses, say, a feeding flock of birds as a cue to the presence of prey is called “local enhancement” or “facilitation.” There are subtly different uses of each of these terms, but the issue we address here is the ubiquity of positive interactions between seabirds and other marine predators when foraging at sea, and whether as a result of their associations the feeding success, and therefore presumably the fitness, of individual seabirds is increased. If this contention is true, then it implies that conservation of any one species of seabird must take into consideration the status and possible conservation of those species that the focal species uses as a cue while foraging. For example, conservation of great shearwaters (Ardenna gravis, which often feed over tuna (e.g., Thunnus schools, should take in to consideration conservation of tuna. Ecosystem management depends on understanding the importance of such processes; the loss of biodiversity, and the consequent threat to foraging success, may be a substantial threat to the stability of marine ecosystems.

  19. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

    Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development. PMID:19528054

  20. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  1. Rare birds in Slovenia in 2016 – Slovenian Rarities Committee Report

    Hanžel Jurij

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This report by the Slovenian Rarities Committee presents records of rare bird species in Slovenia in 2016, with some addenda for previous years. The numbers in brackets refer to the number of records (first number and individuals (second number recorded between 1 Jan 1950 and 31 Dec 2015. Since 1 Jan 2013, submission to the Committee has been required for 37 additional species, 17 of which are regional rarities. Records of these species are not numbered, since records from previous years were not collected by the Committee. Two new species, Scopoli’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea and Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea, were added to Category A. Other notable observations were the second record of Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes, third and fourth records of Pallid Swift Apus pallidus, fifth to seventh records of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus and the sixth and seventh records of Gannet Morus bassanus. Twelve records of Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus are an all-time annual high. Among Category E species, the Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus was recorded for the second time. The list of birds recorded in Slovenia (as of 31 Dec 2016 contains 388 species (373 in Category A, 6 in Category B, 9 exclusively in Category C; 4 species are both in Categories A and C. Category D contains 6 species, while Category E contains 38, two of which are classified into Subcategory E*. These two categories are not part of the list.

  2. Distribution of marine birds on Georges Bank and Adjacent waters. Progress report No. 2, April--June 1978

    Powers, K.D.

    1978-07-01

    From 27 March to 20 June 1978, 7 cruises aboard U.S. Coast Guard cutters DECISIVE, VIGILANT, and VIGOROUS and the National Marine Fisheries Service research vessel ALBATROSS IV were made on outer continental shelf waters in regions from the mid-Atlantic to the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf. A total of 13916 marine birds of at least 27 species were counted in 711.16 km/sup 2/ sampled from 730 fixed-area transects (300m wide by 10 minutes cruising time). An equal number of 10-minute total bird counts (no fixed area) were conducted at the same time. All of MBO cruises conducted in 1978 have been transcribed onto computer data sheets and were proofed and verified. Seven of 24 MBO cruises made in 1977 have been transcribed. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird and Habitat Research Laboratory will keypunch the data. From a review of over 100 scientific papers and books, food habits of fulmars, shearwaters, storm-petrels, gannets, gulls, and alcids were referenced by bird species and author.

  3. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GPS tracking for mapping seabird mortality induced by light pollution.

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J

    2015-06-02

    Light pollution and its consequences on ecosystems are increasing worldwide. Knowledge on the threshold levels of light pollution at which significant ecological impacts emerge and the size of dark refuges to maintain natural nocturnal processes is crucial to mitigate its negative consequences. Seabird fledglings are attracted by artificial lights when they leave their nest at night, causing high mortality. We used GPS data-loggers to track the flights of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea fledglings from nest-burrows to ground, and to evaluate the light pollution levels of overflown areas on Tenerife, Canary Islands, using nocturnal, high-resolution satellite imagery. Birds were grounded at locations closer than 16 km from colonies in their maiden flights, and 50% were rescued within a 3 km radius from the nest-site. Most birds left the nests in the first three hours after sunset. Rescue locations showed radiance values greater than colonies, and flight distance was positively related to light pollution levels. Breeding habitat alteration by light pollution was more severe for inland colonies. We provide scientific-based information to manage dark refuges facilitating that fledglings from inland colonies reach the sea successfully. We also offer methodological approaches useful for other critically threatened petrel species grounded by light pollution.

  5. 210Polonium and 210lead content of marine birds from Southeastern Brazil

    Godoy, José Marcus; Siciliano, Salvatore; Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de; Tavares, Davi C.; Fulgencio de Moura, Jaílson

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report the 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations of bone, muscle and liver samples that were obtained from twelve different marine bird species stranded on beaches in the central–north region of Rio de Janeiro State. Both radionuclides were highly concentrated in the liver samples; however, the lowest mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio (1.3) was observed in bones compared with liver and muscle (16.8 and 13.8, respectively). Among the species that were studied, Fregata magnificens, with a diet based exclusively on fish, had the lowest 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations and the lowest 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio. The 210 Po concentrations in Puffinus spp. liver samples followed a log-normal distribution, with a geometric mean of 300 Bq kg -1 wet weight . Only two references pertaining to 210 Po in marine birds were found in a Web of Science search of the literature, and each study reported a different concentration value. The values determined in this experiment are consistent with those in one of the previous studies, which also included one of the species studied in this work. No values for 210 Pb in marine birds have been published previously. - Highlights: • 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in muscle, liver and bone samples of marine birds. • For both radionuclides, the highest concentrations were observed on liver samples. • Only three previous publications on 210 Po in marine birds were found in the literature. • The obtained results represent the first one related to 210 Pb in marine birds

  6. [Oleksandr Solomonovych Tsyperovych--gifted enzymologist, scientist and practician].

    Vynohradova, R P; Kolodzeĭs'ka, M V

    2007-01-01

    Professor O. S. Tsyperovich (15.12.1910-20.12.1976), Doctor of biology, was born in the city of Odessa, graduated from the Faculty of Chemistry of Shevchenko Kyiv State University as a specialist in organic chemistry (1930-1935). In 1935-1941 he worked at the Institute of Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukr.SSR (Kyiv) as a junior research worker, and then as a senior research worker at the Department of Enzymology. In 1941 O. S. Tsyperovich defended the thesis for the Candidate's degree dedicated to the investigation of synthetic effect of proteolytic enzymes, and he was awarded the title of the senior research worker. In 1941-1945 O. S. Tsyperovich struggled in the ranks of the Soviet Army, was awarded the Red Star Order, medals For Defense of Caucasus, For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. In 1946-1976 O. S. Tsyperovich worked at the Institute of Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. When investigating the mechanism of proteins denaturation he discovered the phenomenon of their "denaturational stabilization". New technological schemes of production of pepsin preparations were elaborated on the basis of the method of autholysis proposed by him. In 1954 O. S. Tsyperovich defended the thesis for the Doctor's Degree and was awarded the order The Badge of Honor. Beginning from 1963 he headed the laboratory, and from 1966 -- the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Enzymes, in 1969 the title of professor was conferred on him. In the 60-70's O. S. Tsyperovich investigated hydrolytic enzymes of microorganisms with the purpose of their use in industry. Thus, the method of production of the preparation "pronasa" from Streptomyces griseus was developed, aminopeptidases, dipeptidases, a-amylase, cellulases, were investigated. Investigations in the field of preparative enzymology resulted in the development of technological scheme for creation of the following drugs for the purposes of medicine: medical

  7. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of brassica juncea (l.) czern with chitinase gene conferring resistance against fungal infections

    Ahmad, B.; Ambreen, S.; Khan, I.

    2015-01-01

    Brassica juncea (Czern and Coss., L.) is an important oilseed crop. Since it is attacked by several bacterial and fungal diseases, therefore, we developed an easy and simple protocol for the regeneration and transformation of B. juncea variety RAYA ANMOL to give rise to transgenic plants conferring resistance against various fungal diseases. The transformation was carried out using Agrobacterium with Chitinase gene. This gene was isolated from Streptomyces griseus HUT6037. We used two types of explants for transformation i.e. hypocotyls and cotyledons. Only hypocotyls explants showed good results regarding callus initiation. Different hormonal concentrations were applied i.e. BAP 2, 4 and 6 mgL-1 and NAA 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mgL-1. However, high transformation efficiency was observed by supplementing the medium with combination of 2 mgL-1 BAP and 0.2 mgL-1 for initiation of callus. Similarly 10 mgL-1 kanamycin and 200 mgL-1 cefotaxime also proved successful for the selection of transformed callus. In order to confirm the presence of transgenic callus Polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primers for Chitinase gene. (author)

  8. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England.

    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D

    2009-10-10

    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  9. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C

    2012-01-01

    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine.

  10. Secondary structure and phylogeny of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus 5S rRNAs.

    Dekio, S; Yamasaki, R; Jidoi, J; Hori, H; Osawa, S

    1984-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus Smith (diffuse), Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 14990, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, were determined. The secondary structural models of S. aureus and S. epidermidis sequences showed characteristics of the gram-positive bacterial 5S rRNA (116-N type [H. Hori and S. Osawa, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:381-385, 1979]). Those of M. luteus ATCC 9341 and M. luteus ATCC 4698 together with that of Streptomyces griseus (A. Simoncsits, Nucleic Acids Res. 8:4111-4124, 1980) showed intermediary characteristics between the gram-positive and gram-negative (120-N type [H. Hori and S. Osawa, 1979]) 5S rRNAs. This and previous studies revealed that there exist at least three major groups of eubacteria having distinct 5S rRNA and belonging to different stems in the 5S rRNA phylogenic tree. PMID:6735981

  11. Ecogeographical Variation in Skull Shape of South-American Canids: Abiotic or Biotic Processes?

    de Moura Bubadué, Jamile; Cáceres, Nilton; Dos Santos Carvalho, Renan; Meloro, Carlo

    Species morphological changes can be mutually influenced by environmental or biotic factors, such as competition. South American canids represent a quite recent radiation of taxa that evolved forms very disparate in phenotype, ecology and behaviour. Today, in the central part of South America there is one dominant large species (the maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus ) that directly influence sympatric smaller taxa via interspecific killing. Further south, three species of similar sized foxes ( Lycalopex spp.) share the same habitats. Such unique combination of taxa and geographic distribution makes South American dogs an ideal group to test for the simultaneous impact of climate and competition on phenotypic variation. Using geometric morphometrics, we quantified skull size and shape of 431 specimens belonging to the eight extant South American canid species: Atelocynus microtis , Cerdocyon thous , Ch. brachyurus , Lycalopex culpaeus , L. griseus , L. gymnocercus , L. vetulus and Speothos venaticus . South American canids are significantly different in both skull size and shape. The hypercarnivorous bush dog is mostly distinct in shape from all the other taxa while a degree of overlap in shape-but not size-occurs between species of the genus Lycalopex . Both climate and competition impacts interspecific morphological variation. We identified climatic adaptations as the main driving force of diversification for the South American canids. Competition has a lower degree of impact on their skull morphology although it might have played a role in the past, when canid community was richer in morphotypes.

  12. Geographic identification of Boletus mushrooms by data fusion of FT-IR and UV spectroscopies combined with multivariate statistical analysis

    Yao, Sen; Li, Tao; Li, JieQing; Liu, HongGao; Wang, YuanZhong

    2018-06-01

    Boletus griseus and Boletus edulis are two well-known wild-grown edible mushrooms which have high nutrition, delicious flavor and high economic value distributing in Yunnan Province. In this study, a rapid method using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopies coupled with data fusion was established for the discrimination of Boletus mushrooms from seven different geographical origins with pattern recognition method. Initially, the spectra of 332 mushroom samples obtained from the two spectroscopic techniques were analyzed individually and then the classification performance based on data fusion strategy was investigated. Meanwhile, the latent variables (LVs) of FT-IR and UV spectra were extracted by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and two datasets were concatenated into a new matrix for data fusion. Then, the fusion matrix was further analyzed by support vector machine (SVM). Compared with single spectroscopic technique, data fusion strategy can improve the classification performance effectively. In particular, the accuracy of correct classification of SVM model in training and test sets were 99.10% and 100.00%, respectively. The results demonstrated that data fusion of FT-IR and UV spectra can provide higher synergic effect for the discrimination of different geographical origins of Boletus mushrooms, which may be benefit for further authentication and quality assessment of edible mushrooms.

  13. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  14. Comparing relative abundance, lengths, and habitat of temperate reef fishes using simultaneous underwater visual census, video, and trap sampling

    Bacheler, NM

    2017-04-28

    Unbiased counts of individuals or species are often impossible given the prevalence of cryptic or mobile species. We used 77 simultaneous multi-gear deployments to make inferences about relative abundance, diversity, length composition, and habitat of the reef fish community along the southeastern US Atlantic coast. In total, 117 taxa were observed by underwater visual census (UVC), stationary video, and chevron fish traps, with more taxa being observed by UVC (100) than video (82) or traps (20). Frequency of occurrence of focal species was similar among all sampling approaches for tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum and black sea bass Centropristis striata, higher for UVC and video compared to traps for red snapper Lutjanus campechanus, vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens, and gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus, and higher for UVC compared to video or traps for gray snapper L. griseus and lionfish Pterois spp. For 6 of 7 focal species, correlations of relative abundance among gears were strongest between UVC and video, but there was substantial variability among species. The number of recorded species between UVC and video was correlated (ρ = 0.59), but relationships between traps and the other 2 methods were weaker. Lengths of fish visually estimated by UVC were similar to lengths of fish caught in traps, as were habitat characterizations from UVC and video. No gear provided a complete census for any species in our study, suggesting that analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are necessary to make unbiased inferences about fish abundance.

  15. Two clusters of ciguatera fish poisoning in Paris, France, related to tropical fish imported from the French Caribbean by travelers.

    Epelboin, Loïc; Pérignon, Alice; Hossen, Virginie; Vincent, Renaud; Krys, Sophie; Caumes, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food-borne illness due to the consumption of reef fish containing pathogenic toxins. CFP is endemic to tropical areas and may be described in travelers in non-endemic areas. We describe two clusters of autochthonous cases of CFP in Paris, France. They were related to two fish caught in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and consumed in Paris after being air-transported in a cooler. In both cases, fish flesh was analyzed and the presence of ciguatoxins by mouse bioassay (MBA) was confirmed. The first cluster involved eight individuals among whom five presented gastrointestinal symptoms and four presented neurological symptoms after consuming barracuda flesh (Sphyraena barracuda). The second cluster involved a couple who consumed a grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus). Most of them consulted at different emergency departments in the region of Paris. CFP may be seen in non-traveler patients outside endemic countries resulting from imported species of fish. Thus, CFP may be undiagnosed as physicians are not aware of this tropical disease outside endemic countries. The detection of ciguatoxins by MBA in the French National Reference Laboratory is useful in the confirmation of the diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  16. Effect of pH on simultaneous saccharification and isomerization by glucoamylase and glucose isomerase.

    Mishra, Abha; Debnath Das, Meera

    2002-01-01

    pH and temperature play critical roles in multistep enzymatic conversions. In such conversions, the optimal pH for individual steps differs greatly. In this article, we describe the production of glucoamylase (from Aspergillus oryzae MTCC152 in solid-state fermentation) and glucose isomerase (from Streptomyces griseus NCIM2020 in submerged fermentation), used in industries for producing high-fructose syrup. Optimum pH for glucoamylase was found to be 5.0. For glucose isomerase, the optimum pH ranged between 7.0 and 8.5, depending on the type of buffer used. Optimum temperature for glucoamylase and glucose isomerase was 50 and 60 degrees C, respectively. When both the enzymatic conversions were performed simultaneously at a compromised pH of 6.5, both the enzymes showed lowered activity. We also studied the kinetics at different pHs, which allows the two-step reaction to take place simultaneously. This was done by separating two steps by a thin layer of urease. Ammonia generated by the hydrolysis of urea consumed the hydrogen ions, thereby allowing optimal activity of glucose isomerase at an acidic pH of 5.0.

  17. Static inflation and deflation pressure–volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H.; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure–volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg–1) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLCest) from body mass (Mb) by applying the equation: TLCest=0.135 Mb0.92. Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure–volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases. PMID:22031747

  18. A Simple and Efficient Method of Slow Freezing for Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Imaizumi, Keitaro; Iha, Momoe; Nishishita, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Nishikawa, Shinichi; Akuta, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Protocols available for the cryopreservation of human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are very inefficient and laborious compared to those for the cryopreservation of murine ES/iPS cells or other general cell lines. While the vitrification method may be adequate when working with small numbers of human ES/iPS cells, it requires special skills and is unsuitable when working with large cell numbers. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method for the cryopreservation of hES/hiPS cells that is based on a conventional slow freezing method that uses a combination of Pronase/EDTA for Stem™ and CP-5E™ [final concentrations: 6 % hydroxyethyl starch, 5 % DMSO, and 5 % ethylene glycol in saline]. CP-5E™ is highly effective for the cryopreservation of small cell clumps produced by hES/hiPS colony detachment in the presence of Pronase and EDTA (Pronase/EDTA for Stem™, a formulation containing multiple digestive enzymes from Streptomyces griseus). This novel method would be quite useful for large-scale hES/iPS cell banking for use in clinical applications.

  19. Differentiations of chitin content and surface morphologies of chitins extracted from male and female grasshopper species.

    Murat Kaya

    Full Text Available In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, elemental analysis (EA, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to investigate chitin structure isolated from both sexes of four grasshopper species. FT-IR, EA, XRD, and TGA showed that the chitin was in the alpha form. With respect to gender, two main differences were observed. First, we observed that the quantity of chitin was greater in males than in females and the dry weight of chitin between species ranged from 4.71% to 11.84%. Second, using SEM, we observed that the male chitin surface structure contained 25-90 nm wide nanofibers and 90-250 nm nanopores, while no pores or nanofibers were observed in the chitin surface structure of the majority of females (nanofibers were observed only in M. desertus females. In contrast, the elemental analysis, thermal properties, and crystalline index values for chitin were similar in males and females. Also, we carried out enzymatic digestion of the isolated chitins using commercial chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. We observed that there were no big differences in digestion rate of the chitins from both sexes and commercial chitin. The digestion rates were for grasshoppers' chitins; 88.45-95.48% and for commercial chitin; 94.95%.

  20. Differentiations of chitin content and surface morphologies of chitins extracted from male and female grasshopper species.

    Kaya, Murat; Lelešius, Evaldas; Nagrockaitė, Radvilė; Sargin, Idris; Arslan, Gulsin; Mol, Abbas; Baran, Talat; Can, Esra; Bitim, Betul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis (EA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate chitin structure isolated from both sexes of four grasshopper species. FT-IR, EA, XRD, and TGA showed that the chitin was in the alpha form. With respect to gender, two main differences were observed. First, we observed that the quantity of chitin was greater in males than in females and the dry weight of chitin between species ranged from 4.71% to 11.84%. Second, using SEM, we observed that the male chitin surface structure contained 25-90 nm wide nanofibers and 90-250 nm nanopores, while no pores or nanofibers were observed in the chitin surface structure of the majority of females (nanofibers were observed only in M. desertus females). In contrast, the elemental analysis, thermal properties, and crystalline index values for chitin were similar in males and females. Also, we carried out enzymatic digestion of the isolated chitins using commercial chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. We observed that there were no big differences in digestion rate of the chitins from both sexes and commercial chitin. The digestion rates were for grasshoppers' chitins; 88.45-95.48% and for commercial chitin; 94.95%.

  1. THE BIOMINERAL CONCENTRATIONS AND ACCUMULATION IN SOME WILD GROWING EDIBLE SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS

    Carmen Cristina Elekes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mushrooms species are known to accumulate metals to a higher level than the plants and are considered as a source of proteins, vitamins – riboflavin, biotin and thiamine, fats, carbohydrates, amino acids and minerals. The trace metals concentrations were established by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry method. The aim of this paper is to determinate the minerals content of some wild growing mushrooms, which may be useful in the phytopharmaceutical biotechnologies in order to obtain important quantities of biominerals accessible for the human body. The results are varying with the analyzed species of mushrooms between 11869.85 and 32088.68 mg/kg for potassium, 240.81 to 716.98 mg/kg for calcium and between 0 to 5350 mg/kg for phosphorus. The highest concentration if potassium was founded in B. griseus species, 32088.68 mg/kg. Only two species, Hygrophorus virgineus and Marasmius oreades show a phosphorus concentration in the fruiting body higher than in soil, indicating the accumulation capacity.

  2. The genus Retiboletus in China.

    Zeng, Nian-Kai; Liang, Zhi-Qun; Wu, Gang; Li, Yan-Chun; Yang, Zhu L; Liang, Zhi-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Retiboletus (Boletaceae, Boletales) in China are investigated based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions and sequences from the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (tef1a). Six lineages are recovered among the collections studied. Five of these are documented and presented in the present paper, including three new species and two new combinations. The remaining species is not described due to the paucity of material. The specimens from China identified as "R. ornatipes" or "R. retipes" are in fact R. sinensis or R. kauffmanii, those labeled "R. griseus" are either R. fuscus or R. pseudogriseus A key to all known taxa of the genus is provided. Phylogenetic relationships of taxa within Retiboletus are partially resolved. A preliminary biogeographical analysis shows that allied species of Retiboletus between eastern Asia and North/Central America are common but there are no Retiboletus species common to both continents. Species of Retiboletus in Japan and southern China are conspecific or closely related. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  3. Estimation of Relationship Between In Situ and In Vitro Rumen Protein Degradability of Extruded Full Fat Soybean

    Arzu Erol Tunç

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the protein degradability of extruded full fat soybean (ESB by in situ (nylon bag and in vitro enzymatic method and to develop an equation in order predict in situ degradability from in vitro values. In the study enzymatic technique; hydrolysis after 1 h (INV1 and after 24 h (INV24 by a purified protease extracted from Streptomyces griseus in a borate-phosphate buffer at pH 8 was used as in vitro method. Relationship between in situ effective protein degradability (INSE and in vitro degradability after 1 and 24 hours incubations (INV1 and INV24 were determined. In situ protein degradability was measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 and at 72 h incubations in the rumen of 3 Holstein cows. In the study INSE, INV1 and INV24 were determined as 58.05, 20.24 and 41.46% respectively. Despite there were differences between in situ and in vitro protein degradability values, correlation coefficients between in situ and in vitro protein degradability of ESB were high and regression equations for estimation of in situ from in vitro were found significant. As conclusion in vitro enzymatic protein degradability (INV1 and INV24 can be used for estimation of in situ effective protein degradability of extruded full fat soybean.

  4. Evaluation of antagonistic and plant growth promoting activities of chitinolytic endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants against Sclerotium rolfsii in chickpea.

    Singh, S P; Gaur, R

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potential of chitinolytic endophytic Actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants in order to diminish the collar rot infestation induced by Sclerotium rolfsii in chickpea. Sixty-eight chitinolytic endophytic Actinomycetes were recovered from various medicinal plants and evaluated for their chitinase activity. Among these isolates, 12 were screened for their plant growth promoting abilities and antagonistic potential against Sc. rolfsii. Further, these isolates were validated in vivo for their ability to protect chickpea against Sc. rolfsii infestation under greenhouse conditions. The isolates significantly (P plant mortality (42-75%) of chickpea. On the basis of 16S rDNA profiling, the selected antagonistic strains were identified as Streptomyces diastaticus, Streptomyces fradiae, Streptomyces olivochromogenes, Streptomyces collinus, Streptomyces ossamyceticus and Streptomyces griseus. This study is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Actinomycetes from various medicinal plants having antagonistic and plant growth promoting abilities. The isolated species showed potential for controlling collar rot disease on chickpea and could be useful in integrated control against diverse soil borne plant pathogens. Our investigation suggests that endophytic Actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants can be used as bioinoculants for developing safe, efficacious and environment-friendly biocontrol strategies in the near future. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Sequence analysis of the aminoacylase-1 family. A new proposed signature for metalloexopeptidases.

    Biagini, A; Puigserver, A

    2001-03-01

    The amino acid sequence analysis of the human and porcine aminoacylases-1, the carboxypeptidase S precursor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Corynebacterium glutamicum, the acetylornithine deacetylase from Escherichia coli and Dictyostelium discoideum and the carboxypeptidase G(2) precursor from Pseudomonas strain, using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and the Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST), allowed us to suggest that all these enzymes, which share common functional and biochemical features, belong to the same structural family. The three amino acid blocks which were found to be highly conserved, using the CLUSTAL W program, could be assigned to the catalytic active site, based on the general three-dimensional structure of the carboxypeptidase G(2) from the Pseudomonas strain precursor. Six additional proteins with the same signature have been retrieved after performing two successive PSI-BLAST iterations using the sequence of the conserved motif, namely Lactobacillus delbrueckii aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase, Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae aminopeptidase Y precursor, two Bacillus stearothermophilus N-carbamyl-L-amino acid amidohydrolases and Pseudomonas sp. hydantoin utilization protein C. The three conserved amino acid motifs corresponded to the following blocks: (i) [S, G, A]-H-x-D-x-V; (ii) G-x-x-D; and (iii) x-E-E. This new sequence signature is clearly different from that commonly reported in the literature for proteins belonging to the ArgE/DapE/CPG2/YscS family.

  6. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti, rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    Rick A. Sweitzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]. Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus] ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii], gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat. Keywords: Carnivores, Competition, Distribution, Foraging guild, Predation, Tree squirrels

  7. Metazoan parasites from odontocetes off New Zealand: new records.

    Lehnert, Kristina; Randhawa, Haseeb; Poulin, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from New Zealand waters in general is scarce. This study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the Otago Museum in Dunedin and Massey University in Auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the New Zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. Parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (n = 1); Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (n = 1); short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (n = 7); striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 3) and dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (n = 2)) from the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract, cranial sinus, liver, urogenital and mammary tract, fascia and blubber were investigated. Ten parasite species were identified, belonging to the Nematoda (Stenurus minor, Stenurus globicephalae, Halocercus sp. (Pseudaliidae), Anisakis sp. (Anisakidae), Crassicauda sp. (Crassicaudidae)), Cestoda (Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii (Phyllobothriidae)), Trematoda (Brachicladium palliata and Brachicladium delphini (Brachicladiidae)) and Crustacea (Scutocyamus antipodensis (Cyamidae)). Some of the parasite species encountered comprises new records for their host. Although the material was not sampled within a systematic parasitological survey, the findings contain valuable new information about the parasite fauna of rare, vagile and vulnerable marine wildlife from a remote oceanic environment.

  8. Inter-habitat variation in density and size composition of reef fishes from the Cuban Northwestern shelf.

    Aguilar, Consuelo; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Cabrera, Yureidy; Ruiz, Alexei; Curry, R Allen

    2014-06-01

    Movement and exchange of individuals among habitats is critical for the dynamics and success of reef fish populations. Size segregation among habitats could be taken as evidence for habitat connectivity, and this would be a first step to formulate hypotheses about ontogenetic inter-habitat migrations. The primary goal of our research was to find evidence of inter-habitat differences in size distributions and density of reef fish species that can be classified a priori as habitat-shifters in an extensive (-600km2) Caribbean shelf area in NW Cuba. We sampled the fish assemblage of selected species using visual census (stationary and transect methods) in 20 stations (sites) located in mangrove roots, patch reefs, inner zone of the crest and fore reef (12-16m depth). In each site, we performed ten censuses for every habitat type in June and September 2009. A total of 11 507 individuals of 34 species were counted in a total of 400 censuses. We found significant differences in densities and size compositions among reef and mangrove habitats, supporting the species-specific use of coastal habitats. Adults were found in all habitats. Reef habitats, mainly patch reefs, seem to be most important for juvenile fish of most species. Mangroves were especially important for two species of snappers (Lutjanus apodus and L. griseus), providing habitat for juveniles. These species also displayed well defined gradients in length composition across the shelf.

  9. Shark Interactions With Directed and Incidental Fisheries in the Northeast Pacific Ocean: Historic and Current Encounters, and Challenges for Shark Conservation.

    King, Jackie; McFarlane, Gordon A; Gertseva, Vladlena; Gasper, Jason; Matson, Sean; Tribuzio, Cindy A

    For over 100 years, sharks have been encountered, as either directed catch or incidental catch, in commercial fisheries throughout the Northeast Pacific Ocean. A long-standing directed fishery for North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi) has occurred and dominated shark landings and discards. Other fisheries, mainly for shark livers, have historically targeted species including Bluntnose Sixgill Shark (Hexanchus griseus) and Tope Shark (Galeorhinus galeus). While incidental catches of numerous species have occurred historically, only recently have these encounters been reliably enumerated in commercial and recreational fisheries. In this chapter we present shark catch statistics (directed and incidental) for commercial and recreational fisheries from Canadian waters (off British Columbia), southern US waters (off California, Oregon, and Washington), and northern US waters (off Alaska). In total, 17 species of sharks have collectively been encountered in these waters. Fishery encounters present conservation challenges for shark management, namely, the need for accurate catch statistics, stock delineation, life history parameter estimates, and improved assessments methods for population status and trends. Improvements in management and conservation of shark populations will only come with the further development of sound science-based fishery management practices for both targeted and incidental shark fisheries. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  10. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds.

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (V. griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator decoy or human 1-2m from their nests, but, in contrast to similar studies of cavity-nesting birds, neither these acute threats nor chronic offspring-directed threats altered plasma corticosterone concentrations of parents. Although parents in this study showed no corticosterone response to offspring-directed threats, they always increased corticosterone concentrations in response to capture. To explain these results, we propose that parents perceive their risk of nest-associated death differently depending on nest type, with cavity-nesting adults perceiving greater risk to themselves than open-nesters that can readily detect and escape from offspring-directed threats. Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a major physiological mechanism for coping with threats to survival, probably plays no role in coping with threats to offspring when risks to parents and offspring are not correlated. We extend that paradigm by demonstrating that nest style may influence how adults perceive the correlation between offspring-directed and self-directed threats.

  11. Statistical power to detect change in a mangrove shoreline fish community adjacent to a nuclear power plant.

    Dolan, T E; Lynch, P D; Karazsia, J L; Serafy, J E

    2016-03-01

    An expansion is underway of a nuclear power plant on the shoreline of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA. While the precise effects of its construction and operation are unknown, impacts on surrounding marine habitats and biota are considered by experts to be likely. The objective of the present study was to determine the adequacy of an ongoing monitoring survey of fish communities associated with mangrove habitats directly adjacent to the power plant to detect fish community changes, should they occur, at three spatial scales. Using seasonally resolved data recorded during 532 fish surveys over an 8-year period, power analyses were performed for four mangrove fish metrics (fish diversity, fish density, and the occurrence of two ecologically important fish species: gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) and goldspotted killifish (Floridichthys carpio). Results indicated that the monitoring program at current sampling intensity allows for detection of <33% changes in fish density and diversity metrics in both the wet and the dry season in the two larger study areas. Sampling effort was found to be insufficient in either season to detect changes at this level (<33%) in species-specific occurrence metrics for the two fish species examined. The option of supplementing ongoing, biological monitoring programs for improved, focused change detection deserves consideration from both ecological and cost-benefit perspectives.

  12. Soil management system in hazelnut groves (Corylus sp. versus the presence of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Nietupski Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining biodiversity as well as taking advantage of the natural environment’s resistance are the key elements which should be considered when designing integrated plans for the protection of hazelnut groves. An effort has been made in this study to analyse the impact of different soil cultivation methods in hazelnut groves, on the species composition and number of individuals in carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Another aim was to determine which method of inter-row soil management had the least negative effect on assemblages of these beetles. Because of the type of habitat, the xerothermic species characteristic for southeastern Europe, i.e. Calathus ambiguus, Poecilus lepidus, Harpalus calceatus, and H. griseus, were the most numerous. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the captured individuals implied that the optimal soil tillage system in young hazelnut groves is when soil is kept fallow with machines or chemicals, or when soil is covered with manure. The least favourable practice for the appearance of ground beetles of the Carabidae family is the use of polypropylene fabric, bark or sawdust, to cover soil

  13. A Consensus Genome-scale Reconstruction of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Metabolism

    Hefzi, Hooman

    2016-11-23

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells dominate biotherapeutic protein production and are widely used in mammalian cell line engineering research. To elucidate metabolic bottlenecks in protein production and to guide cell engineering and bioprocess optimization, we reconstructed the metabolic pathways in CHO and associated them with >1,700 genes in the Cricetulus griseus genome. The genome-scale metabolic model based on this reconstruction, iCHO1766, and cell-line-specific models for CHO-K1, CHO-S, and CHO-DG44 cells provide the biochemical basis of growth and recombinant protein production. The models accurately predict growth phenotypes and known auxotrophies in CHO cells. With the models, we quantify the protein synthesis capacity of CHO cells and demonstrate that common bioprocess treatments, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors, inefficiently increase product yield. However, our simulations show that the metabolic resources in CHO are more than three times more efficiently utilized for growth or recombinant protein synthesis following targeted efforts to engineer the CHO secretory pathway. This model will further accelerate CHO cell engineering and help optimize bioprocesses.

  14. Comparative histological study of the mammalian facial nucleus.

    Furutani, Rui; Sugita, Shoei

    2008-04-01

    We performed comparative Nissl, Klüver-Barrera and Golgi staining studies of the mammalian facial nucleus to classify the morphologically distinct subdivisions and the neuronal types in the rat, rabbit, ferret, Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), pig, horse, Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The medial subnucleus was observed in all examined species; however, that of the Risso's and bottlenose dolphins was a poorly-developed structure comprised of scattered neurons. The medial subnuclei of terrestrial mammals were well-developed cytoarchitectonic structures, usually a rounded column comprised of densely clustered neurons. Intermediate and lateral subnuclei were found in all studied mammals, with differences in columnar shape and neuronal types from species to species. The dorsolateral subnucleus was detected in all mammals but the Japanese monkey, whose facial neurons converged into the intermediate subnucleus. The dorsolateral subnuclei of the two dolphin species studied were expanded subdivisions comprised of densely clustered cells. The ventromedial subnuclei of the ferret, pig, and horse were richly-developed columns comprised of large multipolar neurons. Pig and horse facial nuclei contained another ventral cluster, the ventrolateral subnucleus. The facial nuclei of the Japanese monkey and the bottlenose dolphin were similar in their ventral subnuclear organization. Our findings show species-specific subnuclear organization and distribution patterns of distinct types of neurons within morphological discrete subdivisions, reflecting functional differences.

  15. Concentration of mercury and selenium in tissues of five cetacean species from Croatian coastal waters

    Bilandžić Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and selenium (Se concentrations were measured in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of five cetacean species, three dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus and two whale species (Balaenoptera physalus and Ziphius cavirostris, stranded along the Croatian coast during the period 1999-2002. Statistically significant differences in Hg concentrations in muscle, spleen and lung, and Se in liver and lung of the different dolphin species were observed. Mercury levels in liver and spleen and Se levels in liver differed between young and adult T. truncatus species. A significant positive correlation between different tissue types for Hg and Se concentrations was observed. In all tissues tested, the lowest Hg and Se concentrations were found in B. physalus. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with Se in all tissues. The results present one of few studies related to lung and spleen tissues in these mammals, particularly in the Adriatic Sea. Since very little data are available, this research provides new data on concentrations of Hg and Se in five cetacean species from the Adriatic Sea basin.

  16. Tissue concentrations of four Taiwanese toothed cetaceans indicating the silver and cadmium pollution in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Chen, Meng-Hsien; Zhuang, Ming-Feng; Chou, Lien-Siang; Liu, Jean-Yi; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Chen, Chiee-Young

    2017-11-30

    Muscle, lung, kidney and liver tissues of 45 bycatch and stranded cetaceans, including 14 Grampus griseus (Gg), 7 Kogia simus (Ks), 10 Lagenodelphis hosei (Lh), and 14 Stenella attenuata (Sa), were collected in the waters off Taiwan from 1994 to 1995, and from 2001 to 2012. Baseline concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) of the cetaceans were lung (<0.05)=muscle (<0.05)

  17. Evolutionary Relations of Hexanchiformes Deep-Sea Sharks Elucidated by Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    Tanaka, Keiko; Tomita, Taketeru; Suzuki, Shingo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Sano, Kazumi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kono, Azumi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K.; Tanaka, Sho

    2013-01-01

    Hexanchiformes is regarded as a monophyletic taxon, but the morphological and genetic relationships between the five extant species within the order are still uncertain. In this study, we determined the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of seven sharks including representatives of the five Hexanchiformes, one squaliform, and one carcharhiniform and inferred the phylogenetic relationships among those species and 12 other Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) species for which the complete mitogenome is available. The monophyly of Hexanchiformes and its close relation with all other Squaliformes sharks were strongly supported by likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 13,749 aligned nucleotides of 13 protein coding genes and two rRNA genes that were derived from the whole mDNA sequences of the 19 species. The phylogeny suggested that Hexanchiformes is in the superorder Squalomorphi, Chlamydoselachus anguineus (frilled shark) is the sister species to all other Hexanchiformes, and the relations within Hexanchiformes are well resolved as Chlamydoselachus, (Notorynchus, (Heptranchias, (Hexanchus griseus, H. nakamurai))). Based on our phylogeny, we discussed evolutionary scenarios of the jaw suspension mechanism and gill slit numbers that are significant features in the sharks. PMID:24089661

  18. Mining and polishing of the treasure trove in the bacterial genus streptomyces.

    Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2007-02-01

    The complex morphogenesis of the bacterial genus Streptomyces has made this genus a model prokaryote for study of multicellular differentiation, and its ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites has made it an excellent supplier of biologically active substances, including antibiotics. This review summarizes our study of these two characteristics of Streptomyces, focusing on the A-factor regulatory cascade and work derived from the A-factor study. A microbial hormone, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone), triggers morphological differentiation and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus. The key steps in the A-factor regulatory cascade, including afsA, encoding the key enzyme for A-factor biosynthesis, arpA, encoding the A-factor receptor, and adpA, encoding a transcriptional activator, are elucidated. The target genes of the regulatory cascade include genes of various functions required for morphological development and secondary metabolite formation. The biosynthesis gene clusters for grixazone and hexahydroxyperylenequinone are examples. The former contains the enzymes for novel benzene ring formation and phenoxazinone formation, and the latter contains enzymes belonging to a type III polyketide synthase and a cytochrome P-450. Enzymes of various catalytic functions in Streptomyces are useful as members of an artificial gene cluster constructed in Escherichia coli for fermentative production of plant-specific flavonoids, including isoflavones and unnatural compounds.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of SGR6054, a Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF

    Nomoto, Ryohei; Tezuka, Takeaki; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    A Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF was heterologously produced, purified and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2. The mycobacterial integration host factor (mIHF) is a small nonspecific DNA-binding protein that is essential for the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis. mIHF homologues are widely distributed among Actinobacteria, and a Streptomyces homologue of mIHF is involved in control of sporulation and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor A3(2). Despite their important biological functions, a structure of mIHF or its homologues has not been elucidated to date. Here, the S. griseus mIHF homologue (SGR6054) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The plate-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.53, b = 69.35, c = 77.71 Å, β = 96.63°, and diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of SGR6054, a Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF

    Nomoto, Ryohei; Tezuka, Takeaki; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2012-08-31

    A Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF was heterologously produced, purified and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2. The mycobacterial integration host factor (mIHF) is a small nonspecific DNA-binding protein that is essential for the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis. mIHF homologues are widely distributed among Actinobacteria, and a Streptomyces homologue of mIHF is involved in control of sporulation and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor A3(2). Despite their important biological functions, a structure of mIHF or its homologues has not been elucidated to date. Here, the S. griseus mIHF homologue (SGR6054) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The plate-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.53, b = 69.35, c = 77.71 Å, β = 96.63°, and diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution.

  1. Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat.

    Moore, Charles James

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly known as plastics, have been entering the marine environment in quantities paralleling their level of production over the last half century. However, in the last two decades of the 20th Century, the deposition rate accelerated past the rate of production, and plastics are now one of the most common and persistent pollutants in ocean waters and beaches worldwide. Thirty years ago the prevailing attitude of the plastic industry was that "plastic litter is a very small proportion of all litter and causes no harm to the environment except as an eyesore" [Derraik, J.G.B., 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(9), 842-852]. Between 1960 and 2000, the world production of plastic resins increased 25-fold, while recovery of the material remained below 5%. Between 1970 and 2003, plastics became the fastest growing segment of the US municipal waste stream, increasing nine-fold, and marine litter is now 60-80% plastic, reaching 90-95% in some areas. While undoubtedly still an eyesore, plastic debris today is having significant harmful effects on marine biota. Albatross, fulmars, shearwaters and petrels mistake floating plastics for food, and many individuals of these species are affected; in fact, 44% of all seabird species are known to ingest plastic. Sea turtles ingest plastic bags, fishing line and other plastics, as do 26 species of cetaceans. In all, 267 species of marine organisms worldwide are known to have been affected by plastic debris, a number that will increase as smaller organisms are assessed. The number of fish, birds, and mammals that succumb each year to derelict fishing nets and lines in which they become entangled cannot be reliably known; but estimates are in the millions. We divide marine plastic debris into two categories: macro, >5 mm and micro, plastic micro-debris by filter feeders at the base of the food web is known to occur, but has not been quantified

  2. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap.Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified.The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  3. Novel insights into early neuroanatomical evolution in penguins from the oldest described penguin brain endocast.

    Proffitt, J V; Clarke, J A; Scofield, R P

    2016-08-01

    Digital methodologies for rendering the gross morphology of the brain from X-ray computed tomography data have expanded our current understanding of the origin and evolution of avian neuroanatomy and provided new perspectives on the cognition and behavior of birds in deep time. However, fossil skulls germane to extracting digital endocasts from early stem members of extant avian lineages remain exceptionally rare. Data from early-diverging species of major avian subclades provide key information on ancestral morphologies in Aves and shifts in gross neuroanatomical structure that have occurred within those groups. Here we describe data on the gross morphology of the brain from a mid-to-late Paleocene penguin fossil from New Zealand. This most basal and geochronologically earliest-described endocast from the penguin clade indicates that described neuroanatomical features of early stem penguins, such as lower telencephalic lateral expansion, a relatively wider cerebellum, and lack of cerebellar folding, were present far earlier in penguin history than previously inferred. Limited dorsal expansion of the wulst in the new fossil is a feature seen in outgroup waterbird taxa such as Gaviidae (Loons) and diving Procellariiformes (Shearwaters, Diving Petrels, and allies), indicating that loss of flight may not drastically affect neuroanatomy in diving taxa. Wulst enlargement in the penguin lineage is first seen in the late Eocene, at least 25 million years after loss of flight and cooption of the flight stroke for aquatic diving. Similar to the origin of avian flight, major shifts in gross brain morphology follow, but do not appear to evolve quickly after, acquisition of a novel locomotor mode. Enlargement of the wulst shows a complex pattern across waterbirds, and may be linked to sensory modifications related to prey choice and foraging strategy. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  4. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013.

    Natalia Montesdeoca

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process.We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout, fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The crude and stratified (by causes of admission rates of the three final disposition categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, and release Rr, the time until death, and the length of stay were also studied for the seabirds admitted alive.Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis was the species most frequently admitted (46.52%, followed by Cory's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis (20.09%. The most frequent causes of morbidity were light pollution (fallout (25.81%, poisoning/intoxication (24.69%, and other traumas (18.14%. The final disposition rates were: Er = 15.35%, Mr = 16.29%, and Rr = 68.34%. The highest Er was observed in the 'other traumas' category (58.08%. Seabirds admitted due to metabolic/nutritional disorder had the highest Mr (50%. The highest Rr was observed in the light pollution (fallout category (99.20%.This survey provides useful information for the conservation of several seabird species. We suggest that at least the stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters time until death and length of stay at the center should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation of seabirds. The high release rate for seabirds (68.34% achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation centers for the conservation of seabirds.

  5. Heart rate variability reveals that a decrease in parasympathetic ('rest-and-digest') activity dominates autonomic stress responses in a free-living seabird.

    Müller, Martina S; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Yamamoto, Maki; Yoda, Ken

    2017-10-01

    The autonomic stress response, often referred to as the 'fight-or-flight' response, is a highly conserved physiological reaction to stress in vertebrates that occurs via a decrease in parasympathetic (PNS) activity, which promotes self-maintenance 'rest and digest' processes, and an increase in sympathetic (SNS) activity, which prepares an animal for danger ('fight-or-flight'). Though the PNS and SNS both innervate most organs, they often control different tissues and functions within those organs (though the pacemaker of the heart is controlled by both). Moreover the PNS and SNS are regulated independently. Yet until now, most studies of autonomic stress responses in non-model species focused only on the SNS response. We used external electrocardiogram loggers to measure heart rate and heart rate variability indexes that reflect PNS and SNS activity in a seabird, the Streaked Shearwater (Calonectris leucomelas), during the stress of handling, and during recovery in the nest burrow or during restraint in a cloth bag. We show for the first time in a free-living animal that the autonomic stress response is mediated primarily by a rapid decrease in PNS activity: handling stress induced a large and long-lasting depression of PNS 'rest-and-digest' activity that required two hours to recover. We also found evidence for a substantially smaller and shorter-lasting SNS 'fight-or-flight' response. Confinement in a cloth bag was less stressful for birds than handling, but more stressful than recovering in nest burrows. We show that quantifying autonomic activity from heart rate variability is effective for non-invasively studying stress physiology in free-living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex and migratory strategy influence corticosterone levels in winter-grown feathers, with positive breeding effects in a migratory pelagic seabird.

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Dias, Maria P; Catry, Paulo

    2016-08-01

    To overcome unpredictable stressful transitory events, animals trigger an allostatic response involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex. This hormonal response, which involves the release of glucocorticoids which in turn mediate between the main physiological mechanisms that regulate the energetic demands and resource allocation trade-off with behavioural responses to environmental perturbations and may ultimately lead to variation in fitness. We have used the Cory's shearwater Calonectris borealis, a sexually dimorphic pelagic seabird with a partial migratory strategy, as a model bird species to analyse a number of traits related to the stress response. We investigated whether the activation of a stressful response, mediated by corticosterone, during the wintering period (1) correlated with the previous breeding success, (2) was affected by the migratory behaviour of male birds and (3) had consequences in the fitness of the birds. Corticosterone levels in feathers grown overwinter were analysed in 61 adult birds during three consecutive migratory periods (2009-2012) and in 14 immature birds in the wintering period 2010-2011. Moreover, the levels of corticosterone were analysed in experimental birds which were freed from their reproductive duties and compared with control birds which raised fledglings to the end of the breeding period. The results show that the levels of corticosterone were sex dependent, differed between years and were affected by the migratory strategy performed by the birds. The activation of the stressful response over the wintering period generated residual carry-over effects that positively affected the reproductive output in the subsequent breeding stage, a phenomenon previously undescribed in a long-lived pelagic seabird. Our study provides evidence that the analysis of corticosterone from feathers is a useful tool to evaluate carry-over effects in birds far away from breeding sites, opening new possibilities for future studies in

  7. Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean: The Gulf of Corinth's Odontocetes.

    Bearzi, G; Bonizzoni, S; Santostasi, N L; Furey, N B; Eddy, L; Valavanis, V D; Gimenez, O

    The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km 2 semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500-900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture-recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011-2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158-1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16-31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36-83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33-47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  8. Management of Protected Areas and Its Effect on an Ecosystem Function: Removal of Prosopis flexuosa Seeds by Mammals in Argentinian Drylands

    Campos, Valeria E.; Miguel, Florencia; Cona, Mónica I.

    2016-01-01

    The ecological function of animal seed dispersal depends on species interactions and can be affected by drivers such as the management interventions applied to protected areas. This study was conducted in two protected areas in the Monte Desert: a fenced reserve with grazing exclusion and absence of large native mammals (the Man and Biosphere Ñacuñán Reserve; FR) and an unfenced reserve with low densities of large native and domestic animals (Ischigualasto Park; UFR). The study focuses on Prosopis flexuosa seed removal by different functional mammal groups: “seed predators”, “scatter-hoarders”, and “opportunistic frugivores”. Under both interventions, the relative contribution to seed removal by different functional mammal groups was assessed, as well as how these groups respond to habitat heterogeneity (i.e. vegetation structure) at different spatial scales. Camera traps were used to identify mammal species removing P. flexuosa seeds and to quantify seed removal; remote sensing data helped analyze habitat heterogeneity. In the FR, the major fruit removers were a seed predator (Graomys griseoflavus) and a scatter-hoarder (Microcavia asutralis). In the UFR, the main seed removers were the opportunistic frugivores (Lycalopex griseus and Dolichotis patagonum), who removed more seeds than the seed predator in the FR. The FR shows higher habitat homogeneity than the UFR, and functional groups respond differently to habitat heterogeneity at different spatial scales. In the FR, because large herbivores are locally extinct (e.g. Lama guanicoe) and domestic herbivores are excluded, important functions of large herbivores are missing, such as the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity, which provides habitats for medium-sized opportunistic frugivores with consequent improvement of quality and quantity of seed dispersal services. In the UFR, with low densities of large herbivores, probably one important ecosystem function this group performs is to increase

  9. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  10. Nitrogen fractionation of certain conventional- and lesser-known by-products for ruminants

    M.S. Mahesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proteins for ruminants are fractionated according to solubility, degradability and digestibility. In the present experiment, 11 vegetable protein meals and cakes used in ruminant nutrition were included with a main focus on determining various nitrogen (N fractions in vitro. Total N (N × 6.25 content varied from 22.98% (mahua cake to 65.16% (maize gluten meal, respectively. Guar meal korma contained the lowest and rice gluten meal had the highest acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; N × 6.25. Borate-phosphate insoluble N (BIN, N × 6.25 and Streptomyces griseus protease insoluble N (PIN; N × 6.25 were higher (P < 0.01 in maize gluten meal than in other feeds, whereas groundnut cake and sunflower cake had lower (P < 0.01 BIN, and PIN, respectively. Available N, calculated with the assumption that ADIN is indigestible, was maximum in guar meal korma and minimum in rice gluten meal. Furthermore, rapid and slowly degradable N (N × 6.25 was found to be higher (P < 0.01 in groundnut cake and coconut cake, respectively. Intestinal digestion of rumen undegradable protein, expressed as percent of PIN, was maximum in guar meal korma and minimum in rice gluten meal. It was concluded that vegetable protein meals differed considerably in N fractions, and therefore, a selective inclusion of particular ingredient is needed to achieve desired level of N fractions to aid precision N rationing for an improved production performance of ruminants.

  11. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Liping Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA to TAA was 0.13–0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%–54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  12. Mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the Delphinidae with an emphasis on the Globicephalinae

    de Stephanis Renaud

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous DNA-based phylogenetic studies of the Delphinidae family suggest it has undergone rapid diversification, as characterised by unresolved and poorly supported taxonomic relationships (polytomies for some of the species within this group. Using an increased amount of sequence data we test between alternative hypotheses of soft polytomies caused by rapid speciation, slow evolutionary rate and/or insufficient sequence data, and hard polytomies caused by simultaneous speciation within this family. Combining the mitogenome sequences of five new and 12 previously published species within the Delphinidae, we used Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods to estimate the phylogeny from partitioned and unpartitioned mitogenome sequences. Further ad hoc tests were then conducted to estimate the support for alternative topologies. Results We found high support for all the relationships within our reconstructed phylogenies, and topologies were consistent between the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood trees inferred from partitioned and unpartitioned data. Resolved relationships included the placement of the killer whale (Orcinus orca as sister taxon to the rest of the Globicephalinae subfamily, placement of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus within the Globicephalinae subfamily, removal of the white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris from the Delphininae subfamily and the placement of the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis as sister taxon to the rest of the Delphininae subfamily rather than within the Globicephalinae subfamily. The additional testing of alternative topologies allowed us to reject all other putative relationships, with the exception that we were unable to reject the hypothesis that the relationship between L. albirostris and the Globicephalinae and Delphininae subfamilies was polytomic. Conclusion Despite their rapid diversification, the increased sequence data yielded by mitogenomes enables the

  13. Obtención de péptidos antioxidantes de glicinina de soja

    Alejandra Medrano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la potencialidad de dos preparados enzimáticos, proteasas de Streptomyces griseus (PSG y de Aspergillus oryzae (Flavourzyme, en la obtención de péptidos antioxidantes de glicinina de soja. La reacción de hidrólisis se realizó bajo condiciones controladas de pH, temperatura y tiempo. El grado de hidrólisis (GH% se estimó mediante determinación de grupos amino libres. Los hidrolizados obtenidos se caracterizaron por SDS-PAGE y análisis de sus propiedades antioxidantes por ABTS, ORAC y oxidación de desoxirribosa. Los compuestos fenólicos se determinaron por reacción con Folin-Ciocalteu. El GH% dependió del tiempo de reacción y de la naturaleza del preparado enzimático, con Flavourzyme más activa que PSG (p ≤ 0.05. Se observó una correlación directa entre GH% de Flavourzyme y la acción frente a radicales ABTS e hidroxilos (p ≤ 0.05 de sus hidrolizados. Los hidrolizados de PSG resultaron significativamente más efectivos (p ≤ 0.05 frente a radicales alquilperoxílicos que los de Flavourzyme. No se detectaron diferencias significativas (p>0,05 en las concentraciones de compuestos fenólicos de las muestras, por lo que las diferencias en capacidad antioxidante de los hidrolizados proteicos se pueden asociar a su composición peptídica. Las investigaciones de este equipo remarcan el interés del análisis de fenoles en hidrolizados proteicos con propiedades antioxidantes.

  14. Importance of Mangroves, Seagrass Beds and the Shallow Coral Reef as a Nursery for Important Coral Reef Fishes, Using a Visual Census Technique

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.; Gorissen, M. W.; Meijer, G. J.; Van't Hof, T.; den Hartog, C.

    2000-07-01

    The nursery function of various biotopes for coral reef fishes was investigated on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Length and abundance of 16 commercially important reef fish species were determined by means of visual censuses during the day in six different biotopes: mangrove prop-roots ( Rhizophora mangle) and seagrass beds ( Thalassia testudinum) in Lac Bay, and four depth zones on the coral reef (0 to 3 m, 3 to 5 m, 10 to 15 m and 15 to 20 m). The mangroves, seagrass beds and shallow coral reef (0 to 3 m) appeared to be the main nursery biotopes for the juveniles of the selected species. Mutual comparison between biotopes showed that the seagrass beds were the most important nursery biotope for juvenile Haemulon flavolineatum, H. sciurus, Ocyurus chrysurus, Acanthurus chirurgus and Sparisoma viride, the mangroves for juvenile Lutjanus apodus, L. griseus, Sphyraena barracuda and Chaetodon capistratus, and the shallow coral reef for juvenile H. chrysargyreum, L. mahogoni , A. bahianus and Abudefduf saxatilis. Juvenile Acanthurus coeruleus utilized all six biotopes, while juvenile H. carbonarium and Anisotremus surinamensis were not observed in any of the six biotopes. Although fishes showed a clear preference for a specific nursery biotope, most fish species utilized multiple nursery biotopes simultaneously. The almost complete absence of juveniles on the deeper reef zones indicates the high dependence of juveniles on the shallow water biotopes as a nursery. For most fish species an (partial) ontogenetic shift was observed at a particular life stage from their (shallow) nursery biotopes to the (deeper) coral reef. Cluster analyses showed that closely related species within the families Haemulidae, Lutjanidae and Acanthuridae, and the different size classes within species in most cases had a spatial separation in biotope utilization.

  15. Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish.

    Joseph D Iafrate

    Full Text Available The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of pile driving occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. Behavioral impacts of sound generated from these activities on fish typically have a greater area of influence than physical injury, and may therefore adversely affect a greater portion of the local population. This study used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement, residency, and survival of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus and 10 grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus in Port Canaveral, Florida, USA, in response to 35 days of pile driving at a wharf complex. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. Received sound pressure levels from pile strikes on the interior of the wharf, where reef fish primarily occur, were on average 152-157 dB re 1 μPa (peak. No significant decrease in sheepshead daytime residency was observed during pile driving within the central portion of the wharf and area of highest sound exposure, and no major indicators of displacement from the exposure wharf with the onset of pile driving were observed. There was evidence of potential displacement from the exposure wharf that coincided with the start of pile driving observed for 2 out of 4 grey snapper, along with a decrease in daytime residency for a subset of this species with high site fidelity prior to the event. Results indicate that snapper may be more likely to depart an area of pile driving disturbance more readily than sheepshead, but were less at risk for behavioral impact given the lower site fidelity of this species.

  16. Microbial conversion of hymexazol in soil

    Nakanishi, Toshiro; Takahi, Yukiyoshi; Tomita, Kazuo

    1974-01-01

    The metabolism of hymexazol (3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole) in soil was studied by using 14 C-labeled chemical ( 14 C-labeled at the 3 position on the isoxazole ring) to obtain fundamental information on its persistence in disease controlling activity and on residue analysis. Radioactive hymexazol was degraded in the unsterilized soil, and three radioactive metabolites were identified with carbon dioxide, acetoacetamide, and 5-methyl-2(3H)-oxazolone. The amount of 14 CO 2 evolved from radioactive hymexazol treated soil increased with time, whereas those of the other metabolites decreased. The breakdown of hymexazol in unsterilized soil is biological, since only a trace of 14 CO 2 was evolved from the sterilized soil. Production of 14 CO 2 was remarkable in submerged condition compared to that in moist one. The amount of 14 CO 2 evolved from radioactive hymexazol treated soil increased with increasing temperature levels from 15C to 35C. Hymexazol was also degraded to CO 2 , acetoacetamide, and 5-methyl-2(3H)-oxazolone in the soil infested with Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces griseus, Aspergillus niger, Arthrinium sp., or Penicillium sp. A certain portion of hymexazol and/or its metabolites were so tightly adsorbed by the soil that it could not be removed by extraction with 1N HCl and subsequent elution with 1N NaOH or methanol. Since acetoacetamide and 5-methyl-2(3H)-oxazolone were found to be less effective than hymexazol against Fusarium wilt of cucumber, the metabolism of hymexazol in soil can be considered as a detoxication step. (auth.)

  17. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals

    Teuten, Emma L. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: emma.teuten@plymouth.ac.uk; Pedler, Byron E. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: bpedler@whoi.edu; Hangsterfer, Alexandra N. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: ahangsterfer@whoi.edu; Reddy, Christopher M. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: creddy@whoi.edu

    2006-11-15

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7}, and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 {mu}g/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl may be significant in the formation of C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. - Three novel bioaccumulated compounds were identified as C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7} and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl.

  18. Diversity of Two-Domain Laccase-Like Multicopper Oxidase Genes in Streptomyces spp.: Identification of Genes Potentially Involved in Extracellular Activities and Lignocellulose Degradation during Composting of Agricultural Waste

    Lu, Lunhui; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Anwei; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Min; Yuan, Yujie; Wu, Haipeng; Lai, Mingyong; He, Yibin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional three-domain fungal and bacterial laccases have been extensively studied for their significance in various biotechnological applications. Growing molecular evidence points to a wide occurrence of more recently recognized two-domain laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes in Streptomyces spp. However, the current knowledge about their ecological role and distribution in natural or artificial ecosystems is insufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and composition of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes in agricultural waste composting, which will contribute to the understanding of the ecological function of Streptomyces two-domain LMCOs with potential extracellular activity and ligninolytic capacity. A new specific PCR primer pair was designed to target the two conserved copper binding regions of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes. The obtained sequences mainly clustered with Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces violaceusniger, and Streptomyces griseus. Gene libraries retrieved from six composting samples revealed high diversity and a rapid succession of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes during composting. The obtained sequence types cluster in 8 distinct clades, most of which are homologous with Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes, but the sequences of clades III and VIII do not match with any reference sequence of known streptomycetes. Both lignocellulose degradation rates and phenol oxidase activity at pH 8.0 in the composting process were found to be positively associated with the abundance of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes. These observations provide important clues that Streptomyces two-domain LMCOs are potentially involved in bacterial extracellular phenol oxidase activities and lignocellulose breakdown during agricultural waste composting. PMID:24657870

  19. “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” (March 2017

    L. LIPEJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This Collective Article presents information on 22 species belonging to 5 Phyla, arranged geographically from from west to east. The new records were found in 8 countries as follows: Spain: first record of the two scarcely known nemerteans Baseodiscus delineatus and Notospermus geniculatus in Formentera; Malta: second record of the alien fish Lagocephalus sceleratus; Italy: the alien polychaete Syllis pectinans and the isopod Paranthura japonica, as well as the cryptogenic opisthobranch Anteaeolidiella lurana, were found in the fouling assemblages along the docks of the port of Livorno. New decapod records are reported from Sicily (the alien Callinectes sapidus and the native Pachygrapsus maurus and Apulia (Percnon gibbosus and Procambarus clarkii; the lesser amberjack Seriola fasciata extended its geographical range to the Egadi Isands and Siganus luridus was documented for the first time along the Ionian coasts of Apulia and Calabria. Slovenia: the first record of the alien bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis is reported, together with a survey of up to date Adriatic records. Greece: the first record of the gastropod Rhinoclavis kochi is reported from Gavdos island. In addition, two records of endangered and rare cartilaginous fish were reported, namely, the shark Hexanchus griseus and the ray Leucoraja fullonica, as well as additional records of Siganus luridus for Lesvos and Malleus regula and Fulvia fragilis from Astypalaia. Turkey: the black wing flyingfish Hirundichthys rondeletii is reported for the very first time from the Black Sea. Egypt: the Indo-Pacific crab Halimede ochtodes is reported as established in Port Said. In addition, biometric parameters and meristic counts are reported for Anthias anthias in Damietta. Cyprus: the alien opisthobranch gastropod Bursatella leachii is reported for first time.

  20. Remoción de nutrientes mediante coagulantes naturales y químicos en planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales, Valledupar Colombia

    Damileth Dearmas Duarte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó desempeño y eficiencia de dos coagulantes químicos: sulfato de aluminio y policloruro de aluminio (PAC, y dos naturales: moringa (Moringa oleífera y cardón guajiro (Lemaireoreus griseus en la remoción de nutrientes y sedimentos del efluente de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales conformado por lagunas de estabilización El Salguero ubicada en el municipio de Valledupar, Cesar, Colombia. Los ensayos se llevaron a cabo con muestras de agua procedentes del río Cesar recogidas en el efluente del sistema de tratamiento. La turbidez varía desde 25 NTU hasta 67 NTU durante la época de desarrollo de la investigación. Se obtuvo que el sulfato de aluminio pese a no alcanzar la turbidez exigida por la normatividad colombiana (Decreto 3930/2010, Articulo N°72 Turbidez ≥ 5 NTU es un coagulante que remueve más del 80% de los parámetros de DQO, DBO y algas. El policloruro de aluminio es adecuado para disminuir significativamente la turbidez y los SST en un 92%, además presentó la mejor viabilidad económica de los tratamientos; y para la disminución de fosforo total resultaron efectivos los tratamientos con coagulantes naturales moringa y cardón, los cuales presentaron una remoción de 90.35%. Se concluye que los coagulantes evaluados presentan un potencial de remoción de los parámetros analizados, los resultados avalan a la Moringa oleífera como una posible alternativa natural en la potabilización de las aguas, ya que garantiza no sólo lograrcon éxito el proceso de coagulación, sino también, la ausencia de residuos

  1. MICROORGANISMOS BENÉFICOS EN EL CONTROL DE ENFERMEDADES EN JENGIBRE

    Marena Chavarría

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Peñas Blanca, San Ramón de Alajuela, se evaluó la acción supresora de las cepas de Trichoderma viride 2C-PR, Bacillus subtilis 002R y Streptomyces griseus 001, en el combate de Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Pseudomonas sp y Erwinia carotovora, en plantas de jengibre, en comparación con fungicidas y bactericidas usados por el agricultor. Las aplicaciones se realizaron cada 15 días durante un periodo de 9 meses y cada semana cuando se presentó algún foco de infección. La duración del trabajo fue de 11 meses (febrero-diciembre. Se evaluó la sobrevivencia de los patógenos y los biocontroladores, para lo cual se realizaron análisis microbiológicos a los 4 y 9 meses de edad de cultivo; se evaluó además producción. En términos generales, se observó una tendencia a la disminución del inóculo de los patógenos en el tratamiento biológico, en comparación con el tratamiento químico en ambos muestreos, a excepción de F. solani en el primer muestreo. Al final del ensayo se pudo determinar la presencia de la cepa de Trichoderma con poblaciones de 4,5x108 conidios g-1, Bacillus con 6,1x1010 UFC ml-1 y Streptomyces fue la cepa que menos persistió en el campo, con una poblacion 2x101 ml-1.

  2. [Laboratory of technology of biopreparations].

    Datsenko, Z M

    1995-01-01

    The main scientific direction of the Laboratory is the development of new biochemical technologies for obtaining various biopreparations based on animal and plant raw materials, especially on that of the sea organisms. Fundamental investigations of the preparations of animal and microorganism hydrolysis have enabled the researchers to develop technologies for obtaining Str. griseus and Ceph. acremonium proteolytic complexes and to study their properties for the latter could be used as reagents in chemistry of proteins. Immobilized polyenzyme systems of proteases with silicagel and activated carbon fibre material as a matrix were created on the basis of investigations of immobilized enzymes. The advantages of immobilized biocatalysts possessing highest stability and a possibility of repeated application are described. Biotechnological isolation of bioactive preparations (BAP) of lipid-protein nature that are the structure components of cells membranes is the key problem at present. Biochemical principles of BAP metabolisms regulation in cell membranes and the role of the obtained biopreparations in correction of pathological conditions are also studied. These investigations promoted development of technologies for two new biopreparations from sea organisms (Calmar's gonades) for medicine. The first one is a set of surface active phospholipids and the second one is a set of nucleopeptides affecting the secretion of sex hormones. It has been found that surface active preparations show an antioxidative and membrane-stabilizing properties as well. It has also been shown that the preparation corrects the effect of pathology conditions in case of experimental hepatitis-induced by CCl4. The preparation influences the antioxidative system and thus the rate of lipid peroxidation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Species delimitation in taxonomically difficult fungi: the case of Hymenogaster.

    Benjamin Stielow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available False truffles are ecologically important as mycorrhizal partners of trees and evolutionarily highly interesting as the result of a shift from epigeous mushroom-like to underground fruiting bodies. Since its first description by Vittadini in 1831, inappropriate species concepts in the highly diverse false truffle genus Hymenogaster has led to continued confusion, caused by a large variety of prevailing taxonomical opinions.In this study, we reconsidered the species delimitations in Hymenogaster based on a comprehensive collection of Central European taxa comprising more than 140 fruiting bodies from 20 years of field work. The ITS rDNA sequence dataset was subjected to phylogenetic analysis as well as clustering optimization using OPTSIL software.Among distinct species concepts from the literature used to create reference partitions for clustering optimization, the broadest concept resulted in the highest agreement with the ITS data. Our results indicate a highly variable morphology of H. citrinus and H. griseus, most likely linked to environmental influences on the phenology (maturity, habitat, soil type and growing season. In particular, taxa described in the 19(th century frequently appear as conspecific. Conversely, H. niveus appears as species complex comprising seven cryptic species with almost identical macro- and micromorphology. H. intermedius and H. huthii are described as novel species, each of which with a distinct morphology intermediate between two species complexes. A revised taxonomy for one of the most taxonomically difficult genera of Basidiomycetes is proposed, including an updated identification key. The (semi-automated selection among species concepts used here is of importance for the revision of taxonomically problematic organism groups in general.

  4. Isolation, biochemical and molecular identification of Nocardia species among TB suspects in northeastern, Tanzania; a forgotten or neglected threat?

    Hoza, Abubakar S; Mfinanga, Sayoki G S; Moser, Irmgard; König, Brigitte

    2017-06-08

    Pulmonary nocardiosis mimic pulmonary tuberculosis in most clinical and radiological manifestations. In Tanzania, where tuberculosis is one of the major public health threat clinical impact of nocardiosis as the cause of the human disease remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to isolate and identify Nocardia isolates recovered from TB suspects in Northeastern, Tanzania by using biochemical and molecular methods. The study involved 744 sputum samples collected from 372 TB suspects from four periphery diagnostic centers in Northeastern, Tanzania. Twenty patients were diagnosed as having presumptively Nocardia infections based on microscopic, cultural characteristics and biomèrieux ID 32C Yeast Identification system and confirmed using 16S rRNA and hsp65 gene specific primers for Nocardia species and sequencing. Biochemically, the majority of the isolates were N. asteroides (n = 8/20, 40%), N. brasiliensis (n = 4/20, 20%), N. farcinica (n = 3/20, 15%), N. nova (n = 1/20, 5%). Other aerobic actinomycetales included Streptomyces cyanescens (n = 2/20, 10%), Streptomyces griseus, Actinomadura madurae each (n = 1/20, 5%). Results of 16S rRNA and hsp65 sequencing were concordant in 15/17 (88. 2%) isolates and discordant in 2/17 (11.8%) isolates. Majority of the isolates belonged to N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica, four (23.5%) each. Our findings suggest that Nocardia species may be an important cause of pulmonary nocardiosis that is underdiagnosed or ignored. This underscores needs to consider pulmonary nocardiosis as a differential diagnosis when there is a failure of anti-TB therapy and as a possible cause of human infections.

  5. Cleavage of peptide bonds bearing ionizable amino acids at P1 by serine proteases with hydrophobic S1 pocket

    Qasim, Mohammad A.; Song, Jikui; Markley, John L.; Laskowski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Large pK shifts in ionizable groups when buried in the protein interior. → Substrate dependent shifts in pH optimum for serine proteases. → Lys side chain is a stronger acid in serine protease S 1 pocket than Asp side chain. -- Abstract: Enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Xxx-pNA (where Xxx = Leu, Asp or Lys) catalyzed by bovine chymotrypsin (CHYM) or Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) has been studied at different pH values in the pH range 3-11. The pH optima for substrates having Leu, Asp, and Lys have been found to be 7.5-8.0, 5.5-6.0, and ∼10, respectively. At the normally reported pH optimum (pH 7-8) of CHYM and SGPB, the substrate with Leu at the reactive site is more than 25,000-fold more reactive than that with Asp. However, when fully protonated, Asp is nearly as good a substrate as Leu. The pK values of the side chains of Asp and Lys in the hydrophobic S 1 pocket of CHYM and SGPB have been calculated from pH-dependent hydrolysis data and have been found to be about 9 for Asp and 7.4 and 9.7 for Lys for CHYM and SGPB, respectively. The results presented in this communication suggest a possible application of CHYM like enzymes in cleaving peptide bonds contributed by acidic amino acids between pH 5 and 6.

  6. Birds of sacred groves of northern Kerala, India

    K. M. Jyothi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are patches of vegetation preserved due to  religious or cultural tradition.  They are protected through spiritual beliefs.  Sacred groves provide an excellent abode to the biodiversity of the region where they are located.   Scientific exploration of fauna from sacred groves of India is few and far between.  The present study was conducted to explore the bird diversity and abundance in 15 selected sacred groves of northern Kerala, eight from Kannur District and seven from Kasargod District each.  A total of 111 bird species were observed belonging to 49 families and 16 orders.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala support many of the ‘forest-birds’ such as the Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii, Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella, Tickell’s Blue-flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae, Malabar Trogon Harpactes fasciatus, Heart-spotted Woodpecker Hemicircus canente, Malabar Whistling-Thrush Myophonus horsfieldii, Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra, etc.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also support two endemic bird species of the Western Ghats, such as the Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus and Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa. Five species of raptors and four owl species were reported from the sacred groves of north Kerala during the present study.  The breeding of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle has been reported at Edayilakadu Kavu, a sacred grove in Kasargod District.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also supported 17 species of long distant migratory birds.  Thazhe Kavu, recorded the Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, a Near-Threatened bird according to IUCN. 

  7. Sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene

    Sasaki Yukako

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. Ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. Tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (H: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; L: light chain or liver-type subunit. Ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. However, sequencing analysis of marine mammalian ferritin subunits has not yet been performed fully. The purpose of this study is to reveal cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits, and demonstrate the possibility of expression of these subunits, especially H subunit, by iron. Methods Sequence analyses of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits were performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragments from cDNAs generated via reverse transcription-PCR of leukocyte total RNA prepared from blood samples of six different dolphin species (Pseudorca crassidens, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, and Delphinapterus leucas. The putative iron-responsive element sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the six different dolphin species was revealed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments obtained using leukocyte genomic DNA. Results Dolphin H and L subunits consist of 182 and 174 amino acids, respectively, and amino acid sequence identities of ferritin subunits among these dolphins are highly conserved (H: 99–100%, (99→98 ; L: 98–100%. The conserved 28 bp IRE sequence was located -144 bp upstream from the initiation codon in the six different dolphin species. Conclusion These results indicate that six different dolphin species have conserved ferritin sequences, and suggest that these genes are iron-dependently expressed.

  8. Management of Protected Areas and Its Effect on an Ecosystem Function: Removal of Prosopis flexuosa Seeds by Mammals in Argentinian Drylands.

    Claudia M Campos

    Full Text Available The ecological function of animal seed dispersal depends on species interactions and can be affected by drivers such as the management interventions applied to protected areas. This study was conducted in two protected areas in the Monte Desert: a fenced reserve with grazing exclusion and absence of large native mammals (the Man and Biosphere Ñacuñán Reserve; FR and an unfenced reserve with low densities of large native and domestic animals (Ischigualasto Park; UFR. The study focuses on Prosopis flexuosa seed removal by different functional mammal groups: "seed predators", "scatter-hoarders", and "opportunistic frugivores". Under both interventions, the relative contribution to seed removal by different functional mammal groups was assessed, as well as how these groups respond to habitat heterogeneity (i.e. vegetation structure at different spatial scales. Camera traps were used to identify mammal species removing P. flexuosa seeds and to quantify seed removal; remote sensing data helped analyze habitat heterogeneity. In the FR, the major fruit removers were a seed predator (Graomys griseoflavus and a scatter-hoarder (Microcavia asutralis. In the UFR, the main seed removers were the opportunistic frugivores (Lycalopex griseus and Dolichotis patagonum, who removed more seeds than the seed predator in the FR. The FR shows higher habitat homogeneity than the UFR, and functional groups respond differently to habitat heterogeneity at different spatial scales. In the FR, because large herbivores are locally extinct (e.g. Lama guanicoe and domestic herbivores are excluded, important functions of large herbivores are missing, such as the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity, which provides habitats for medium-sized opportunistic frugivores with consequent improvement of quality and quantity of seed dispersal services. In the UFR, with low densities of large herbivores, probably one important ecosystem function this group performs is to increase

  9. Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

    D. M. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis., Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides,Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus., and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors. On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the

  10. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013)

    Montesdeoca, Natalia; Calabuig, Pascual; Corbera, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC) in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process. Methods We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive) in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout), fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The crude and stratified (by causes of admission) rates of the three final disposition categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, and release Rr), the time until death, and the length of stay were also studied for the seabirds admitted alive. Results Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis) was the species most frequently admitted (46.52%), followed by Cory’s Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis) (20.09%). The most frequent causes of morbidity were light pollution (fallout) (25.81%), poisoning/intoxication (24.69%), and other traumas (18.14%). The final disposition rates were: Er = 15.35%, Mr = 16.29%, and Rr = 68.34%. The highest Er was observed in the ‘other traumas’ category (58.08%). Seabirds admitted due to metabolic/nutritional disorder had the highest Mr (50%). The highest Rr was observed in the light pollution (fallout) category (99.20%). Conclusions This survey provides useful information for the conservation of several seabird species. We suggest that at least the stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters time until death and length of stay at the center should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation of seabirds. The high release rate for seabirds (68.34%) achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation

  11. Inadequate environmental monitoring around offshore oil and gas platforms on the Grand Bank of Eastern Canada: are risks to marine birds known?

    Burke, C M; Montevecchi, W A; Wiese, F K

    2012-08-15

    Petroleum exploration and production on the Grand Bank of eastern Canada overlaps with productive marine habitat that supports over 40 million marine birds annually. Environmental assessments for oil and gas projects in the region predict insignificant adverse effects on marine birds from oil spills, incineration in platform flares and collisions. Limited baseline data on seasonal occupancies and a failure to quantify the nature and extent of marine bird attraction to platforms and related mortality undermines these assessments. We conducted 22 surveys to offshore platforms on the Grand Bank during 1999-2003 to measure avian associations with platforms and to determine the level of monitoring needed to assess the risks to marine birds. We document seasonal shifts in marine bird occurrences and higher densities of auks (fall) and shearwaters (summer) around platforms relative to surrounding areas. The limited temporal and spatial coverage of our surveys is more robust than existing industry monitoring efforts, yet it is still inadequate to quantify the scale of marine bird associations with platforms or their associated mortality risks. Systematic observations by independent biologists on vessels and platforms are needed to generate reliable assessments of risks to marine birds. Instead, the regulatory body for offshore oil and gas in eastern Canada (Canada - Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board; C-NLOPB) supports industry self-reporting as the accepted form of environmental monitoring. Conflicting responsibilities of oil and gas regulatory agencies for both energy development and environmental monitoring are major barriers to transparency, unbiased scientific inquiry and adequate environmental protection. Similar conflicts with the oil and gas regulatory body in the United States, the former Minerals and Management Service (MMS) were identified by the U.S. President as a major contributor to the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. The

  12. ESTRUCTURA DE LA VEGETACIÓN DEL CANÓN DEL RÍO CHICAMOCHA, 500-1200 M; SANTANDERCOLOMBIA: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN

    ALBESIANO SOFÍA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la vegetación de la cuenca media del cañón del río Chicamocha entre los 500y los 1170 m de altitud, en los municipios de Cepitá y Piedecuesta (Inspección dePolicía de Pescadero, en Santander-Colombia, el tipo fisionómico dominante es elmatorral, aunque se encuentran algunos tipos de vegetación boscosa cerca de loscursos de agua. La distribución en clases de frecuencia de los parámetros altura,cobertura y diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP, muestra que la mayoría de losindividuos se agrupan en las clases inferiores. La mayor parte de los elementos delestrato herbáceo miden entre 60 cm y 1 m y los del estrato arbustivo entre 1,9 y2,1 m. La mayoría de los individuos del estrato arbustivo cubre entre 0,3 y 1,44m2. Son muy escasos los elementos con DAP superior a 8 cm. Las especies másimportantes en la vegetación regional según el Índice de Valor de Importancia (IVIson: Stenocereus griseus (79, Lippia origanoides (76 y Prosopis juliflora (75. Lariqueza florística del área está representada por 69 familias de plantas vasculares, con173 géneros y 220 especies. Las familias con mayor número de géneros y especiesson: Asteraceae (15 géneros/16 especies, Euphorbiaceae (9/16, Fabaceae (11/12,Poaceae (11/12 y Cactaceae (6/7. Entre el periodo de 1960-1990 se presentaroncambios en la cobertura vegetal debido principalmente al sobrepastoreo extensivoe incontrolado de ganado caprino y en menor proporción, a la extracción de leñay/o a la construcción de obras civiles como vías de comunicación y viviendas. ElÍndice de Deforestación durante los últimos 30 años en la cuenca media de la regiónsemiárida del cañón del río Chicamocha es del 7%.

  13. Notes on the Birds of Central Oaxaca, Part II: Columbidae to Vireonidae

    John M. Forcey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Notas sobre las aves de Oaxaca central, parte II: Columbidae a Vireonidae Se reportan  nuevos datos que amplían y clarifican nuestro conocimiento del estatus y distribución de 70 especies de aves en la región central del Estado de Oaxaca. Las observaciones se realizaron abarcando partes de los distritos de Etla, Ixtlan, Tlacolula, y Zaachila, dentro de un círculo de radio de 35 km alrededor de la Ciudad de Oaxaca. El reporte se basa en observaciones tomadas durante 738 días, comprendidos entre diciembre 1996 y marzo 2002. Los hábitats principalmente visitados fueron pino-encino (incluyendo zonas pequeñas de pino-encino-oyamel y pino-encino mezclado con pastizales, matorral de encino, matorral subtropical, vegetación riparia, y vegetación secundaria, campos agrícolas y otros (incluyendo áreas urbanas, como jardines y parques. Las siguientes especies se reportan por primera vez en la zona: Heliomaster constantii, Tilmatura dupontii, Empidonax flaviventris, Empidonax virescens, Myiarchus crinitus, Myiodynastes luteiventris, Vireo philadelphicus, Vireo olivaceus y Vireo flavoviridis. Además, las siguientes diez especies se han reportado anteriormente una sola vez o solamente en los Conteos Navideños: Caprimulgus ridgwayi (residente,Panyptila sanctihieronymi (residente local, Amazilia cyanocephala (residente local, Amazilia viridifrons, Lamprolaima rhami, Momotus mexicanus (residente en la Sierra Juárez, Sayornis phoebe, Myiozetetes similis (residente, Pachyramphus major (residente y Vireo griseus. Se reportan datos de la reproducción de 25 especies, 18 de las cuales no se habían registrado como reproduciéndose en la zona antes. De estos, 24 se pueden agrupar como reproduciéndose en los meses de abril a julio, y 17 se reproducen en zonas riparias, seis de ellos casi exclusivamente.

  14. Affinity and specificity of serine endopeptidase-protein inhibitor interactions. Empirical free energy calculations based on X-ray crystallographic structures.

    Krystek, S; Stouch, T; Novotny, J

    1993-12-05

    An empirical function was used to calculate free energy change (delta G) of complex formation between the following inhibitors and enzymes: Kunitz inhibitor (BPTI) with trypsin, trypsinogen and kallikrein; turkey ovomucoid 3rd domain (OMTKY3) with alpha-chymotrypsin and the Streptomyces griseus protease B; the potato chymotrypsin inhibitor with the protease B; and the barely chymotrypsin inhibitor and eglin-c with subtilisin and thermitase. Using X-ray coordinates of the nine complexes, we estimated the contributions that hydrophobic effect, electrostatic interactions and side-chain conformational entropy make towards the stability of the complexes. The calculated delta G values showed good agreement with the experimentally measured ones, the only exception being the kallikrein/BPTI complex whose X-ray structure was solved at an exceptionally low pH. In complexes with different enzymes, the same inhibitor residues contributed identically towards complex formation (delta G(residue) Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0.7 to 1.0). The most productive enzyme-contacting residues in OMTKY3, eglin-c, and the chymotrypsin inhibitors were found in analogous positions on their respective binding loops; thus, our calculations identified a functional (energetic) motif that parallels the well-known structural similarity of the binding loops. The delta G values calculated for BPTI complexed with trypsin (-21.7 kcal) and trypsinogen (-23.4 kcal) were similar and close to the experimental delta G value of the trypsin/BPTI complex (-18.1 kcal), lending support to the suggestion that the 10(7) difference in the observed stabilities (KA) of these two complexes reflects the energetic cost of conformational changes induced in trypsinogen during the pre-equilibrium stages of complex formation. In almost all of the complexes studied, the stabilization free energy contributed by the inhibitors was larger than that donated by the enzymes. In the trypsin-BPTI complex, the calculated

  15. Variación entre hábitats de la densidad y composición por tallas en peces de arrecife de la región noroccidental de Cuba

    Consuelo Aguilar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento e intercambio de individuos entre hábitats son aspectos críticos para la dinámica y el éxito de las poblaciones de peces arrecifales. La segregación de tallas entre hábitats puede ser considerada como evidencia para la conectividad de hábitats y esta podría ser el primer paso para la formulación de hipótesis sobre migraciones ontogenéticas entre hábitats. El objetivo principal de nuestra investigación fue encontrar evidencia de diferencias entre hábitats en la distribución de tallas y densidad de especies de peces de arrecifes, las cuales pueden ser clasificadas, a priori, como especies con cambios ontogénicos en el hábitat, en una área extensa (~600 km² de plataforma en el Caribe. Se realizaron censos visuales (métodos estacionario y de recorrido de especies de peces seleccionadas en 20 sitios localizados en raíces de mangle, arrecifes de parche, la zona interna de la cresta arrecifal y el arrecife frontal (12-16m de profundidad. Se hicieron diez censos en cada sitio de los cuatro tipos de hábitat y se repitió este esquema en junio y septiembre 2009. Fueron contados un total de 11 507 individuos de 34 especies en un total de 400 censos. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la densidad y composición por tallas entre los hábitats de arrecife y manglar. Estas diferencias, indicaron un uso variable de los hábitats costeros dependiendo de la especie. Los adultos fueron encontrados en todos los hábitats. Los hábitats de arrecifes, principalmente los arrecifes de parche, parecen ser muy importantes para los juveniles de peces de la mayoría de las especies en nuestra área de estudio. Los manglares fueron especialmente importantes para dos especies (L. apodus y L. griseus, que a lo largo de la plataforma fueron las únicas que mostraron gradientes bien definidos en las tallas.

  16. By the Light of the Moon: North Pacific Dolphins Optimize Foraging with the Lunar Cycle

    Simonis, Anne Elizabeth

    The influence of the lunar cycle on dolphin foraging behavior was investigated in the productive, southern California Current Ecosystem and the oligotrophic Hawaiian Archipelago. Passive acoustic recordings from 2009 to 2015 were analyzed to document the presence of echolocation from four dolphin species that demonstrate distinct foraging preferences and diving abilities. Visual observations of dolphins, cloud coverage, commercial landings of market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) and acoustic backscatter of fish were also considered in the Southern California Bight. The temporal variability of echolocation is described from daily to annual timescales, with emphasis on the lunar cycle as an established behavioral driver for potential dolphin prey. For dolphins that foraged at night, the presence of echolocation was reduced during nights of the full moon and during times of night that the moon was present in the night sky. In the Southern California Bight, echolocation activity was reduced for both shallow- diving common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and deeper-diving Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) during times of increased illumination. Seasonal differences in acoustic behavior for both species suggest a geographic shift in dolphin populations, shoaling scattering layers or prey switching behavior during warm months, whereby dolphins target prey that do not vertically migrate. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, deep-diving short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and shallow-diving false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) also showed reduced echolocation behavior during periods of increased lunar illumination. In contrast to nocturnal foraging in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, false killer whales in the main Hawaiian Islands mainly foraged during the day and the lunar cycle showed little influence on their nocturnal acoustic behavior. Different temporal patterns in false killer whale acoustic behavior between the main and northwestern Hawaiian

  17. Landscape and vegetation effects on avian reproduction on bottomland forest restorations

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas

  18. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  19. Taxonomic review of Chinese species of ground beetles of the subgenus Pseudoophonus (genus Harpalus) (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Kataev, Boris M; Liang, Hongbin

    2015-02-19

    A taxonomic review of 23 species of the subgenus Pseudoophonus Motschulsky, 1844, the genus Harpalus Latreille, 1802, occurring in China is given, and a key to these species is provided. The species are divided in three species groups and five subgroups, the distinctive characters of which are listed. The following new synonyms are established: Harpalus calceatus Duftschmid, 1812 = Anisodactylus propinquus Ballion, 1870, syn. n.; H. davidi (Tschitschérine, 1897) = H. kailiensis Huang, 1992, syn. n.; = H. adenticulatus Huang, 1992, syn. n.; = H. cilihumerus Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; H. fokienensis Schauberger, 1930 = H. muciulus Huang, 1992, syn. n.; H. griseus (Panzer, 1796) = H. xinjiangensis Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; H. hauserianus Schauberger, 1929 = H. disaogashimensis Huang, 1995, syn. n.; H. pastor pastor Motschulsky, 1844 = H. penglainus Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; = H. chiloschizontus Huang, 1995, syn. n.; H. rufipes (DeGeer, 1774) = H. scabripectus Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; H. singularis Tschitschérine, 1906 = H. chengjiangensis Huang, 1993, syn. n.; H. sinicus Hope, 1845 = H. periglabellus Huang, 1992, syn. n.; = H. longihornus Lei & Huang, 1997, syn. n.; and H. tridens Morawitz, 1862 = H. hypogeomysis Huang, 1993, syn. n.; = H. pilosus Huang, 1995, syn. n. Statuses of H. yinchuanensis Huang, 1993 and H. disimuciulus Huang, Lei, Yan & Hu, 1996 are discussed. Lectotypes are designated for H. capito Morawitz, 1862, H. japonicus Morawitz, 1862 and H. eous Tschitschérine, 1901. New data on distribution of Pseudoophonus species in China are provided. Harpalus babai Habu, 1973 is reported from China (Jiangxi) for the first time. The following taxa are recorded from the following Chinese provinces for the first time: H. ussuriensis Chaudoir, 1863 from Hunan; H. aenigma (Tschitschérine, 1897) from Hubei, Jiangxi, and Guangxi; H. pastor Motschulsky, 1844 from Beijing and Xizang; H. fokienensis Schauberger, 1930 from Anhui and Jiangxi; H

  20. Bioactive Peptides from Cartilage Protein Hydrolysate of Spotless Smoothhound and Their Antioxidant Activity In Vitro

    Jing Tao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, crude proteins from spotless smoothhound (Mustelus griseus, cartilages were isolated by HCl-Guanidine buffer, and its hydrolysate was prepared using trypsin at pH 8.0, 40 °C with a total enzyme dose of 2.5%. Subsequently, three antioxidant peptides were purified from the hydrolysate using membrane ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequences of isolated peptides were identified as Gly-Ala-Glu-Arg-Pro (MCPE-A; Gly-Glu-Arg-Glu-Ala-Asn-Val-Met (MCPE-B; and Ala-Glu-Val-Gly (MCPE-C with molecular weights of 528.57, 905.00, and 374.40 Da, respectively, using protein amino acid sequence analyzer and mass spectrum. MCPE-A, MCPE-B and MCPE-C exhibited good scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH• (EC50 3.73, 1.87, and 2.30 mg/mL, respectively, hydroxyl radicals (HO• (EC50 0.25, 0.34, and 0.06 mg/mL, respectively, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals (ABTS+• (EC50 0.10, 0.05, and 0.07 mg/mL, respectively and superoxide anion radicals ( O 2 − • (EC50 0.09, 0.33, and 0.18 mg/mL, respectively. MCPE-B showed similar inhibiting ability on lipid peroxidation with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT in a linoleic acid model system. Furthermore, MCPE-A, MCPE-B, and MCPE-C could protect H2O2-induced HepG2 cells from oxidative stress by decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA and increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rx. Glu, Gly, Met, and Pro in their sequences and low molecular weight could be attributed to the antioxidant activities of three isolated peptides. These results suggested that GAERP (MCPE-A, GEREANVM (MCPE-B, and AEVG (MCPE-C from cartilage protein hydrolysate of spotless smoothhound might serve as potential antioxidants and be used in the pharmaceutical and

  1. Response and Resiliency of Wildlife and Vegetation to Large-Scale Wildfires and Climate Change in the North Cascades

    Bartowitz, K.; Morrison, P.; Romain-Bondi, K.; Smith, C. W.; Warne, L.; McGill, D.

    2016-12-01

    Changing climatic patterns have affected the western US in a variety of ways: decreases in precipitation and snowpack, earlier spring snowmelt, and increased lightning strikes have created a drier, more fire-prone system, despite variability in these characteristics. Wildfires are a natural phenomenon, but have been suppressed for much of the past century. Effects of this evolving fire regime on native vegetation and wildlife are not well understood. Increased frequency and intensity of fires coupled with subsequent drought and extreme heat may inhibit or alter recovery of native ecosystems. We are currently investigating how a mega-fire has affected presence of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus, WGS) in the North Cascades, and the mortality, survival, and recovery of vegetation following these fires and extreme drought. The Methow Valley in WA experienced a record-breaking wildfire in 2014, which disturbed nearly 50% of priority habitat of the North Cascades population of WGS. WGS were studied at the same pre and post-fire plots. WGS were present at over half of the post-burn plots (58%). There was a significant difference in the number of WGS hair samples collected in different levels of remaining vegetation: the most in moderate, few in low, and none in high. Vegetation recovery was assessed through field data, and a chronosequence of satellite images and aerial photography. 75% of the 2014 fire burned non-forested vegetation. Ponderosa pine forests comprised the rest. The forests experienced about 70% initial mortality. Recovery of the forest appears slower than in the shrub-steppe. First year seedling survival was poor due to an extremely hot, dry summer, while second year survival appears higher due to a cool, moist spring and summer. One year after a large, multi-severity fire we found WGS may be more resilient to disturbance such as fires than previously thought. Future studies of WGS will help elucidate long-term response to large-scale fires, and

  2. Novel marine actinobacteria from emerald Andaman & Nicobar Islands: a prospective source for industrial and pharmaceutical byproducts.

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Rajan, Lawrance Anbu; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2013-06-22

    Andaman and Nicobar Islands situated in the eastern part of Bay of Bengal are one of the distinguished biodiversity hotspot. Even though number of studies carried out on the marine flora and fauna, the studies on actinobacteria from Andaman and Nicobar Islands are meager. The aim of the present study was to screen the actinobacteria for their characterization and identify the potential sources for industrial and pharmaceutical byproducts. A total of 26 actinobacterial strains were isolated from the marine sediments collected from various sites of Port Blair Bay where no collection has been characterized previously. Isolates were categorized under the genera: Saccharopolyspora, Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Streptoverticillium, Microtetraspora, Actinopolyspora, Actinokineospora and Dactylosporangium. Majority of the isolates were found to produce industrially important enzymes such as amylase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, DNase, cellulase, urease and phosphatase, and also exhibited substantial antibacterial activity against human pathogens. 77% of isolates exhibited significant hemolytic activity. Among 26 isolates, three strains (NIOT-VKKMA02, NIOT-VKKMA22 and NIOT-VKKMA26) were found to generate appreciable extent of surfactant, amylase, cellulase and protease enzyme. NIOT-VKKMA02 produced surfactant using kerosene as carbon source and emulsified upto E(24)-63.6%. Moreover, NIOT-VKKMA02, NIOT-VKKMA22 and NIOT-VKKMA26 synthesized 13.27 U/ml, 9.85 U/ml and 8.03 U/ml amylase; 7.75 U/ml, 5.01 U/ml and 2.08 U/ml of cellulase and 11.34 U/ml, 6.89 U/ml and 3.51 U/ml of protease enzyme, respectively. High diversity of marine actinobacteria was isolated and characterized in this work including undescribed species and species not previously reported from emerald Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces venezuelae and Saccharopolyspora salina. The enhanced salt, pH and temperature tolerance of the actinobacterial isolates along with their

  3. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego Conocer para controlar: efectos ecológicos de vertebrados invasores en Tierra del Fuego

    CLAUDIA A SILVA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tierra del Fuego (TDF archipelago is recognized as part o the last places on Earth that may still be considered wild. However, this condition may be threatened by the large number of invasive species present on the archipelago. These species can have significant effects on the ecology of the invaded ecosystems, at the genetic as well as at population, community and ecosystem levels. The aim of this study is to, by a bibliographic review, systematize existing information on the ecological impacts these species would be having on the TDF archipelago and detect information gaps in order to orient future research and effective management programs on these species. We restricted our review to vertebrate, non-marine invaders. We determined which species have invaded TDF, described their impacts on the archipelago and evaluated their potential impacts; this last issue was determined by reviewing some of the impacts these species have had in other geographic areas. Our findings indicate that at least nine vertebrate species (Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Castor canadensis, Ondatra zibethicus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pseudalopex griseus, Mustela vison and Sus seroja have wild populations established away from human settlements in TDF. There is some scientific evidence on ecological impacts on the area for only five of these invaders, with the American beaver (Castor canadensis being the species monopolizing the greatest number of studies. These results contrast with the recognition, both in TDF and worldwide, of the potential of most of these species to cause significant ecological impacts, which makes it unlikely that the lack of verified impacts on TDF reflects an absence of significant effects of these invaders on the archipelago. We suggest that future research should focus on determining population density and distribution of these and other (i.e., feral species invasive vertebrates, as well as their impacts mainly on

  4. Selection of Almond Vegetative Rootstocks for Water Stress Tolerance Based on the Morphological Markers

    A.A. Shokouhian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF

  5. NOTE TASSONOMICHE E NOMENCLATORIALI SU ALCUNE SPECIE PALEARTICHE DI SIBINIA E TYCHIUS (COLEOPTERA, CURCULIONIDAE

    Roberto Caldara

    2009-10-01

    . = Sibinia sobrina Voss, 1936 n. syn.; Sibinia variata Gyllenhal, 1836 = Sibinia rubripes Desbrochers, 1907 n. syn.; Sibi­nia viscariae (Linnaeus = Sibinia submeticollis Desbrochers, 1908 n. syn.; Tychiusar­ gentatus Chevrolat, 1859 = Tychius dimidiatipennis Desbrochers, 1873 n. syn. = Tychius argenteosquamosus Desbrochers, 1908 n. syn. = Tychius seductor Desbrochers, 1908 n. syn.; Tychius medicaginis C. Brisout, 1862 = Tychius griseus Petri, 1915 (non Schaeffer, 1908 n. syn.; Tychius breviusculus Desbrochers, 1873 = Tychius humeralis Desbrochers, 1908 n. syn.; Tychius cinnamomeus Kiesenwetter, 1851 = Tychius adspersus Desbrochers, 1908 n. syn. = Tychius barcelonicus Desbrochers, 1908 n. syn.; Tychius cu­prifer (Panzer, 1799 = Myllocerus subcostatus Kolenati, 1858 n. syn.; Tychius cuprinus Rosenhauer, 1856 = Tychius tuberculirostris Hustache, 1944 n. syn.; Tychius dieckmanni Caldara, 1986 = Lepidotychius babaevi Bajtenov & Soyunov, 1990 n. syn.; Tychius ele­gantulus C. Brisout, 1862 = Tychius pulcher Pic, 1925 n. syn.; Tychius elongatulus Desbrochers, 1897 = Tychius longitarsis Desbrochers, 1898 n. syn.; Tychius grenieri C. Brisout, 1861 = Tychius sparsus Hustache, 1944; Tychius immaculicollis Desbrochers, 1907 = Tychius elegans Desbrochers, 1896 (non Brullé, 1832 = Tychius ifranensis Hustache, 1944 n. syn. = Tychius kocheri Hustache, 1944 n. syn. = Tychius teluetensis Hustache, 1944 n. syn.; Tychius lautus Gyllenhal, 1836 = Tychius obductus Hochhuth, 1851 n. syn. = Tychius cilicensis Pic, 1905 n. syn.; Tychius oschianus Faust, 1885 = Tychius pubicol­lis Petri, 1915 n. syn.; Tychius pardalis Escalera, 1914 = Tychius circulatus Hustache, 1944 n. syn.; Tychius picirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = sTychius parvulus Stephens, 1831 n. syn.; Tychius polylineatus (Germar, 1824 = Tychius orbiculatus Hustache, 1944 n. syn.; Tychius stephensi Schoenherr, 1836 = Tychius pallidicornis Desbrochers, 1875 n. syn. Sono considerati nomi infrasubspecifici e pertanto non utilizzabili: Sibinia

  6. Actinomycetes, an Inexhaustible Source of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    Yōko Takahashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Global public health faces a desperate situation, due to the lack of effective antibiotics. Coordinated steps need to be taken, worldwide, to rectify this situation and protect the advances in modern medicine made over the last 100 years. Work at Japan’s Kitasato Institute has been in the vanguard of many such advances, and work is being proactively tailored to promote the discovery of urgently needed antimicrobials. Efforts are being concentrated on actinomycetes, the proven source of most modern antibiotics. We devised a novel physicochemical screening mechanism, whereby simple physico-chemical properties, in conjunction with related detection methods, such as LC/MS, LC/UV, and polarity, could be used to identify or predict new compounds in a culture broth, simply by comparing results with existing databases. New compounds are isolated, purified, and their structure determined before being tested for any bioactivity. We used lyophilized actinomycete strains from the Kitasato Microbial Library, most more than 35 years old, and found 330 strains were producers of useful bioactive substances. We also tested organisms found in fresh samples collected in the complex environments from around plant roots, as well as from sediments of mangrove forests and oceans, resulting in the discovery of 36 novel compounds from 11 actinomycete strains. A compound, designated iminimycin, containing an iminium ion in the structure was discovered from the culture broth of Streptomyces griseus OS-3601, which had been stored for a long time as a streptomycin-producing strain. This represented the first iminium ion discovery in actinomycetes. Compounds with a cyclopentadecane skeleton containing 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxyl-2-pyrone ring and tetrahydrofuran ring, designated mangromicins, were isolated from the culture broth of Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes K10-0216 obtained from sediment in a mangrove forest. These structures are extremely unique among natural compounds

  7. Stage of lactation and corresponding diets affect in situ protein degradation by dairy cows.

    Schadt, I; Mertens, D R; Van Soest, P J; Azzaro, G; Licitra, G

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stage of lactation and corresponding diets on rates of protein degradation (kd) is largely unstudied. Study objectives were to measure and compare in situ ruminal kd of crude protein (CP) and estimate rumen CP escape (rumen-undegradable protein; RUP) of selected feeds by cows at 3 stages of lactation fed corresponding diets, and to determine the incubation times needed in an enzymatic in vitro procedure, using 0.2 units of Streptomyces griseus protease per percent of true CP, that predicted in situ RUP. Residue CP was measured after in situ fermentation for 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h of 5 protein sources and 3 total mixed rations, which were fed to the in situ cows. Two nonlactating (dry) cows and 2 cows each at 190 (mid) and 90 (peak) days of lactation were used. Each pair of cows was offered free-choice diets that differed in composition to meet their corresponding nutrient requirements. Diets had decreasing proportions of forages and contained (dry matter basis) 11.9, 15.1 and 16.4% CP and 54.3, 40.3 and 35.3% neutral detergent fiber, for dry, mid, and peak TMR (TMR1, TMR2, and TMR3), respectively. Intakes were 10.3, 21.4, and 23.8kg of dry matter/d, respectively. Kinetic CP fractions (extractable, potentially degradable, undegradable, or slowly degradable) were unaffected by treatment. Lag time and kd varied among feeds. The kd was faster for all feeds (0.136/h) when incubated in dry-TMR1 cows compared with mid-TMR2 (0.097/h) or peak-TMR3 (0.098/h) cows, and no differences in lag time were detected. Calculated RUP, using estimated passage rates for each cow based on intake, differed between dry-TMR1 (0.382) and mid-TMR2 (0.559) or peak-TMR3 (0.626) cows, with a tendency for mid-TMR2 to be different from peak-TMR3. Using the average kd and lag time obtained from dry-TMR1 to calculate RUP for mid-TMR2 and peak-TMR3 cows using their passage rates reduced RUP values by 6.3 and 9.5 percentage units, respectively. Except for that of herring meal

  8. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  9. abstract

    . user

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF

  10. Phenotypic Diversity of Causal agent Strains of Potato Common Scab (Streptomyces sp. in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province

    A. A. Fadaei Tehrani

    2016-06-01

    .6 g of potassium phosphate and 10 grams of yeast extract per liter of water and two weeks incubation was conducted at 30 C˚. Results and Discussion: Collectively, 55 bacterial (Streptomyces isolates were obtained that were divided into six phonotypical groups by standard phenotypic tests. Characteristics of isolates in the first group were very similar to S. stelliscabies and S. europaeiscabies, but were varied in a few characters. The isolates of the second group with the minimum variety were distinguished as S. scabies. Many characters of isolates in the third group were similar to S. acidiscabies. The fourth groups of isolates were similar to S. turgidiscabies and S. aurofaciens. The isolates of fifth group were very variable. The sixth groups of isolates were similar to S. griseus, but differed in some characters. In pathogenicity tests, 46 isolates were created disease symptom on radish seedlings, but among of 26 isolates inoculated to potato, 22 isolates were caused different scab symptoms. Total protein of 14 isolates from different phenotypic groups and two strains of S. acidiscabies and S. scabies were extracted and appeared on an electrophoresis gel by Laemmli (1970 method. Analyses of protein pattern were differentiated 14 isolates to five clads. Although, the isolates classified in one, two and three phenotypic groups were also classified in three distinct clads, but isolates in others phenotypic groups were shown variable patterns and did not place in distinct clads. For example, the reference strain S. acidiscabies with the 18E-2, 28-R, 12-R isolates belonging to a third phenotypic group, and reference strains of S. scabies with 15-E, 26-E and 22-R isolates belonging to the second phenotypic group, were differentiated in the first and second protein pattern groups, respectively. But isolates of 2-D and 16-4 (six phenotypic group and 26-E-1 (four phenotypes group, were placed in the fourth protein group that were different with the results of the

  11. Observaciones ecológicas en la Isla de Salamanca (Depto. del Magdalena, Colombia Observaciones ecológicas en la Isla de Salamanca (Depto. del Magdalena, Colombia

    Schnetter Marie-Luise

    1969-06-01

    Grundwasser nicht bis an die Oberfläche steigt. Die oberen Bodenschichten sind dann salzarm, haben aber auch in der Regenzeit nur einen geringen Wassergehalt. An der untersuchten Stelle war der Boden in Grundwassernähe nicht mehr durchwurzelt.  Die meisten der im Trockenbusch wachsenden Arten werfen im Laufe der Trockenzeit ihre Blätter ab. Der Wassergehalt von Arten mit derben Blättern wie Prosopis juliflora und Pithecellobium spec. liegt etwas unter 70% und schwankt nur geringfügig. Pereskia colombiana, die sukkulente Blätter mit einem Wassergehalt von etwa 90% hat, verliert ihre Blätter schon am Ende der Regenzeit. Die Halophyten Batis und Sesuvium haben sukkulente, immergrüne Blätter. Bei beiden Arten ist der Wassergehalt der Blätter in der Regenzeit höher als in der Trockenzeit. Der Wassergehalt der derben immergrünen Blätter von Laguncularia racemosa, einer Mangrovenpflanze, zeigt keine von der Jahreszeit abhängigen Schwankungen.  Es wurde das Längenwachstum von Batis maritima, die in einer feuchten Zone wuchsen, mit dem von Pflanzen eines trockenen Standorts verglichen.  In der Trockenzeit war das Wachstum an beiden Stellen beeinträchtigt, jedoch an dem trockenen Standort stärker als an dem feuchten.  An einer Stelle, an der zwei Jahre zuvor Ableger von Lemaireocereus griseus gepflanzt worden waren, die inzwischen untersehiedlich gut wuchsen, wurde der Salzgehalt des Bodens bestimmt. Er war an Orten, an denen die Kakteen besonders gut gediehen waren, nicht eindeutig niedriger als an anderen Stellen, an denen das Wachstum schlechter gewesen war.  Neben dem Salzgehalt spielt wahrscheinlich die Bodenstruktur eine wichtige Rolle für die Vegetationsentwicklung in diesem Gebiet. Desde agosto de 1965 hasta junio de 1967 se realizaron estudios ecológicos en la Isla de Salamanca. La región mencionada esta situada en la Costa Atlántica de Colombia, entre las ciudades de Ciénaga y Barranquilla, y es limitada por el Mar Caribe en el norte y la Ci

  12. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Watt, Janet T.; Endris, Charles A.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Chin, John L.; Bretz, Carrie K.

    2014-01-01

    area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off central California has experienced a warming over the last 50 years that is driving an ecosystem shift away from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment. Seafloor habitats in the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, which lies within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from significant rocky outcrops that support kelp-forest communities nearshore to rocky-reef communities in deep water. Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports populations of sea birds such as Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin’s Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. In addition, an observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of “bull kelp,” which is well adapted for high wave-energy environments. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  13. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    over the last 50 years that is driving an ecosystem shift away from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment. Seafloor habitats in the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, which lies within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from significant rocky outcrops that support kelp-forest communities nearshore to rocky-reef communities in deep water. Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports diverse populations of sea birds such as Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin's Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. In addition, an observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of "bull kelp," which is well adapted for high wave-energy environments. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  14. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off of central California has experienced a warming over the last 50 years that is driving an ecosystem shift away from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports populations of Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin’s Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. In addition, an observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of “bull kelp,” which is well adapted for high-wave-energy environments. The kelp beds are the northernmost known habitat for the population of southern sea otters. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  15. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    swells from the northwest throughout the year. Wave heights range from 2 to 10 m, the larger swells occurring from October to May. During El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, winter storms track farther south than they do in normal (non-ENSO) years, thereby impacting the map area more frequently and with waves of larger heights.Benthic species observed in the map area are natives of the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja California.Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports populations of Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin’s Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. An observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of “bull kelp,” which is well adapted for high-wave-energy environments. The kelp beds are well-known habitat for the population of southern sea otters. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.