Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow - An alternative view
Bernard, P. S.; Speziale, C. G.
1992-01-01
The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if a residual vortex stretching term is maintained in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are presented for a k-epsilon model modified to account for net vortex stretching.
Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow: An alternative view
Bernard, Peter S.; Speziale, Charles G.
1990-01-01
The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if vortex stretching is accounted for in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are present for a k-epsilon model modified to account for vortex stretching. The calculations indicate an initial exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate for elapsed times that are as large as those considered in any of the previously conducted physical or numerical experiments on homogeneous shear flow. However, vortex stretching eventually takes over and forces a production-equals-dissipation equilibrium with bounded energy states. The validity of this result is further supported by an independent theoretical argument. It is concluded that the generally accepted structural equilibrium for homogeneous shear flow with unbounded component energies is in need of re-examination.
Dutta, Kishore
2018-02-01
Theoretical analyses of pressure related turbulent statistics are vital for a reliable and accurate modeling of turbulence. In the inertial subrange of turbulent shear flow, pressure-velocity and pressure-strain correlations are affected by anisotropy imposed at large scales. Recently, Tsuji and Kaneda (2012 J. Fluid Mech. 694 50) performed a set of experiments on homogeneous shear flow, and estimated various one-dimensional pressure related spectra and the associated non-dimensional universal numbers. Here, starting from the governing Navier-Stokes dynamics for the fluctuating velocity field and assuming the anisotropy at inertial scales as a weak perturbation of an otherwise isotropic dynamics, we analytically derive the form of the pressure-velocity and pressure-strain correlations. The associated universal numbers are calculated using the well-known renormalization-group results, and are compared with the experimental estimates of Tsuji and Kaneda. Approximations involved in the perturbative calculations are discussed.
On the spatial distribution of small heavy particles in homogeneous shear turbulence
Nicolai, C.; Jacob, B.; Piva, R.
2013-08-01
We report on a novel experiment aimed at investigating the effects induced by a large-scale velocity gradient on the turbulent transport of small heavy particles. To this purpose, a homogeneous shear flow at Reλ = 540 and shear parameter S* = 4.5 is set-up and laden with glass spheres whose size d is comparable with the Kolmogorov lengthscale η of the flow (d/η ≈ 1). The particle Stokes number is approximately 0.3. The analysis of the instantaneous particle fields by means of Voronoï diagrams confirms the occurrence of intense turbulent clustering at small scales, as observed in homogeneous isotropic flows. It also indicates that the anisotropy of the velocity fluctuations induces a preferential orientation of the particle clusters. In order to characterize the fine-scale features of the dispersed phase, spatial correlations of the particle field are employed in conjunction with statistical tools recently developed for anisotropic turbulence. The scale-by-scale analysis of the particle field clarifies that isotropy of the particle distribution is tendentially recovered at small separations, even though the signatures of the mean shear persist down to smaller scales as compared to the fluid velocity field.
Mamatsashvili, George; Dong, Siwei; Jiménez, Javier; Khujadze, George; Chagelishvili, George; Foysi, Holger
2016-01-01
We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence to study the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows. For this purpose, we analyzed the turbulence dynamics in Fourier/wavenumber/spectral space based on the simulation data for the domain aspect ratio 1 : 1 : 1. Specifically, we examined the interplay of linear transient growth of Fourier harmonics and nonlinear processes. The transient growth of harmonics is strongly anisotropic in spectral space. This, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in spectral space and, as a result, the main nonlinear process appears to be not a direct/inverse, but rather a transverse/angular redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space referred to as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by the interplay of the linear transient, or nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies the wellknown bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the box size. Consequently, the central, small wavenumber area of Fourier space (the size of which is determined below) is crucial in the self-sustenance and is labeled the vital area. Outside the vital area, the transient growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance - Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. The number of harmonics actively participating in the self-sustaining process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) is quite large - it is equal to 36 for the considered box aspect ratio - and obviously cannot be described by low-order models. (paper)
Prediction of stably stratified homogeneous shear flows with second-order turbulence models
Pereira, J C F; Rocha, J M P
2010-01-01
The present study investigated the role of pressure-correlation second-order turbulence modelling schemes on the predicted behaviour of stably stratified homogeneous vertical-sheared turbulence. The pressure-correlation terms were modelled with a nonlinear formulation (Craft 1991), which was compared with a linear pressure-strain model and the 'isotropization of production' model for the pressure-scalar correlation. Two additional modelling issues were investigated: the influence of the buoyancy term in the kinetic energy dissipation rate equation and the time scale in the thermal production term in the scalar variance dissipation equation. The predicted effects of increasing the Richardson number on turbulence characteristics were compared against a comprehensive set of direct numerical simulation databases. The linear models provide a broadly satisfactory description of the major effects of the Richardson number on stratified shear flow. The buoyancy term in the dissipation equation of the turbulent kinetic energy generates excessively low levels of dissipation. For moderate and large Richardson numbers, the term yields unrealistic linear oscillations in the shear and buoyancy production terms, and therefore should be dropped in this flow (or at least their coefficient c ε3 should be substantially reduced from its standard value). The mechanical dissipation time scale provides marginal improvements in comparison to the scalar time scale in the production. The observed inaccuracy of the linear model in predicting the magnitude of the effects on the velocity anisotropy was demonstrated to be attributed mainly to the defective behaviour of the pressure-correlation model, especially for stronger stratification. The turbulence closure embodying a nonlinear formulation for the pressure-correlations and specific versions of the dissipation equations failed to predict the tendency of the flow to anisotropy with increasing stratification. By isolating the effects of the
Homogeneous turbulence dynamics
Sagaut, Pierre
2018-01-01
This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...
Degradation of homogeneous polymer solutions in high shear turbulent pipe flow
Elbing, B. R.; Winkel, E. S.; Solomon, M. J.; Ceccio, S. L.
2009-12-01
This study quantifies degradation of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer solutions in large diameter (2.72 cm) turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers to 3 × 105 and shear rates greater than 105 1/s. The present results support a universal scaling law for polymer chain scission reported by Vanapalli et al. (2006) that predicts the maximum chain drag force to be proportional to Re 3/2, validating this scaling law at higher Reynolds numbers than prior studies. Use of this scaling gives estimated backbone bond strengths from PEO and PAM of 3.2 and 3.8 nN, respectively. Additionally, with the use of synthetic seawater as a solvent the onset of drag reduction occurred at higher shear rates relative to the pure water solvent solutions, but had little influence on the extent of degradation at higher shear rates. These results are significant for large diameter pipe flow applications that use polymers to reduce drag.
Mamatsashvili, G.; Khujadze, G.; Chagelishvili, G.; Dong, S.; Jiménez, J.; Foysi, H.
2016-08-01
To understand the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows, we performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence for different aspect ratios of the flow domain with subsequent analysis of the dynamical processes in spectral or Fourier space. There are no exponentially growing modes in such flows and the turbulence is energetically supported only by the linear growth of Fourier harmonics of perturbations due to the shear flow non-normality. This non-normality-induced growth, also known as nonmodal growth, is anisotropic in spectral space, which, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in this space. As a result, a transverse (angular) redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space is the main nonlinear process in these flows, rather than direct or inverse cascades. We refer to this type of nonlinear redistribution as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by a subtle interplay between the linear nonmodal growth and the nonlinear transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies a well-known bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These two basic processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the domain size. Therefore, this central, small wave number area of Fourier space is crucial in the self-sustenance; we defined its size and labeled it as the vital area of turbulence. Outside the vital area, the nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance: Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. Although the cascades and the self-sustaining process of turbulence are qualitatively the same at different aspect ratios, the number of harmonics actively participating in this process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) varies
Mamatsashvili, G; Khujadze, G; Chagelishvili, G; Dong, S; Jiménez, J; Foysi, H
2016-08-01
To understand the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows, we performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence for different aspect ratios of the flow domain with subsequent analysis of the dynamical processes in spectral or Fourier space. There are no exponentially growing modes in such flows and the turbulence is energetically supported only by the linear growth of Fourier harmonics of perturbations due to the shear flow non-normality. This non-normality-induced growth, also known as nonmodal growth, is anisotropic in spectral space, which, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in this space. As a result, a transverse (angular) redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space is the main nonlinear process in these flows, rather than direct or inverse cascades. We refer to this type of nonlinear redistribution as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by a subtle interplay between the linear nonmodal growth and the nonlinear transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies a well-known bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These two basic processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the domain size. Therefore, this central, small wave number area of Fourier space is crucial in the self-sustenance; we defined its size and labeled it as the vital area of turbulence. Outside the vital area, the nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance: Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. Although the cascades and the self-sustaining process of turbulence are qualitatively the same at different aspect ratios, the number of harmonics actively participating in this process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) varies
Homogeneous purely buoyancy driven turbulent flow
Arakeri, Jaywant; Cholemari, Murali; Pawar, Shashikant
2010-11-01
An unstable density difference across a long vertical tube open at both ends leads to convection that is axially homogeneous with a linear density gradient. We report results from such tube convection experiments, with driving density caused by salt concentration difference or temperature difference. At high enough Rayleigh numbers (Ra) the convection is turbulent with zero mean flow and zero mean Reynolds shear stresses; thus turbulent production is purely by buoyancy. We observe different regimes of turbulent convection. At very high Ra the Nusselt number scales as the square root of the Rayleigh number, giving the so-called "ultimate regime" of convection predicted for Rayleigh-Benard convection in limit of infinite Ra. Turbulent convection at intermediate Ra, the Nusselt number scales as Ra^0.3. In both regimes, the flux and the Taylor scale Reynolds number are more than order of magnitude larger than those obtained in Rayleigh-Benard convection. Absence of a mean flow makes this an ideal flow to study shear free turbulence near a wall.
Afsar, Mohammed; Sassanis, Vasilis
2017-11-01
The small amplitude unsteady motion on a transversely sheared mean flow is determined by two arbitrary convected quantities with a particular choice of gauge in which the Fourier transform of the pressure is linearly-related to a scalar potential whose integral solution can be written in terms of one of these convected quantities. This formulation becomes very useful for studying Rapid-distortion theory problems involving solid surface interaction. Recent work by Goldstein et al. (JFM, 2017) has shown that the convected quantities are related to the turbulence by exact conservation laws, which allow the upstream boundary conditions for interaction of a turbulent shear flow with a solid-surface (for example) to be derived self-consistently with appropriate asymptotic separation of scales. This result requires the imposition of causality on an intermediate variable within the conservation laws that represents the local particle displacement. In this talk, we use the model derived in Goldstein et al. for trailing edge noise and compare it to leading edge noise on a semi-infinite flat plate positioned parallel to the level curves of the mean flow. Since the latter represents the leading order solution for the aerofoil interaction problem, these results are expected to be generic. M.Z.A. would also like to thank Strathclyde University for financial support from the Chancellor's Fellowship.
Exploiting similarity in turbulent shear flows for turbulence modeling
Robinson, David F.; Harris, Julius E.; Hassan, H. A.
1992-01-01
It is well known that current k-epsilon models cannot predict the flow over a flat plate and its wake. In an effort to address this issue and other issues associated with turbulence closure, a new approach for turbulence modeling is proposed which exploits similarities in the flow field. Thus, if we consider the flow over a flat plate and its wake, then in addition to taking advantage of the log-law region, we can exploit the fact that the flow becomes self-similar in the far wake. This latter behavior makes it possible to cast the governing equations as a set of total differential equations. Solutions of this set and comparison with measured shear stress and velocity profiles yields the desired set of model constants. Such a set is, in general, different from other sets of model constants. The rational for such an approach is that if we can correctly model the flow over a flat plate and its far wake, then we can have a better chance of predicting the behavior in between. It is to be noted that the approach does not appeal, in any way, to the decay of homogeneous turbulence. This is because the asymptotic behavior of the flow under consideration is not representative of the decay of homogeneous turbulence.
Exploiting similarity in turbulent shear flows for turbulence modeling
Robinson, David F.; Harris, Julius E.; Hassan, H. A.
1992-12-01
It is well known that current k-epsilon models cannot predict the flow over a flat plate and its wake. In an effort to address this issue and other issues associated with turbulence closure, a new approach for turbulence modeling is proposed which exploits similarities in the flow field. Thus, if we consider the flow over a flat plate and its wake, then in addition to taking advantage of the log-law region, we can exploit the fact that the flow becomes self-similar in the far wake. This latter behavior makes it possible to cast the governing equations as a set of total differential equations. Solutions of this set and comparison with measured shear stress and velocity profiles yields the desired set of model constants. Such a set is, in general, different from other sets of model constants. The rational for such an approach is that if we can correctly model the flow over a flat plate and its far wake, then we can have a better chance of predicting the behavior in between. It is to be noted that the approach does not appeal, in any way, to the decay of homogeneous turbulence. This is because the asymptotic behavior of the flow under consideration is not representative of the decay of homogeneous turbulence.
Lagrangian statistics in compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence
Yang, Yantao; Wang, Jianchun; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi
2011-11-01
In this work we conducted the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a forced compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence and investigated the flow statistics from the Lagrangian point of view, namely the statistics is computed following the passive tracers trajectories. The numerical method combined the Eulerian field solver which was developed by Wang et al. (2010, J. Comp. Phys., 229, 5257-5279), and a Lagrangian module for tracking the tracers and recording the data. The Lagrangian probability density functions (p.d.f.'s) have then been calculated for both kinetic and thermodynamic quantities. In order to isolate the shearing part from the compressing part of the flow, we employed the Helmholtz decomposition to decompose the flow field (mainly the velocity field) into the solenoidal and compressive parts. The solenoidal part was compared with the incompressible case, while the compressibility effect showed up in the compressive part. The Lagrangian structure functions and cross-correlation between various quantities will also be discussed. This work was supported in part by the China's Turbulence Program under Grant No.2009CB724101.
Prediction of turbulent shear layers in turbomachines
Bradshaw, P.
1974-01-01
The characteristics of turbulent shear layers in turbomachines are compared with the turbulent boundary layers on airfoils. Seven different aspects are examined. The limits of boundary layer theory are investigated. Boundary layer prediction methods are applied to analysis of the flow in turbomachines.
Multifractal spectra in homogeneous shear flow
Deane, A. E.; Keefe, L. R.
1988-01-01
Employing numerical simulations of 3-D homogeneous shear flow, the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and vorticity fields were calculated. The results for (128) cubed simulations of this flow, and those obtained in recent experiments that analyzed 1- and 2-D intersections of atmospheric and laboratory flows, are in some agreement. A two-scale Cantor set model of the energy cascade process which describes the experimental results from 1-D intersections quite well, describes the 3-D results only marginally.
On the decay of homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Skrbek, L.; Stalp, Steven R.
2000-08-01
Decaying homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is investigated using a phenomenological model based on the three-dimensional turbulent energy spectra. We generalize the approach first used by Comte-Bellot and Corrsin [J. Fluid Mech. 25, 657 (1966)] and revised by Saffman [J. Fluid Mech. 27, 581 (1967); Phys. Fluids 10, 1349 (1967)]. At small wave numbers we assume the spectral energy is proportional to the wave number to an arbitrary power. The specific case of power 2, which follows from the Saffman invariant, is discussed in detail and is later shown to best describe experimental data. For the spectral energy density in the inertial range we apply both the Kolmogorov -5/3 law, E(k)=Cɛ2/3k-5/3, and the refined Kolmogorov law by taking into account intermittency. We show that intermittency affects the energy decay mainly by shifting the position of the virtual origin rather than altering the power law of the energy decay. Additionally, the spectrum is naturally truncated due to the size of the wind tunnel test section, as eddies larger than the physical size of the system cannot exist. We discuss effects associated with the energy-containing length scale saturating at the size of the test section and predict a change in the power law decay of both energy and vorticity. To incorporate viscous corrections to the model, we truncate the spectrum at an effective Kolmogorov wave number kη=γ(ɛ/v3)1/4, where γ is a dimensionless parameter of order unity. We show that as the turbulence decays, viscous corrections gradually become more important and a simple power law can no longer describe the decay. We discuss the final period of decay within the framework of our model, and show that care must be taken to distinguish between the final period of decay and the change of the character of decay due to the saturation of the energy containing length scale. The model is applied to a number of experiments on decaying turbulence. These include the downstream decay of turbulence in
Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J; Malico, I
2009-01-01
An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.
Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J [Mechanical Engineering Department, IDMEC/LAETA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Malico, I [Physics Department, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)], E-mail: carlos.silva@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: imbm@uevora.pt, E-mail: pedro.coelho@ist.utl.pt
2009-09-15
An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.
Homogeneous wave turbulence driven by tidal flows
Favier, B.; Le Reun, T.; Barker, A.; Le Bars, M.
2017-12-01
When a moon orbits around a planet, the rotation of the induced tidal bulge drives a homogeneous, periodic, large-scale flow. The combination of such an excitation with the rotating motion of the planet has been shown to drive parametric resonance of a pair of inertial waves in a mechanism called the elliptical instability. Geophysical fluid layers can also be stratified: this is the case for instance of the Earth's oceans and, as suggested by several studies, of the upper part of the Earth's liquid Outer Core. We thus investigate the stability of a rotating and stratified layer undergoing tidal distortion in the limit where either rotation or stratification is dominant. We show that the periodic tidal flow drives a parametric subharmonic resonance of inertial (resp. internal) waves in the rotating (resp. stratified) case. The instability saturates into a wave turbulence pervading the whole fluid layer. In such a state, the instability mechanism conveys the tidal energy from the large scale tidal flow to the resonant modes, which then feed a succession of triadic resonances also generating small spatial scales. In the rotating case, we observe a kinetic energy spectrum with a k-2 slope for which the Coriolis force is dominant at all spatial scales. In the stratified case, where the timescale separation is increased between the tidal excitation and the Brunt-Väisälä frequencies, the temporal spectrum decays with a ω-2 power law up to the cut-off frequency beyond which waves do not exist. This result is reminiscent of the Garrett and Munk spectrum measured in the oceans and theoretically described as a manifestation of internal wave turbulence. In addition to revealing an instability driving homogeneous turbulence in geophysical fluid layers, our approach is also an efficient numerical tool to investigate the possibly universal properties of wave turbulence in a geophysical context.
Effect of stable-density stratification on counter gradient flux of a homogeneous shear flow
Lida, Oaki; Nagano, Yasutaka [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan). Department of Mechanical Engineering
2007-01-15
We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear flow under stable-density stratification to study the buoyancy effects on the heat and momentum transfer. These numerical data were compared with those of a turbulent channel flow to investigate the similarity between the near-wall turbulence and the homogeneous shear flow. We also investigated the generation mechanism of the persistent CGFs (counter gradient fluxes) appearing at the higher wavenumbers of the cospectrum, and lasting over a long time without oscillation. Spatially, the persistent CGFs are associated with the longitudinal vortical structure, which is elongated in the streamwise direction and typically observed in both homogeneous shear flow and near-wall turbulence. The CGFs appear at both the top and bottom of this longitudinal vortical structure, and expand horizontally with an increase in the Richardson number. It was found that the production and turbulent-diffusion terms are responsible for the distribution of the Reynolds shear stress including the persistent CGFs. The buoyancy term, combined with the swirling motion of the vortex, contributes to expand the persistent CGF regions and decrease the down gradient fluxes. (author)
Non-homogeneous flow profiles in sheared bacterial suspensions
Samanta, Devranjan; Cheng, Xiang
Bacterial suspensions under shear exhibit interesting rheological behaviors including the remarkable ``superfluidic'' state with vanishing viscosity at low shear rates. Theoretical studies have shown that such ``superfluidic'' state is linked with non-homogeneous shear flows, which are induced by coupling between nematic order of active fluids and hydrodynamics of shear flows. However, although bulk rheology of bacterial suspensions has been experimentally studied, shear profiles within bacterial suspensions have not been explored so far. Here, we experimentally investigate the flow behaviors of E. coli suspensions under planar oscillatory shear. Using confocal microscopy and PIV, we measure velocity profiles across gap between two shear plates. We find that with increasing shear rates, high-concentration bacterial suspensions exhibit an array of non-homogeneous flow behaviors like yield-stress flows and shear banding. We show that these non-homogeneous flows are due to collective motion of bacterial suspensions. The phase diagram of sheared bacterial suspensions is systematically mapped as functions of shear rates an bacterial concentrations. Our experiments provide new insights into rheology of bacterial suspensions and shed light on shear induced dynamics of active fluids. Chemical Engineering and Material Science department.
H. Z. Baumert
2009-03-01
Full Text Available This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from internal waves to turbulence. This energy source is in addition to the traditional shear production. The second variable of the new two-equation model is the turbulent enstrophy (Ω. Compared to the traditional shear-only case, the Ω-equation is modified to account for the effect of the waves on the turbulence time and space scales. This modification is based on the assumption of a non-zero constant flux Richardson number in the limit of vanishing mean shear when turbulence is produced exclusively by internal waves. This paper is part 1 of a continuing theoretical development. It accounts for mean shear- and internal wave-driven mixing only in the two limits of mean shear and no waves and waves but no mean shear, respectively.
The new model reproduces the wave-turbulence transition analyzed by D'Asaro and Lien (2000b. At small energy density E of the internal wave field, the turbulent dissipation rate (ε scales like ε~E^{2}. This is what is observed in the deep sea. With increasing E, after the wave-turbulence transition has been passed, the scaling changes to ε~E^{1}. This is observed, for example, in the highly energetic tidal flow near a sill in Knight Inlet. The new model further exhibits a turbulent length scale proportional to the Ozmidov scale, as observed in the ocean, and predicts the ratio between the turbulent Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales well within the range observed in the ocean.
Turbulent Diffusion in Non-Homogeneous Environments
Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.; Mahjoub, O. B.; Sekula, E.
2012-04-01
Many experimental studies have been devoted to the understanding of non-homogeneous turbulent dynamics. Activity in this area intensified when the basic Kolmogorov self-similar theory was extended to two-dimensional or quasi 2D turbulent flows such as those appearing in the environment, that seem to control mixing [1,2]. The statistical description and the dynamics of these geophysical flows depend strongly on the distribution of long lived organized (coherent) structures. These flows show a complex topology, but may be subdivided in terms of strongly elliptical domains (high vorticity regions), strong hyperbolic domains (deformation cells with high energy condensations) and the background turbulent field of moderate elliptic and hyperbolic characteristics. It is of fundamental importance to investigate the different influence of these topological diverse regions. Relevant geometrical information of different areas is also given by the maximum fractal dimension, which is related to the energy spectrum of the flow. Using all the available information it is possible to investigate the spatial variability of the horizontal eddy diffusivity K(x,y). This information would be very important when trying to model numerically the behaviour in time of the oil spills [3,4] There is a strong dependence of horizontal eddy diffusivities with the Wave Reynolds number as well as with the wind stress measured as the friction velocity from wind profiles measured at the coastline. Natural sea surface oily slicks of diverse origin (plankton, algae or natural emissions and seeps of oil) form complicated structures in the sea surface due to the effects of both multiscale turbulence and Langmuir circulation. It is then possible to use the topological and scaling analysis to discriminate the different physical sea surface processes. We can relate higher orden moments of the Lagrangian velocity to effective diffusivity in spite of the need to calibrate the different regions determining the
Electromotive force and large-scale magnetic dynamo in a turbulent flow with a mean shear.
Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan
2003-09-01
An effect of sheared large-scale motions on a mean electromotive force in a nonrotating turbulent flow of a conducting fluid is studied. It is demonstrated that in a homogeneous divergence-free turbulent flow the alpha effect does not exist, however a mean magnetic field can be generated even in a nonrotating turbulence with an imposed mean velocity shear due to a "shear-current" effect. A mean velocity shear results in an anisotropy of turbulent magnetic diffusion. A contribution to the electromotive force related to the symmetric parts of the gradient tensor of the mean magnetic field (the kappa effect) is found in nonrotating turbulent flows with a mean shear. The kappa effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion reduce the growth rate of the mean magnetic field. It is shown that a mean magnetic field can be generated when the exponent of the energy spectrum of the background turbulence (without the mean velocity shear) is less than 2. The shear-current effect was studied using two different methods: the tau approximation (the Orszag third-order closure procedure) and the stochastic calculus (the path integral representation of the solution of the induction equation, Feynman-Kac formula, and Cameron-Martin-Girsanov theorem). Astrophysical applications of the obtained results are discussed.
Turbulent shear layers in confining channels
Benham, Graham P.; Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Hewitt, Ian J.; Please, Colin P.; Style, Rob W.; Bird, Paul A. D.
2018-06-01
We present a simple model for the development of shear layers between parallel flows in confining channels. Such flows are important across a wide range of topics from diffusers, nozzles and ducts to urban air flow and geophysical fluid dynamics. The model approximates the flow in the shear layer as a linear profile separating uniform-velocity streams. Both the channel geometry and wall drag affect the development of the flow. The model shows good agreement with both particle image velocimetry experiments and computational turbulence modelling. The simplicity and low computational cost of the model allows it to be used for benchmark predictions and design purposes, which we demonstrate by investigating optimal pressure recovery in diffusers with non-uniform inflow.
Comparison of turbulent particle dispersion models in turbulent shear flows
S. Laín
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This work compares the performance of two Lagrangian turbulent particle dispersion models: the standard model (e.g., that presented in Sommerfeld et al. (1993, in which the fluctuating fluid velocity experienced by the particle is composed of two components, one correlated with the previous time step and a second one randomly sampled from a Wiener process, and the model proposed by Minier and Peirano (2001, which is based on the PDF approach and performs closure at the level of acceleration of the fluid experienced by the particle. Formulation of a Langevin equation model for the increments of fluid velocity seen by the particle allows capturing some underlying physics of particle dispersion in general turbulent flows while keeping the mathematical manipulation of the stochastic model simple, thereby avoiding some pitfalls and simplifying the derivation of macroscopic relations. The performance of both dispersion models is tested in the configurations of grid-generated turbulence (Wells and Stock (1983 experiments, simple shear flow (Hyland et al., 1999 and confined axisymmetric jet flow laden with solids (Hishida and Maeda (1987 experiments.
Nonlinear dynamics and anisotropic structure of rotating sheared turbulence.
Salhi, A; Jacobitz, F G; Schneider, K; Cambon, C
2014-01-01
Homogeneous turbulence in rotating shear flows is studied by means of pseudospectral direct numerical simulation and analytical spectral linear theory (SLT). The ratio of the Coriolis parameter to shear rate is varied over a wide range by changing the rotation strength, while a constant moderate shear rate is used to enable significant contributions to the nonlinear interscale energy transfer and to the nonlinear intercomponental redistribution terms. In the destabilized and neutral cases, in the sense of kinetic energy evolution, nonlinearity cannot saturate the growth of the largest scales. It permits the smallest scale to stabilize by a scale-by-scale quasibalance between the nonlinear energy transfer and the dissipation spectrum. In the stabilized cases, the role of rotation is mainly nonlinear, and interacting inertial waves can affect almost all scales as in purely rotating flows. In order to isolate the nonlinear effect of rotation, the two-dimensional manifold with vanishing spanwise wave number is revisited and both two-component spectra and single-point two-dimensional energy components exhibit an important effect of rotation, whereas the SLT as well as the purely two-dimensional nonlinear analysis are unaffected by rotation as stated by the Proudman theorem. The other two-dimensional manifold with vanishing streamwise wave number is analyzed with similar tools because it is essential for any shear flow. Finally, the spectral approach is used to disentangle, in an analytical way, the linear and nonlinear terms in the dynamical equations.
The effect of existing turbulence on stratified shear instability
Kaminski, Alexis; Smyth, William
2017-11-01
Ocean turbulence is an essential process governing, for example, heat uptake by the ocean. In the stably-stratified ocean interior, this turbulence occurs in discrete events driven by vertical variations of the horizontal velocity. Typically, these events have been modelled by assuming an initially laminar stratified shear flow which develops wavelike instabilities, becomes fully turbulent, and then relaminarizes into a stable state. However, in the real ocean there is always some level of turbulence left over from previous events, and it is not yet understood how this turbulence impacts the evolution of future mixing events. Here, we perform a series of direct numerical simulations of turbulent events developing in stratified shear flows that are already at least weakly turbulent. We do so by varying the amplitude of the initial perturbations, and examine the subsequent development of the instability and the impact on the resulting turbulent fluxes. This work is supported by NSF Grant OCE1537173.
Rough flows and homogenization in stochastic turbulence
Bailleul, I.; Catellier, R.
2016-01-01
We provide in this work a tool-kit for the study of homogenisation of random ordinary differential equations, under the form of a friendly-user black box based on the tehcnology of rough flows. We illustrate the use of this setting on the example of stochastic turbulence.
Lagrangian velocity correlations in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Gotoh, T.; Rogallo, R.S.; Herring, J.R.; Kraichnan, R.H.
1993-01-01
The Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation and the time correlations for individual wave-number bands are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) using the passive vector method (PVM), and the accuracy of the method is studied. It is found that the PVM is accurate when K max /k d ≥2 where K max is the maximum wave number carried in the simulation and k d is the Kolmogorov wave number. The Eulerian and Lagrangian time correlations for various wave-number bands are compared. At moderate to high wave number the Eulerian time correlation decays faster than the Lagrangian, and the effect of sweep on the former is observed. The time scale of the Eulerian correlation is found to be (kU 0 ) -1 while that of the Lagrangian is [∫ 0 k p 2 E(p)dp] -1/2 . The Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation in a frozen turbulent field is computed using the DIA, ALHDIA, and LRA theories and is compared with DNS measurements. The Markovianized Lagrangian renormalized approximation (MLRA) is compared with the DNS, and good agreement is found for one-time quantities in decaying turbulence at low Reynolds numbers and for the Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation in stationary turbulence at moderate Reynolds number. The effect of non-Gaussianity on the Lagrangian correlation predicted by the theories is also discussed
Broken ergodicity in two-dimensional homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Shebalin, John V.
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous MHD turbulence. These features include several ideal (i.e., nondissipative) invariants along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity (defined as nonergodic behavior over a very long time). Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo. Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was found. Here, we study the origin of broken ergodicity in 2D MHD turbulence. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions. The origins of broken ergodicity in an ideal 2D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigenanalysis of the covariance matrices of the probability density function and by an examination of the associated entropy functional. When the values of ideal invariants are kept fixed and grid size increases, it will be shown that the energy in a few large modes remains constant, while the energy in any other mode is inversely proportional to grid size. Also, as grid size increases, we find that broken ergodicity becomes manifest at more and more wavenumbers.
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Lagrangian statistics of particle pairs in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Biferale, L.; Boffeta, G.; Celani, A.; Devenish, B.J.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.
2005-01-01
We present a detailed investigation of the particle pair separation process in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. We use data from direct numerical simulations up to R????280 following the evolution of about two million passive tracers advected by the flow over a time span of about three decades. We
Direct numerical simulation of homogeneous stratified rotating turbulence
Iida, O.; Tsujimura, S.; Nagano, Y. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Department of Mech. Eng., Nagoya (Japan)
2005-12-01
The effects of the Prandtl number on stratified rotating turbulence have been studied in homogeneous turbulence by using direct numerical simulations and a rapid distortion theory. Fluctuations under strong stable-density stratification can be theoretically divided into the WAVE and the potential vorticity (PV) modes. In low-Prandtl-number fluids, the WAVE mode deteriorates, while the PV mode remains. Imposing rotation on a low-Prandtl-number fluid makes turbulence two-dimensional as well as geostrophic; it is found from the instantaneous turbulent structure that the vortices merge to form a few vertically-elongated vortex columns. During the period toward two-dimensionalization, the vertical vortices become asymmetric in the sense of rotation. (orig.)
Decay of homogeneous two-dimensional quantum turbulence
Baggaley, Andrew W.; Barenghi, Carlo F.
2018-03-01
We numerically simulate the free decay of two-dimensional quantum turbulence in a large, homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate. The large number of vortices, the uniformity of the density profile, and the absence of boundaries (where vortices can drift out of the condensate) isolate the annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs as the only mechanism which reduces the number of vortices, Nv, during the turbulence decay. The results clearly reveal that vortex annihilation is a four-vortex process, confirming the decay law Nv˜t-1 /3 where t is time, which was inferred from experiments with relatively few vortices in small harmonically trapped condensates.
Modeling of the reactant conversion rate in a turbulent shear flow
Frankel, S. H.; Madnia, C. K.; Givi, P.
1992-01-01
Results are presented of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially developing shear flows under the influence of infinitely fast chemical reactions of the type A + B yields Products. The simulation results are used to construct the compositional structure of the scalar field in a statistical manner. The results of this statistical analysis indicate that the use of a Beta density for the probability density function (PDF) of an appropriate Shvab-Zeldovich mixture fraction provides a very good estimate of the limiting bounds of the reactant conversion rate within the shear layer. This provides a strong justification for the implementation of this density in practical modeling of non-homogeneous turbulent reacting flows. However, the validity of the model cannot be generalized for predictions of higher order statistical quantities. A closed form analytical expression is presented for predicting the maximum rate of reactant conversion in non-homogeneous reacting turbulence.
Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine performance
Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Larsen, Torben J.
Aerodynamic simulations (HAWC2Aero) were used to investigate the influence of the speed shear, the direction shear and the turbulence intensity on the power output of a multi-megawatt turbine. First simulation cases with laminar flow and power law wind speed profiles were compared to the case...... of a uniform inflow. Secondly, a similar analysis was done for cases with direction shear. In each case, we derived a standard power curve (function of the wind speed at hub height) and power curves obtained with various definitions of equivalent wind speed in order to reduce the scatter due to shear. Thirdly...
Modification of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence by solid particles
Hwang, Wontae
2005-12-01
Particle-laden flows are prevalent in natural and industrial environments. Dilute loadings of small, heavy particles have been observed to attenuate the turbulence levels of the carrier-phase flow, up to 80% in some cases. We attempt to increase the physical understanding of this complex phenomenon by studying the interaction of solid particles with the most fundamental type of turbulence, which is homogeneous and isotropic with no mean flow. A flow facility was developed that could create air turbulence in a nearly-spherical chamber by means of synthetic jet actuators mounted on the corners. Loudspeakers were used as the actuators. Stationary turbulence and natural decaying turbulence were investigated using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry for the base flow qualification. Results indicated that the turbulence was fairly homogeneous throughout the measurement domain and very isotropic, with small mean flow. The particle-laden flow experiments were conducted in two different environments, the lab and in micro-gravity, to examine the effects of particle wakes and flow structure distortion caused by settling particles. The laboratory experiments showed that glass particles with diameters on the order of the turbulence Kolmogorov length scale attenuated the fluid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and dissipation rate with increasing particle mass loadings. The main source of fluid TKE production in the chamber was the speakers, but the loss of potential energy of the settling particles also resulted in a significant amount of production of extra TKE. The sink of TKE in the chamber was due to the ordinary fluid viscous dissipation and extra dissipation caused by particles. This extra dissipation could be divided into "unresolved" dissipation caused by local velocity disturbances in the vicinity of the small particles and dissipation caused by large-scale flow distortions from particle wakes and particle clusters. The micro-gravity experiments in NASA's KC-135
A film-based wall shear stress sensor for wall-bounded turbulent flows
Amili, Omid; Soria, Julio
2011-07-01
In wall-bounded turbulent flows, determination of wall shear stress is an important task. The main objective of the present work is to develop a sensor which is capable of measuring surface shear stress over an extended region applicable to wall-bounded turbulent flows. This sensor, as a direct method for measuring wall shear stress, consists of mounting a thin flexible film on the solid surface. The sensor is made of a homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible material. The geometry and mechanical properties of the film are measured, and particles with the nominal size of 11 μm in diameter are embedded on the film's surface to act as markers. An optical technique is used to measure the film deformation caused by the flow. The film has typically deflection of less than 2% of the material thickness under maximum loading. The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted by changing the thickness of the layer or the shear modulus of the film's material. The paper reports the sensor fabrication, static and dynamic calibration procedure, and its application to a fully developed turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers in the range of 90,000-130,000 based on the bulk velocity and channel full height. The results are compared to alternative wall shear stress measurement methods.
Suppression of plasma turbulence during optimised shear configurations in JET
Conway, G.D.; Borba, D.N.; Alper, B.
1999-08-01
Density turbulence suppression is observed in the internal transport barrier (ITB) region of JET discharges with optimised magnetic shear. The suppression occurs in two stages. First, low frequency turbulence is reduced across the plasma core by a toroidal velocity shear generated by intense auxiliary heating. Then when the ITB forms, high frequency turbulence is reduced locally within the steep pressure gradient region of the ITB, consistent with the effects of enhanced E x B poloidal shear. The turbulence suppression is correlated with reduced plasma transport and improved fusion performance. Much effort has been spent in recent years in developing alternative scenarios for operating tokamak fusion reactors. One particular scenario involves reversing or reducing the central magnetic shear to form an internal transport barrier (ITB). The result is reduced plasma core energy transport and enhanced fusion performance. It is believed that ITBs may be formed through a combination of E x B velocity shear and magnetic shear stabilisation of plasma turbulence and instabilities. In this Letter we present results from JET optimised shear discharges showing that turbulence suppression during ITB formation occurs in two stages. First low frequency turbulence is reduced across the plasma core, coinciding with a region of strong toroidal velocity shear; then high frequency turbulence is locally suppressed around the ITB region, consistent with enhanced pressure gradient driven E x B poloidal shear. The measurements were made using a system of X-mode reflectometers consisting of two, dual-channel toroidal correlation reflectometers at 75 GHz (covering plasma outboard edge) and 105 GHz (core and inboard edge), and a 92-96 GHz swept frequency radial correlation reflectometer (plasma core). Reflectometry is a powerful tool for measuring density fluctuations. The highly localised reflection of the microwave beam gives excellent spatial localisation. Measurements can be made
Hierarchy compensation of non-homogeneous intermittent atmospheric turbulence
Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Cantalapiedra, Inma R.
2010-05-01
In this work a study both the internal turbulence energy cascade intermittency evaluated from wind speed series in the atmospheric boundary layer, as well as the role of external or forcing intermittency based on the flatness (Vindel et al 2008)is carried out. The degree of intermittency in the stratified ABL flow (Cuxart et al. 2000) can be studied as the deviation, from the linear form, of the absolute scaling exponents of the structure functions as well as generalizing for non-isotropic and non-homogeneous turbulence, even in non-inertial ranges (in the Kolmogorov-Kraichnan sense) where the scaling exponents are not constant. The degree of intermittency, evaluated in the non-local quasi-inertial range, is explained from the variation with scale of the energy transfer as well as the dissipation. The scale to scale transfer and the structure function scaling exponents are calculated and from these the intermittency parametres. The turbulent diffusivity could also be estimated and compared with Richardson's law. Some two point correlations and time lag calculations are used to investigate the time and spatial integral length scales obtained from both Lagrangian and Eulerian correlations and functions, and we compare these results with both theoretical and laboratory data. We develop a theoretical description of how to measure the different levels of intermittency following (Mahjoub et al. 1998, 2000) and the role of locality in higher order exponents of structure function analysis. Vindel J.M., Yague C. and Redondo J.M. (2008) Structure function analysis and intermittency in the ABL. Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 15, 915-929. Cuxart J, Yague C, Morales G, Terradellas E, Orbe J, Calvo J, Fernández A, Soler M R, Infante C, Buenestado P, Espinalt A, Joergensen H E, Rees J M, Vilá J, Redondo J M, Cantalapiedra R and Conangla L (2000): Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (Sables 98): a report, Boundary-Layer Meteorology 96, 337-370 Mahjoub O
Homogeneous internal wave turbulence driven by tidal flows
Le Reun, Thomas; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael; Erc Fludyco Team
2017-11-01
We propose a novel investigation of the stability of strongly stratified planetary fluid layers undergoing periodic tidal distortion in the limit where rotational effects are negligible compared to buoyancy. With the help of a local model focusing on a small fluid area compared to the global layer, we find that periodic tidal distortion drives a parametric subharmonic resonance of internal. This instability saturates into an homogeneous internal wave turbulence pervading the whole fluid interior: the energy is injected in the unstable waves which then feed a succession of triadic resonances also generating small spatial scales. As the timescale separation between the forcing and Brunt-Väisälä is increased, the temporal spectrum of this turbulence displays a -2 power law reminiscent of the Garrett and Munk spectrum measured in the oceans (Garett & Munk 1979). Moreover, in this state consisting of a superposition of waves in weak non-linear interaction, the mixing efficiency is increased compared to classical, Kolmogorov-like stratified turbulence. This study is of wide interest in geophysical fluid dynamics ranging from oceanic turbulence and tidal heating in icy satellites to dynamo action in partially stratified planetary cores as it could be the case in the Earth. We acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG).
LES-ODT Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Shear Layers
Hoffie, Andreas; Echekki, Tarek
2012-11-01
Large-eddy simulations (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) simulations of a spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layer with heat release and high Reynolds numbers were conducted and compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the same configuration. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine ODT grid, which is embedded in the LES computational domain. The shear layer is simulated with a single-step, second-order reaction with an Arrhenius reaction rate. The transport equations are solved using a low Mach number approximation. The LES-ODT simulations yield reasonably accurate predictions of turbulence and passive/reactive scalars' statistics compared to DNS results.
Energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in sheared background field
Hu, Di; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Huang, Yi-Min
2018-06-01
The energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in a sheared background magnetic field is studied in this work. We consider the scenario where the nonlinear interaction of overlapping large-scale modes excites a broad spectrum of small-scale modes, generating tearing mode turbulence. The spectrum of such turbulence is of interest since it is relevant to the small-scale back-reaction on the large-scale field. The turbulence we discuss here differs from traditional MHD turbulence mainly in two aspects. One is the existence of many linearly stable small-scale modes which cause an effective damping during the energy cascade. The other is the scale-independent anisotropy induced by the large-scale modes tilting the sheared background field, as opposed to the scale-dependent anisotropy frequently encountered in traditional critically balanced turbulence theories. Due to these two differences, the energy spectrum deviates from a simple power law and takes the form of a power law multiplied by an exponential falloff. Numerical simulations are carried out using visco-resistive MHD equations to verify our theoretical predictions, and a reasonable agreement is found between the numerical results and our model.
Turbulent shear control with oscillatory bubble injection
Park, Hyun Jin; Oishi, Yoshihiko; Tasaka, Yuji; Murai, Yuichi; Takeda, Yasushi
2009-01-01
It is known that injecting bubbles into shear flow can reduce the frictional drag. This method has advantages in comparison to others in simplicity of installation and also in environment. The amount of drag reduction by bubbles depends on the void fraction provided in the boundary layer. It means, however, that certain power must be consumed to generate bubbles in water, worsening the total power-saving performance. We propose oscillatory bubble injection technique to improve the performance in this study. In order to prove this idea of new type of drag reduction, velocity vector field and shear stress profile in a horizontal channel flow are measured by ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP) and shear stress transducer, respectively. We measure the gas-liquid interface from the UVP signal, as well. This compound measurement with different principles leads to deeper understanding of bubble-originated drag reduction phenomena, in particular for unsteady process of boundary layer alternation. At these experiments, the results have demonstrated that the intermittency promotes the drag reduction more than normal continuous injection for the same void fraction supplied.
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
Turbulent characteristics of shear-thinning fluids in recirculating flows
Pereira, A.S. [Inst. Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)
2000-03-01
A miniaturised fibre optic laser-Doppler anemometer was used to carry out a detailed hydrodynamic investigation of the flow downstream of a sudden expansion with 0.1-0.2% by weight shear-thinning aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. Upstream of the sudden expansion the pipe flow was fully-developed and the xanthan gum solutions exhibited drag reduction with corresponding lower radial and tangential normal Reynolds stresses, but higher axial Reynolds stress near the wall and a flatter axial mean velocity profile in comparison with Newtonian flow. The recirculation bubble length was reduced by more than 20% relative to the high Reynolds number Newtonian flow, and this was attributed to the occurrence further upstream of high turbulence for the non-Newtonian solutions, because of advection of turbulence and earlier high turbulence production in the shear layer. Comparisons with the measurements of Escudier and Smith (1999) with similar fluids emphasized the dominating role of inlet turbulence. The present was less anisotropic, and had lower maximum axial Reynolds stresses (by 16%) but higher radial turbulence (20%) than theirs. They reported considerably longer recirculating bubble lengths than we do for similar non-Newtonian fluids and Reynolds numbers. (orig.)
A structure-based model for the transport of passive scalars in homogeneous turbulent flows
Panagiotou, C.F.; Kassinos, S.C.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) is extended for passive scalar transport. • We develop a structure-based set of scale equations for the scalar field and couple them to the IPRM. • The complete model is evaluated for several cases of homogeneous deformation with good results. • We outline steps for coupling the new scalar scales to the Algebraic Structure-Based Model (ASBM). - Abstract: A structure-based model has been constructed, for the first time, for the study of passive scalar transport in turbulent flows. The scalar variance and the large-scale scalar gradient variance are proposed as the two turbulence scales needed for closure of the scalar equations in the framework of the Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM). The scalar dissipation rate is modeled in terms of the scalar variance and the large-scale enstrophy of the velocity field. Model parameters are defined by matching the decay rates in freely isotropic turbulence. The model is validated for a large number of cases of deformation in both fixed and rotating frames, showing encouraging results. The model shows good agreement with DNS results for the case of pure shear flow in the presence of either transverse or streamwise mean scalar gradient, while it correctly predicts the presence of direct cascade for the passive scalar variance in two dimensional isotropic turbulence.
Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick
2002-11-01
This research addresses turbulent gas flows laden with fine solid particles at sufficiently large mass loading that strong two-way coupling occurs. By two-way coupling we mean that the particle motion is governed largely by the flow, while the particles affect the gas-phase mean flow and the turbulence properties. Our main interest is in understanding how the particles affect the turbulence. Computational techniques have been developed which can accurately predict flows carrying particles that are much smaller than the smallest scales of turbulence. Also, advanced computational techniques and burgeoning computer resources make it feasible to fully resolve very large particles moving through turbulent flows. However, flows with particle diameters of the same order as the Kolmogorov scale of the turbulence are notoriously difficult to predict. Some simple flows show strong turbulence attenuation with reductions in the turbulent kinetic energy by up to a factor of five. On the other hand, some seemingly similar flows show almost no modification. No model has been proposed that allows prediction of when the strong attenuation will occur. Unfortunately, many technological and natural two-phase flows fall into this regime, so there is a strong need for new physical understanding and modeling capability. Our objective is to study the simplest possible turbulent particle-laden flow, namely homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with a uniform dispersion of monodisperse particles. We chose such a simple flow for two reasons. First, the simplicity allows us to probe the interaction in more detail and offers analytical simplicity in interpreting the results. Secondly, this flow can be addressed by numerical simulation, and many research groups are already working on calculating the flow. Our detailed data can help guide some of these efforts. By using microgravity, we can further simplify the flow to the case of no mean velocity for either the turbulence or the particles. In fact
Lattice Boltzmann model for three-dimensional decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Xu Hui; Tao Wenquan; Zhang Yan
2009-01-01
We implement a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence based on an analogous Galerkin filter and focus on the fundamental statistical isotropic property. This regularized method is constructed based on orthogonal Hermite polynomial space. For decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence, this regularized method can simulate the isotropic property very well. Numerical studies demonstrate that the novel regularized LBM is a promising approximation of turbulent fluid flows, which paves the way for coupling various turbulent models with LBM
Sandeep S. Nair; Sudhir Sharma; Yunqiao Pu; Qining Sun; Shaobo Pan; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Art J. Ragauskas
2014-01-01
A new method to prepare nanolignin using a simple high shear homogenizer is presented. The kraft lignin particles with a broad distribution ranging from large micron- to nano-sized particles were completely homogenized to nanolignin particles with sizes less than 100 nm after 4 h of mechanical shearing. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
Hierarchical order in wall-bounded shear turbulence
Carbone, F.; Aubry, N.
1996-01-01
Since turbulence at realistic Reynolds numbers, such as those occurring in the atmosphere or in the ocean, involve a high number of modes that cannot be resolved computationally in the foreseeable future, there is a strong motivation for finding techniques which drastically decrease the number of such required modes, particularly under inhomogeneous conditions. The significance of this work is to show that wall-bounded shear turbulence, in its strongly inhomogeneous direction (normal to the wall), can be decomposed into one (or a few) space endash time mother mode(s), with each mother generating a whole family of modes by stretching symmetry. In other words, the generated modes are similar, dilated copies of their mother. In addition, we show that the nature of all previous modes strongly depends on the symmetry itself. These findings constitute the first scaling theory of inhomogeneous turbulence. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
SECULAR GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY OF A DUST LAYER IN SHEAR TURBULENCE
Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
2012-01-01
We perform a linear stability analysis of a dust layer in a turbulent gas disk. Youdin investigated the secular gravitational instability (GI) of a dust layer using hydrodynamic equations with a turbulent diffusion term. We obtain essentially the same result independently of Youdin. In the present analysis, we restrict the area of interest to small dust particles, while investigating the secular GI in a more rigorous manner. We discuss the time evolution of the dust surface density distribution using a stochastic model and derive the advection-diffusion equation. The validity of the analysis by Youdin is confirmed in the strong drag limit. We demonstrate quantitatively that the finite thickness of a dust layer weakens the secular GI and that the density-dependent diffusion coefficient changes the growth rate. We apply the results obtained to the turbulence driven by the shear instability and find that the secular GI is faster than the radial drift when the gas density is three times as large as that in the minimum-mass disk model. If the dust particles are larger than chondrules, the secular GI grows within the lifetime of a protoplanetary disk.
Investigation of particle-laden turbulent flow in free shear turbulent combustion
Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Ellzey, J.; Daily, J.W.
1983-01-01
Explicit numerical mixed phase simulations are described which couple random gasdynamic motions to inertiallly interactive gas borne particles. Theses simulations are numerical experiments intended to provide data for investigating the interaction between a developing turbulent free shear layer and gas borne solid particles it entrains. The simulations predict most probable distributions of dispersed phase trajectories, standard deviations, and gas phase mixing dynamics which include the concomitant back-influences of the particle phase on the carrier gas flow. Data for refinement of the computational scheme and physical verification are provided by experiment. The experimental evidence is developed in a splitter plate divided, two-channel free shear mixing combustion tube. A variety of particle concentrations and particle size distributions are admitted into non-combusting or combusting flows with selected heat release levels. The computations, in turn, provide guidance on design and selection of new experiments
Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads
Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.
2015-01-01
proposed for flat terrain and that can significantly decrease the uncertainty associated with fatigue load predictions for wind turbines with large rotors. An essential contribution is the conditioning of wind shear on the 90% quantile of wind turbulence, such that the appropriate magnitude of the design...... fatigue load is achieved. The proposed wind shear model based on the wind measurements is thereby probabilistic in definition, with shear jointly distributed with wind turbulence. A simplified model for the wind shear exponent is further derived from the full stochastic model. The fatigue loads over...... is most pronounced on the blade flap loads. It is further shown that under moderate wind turbulence, the wind shear exponents may be over-specified in the design standards, and a reduction of wind shear exponent based on the present measurements can contribute to reduced fatigue damage equivalent loads...
Chebbi, Besma; Bouzaiane, Mounir; Lili, Taieb
2009-01-01
In this work, effects of rotation on the evolution of kinematic and thermal fields in homogeneous sheared turbulence are investigated using second order closure modeling. The Launder-Reece-Ro di models, the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski model and the Shih-Lumley models are retained for pressure-strain correlation and pressure-temperature correlation. Whereas classic models are retained for time evolution equations of kinematic and thermal dissipation rates. The fourth order Runge-Kutta method is used to resolve three non linear differential systems obtained after modeling. The numerical integration is carried out separately for several values of the dimensionless rotation number R equal to 0, 0.25 and 0.5. The obtained results are compared to the recent results of Direct Numerical Simulations of G.Brethouwer. The results have confirmed the asymptotic equilibrium behaviors of kinematic and thermal dimensionless parameters. Furthermore they have shown that rotation affects not only kinematic field but also thermal field. The coupling between the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski model and the Launder-Reece-Rodi model is of a big contribution on the prediction of kinematic and thermal fields
Farsiani, Yasaman; Elbing, Brian
2017-11-01
High molecular weight polymer solutions in wall-bounded flows can reduce the local skin friction by as much as 80%. External flow studies have typical focused on injection of polymer within a developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL), allowing the concentration and drag reduction level to evolve with downstream distance. Modification of the log-law region of the TBL is directly related to drag reduction, but recent results suggest that the exact behavior is dependent on flow and polymer properties. Weissenberg number and the viscosity ratio (ratio of solvent viscosity to the zero-shear viscosity) are concentration dependent, thus the current study uses a polymer ocean (i.e. a homogenous concentration of polymer solution) with a developing TBL to eliminate uncertainty related to polymer properties. The near-wall modified TBL velocity profiles are acquired with particle image velocimetry. In the current presentation the mean velocity profiles and the corresponding flow (Reynolds number) and polymer (Weissenberg number, viscosity ratio, and length ratio) properties are reported. Note that the impact of polymer degradation on molecular weight will also be quantified and accounted for when estimating polymer properties This work was supported by NSF Grant 1604978.
Radially sheared azimuthal flows and turbulent transport in a cylindrical helicon plasma device
Tynan, G R; Burin, M J; Holland, C; Antar, G; Diamond, P H
2004-01-01
A radially sheared azimuthal flow is observed in a cylindrical helicon plasma device. The shear flow is roughly azimuthally symmetric and contains both time-stationary and slowly varying components. The turbulent radial particle flux is found to peak near the density gradient maximum and vanishes at the shear layer location. The shape of the radial plasma potential profile associated with the azimuthal E x B flow is predicted accurately by theory. The existence of the mean shear flow in a plasma with finite flow damping from ion-neutral collisions and no external momentum input implies the existence of radial angular momentum transport from the turbulent Reynolds-stress
Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface
Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans
2017-01-01
Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth's atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat...... subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured...... and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber...
An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm
Evans, Joni K.
2013-01-01
The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.
Li Feng-Chen; Cai Wei-Hua; Zhang Hong-Na; Wang Yue
2012-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) were performed for the forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence (FHIT) with/without polymer additives in order to elaborate the characteristics of the turbulent energy cascading influenced by drag-reducing effects. The finite elastic non-linear extensibility-Peterlin model (FENE-P) was used as the conformation tensor equation for the viscoelastic polymer solution. Detailed analyses of DNS data were carried out in this paper for the turbulence scaling law and the topological dynamics of FHIT as well as the important turbulent parameters, including turbulent kinetic energy spectra, enstrophy and strain, velocity structure function, small-scale intermittency, etc. A natural and straightforward definition for the drag reduction rate was also proposed for the drag-reducing FHIT based on the decrease degree of the turbulent kinetic energy. It was found that the turbulent energy cascading in the FHIT was greatly modified by the drag-reducing polymer additives. The enstrophy and the strain fields in the FHIT of the polymer solution were remarkably weakened as compared with their Newtonian counterparts. The small-scale vortices and the small-scale intermittency were all inhibited by the viscoelastic effects in the FHIT of the polymer solution. However, the scaling law in a fashion of extended self-similarity for the FHIT of the polymer solution, within the presently simulated range of Weissenberg numbers, had no distinct differences compared with that of the Newtonian fluid case
Burrell, K.H.
1996-11-01
One of the scientific success stories of fusion research over the past decade is the development of the ExB shear stabilization model to explain the formation of transport barriers in magnetic confinement devices. This model was originally developed to explain the transport barrier formed at the plasma edge in tokamaks after the L (low) to H (high) transition. This concept has the universality needed to explain the edge transport barriers seen in limiter and divertor tokamaks, stellarators, and mirror machines. More recently, this model has been applied to explain the further confinement improvement from H (high)-mode to VH (very high)-mode seen in some tokamaks, where the edge transport barrier becomes wider. Most recently, this paradigm has been applied to the core transport barriers formed in plasmas with negative or low magnetic shear in the plasma core. These examples of confinement improvement are of considerable physical interest; it is not often that a system self-organizes to a higher energy state with reduced turbulence and transport when an additional source of free energy is applied to it. The transport decrease that is associated with ExB velocity shear effects also has significant practical consequences for fusion research. The fundamental physics involved in transport reduction is the effect of ExB shear on the growth, radial extent and phase correlation of turbulent eddies in the plasma. The same fundamental transport reduction process can be operational in various portions of the plasma because there are a number ways to change the radial electric field Er. An important theme in this area is the synergistic effect of ExB velocity shear and magnetic shear. Although the ExB velocity shear appears to have an effect on broader classes of microturbulence, magnetic shear can mitigate some potentially harmful effects of ExB velocity shear and facilitate turbulence stabilization
The Theory of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Homogeneous Description
Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P.; Shiota, D.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Avinash, K.
2017-09-01
The theory of nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (NI MHD) was developed to understand the apparent incompressibility of the solar wind and other plasma environments, particularly the relationship of density fluctuations to incompressible manifestations of turbulence in the solar wind and interstellar medium. Of interest was the identification of distinct leading-order incompressible descriptions for plasma beta β ≫ 1 and β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 environments. In the first case, the “dimensionality” of the MHD description is 3D whereas for the latter two, there is a collapse of dimensionality in that the leading-order incompressible MHD description is 2D in a plane orthogonal to the large-scale or mean magnetic field. Despite the success of NI MHD in describing fluctuations in a low-frequency plasma environment such as the solar wind, a basic turbulence description has not been developed. Here, we rewrite the NI MHD system in terms of Elsässer variables. We discuss the distinction that emerges between the three cases. However, we focus on the β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 regimes since these are appropriate to the solar wind and solar corona. In both cases, the leading-order turbulence model describes 2D turbulence and the higher-order description corresponds to slab turbulence, which forms a minority component. The Elsäasser β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 formulation exhibits the nonlinear couplings between 2D and slab components very clearly, and shows that slab fluctuations respond in a passive scalar sense to the turbulently evolving majority 2D component fluctuations. The coupling of 2D and slab fluctuations through the β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 NI MHD description leads to a very natural emergence of the “Goldreich-Sridhar” critical balance scaling parameter, although now with a different interpretation. Specifically, the critical balance parameter shows that the energy flux in wave number space is a consequence of the intensity of Alfvén wave sweeping versus passive scalar
Sustained turbulence and magnetic energy in non-rotating shear flows
Nauman, Farrukh; Blackman, Eric G.
2017-01-01
From numerical simulations, we show that non-rotating magnetohydrodynamic shear flows are unstable to finite amplitude velocity perturbations and become turbulent, leading to the growth and sustenance of magnetic energy, including large scale fields. This supports the concept that sustained...... magnetic energy from turbulence is independent of the driving mechanism for large enough magnetic Reynolds numbers....
Synthetic atmospheric turbulence and wind shear in large eddy simulations of wind turbine wakes
Keck, Rolf-Erik; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels
2014-01-01
, superimposed on top of a mean deterministic shear layer consistent with that used in the IEC standard for wind turbine load calculations. First, the method is evaluated by running a series of large-eddy simulations in an empty domain, where the imposed turbulence and wind shear is allowed to reach a fully...
Split energy–helicity cascades in three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence
Biferale, L.; Musacchio, S.; Toschi, F.
2013-01-01
We investigate the transfer properties of energy and helicity fluctuations in fully developed homogeneous and isotropic turbulence by changing the nature of the nonlinear Navier–Stokes terms. We perform a surgery of all possible interactions, by keeping only those triads that have sign-definite
Impact of magnetic shear modification on confinement and turbulent fluctuations in LHD plasmas
Fukuda, T.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.
2008-10-01
For the comprehensive understandings of transport phenomena in toroidal confinement systems and improvement of the predictive capability of burning plasmas in ITER, the impact of magnetic shear has been extensively investigated in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for comparison with tokamaks. Consequently, it was heuristically documented that the pronounced effect of magnetic shear, which has been hitherto considered to be ubiquitous and strongly impacts the core transport in the tokamak experiments, is not quite obvious. Namely, the kinetic profiles respond little under extensive modification of the magnetic shear in the core, although the local transport analysis indicates the sign of improvement in confinement transiently when the magnetic shear is reduced. It was thereby concluded that the magnetic shear in the core strongly influences the MHD activity, but it may only be one of the necessary conditions for the transport reduction, and some other crucial knobs, such as the density gradient or T e /T i ratio, would have to be simultaneously controlled. The low wavenumber turbulence seems to be suppressed under the weak shear, and the turbulent fluctuation intensity behaves in a consistent manner as a whole, following the conventional paradigm accumulated in the negative shear experiments in tokamaks. However, vigorous dynamics of turbulent fluctuations have occasionally been observed under the magnetic shear modification, which respond in much faster time scale than the characteristic time scale for either the magnetic diffusion or the profile evolution. (author)
On the Space-Time Structure of Sheared Turbulence
de Mare, Martin Tobias; Mann, Jakob
2016-01-01
We develop a model that predicts all two-point correlations in high Reynolds number turbulent flow, in both space and time. This is accomplished by combining the design philosophies behind two existing models, the Mann spectral velocity tensor, in which isotropic turbulence is distorted according......-assisted feed forward control and wind-turbine wake modelling....
Effects of flow shear and Alfven waves on two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Douglas, Jamie; Kim, Eun-jin; Thyagaraja, A.
2008-01-01
The suppression of turbulent transport by large scale mean shear flows and uniform magnetic fields is investigated in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by a small-scale forcing with finite correlation time. By numerical integration the turbulent magnetic diffusivity D T is shown to be significantly quenched, with a scaling D T ∝B -2 Ω 0 -5/4 , which is much more severe than in the case of a short or delta correlated forcing typified by white noise, studied in E. Kim and B. Dubrulle [Phys. Plasmas 8, 813 (2001)]. Here B and Ω 0 are magnetic field strength and flow shear rate, respectively. The forcing with finite correlation time also leads to much stronger suppression of momentum transport through the cancellation of the Reynolds stress by the Maxwell stress with a positive small value of turbulent viscosity, ν T >0. While fluctuating kinetic and magnetic energies are unaffected by the magnetic field just as in the case of a delta correlated forcing, they are much more severely quenched by flow shear than in that of a delta correlated forcing. Underlying physical mechanisms for the reduction of turbulent transport and turbulence level by flow shear and magnetic field are discussed
Turbulence suppression by E x B shear in JET optimized shear pulses
Beer, M.A.; Budny, R.V.; Challis, C.D.; Conway, G.
2000-01-01
The authors calculate microinstability growth rates in JET optimized shear plasmas with a comprehensive gyrofluid model, including sheared E x B flows, trapped electrons, and all dominant ion species in realistic magnetic geometry. They find good correlation between E x B shear suppression of microinstabilities and both the formation and collapse of the internal transport barrier
Marín-Santibáñez, Benjamín M.; Pérez-González, José; Rodríguez-González, Francisco
2014-01-01
The origin of shear thickening in an equimolar semidilute wormlike micellar solution of cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was investigated in this work by using Couette rheometry, flow visualization, and capillary Rheo-particle image velocimetry. The use of the combined methods allowed the discovery of gradient shear banding flow occurring from a critical shear stress and consisting of two main bands, one isotropic (transparent) of high viscosity and one structured (turbid) of low viscosity. Mechanical rheometry indicated macroscopic shear thinning behavior in the shear banding regime. However, local velocimetry showed that the turbid band increased its viscosity along with the shear stress, even though barely reached the value of the viscosity of the isotropic phase. This shear band is the precursor of shear induced structures that subsequently give rise to the average increase in viscosity or apparent shear thickening of the solution. Further increase in the shear stress promoted the growing of the turbid band across the flow region and led to destabilization of the shear banding flow independently of the type of rheometer used, as well as to vorticity banding in Couette flow. At last, vorticity banding disappeared and the flow developed elastic turbulence with chaotic dynamics
Numerical and Theoretical Studies of Turbulence and Transport with E x B Shear Flows
Krommes, J.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.
1999-01-01
This paper reports: (1) substantial transport reduction by turbulence-driven E x B flows observed in 3D nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas; (2) analytical derivation of the effective shearing rate for the time-dependent E x B flow; (3) interpretation of experimental data using linear gyrokinetic microinstability rotation models of E x B shear; and (4) other developments in gyrokinetic theory and simulation
Theory of ion Bernstein wave induced shear suppression of turbulence
Craddock, G. G.; Diamond, P. H.; Ono, M.; Biglari, H.
1994-06-01
The theory of radio frequency induced ion Bernstein wave- (IBW) driven shear flow in the edge is examined, with the goal of application of shear suppression of fluctuations. This work is motivated by the observed confinement improvement on IBW heated tokamaks [Phys. Fluids B 5, 241 (1993)], and by previous low-frequency work on RF-driven shear flows [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1535 (1991)]. It is found that the poloidal shear flow is driven electrostatically by both Reynolds stress and a direct ion momentum source, analogous to the concepts of helicity injection and electron momentum input in current drive, respectively. Flow drive by the former does not necessarily require momentum input to the plasma to induce a shear flow. For IBW, the direct ion momentum can be represented by direct electron momentum input, and a charge separation induced stress that imparts little momentum to the plasma. The derived Er profile due to IBW predominantly points inward, with little possibility of direction change, unlike low-frequency Alfvénic RF drive. The profile scale is set by the edge density gradient and electron dissipation. Due to the electrostatic nature of ion Bernstein waves, the poloidal flow contribution dominates in Er. Finally, the necessary edge power absorbed for shear suppression on Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified (PBX-M) [9th Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, Charleston, SC, 1991 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991), p. 129] is estimated to be 100 kW distributed over 5 cm.
Self-sustained collisional drift-wave turbulence in a sheared magnetic field
Scott, B.D.
1990-01-01
Although collisional drift waves in a sheared slab configuration are linearly damped, it is found that the corresponding turbulence is self-sustaining if initialized at nonlinear amplitude. The influence of the free-energy source represented by the temperature and density gradients on the turbulent system involving bidirectional spectral energy transfer is responsible for this change of regime. Several important features of tokamak edge fluctuations are reproduced by these single-rational-surface nonlinear dynamics. As a result, drift-wave turbulence must still be considered as an underlying dynamic of anomalous transport in tokamak edges
Shear flow generation and energetics in electromagnetic turbulence
Naulin, V.; Kendl, A.; Garcia, O.E.
2005-01-01
acoustic mode (GAM) transfer in drift-Alfvén turbulence is investigated. By means of numerical computations the energy transfer into zonal flows owing to each of these effects is quantified. The importance of the three driving ingredients in electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence for conditions...... relevant to the edge of fusion devices is revealed for a broad range of parameters. The Reynolds stress is found to provide a flow drive, while the electromagnetic Maxwell stress is in the cases considered a sink for the flow energy. In the limit of high plasma β, where electromagnetic effects and Alfvén...
Farzi, Mina; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeed; Safari, Mohammad; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin
2015-08-01
The effect of high-shear homogenization on the rheological and particle size characteristics of three species of gum tragacanth (GT) was detected. Dispersions were subjected to 0-20 min treatment. Static light scattering techniques and rheological tests were used to study the effect of treatment. The results showed that the process caused a decrease in particle size parameters for all three species, but interestingly, the apparent viscosities increased. The highest increase of apparent viscosity was found for solutions containing Astragalus gossypinus, which possessed the highest insoluble fraction. The viscoelastic behaviors of dispersions were also significantly influenced by the process. Homogenization caused an increase in both G' and G″, in all three species. The alterations seem to be highly dependent on GT species and structure. The results could be of high importance in the industry, since the process will lead to textural modifications of food products containing GT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Flow shear suppression of turbulence using externally driven ion Bernstein and Alfven waves
Biglari, H.; Ono, M.
1992-01-01
The utilization of externally-launched radio-frequency waves as a means of active confinement control through the generation of sheared poloidal flows is explored. For low-frequency waves, kinetic Alfven waves are proposed, and are shown to drive sheared E x B flows as a result of the radial variation in the electromagnetic Reynolds stress. In the high frequency regime, ion Bernstein waves are considered, and shown to generate sheared poloidal rotation through the pondermotive force. In either case, it is shown that modest amounts of absorbed power (∼ few 100 kW) are required to suppress turbulence in a region of several cm radial width
Anon.
1989-01-01
Papers on turbulent shear flows are presented, covering topics such as the structure of pressure fluctuations, fossil two-dimensional turbulence in the ocean, turbulence production and eddy structure in wall turbulence, bypass transition in a heated boundary layer, a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow, the evolution of an axisymmetric jet, plane mixing layer development, vortex models of a pseudoturbulent shear flow, numerical techniques for turbulence studies, Reynolds stress in the wall region of turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent structure of a momentumless wake, the near field of the transverse jet. Additional topics include a turbulent boundary layer disturbed by a cylinder, evolving mixing layers, flow analysis in a vortex flowmeter, ejections and bursts in pulsatile turbulent wall flow measurements, a flat plate oscillating in pitch, turbulent buoyant flows, isothermal lobed mixer flows, flow distortion on a turbulent scalar field, two phase flows. In addition, papers on the applications of turbulent shear flow studies are given, including air pollutant deposition, closures, oceanography, instrumentation, heat transfer, rotating flows, combustion, coherent structures, turbulence control, and scalar transport modeling
Power spectral density analysis of wind-shear turbulence for related flight simulations. M.S. Thesis
Laituri, Tony R.
1988-01-01
Meteorological phenomena known as microbursts can produce abrupt changes in wind direction and/or speed over a very short distance in the atmosphere. These changes in flow characteristics have been labelled wind shear. Because of its adverse effects on aerodynamic lift, wind shear poses its most immediate threat to flight operations at low altitudes. The number of recent commercial aircraft accidents attributed to wind shear has necessitated a better understanding of how energy is transferred to an aircraft from wind-shear turbulence. Isotropic turbulence here serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in the low-altitude wind shear. The related question of how isotropic turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density (psd). The role of the psd in related Monte Carlo simulations is also considered.
EFFECT OF ION ∇ B DRIFT DIRECTION ON TURBULENCE FLOW AND FLOW SHEAR
FENZI, C; McKEE, G.R; BURRELL, K.H; CARLSTROM, T.N; FONCK, R.J; GROEBNER, R.J
2003-01-01
The divertor magnetic geometry has a significant effect on the poloidal flow and resulting flow shear of turbulence in the outer region of L-mode tokamak plasmas, as determined via two-dimensional measurements of density fluctuations with Beam Emission Spectroscopy on DIII-D. Plasmas with similar parameters, except that in one case the ion (del)B drift points towards the divertor X-point (lower single-null, LSN), and in the other case, the ion (del)B drift points away from the divertor X-point (upper single-null, USN), are compared. Inside of r/a=0.9, the turbulence characteristics (amplitude, flow direction, correlation lengths) are similar in both cases, while near r/a=0.92, a dramatic reversal of the poloidal flow of turbulence relative to the core flow direction is observed in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. No such flow reversal is observed in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing away from the divertor X-point. This poloidal flow reversal results in a significantly larger local shear in the poloidal turbulence flow velocity in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. Additionally, these plasmas locally exhibit significant dispersion, with two distinct and counter-propagating turbulence modes. Likewise, the radial correlation length of the turbulence is reduced in these plasmas, consistent with biorthogonal decomposition measurements of dominant turbulence structures. The naturally occurring turbulence flow shear in these LSN plasmas may facilitate the LH transition that occurs at an input power of roughly one-half to one-third that of corresponding plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing away from the X-point
Asymptotic stability of spectral-based PDF modeling for homogeneous turbulent flows
Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2015-11-01
Engineering models of turbulence, based on one-point statistics, neglect spectral information inherent in a turbulence field. It is well known, however, that the evolution of turbulence is dictated by a complex interplay between the spectral modes of velocity. For example, for homogeneous turbulence, the pressure-rate-of-strain depends on the integrated energy spectrum weighted by components of the wave vectors. The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) (Kassinos & Reynolds, 1996) and the Velocity/Wave-Vector PDF model (Van Slooten & Pope, 1997) emulate spectral information in an attempt to improve the modeling of turbulence. We investigate the evolution and asymptotic stability of the IPRM using three different approaches. The first approach considers the Lagrangian evolution of individual realizations (idealized as particles) of the stochastic process defined by the IPRM. The second solves Lagrangian evolution equations for clusters of realizations conditional on a given wave vector. The third evolves the solution of the Eulerian conditional PDF corresponding to the aforementioned clusters. This last method avoids issues related to discrete particle noise and slow convergence associated with Lagrangian particle-based simulations.
Turbulent transport reduction by E x B velocity shear during edge plasma biasing in tokamaks
Van Oost, G. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium); Adamek, J.; Antoni, V.; Balan, P.; Boedo, J.A.; Devynck, P.; Duran, I.; Eliseev, L.; Gunn, J.P.; Hron, M.; Ionita, C.; Jachmich, S.; Kirnev, G.S.; Martines, E.; Melnikov, A.; Peleman, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Silva, C.; Stoeckel, J.; Tendler, M.; Varandas, C.; Van Schoor, M.; Vershkov, V.; Weynants, R.R.
2004-07-01
Experiments in the tokamaks TEXTOR, CASTOR, T-10 and ISTTOK have provided new and complementary evidence on the physics of the universal mechanism of E x B velocity shear stabilization of turbulence, concomitant transport barrier formation and radial conductivity by using various edge biasing techniques. (orig.)
Review Article: Advances in modeling of bed particle entrainment sheared by turbulent flow
Dey, Subhasish; Ali, Sk Zeeshan
2018-06-01
Bed particle entrainment by turbulent wall-shear flow is a key topic of interest in hydrodynamics because it plays a major role to govern the planetary morphodynamics. In this paper, the state-of-the-art review of the essential mechanisms governing the bed particle entrainment by turbulent wall-shear flow and their mathematical modeling is presented. The paper starts with the appraisal of the earlier multifaceted ideas in modeling the particle entrainment highlighting the rolling, sliding, and lifting modes of entrainment. Then, various modeling approaches of bed particle entrainment, such as deterministic, stochastic, and spatiotemporal approaches, are critically analyzed. The modeling criteria of particle entrainment are distinguished for hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes. In this context, the responses of particle size, particle exposure, and packing condition to the near-bed turbulent flow that shears the particles to entrain are discussed. From the modern experimental outcomes, the conceptual mechanism of particle entrainment from the viewpoint of near-bed turbulent coherent structures is delineated. As the latest advancement of the subject, the paper sheds light on the origin of the primitive empirical formulations of bed particle entrainment deriving the scaling laws of threshold flow velocity of bed particle motion from the perspective of the phenomenological theory of turbulence. Besides, a model framework that provides a new look on the bed particle entrainment phenomenon stemming from the stochastic-cum-spatiotemporal approach is introduced. Finally, the future scope of research is articulated with open questions.
Skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent channel flow based on streamwise shear control
Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Hwa
2017-01-01
Highlights: • We perform DNSs of fully developed turbulent channel flows to explore an active flow control concept using streamwise velocity shear control at the wall. • The structural spacing and wall amplitude parameters are systematically changed to achieve a high-efficient drag reduction rate for longitudinal control surface. • Significant drag reduction is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations. • The generation and evolution of the turbulent vortices in the absence of velocity shear and how they contribute to DR have been examined. - Abstract: It is known that stretching and intensification of a hairpin vortex by mean shear play an important role to create a hairpin vortex packet, which generates the large Reynolds shear stress associated with skin-friction drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows. In order to suppress the mean shear at the wall for high efficient drag reduction (DR), in the present study, we explore an active flow control concept using streamwise shear control (SSC) at the wall. The longitudinal control surface is periodically spanwise-arranged with no-control surface while varying the structural spacing, and an amplitude parameter for imposing the strength of the actuating streamwise velocity at the wall is introduced to further enhance the skin-friction DR. Significant DR is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations, although a further increase in the parameters amplifies the turbulence activity in the near-wall region. In order to study the direct relationship between turbulent vortical structures and DR under the SSC, temporal evolution with initial eddies extracted by conditional averages for Reynolds-stress-maximizing Q2 events are examined. It is shown that the generation of new vortices is dramatically inhibited with an increase in the parameters
Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine power performance
Wagner, R.; Courtney, M.S.; Larsen, T.J.; Paulsen, U.S.
2010-01-15
Aerodynamic simulations (HAWC2Aero) were used to investigate the influence of the speed shear, the direction shear and the turbulence intensity on the power output of a multi-megawatt turbine. First simulation cases with laminar flow and power law wind speed profiles were compared to the case of a uniform inflow. Secondly, a similar analysis was done for cases with direction shear. In each case, we derived a standard power curve (function of the wind speed at hub height) and power curves obtained with various definitions of equivalent wind speed in order to reduce the scatter due to shear. Thirdly, the variations of the power output and the power curve were analysed for various turbulence intensities. Furthermore, the equivalent speed method was successfully tested on a power curve resulting from simulations cases combining shear and turbulence. Finally, we roughly simulated the wind speed measurements we may get from a LIDAR mounted on the nacelle of the turbine (measuring upwind) and we investigated different ways of deriving an equivalent wind speed from such measurements. (author)
Nature of turbulent transport across sheared zonal flows: insights from gyrokinetic simulations
Sanchez, R; Newman, D E; Leboeuf, J-N; Decyk, V K
2011-01-01
The traditional view regarding the reduction of turbulence-induced transport across a stable sheared flow invokes a reduction of the characteristic length scale in the direction perpendicular to the flow as a result of the shearing and stretching of eddies caused by the differential pull exerted in the direction of the flow. A reduced effective transport coefficient then suffices to capture the reduction, that can then be readily incorporated into a transport model. However, recent evidence from gyrokinetic simulations of the toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode suggests that the dynamics of turbulent transport across sheared flows changes in a more fundamental manner, and that the use of reduced effective transport coefficients fails to capture the full dynamics that may exhibit both subdiffusion and non-Gaussian statistics. In this contribution, after briefly reviewing these results, we propose some candidates for the physical mechanisms responsible for endowing transport with such non-diffusive characteristics, backing these proposals with new numerical gyrokinetic data.
Stochastic field-line wandering in magnetic turbulence with shear. I. Quasi-linear theory
Shalchi, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I. [Department of Physics, University of Craiova, Association Euratom-MEdC, 13A.I.Cuza Str, 200585 Craiova (Romania)
2016-07-15
We investigate the random walk of magnetic field lines in magnetic turbulence with shear. In the first part of the series, we develop a quasi-linear theory in order to compute the diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines. We derive general formulas for the diffusion coefficients in the different directions of space. We like to emphasize that we expect that quasi-linear theory is only valid if the so-called Kubo number is small. We consider two turbulence models as examples, namely, a noisy slab model as well as a Gaussian decorrelation model. For both models we compute the field line diffusion coefficients and we show how they depend on the aforementioned Kubo number as well as a shear parameter. It is demonstrated that the shear effect reduces all field line diffusion coefficients.
Stochastic field-line wandering in magnetic turbulence with shear. I. Quasi-linear theory
Shalchi, A.; Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I.
2016-01-01
We investigate the random walk of magnetic field lines in magnetic turbulence with shear. In the first part of the series, we develop a quasi-linear theory in order to compute the diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines. We derive general formulas for the diffusion coefficients in the different directions of space. We like to emphasize that we expect that quasi-linear theory is only valid if the so-called Kubo number is small. We consider two turbulence models as examples, namely, a noisy slab model as well as a Gaussian decorrelation model. For both models we compute the field line diffusion coefficients and we show how they depend on the aforementioned Kubo number as well as a shear parameter. It is demonstrated that the shear effect reduces all field line diffusion coefficients.
Direct numerical simulations of premixed autoignition in compressible uniformly-sheared turbulence
Towery, Colin; Darragh, Ryan; Poludnenko, Alexei; Hamlington, Peter
2017-11-01
High-speed combustion systems, such as scramjet engines, operate at high temperatures and pressures, extremely short combustor residence times, very high rates of shear stress, and intense turbulent mixing. As a result, the reacting flow can be premixed and have highly-compressible turbulence fluctuations. We investigate the effects of compressible turbulence on the ignition delay time, heat-release-rate (HRR) intermittency, and mode of autoignition of premixed Hydrogen-air fuel in uniformly-sheared turbulence using new three-dimensional direct numerical simulations with a multi-step chemistry mechanism. We analyze autoignition in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian reference frames at eight different turbulence Mach numbers, Mat , spanning the quasi-isentropic, linear thermodynamic, and nonlinear compressibility regimes, with eddy shocklets appearing in the nonlinear regime. Results are compared to our previous study of premixed autoignition in isotropic turbulence at the same Mat and with a single-step reaction mechanism. This previous study found large decreases in delay times and large increases in HRR intermittency between the linear and nonlinear compressibility regimes and that detonation waves could form in both regimes.
Ronda, R.J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Pino, D.
2012-01-01
Goal of this study is to quantify the effect of wind shear on the turbulent transport in the dry Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). Questions addressed include the effect of wind shear on the depth of the mixed layer, the effect of wind shear on the depth and structure of the capping inversion, and
Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface
Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S. E.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Astrup, P.; Larsén, X. G.
2017-12-01
Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber, or frequency. Spectra are derived from Fourier transforms of wind records as functions of space or time corresponding to wavenumber and frequency spectra, respectively. Atmospheric spectra often exhibit different subranges that can be distinguished and scaled by the physical parameters responsible for: (1) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen’s early work in 1953 ‘on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow’ led Tchen to predict a shear production subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen’s prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree -1
Nonlinear Simulations of Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence in Low Magnetic Shear Stellarators
Faber, B. J.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hegna, C. C.
2017-10-01
Optimized stellarators, like the Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX), often operate with small global magnetic shear to avoid low-order rational surfaces and magnetic islands. Nonlinear, flux-tube gyrokinetic simulations of density-gradient-driven Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) turbulence in HSX shows two distinct spectral fluctuation regions: long-wavelength slab-like TEMs localized by global magnetic shear that extend along field lines and short-wavelength TEMs localized by local magnetic shear to a single helical bad curvature region. The slab-like TEMs require computational domains significantly larger than one poloidal turn and are computationally expensive, making turbulent optimization studies challenging. A computationally more efficient, zero-average-magnetic-shear approximation is shown to sufficiently describe the relevant nonlinear physics and replicate finite-shear computations, and can be exploited in quasilinear models based on linear gyrokinetics as a feasible optimization tool. TEM quasilinear heat fluxes are computed with the zero-shear approximation and compared to experimentally-relevant nonlinear gyrokinetic TEM heat fluxes for HSX. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-FG02-93ER54222 and DE-FG02-89ER53291.
A generalized self-similar spectrum for decaying homogeneous and isotropic turbulence
Yang, Pingfan; Pumir, Alain; Xu, Haitao
2017-11-01
The spectrum of turbulence in dissipative and inertial range can be described by the celebrated Kolmogorov theory. However, there is no general solution of the spectrum in the large scales, especially for statistically unsteady turbulent flows. Here we propose a generalized self-similar form that contains two length-scales, the integral scale and the Kolmogorov scale, for decaying homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. With the help of the local spectral energy transfer hypothesis by Pao (Phys. Fluids, 1965), we derive and solve for the explicit form of the energy spectrum and the energy transfer function, from which the second- and third-order velocity structure functions can also be obtained. We check and verify our assumptions by direct numerical simulations (DNS), and our solutions of the velocity structure functions compare well with hot-wire measurements of high-Reynolds number wind-tunnel turbulence. Financial supports from NSFC under Grant Number 11672157, from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, and from the MPG are gratefully acknowledged.
Im, Hong G.; Pal, Pinaki; Wooldridge, Margaret S.; Mansfield, Andrew B.
2015-01-01
A theoretical scaling analysis is conducted to propose a diagram to predict weak and strong ignition regimes for a compositionally homogeneous reactant mixture with turbulent velocity and temperature fluctuations. The diagram provides guidance on expected ignition behavior based on the thermo-chemical properties of the mixture and the flow/scalar field conditions. The analysis is an extension of the original Zeldovich’s analysis by combining the turbulent flow and scalar characteristics in terms of the characteristic Damköhler and Reynolds numbers of the system, thereby providing unified and comprehensive understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms controlling ignition characteristics. Estimated parameters for existing experimental measurements in a rapid compression facility show that the regime diagram predicts the observed ignition characteristics with good fidelity.
Im, Hong G.
2015-04-02
A theoretical scaling analysis is conducted to propose a diagram to predict weak and strong ignition regimes for a compositionally homogeneous reactant mixture with turbulent velocity and temperature fluctuations. The diagram provides guidance on expected ignition behavior based on the thermo-chemical properties of the mixture and the flow/scalar field conditions. The analysis is an extension of the original Zeldovich’s analysis by combining the turbulent flow and scalar characteristics in terms of the characteristic Damköhler and Reynolds numbers of the system, thereby providing unified and comprehensive understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms controlling ignition characteristics. Estimated parameters for existing experimental measurements in a rapid compression facility show that the regime diagram predicts the observed ignition characteristics with good fidelity.
Renormalization theory of stationary homogeneous strong turbulence in a collisionless plasma
Zhang, Y.Z.
1984-01-01
A renormalization procedure for the perturbation expansion of the Vlasov-Poisson equation is presented to describe stationary homogeneous turbulence. By using the diagramatic scheme the theory is shown to be renormalizable to any order. The expressions for the renormalized propagator, the renormalized dielectric function, and the intrinsically incoherent source are given. The renormalization leads to a complete separation of the fluctuating distribution function f/sub k/ into two parts, the coherent part, which is proved to represent the dielectric effect of the medium, and the intrinsically incoherent part, which represents the effect of nonlinear source. The turbulent collisional operator in the transport equation is proved equal to GAMMA 0 , the frequency broadening when k = 0
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Modeling of Turbulent Free Shear Layers
Schilling, Oleg
2017-11-01
Turbulent mixing of gases in free shear layers is simulated using a weighted essentially nonoscillatory implementation of ɛ- and L-based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models. Specifically, the air/air shear layer with velocity ratio 0.6 studied experimentally by Bell and Mehta (1990) is modeled. The detailed predictions of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and lengthscale models are compared to one another, and to the experimental data. The role of analytical, self-similar solutions for model calibration and physical insights is also discussed. It is shown that turbulent lengthscale-based models are unable to predict both the growth parameter (spreading rate) and turbulent kinetic energy normalized by the square of the velocity difference of the streams. The terms in the K, ɛ, and L equation budgets are compared between the models, and it is shown that the production and destruction mechanisms are substantially different in the ɛ and L equations. Application of the turbulence models to the Brown and Roshko (1974) experiments with streams having various velocity and density ratios is also briefly discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Shafer, M. W.; McKee, G. R.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Austin, M. E.; Burrell, K. H.
2008-11-01
Long-wavelength turbulence (kρiITBs) may form. Application of off-axis ECH slows the q-profile evolution and increases ρqmin, both of which enhance turbulence measurements using a new high-sensitivity large-area (8x,8) 2D BES array. The measured transient turbulence suppression is localized to the low-order rational surface (qmin= 2, 5/2, 3, etc.). Measured poloidal flow shear transiently exceeds the turbulence decorrelation rate, which is consistent with shear suppression. The localized suppression zone propagates radially outward, nearly coincident with the low-order surface.
Yan, Z; McKee, G R; Fonck, R; Gohil, P; Groebner, R J; Osborne, T H
2014-03-28
Comprehensive 2D turbulence and eddy flow velocity measurements on DIII-D demonstrate a rapidly increasing turbulence-driven shear flow that develops ∼100 μs prior to the low-confinement (L mode) to high-confinement (H mode) transition and appears to trigger it. These changes are localized to a narrow layer 1-2 cm inside the magnetic boundary. Increasing heating power increases the Reynolds stress, the energy transfer from turbulence to the poloidal flow, and the edge flow shearing rate that then exceeds the decorrelation rate, suppressing turbulence and triggering the transition.
Statistical properties of wall shear stress fluctuations in turbulent channel flows
Keirsbulck, L.; Labraga, L.; Gad-el-Hak, M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Accurate measurements of instantaneous wall shear stress are conducted. ► LDA is used to measure near-wall streamwise velocity. ► Electrochemical probe is used to measure wall shear stress. ► Frequency response and non-uniform correction methods were used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall-statistics database. ► Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is investigated. - Abstract: Instantaneous velocity and wall shear stress measurements are conducted in a turbulent channel flow in the Kármán number range of Re τ = 74–400. A one-dimensional LDA system is used to measure the streamwise velocity fluctuations, and an electrochemical technique is utilized to measure the instantaneous wall shear stress. For the latter, frequency response and nonuniform correction methods are used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall statistics database. The Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is carefully investigated. The corrected relative wall shear stress fluctuations fit well with the best DNS data available and meet the need for clarification of the small discrepancy observed in the literature between the experimental and numerical results of such quantities. Higher-order statistics of the wall shear stress, spectra, and the turbulence kinetic energy budget at the wall are also investigated. The present paper shows that the electrochemical technique is a powerful experimental method for hydrodynamic studies involving highly unsteady flows. The study brings with it important consequences, especially in the context of the current debate regarding the appropriate scaling as well as the validation of new predictive models of near-wall turbulence.
Sun, Ping; Adhikari, Benu P.; Li, Dong
2018-01-01
This study investigated the effects of high shear and high pressure homogenization on the rheological properties (steady shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus, and deformation) and homogeneity in tomato fiber suspensions. The tomato fiber suspensions at different concentrations (0.1%–1%, w/w) were subjected to high shear and high pressure homogenization and the morphology (distribution of fiber particles), rheological properties, and color parameters of the homogenized suspensions were measured. The homogenized suspensions were significantly more uniform compared to unhomogenized suspension. The homogenized suspensions were found to better resist the deformation caused by external stress (creep behavior). The apparent viscosity and storage and loss modulus of homogenized tomato fiber suspension are comparable with those of commercial tomato ketchup even at the fiber concentration as low as 0.5% (w/w), implying the possibility of using tomato fiber as thickener. The model tomato sauce produced using tomato fiber showed desirable consistency and color. These results indicate that the application of tomato fiber in tomato-based food products would be desirable and beneficial. PMID:29743890
Momentum-energy transport from turbulence driven by parallel flow shear
Dong, J.Q.; Horton, W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.
1994-04-01
The low frequency E x B turbulence driven by the shear in the mass flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is studied using the fluid theory in a slab configuration with magnetic shear. Ion temperature gradient effects are taken into account. The eigenfunctions of the linear instability are asymmetric about the mode rational surfaces. Quasilinear Reynolds stress induced by such asymmetric fluctuations produces momentum and energy transport across the magnetic field. Analytic formulas for the parallel and perpendicular Reynolds stress, viscosity and energy transport coefficients are given. Experimental observations of the parallel and poloidal plasma flows on TEXT-U are presented and compared with the theoretical models
Metamorphosis of plasma turbulence-shear-flow dynamics through a transcritical bifurcation
Ball, R.; Dewar, R.L.; Sugama, H.
2002-01-01
The structural properties of an economical model for a confined plasma turbulence governor are investigated through bifurcation and stability analyses. A close relationship is demonstrated between the underlying bifurcation framework of the model and typical behavior associated with low- to high-confinement transitions such as shear-flow stabilization of turbulence and oscillatory collective action. In particular, the analysis evinces two types of discontinuous transition that are qualitatively distinct. One involves classical hysteresis, governed by viscous dissipation. The other is intrinsically oscillatory and nonhysteretic, and thus provides a model for the so-called dithering transitions that are frequently observed. This metamorphosis, or transformation, of the system dynamics is an important late side-effect of symmetry breaking, which manifests as an unusual nonsymmetric transcritical bifurcation induced by a significant shear-flow drive
Turbulent intermittent structure in non-homogeneous non-local flows
Mahjoub, O. B.; Castilla, R.; Vindel, J. M.; Redondo, J. M.
2010-05-01
Data from SABLES98 experimental campaign have been used in order to study the influence of stability (from weak to strong stratification) on intermittency [1]. Standard instrumentation, 14 thermocouples and 3 sonic anemometers at three levels (5.8, 13.5 and 32 m) were available in September 1998 and calculations are done in order to evaluate structure functions and the scale to scale characteristics. Using BDF [2-4] as well as other models of cascades, the spectral equilibrium values were used to calculate fluxes of momentum and heat as well as non-homogeneous models and the turbulent mixing produced. The differences in structure and higher order moments between stable, convective and neutral turbulence were used to identify differences in turbulent intermittent mixing and velocity PDF's. The intermittency of atmospheric turbulence in strongly stable situations affected by buoyancy and internal waves are seen to modify the structure functions exponents and intermittency, depending on the modulus of the Richardson's number,Ri, as well as of the Monin-Obukhov and Ozmidov lengthscales. The topological aspects of the turbulence affected by stratification reduce the vertical length-scales to a maximum described by the Thorpe and the Ozmidov lenth-scales, but intermittency, Kurtosis and other higher order descriptors of the turbulence based on spectral wavelet analysis are also affected in a complex way [5,6]. The relationship between stratification, intermittency, µ(Ri) and the fractal dimension of the stable flows and between the dispersion, the fractal dimension are discussed. The data analyzed is from the campaign SABLES-98 at the north-west Iberian Peninsula plateau.(Cuxart et al. 2000). Conditional statistics of the relationship between µ(Ri) are confirmed as in (Vindel et al 2008)[4] and compared with laboratory experiments and with 2D-3D aspects of the turbulence cascade. The use of BDF [3] model comparing the corresponding relative scaling exponents which are
Investigation of anomalous very fast decay regimes in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Meldi, Marcello; Sagaut, Pierre
2018-05-01
The emergence of anomalous fast decay regimes in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) decay is investigated via both theoretical analysis and eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian simulations. The work provides new insight about a fundamental issue playing a role in HIT decay, namely the influence of non-standard shapes of the energy spectrum, in particular in the large energetic scale region. A detailed analysis of the kinetic energy spectrum E(k) and the non-linear energy transfer T(k) shows that anomalous decay regimes are associated with the relaxation of initial energy spectra which exhibit a bump at energetic scales. This feature induces an increase in the energy cascade rate, toward solutions with a smooth shape at the spectrum peak. Present results match observations reported in wind-tunnel experiments dealing with turbulence decay in the wake of grids and bluff bodies, including scaling laws for the dissipation parameter Cɛ. They also indicate that the ratio between the initial eddy turnover time and the advection time determines of how fast anomalous regimes relax toward classical turbulence free-decay. This parameter should be used for consistent data comparison and it opens perspectives for the control of multiscale effects in industrial applications.
Jacobitz, Frank G; Schneider, Kai; Bos, Wouter J T; Farge, Marie
2016-01-01
The acceleration statistics of sheared and rotating homogeneous turbulence are studied using direct numerical simulation results. The statistical properties of Lagrangian and Eulerian accelerations are considered together with the influence of the rotation to shear ratio, as well as the scale dependence of their statistics. The probability density functions (pdfs) of both Lagrangian and Eulerian accelerations show a strong and similar dependence on the rotation to shear ratio. The variance and flatness of both accelerations are analyzed and the extreme values of the Eulerian acceleration are observed to be above those of the Lagrangian acceleration. For strong rotation it is observed that flatness yields values close to three, corresponding to Gaussian-like behavior, and for moderate and vanishing rotation the flatness increases. Furthermore, the Lagrangian and Eulerian accelerations are shown to be strongly correlated for strong rotation due to a reduced nonlinear term in this case. A wavelet-based scale-dependent analysis shows that the flatness of both Eulerian and Lagrangian accelerations increases as scale decreases, which provides evidence for intermittent behavior. For strong rotation the Eulerian acceleration is even more intermittent than the Lagrangian acceleration, while the opposite result is obtained for moderate rotation. Moreover, the dynamics of a passive scalar with gradient production in the direction of the mean velocity gradient is analyzed and the influence of the rotation to shear ratio is studied. Concerning the concentration of a passive scalar spread by the flow, the pdf of its Eulerian time rate of change presents higher extreme values than those of its Lagrangian time rate of change. This suggests that the Eulerian time rate of change of scalar concentration is mainly due to advection, while its Lagrangian counterpart is only due to gradient production and viscous dissipation.
Turbulence in tokamak plasmas. Effect of a radial electric field shear
Payan, J.
1994-05-01
After a review of turbulence and transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas and the radial electric field shear effect in various tokamaks, experimental measurements obtained at Tore Supra by the means of the ALTAIR plasma diagnostic technique, are presented. Electronic drift waves destabilization mechanisms, which are the main features that could describe the experimentally observed microturbulence, are then examined. The effect of a radial electric field shear on electronic drift waves is then introduced, and results with ohmic heating are studied together with relations between turbulence and transport. The possible existence of ionic waves is rejected, and a spectral frequency modelization is presented, based on the existence of an electric field sheared radial profile. The position of the inversion point of this field is calculated for different values of the mean density and the plasma current, and the modelization is applied to the TEXT tokamak. The radial electric field at Tore Supra is then estimated. The effect of the ergodic divertor on turbulence and abnormal transport is then described and the density fluctuation radial profile in presence of the ergodic divertor is modelled. 80 figs., 120 refs
Scott, C.K.; Abdelbaky, M.
1997-01-01
Determining the characteristics of large aerosol aggregates 'clusters' under turbulent conditions is fundamental for predicting the behaviour of radioactive aerosols inside the reactor containment following a severe accident. Studying such rapidly settling clusters is extremely difficult in ground-based experiments due to the effect of the earth's gravity. In this study, the microgravity environment is exploited to investigate the effect of turbulent shear on the aggregation and breakage of clusters by examining their structure and measuring their strength parameters while suspended under weightlessness conditions. A parametric model is introduced to correlate the experimental results over into nuclear aerosol models. It was demonstrated that the cluster parameters depend mainly on the turbulent field intensity as well as initial powder conditions. (author)
Hoffie, Andreas Frank
Large eddy simulation (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to simulate spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layers with high heat release and high Reynolds numbers. The LES-ODT results are compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), for model development and validation purposes. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum and pressure on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine, one-dimensional, but three-dimensionally coupled ODT subgrid, which is embedded into the LES computational domain. Although one-dimensional, all three velocity components are transported along the ODT domain. The low-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution of the subgrid scales describe a new modeling paradigm, referred to as autonomous microstructure evolution (AME) models, which resolve the multiscale nature of turbulence down to the Kolmogorv scales. While this new concept aims to mimic the turbulent cascade and to reduce the number of input parameters, AME enables also regime-independent combustion modeling, capable to simulate multiphysics problems simultaneously. The LES as well as the one-dimensional transport equations are solved using an incompressible, low Mach number approximation, however the effects of heat release are accounted for through variable density computed by the ideal gas equation of state, based on temperature variations. The computations are carried out on a three-dimensional structured mesh, which is stretched in the transverse direction. While the LES momentum equation is integrated with a third-order Runge-Kutta time-integration, the time integration at the ODT level is accomplished with an explicit Forward-Euler method. Spatial finite-difference schemes of third (LES) and first (ODT) order are utilized and a fully consistent fractional-step method at the LES level is used. Turbulence closure at the LES level is achieved by utilizing the Smagorinsky
Reversed magnetic shear suppression of electron-scale turbulence on NSTX
Yuh, Howard Y.; Levinton, F. M.; Bell, R. E.; Hosea, J. C.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mazzucato, E.; Smith, D. R.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Park, H. K.
2009-11-01
Electron thermal internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) are observed in reversed (negative) magnetic shear NSTX discharges^1. These e-ITBs can be created with either neutral beam heating or High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) RF heating. The e-ITB location occurs at the location of minimum magnetic shear determined by Motional Stark Effect (MSE) constrained equilibria. Statistical studies show a threshold condition in magnetic shear for e-ITB formation. High-k fluctuation measurements at electron turbulence wavenumbers^3 have been made under several different transport regimes, including a bursty regime that limits temperature gradients at intermediate magnetic shear. The growth rate of fluctuations has been calculated immediately following a change in the local magnetic shear, resulting in electron temperature gradient relaxation. Linear gyrokinetic simulation results for NSTX show that while measured electron temperature gradients exceed critical linear thresholds for ETG instability, growth rates can remain low under reversed shear conditions up to high electron temperatures gradients. ^1H. Yuh, et. al., PoP 16, 056120 ^2D.R. Smith, E. Mazzucato et al., RSI 75, 3840 ^3E. Mazzucato, D.R. Smith et al., PRL 101, 075001
Turbulent transport and shear at the E x B velocity in wall plasma of the TF-2 tokamak
Budaev, V.P.
1999-01-01
Turbulence of near-the-wall plasma and potentialities of affecting the turbulence and periphery transport of the TF-2 tokamak by inducing radial electric fields and ergodization of periphery magnetic structure have been investigated, the results are presented. Essential role of the E x B velocity shear in suppression of the turbulence and turbulent transport in periphery has been pointed out. Decrease in transport losses stemming from effect of radial electric fields is brought about suppression of turbulence amplitude, decrease in correlations and decrease in the width of the wave numbers spectrum. Profiles of plasma density, electron temperature, turbulence level, electric fields over entire periphery of discharge change as a result. Ergodization of magnetic structure also results in the change of properties of periphery turbulence and turbulent transport [ru
Structure of high and low shear-stress events in a turbulent boundary layer
Gomit, G.; de Kat, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.
2018-01-01
Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and wall-shear-stress sensor measurements were performed to study structures associated with shear-stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a Reynolds number Reτ≈4000 . The PIV field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) along the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. Simultaneously, wall-shear-stress measurements that capture the large-scale fluctuations were taken using a spanwise array of hot-film skin-friction sensors (spanning 2 δ ). Based on this combination of measurements, the organization of the conditional wall-normal and streamwise velocity fluctuations (u and v ) and of the Reynolds shear stress (-u v ) can be extracted. Conditional averages of the velocity field are computed by dividing the histogram of the large-scale wall-shear-stress fluctuations into four quartiles, each containing 25% of the occurrences. The conditional events corresponding to the extreme quartiles of the histogram (positive and negative) predominantly contribute to a change of velocity profile associated with the large structures and in the modulation of the small scales. A detailed examination of the Reynolds shear-stress contribution related to each of the four quartiles shows that the flow above a low wall-shear-stress event carries a larger amount of Reynolds shear stress than the other quartiles. The contribution of the small and large scales to this observation is discussed based on a scale decomposition of the velocity field.
The Dynamics of Turbulent Scalar Mixing near the Edge of a Shear Layer
Taveira, R. M. R.; da Silva, C. B.; Pereira, J. C. F.
2011-12-01
In free shear flows a sharp and convoluted turbulent/nonturbulent (T/NT) interface separates the outer fluid region, where the flow is essentially irrotational, from the shear layer turbulent region. It was found recently that the entrainment mechanism is mainly caused by small scale ("nibbling") motions (Westerweel et al. (2005)). The dynamics of this interface is crucial to understand important exchanges of enstrophy and scalars that can be conceived as a three-stage process of entrainment, dispersion and diffusion (Dimotakis (2005)). A thorough understanding of scalar mixing and transport is of indisputable relevance to control turbulent combustion, propulsion and contaminant dispersion (Stanley et al. (2002)). The present work uses several DNS of turbulent jets at Reynolds number ranging from Reλ = 120 to Reλ = 160 (da Silva & Taveira (2010)) and a Schmidt number Sc = 0.7 to analyze the "scalar interface" and turbulent mixing of a passive scalar. Specifically, we employ conditional statistics, denoted by langlerangleI, in order to eliminate the intermittency that affects statistics close to the jet edge. The physical mechanisms behind scalar mixing near the T/NT interfaces, their scales and topology are investigated detail. Analysis of the instantaneous fields showed intense scalar gradient sheet-like structures along regions of persistent strain, in particular at the T/NT interface. The scalar gradient transport equation, at the jet edge, showed that almost all mixing mechanisms are taking place in a confined region, beyond which they become reduced to an almost in perfect balance between production and dissipation of scalar variance. At the T/NT interface transport mechanisms are the ones responsible for the growth in the scalar fluctuations to the entrained fluid, where convection plays a dominant role, smoothing scalar gradients inside the interface and boosting them as far as
The Dynamics of Turbulent Scalar Mixing near the Edge of a Shear Layer
Taveira, R M R; Silva, C B da; Pereira, J C F
2011-01-01
In free shear flows a sharp and convoluted turbulent/nonturbulent (T/NT) interface separates the outer fluid region, where the flow is essentially irrotational, from the shear layer turbulent region. It was found recently that the entrainment mechanism is mainly caused by small scale ('nibbling') motions (Westerweel et al. (2005)). The dynamics of this interface is crucial to understand important exchanges of enstrophy and scalars that can be conceived as a three-stage process of entrainment, dispersion and diffusion (Dimotakis (2005)). A thorough understanding of scalar mixing and transport is of indisputable relevance to control turbulent combustion, propulsion and contaminant dispersion (Stanley et al. (2002)). The present work uses several DNS of turbulent jets at Reynolds number ranging from Re λ = 120 to Re λ = 160 (da Silva and Taveira (2010)) and a Schmidt number Sc = 0.7 to analyze the 'scalar interface' and turbulent mixing of a passive scalar. Specifically, we employ conditional statistics, denoted by I , in order to eliminate the intermittency that affects statistics close to the jet edge. The physical mechanisms behind scalar mixing near the T/NT interfaces, their scales and topology are investigated detail. Analysis of the instantaneous fields showed intense scalar gradient sheet-like structures along regions of persistent strain, in particular at the T/NT interface. The scalar gradient transport equation, at the jet edge, showed that almost all mixing mechanisms are taking place in a confined region, beyond which they become reduced to an almost in perfect balance between production and dissipation of scalar variance. At the T/NT interface transport mechanisms are the ones responsible for the growth in the scalar fluctuations to the entrained fluid, where convection plays a dominant role, smoothing scalar gradients inside the interface 0.1y I /λ to 1y I /λand boosting them as far as -2.5y I /η θ C .
Li, Jinzhao; Qi, Meilan; Fuhrman, David R.
2018-01-01
-normal distribution for uniform channel-open flows. The comparisons of sediment transport rates where turbulent fluctuations in the bed shear stress are, or are not, taken into account show that the sediment transport rates calculated by the mean bed shear stress are under-predicted. Furthermore, a new sediment......This study concerns the flow and associated sediment transport in front of a cylinder in steady currents. The study comprises (i) flow characteristics induced by the turbulent horseshoe vortex (THV), (ii) bed shear stress within the THV region, and (iii) predicted sediment transport rates...
Direct test of a nonlinear constitutive equation for simple turbulent shear flows using DNS data
Schmitt, François G.
2007-10-01
Several nonlinear constitutive equations have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the linear eddy-viscosity models to describe complex turbulent flows. These nonlinear equations have often been compared to experimental data through the outputs of numerical models. Here we perform a priori analysis of nonlinear eddy-viscosity models using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of simple shear flows. In this paper, the constitutive equation is directly checked using a tensor projection which involves several invariants of the flow. This provides a 3 terms development which is exact for 2D flows, and a best approximation for 3D flows. We provide the quadratic nonlinear constitutive equation for the near-wall region of simple shear flows using DNS data, and estimate their coefficients. We show that these coefficients have several common properties for the different simple shear flow databases considered. We also show that in the central region of pipe flows, where the shear rate is very small, the coefficients of the constitutive equation diverge, indicating the failure of this representation for vanishing shears.
Large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer and their imprint on wall shear stress
Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
2015-11-01
Experiments were performed on a turbulent boundary layer developing on a flat plate model under zero pressure gradient flow. A MEMS differential capacitive shear stress sensor with a 1 mm × 1 mm floating element was used to capture the fluctuating wall shear stress simultaneously with streamwise velocity measurements from a hot-wire anemometer traversed in the wall normal direction. Near the wall, the peak in the cross correlation corresponds to an organized motion inclined 45° from the wall. In the outer region, the peak diminishes in value, but is still significant at a distance greater than half the boundary layer thickness, and corresponds to a structure inclined 14° from the wall. High coherence between the two signals was found for the low-frequency content, reinforcing the belief that large scale structures have a vital impact on wall shear stress. Thus, estimation of the wall shear stress from the low-frequency velocity signal will be performed, and is expected to be statistically significant in the outer boundary layer. Additionally, conditionally averaged mean velocity profiles will be presented to assess the effects of high and low shear stress. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.
2011-02-20
potential for erosion, it is important to compare the measured shear strength to penetrometer measurements and to develop a correlation (or correlations) between UCS measured by a pocket penetrometer and direct shear strength measurements for various homogeneous and heterogeneous simulants. This study developed 11 homogeneous simulants, whose shear strengths vary from 4 to 170 kPa. With these simulants, we developed correlations between UCS measured by a Geotest E-280 pocket penetrometer and shear strength values measured by a Geonor H-60 hand-held vane tester and a more sophisticated bench-top unit, the Haake M5 rheometer. This was achieved with side-by-side measurements of the shear strength and UCS of the homogeneous simulants. The homogeneous simulants developed under this study consist of kaolin clay, plaster of Paris, and amorphous alumina CP-5 with water. The simulants also include modeling clay. The shear strength of most of these simulants is sensitive to various factors, including the simulant size, the intensity of mixing, and the curing time, even with given concentrations of simulant components. Table S.1 summarizes these 11 simulants and their shear strengths.
Two regimes of flux scaling in axially homogeneous turbulent convection in vertical tube
Pawar, Shashikant S.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
2016-08-01
From experiments of axially homogeneous turbulent convection in a vertical tube using heat (Prandtl number Pr≃6 ) and brine (Pr≃600 ) we show that at sufficiently high Rayleigh numbers (Rag), the Nusselt number Nug˜(RagPr)1/2, which corresponds to the so-called ultimate regime scaling. In heat experiments below certain Rag,however,there is transition to a new regime, Nug˜(RagPr)0.3. This transition also seems to exist in earlier reported data for Pr=1 and Pr≃600 , at different Rag. However, the transition occurs at a single Grashof number, Grgc≃1.6 ×105 , and unified flux scalings for Pr≥1 , Nug/Pr˜Grg0.3, and Nug/Pr˜Grg1/2 can be given for the two regimes.
Pawar, Shashikant S.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
2016-06-01
Kinetic energy and scalar spectra from the measurements in high Rayleigh number axially homogeneous buoyancy driven turbulent flow are presented. Kinetic energy and concentration (scalar) spectra are obtained from the experiments wherein density difference is created using brine and fresh water and temperature spectra are obtained from the experiments in which heat is used. Scaling of the frequency spectra of lateral and longitudinal velocity near the tube axis is closer to the Kolmogorov-Obukhov scaling, while the scalar spectra show some evidence of dual scaling, Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling followed by Obukhov-Corrsin scaling. These scalings are also observed in the corresponding second order spatial structure functions of velocity and concentration fluctuations.
Ahmad Imtiaz; Lu Zhi-Ming; Liu Yu-Lu
2014-01-01
Streamwise evolution of longitudinal and transverse velocity structure functions in a decaying homogeneous and nearly isotropic turbulence is reported for Reynolds numbers Re λ up to 720. First, two theoretical relations between longitudinal and transverse structure functions are examined in the light of recently derived relations and the results show that the low-order transverse structure functions can be well approximated by longitudinal ones within the sub-inertial range. Reconstruction of fourth-order transverse structure functions with a recently proposed relation by Grauer et al. is comparatively less valid than the relation already proposed by Antonia et al. Secondly, extended self-similarity methods are used to measure the scaling exponents up to order eight and the streamwise evolution of scaling exponents is explored. The scaling exponents of longitudinal structure functions are, at first location, close to Zybin's model, and at the fourth location, close to She—Leveque model. No obvious trend is found for the streamwise evolution of longitudinal scaling exponents, whereas, on the contrary, transverse scaling exponents become slightly smaller with the development of a steamwise direction. Finally, the stremwise variation of the order-dependent isotropy ratio indicates the turbulence at the last location is closer to isotropic than the other three locations. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length
Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre
2015-11-01
Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).
Controls on Turbulent Mixing in a Strongly Stratified and Sheared Tidal River Plume
Jurisa, Joseph T.; Nash, Jonathan D.; Moum, James N.; Kilcher, Levi F.
2016-08-01
Considerable effort has been made to parameterize turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate ..epsilon.. and mixing in buoyant plumes and stratified shear flows. Here, a parameterization based on Kunze et al. is examined, which estimates ..epsilon.. as the amount of energy contained in an unstable shear layer (Ri < Ric) that must be dissipated to increase the Richardson number Ri = N2/S2 to a critical value Ric within a turbulent decay time scale. Observations from the tidal Columbia River plume are used to quantitatively assess the relevant parameters controlling ..epsilon.. over a range of tidal and river discharge forcings. Observed ..epsilon.. is found to be characterized by Kunze et al.'s form within a factor of 2, while exhibiting slightly decreased skill near Ri = Ric. Observed dissipation rates are compared to estimates from a constant interfacial drag formulation that neglects the direct effects of stratification. This is found to be appropriate in energetic regimes when the bulk-averaged Richardson number Rib is less than Ric/4. However, when Rib > Ric/4, the effects of stratification must be included. Similarly, ..epsilon.. scaled by the bulk velocity and density differences over the plume displays a clear dependence on Rib, decreasing as Rib approaches Ric. The Kunze et al. ..epsilon.. parameterization is modified to form an expression for the nondimensional dissipation rate that is solely a function of Rib, displaying good agreement with the observations. It is suggested that this formulation is broadly applicable for unstable to marginally unstable stratified shear flows.
Near-Wall Turbulence Modelling of Rotating and Curved Shear Flows
Pettersson, Bjoern Anders
1997-12-31
This thesis deals with verification and refinement of turbulence models within the framework of the Reynolds-averaged approach. It pays special attention to modelling the near-wall region, where the turbulence is strongly non-homogeneous and anisotropic. It also studies in detail the effects associated with an imposed rotation of the reference frame or streamline curvature. The objective with near-wall turbulence closure modelling is to formulate a set of equations governing single point turbulence statistics, which can be solved in the region of the flow which extends to the wall. This is in contrast to the commonly adopted wall-function approach in which the wall-boundary conditions are replaced by matching conditions in the logarithmic region. The near-wall models allow more flexibility by not requiring any such universal behaviour. Assessment of the novel elliptic relaxation approach to model the proximity of a solid boundary reveals an encouraging potential used in conjunction with second-moment and eddy-viscosity closures. The most natural level of closure modelling to predict flows affected by streamline curvatures or an imposed rotation of the reference frame is at the second-moment closure (SMC) level. Although SMCs naturally accounts for the effects of system rotation, the usual application of a scalar dissipation rate equation is shown to require ad hoc corrections in some cases in order to give good results. The elliptic relaxation approach is also used in conjunction with non-linear pressure-strain models and very encouraging results are obtained for rotating flows. Rotational induced secondary motions are vital to predicting the effects of system rotation. Some severe weaknesses of non-linear pressure-strain models are also indicated. Finally, a modelling methodology for anisotropic dissipation in nearly homogeneous turbulence are proposed. 84 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.
Sheared electric field-induced suppression of edge turbulence using externally driven R.F. waves
Craddock, G.G.; Diamond, P.H.
1991-01-01
Here the authors propose a novel method for active control and suppression of edge turbulence by sheared ExB flows driven by externally launched RF waves. The theory developed addresses the problem of open-quotes flow driveclose quotes, which is somewhat analogous to the problem of plasma current drive. As originally demonstrated for the case of spontaneously driven flows, a net difference in the gradient of the fluid and magnetic Reynolds' stresses produced by radially propagating waves can drive the plasma flow. For the prototypical case of the Alfven wave flow drive considered here, ρ 0 r v θ > - r B θ > is proportional to k perpendicular 2 ρ s 2 in the case of the kinetic Alfven wave, and [(ηk perpendicular 2 -vk perpendicular 2 )/ω] 2 in the case of resistive MHD. Both results reflect the dependence of flow drive on the net stress imbalance. The shear layer width is determined by the waves evanescence length (determined by dissipation) that sets the stress gradient scale length, while the direction of the flow is determined by the poloidal orientation of the launched waves. In particular, it should be noted that both positive and negative E r may be driven, so that enhanced confinement need not be accompanied by impurity accumulation, as commonly encountered in spontaneous H-modes. The efficiency is determined by the criterion that the radial electric field shear be large enough to suppress turbulence. For typical TEXT parameters, and unity efficiency, 300 kW of absorbed power is needed to suppress turbulence over 3 cm radially. For DIII-D, 300 kW over 4 cm is needed. Also, direct transport losses induced by RF have been shown to be small. Extensions of the theory to ICRF are underway and are discussed. They also discuss the analogous problem of current drive using kinetic Alfven waves. 2 refs
Electromagnetic transport components and sheared flows in drift-Alfven turbulence
Naulin, V.
2003-01-01
Results from three-dimensional numerical simulations of drift-Alfven turbulence in a toroidal geometry with sheared magnetic field are presented. The simulations show a relation between self-generated poloidal shear flows and magnetic field perturbations. For large values of the plasma beta we ob...... with a folded Gaussian, while the PDFs of the spatially averaged transport are in good agreement with an extreme value distribution. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics....... related to magnetic flutter is proposed. The characteristics of the ExB flux are investigated using probability density distribution functions (PDFs). Although they are not Gaussian, no signs of algebraic tails in the PDFs are observed. The PDFs of the pointwise transport are found to agree well...
Convection of wall shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer
Pabon, Rommel; Mills, David; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
2017-11-01
The fluctuating wall shear stress is measured in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer of Reτ 1700 simultaneously with velocity measurements using either hot-wire anemometry or particle image velocimetry. These experiments elucidate the patterns of large scale structures in a single point measurement of the wall shear stress, as well as their convection velocity at the wall. The wall shear stress sensor is a CS-A05 one-dimensional capacitice floating element from Interdisciplinary Consulting Corp. It has a nominal bandwidth from DC to 5 kHz and a floating element size of 1 mm in the principal sensing direction (streamwise) and 0.2 mm in the cross direction (spanwise), allowing the large scales to be well resolved in the current experimental conditions. In addition, a two sensor array of CS-A05 aligned in the spanwise direction with streamwise separations O (δ) is utilized to capture the convection velocity of specific scales of the shear stress through a bandpass filter and peaks in the correlation. Thus, an average wall normal position for the corresponding convecting event can be inferred at least as high as the equivalent local streamwise velocity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer
Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2015-11-01
Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.
Extremely high wall-shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer
Pan, Chong; Kwon, Yongseok
2018-04-01
The present work studies the fluctuating characteristics of the streamwise wall-shear stress in a DNS of a turbulent boundary layer at Re τ =1500 from a structural view. The two-dimensional field of the fluctuating friction velocity u‧ τ (x,z) is decomposed into the large- and small-scale components via a recently proposed scale separation algorithm, Quasi-bivariate Variational Mode Decomposition (QB-VMD). Both components are found to be dominated by streak-like structures, which can be regarded as the wall signature of the inner-layer streaks and the outer-layer LSMs, respectively. Extreme positive/negative wall-shear stress fluctuation events are detected in the large-scale component. The former’s occurrence frequency is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the latter; therefore, they contribute a significant portion of the long tail of the wall-shear stress distribution. Both two-point correlations and conditional averages show that these extreme positive wall-shear stress events are embedded in the large-scale positive u‧ τ streaks. They seem to be formed by near-wall ‘splatting’ process, which are related to strong finger-like sweeping (Q4) events originated from the outer-layer positive LSMs.
Peterson, Jayson Luc
2011-10-01
Observations in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have found electron temperature gradients that greatly exceed the linear threshold for the onset for electron temperature gradient-driven (ETG) turbulence. These discharges, deemed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), coincide with a reversal in the shear of the magnetic field and with a reduction in electron-scale density fluctuations, qualitatively consistent with earlier gyrokinetic predictions. To investigate this phenomenon further, we numerically model electron turbulence in NSTX reversed-shear plasmas using the gyrokinetic turbulence code GYRO. These first-of-a-kind nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of NSTX e-ITBs confirm that reversing the magnetic shear can allow the plasma to reach electron temperature gradients well beyond the critical gradient for the linear onset of instability. This effect is very strong, with the nonlinear threshold for significant transport approaching three times the linear critical gradient in some cases, in contrast with moderate shear cases, which can drive significant ETG turbulence at much lower gradients. In addition to the experimental implications of this upshifted nonlinear critical gradient, we explore the behavior of ETG turbulence during reversed shear discharges. This work is supported by the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466, and used the resources of NCCS at ORNL and NERSC at LBNL. M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000).
Yoshimatsu, Katsunori; Kawahara, Yasuhiro; Schneider, Kai; Okamoto, Naoya; Farge, Marie
2011-01-01
Scale-dependent and geometrical statistics of three-dimensional incompressible homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence without mean magnetic field are examined by means of the orthogonal wavelet decomposition. The flow is computed by direct numerical simulation with a Fourier spectral method at resolution 512 3 and a unit magnetic Prandtl number. Scale-dependent second and higher order statistics of the velocity and magnetic fields allow to quantify their intermittency in terms of spatial fluctuations of the energy spectra, the flatness, and the probability distribution functions at different scales. Different scale-dependent relative helicities, e.g., kinetic, cross, and magnetic relative helicities, yield geometrical information on alignment between the different scale-dependent fields. At each scale, the alignment between the velocity and magnetic field is found to be more pronounced than the other alignments considered here, i.e., the scale-dependent alignment between the velocity and vorticity, the scale-dependent alignment between the magnetic field and its vector potential, and the scale-dependent alignment between the magnetic field and the current density. Finally, statistical scale-dependent analyses of both Eulerian and Lagrangian accelerations and the corresponding time-derivatives of the magnetic field are performed. It is found that the Lagrangian acceleration does not exhibit substantially stronger intermittency compared to the Eulerian acceleration, in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulence where the Lagrangian acceleration shows much stronger intermittency than the Eulerian acceleration. The Eulerian time-derivative of the magnetic field is more intermittent than the Lagrangian time-derivative of the magnetic field.
Fang, Le [Laboratory of Mathematics and Physics, Ecole Centrale de Pékin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu, Ying [Laboratory of Mathematics and Physics, Ecole Centrale de Pékin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Yangwei, E-mail: liuyangwei@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Lipeng [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)
2015-10-09
The non-equilibrium property in turbulence is a non-negligible problem in large-eddy simulation but has not yet been systematically considered. The generalization from equilibrium turbulence to non-equilibrium turbulence requires a clear recognition of the non-equilibrium property. As a preliminary step of this recognition, the present letter defines a typical non-equilibrium process, that is, the spectral non-equilibrium process, in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. It is then theoretically investigated by employing the skewness of grid-scale velocity gradient, which permits the decomposition of resolved velocity field into an equilibrium one and a time-reversed one. Based on this decomposition, an improved Smagorinsky model is proposed to correct the non-equilibrium behavior of the traditional Smagorinsky model. The present study is expected to shed light on the future studies of more generalized non-equilibrium turbulent flows. - Highlights: • A spectral non-equilibrium process in isotropic turbulence is defined theoretically. • A decomposition method is proposed to divide a non-equilibrium turbulence field. • An improved Smagorinsky model is proposed to correct the non-equilibrium behavior.
Control of a three-dimensional turbulent shear layer by means of oblique vortices
Jürgens, Werner; Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob
2018-04-01
The effect of local forcing on the separated, three-dimensional shear layer downstream of a backward-facing step is investigated by means of large-eddy simulation for a Reynolds number based on the step height of 10,700. The step edge is either oriented normal to the approaching turbulent boundary layer or swept at an angle of 40°. Oblique vortices with different orientation and spacing are generated by wavelike suction and blowing of fluid through an edge parallel slot. The vortices exhibit a complex three-dimensional structure, but they can be characterized by a wavevector in a horizontal section plane. In order to determine the step-normal component of the wavevector, a method is developed based on phase averages. The dependence of the wavevector on the forcing parameters can be described in terms of a dispersion relation, the structure of which indicates that the disturbances are mainly convected through the fluid. The introduced vortices reduce the size of the recirculation region by up to 38%. In both the planar and the swept case, the most efficient of the studied forcings consists of vortices which propagate in a direction that deviates by more than 50° from the step normal. These vortices exhibit a spacing in the order of 2.5 step heights. The upstream shift of the reattachment line can be explained by increased mixing and momentum transport inside the shear layer which is reflected in high levels of the Reynolds shear stress -ρ \\overline{u'v'}. The position of the maximum of the coherent shear stress is found to depend linearly on the wavelength, similar to two-dimensional free shear layers.
Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.
2012-12-01
Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine
Lu, Z. X.; Tynan, G. [Center for Energy Research and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization and Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Wang, W. X.; Ethier, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Diamond, P. H. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization and Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Gao, C.; Rice, J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2015-05-15
Intrinsic torque, which can be generated by turbulent stresses, can induce toroidal rotation in a tokamak plasma at rest without direct momentum injection. Reversals in intrinsic torque have been inferred from the observation of toroidal velocity changes in recent lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments. This work focuses on understanding the cause of LHCD-induced intrinsic torque reversal using gyrokinetic simulations and theoretical analyses. A new mechanism for the intrinsic torque reversal linked to magnetic shear (s{sup ^}) effects on the turbulence spectrum is identified. This reversal is a consequence of the ballooning structure at weak s{sup ^}. Based on realistic profiles from the Alcator C-Mod LHCD experiments, simulations demonstrate that the intrinsic torque reverses for weak s{sup ^} discharges and that the value of s{sup ^}{sub crit} is consistent with the experimental results s{sup ^}{sub crit}{sup exp}≈0.2∼0.3 [Rice et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 125003 (2013)]. The consideration of this intrinsic torque feature in our work is important for the understanding of rotation profile generation at weak s{sup ^} and its consequent impact on macro-instability stabilization and micro-turbulence reduction, which is crucial for ITER. It is also relevant to internal transport barrier formation at negative or weakly positive s{sup ^}.
Markussen, Thor Nygaard; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest
2014-01-01
flocculation and floc break-up dynamics in the lower part of the water column in the period around slack water. These dynamics were confirmed in the Eulerian deployments and were reoccurring in every tidal cycle. The dynamics were mostly governed by changes in turbulent shear. Strong microflocs with a lower...... mean threshold diameter of 50–60 μm present at high turbulent shear flocculated to form fragile macroflocs with sizes of several hundred microns and mean diameters above 80 μm around slack water periods. A hysteresis in floc break-up and flocculation was found at high water slack (HWS), as flocs formed...
A priori study of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in isotropic homogeneous turbulence
Chumakov, Sergei
2008-01-01
We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a passive scalar that is forced by mean gradient. The DNS data are used to study the properties of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in the framework of large eddy simulation (LES), such as alignment trends between the flux, resolved, and subgrid-scale flow structures. It is shown that the direction of the flux is strongly coupled with the subgrid-scale stress axes rather than the resolved flow quantities such as strain, vorticity, or scalar gradient. We derive an approximate transport equation for the subgrid-scale flux of a scalar and look at the relative importance of the terms in the transport equation. A particular form of LES tensor-viscosity model for the scalar flux is investigated, which includes the subgrid-scale stress. Effect of different models for the subgrid-scale stress on the model for the subgrid-scale flux is studied.
A priori study of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in isotropic homogeneous turbulence.
Chumakov, Sergei G
2008-09-01
We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a passive scalar that is forced by mean gradient. The DNS data are used to study the properties of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in the framework of large eddy simulation (LES), such as alignment trends between the flux, resolved, and subgrid-scale flow structures. It is shown that the direction of the flux is strongly coupled with the subgrid-scale stress axes rather than the resolved flow quantities such as strain, vorticity, or scalar gradient. We derive an approximate transport equation for the subgrid-scale flux of a scalar and look at the relative importance of the terms in the transport equation. A particular form of LES tensor-viscosity model for the scalar flux is investigated, which includes the subgrid-scale stress. Effect of different models for the subgrid-scale stress on the model for the subgrid-scale flux is studied.
Study of the characteristics of forced homogeneous turbulence using band-pass Fourier filtering
Kareem, Waleed Abdel [Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)
2012-03-15
Simulations of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence with resolutions of 128{sup 3} and 256{sup 3} using the Lattice Boltzmann method are carried out. The multi-scale vortical structures are identified using the band-pass Fourier cutoff filtering. Three fields at each simulation are extracted and their characteristics are studied. The vortical structures are visualized using the Q-identification method. A new lattice segmentation scheme to identify the central axes of the vortical structures is introduced. The central points of each vortex are identified and they are connected using the direction cosines technique. Results show that the Q-spectrum of the fine scale field survives at low and high wave-numbers. However, the large and intermediate Q-spectra survives till wave-numbers less than or equal to twice the used velocity cutoff wave-numbers. It is found that the extracted central axes clearly resemble the corresponding vortical structures at each scale. Using the central axes scheme, the radii and lengths of the vortical structures at each scale are determined and compared. It is also found that the radii of the identified vortical structures at each scale in both simulations are of the order of several times the Kolmogorov microscales.
Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Mirabella, Lucia; Yoganathan, Ajit P
2015-06-01
Congenital bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are associated with accelerated disease progression, such as leaflet calcification and ascending aorta dilatation. Although common underlying genetic factors have been implicated in accelerated disease in BAV patients, several studies have suggested that altered hemodynamics also play a role in this disease process. The present study compares turbulence and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements between various BAV and trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) models to provide information for mechanobiological models of BAV disease. BAV and TAV models were constructed from excised porcine aortic valves to simulate parametric variations in BAV stenosis, hemodynamics and geometry. Particle image velocimetry experiments were conducted at physiological pressure conditions to characterize velocity fields in the ascending aorta. The velocity fields were post-processed to calculate turbulence, viscous and wall shear stresses in the ascending aorta. Stenosed BAV models showed the presence of eccentric systolic jets, causing increased WSS. Lower cardiac output resulted in a narrower jet, lower turbulence and lower viscous shear stress (VSS). The specific severe stenosis BAV model studied here showed reduced WSS due to reduction in non-fused leaflet mobility. Dilation of the aorta did not affect any turbulence or VSS, but reduced the WSS. In comparison with BAVs, TAVs have similar VSS values, but much smaller WSS and turbulence levels. These increased turbulence and WSS levels in BAVs may play a key role in amplifying the biological responses of the ascending aorta wall and valvular leaflets, and support the hemodynamic underpinnings of BAV disease processes.
Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.
1991-01-01
The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.
Plasma turbulence driven by transversely large-scale standing shear Alfvén waves
Singh, Nagendra; Rao, Sathyanarayan
2012-01-01
Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study generation of turbulence consisting of transversely small-scale dispersive Alfvén and electrostatic waves when plasma is driven by a large-scale standing shear Alfvén wave (LS-SAW). The standing wave is set up by reflecting a propagating LS-SAW. The ponderomotive force of the standing wave generates transversely large-scale density modifications consisting of density cavities and enhancements. The drifts of the charged particles driven by the ponderomotive force and those directly caused by the fields of the standing LS-SAW generate non-thermal features in the plasma. Parametric instabilities driven by the inherent plasma nonlinearities associated with the LS-SAW in combination with the non-thermal features generate small-scale electromagnetic and electrostatic waves, yielding a broad frequency spectrum ranging from below the source frequency of the LS-SAW to ion cyclotron and lower hybrid frequencies and beyond. The power spectrum of the turbulence has peaks at distinct perpendicular wave numbers (k ⊥ ) lying in the range d e −1 -6d e −1 , d e being the electron inertial length, suggesting non-local parametric decay from small to large k ⊥ . The turbulence spectrum encompassing both electromagnetic and electrostatic fluctuations is also broadband in parallel wave number (k || ). In a standing-wave supported density cavity, the ratio of the perpendicular electric to magnetic field amplitude is R(k ⊥ ) = |E ⊥ (k ⊥ )/|B ⊥ (k ⊥ )| ≪ V A for k ⊥ d e A is the Alfvén velocity. The characteristic features of the broadband plasma turbulence are compared with those available from satellite observations in space plasmas.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Li, Hui; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe
2015-07-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe, E-mail: jsi@nmt.edu; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2015-07-15
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.
2015-01-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations
A formal derivation of the local energy transfer (LET) theory of homogeneous turbulence
McComb, W. D.; Yoffe, S. R.
2017-09-01
A statistical closure of the Navier-Stokes hierarchy which leads to equations for the two-point, two-time covariance of the velocity field for stationary, homogeneous isotropic turbulence is presented. It is a generalisation of the self-consistent field method due to Edwards (1964) for the stationary, single-time velocity covariance. The probability distribution functional P≤ft[\\mathbf{u},t\\right] is obtained, in the form of a series, from the Liouville equation by means of a perturbation expansion about a Gaussian distribution, which is chosen to give the exact two-point, two-time covariance. The triple moment is calculated in terms of an ensemble-averaged infinitesimal velocity-field propagator, and shown to yield the Edwards result as a special case. The use of a Gaussian zero-order distribution has been found to justify the introduction of a fluctuation-response relation, which is in accord with modern dynamical theories. In a sense this work completes the analogy drawn by Edwards between turbulence and Brownian motion. Originally Edwards had shown that the noise input was determined by the correlation of the velocity field with the externally applied stirring forces but was unable to determine the system response. Now we find that the system response is determined by the correlation of the velocity field with internal quasi-entropic forces. This analysis is valid to all orders of perturbation theory, and allows the recovery of the local energy transfer (LET) theory, which had previously been derived by more heuristical methods. The LET theory is known to be in good agreement with experimental results. It is also unique among two-point statistical closures in displaying an acceptable (i.e. non-Markovian) relationship between the transfer spectrum and the system response, in accordance with experimental results. As a result of the latter property, it is compatible with the Kolmogorov (K41) spectral phenomenology. In memory of Professor Sir Sam Edwards F
Turbulence-assisted shear exfoliation of graphene using household detergent and a kitchen blender
Varrla, Eswaraiah; Paton, Keith R.; Backes, Claudia; Harvey, Andrew; Smith, Ronan J.; McCauley, Joe; Coleman, Jonathan N.
2014-09-01
To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds the critical shear rate for exfoliation.To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds
Lee, J. T.
1984-01-01
As part of continuing research on aviation related weather hazards, numerous experiments were incorporated into the 1983 Spring Observation Program. This year's program was an abbreviated one because of commitments made to the development of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) project. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) P-3 Orion and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) RB-57B and U-2 were the main aircraft involved in the studies of lightning, wind shear, turbulence, and storm structure. A total of 14 flights were made by these aircraft during the period of May 16 through June 5, 1983. Aircraft instrumentation experiments are described, and resultant data sets available for research are detailed. Aircraft instrumentation and Doppler radar characteristics are detailed.
Experiments on mixing and combustion with low heat release in a turbulent shear flow
Mungel, M.G.
1983-01-01
A new blowdown facility was built to study mixing and combustion in a turbulent shear layer. The system is capable of 100 m/s for three seconds in a 5 x 20 cm exit area on the high speed side, and 50 m/s in a 10 x 20 cm exit area on the low speed side. Dilute concentrations of hydrogen and fluorine, carried in an inert gas, react when both fluid streams meet at the tip of a splitter plate. The reaction is spontaneous, rapid, and highly exothermic. The resulting temperature field was studied using a rake of eight fast response thermometers placed across the width of the layer. Runs were performed for low heat release over a wide range of equivalence (concentration) ratios, at a Reynolds number of 30,800 based on velocity difference and vorticity thickness. The heat release is sufficiently low so that the overall properties of the mixing layer are not significantly changed from the cold case. The results show the presence of large, hot structures within the flow together with cool, irrotational tongues of freestream fluid that penetrate deep into the layer. Thus, it is possible for the entire width of the layer to be quite hot, owing to the passage of a large structure, or for the layer to be quite cool, owing to the presence of the cool fluid tongues. The mean temperature results from a duty cycle whereby a given point in the flow sees alternating hot and cool fluid which averages into the local mean. The results compare favorably with the recent theoretical model of Broadwell and Breidenthal for mixing and chemical reaction in a turbulent shear layer. With this model it is possible to bring the results for gases and liquids into quantitative agreement
Performances of motion tracking enhanced Tomo-PIV on turbulent shear flows.
Novara, Matteo; Scarano, Fulvio
The motion tracking enhancement technique (MTE) is a recently introduced method to improve the accuracy of tomographic PIV measurements at seeding density higher than currently practiced. The working principle is based on the fact that the particle field and its projections are correlated between the two exposures. Therefore, information from subsequent exposures can be shared within the tomographic reconstruction process of a single object, which largely reduces the energy lost into ghost particles . The study follows a previous work based on synthetic particle images, showing that the MTE technique has an effect similar to that of increasing the number of cameras. In the present analysis, MTE is applied to Tomographic PIV data from two time-resolved experiments on turbulent shear flows: a round jet at Re = 5,000 ( f acq = 1,000 Hz) and a turbulent boundary layer at the trailing edge of an airfoil ( Re c = 370,000) measured at 12,000 Hz. The application of MTE is extended to the case of more than two recordings. The performance is assessed comparing the results from a lowered number of cameras with respect to the full tomographic imaging system. The analysis of the jet flow agrees with the findings of numerical simulations provided the results are scaled taking into account the concept of MTE efficiency based on the volume fraction where ghost - pairs (Elsinga et al. 2010a) are produced. When a large fraction of fluid has uniform motion (stagnant fluid surrounding the jet), only a moderate reduction in ghost intensity is expected by MTE. Nevertheless, a visible recovery of reconstruction quality is observed for the 3-cameras system when MTE is applied making use of 3 recordings. In the turbulent boundary layer, the objective is set to increase the seeding density beyond current practice, and the experiments are performed at approximately 200,000 particles/megapixel. The measurement robustness is monitored with the signal-to-noise ratio S/N for the cross
Conditional analysis near strong shear layers in DNS of isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds number
Ishihara, Takashi; Kaneda, Yukio [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Hunt, Julian C R, E-mail: ishihara@cse.nagoya-u.ac.jp [University College of London (United Kingdom)
2011-12-22
Data analysis of high resolution DNS of isotropic turbulence with the Taylor scale Reynolds number R{sub {lambda}} = 1131 shows that there are thin shear layers consisting of a cluster of strong vortex tubes with typical diameter of order 10{eta}, where {eta} is the Kolmogorov length scale. The widths of the layers are of the order of the Taylor micro length scale. According to the analysis of one of the layers, coarse grained vorticity in the layer are aligned approximately in the plane of the layer so that there is a net mean shear across the layer with a mean velocity jump of the order of the root-mean-square of the fluctuating velocity, and energy dissipation averaged over the layer is larger than ten times the average over the whole flow. The mean and the standard deviation of the energy transfer T(x, {kappa}) from scales larger than 1/{kappa} to scales smaller than 1/{kappa} at position x are largest within the layers (where the most intense vortices and dissipation occur), but are also large just outside the layers (where viscous stresses are weak), by comparison with the average values of T over the whole region. The DNS data are consistent with exterior fluctuation being damped/filtered at the interface of the layer and then selectively amplified within the layer.
Payan, J
1994-05-01
After a review of turbulence and transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas and the radial electric field shear effect in various tokamaks, experimental measurements obtained at Tore Supra by the means of the ALTAIR plasma diagnostic technique, are presented. Electronic drift waves destabilization mechanisms, which are the main features that could describe the experimentally observed microturbulence, are then examined. The effect of a radial electric field shear on electronic drift waves is then introduced, and results with ohmic heating are studied together with relations between turbulence and transport. The possible existence of ionic waves is rejected, and a spectral frequency modelization is presented, based on the existence of an electric field sheared radial profile. The position of the inversion point of this field is calculated for different values of the mean density and the plasma current, and the modelization is applied to the TEXT tokamak. The radial electric field at Tore Supra is then estimated. The effect of the ergodic divertor on turbulence and abnormal transport is then described and the density fluctuation radial profile in presence of the ergodic divertor is modelled. 80 figs., 120 refs.
A nonlinear theory of cosmic ray pitch angle diffusion in homogeneous magnetostatic turbulence
Goldstein, M.L.
1975-04-01
A plasma strong turbulence, weak coupling theory is applied to the problem of cosmic ray pitch angle scattering in magnetostatic turbulence. The theory used is a rigorous generalization of Weinstock's resonance-broadening theory and contains no ad hoc approximations. A detailed calculation is presented for a model of slab turbulence with an exponential correlation function. The results agree well with numerical simulations. The rigidity dependence of the pitch angle scattering coefficient differs from that found by previous researchers. The differences result from an inadequate treatment of particle trajectories near 90 0 pitch angle in earlier work
Canuto, V. M.
1994-01-01
The Reynolds numbers that characterize geophysical and astrophysical turbulence (Re approximately equals 10(exp 8) for the planetary boundary layer and Re approximately equals 10(exp 14) for the Sun's interior) are too large to allow a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fundamental Navier-Stokes and temperature equations. In fact, the spatial number of grid points N approximately Re(exp 9/4) exceeds the computational capability of today's supercomputers. Alternative treatments are the ensemble-time average approach, and/or the volume average approach. Since the first method (Reynolds stress approach) is largely analytical, the resulting turbulence equations entail manageable computational requirements and can thus be linked to a stellar evolutionary code or, in the geophysical case, to general circulation models. In the volume average approach, one carries out a large eddy simulation (LES) which resolves numerically the largest scales, while the unresolved scales must be treated theoretically with a subgrid scale model (SGS). Contrary to the ensemble average approach, the LES+SGS approach has considerable computational requirements. Even if this prevents (for the time being) a LES+SGS model to be linked to stellar or geophysical codes, it is still of the greatest relevance as an 'experimental tool' to be used, inter alia, to improve the parameterizations needed in the ensemble average approach. Such a methodology has been successfully adopted in studies of the convective planetary boundary layer. Experienc e with the LES+SGS approach from different fields has shown that its reliability depends on the healthiness of the SGS model for numerical stability as well as for physical completeness. At present, the most widely used SGS model, the Smagorinsky model, accounts for the effect of the shear induced by the large resolved scales on the unresolved scales but does not account for the effects of buoyancy, anisotropy, rotation, and stable stratification. The
Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.
1980-01-01
Asymptotic methods are used to calculate the shear stress at the wall for the interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A mixing length model is used for the eddy viscosity. The shock wave is taken to be strong enough that the sonic line is deep in the boundary layer and the upstream influence is thus very small. It is shown that unlike the result found for laminar flow an asymptotic criterion for separation is not found; however, conditions for incipient separation are computed numerically using the derived solution for the shear stress at the wall. Results are compared with available experimental measurements.
The self-preservation of dissipation elements in homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence
Gauding, Michael; Danaila, Luminita; Varea, Emilien
2017-11-01
The concept of self-preservation has played an important role in shaping the understanding of turbulent flows. The assumption of complete self-preservation imposes certain constrains on the dynamics of the flow, allowing to express statistics by choosing an appropriate unique length scale. Another approach in turbulence research is to study the dynamics of geometrical objects, like dissipation elements (DE). DE appear as coherent space-filling structures in turbulent scalar fields and can be parameterized by the linear length between their ending points. This distance is a natural length scale that provides information about the local structure of turbulence. In this work, the evolution of DE in decaying turbulence is investigated from a self-preservation perspective. The analysis is based on data obtained from direct numerical simulations (DNS). The temporal evolution of DE is governed by a complex process, involving cutting and reconnection events, which change the number and consequently also the length of DE. An analysis of the evolution equation for the probability density function of the length of DE is carried out and leads to specific constraints for the self-preservation of DE, which are justified from DNS. Financial support was provided by Labex EMC3 (under the Grant VAVIDEN), Normandy Region and FEDER.
Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I.; Shalchi, A.
2017-11-01
We study the diffusion of magnetic field lines in turbulence with magnetic shear. In the first part of the series, we developed a quasi-linear theory for this type of scenario. In this article, we employ the so-called DeCorrelation Trajectory method in order to compute the diffusion coefficients of stochastic magnetic field lines. The magnetic field configuration used here contains fluctuating terms which are described by the dimensionless functions bi(X, Y, Z), i = (x, y) and they are assumed to be Gaussian processes and are perpendicular with respect to the main magnetic field B0. Furthermore, there is also a z-component of the magnetic field depending on radial coordinate x (representing the gradient of the magnetic field) and a poloidal average component. We calculate the diffusion coefficients for magnetic field lines for different values of the magnetic Kubo number K, the dimensionless inhomogeneous magnetic parallel and perpendicular Kubo numbers KB∥, KB⊥ , as well as Ka v=bya vKB∥/KB⊥ .
Boiko, Andrey V; Grek, Genrih R; Kozlov, Victor V
2012-01-01
Starting from fundamentals of classical stability theory, an overview is given of the transition phenomena in subsonic, wall-bounded shear flows. At first, the consideration focuses on elementary small-amplitude velocity perturbations of laminar shear layers, i.e. instability waves, in the simplest canonical configurations of a plane channel flow and a flat-plate boundary layer. Then the linear stability problem is expanded to include the effects of pressure gradients, flow curvature, boundary-layer separation, wall compliance, etc. related to applications. Beyond the amplification of instability waves is the non-modal growth of local stationary and non-stationary shear flow perturbations which are discussed as well. The volume continues with the key aspect of the transition process, that is, receptivity of convectively unstable shear layers to external perturbations, summarizing main paths of the excitation of laminar flow disturbances. The remainder of the book addresses the instability phenomena found at l...
Mastracci, Brian; Guo, Wei
2018-01-01
The superfluid phase of helium-4, known as He ii, exhibits extremely small kinematic viscosity and may be a useful tool for economically producing and studying high Reynolds number turbulent flow. Such applications are not currently possible because a comprehensive understanding of the complex two-fluid behavior of He ii is lacking. This situation could be remedied by a systematic investigation of simple, well controlled turbulence that can be directly compared with theoretical models. To this end, we have developed a new apparatus that combines flow visualization with second sound attenuation to study turbulence in the wake of a mesh grid towed through a He ii filled channel. One of three mesh grids (mesh number M = 3, 3.75, or 5 mm) can be pulled at speeds between 0.1 and 60 cm/s through a cast acrylic flow channel which has a 16 mm × 16 mm cross section and measures 330 mm long. The motion of solidified deuterium tracer particles, with diameter of the order 1 μm, in the resulting flow is captured by a high speed camera, and a particle tracking velocimetry algorithm resolves the Lagrangian particle trajectories through the turbulent flow field. A pair of oscillating superleak second sound transducers installed in the channel allows complementary measurement of vortex line density in the superfluid throughout the turbulent decay process. Success in early experiments demonstrates the effectiveness of both probes, and preliminary analysis of the data shows that both measurements strongly correlate with each other. Further investigations will provide comprehensive information that can be used to address open questions about turbulence in He ii and move toward the application of this fluid to high Reynolds number fluid research.
Fiedler, Heinrich E.
1991-01-01
Recent works on flow stability and turbulence are reviewed with emphasis on the flow control of free and wall-bounded flows. Axisymmetric jets in counterflow are considered for two characteristic cases: a stable case at low velocity ratios and an unstable case at higher velocity ratios. Among mixing layers, excited layers are covered as well as density-inhomogeneous flows, where countergradient, homogeneous, and cogradient cases are reviewed. The influences of boundary conditions are analyzed, and focus is placed on feedback condition, flow distortion, accelerated flow, and two- and three-dimensional studies. Attention is given to stability investigations and riblets as a means for reducing surface friction in a turbulent flow.
Ye, W; Bel-Brunon, A; Catheline, S; Combescure, A; Rochette, M
2018-01-01
In this study, visco-hyperelastic Landau's model, which is widely used in acoustical physic field, is introduced into a finite element formulation. It is designed to model the nonlinear behaviour of finite amplitude shear waves in soft solids, typically, in biological tissues. This law is used in finite element models based on elastography, experiments reported in Jacob et al, the simulations results show a good agreement with the experimental study: It is observed in both that a plane shear wave generates only odd harmonics and a nonplane wave generates both odd and even harmonics in the spectral domain. In the second part, a parametric study is performed to analyse the influence of different factors on the generation of odd harmonics of plane wave. A quantitative relation is fitted between the odd harmonic amplitudes and the non-linear elastic parameter of Landau's model, which provides a practical guideline to identify the non-linearity of homogeneous tissues using elastography experiment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
2016-11-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating wall shear stress experiments were performed on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) under zero pressure gradient conditions. The fluctuating wall shear stress was measured using a microelectromechanical 1mm × 1mm floating element capacitive shear stress sensor (CSSS) developed at the University of Florida. The experiments elucidated the imprint of the organized motions in a TBL on the wall shear stress through its direct measurement. Spatial autocorrelation of the streamwise velocity from the PIV snapshots revealed large scale motions that scale on the order of boundary layer thickness. However, the captured inclination angle was lower than that determined using the classic method by means of wall shear stress and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) temporal cross-correlations and a frozen field hypothesis using a convection velocity. The current study suggests the large size of these motions begins to degrade the applicability of the frozen field hypothesis for the time resolved HWA experiments. The simultaneous PIV and CSSS measurements are also used for spatial reconstruction of the velocity field during conditionally sampled intense wall shear stress events. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Peterson, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bell, R.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.; Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Smith, D. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. Y. [Nova Photonics Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2012-05-15
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] can achieve high electron plasma confinement regimes that are super-critically unstable to the electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) instability. These plasmas, dubbed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. Using the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the first nonlinear ETG simulations of NSTX e-ITB plasmas reinforce this observation. Local simulations identify a strongly upshifted nonlinear critical gradient for thermal transport that depends on magnetic shear. Global simulations show e-ITB formation can occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. While the ETG-driven thermal flux at the outer edge of the barrier is large enough to be experimentally relevant, the turbulence cannot propagate past the barrier into the plasma interior.
T.S. Hahm; Z. Lin; P.H. Diamond; G. Rewoldt; W.X. Wang; S. Ethier; O. Gurcan; W.W. Lee; W.M. Tang
2004-12-21
An integrated program of gyrokinetic particle simulation and theory has been developed to investigate several outstanding issues in both turbulence and neoclassical physics. Gyrokinetic particle simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence spreading using the GTC code and its related dynamical model have been extended to the case with radially increasing ion temperature gradient, to study the inward spreading of edge turbulence toward the core. Due to turbulence spreading from the edge, the turbulence intensity in the core region is significantly enhanced over the value obtained from simulations of the core region only. Even when the core gradient is within the Dimits shift regime (i.e., self-generated zonal flows reduce the transport to a negligible value), a significant level of turbulence and transport is observed in the core due to spreading from the edge. The scaling of the turbulent front propagation speed is closer to the prediction from our nonlinear diffusion model than one based on linear toroidal coupling. A calculation of ion poloidal rotation in the presence of sharp density and toroidal angular rotation frequency gradients from the GTC-Neo particle simulation code shows that the results are significantly different from the conventional neoclassical theory predictions. An energy conserving set of a fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to edge turbulence, is being derived via the phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method. Our generalized ordering takes the ion poloidal gyroradius to be on the order of the radial electric field gradient length.
Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Diamond, P.H.; Gurcan, O.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W.X.; Ethier, S.; Lee, W.W.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Tang, W.M.
2005-01-01
An integrated program of gyrokinetic particle simulation and theory has been developed to investigate several outstanding issues in both turbulence and neoclassical physics. Gyrokinetic particle simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence spreading using the GTC code and its related dynamical model have been extended to the case with radially increasing ion temperature gradient, to study the inward spreading of edge turbulence toward the core. Due to turbulence spreading from the edge, the turbulence intensity in the core region is significantly enhanced over the value obtained from simulations of the core region only. Even when the core gradient is within the Dimits shift regime (i.e., self-generated zonal flows reduce the transport to a negligible value), a significant level of turbulence and transport is observed in the core due to spreading from the edge. The scaling of the turbulent front propagation speed is closer to the prediction from our nonlinear diffusion model than one based on linear toroidal coupling. A calculation of ion poloidal rotation in the presence of sharp density and toroidal angular rotation frequency gradients from the GTC-Neo particle simulation code shows that the results are significantly different from the conventional neoclassical theory predictions. An energy conserving set of a fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to edge turbulence, is being derived via the phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method. Our generalized ordering takes the ion poloidal gyroradius to be on the order of the radial electric field gradient length. (author)
Yan, Z.; Yu, J. H.; Holland, C.; Xu, M.; Mueller, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.
2008-01-01
The statistical properties of the turbulent Reynolds stress arising from collisional drift turbulence in a magnetized plasma column are studied and a physical picture of turbulent driven shear flow generation is discussed. The Reynolds stress peaks near the maximal density gradient region, and is governed by the turbulence amplitude and cross-phase between the turbulent radial and azimuthal velocity fields. The amplitude probability distribution function (PDF) of the turbulent Reynolds stress is non-Gaussian and positively skewed at the density gradient maximum. The turbulent ion-saturation (Isat) current PDF shows that the region where the bursty Isat events are born coincides with the positively skewed non-Gaussian Reynolds stress PDF, which suggests that the bursts of particle transport appear to be associated with bursts of momentum transport as well. At the shear layer the density fluctuation radial correlation length has a strong minimum (∼4-6 mm∼0.5C s /Ω ci , where C s is the ion acoustic speed and Ω ci is the ion gyrofrequency), while the azimuthal turbulence correlation length is nearly constant across the shear layer. The results link the behavior of the Reynolds stress, its statistical properties, generation of bursty radially going azimuthal momentum transport events, and the formation of the large-scale shear layer.
Anon.
1987-01-01
This symposium includes topics on wall flows, unsteady flows, scalar and buoyant transport, instrumentation and techniques, combustion, aerodynamic flows, free flows, geophysical flows, complex flows, separated flows, coherent structures, closures, numerical simulation, and two-phase flows. Papers are presented on the effect of favorable pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layers, the models of hydrodynamic resonances in separated shear flows, the transport of passive scalars in a turbulent channel flow, a pulsed hot-wire probe for near-wall measurements, and vortex dynamics in diffusion flames. Consideration is also given to time-dependent structure in wing-body junction flows, bifurcating air jets at high subsonic speeds, the wake of an axisymmetric body with or without tail separation, coherent structures in quasi-geostrophic jets, and separated flow predictions using a new turbulence model. Additional papers are on stochastic estimation of organized structures in turbulent channel flow, a comparative study of eleven models of turbulence, and a numerical study of a stably stratified mixing layer
Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV.
2009-01-01
A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.
Tran, Duc; Kuprenas, Rachel; Strom, Kyle
2018-04-01
Modeling the size and settling velocity of sediment under the influence of flocculation is crucial for the accurate prediction of mud movement and deposition in sediment transport modeling of environments such as agricultural streams, large coastal rivers, estuaries, river plumes, and turbidity currents. Yet, collecting accurate and high resolution data on mud flocs is difficult. As a result, models that account for the influence of flocculation on mud settling velocity are based on sparse data that often present non-congruent relationship in floc properties with basic influencers of flocculations such as suspended sediment concentration. This study examines the influence of suspended sediment concentration on floc size populations within a turbulent suspension. Specifically, the work investigates: (1) the relationship between the equilibrium floc size and suspended sediment concentration under conditions of steady concentration and turbulent shearing; and (2) the speed at which mature flocs adapt to an unsteady drop in the concentration when turbulent shear is constant. Two sets of experiments were used to investigate the target processes. All work was conducted in laboratory mixing tanks using a floc camera and a newly developed image acquisition method. The new method allows for direct imaging and sizing of flocs within turbulent suspensions of clay in concentrations ranging from 15 to 400 mg/L, so that no transfer of the sample to another settling column or imaging tank is needed. The primary conclusions from the two sets of experiments are: (1) that the equilibrium floc size in an energetic turbulent suspension is linearly and positively related to concentration over the range of C = 50 to 400 mg/L, yet with a smaller-than-expected slope based on previous data and models from low-energy environments; and (2) that floc sizes decrease quickly (with a time lag on the order of 1-15 min) to time-varying decreases in concentration at turbulent shearing of G = 50s-1
The cascade of energy in homogeneous turbulence: a 5D approach
Cardesa-Duenas, Jose; Vela-Martin, Alberto; Jimenez, Javier
2017-11-01
The inherent multi-dimensional nature of the turbulent cascade is a major challenge to its study. In order to characterize a process occurring in space, time and scale, we present a new approach where we track coherent structures representing energy in different scales from a time-resolved simulation of isotropic turbulence lasting 66 large-eddy turnovers. We couple the dynamics at different scales by computing the geometric intersection between individual coherent structures from any two scales. Statistically, we find that eddies at scale r intersect those at scales 2 r and r / 2 preferentially at the beginning and at the end of their life, respectively. With our simulation at Reλ = 315 , we could check this trend to hold for r values spanning a ratio of 8. We thus report on 4 generations of eddies that trace the transfer of energy from scale 8 r to scale r via intermediate steps through a scale-local, spatially-localized process. We found the geometric intersection between scales separated by ratios of 4 or larger to be of the same order of magnitude as the random intersection levels found for those scale combinations. Funded by the ERC project COTURB.
Conditional dissipation of scalars in homogeneous turbulence: Closure for MMC modelling
Wandel, Andrew P.
2013-08-01
While the mean and unconditional variance are to be predicted well by any reasonable turbulent combustion model, these are generally not sufficient for the accurate modelling of complex phenomena such as extinction/reignition. An additional criterion has been recently introduced: accurate modelling of the dissipation timescales associated with fluctuations of scalars about their conditional mean (conditional dissipation timescales). Analysis of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results for a passive scalar shows that the conditional dissipation timescale is of the order of the integral timescale and smaller than the unconditional dissipation timescale. A model is proposed: the conditional dissipation timescale is proportional to the integral timescale. This model is used in Multiple Mapping Conditioning (MMC) modelling for a passive scalar case and a reactive scalar case, comparing to DNS results for both. The results show that this model improves the accuracy of MMC predictions so as to match the DNS results more closely using a relatively-coarse spatial resolution compared to other turbulent combustion models.
Barbaro, V; Grigioni, M; Daniele, C; D'Avenio, G; Boccanera, G
1997-11-01
The investigation of the flow field generated by cardiac valve prostheses is a necessary task to gain knowledge on the possible relationship between turbulence-derived stresses and the hemolytic and thrombogenic complications in patients after valve replacement. The study of turbulence flows downstream of cardiac prostheses, in literature, especially concerns large-sized prostheses with a variable flow regime from very low up to 6 L/min. The Food and Drug Administration draft guidance requires the study of the minimum prosthetic size at a high cardiac output to reach the maximum Reynolds number conditions. Within the framework of a national research project regarding the characterization of cardiovascular endoprostheses, an in-depth study of turbulence generated downstream of bileaflet cardiac valves is currently under way at the Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita. Four models of 19 mm bileaflet valve prostheses were used: St Jude Medical HP, Edwards Tekna, Sorin Bicarbon, and CarboMedics. The prostheses were selected for the nominal Tissue Annulus Diameter as reported by manufacturers without any assessment of valve sizing method, and were mounted in aortic position. The aortic geometry was scaled for 19 mm prostheses using angiographic data. The turbulence-derived shear stresses were investigated very close to the valve (0.35 D0), using a bidimensional Laser Doppler anemometry system and applying the Principal Stress Analysis. Results concern typical turbulence quantities during a 50 ms window at peak flow in the systolic phase. Conclusions are drawn regarding the turbulence associated to valve design features, as well as the possible damage to blood constituents.
Zhang, Anqiang; Deng, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaoqing; He, Pengfei; He, Liang; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Sun, Peilong
2018-07-01
Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible and medicinal mushroom favored in many countries, by virtue of both its delicious taste and its potential health benefits such as its purported anticancer activity. A neutral α-glucan (ABM40-1) with a carbohydrate content of 96% was purified from the high-speed shearing homogenization extracts of A. Blazei Murill by ethanol precipitation and column chromatography. Methylation analysis along with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that ABM40-1 was an α-(1→4)-d-glucopyranan with O-6 position occasionally occupied with α-Glcp-(1→or α-Glcp-(1→6)-β-Glcp-(1→side chains. A weight-average molecular weight of 7.34×10 6 Da was determined for ABM40-1 and its chain in solution was revealed as a compact sphere by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a laser light scattering. This spherical conformation was also further confirmed by Congo red test and using atom force microscopy. These results suggest it would be worthwhile to further study the potential bioactivities of ABM40-1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ball, R.; Dewar, R.L.; Sugama, H.
2003-01-01
The structural properties of an economical model for a confined plasma turbulence governor are investigated through bifurcation and stability analyses. Two types of discontinuous low to high confinement transition are found. One involves classical hysteresis, governed by viscous dissipation. The other is intrinsically oscillatory and non-hysteretic, and thus provides a model for observed 'dithering' transitions. This metamorphosis of the system dynamics is an important late side-effect of symmetry-breaking, which manifests as an unusual non-symmetric transcritical bifurcation induced by a significant shear flow drive
Dipal Patel
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The influences of fuel Lewis number LeF (ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 on localised forced ignition and early stages of combustion of stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures have been analysed using simple chemistry three-dimensional compressible direct numerical simulations for different values of root-mean-square velocity fluctuation and the energy deposition characteristics (i.e. characteristic width and the duration of energy deposition by the ignitor. The localised forced ignition is modelled using a source term in the energy transport equation, which deposits energy in a Gaussian manner from the centre of the ignitor over a stipulated period of time. The fuel Lewis number LeF has been found to have significant influences on the extent of burning of stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures. It has been shown that the width of ignition energy deposition and the duration over which the ignition energy is deposited have significant influences on the success of ignition and subsequent flame propagation. An increase in the width of ignition energy deposition and the duration of energy deposition for a given amount of ignition energy have been found to have detrimental effects on the ignition event, which may ultimately lead to misfire. For a given value of u' (LeF, the rate of heat transfer from the hot gas kernel increases with increasing LeF (u', which in turn leads to a reduction in the extent of overall burning for both stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures but the detrimental effects of high values of u' on localised forced ignition are particularly prevalent for fuel-lean mixtures. Detailed physical explanations have been provided for the observed LeF,u' and energy deposition characteristics effects.
Leconte, M.
2008-11-15
The H confinement regime is set when the heating power reaches a threshold value P{sub c} and is linked to the formation of a transport barrier in the edge region of the plasma. Such a barrier is characterized by a high pressure gradient and is submitted to ELM (edge localized mode) instabilities. ELM instabilities trigger violent quasi-periodical ejections of matter and heat that induce quasi-periodical relaxations of the transport barrier called relaxation oscillations. In this work we studied the interaction between sheared flows and turbulence in fusion plasmas. In particular, we studied the complex dynamics of a transport barrier and we show through a simulation that resonant magnetic perturbations could control relaxation oscillations without a significant loss of confinement
Wang, W. X.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Lee, W. W.; Tang, W. M.; Kaye, S. M.; Diamond, P. H.
2009-01-01
A significant inward flux of toroidal momentum is found in global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient turbulence, leading to core plasma rotation spin-up. The underlying mechanism is identified to be the generation of residual stress due to the k parallel symmetry breaking induced by global quasistationary zonal flow shear. Simulations also show a significant off-diagonal element associated with the ion temperature gradient in the neoclassical momentum flux, while the overall neoclassical flux is small. In addition, the residual turbulence found in the presence of strong ExB flow shear may account for neoclassical-level ion heat and anomalous momentum transport widely observed in experiments
Guzdar, P.N.; Drake, J.F.
1993-01-01
The generation of shear flow by resistive ballooning modes and resistive interchange modes is compared and contrasted using a 3-D fluid code. The resistive ballooning modes give rise to poloidally asymmetric transport and hence drive poloidal rotation due to the Reynold's Stress as well as the anomalous Stringer/Winsor mechanism. On the other hand the resistive interchange mode can drive shear flow only through the Reynold's Stress. The studies show that if the self-consistent sheared flow is suppressed, the resistive ballooning modes give rise to a larger anomalous transport than produced by the resistive interchange modes. Furthermore the shear flow generated by the resistive ballooning modes is larger than that driven by the resistive interchange modes due to the combined effect of the dual mechanisms stated earlier. As a consequence strong suppression of the fluctuations as well as reduction of the transport occurs for resistive ballooning modes. On the other hand, for the resistive interchange modes the level of fluctuation as well as the anomalous transport is not reduced by the self consistent shear flow generated by the Reynold's Stress. This latter result is in agreement with some earlier 3-D simulation of resistive interchange modes
Local Entropy Production in Turbulent Shear Flows: A Tool for Evaluating Heat Transfer Performance
H. HERWIG; F. KOCK
2006-01-01
Performance evaluation of heat transfer devices can be based on the overall entropy production in these devices.In our study we therefore provide equations for the systematic and detailed determination of local entropy production due to dissipation of mechanical energy and due to heat conduction, both in turbulent flows. After turbulence modeling has been incorporated for the fluctuating parts the overall entropy production can be determined by integration with respect to the whole flow domain. Since, however, entropy production rates show very steep gradients close to the wall, numerical solutions are far more effective with wall functions for the entropy production terms. These wall functions are mandatory when high Reynolds number turbulence models are used. For turbulent flow in a pipe with an inserted twisted tape as heat transfer promoter it is shown that based on the overall entropy production rate a clear statement from a thermodynamic point of view is possible. For a certain range of twist strength there is a decrease in overall entropy production compared to the case without insert. Also, the optimum twist strength can be determined. This information is unavailable when only pressure drop and heat transfer data are given.
Divyalakshmi, P; Murugan, D; Sivarajan, M; Saravanan, P; Lajapathi Rai, C
2015-11-01
Wastewater treatment plant incorporates physical, chemical and biological processes to treat and remove the contaminants. The main drawback of conventional activated sludge process is the huge production of excess sludge, which is an unavoidable byproduct. The treatment and disposal of excess sludge costs about 60% of the total operating cost. The ideal way to reduce excess sludge production during wastewater treatment is by preventing biomass formation within the aerobic treatment train rather than post treatment of the generated sludge. In the present investigation two different mechanical devices namely, Ultrasonic and Shear Gap homogenizers have been employed to disintegrate the aerobic biomass. This study is intended to restrict the multiplication of microbial biomass and at the same time degrade the organics present in wastewater by increasing the oxidative capacity of microorganisms. The disintegrability on biomass was determined by biochemical methods. Degree of inactivation provides the information on inability of microorganisms to consume oxygen upon disruption. The soluble COD quantifies the extent of release of intra cellular compounds. The participation of disintegrated microorganism in wastewater treatment process was carried out in two identical respirometeric reactors. The results show that Ultrasonic homogenizer is very effective in the disruption of microorganisms leading to a maximum microbial growth reduction of 27%. On the other hand, Shear gap homogenizer does not favor the sludge growth reduction rather it facilitates the growth. This study also shows that for better microbial growth reduction, floc size reduction alone is not sufficient but also microbial disruption is essential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lumley's energy cascade dissipation rate model for boundary-free turbulent shear flows
Duncan, B. S.
1992-01-01
True dissipation occurs mainly at the highest wavenumbers where the eddy sizes are comparatively small. These high wavenumbers receive their energy through the spectral cascade of energy starting with the largest eddies spilling energy into the smaller eddies, passing through each wavenumber until it is dissipated at the microscopic scale. However, a small percentage of the energy does not spill continuously through the cascade but is instantly passed to the higher wavenumbers. Consequently, the smallest eddies receive a certain amount of energy almost immediately. As the spectral energy cascade continues, the highest wavenumber needs a certain time to receive all the energy which has been transferred from the largest eddies. As such, there is a time delay, of the order of tau, between the generation of energy by the largest eddies and the eventual dissipation of this energy. For equilibrium turbulence at high Reynolds numbers, there is a wide range where energy is neither produced by the large eddies nor dissipated by viscosity, but is conserved and passed from wavenumber to higher wavenumbers. The rate at which energy cascades from one wavenumber to another is proportional to the energy contained within that wavenumber. This rate is constant and has been used in the past as a dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy. However, this is true only in steady, equilibrium turbulence. Most dissipation models contend that the production of dissipation is proportional to the production of energy and that the destruction of dissipation is proportional to the destruction of energy. In essence, these models state that the change in the dissipation rate is proportional to the change in the kinetic energy. This assumption is obviously incorrect for the case where there is no production of turbulent energy, yet energy continues to cascade from large to small eddies. If the time lag between the onset on the energy cascade to the destruction of energy at the microscale can be
Lee, Insu
Confined non-reacting turbulent jets are ideal for recirculating the hot flue gas back into the furnace from an external exhaust duct. Such jets are also used inside the furnace to internally entrain and recirculate the hot flue gas to preheat and dilute the reactants. Both internal and external implementation of confined turbulent jets increase the furnace thermal efficiency. For external implementation, depending on the circumstances, the exhaust gas flow may be co- or counter-flow relative to the jet flow. Inside the furnaces, fuel and air jets are injected separately. To create a condition which can facilitate near homogeneous combustion, these jets have to first mix with the burned gas inside the furnace and simultaneously being heated and diluted prior to combustion. Clearly, the combustion pattern and emissions from reacting confined turbulent jets are affected by jet interactions, mixing and entrainment of hot flue gas. In this work, the flow and mixing characteristics of a non-reacting and reacting confined turbulent jet are investigated experimentally and numerically. This work consists of two parts: (i) A study of flow and mixing characteristics of non-reacting confined turbulent jets with co- or counter-flowing exhaust/flue gas. Here the axial and radial distributions of temperature, velocity and NO concentration (used as a tracer gas) were measured. FLUENT was used to numerically simulate the experimental results. This work provides the basic understanding of the flow and mixing characteristics of confined turbulent jets and develops some design considerations for recirculating flue gas back into the furnace as expressed by the recirculation zone and the stagnation locations. (ii) Numerical calculations of near homogeneous combustion are performed for the existing furnace. The exact geometry of the furnace in the lab is used and the real dimensional boundary conditions are considered. The parameters such as air nozzle diameter (dair), fuel nozzle
Measurements of wall shear stress in a planar turbulent Couette flow with porous walls
Beuther, Paul
2013-11-01
Measurements of drag on a moving web in a multi-span festoon show a stronger than expected dependency on the porosity of the web. The experiments suggest a wall shear stress 3-4 times larger than non-porous webs or historical Couette flow data for solid walls. Previous DNS studies by Jimenez et al. (JFM Vol 442) of boundary layers with passive porous surfaces predict a much smaller increase in wall shear stress for a porous wall of only 40%. Other DNS studies by Quadrio et al. (JFM Vol 576) of porous walls with periodic transpiration do show a large increase in drag under certain periodic conditions of modest amplitude. Although those results are aligned in magnitude with this study, the exact reason for the observed high drag for porous webs in this present study is not understood because there was no external disturbance applied to the web. It can be hypothesized that natural flutter of the web results in a similar mechanism shown in the periodic DNS study, but when the natural flutter was reduced by increasing web tension, there was only a small decrease of the drag. A key difference in this study is that because of the multiple parallel spans in a festoon, any transpiration in one layer must act in the opposite manner on the adjacent span.
van Hinsberg, M A T; Clercx, H J H; Toschi, F
2017-02-01
The Stokes drag force and the gravity force are usually sufficient to describe the behavior of sub-Kolmogorov-size (or pointlike) heavy particles in turbulence, in particular when the particle-to-fluid density ratio ρ_{p}/ρ_{f}≳10^{3} (with ρ_{p} and ρ_{f} the particle and fluid density, respectively). This is, in general, not the case for smaller particle-to-fluid density ratios, in particular not for ρ_{p}/ρ_{f}≲10^{2}. In that case the pressure gradient force, added mass effects, and the Basset history force also play important roles. In this study we focus on the understanding of the role of these additional forces, all of hydrodynamic origin, in the settling of particles in turbulence. In order to qualitatively elucidate the complex dynamics of such particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, we first focus on the case of settling of such particles in the flow field of a single vortex. After having explored this simplified case we extend our analysis to homogeneous isotropic turbulence. In general, we found that the pressure gradient force leads to a decrease in the settling velocity. This can be qualitatively understood by the fact that this force prevents the particles from sweeping out of vortices, a mechanism known as preferential sweeping which causes enhanced settling. Additionally, we found that the Basset history force can both increase and decrease the enhanced settling, depending on the particle Stokes number. Finally, the role of the nonlinear Stokes drag has been explored, confirming that it affects settling of inertial particles in turbulence, but only in a limited way for the parameter settings used in this investigation.
Modelling and simulation of the compressible turbulence in supersonic shear flows
Guezengar, Dominique
1997-02-01
This research thesis addresses the modelling of some specific physical problems of fluid mechanics: compressibility (issue of mixing layers), large variations of volumetric mass (boundary layers), and anisotropy (compression ramps). After a presentation of the chosen physical modelling and numerical approximation, the author pays attention to flows at the vicinity of a wall, and to boundary conditions. The next part addresses existing compressibility models and their application to the calculation of supersonic mixing layers. A critical assessment is also performed through calculations of boundary layers and of compression ramps. The next part addresses problems related to large variations of volumetric mass which are not taken by compressibility models into account. A modification is thus proposed for the diffusion term, and is tested for the case of supersonic boundary layers and of mixing layers with high density rates. Finally, anisotropy effects are addressed through the implementation of Explicit Algebraic Stress k-omega Turbulence models (EARSM), and their tests on previously studied cases [fr
Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow
Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Buxton, O. R. H.
2016-01-01
The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.
Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow
Fiscaletti, D.
2016-10-24
The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.
Sanford, L. P.; Porter, E.; Porter, F. S.; Mason, R. P.
2016-02-01
Shear TUrbulence Resuspension Mesocosm (STURM) tanks, with high instantaneous bottom shear stress and realistic water column mixing in a single system, allow more realistic benthic-pelagic coupling studies that include sediment resuspension. The 1 m3 tanks can be programmed to produce tidal or episodic sediment resuspension over extended time periods (e.g. 4 weeks), over muddy sediments with or without infaunal organisms. The STURM tanks use a resuspension paddle that produces uniform bottom shear stress across the sediment surface while gently mixing a 1 m deep overlying water column. The STURM tanks can be programmed to different magnitudes, frequencies, and durations of bottom shear stress (and thus resuspension) with proportional water column turbulence levels over a wide range of mixing settings for benthic-pelagic coupling experiments. Over eight STURM calibration settings, turbulence intensity ranged from 0.55 to 4.52 cm s-1, energy dissipation rate from 0.0032 to 2.65 cm2 s-3, the average bottom shear stress from 0.0068 to 0.19 Pa, and the instantaneous bottom shear stress from 0.07 to 2.0 Pa. Mixing settings can be chosen as desired and/or varied over the experiment, based on the scientific question at hand. We have used the STURM tanks for four 4-week benthic-pelagic coupling ecosystem experiments with tidal resuspension with or without infaunal bivalves, for stepwise erosion experiments with and without infaunal bivalves, for experiments on oyster biodeposit resuspension, to mimic storms overlain on tidal resuspension, and for experiments on the effects of varying frequency and duration of resuspension on the release of sedimentary contaminants. The large size of the tanks allows water quality and particle measurements using standard oceanographic instrumentation. The realistic scale and complexity of the contained ecosystems has revealed indirect feedbacks and responses that are not observable in smaller, less complex experimental systems.
Fan, Yifan; Hunt, Julian; Yin, Shi; Li, Yuguo
2018-03-01
The mean and random components of the velocity field at very low wind speeds in a convective boundary layer (CBL) over a wide urban area are dominated by large eddy structures—either turbulent plumes or puffs. In the mixed layer at either side of the edges of urban areas, local mean recirculating flows are generated by sharp horizontal temperature gradients. These recirculation regions also control the mean shear profile and the bent-over plumes across the mixed layer, extending from the edge to the center of the urban area. A simplified physical model was proposed to calculate the mean flow speed at the edges of urban areas. Water tank experiments were carried out to study the mean recirculating flow and turbulent plume structures. The mean speed at urban edges was measured by the particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the plume structures were visualized by the thermalchromic liquid crystal (TLC) sheets. The horizontal velocity calculated by the physical model at the urban edge agrees well with that measured in the water tank experiments, with a root mean square of 0.03. The experiments also show that the pattern of the mean flow over the urban area changes significantly if the shape of the heated area changes or if the form of the heated urban area becomes sub-divided, for example by the creation of nearby but separated "satellite cities." The convective flow over the square urban area is characterized as the diagonal inflow at the lower level and the side outflow at the upper level. The outflow of the small city can be drawn into the inflow region of the large city in the "satellite city" case. A conceptual analysis shows how these changes significantly affect the patterns of dispersion of pollutants in different types of urban areas.
1991-09-01
opposite Fance mode at streaks in the spanwise direction and in the direction per- time when ri is maximum- V, Fv; 9 , F.; and a , F, pendicular to the...space, Fig, lbIII, flow, see Hassa et al. (1988). resp., requires that the filter input sig- By the use of a monodisperse di plet gene - nals have to be...of turbulent shear flows". V K I Lecture .me Series 1989-3 on "Tuibuleti Shear Flows", Rhode-Saint- SWIM Genese (Belgique), February 6-10, 1989 to" 13
Khozani, Zohreh Sheikh; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zaji, Amir Hossein
2016-01-01
Two new soft computing models, namely genetic programming (GP) and genetic artificial algorithm (GAA) neural network (a combination of modified genetic algorithm and artificial neural network methods) were developed in order to predict the percentage of shear force in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness. The ability of these methods to estimate the percentage of shear force was investigated. Moreover, the independent parameters' effectiveness in predicting the percentage of shear force was determined using sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the GP model demonstrated superior performance to the GAA model. A comparison was also made between the GP program determined as the best model and five equations obtained in prior research. The GP model with the lowest error values (root mean square error ((RMSE) of 0.0515) had the best function compared with the other equations presented for rough and smooth channels as well as smooth ducts. The equation proposed for rectangular channels with rough boundaries (RMSE of 0.0642) outperformed the prior equations for smooth boundaries.
Yang, Q. Q., E-mail: yangqq@ipp.ac.cn; Zhong, F. C., E-mail: gsxu@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Jia, M. N. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, G. S., E-mail: gsxu@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Wang, H. Q.; Chen, R.; Yan, N.; Liu, S. C.; Chen, L.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, J. B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2015-06-15
The power fall-off width in the H-mode scrape-off layer (SOL) in tokamaks shows a strong inverse dependence on the plasma current, which was noticed by both previous multi-machine scaling work [T. Eich et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 093031 (2013)] and more recent work [L. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 114002 (2014)] on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. To understand the underlying physics, probe measurements of three H-mode discharges with different plasma currents have been studied in this work. The results suggest that a higher plasma current is accompanied by a stronger E×B shear and a shorter radial correlation length of turbulence in the SOL, thus resulting in a narrower power fall-off width. A simple model has also been applied to demonstrate the suppression effect of E×B shear on turbulence in the SOL and shows relatively good agreement with the experimental observations.
Barada, K.; Rhodes, T. L.; Burrell, K. H.; Zeng, L.; Bardóczi, L.; Chen, Xi; Muscatello, C. M.; Peebles, W. A.
2018-03-01
A new, long-lived limit cycle oscillation (LCO) regime has been observed in the edge of near zero torque high performance DIII-D tokamak plasma discharges. These LCOs are localized and composed of density turbulence, gradient drives, and E ×B velocity shear damping (E and B are the local radial electric and total magnetic fields). Density turbulence sequentially acts as a predator (via turbulence transport) of profile gradients and a prey (via shear suppression) to the E ×B velocity shear. Reported here for the first time is a unique spatiotemporal variation of the local E ×B velocity, which is found to be essential for the existence of this system. The LCO system is quasistationary, existing from 3 to 12 plasma energy confinement times (˜30 - 900 LCO cycles) limited by hardware constraints. This plasma system appears to contribute strongly to the edge transport in these high performance and transient-free plasmas, as evident from oscillations in transport relevant edge parameters at LCO time scale.
PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows
Pope, Stephen B.
1995-01-01
This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.
Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Islam, M.K.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Nakashima, Y.; Numakura, T.; Saito, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Yoshida, M.; Imai, T.; Pastukhov, V.P.; Miyoshi, S.
2005-01-01
Following the Lyon IAEA Conference, (1) a factor of three progress up to 2.1 kV in the formation of ion-confining potential heights in comparison to those attained 1992-2002 is achieved for tandem-mirror plasmas in the hot-ion mode with ion temperatures of several keV. (2) The advance in the potential formation gives bases for a finding of the remarkable effects of radially produced shear of electric fields E r , or non-uniform sheared plasma rotation Ω r =E r /(r c B) on the suppression of turbulent fluctuations for the first time in GAMMA 10. (Here, r c denotes a radius mapped to the central-cell.) (2-i) Such a shear effect on the central-cell plasmas is highlighted visually by x-ray tomography diagnostics; that is, spatially and temporally fluctuated vortex-like structures are clearly observed in plasmas produced by ICH alone [having a quite weak shear]. (2-ii) However, during the application of plug ECH into the ICH plasmas, an associated potential rise produces a stronger shear [E r =several 10 kV/m 2 ]. In this case, the disappearance of the turbulent vortices on the basis of such a high-potential formation due to ECH is found in association with plasma confinement improvement. In fact, the associated temperature rise and transverse loss suppression are observed. (3) From the viewpoints of both (i) a conventional idea of higher and better potential confinement in the axial direction [i.e., E z effects] and (ii) the present new finding of a turbulent vortex disappearance due to a strong radial electric shear [i.e., E r effects] in the transverse direction, simultaneously, such a high potential formation is found to play an essential role in providing stably improved plasma confinement both radially and axially. (4) For the physics interpretations and control of such potential [or the associated E r or Ψ r shear] formation, the validity of our proposed theory of the potential formation is extendedly tested under the conditions with auxiliary heatings. The
Karumendu, L U; Ven, R van de; Kerr, M J; Lanza, M; Hopkins, D L
2009-08-01
The impact of homogenization speed on Particle Size (PS) results was examined using samples from the M.longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) of 40 lambs. One gram duplicate samples from meat aged for 1 and 5days were homogenized at five different speeds; 11,000, 13,000, 16,000, 19,000 and 22,000rpm. In addition to this LL samples from 30 different lamb carcases also aged for 1 and 5days were used to study the comparison between PS and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) values. In this case, 1g duplicate samples (n=30) were homogenized at 16,000rpm and the other half (0.5g samples) at 11,000rpm (n=30). The homogenates were then subjected to respective combinations of treatments which included either PS analysis or the determination of MFI, both with or without three cycles of centrifugation. All 140 samples of LL included 65g blocks for subsequent shear force (SF) testing. Homogenization at 16,000rpm provided the greatest ability to detect ageing differences for particle size between samples aged for 1 and 5days. Particle size at the 25% quantile provided the best result for detecting differences due to ageing. It was observed that as ageing increased the mean PS decreased and was significantly (P<0.001) less for 5days aged samples compared to 1day aged samples, while MFI values significantly increased (P<0.001) as ageing period increased. When comparing the PS and MFI methods it became apparent that, as opposed to the MFI method, there was a greater coefficient of variation for the PS method which warranted a quality assurance system. Given this requirement and examination of the mean, standard deviation and the 25% quantile for PS data it was concluded that three cycles of centrifugation were not necessary and this also applied to the MFI method. There were significant correlations (P<0.001) within the same lamb loin sample aged for a given period between mean MFI and mean PS (-0.53), mean MFI and mean SF (-0.38) and mean PS and mean SF (0.23). It was
Cepeda-Jiménez, C.M., E-mail: carmen.cepeda@imdea.org [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Orozco-Caballero, A.; García-Infanta, J.M. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zhilyaev, A.P. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturina, 450001 Ufa (Russian Federation); Ruano, O.A.; Carreño, F. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2014-03-01
An as-cast Al–7 wt%Si alloy was subjected to processing by high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature, through 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 5 turns at a pressure of 6 GPa and two rotation speeds, 0.1 and 1 rpm. Vickers microhardness was measured along diameters of HPT disk surfaces. The final hardness values were higher than in the initial as-cast condition and, unexpectedly, nearly constant under all different processing conditions, and along the disk diameter. The microstructure was characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The as-cast microstructure comprises equiaxed primary α dendrite cells embedded in the Al–Si eutectic constituent. The morphology and distribution of the eutectic constituent in the HPT processed materials is used to delineate the shear strain, which was analysed in the cross-section planes of the disks. A high degree of homogeneity in the imposed shear strain throughout the samples was observed, being congruent with the ideal rigid-body torsion. In addition, the high compressive pressure applied, causing compressive strain prior to the torsional strain, is responsible for the deformation-induced precipitation of small Si particles and for the (sub)grain refinement in the primary Al constituent. The role of torsional strain is that of increasing monothonically the redistribution of the eutectic silicon and the misorientation of the (sub)grains.
Merritt, Elizabeth; Doss, Forrest; Loomis, Eric; Flippo, Kirk; Devolder, Barbara; Welser-Sherrill, Leslie; Fincke, James; Kline, John
2014-10-01
The counter-propagating shear campaign is examining instability growth and its transition to turbulence relevant to mix in ICF capsules. Experimental platforms on both OMEGA and NIF use anti-symmetric flows about a shear interface to examine isolated Kelvin-Helmholtz instability growth. Measurements of interface (an Al or Ti tracer layer) dynamics are used to benchmark the LANL RAGE hydrocode with BHR turbulence model. The tracer layer does not expand uniformly, but breaks up into multi-dimensional structures that are initially quasi-2D due to the target geometry. We are developing techniques to analyze the multi-D structure growth along the tracer surface with a focus on characterizing the time-dependent structures' spectrum of scales in order to appraise a transition to turbulence in the system and potentially provide tighter constraints on initialization schemes for the BHR model. To this end, we use a wavelet based analysis to diagnose single-time radiographs of the tracer layer surface (w/low and amplified roughness for random noise seeding) with observed spatially non-repetitive features, in order to identify spatial and temporal trends in radiographs taken at different times across several experimental shots. This work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LANL under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.
Yan, Zheng; McKee, George; Gohil, Punit; Schmitz, Lothar; Eldon, David; Grierson, Brian; Kriete, Matt; Rhodes, Terry; Petty, Craig
2017-10-01
Measurements of long wavelength density fluctuation characteristics have been obtained in the edge of Deuterium (D) plasmas across the L-H transition on DIII-D during density and q95 scans. The relative density fluctuation amplitude measured by Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) increases with higher q95. The power threshold is found to increase with plasma current (i.e., lower q95) but with complex density dependence: the largest increase of PLH is seen at ne 3.2e19 m-3. Interestingly, a dual counter-propagating mode is observed for cases when PLH is low. The existence of the dual mode is correlated with increasing flow shear. Estimation of the turbulence kinetic energy transfer from turbulence to the flow increases prior to the transition. The complex behaviors of the turbulence characteristics and dual frequency modes interactions impact the flow shear generation, the transition process and the power threshold scaling. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-08ER54999, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.
2008-12-01
A digital holographic microscope is used to simultaneously measure the instantaneous 3D flow structure in the inner part of a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth wall, and the spatial distribution of wall shear stresses. The measurements are performed in a fully developed turbulent channel flow within square duct, at a moderately high Reynolds number. The sample volume size is 90 × 145 × 90 wall units, and the spatial resolution of the measurements is 3 8 wall units in streamwise and spanwise directions and one wall unit in the wall-normal direction. The paper describes the data acquisition and analysis procedures, including the particle tracking method and associated method for matching of particle pairs. The uncertainty in velocity is estimated to be better than 1 mm/s, less than 0.05% of the free stream velocity, by comparing the statistics of the normalized velocity divergence to divergence obtained by randomly adding an error of 1 mm/s to the data. Spatial distributions of wall shear stresses are approximated with the least square fit of velocity measurements in the viscous sublayer. Mean flow profiles and statistics of velocity fluctuations agree very well with expectations. Joint probability density distributions of instantaneous spanwise and streamwise wall shear stresses demonstrate the significance of near-wall coherent structures. The near wall 3D flow structures are classified into three groups, the first containing a pair of counter-rotating, quasi streamwise vortices and high streak-like shear stresses; the second group is characterized by multiple streamwise vortices and little variations in wall stress; and the third group has no buffer layer structures.
Kim, Eun-jin; Diamond, P.H.
2003-01-01
The dynamics of and an interplay among structures (mean shear flows, zonal flows, and generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz modes) are studied in drift wave turbulence. Mean shear flows are found to inhibit the nonlinear generation of zonal flows by weakening the coherent modulation response of the drift wave spectrum. Based on this result, a minimal model for the L→H (low- to high-confinement) transition is proposed, which involves the amplitude of drift waves, zonal flows, and the density gradient. A transition to quiescent H-mode sets in as the profile becomes sufficiently steep to completely damp out drift waves, following an oscillatory transition phase where zonal flows regulate drift wave turbulence. The different roles of mean flows and zonal flows are elucidated. Finally, the effect of poloidally nonaxisymmetric structures (generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz mode) on anomalous transport is investigated, especially in reference to damping of collisionless zonal flows. Results indicate that nonlinear excitation of this structure can be potentially important in enhancing anomalous transport as well as in damping zonal flows
Hofbauer, T.
2003-07-01
In several aspects, the behaviour of aircraft wake vortices under situations of vertical wind shear is significantly different from non-shear scenarios and its operational real-time forcast is challenging. By means of numerical investigations of idealized scenarios, the influence of wind shear on the lateral and vertical transport of vortices is analysed both, phenomenologically as well as in the scope of a sensitivity study. The results allow for the verification of controversial views and the benchmark of modelling approaches. Case studies of turbulent shear flows focus on the persistence of vortices. A detailed analysis of the flow fields evidence that unequal vortex decay rates can be attributed to the asymmetric distribution of secondary vorticity structures. The results moreover suggest that extended vortex lifespans can be expected under situations of wind shear. The unusual vortex behaviour observed by means of a LIDAR measurement is reproduced by realistic simulations and permits to reveal potential causes. (orig.) [German] Das Wirbelschleppenverhalten unterscheidet sich in Situationen vertikaler Windscherung in mehrfacher Hinsicht signifikant von scherungsfreien Szenarien und stellt eine besondere Herausforderung fuer eine operationelle Echtzeitvorhersage dar. Mittels numerischer Untersuchungen idealisierter Szenarien wird zunaechst der Einfluss von Windscherung auf den lateralen und vertikalen Wirbeltransport sowohl phaenomenologisch als auch quantitativ im Rahmen einer Sensitivitaetsstudie analysiert. Anhand der gewonnenen Ergebnisse werden auseinandergehende Erklaerungsansaetze geprueft und Modellierungsansaetze bewertet. Fallstudien turbulenter Scherstroemungen zur Wirbelpersistenz stellen einen weiteren Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit dar. Durch die ausfuehrliche Analyse der Stroemungsfelder wird der Nachweis erbracht, dass sich unterschiedliche Zerfallsraten der Wirbel auf die asymmetrische Verteilung von sekundaeren Vorticity-Strukturen zurueckfuehren
Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H.; Casper, T.S.
1996-08-01
The confinement and the stability properties of the DIII-D tokamak high performance discharges are evaluated in terms of rotational and magnetic shear with emphasis on the recent experimental results obtained from the negative central magnetic shear (NCS) experiments. In NCS discharges, a core transport barrier is often observed to form inside the NCS region accompanied by a reduction in core fluctuation amplitudes. Increasing negative magnetic shear contributes to the formation of this core transport barrier, but by itself is not sufficient to fully stabilize the toroidal drift mode (trapped- electron-η i mode) to explain this formation. Comparison of the Doppler shift shear rate to the growth rate of the η i mode suggests that the large core E x B flow shear can stabilize this mode and broaden the region of reduced core transport . Ideal and resistive stability analysis indicates the performance of NCS discharges with strongly peaked pressure profiles is limited by the resistive interchange mode to low Β N < 2.3. This mode is insensitive to the details of the rotational and the magnetic shear profiles. A new class of discharges which has a broad region of weak or slightly negative magnetic shear (WNS) is described. The WNS discharges have broader pressure profiles and higher values than the NCS discharges together with high confinement and high fusion reactivity
Subramanian, G.
2005-09-15
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is an alternative engine combustion process that offers the potential for substantial reductions in both NO{sub x} and particulate matter still providing high Diesel-like efficiencies. Combustion in HCCI mode takes place essentially by auto-ignition. It is mainly controlled by the chemical kinetics. It is therefore necessary to introduce detailed chemistry effects in combustion CFD codes in order to properly model the HCCI combustion process. The objective of this work is to develop an auto-ignition model including detailed chemical kinetics and its interactions with turbulence. Also, a comprehensive study has been performed to analyze the chemical influence of CO and H{sub 2} residual species on auto-ignition, which can be present in the exhaust gases. A new auto-ignition model, TKI-PDF (Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition - with turbulent mixing interactions through a pdf approach) dedicated to RANS 3D engine combustion CFD calculations is proposed. The TKI-PDF model is formulated in order to accommodate the detailed chemical kinetics of auto-ignition coupled with turbulence/chemistry interactions. The complete model development and its validation against experimental results are presented in two parts. The first part of this work describes the detailed chemistry input to the model. The second part is dedicated to the turbulent mixing description. A method based on a progress variable reaction rate tabulation is used. A look-up table for the progress variable reaction rates has been built through constant volume complex chemistry simulations. Instantaneous local reaction rates inside the CFD computational cell are then calculated by linear interpolation inside the look-up table depending on the local thermodynamic conditions. In order to introduce the turbulent mixing effects on auto-ignition, a presumed pdf approach is used. The model has been validated in different levels. First, the detailed kinetic approach was
Debussche, A.; Dubois, T.; Temam, R.
1993-01-01
Using results of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) in the case of two-dimensional homogeneous isotropic flows, the behavior of the small and large scales of Kolmogorov like flows at moderate Reynolds numbers are first analyzed in detail. Several estimates on the time variations of the small eddies and the nonlinear interaction terms were derived; those terms play the role of the Reynolds stress tensor in the case of LES. Since the time step of a numerical scheme is determined as a function of the energy-containing eddies of the flow, the variations of the small scales and of the nonlinear interaction terms over one iteration can become negligible by comparison with the accuracy of the computation. Based on this remark, a multilevel scheme which treats differently the small and the large eddies was proposed. Using mathematical developments, estimates of all the parameters involved in the algorithm, which then becomes a completely self-adaptive procedure were derived. Finally, realistic simulations of (Kolmorov like) flows over several eddy-turnover times were performed. The results are analyzed in detail and a parametric study of the nonlinear Galerkin method is performed.
Dou, Zhongwang; Ireland, Peter J.; Bragg, Andrew D.; Liang, Zach; Collins, Lance R.; Meng, Hui
2018-02-01
The radial relative velocity (RV) between particles suspended in turbulent flow plays a critical role in droplet collision and growth. We present a simple and accurate approach to RV measurement in isotropic turbulence—planar 4-frame particle tracking velocimetry—using routine PIV hardware. It improves particle positioning and pairing accuracy over the 2-frame holographic approach by de Jong et al. (Int J Multiphas Flow 36:324-332; de Jong et al., Int J Multiphas Flow 36:324-332, 2010) without using high-speed cameras and lasers as in Saw et al. (Phys Fluids 26:111702, 2014). Homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow ({R_λ }=357) in a new, fan-driven, truncated iscosahedron chamber was laden with either low-Stokes (mean St=0.09, standard deviation 0.05) or high-Stokes aerosols (mean St=3.46, standard deviation 0.57). For comparison, DNS was conducted under similar conditions ({R_λ }=398; St=0.10 and 3.00, respectively). Experimental RV probability density functions (PDF) and mean inward RV agree well with DNS. Mean inward RV increases with St at small particle separations, r, and decreases with St at large r, indicating the dominance of "path-history" and "inertial filtering" effects, respectively. However, at small r, the experimental mean inward RV trends higher than DNS, possibly due to the slight polydispersity of particles and finite light sheet thickness in experiments. To confirm this interpretation, we performed numerical experiments and found that particle polydispersity increases mean inward RV at small r, while finite laser thickness also overestimates mean inward RV at small r, This study demonstrates the feasibility of accurately measuring RV using routine hardware, and verifies, for the first time, the path-history and inertial filtering effects on particle-pair RV at large particle separations experimentally.
Nagaosa, Ryuichi [Research Center for Compact Chemical System (CCS), AIST, 4-2-1 Nigatake, Miyagino, Sendai 983-8551 (Japan); Handler, Robert A, E-mail: ryuichi.nagaosa@aist.go.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3123 (United States)
2011-12-22
The purpose of this study is to model scalar transfer mechanisms in a fully developed turbulence for accurate predictions of the turbulent scalar flux across a shear-free gas-liquid interface. The concept of the surface-renewal approximation (Dankwerts, 1951) is introduced in this study to establish the predictive models for the interfacial scalar flux. Turbulent flow realizations obtained by a direct numerical simulation technique are employed to prepare details of three-dimensional information on turbulence in the region very close to the interface. Two characteristic time scales at the interface have been examined for exact prediction of the scalar transfer flux. One is the time scale which is reciprocal of the root-mean-square surface divergence, T{sub {gamma}} = ({gamma}{gamma}){sup -1/2}, where {gamma} is the surface divergence. The other time scale to be examined is T{sub S} = {Lambda}/V, where {Lambda} is the zero-correlation length of the surface divergence as the interfacial length scale, and V is the root-mean-square velocity fluctuation in the streamwise direction as the interfacial velocity scale. The results of this study suggests that T{sub {gamma}} is slightly unsatisfactory to correlate the turbulent scalar flux at the gas-liquid interface based on the surface-renewal approximation. It is also found that the proportionality constant appear to be 0.19, which is different with that observed in the laboratory experiments, 0.34 (Komori, Murakami, and Ueda, 1989). It is concluded that the time scale, T{sub {gamma}}, is considered a different kind of the time scale observed in the laboratory experiments. On the other hand, the present in-silico experiments indicate that T{sub s} predicts the turbulent scalar flux based on the surface-renewal approximation in a satisfactory manner. It is also elucidated that the proportionality constant for T{sub s} is approximately 0.36, which is very close to that found by the laboratory experiments. This fact shows
Nagaosa, Ryuichi; Handler, Robert A
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study is to model scalar transfer mechanisms in a fully developed turbulence for accurate predictions of the turbulent scalar flux across a shear-free gas-liquid interface. The concept of the surface-renewal approximation (Dankwerts, 1951) is introduced in this study to establish the predictive models for the interfacial scalar flux. Turbulent flow realizations obtained by a direct numerical simulation technique are employed to prepare details of three-dimensional information on turbulence in the region very close to the interface. Two characteristic time scales at the interface have been examined for exact prediction of the scalar transfer flux. One is the time scale which is reciprocal of the root-mean-square surface divergence, T γ = (γγ) −1/2 , where γ is the surface divergence. The other time scale to be examined is T S = Λ/V, where Λ is the zero-correlation length of the surface divergence as the interfacial length scale, and V is the root-mean-square velocity fluctuation in the streamwise direction as the interfacial velocity scale. The results of this study suggests that T γ is slightly unsatisfactory to correlate the turbulent scalar flux at the gas-liquid interface based on the surface-renewal approximation. It is also found that the proportionality constant appear to be 0.19, which is different with that observed in the laboratory experiments, 0.34 (Komori, Murakami, and Ueda, 1989). It is concluded that the time scale, T γ , is considered a different kind of the time scale observed in the laboratory experiments. On the other hand, the present in-silico experiments indicate that T s predicts the turbulent scalar flux based on the surface-renewal approximation in a satisfactory manner. It is also elucidated that the proportionality constant for T s is approximately 0.36, which is very close to that found by the laboratory experiments. This fact shows that the time scale T s appears to be essentially the same as the time scale
Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Rettig, C.L.
1993-01-01
VH-mode plasma exhibit energy confinement times up to 2.4 times the DIII-D/JET H-mode scaling relation and up to 3.9 times the value given by ITER89-P L-mode scaling. If this confinement improvement can be exploited in reactor plasmas, smaller prototype reactors with significantly lower unit cost can be produced. Accordingly, understanding and optimizing the confinement improvement is of significant interest. One of the possible explanations for this bulk confinement improvement is stabilization of turbulence by shear in the radial electric field, similar to the present explanation for the confinement improvement at the extreme plasma edge at the L to H transition. Preliminary measurements have shown that the region of the plasma where the electric field gradient is steepest broadens when the plasma goes from H-mode to VH-mode. More recent measurements have confirmed this broadening and have shown that the change in the electric field gradient occurs prior to the change in the thermal transport. In addition, transport analysis shows that the electric field shear increases in the same region between magnetic flux coordinate p=0.6 and 0.9 where the local thermal transport decreases. Furthermore, far infra-red (FIR) scattering measurements have detected density fluctuations in the region around p=0.8 which could be responsible for enhanced transport and which disappear at the time that the electric shear increases. These fluctuations appear as bursts of density fluctuations in the 0.5 to 1.5 MHz range. The time between bursts increases as the electric field shear increases. Once these bursts disappear, the major change in confinement takes place in most discharges. When isolated bursts occur, the heat and angular momentum pulse connected with the burst are detectable on the plasma profile diagnostics. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs
Dagan, Yuval; Ghoniem, Ahmed
2017-11-01
Recent experimental observations show that the dynamic response of a reactive flow is strongly impacted by the fuel chemistry. In order to gain insight into some of the underlying mechanisms we formulate a new linear stability model that incorporates the impact of finite rate chemistry on the hydrodynamic stability of shear flows. Contrary to previous studies which typically assume that the velocity field is independent of the kinetic rates, the velocity field in our study is coupled with the temperature field. Using this formulation, we reproduce previous results, e.g., most unstable global modes, obtained for non-reacting shear flow. Moreover, we show that these modes are significantly altered in frequency and gain by the presence of a reaction region within the shear layer. This qualitatively agrees with results of our recent experimental and numerical studies, which show that the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the stability characteristics in combustion tunnels. This study suggests a physical explanation for the observed impact of finite rate chemistry on shear flow stability.
Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.
1979-01-01
An analysis is presented of the flow in the two inner layers, the Reynolds stress sublayer and the wall layer. Included is the calculation of the shear stress at the wall in the interaction region. The limit processes considered are those used for an inviscid flow.
Kjellstroem, B
1968-12-15
Experiments with rough surface friction and heat transfer are often made in an annulus with rough inner surface and smooth outer surface. Utilization of data from such experiments for calculation of rough rod bundle fuel elements requires a transformation of the data. For this purpose the method of WB Hall is frequently used. The errors introduced by two of the assumptions on which this method is based, namely the assumptions of zero shear at the radius of maximum velocity and the assumption of no turbulence exchange between the subchannels, are discussed, and the magnitude of the errors is estimated on basis of experiments in a partially rough annulus. It is found that the necessary corrections does not amount to more than about + 10 % for the friction factor and + 15 % for the Reynolds number and the equivalent diameter. The correction for the turbulence exchange alone is of the order of 2-3 %. A comparison of friction factors measured in a rough 48-rod bundle and predicted from measurements in a partially rough annulus was also made. The prediction was 5 % high instead of about 10 % low which could have been expected from the considerations earlier in the report. Explanations for this can be found in the effect of the channel shape or inaccuracies in the rod bundle experiment. Annulus experiments which will allow comparisons with other rod bundle experiments will be run to clarify this.
Diamond, P.H.; Shapiro, V.; Schevchenko, V.; Kim, Y.B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Sidikman, K.; Lynch, V.E.; Garcia, L.; Terry, P.W.; Sagdeev, R.Z.
1992-01-01
This paper describes developments in the theory of edge plasma turbulence in a differentially rotating plasma. The thesis that such systems are dynamically self-regulating is presented. Results indicate that relevant fluctuations will generate a predominantly curved flow. Similar, curvature is shown to be the predominant flow profile effect on fluctuations. A system fixed point is identified, the eigenfrequencies for small oscillations around it are calculated, and an over-all stability criterion is determined
1981-09-01
34, 2 9. Deutscher Flammentag, Aachen, (1979), VDI -Bericht * Nr. 346 7 Yamaoka, I. and Tsuji, H. : "An Experimental Study of Flammability Limits Using...not exceed 23 amplitude of oscillations KHz. Thus. 1024. 2048 or 4096 points were sampled or critical value Scritical pase a gper period per channel...K Rohren," VDI -Forschungsheft, No. 361, 1933. z d = 0.439 ft. 7 Rodi, W., "Turbulence Models for Environmental .7_ X Problems," Prediction Methods
Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Narasimha, Roddam
2017-02-01
Although the free-shear or mixing layer has been a subject of extensive research over nearly a century, there are certain fundamental issues that remain controversial. These include the influence of initial and downstream conditions on the flow, the effect of velocity ratio across the layer, and the nature of any possible coupling between small scale dynamics and the large scale evolution of layer thickness. In the spirit of the temporal vortex-gas simulations of Suryanarayanan et al. ["Free turbulent shear layer in a point vortex gas as a problem in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics," Phys. Rev. E 89, 013009 (2014)], we revisit the simple 2D inviscid vortex-gas model with extensive computations and detailed analysis, in order to gain insights into some of the above issues. Simulations of the spatially evolving vortex-gas shear layer are carried out at different velocity ratios using a computational model based on the work of Basu et al. ["Vortex sheet simulation of a plane canonical mixing layer," Comput. Fluids 21, 1-30 (1992) and "Modelling plane mixing layers using vortex points and sheets," Appl. Math. Modell. 19, 66-75 (1995)], but with a crucial improvement that ensures conservation of global circulation. The simulations show that the conditions imposed at the origin of the free shear layer and at the exit to the computational domain can affect flow evolution in their respective downstream and upstream neighbourhoods, the latter being particularly strong in the single stream limit. In between these neighbourhoods at the ends is a regime of universal self-preserving growth rate given by a universal function of velocity ratio. The computed growth rates are generally located within the scatter of experimental data on plane mixing layers and closely agree with recent high Reynolds number experiments and 3D large eddy simulation studies. These findings support the view that observed free-shear layer growth can be largely explained by the 2D vortex dynamics of
Turbulent diffusion of small particles
Margolin, L.G.
1977-11-01
The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley
CFD simulation of estimating critical shear stress for cleaning flat ...
Sumit Kawale
2017-11-22
Nov 22, 2017 ... Jet impingement; wall shear stress; cleaning of flat plate; turbulence model; critical shear stress; ... On comparing the theoretical predictions with wall shear ... distance and Reynolds number on peak value of local shear stress ...
Turbulent flows over sparse canopies
Sharma, Akshath; García-Mayoral, Ricardo
2018-04-01
Turbulent flows over sparse and dense canopies exerting a similar drag force on the flow are investigated using Direct Numerical Simulations. The dense canopies are modelled using a homogeneous drag force, while for the sparse canopy, the geometry of the canopy elements is represented. It is found that on using the friction velocity based on the local shear at each height, the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds stress within the sparse canopy are similar to those from a comparable smooth-wall case. In addition, when scaled with the local friction velocity, the intensity of the off-wall peak in the streamwise vorticity for sparse canopies also recovers a value similar to a smooth-wall. This indicates that the sparse canopy does not significantly disturb the near-wall turbulence cycle, but causes its rescaling to an intensity consistent with a lower friction velocity within the canopy. In comparison, the dense canopy is found to have a higher damping effect on the turbulent fluctuations. For the case of the sparse canopy, a peak in the spectral energy density of the wall-normal velocity, and Reynolds stress is observed, which may indicate the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instabilities. It is also found that a sparse canopy is better modelled by a homogeneous drag applied on the mean flow alone, and not the turbulent fluctuations.
1983-09-01
investigations in ducts of constant surfaces to a rectangle (40a0 lx60+0 1mm) at the exit cross-sectional area (Humphrey et al. 1977. 1981. Enayet at after 45...k___ to the thinner inlet boundary layers. Enayet et a1(1982) (1982a). The C-shaped diffuser was assembled with the measured the developing flow in a...about 0 25 Vb measured at the 450 smaller radial velocities In the turbulent case (cf plane of the constant area duct of Enayet et al (1982) of figures
Gandía-Barberá, Sergio; Hoyas, Sergio; Oberlack, Martin; Kraheberger, Stefanie
2018-04-01
The length and width of the long and wide structures appearing in turbulent Couette flows are studied by means of a new dataset of direct numerical simulation covering a stepped transition from pure Couette flow to pure Poiseuille one, at Reτ ≈ 130, based on the stationary wall. The existence of these structures is linked to the averaged Reynolds stress, u v ¯ : as soon as in any part of the channel u v ¯ changes its sign, the structures disappear. The length and width of the rolls are found to be, approximately, 50h and 2.5h, respectively. For this Reynolds number, simulations with a domain shorter than 100h cannot properly describe the behaviour of the longest structures of the flow.
Modeling of turbulent bubbly flows; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents a bulles
Bellakhal, Ghazi
2005-03-15
The two-phase flows involve interfacial interactions which modify significantly the structure of the mean and fluctuating flow fields. The design of the two-fluid models adapted to industrial flows requires the taking into account of the effect of these interactions in the closure relations adopted. The work developed in this thesis concerns the development of first order two-fluid models deduced by reduction of second order closures. The adopted reasoning, based on the principle of decomposition of the Reynolds stress tensor into two statistically independent contributions turbulent and pseudo-turbulent parts, allows to preserve the physical contents of the second order relations closure. Analysis of the turbulence structure in two basic flows: homogeneous bubbly flows uniform and with a constant shear allows to deduce a formulation of the two-phase turbulent viscosity involving the characteristic scales of bubbly turbulence, as well as an analytical description of modification of the homogeneous turbulence structure induced by the bubbles presence. The Eulerian two-fluid model was then generalized with the case of the inhomogeneous flows with low void fractions. The numerical results obtained by the application of this model integrated in the computer code MELODIF in the case of free sheared turbulent bubbly flow of wake showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and made it possible to analyze the modification of the characteristic scales of such flow by the interfacial interactions. The two-fluid first order model is generalized finally with the case of high void fractions bubbly flows where the hydrodynamic interactions between the bubbles are not negligible any more. (author)
Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited)
Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.
2013-12-01
Riverine fish are subject to heterogeneous velocities and turbulence, and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions which balance energy expenditure for station holding whilst maximising energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in terms of the three-dimensional velocity structure generated by idealised boulders in an experimental flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced intra-species variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the high velocity and low turbulence region, whereas smaller guppies preferred the low velocity and high shear stress region directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the region of low velocity, indicating a possible reduced swimming ability due to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) burden, fish preferentially selected the region of moderate velocity which had the lowest bulk measure of turbulence of all regions and was also the most spatially homogeneous velocity and turbulence region. Overall the least amount of time was spent in the recirculation zone which had the highest magnitude of shear stresses and mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio. Shear stresses were a factor of two greater than in the most frequented moderate velocity region, while mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio were six times greater. Indeed the mean longitudinal turbulent scale was 2-6 times greater than the fish length in all regions. While it is impossible to discriminate between these two turbulence parameters (shear stress and turbulent length to fish length ratio) in influencing the fish preference, our study infers that there is a bias towards fish spending more time in a region where both the bulk
Turbulent shear flow downstream of a sphere with and without an o-ring located over a plane boundary
Sahin Besir
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Flow-structure interaction of separated shear flow from the sphere and a flat plate was investigated by using dye visualization and the particle image velocimetry technique. Later, a passive control method was applied with 2mm oring located on the sphere surface at 55° from front stagnation point. The experiments were carried out in open water channel for Reynolds number value of Re=5000. Flow characteristics have been examined in terms of the 2-D instantaneous and time-averaged velocity vectors, patterns of vorticity, streamlines, rms of velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress variations and discussed from the point of flow physics, vortex formation, lengths of large-scale Karman Vortex Streets and Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices depending on the sphere locations over the flat plate. It is demonstrated that the gap flow occurring between the sphere bottom point and the flat plate surface has very high scouring effect until h/d=0.25 and then unsymmetrical flow structure of the wake region keeps up to h/D=1.0 for smooth sphere. For the sphere with o-ring, the wake flow structure becomes symmetrical at smaller gap ratios and reattachment point on the flat plate surface occurs earlier. Moreover, o-ring on the sphere diminishes peak magnitudes of the flow characteristics and thus it is expected that the flow-induced forces will be lessened both on the sphere and flat plate surface. Vortex formation lengths and maximum value occurring points become closer locations to the rear surface of the sphere with o-ring.
Frost, W.; Harper, W. L.
1975-01-01
Flow over surface obstructions can produce significantly large wind shears such that adverse flying conditions can occur for aeronautical systems (helicopters, STOL vehicles, etc.). Atmospheric flow fields resulting from a semi-elliptical surface obstruction in an otherwise horizontally homogeneous statistically stationary flow are modelled with the boundary-layer/Boussinesq-approximation of the governing equation of fluid mechanics. The turbulence kinetic energy equation is used to determine the dissipative effects of turbulent shear on the mean flow. Iso-lines of turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity are plotted in the plane of the flow and highlight regions of high turbulence intensity in the stagnation zone and sharp gradients in intensity along the transition from adverse to favourable pressure gradient. Discussion of the effects of the disturbed wind field in CTOL and STOL aircraft flight path and obstruction clearance standards is given. The results indicate that closer inspection of these presently recommended standards as influenced by wind over irregular terrains is required.
Stochastic scalar mixing models accounting for turbulent frequency multiscale fluctuations
Soulard, Olivier; Sabel'nikov, Vladimir; Gorokhovski, Michael
2004-01-01
Two new scalar micromixing models accounting for a turbulent frequency scale distribution are investigated. These models were derived by Sabel'nikov and Gorokhovski [Second International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear FLow Phenomena, Royal Institute of technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, June 27-29, 2001] using a multiscale extension of the classical interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) and Langevin models. They are, respectively, called Extended IEM (EIEM) and Extended Langevin (ELM) models. The EIEM and ELM models are tested against DNS results in the case of the decay of a homogeneous scalar field in homogeneous turbulence. This comparison leads to a reformulation of the law governing the mixing frequency distribution. Finally, the asymptotic behaviour of the modeled PDF is discussed
Statistics and scaling of turbulence in a spatially developing mixing layer at Reλ = 250
Attili, Antonio
2012-03-21
The turbulent flow originating from the interaction between two parallel streams with different velocities is studied by means of direct numerical simulation. Rather than the more common temporal evolving layer, a spatially evolving configuration, with perturbed laminar inlet conditions is considered. The streamwise evolution and the self-similar state of turbulence statistics are reported and compared to results available in the literature. The characteristics of the transitional region agree with those observed in other simulations and experiments of mixing layers originating from laminar inlets. The present results indicate that the transitional region depends strongly on the inlet flow. Conversely, the self-similar state of turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation agrees quantitatively with those in a temporal mixing layer developing from turbulent initial conditions [M. M. Rogers and R. D. Moser, “Direct simulation of a self-similar turbulent mixing layer,” Phys. Fluids6, 903 (1994)]. The statistical features of turbulence in the self-similar region have been analysed in terms of longitudinal velocity structure functions, and scaling exponents are estimated by applying the extended self-similarity concept. In the small scale range (60 < r/η < 250), the scaling exponents display the universal anomalous scaling observed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The hypothesis of isotropy recovery holds in the turbulent mixing layer despite the presence of strong shear and large-scale structures, independently of the means of turbulence generation. At larger scales (r/η > 400), the mean shear and large coherent structures result in a significant deviation from predictions based on homogeneous isotropic turbulence theory. In this second scaling range, the numerical values of the exponents agree quantitatively with those reported for a variety of other flows characterized by strong shear, such as boundary layers, as well as channel and wake flows.
Statistics and scaling of turbulence in a spatially developing mixing layer at Reλ = 250
Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio
2012-01-01
The turbulent flow originating from the interaction between two parallel streams with different velocities is studied by means of direct numerical simulation. Rather than the more common temporal evolving layer, a spatially evolving configuration, with perturbed laminar inlet conditions is considered. The streamwise evolution and the self-similar state of turbulence statistics are reported and compared to results available in the literature. The characteristics of the transitional region agree with those observed in other simulations and experiments of mixing layers originating from laminar inlets. The present results indicate that the transitional region depends strongly on the inlet flow. Conversely, the self-similar state of turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation agrees quantitatively with those in a temporal mixing layer developing from turbulent initial conditions [M. M. Rogers and R. D. Moser, “Direct simulation of a self-similar turbulent mixing layer,” Phys. Fluids6, 903 (1994)]. The statistical features of turbulence in the self-similar region have been analysed in terms of longitudinal velocity structure functions, and scaling exponents are estimated by applying the extended self-similarity concept. In the small scale range (60 < r/η < 250), the scaling exponents display the universal anomalous scaling observed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The hypothesis of isotropy recovery holds in the turbulent mixing layer despite the presence of strong shear and large-scale structures, independently of the means of turbulence generation. At larger scales (r/η > 400), the mean shear and large coherent structures result in a significant deviation from predictions based on homogeneous isotropic turbulence theory. In this second scaling range, the numerical values of the exponents agree quantitatively with those reported for a variety of other flows characterized by strong shear, such as boundary layers, as well as channel and wake flows.
Sameshima, Naoki; Yamashita, Atsushi; Sato, Shinya; Matsuda, Shuntaro; Matsuura, Yunosuke; Asada, Yujiro
2014-01-01
To clarify the contribution of hemodynamic factors to the onset of plaque erosion in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-rich atherosclerotic plaque. We developed a rabbit model of SMC-rich atherosclerotic plaque with various degree of stenosis induced by incomplete ligation and generated three-dimensional models of five rabbit femoral arteries based on 130-162 serial histological cross-sections at 100-μm intervals per artery. We performed a computational blood flow simulation using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model and calculated the wall shear stress (WSS), turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure gradients (BPG) in eight sections (the inlet, the stenotic portion and areas 1, 2 and 5mm from the stenotic portion) in each rabbit. We also investigated whether the magnitude of WSS or TKE was related to the presence or absence of erosive injury by evaluating six points (the locally highest, median and lowest of WSS or TKE) in each section. The magnitudes of WSS, TKE and BPG, but not BP, correlated significantly with the extent of histologically-defined plaque erosion (WSS, r=0.55, p＜0.001; TKE, r=0.53, p＜0.001; BPG, r=0.61, p＜0.0001, n=40). The values for WSS and TKE were significantly larger at sites with, compared to without, erosive injury (n=107 and n=119 points, respectively; both p＜0.0001). These results suggest that increased values of WSS, TKE and BPG considerably contribute to the onset of plaque erosion.
Delayed shear enhancement in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion
Moran, M.D. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada); Pielke, R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
1994-12-31
Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion (MAD) is more complicated than smaller-scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays a much more important role on the mesoscale: horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and often dominated by vertical wind shear on these scales through the interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing. Just over 30 years ago, Pasquill suggested that this interaction need not be simultaneous and that the combination of differential horizontal advection with delayed or subsequent vertical mixing could maintain effective horizontal diffusion in spite of temporal or spatial reductions in boundary-layer turbulence intensity. This two-step mechanism has not received much attention since then, but a recent analysis of observations from and numerical simulations of two mesoscale tracer experiments suggests that delayed shear enhancement can play an important role in MAD. This paper presents an overview of this analysis, with particular emphasis on the influence of resolvable vertical shear on MAD in these two case studies and the contributions made by delayed shear enhancement.
Goger, Brigitta; Rotach, Mathias W.; Gohm, Alexander; Fuhrer, Oliver; Stiperski, Ivana; Holtslag, Albert A. M.
2018-07-01
The correct simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is crucial for reliable weather forecasts in truly complex terrain. However, common assumptions for model parametrizations are only valid for horizontally homogeneous and flat terrain. Here, we evaluate the turbulence parametrization of the numerical weather prediction model COSMO with a horizontal grid spacing of Δ x = 1.1 km for the Inn Valley, Austria. The long-term, high-resolution turbulence measurements of the i-Box measurement sites provide a useful data pool of the ABL structure in the valley and on slopes. We focus on days and nights when ABL processes dominate and a thermally-driven circulation is present. Simulations are performed for case studies with both a one-dimensional turbulence parametrization, which only considers the vertical turbulent exchange, and a hybrid turbulence parametrization, also including horizontal shear production and advection in the budget of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). We find a general underestimation of TKE by the model with the one-dimensional turbulence parametrization. In the simulations with the hybrid turbulence parametrization, the modelled TKE has a more realistic structure, especially in situations when the TKE production is dominated by shear related to the afternoon up-valley flow, and during nights, when a stable ABL is present. The model performance also improves for stations on the slopes. An estimation of the horizontal shear production from the observation network suggests that three-dimensional effects are a relevant part of TKE production in the valley.
Destabilizing turbulence in pipe flow
Kühnen, Jakob; Song, Baofang; Scarselli, Davide; Budanur, Nazmi Burak; Riedl, Michael; Willis, Ashley P.; Avila, Marc; Hof, Björn
2018-04-01
Turbulence is the major cause of friction losses in transport processes and it is responsible for a drastic drag increase in flows over bounding surfaces. While much effort is invested into developing ways to control and reduce turbulence intensities1-3, so far no methods exist to altogether eliminate turbulence if velocities are sufficiently large. We demonstrate for pipe flow that appropriate distortions to the velocity profile lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and subsequently friction losses are reduced by as much as 90%. Counterintuitively, the return to laminar motion is accomplished by initially increasing turbulence intensities or by transiently amplifying wall shear. Since neither the Reynolds number nor the shear stresses decrease (the latter often increase), these measures are not indicative of turbulence collapse. Instead, an amplification mechanism4,5 measuring the interaction between eddies and the mean shear is found to set a threshold below which turbulence is suppressed beyond recovery.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.
Scale separation closure and Alfven wave turbulence
Chen, C.Y.; Mahajan, S.M.
1985-04-01
Based on the concept of scale separation between coherent response function and incoherent source for renormalized turbulence theories, a closure scheme is proposed. A model problem dealing with shear-Alfven wave turbulence is numerically solved; the solution explicitly shows expected turbulence features such as frequency shift from linear modes, band-broadening, and a power law dependence for the turbulence spectrum
Gilling, Lasse
of resolved inflow turbulence on airfoil simulations in CFD. The detached-eddy simulation technique is used because it can resolve the inflow turbulence without becoming too computationally expensive due to its limited requirements for mesh resolution in the boundary layer. It cannot resolve the turbulence......Wind turbines operate in inflow turbulence whether it originates from the shear in the atmospheric boundary layer or from the wake of other wind turbines. Consequently, the airfoils of the wings experience turbulence in the inflow. The main topic of this thesis is to investigate the effect...... that is formed in attached boundary layers, but the freestream turbulence can penetrate the boundary layer. The idea is that the resolved turbulence from the freestream should mix high momentum flow into the boundary layer and thereby increase the resistance against separation and increase the maximum lift...
Turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, 2
Hashimoto, Hiromu; Wada, Sanae; Kobayashi, Toshinobu.
1990-01-01
This second paper describes an application of the generalized turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, which is developed in the previous paper, to the finite-width journal bearings. In the numerical analysis, the nonlinear equations for the modified turbulence coefficients are simplified to save a computation time within a satisfactory accuracy under the assumption that the shear flow is superior to the pressure flow in the turbulent lubrication films. The numerical results of pressure distribution, Sommerfeld number, attitude angle, friction coefficient and flow rate for the Reynolds number of Re=2000, 5000 and 10000 are indicated in graphic form for various values of relative roughness, and the effects of surface roughness on these static performance characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the eccentricity ratio and attitude angle of the journal bearings with homogeneous rough surface are obtained experimentally for a wide range of Sommerfeld number, and the experimental results are compared with theoretical results. (author)
Yan Zhang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an improved delayed detached eddy simulation method combined with shear-stress transport (SST model was used to study the three-dimensional turbulent characteristics in a small rotary engine with a peripheral port. The turbulent characteristics including instantaneous velocity, turbulent fluctuation, coherent structure and velocity circulation were analysed based on a dynamic model of the small rotary engine. Three sets of conclusions on the basis of computational results were obtained. First, it was found that large-scale vortex structures with high intensity were distributed in the center of the chamber in the intake process and broke into lots of small vortex structures in the compression process. Second, flow stability in the X direction decreased from the leading to the trailing in the small rotary engine. The fluctuation velocity of the Y direction showed the paraboloid feature and its peak position moved from the mid-back to the middle of the chamber during the operation process. Third, during the intake process, two vortices occurred in the cross section parallel to the covers and were located at the leading and trailing of the cross section, respectively. Compared to the intake process, more vortices occur at cross sections which were far away from the central section during the compression process.
Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer
Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio
2011-01-01
A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.
Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer
Attili, Antonio
2011-12-22
A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor\\'s frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.
Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas
Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1980-01-01
An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production......-cathode reflex arc, Stellarator, Zeta discharge, ionospheric plasmas, and auroral plasma turbulence....
1991-09-01
the sound intensit icceived ion (,iA-order Runge Kutta) ot the relation dr = (U - by point (x,0) from aii acoustic source at (0,xi). ’[lie sound acosO ...to this technique in was previously observed with the turbulent intensity(8). The unsteady flow despite the labor required. Furthermore, an common
Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.
1997-01-01
An Investigation of the statistical description of binary mixing and/or reaction between a carrier gas and an evaporated vapor species in two-phase gas-liquid turbulent flows is perfomed through both theroetical analysis and comparisons with results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a two-phase mixing layer.
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.
1980-01-01
An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.
1980-01-01
A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)
Tang, Yifeng; Akhavan, Rayhaneh
2014-11-01
A nested-LES wall-modeling approach for high Reynolds number, wall-bounded turbulence is presented. In this approach, a coarse-grained LES is performed in the full-domain, along with a nested, fine-resolution LES in a minimal flow unit. The coupling between the two domains is achieved by renormalizing the instantaneous LES velocity fields to match the profiles of kinetic energies of components of the mean velocity and velocity fluctuations in both domains to those of the minimal flow unit in the near-wall region, and to those of the full-domain in the outer region. The method is of fixed computational cost, independent of Reτ , in homogenous flows, and is O (Reτ) in strongly non-homogenous flows. The method has been applied to equilibrium turbulent channel flows at 1000 shear-driven, 3D turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 2000 . In equilibrium channel flow, the friction coefficient and the one-point turbulence statistics are predicted in agreement with Dean's correlation and available DNS and experimental data. In shear-driven, 3D channel flow, the evolution of turbulence statistics is predicted in agreement with experimental data of Driver & Hebbar (1991) in shear-driven, 3D boundary layer flow.
Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S.
2004-01-01
The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P 0 transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP N core calculations. (Author)
Adil Abbas AL-Moosawy
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Experimental study of γ /Al2O3 with mean diameter of less than 50 nm was dispersed in the distilled water that flows through a pipe consist of five sections as work station ,four sections made of carbon steel metal and one sections made of Pyrex glass pipe, with five nanoparticles volume concentrations of 0%,0.1%,0.2%,0.3%,and 0.4% with seven different volume flow rates 100, 200 , 300, 400, 500, 600 ,and 700ℓ/min were investigated to calculated pressure distribution for the cases without rubber ,with 3mm rubber and with 6mm rubber used to support the pipe. Reynolds number was between 20000 and 130000. Frequency value through pipe was measured for all stations of pipe for all cases. The results show that the pressure drop and wall shear stress of the nanofluid increase by increasing the nanoparticles volume concentrations or Reynolds number, the values of frequency through the pipe increase continuously when wall shear stress increases and the ratio of increment increases as nanofluid concentrations increase. Increasing of vibration frequency lead to increasing the friction factor between the pipe and the wall and thus increasing in pressure drop. Several equations between the wall shear stress and frequency for all volume concentration and for three cases without rubber, with rubber has 3mm thickness ,and with rubber has 6mm thickness. Finally, the results led to that γ /Al2O3 could function as a good and alternative conventional working fluid in heat transfer applications. A good agreement is seen between the experimental and those available in the literature
Schulreich, M. M.; Breitschwerdt, D.; Feige, J.; Dettbarn, C.
2017-08-01
Context. The discovery of radionuclides like 60Fe with half-lives of million years in deep-sea crusts and sediments offers the unique possibility to date and locate nearby supernovae. Aims: We want to quantitatively establish that the 60Fe enhancement is the result of several supernovae which are also responsible for the formation of the Local Bubble, our Galactic habitat. Methods: We performed three-dimensional hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations (with resolutions down to subparsec scale) of the Local Bubble and the neighbouring Loop I superbubble in different homogeneous, self-gravitating environments. For setting up the Local and Loop I superbubble, we took into account the time sequence and locations of the generating core-collapse supernova explosions, which were derived from the mass spectrum of the perished members of certain stellar moving groups. The release of 60Fe and its subsequent turbulent mixing process inside the superbubble cavities was followed via passive scalars, where the yields of the decaying radioisotope were adjusted according to recent stellar evolution calculations. Results: The models are able to reproduce both the timing and the intensity of the 60Fe excess observed with rather high precision, provided that the external density does not exceed 0.3 cm-3 on average. Thus the two best-fit models presented here were obtained with background media mimicking the classical warm ionised and warm neutral medium. We also found that 60Fe (which is condensed onto dust grains) can be delivered to Earth via two physical mechanisms: either through individual fast-paced supernova blast waves, which cross the Earth's orbit sometimes even twice as a result of reflection from the Local Bubble's outer shell, or, alternatively, through the supershell of the Local Bubble itself, injecting the 60Fe content of all previous supernovae at once, but over a longer time range.
Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, CEA de Saclay, DM2S/SERMA 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. e-mail: richard.sanchez@cea.fr
2004-07-01
The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P{sub 0} transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP{sub N} core calculations. (Author)
Zhao, S.; Lardjane, N.; Fedioun, I.
2014-01-01
Improved WENO schemes, Z, M, and their combination MZ, originally designed to capture sharper discontinuities than the classical fifth order Jiang-Shu scheme does, are evaluated for the purpose of implicit large eddy simulation of free shear flows. 1D Fourier analysis of errors reveals the built-in filter and dissipative properties of the schemes, which are subsequently applied to the canonical Rayleigh-Taylor and Taylor-Green flows. Large eddy simulations of a transonic non-reacting and a supersonic reacting air/H2 jets are then performed at resolution 128 * 128 * 512, showing no significant difference in the flow statistics. However, the computational time varies from one scheme to the other, the Z scheme providing the smaller wall-time due to larger allowed time steps. (authors)
Large Eddy Simulation of turbulence
Poullet, P.; Sancandi, M.
1994-12-01
Results of Large Eddy Simulation of 3D isotropic homogeneous turbulent flows are presented. A computer code developed on Connexion Machine (CM5) has allowed to compare two turbulent viscosity models (Smagorinsky and structure function). The numerical scheme influence on the energy density spectrum is also studied [fr
Diurnal Variations of the Flux Imbalance Over Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Landscapes
Zhou, Yanzhao; Li, Dan; Liu, Heping; Li, Xin
2018-05-01
It is well known that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as measured by the eddy-covariance method is systematically lower than the available energy (i.e., the net radiation minus the ground heat flux). We examine the separate and joint effects of diurnal and spatial variations of surface temperature on this flux imbalance in a dry convective boundary layer using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Results show that, over homogeneous surfaces, the flux due to turbulent-organized structures is responsible for the imbalance, whereas over heterogeneous surfaces, the flux due to mesoscale or secondary circulations is the main contributor to the imbalance. Over homogeneous surfaces, the flux imbalance in free convective conditions exhibits a clear diurnal cycle, showing that the flux-imbalance magnitude slowly decreases during the morning period and rapidly increases during the afternoon period. However, in shear convective conditions, the flux-imbalance magnitude is much smaller, but slightly increases with time. The flux imbalance over heterogeneous surfaces exhibits a diurnal cycle under both free and shear convective conditions, which is similar to that over homogeneous surfaces in free convective conditions, and is also consistent with the general trend in the global observations. The rapid increase in the flux-imbalance magnitude during the afternoon period is mainly caused by the afternoon decay of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Interestingly, over heterogeneous surfaces, the flux imbalance is linearly related to the TKE and the difference between the potential temperature and surface temperature, ΔT; the larger the TKE and ΔT values, the smaller the flux-imbalance magnitude.
Stirring turbulence with turbulence
Cekli, H.E.; Joosten, R.; van de Water, W.
2015-01-01
We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the
Reynolds number scaling of straining motions in turbulence
Elsinga, Gerrit; Ishihara, T.; Goudar, M. V.; da Silva, C. B.; Hunt, J. C. R.
2017-11-01
Strain is an important fluid motion in turbulence as it is associated with the kinetic energy dissipation rate, vorticity stretching, and the dispersion of passive scalars. The present study investigates the scaling of the turbulent straining motions by evaluating the flow in the eigenframe of the local strain-rate tensor. The analysis is based on DNS of homogeneous isotropic turbulence covering a Reynolds number range Reλ = 34.6 - 1131. The resulting flow pattern reveals a shear layer containing tube-like vortices and a dissipation sheet, which both scale on the Kolmogorov length scale, η. The vorticity stretching motions scale on the Taylor length scale, while the flow outside the shear layer scales on the integral length scale. These scaling results are consistent with those in wall-bounded flow, which suggests a quantitative universality between the different flows. The overall coherence length of the vorticity is 120 η in all directions, which is considerably larger than the typical size of individual vortices, and reflects the importance of spatial organization at the small scales. Transitions in flow structure are identified at Reλ 45 and 250. Below these respective Reynolds numbers, the small-scale motions and the vorticity stretching motions appear underdeveloped.
Fluctuations of a passive scalar in a turbulent mixing layer
Attili, Antonio
2013-09-19
The turbulent flow originating downstream of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a mixing layer has great relevance in many applications, ranging from atmospheric physics to combustion in technical devices. The mixing of a substance by the turbulent velocity field is usually involved. In this paper, a detailed statistical analysis of fluctuations of a passive scalar in the fully developed region of a turbulent mixing layer from a direct numerical simulation is presented. Passive scalar spectra show inertial ranges characterized by scaling exponents −4/3 and −3/2 in the streamwise and spanwise directions, in agreement with a recent theoretical analysis of passive scalar scaling in shear flows [Celani et al., J. Fluid Mech. 523, 99 (2005)]. Scaling exponents of high-order structure functions in the streamwise direction show saturation of intermittency with an asymptotic exponent ζ∞=0.4 at large orders. Saturation of intermittency is confirmed by the self-similarity of the tails of the probability density functions of the scalar increments at different scales r with the scaling factor r−ζ∞ and by the analysis of the cumulative probability of large fluctuations. Conversely, intermittency saturation is not observed for the spanwise increments and the relative scaling exponents agree with recent results for homogeneous isotropic turbulence with mean scalar gradient. Probability density functions of the scalar increments in the three directions are compared to assess anisotropy.
Fluctuations of a passive scalar in a turbulent mixing layer
Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio
2013-01-01
The turbulent flow originating downstream of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a mixing layer has great relevance in many applications, ranging from atmospheric physics to combustion in technical devices. The mixing of a substance by the turbulent velocity field is usually involved. In this paper, a detailed statistical analysis of fluctuations of a passive scalar in the fully developed region of a turbulent mixing layer from a direct numerical simulation is presented. Passive scalar spectra show inertial ranges characterized by scaling exponents −4/3 and −3/2 in the streamwise and spanwise directions, in agreement with a recent theoretical analysis of passive scalar scaling in shear flows [Celani et al., J. Fluid Mech. 523, 99 (2005)]. Scaling exponents of high-order structure functions in the streamwise direction show saturation of intermittency with an asymptotic exponent ζ∞=0.4 at large orders. Saturation of intermittency is confirmed by the self-similarity of the tails of the probability density functions of the scalar increments at different scales r with the scaling factor r−ζ∞ and by the analysis of the cumulative probability of large fluctuations. Conversely, intermittency saturation is not observed for the spanwise increments and the relative scaling exponents agree with recent results for homogeneous isotropic turbulence with mean scalar gradient. Probability density functions of the scalar increments in the three directions are compared to assess anisotropy.
Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion
Baumert, H Z
2013-01-01
This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes (vortex filaments, excitations) as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations and with Landau's two-fluid theory of liquid helium. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the turbulent kinetic energy to follow t −1 . With an adiabatic wall condition it predicts the logarithmic law with von Kármán's constant as 1/√(2 π)= 0.399. Likewise rotating couples form localized dissipative patches almost at rest (→ intermittency) wherein under local quasi-steady conditions the spectrum evolves into an ‘Apollonian gear’ as discussed first by Herrmann (1990 Correlation and Connectivity (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 108–20). Dissipation happens exclusively at scale zero and at finite scales this system is frictionless and reminds of Prigogine's (1947 Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles (Liege: Desoer) p 143) law of minimum (here: zero) entropy production. The theory predicts further the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum (a Kolmogorov constant) as 1/3 (4 π) 2/3 =1.802, well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and direct numerical simulation results. (paper)
Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion
Baumert, H. Z.
2013-07-01
This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes (vortex filaments, excitations) as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations and with Landau's two-fluid theory of liquid helium. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the turbulent kinetic energy to follow t-1. With an adiabatic wall condition it predicts the logarithmic law with von Kármán's constant as 1/\\sqrt {2\\,\\pi }= 0.399 . Likewise rotating couples form localized dissipative patches almost at rest (→ intermittency) wherein under local quasi-steady conditions the spectrum evolves into an ‘Apollonian gear’ as discussed first by Herrmann (1990 Correlation and Connectivity (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 108-20). Dissipation happens exclusively at scale zero and at finite scales this system is frictionless and reminds of Prigogine's (1947 Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles (Liege: Desoer) p 143) law of minimum (here: zero) entropy production. The theory predicts further the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum (a Kolmogorov constant) as \\frac {1}{3}(4\\,\\pi )^{2/3}=1.802 , well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and direct numerical simulation results.
Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas
S. Galtier
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.
Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods
Wu, Xiaohua
2017-01-01
Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.
Ristorcelli, J. R.
1995-01-01
The mathematical consequences of a few simple scaling assumptions about the effects of compressibility are explored using a simple singular perturbation idea and the methods of statistical fluid mechanics. Representations for the pressure-dilation and dilatational dissipation covariances appearing in single-point moment closures for compressible turbulence are obtained. While the results are expressed in the context of a second-order statistical closure they provide some interesting and very clear physical metaphors for the effects of compressibility that have not been seen using more traditional linear stability methods. In the limit of homogeneous turbulence with quasi-normal large-scales the expressions derived are - in the low turbulent Mach number limit - asymptotically exact. The expressions obtained are functions of the rate of change of the turbulence energy, its correlation length scale, and the relative time scale of the cascade rate. The expressions for the dilatational covariances contain constants which have a precise and definite physical significance; they are related to various integrals of the longitudinal velocity correlation. The pressure-dilation covariance is found to be a nonequilibrium phenomena related to the time rate of change of the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the turbulence. Also of interest is the fact that the representation for the dilatational dissipation in turbulence, with or without shear, features a dependence on the Reynolds number. This article is a documentation of an analytical investigation of the implications of a pseudo-sound theory for the effects of compressibility.
Multifractal spectra in shear flows
Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.
1989-01-01
Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.
Experimental studies of occupation times in turbulent flows
Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.
2003-01-01
The motion of passively convected particles in turbulent flows is studied experimentally in approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, generated in water by two moving grids. The simultaneous trajectories of many small passively convected, neutrally buoyant, polystyrene particles...
Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-07-03
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.
Application of PDF methods to compressible turbulent flows
Delarue, B. J.; Pope, S. B.
1997-09-01
A particle method applying the probability density function (PDF) approach to turbulent compressible flows is presented. The method is applied to several turbulent flows, including the compressible mixing layer, and good agreement is obtained with experimental data. The PDF equation is solved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo method. To accurately account for the effects of compressibility on the flow, the velocity PDF formulation is extended to include thermodynamic variables such as the pressure and the internal energy. The mean pressure, the determination of which has been the object of active research over the last few years, is obtained directly from the particle properties. It is therefore not necessary to link the PDF solver with a finite-volume type solver. The stochastic differential equations (SDE) which model the evolution of particle properties are based on existing second-order closures for compressible turbulence, limited in application to low turbulent Mach number flows. Tests are conducted in decaying isotropic turbulence to compare the performances of the PDF method with the Reynolds-stress closures from which it is derived, and in homogeneous shear flows, at which stage comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data is conducted. The model is then applied to the plane compressible mixing layer, reproducing the well-known decrease in the spreading rate with increasing compressibility. It must be emphasized that the goal of this paper is not as much to assess the performance of models of compressibility effects, as it is to present an innovative and consistent PDF formulation designed for turbulent inhomogeneous compressible flows, with the aim of extending it further to deal with supersonic reacting flows.
Sullivan, J.P.; Houze, R.N.; Buenger, D.E.; Theofanous, T.G.
1981-01-01
Hot film Anemometry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry have been employed in this work to study the turbulence characteristics of Bubbly and Stratified two-phase flows, respectively. Extensive consistency checks were made to establish the reliability and hence the utility of these experimental techniques for the measurement of turbulence in two-phase flows. Buoyancy-driven turbulence in vertical bubbly flows has been identified experimentally and correlated in terms of a shear velocity superposition approach. This approach provides a criterion for the demarcation of the buoyancy-driven turbulence region from the wall shear-generated turbulence region. Our data confirm the roughly isotropic behavior expected for buoyancy-driven turbulence. Upgrading of our experimental system will permit investigations of the wall-shear dominated regime (i.e., isotropy, superposition approach, etc.). The stratified flow data demonstrate clearly that the maximum in the mean velocity profile does not coincide with the zero shear plane, indicating the existence of a negative eddy viscosity region. Previous studies do not take into account this difference and thus they yield incorrect friction factor data in addition to certain puzzling behavior in the upper wall region. The conditioned turbulence data in the wavy region indicate interesting trends and that an appropriate normalization of intensities must take into account the shear velocity at the interfacial (wavy) region
Sudden Relaminarization and Lifetimes in Forced Isotropic Turbulence.
Linkmann, Moritz F; Morozov, Alexander
2015-09-25
We demonstrate an unexpected connection between isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence forced at large scales at moderate Reynolds numbers and observe sudden transitions from a chaotic dynamics to a spatially simple flow, analogous to the laminar state in wall bounded shear flows. We find that the survival probabilities of turbulence are exponential and the typical lifetimes increase superexponentially with the Reynolds number. Our results suggest that both isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows qualitatively share the same phase-space dynamics.
Predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters
Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.
2002-01-01
With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isot......With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous...
Power curve report - with turbulence intensity normalization
Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn; Vesth, Allan
, additional shear and turbulence intensitity filters are applied on the measured data. Secondly, the method for normalization to a given reference turbulence intensity level (as described in Annex M of the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [3]) is applied. The measurements have been performed using DTU...
Imaizumi, Ryota; Morikawa, Koichi; Higuchi, Masamori; Saito, Takayuki
2009-01-01
In this study, the interaction between a bubble swarm and homogeneous isotropic turbulence was experimentally investigated. The objective is to clarify the turbulence modulation induced by interaction between the bubble swarm and the homogeneous isotropic turbulence without mean flow. In order to generate simultaneously ideally homogeneous isotropic turbulence and a sufficiently controlled bubble swarm, we employed both oscillating grid and bubble generators equipped with audio speakers. First, the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was formed by operating the oscillating grid cylindrical acrylic pipe (height: 600 mm, inner diameter: 149 mm) filled with ion-exchanged and degassed water. Second, we stopped the oscillating-grid in arbitrary time after the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was achieved. A few moments later, the controlled bubble swarm (number of bubbles: 3, average equivalent diameter of bubble: 3 mm, bubble Reynolds number: 859, Weber number: 3.48) was launched into the decaying turbulence described above, using the bubble generators. The bubble formation, bubble size and bubble-launch timing are controlled arbitrarily and precisely by this device. In this study, we conducted the following experiments: 1) measurement of the motion of bubbles in rest water and oscillating grid turbulence via high-speed visualization, 2) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in rest water via PIV system with LIF method, 3) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in oscillating-grid turbulence via PIV system with LIF method. In the vitalization of the liquid-phase motion of both experiments, two high speed video cameras were employed in order to simultaneously film large- and small-scale interrogation areas. The liquid-phase ambient turbulence hastened the change of the bubble motion from zigzag mode to spiral mode. The interaction between the bubble swarm and liquid-phase turbulence increased decay-rate of the turbulence. (author)
Premixed autoignition in compressible turbulence
Konduri, Aditya; Kolla, Hemanth; Krisman, Alexander; Chen, Jacqueline
2016-11-01
Prediction of chemical ignition delay in an autoignition process is critical in combustion systems like compression ignition engines and gas turbines. Often, ignition delay times measured in simple homogeneous experiments or homogeneous calculations are not representative of actual autoignition processes in complex turbulent flows. This is due the presence of turbulent mixing which results in fluctuations in thermodynamic properties as well as chemical composition. In the present study the effect of fluctuations of thermodynamic variables on the ignition delay is quantified with direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence. A premixed syngas-air mixture is used to remove the effects of inhomogeneity in the chemical composition. Preliminary results show a significant spatial variation in the ignition delay time. We analyze the topology of autoignition kernels and identify the influence of extreme events resulting from compressibility and intermittency. The dependence of ignition delay time on Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers is also quantified. Supported by Basic Energy Sciences, Dept of Energy, United States.
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Biskamp, Dieter
2003-01-01
This book presents an introduction to, and modern account of, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, an active field both in general turbulence theory and in various areas of astrophysics. The book starts by introducing the MHD equations, certain useful approximations and the transition to turbulence. The second part of the book covers incompressible MHD turbulence, the macroscopic aspects connected with the different self-organization processes, the phenomenology of the turbulence spectra, two-point closure theory, and intermittency. The third considers two-dimensional turbulence and compressi
Statistical Model of Extreme Shear
Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose
2004-01-01
In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....
Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer
Tagesson, Torbern
2012-04-01
In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to ∼3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect of
Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer
Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)
2012-04-15
In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to {approx}3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect
Understanding Transition to Turbulence in Shear Layers.
1983-05-01
manuscript with the S formalism, it was sidetra.ked for several years as not cor- rectly posed mathematically. At this writing, emotional preferences O... KELTNER , G. (1973): Spatial stability of incompressible two-dimensional Gaussian wake in steady viscous flow, Phys. Fluids, v 16, 1368-1370
Turbulent jet in confined counterflow
framework for presenting the results of the flowfield and jet penetration length. ... A turbulent jet is a basic free shear flow and has received research attention (see, .... MBE76 identify this to be a transitional zone and for. √ .... higher return flow and also higher velocity from counterflow due to a narrower gap thus leading.
Donnelly, R.J.
1988-01-01
Most flows of fluids, in nature and in technology, are turbulent. Since much of the energy expended by machines and devices that involve fluid flows is spent in overcoming drag caused by turbulence, there is a strong motivation to understand the phenomena. Surprisingly, the peculiar, quantum-mechanical form of turbulence that can form in superfluid helium may turn out to be much simpler to understand that the classical turbulence that forms in normal fluids. It now seems that the study of superfluid turbulence may provide simplified model systems for studying some forms of classical turbulence. There are also practical motivations for studying superfluid turbulence. For example, superfuid helium is often used as a coolant in superconducting machinery. Superfluid turbulence is the primary impediment to the transfer of heat by superfluid helium; an understanding of the phenomena may make it possible to design more efficient methods of refrigeration for superconducting devices. 8 figs
Particle Settling in Low Energy Turbulence
Allen, Rachel; MacVean, Lissa; Tse, Ian; Mazzaro, Laura; Stacey, Mark; Variano, Evan
2014-11-01
Particle settling velocities can be altered by turbulence. In turbulence, dense particles may get trapped in convergent flow regions, and falling particles may be swept towards the downward side of turbulent eddies, resulting in enhanced settling velocities. The degree of velocity enhancement may depend on the Stokes number, the Rouse number, and the turbulent Reynolds number. In a homogeneous, isotropic turbulence tank, we tested the effects of particle size and type, suspended sediment concentration, and level of turbulence on the settling velocities of particles typically found in muddy estuaries. Two Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs), separated vertically, measured turbulent velocities and suspended sediment concentrations, which yield condition dependent settling velocities, via ∂/á C ñ ∂ t = -∂/∂ z (ws á C ñ + á w ' C ' ñ) . These results are pertinent to fine sediment transport in estuaries, where high concentrations of suspended material are transported and impacted by low energy turbulence.
Prediction of free turbulent mixing using a turbulent kinetic energy method
Harsha, P. T.
1973-01-01
Free turbulent mixing of two-dimensional and axisymmetric one- and two-stream flows is analyzed by a relatively simple turbulent kinetic energy method. This method incorporates a linear relationship between the turbulent shear and the turbulent kinetic energy and an algebraic relationship for the length scale appearing in the turbulent kinetic energy equation. Good results are obtained for a wide variety of flows. The technique is shown to be especially applicable to flows with heat and mass transfer, for which nonunity Prandtl and Schmidt numbers may be assumed.
Mathematical model for the calculation of internal turbulent flow
Nicolau, V. de P.; Valle Pereira Filho, H. do
1981-01-01
The Navier-Stokes and the turbulent kinetic energy equations for the incompressible, turbulent and fully developed pipe flow, were solved by a finite difference procedure. The distributions of the mean velocity, turbulent shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy were obtained at different Reynolds numbers. Those numerical results were compared with experimental data and the agreement was good in whole cross section of the flow. (Author) [pt
Anisotropy of turbulence in wind turbine wakes
Gomez-Elvira, Rafael [Comision Nacional de Energia (Spain); Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio; Manuel, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Julio [Departamento de Mecanica, ETSII, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2005-10-01
This work is mainly dedicated to the study of non-isotropic characteristics of turbulence in wind turbine wakes, specifically the shear layer of the near wake. A calculation method based on an explicit algebraic model for the components of the turbulent stress tensor is proposed, and the results are found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results. Analytical expressions for the estimation of an upper limit of the global turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the individual contributions of each diagonal term in the turbulent stress tensor are proposed. Their predictions are compared with experimental results.
Barre, S.; Bonnet, J.P.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We performed a careful experiment on a highly compressible mixing layer. • We validated the most recent DNS with the present results. • We discuss some aspects of the thermodynamics of the turbulent flow. • We performed a comparison between a computed and a measured turbulent kinetic energy budget. - Abstract: A compressible supersonic mixing layer at convective Mach number (Mc) equal to 1 has been studied experimentally in a dual stream supersonic/subsonic wind-tunnel. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (L.D.V.) measurements were performed making possible a full estimation of the mean and turbulent 3D velocity fields in the mixing layer. The Reynolds stress tensor was described. In particular, some anisotropy coefficients were obtained. It appears that the structure of the Reynolds tensor is almost not affected by compressibility at least up to Mc = 1. The turbulent kinetic energy budget was also experimentally estimated. Reynolds analogies assumptions were used to obtain density/velocity correlations in order to build the turbulent kinetic energy budget from LDV measurements. Results have been compared to other experimental and numerical results. Compressibility effects on the turbulent kinetic energy budget have been detected and commented. A study about thermodynamics flow properties was also performed using most recent DNS results experimentally validated by the present data. A non-dimensional number is then introduced in order to quantify the real effect of pressure fluctuations on the thermodynamics quantities fluctuations
Turbulent kinetic energy equation and free mixing
Morel, T.; Torda, T. P.; Bradshaw, P.
1973-01-01
Calculation of free shear flows was carried out to investigate the usefulness of several concepts which were previously successfully applied to wall flows. The method belongs to the class of differential approaches. The turbulence is taken into account by the introduction of one additional partial differential equation, the transport equation for the turbulent shear stress. The structure of turbulence is modeled after Bradshaw et al. This model was used successfully in boundary layers and its applicability to other flows is demonstrated. The work reported differs substantially from that of an earlier attempt to use this approach for calculation of free flows. The most important difference is that the region around the center line is treated by invoking the interaction hypothesis (concerning the structure of turbulence in the regions separated by the velocity extrema). The compressibility effects on shear layer spreading at low and moderate Mach numbers were investigated. In the absence of detailed experiments in free flows, the evidence from boundary layers that at low Mach numbers the structure of turbulence is unaffected by the compressibility was relied on. The present model was tested over a range of self-preserving and developing flows including pressure gradients using identical empirical input. The dependence of the structure of turbulence on the spreading rate of the shear layer was established.
Wind effect in turbulence parametrization
Colombini, M.; Stocchino, A.
2005-09-01
The action of wind blowing over a closed basin ultimately results in a steady shear-induced circulation pattern and in a leeward rising of the free surface—and a corresponding windward lowering—known as wind set-up. If the horizontal dimensions of the basin are large with respect to the average flow depth, the occurrence of local quasi-equilibrium conditions can be expected, i.e. the flow can be assumed to be locally driven only by the wind stress and by the opposing free surface gradient due to set-up. This wind-induced flow configuration shows a strong similarity with turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow, the one dimensional flow between parallel plates generated by the simultaneous action of a constant pressure gradient and of the shear induced by the relative motion of the plates. A two-equation turbulence closure is then employed to perform a numerical study of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows for different values of the ratio of the shear stresses at the two walls. The resulting eddy viscosity vertical distributions are analyzed in order to devise analytical profiles of eddy viscosity that account for the effect of wind. The results of this study, beside allowing for a physical insight on the turbulence process of this class of flows, will allow for a more accurate description of the wind effect to be included in the formulation of quasi-3D and 3D models of lagoon hydrodynamics.
E x B shearing rate in quasi-symmetric plasmas
Hahm, T.S.
1997-01-01
The suppression of turbulence by the E x B shear is studied in systems with quasi-symmetry using the nonlinear analysis of eddy decorrelation previously utilized in finite aspect ratio tokamak plasmas. The analytically derived E x B shearing rate which contains the relevant geometric dependence can be used for quantitative assessment of the fluctuation suppression in stellarators with quasi-symmetry
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2009-01-01
This book introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. For the computation of turbulent compressible flows, current methods of averaging and filtering are presented so that the reader is exposed to a consistent development of applicable equation sets for both the mean or resolved fields as well as the transport equations for the turbulent stress field. For the measurement of turbulent compressible flows, current techniques ranging from hot-wire anemometry to PIV are evaluated and limitations assessed. Characterizing dynamic features of free shear flows, including jets, mixing layers and wakes, and wall-bounded flows, including shock-turbulence and shock boundary-layer interactions, obtained from computations, experiments and simulations are discussed. Key features: * Describes prediction methodologies in...
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2013-01-01
Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...
Parametric instability and wave turbulence driven by tidal excitation of internal waves
Le Reun, Thomas; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael
2018-04-01
We investigate the stability of stratified fluid layers undergoing homogeneous and periodic tidal deformation. We first introduce a local model which allows to study velocity and buoyancy fluctuations in a Lagrangian domain periodically stretched and sheared by the tidal base flow. While keeping the key physical ingredients only, such a model is efficient to simulate planetary regimes where tidal amplitudes and dissipation are small. With this model, we prove that tidal flows are able to drive parametric subharmonic resonances of internal waves, in a way reminiscent of the elliptical instability in rotating fluids. The growth rates computed via Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are in very good agreement with WKB analysis and Floquet theory. We also investigate the turbulence driven by this instability mechanism. With spatio-temporal analysis, we show that it is a weak internal wave turbulence occurring at small Froude and buoyancy Reynolds numbers. When the gap between the excitation and the Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequencies is increased, the frequency spectrum of this wave turbulence displays a -2 power law reminiscent of the high-frequency branch of the Garett and Munk spectrum (Garrett & Munk 1979) which has been measured in the oceans. In addition, we find that the mixing efficiency is altered compared to what is computed in the context of DNS of stratified turbulence excited at small Froude and large buoyancy Reynolds numbers and is consistent with a superposition of waves.
The structure of turbulent jets, vortices and boundary layer: laboratory and field observations
Sekula, E.; Redondo, J.M.
2008-01-01
The main aim of this work is research, understand and describe key aspects of the turbulent jets and effects connected with them such as boundary layer interactions on the effect of a 2D geometry. Work is based principally on experiments but there are also some comparisons between experimental and field results. A series of experiments have been performed consisting in detailed turbulent measurements of the 3 velocity components to understand the processes of interaction that lead to mixing and mass transport between boundaries and free shear layers. The turbulent wall jet configuration occurs often in environmental and industrial processes, but here we apply the laboratory experiments as a tool to understand jet/boundary interactions in the environment. We compare the structure of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images of coastal jets and vortices and experimental jets (plumes) images searching for the relationship between these two kinds of jets at very different Reynolds numbers taking advantage of the self-similarity of the processes. In order to investigate the structure of ocean surface detected jets (SAR) and vortices near the coast, we compare wall and boundary effects on the structure of turbulent jets (3D and 2D) which are non-homogeneous, developing multifractal and spectral techniques useful for environmental monitoring in space.
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
Horton, W.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates
Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.
2011-07-01
Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)
Giarola, Diana; Capuani, Domenico; Bigoni, Davide
2018-03-01
A shear band of finite length, formed inside a ductile material at a certain stage of a continued homogeneous strain, provides a dynamic perturbation to an incident wave field, which strongly influences the dynamics of the material and affects its path to failure. The investigation of this perturbation is presented for a ductile metal, with reference to the incremental mechanics of a material obeying the J2-deformation theory of plasticity (a special form of prestressed, elastic, anisotropic, and incompressible solid). The treatment originates from the derivation of integral representations relating the incremental mechanical fields at every point of the medium to the incremental displacement jump across the shear band faces, generated by an impinging wave. The boundary integral equations (under the plane strain assumption) are numerically approached through a collocation technique, which keeps into account the singularity at the shear band tips and permits the analysis of an incident wave impinging a shear band. It is shown that the presence of the shear band induces a resonance, visible in the incremental displacement field and in the stress intensity factor at the shear band tips, which promotes shear band growth. Moreover, the waves scattered by the shear band are shown to generate a fine texture of vibrations, parallel to the shear band line and propagating at a long distance from it, but leaving a sort of conical shadow zone, which emanates from the tips of the shear band.
Program to determine space vehicle response to wind turbulence
Wilkening, H. D.
1972-01-01
Computer program was developed as prelaunch wind monitoring tool for Saturn 5 vehicle. Program accounts for characteristic wind changes including turbulence power spectral density, wind shear, peak wind velocity, altitude, and wind direction using stored variational statistics.
Bellan, J.; Okongo, N.
2000-01-01
A study of emerging turbulent scales entropy production is conducted for a supercritical shear layer as a precursor to the eventual modeling of Subgrid Scales (from a turbulent state) leading to Large Eddy Simulations.
Edge Sheared Flows and Blob Dynamics
Myra, J.; D' Ippolito, D.; Russell, D., E-mail: jrmyra@lodestar.com [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder (United States); Davis, W. M.; Zweben, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Terry, J.; LaBombard, B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)
2012-09-15
Full text: A study of sheared flows in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) and their interaction with blob-filaments is presented. Edge sheared flows are believed to be important for the L-H, and H-L transitions. Blob generation and dynamics impacts both the (near-separatrix) scrape-off-layer (SOL) width critical for power handling in the divertor, and the interaction of plasma in the far SOL with plasma-facing components. These topics are critical for ITER and future devices. A fluid-based 2D curvature-interchange model embedded in the SOLT code is employed to study these issues. Sheared binormal flows both regulate the power flux crossing the separatrix and control the character of emitted turbulence structures such as blob-filaments. At a critical power level (depending on parameters) the laminar flows containing intermittent, but bound, structures give way to full-blown blob emissions signifying a transition from quasi-diffusive to convective transport. In order to diagnose sheared flows in experiments and assess their interaction with blobs, a blob-tracking algorithm has been developed and applied to both NSTX and Alcator C-Mod data. Blob motion and ellipticity can be affected by sheared flows, and are diagnosed and compared with seeded blob simulations. A picture of the interaction of blobs and sheared flows is emerging from advances in the theory and simulation of edge turbulence, combined with ever-improving capabilities for edge diagnostics and their analysis. (author)
Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J.
2010-01-01
Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.
Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence
Mynick, H.E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A.H.
2009-01-01
Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes
PDF turbulence modeling and DNS
Hsu, A. T.
1992-01-01
The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in probability density function (pdf). A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models. The effect of Coriolis forces on compressible homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical method used in this study is an eight order compact difference scheme. Contrary to the conclusions reached by previous DNS studies on incompressible isotropic turbulence, the present results show that the Coriolis force increases the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and that anisotropy develops as the Coriolis force increases. The Taylor-Proudman theory does apply since the derivatives in the direction of the rotation axis vanishes rapidly. A closer analysis reveals that the dissipation rate of the incompressible component of the turbulent kinetic energy indeed decreases with a higher rotation rate, consistent with incompressible flow simulations (Bardina), while the dissipation rate of the compressible part increases; the net gain is positive. Inertial waves are observed in the simulation results.
Results of shear studies with 241-AY-101 sludge
WARRANT, R.W.
2001-01-01
The Department of Energy's Tanks Focus Area (TFA) authorized a project to study the effect of shear on the settling properties of high-level waste sludge to support retrieval programs. A series of settling studies was conducted on a composite sample of tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101) material. Comparisons were made with duplicate samples that were sheared with a tissue homogenizer and allowed to settle. Aliquots of sheared and unsheared settled solids were submitted for chemical and radiological analyses. There are five major conclusions from the study that apply to AY-101 sludge: (1) Sludge settling rates are detectably decreased after shearing of particles by means of a tissue homogenizer. A significant decrease in the settling rates was measured after 2 minutes of shearing. A smaller additional decrease in the settling rates was observed after an additional 10 minutes of shearing. (2) Sodium and Cesium appear to be present in both the liquid and solid phases of the composite sample. (3) The shearing of the solids does not appear to significantly change the distribution of the radionuclides, ( 241 Am, 90 Sr, Total Alpha, or other radionuclides), within the solids. (4) The mean particle diameter decreases after shearing with the tissue homogenizer and affects the settling rate in proportion to the square of the particle diameter. (5) The sonication of the unsheared particles produces a similar particle size reduction to that of shearing with a tissue homogenizer. It is difficult to quantitatively compare the shear produced by a mixer pump installed in a double-shell tank with that produced by the tissue homogenizer in the laboratory. On a qualitative basis, the mixing pump would be expected to have less mechanical and more hydraulic shearing effect than the tissue homogenizer. Since the particle size distribution studies indicate that (for the AY-101 solids) the breaking up of particle aggregates is the main means of particle size reduction, then the hydraulic shearing
Hanratty, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)
Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults
Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.
2017-11-01
Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.
Imaging shear strength along subduction faults
Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.
2017-01-01
Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.
A weakened cascade model for turbulence in astrophysical plasmas
Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.
2011-01-01
A refined cascade model for kinetic turbulence in weakly collisional astrophysical plasmas is presented that includes both the transition between weak and strong turbulence and the effect of nonlocal interactions on the nonlinear transfer of energy. The model describes the transition between weak and strong MHD turbulence and the complementary transition from strong kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence to weak dissipating KAW turbulence, a new regime of weak turbulence in which the effects of shearing by large scale motions and kinetic dissipation play an important role. The inclusion of the effect of nonlocal motions on the nonlinear energy cascade rate in the dissipation range, specifically the shearing by large-scale motions, is proposed to explain the nearly power-law energy spectra observed in the dissipation range of both kinetic numerical simulations and solar wind observations.
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2005-01-01
Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.
The problem of clear air turbulence: Changing perspectives in the ...
observation systems, in most cases, aircraft are able to steer clear of regions of adverse ... that weather is a predominant cause of aviation accidents, accounting for ... clear air turbulence, wind shear and wake-vortex effects. Here .... ters a region of turbulence, the pilot informs the ground control about the location and extent.
Mechanical Homogenization Increases Bacterial Homogeneity in Sputum
Stokell, Joshua R.; Khan, Ammad
2014-01-01
Sputum obtained from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly viscous and often heterogeneous in bacterial distribution. Adding dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard method for liquefaction prior to processing sputum for molecular detection assays. To determine if DTT treatment homogenizes the bacterial distribution within sputum, we measured the difference in mean total bacterial abundance and abundance of Burkholderia multivorans between aliquots of DTT-treated sputum samples with and without a mechanical homogenization (MH) step using a high-speed dispersing element. Additionally, we measured the effect of MH on bacterial abundance. We found a significant difference between the mean bacterial abundances in aliquots that were subjected to only DTT treatment and those of the aliquots which included an MH step (all bacteria, P = 0.04; B. multivorans, P = 0.05). There was no significant effect of MH on bacterial abundance in sputum. Although our results are from a single CF patient, they indicate that mechanical homogenization increases the homogeneity of bacteria in sputum. PMID:24759710
Functionality and homogeneity.
2011-01-01
Functionality and homogeneity are two of the five Sustainable Safety principles. The functionality principle aims for roads to have but one exclusive function and distinguishes between traffic function (flow) and access function (residence). The homogeneity principle aims at differences in mass,
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Starch-zein beldns formed by shear flow
Habeych Narvaez, E.A.; Dekkers, B.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.
2008-01-01
A newly in-house developed shearing device was used to explore the formation of new types of microstructures in concentrated starch¿zein blends. The device allowed processing of the biopolymer blends under homogeneous, simple shear flow conditions. Water and glycerol were added as plasticizers.
Homogenization of Mammalian Cells.
de Araújo, Mariana E G; Lamberti, Giorgia; Huber, Lukas A
2015-11-02
Homogenization is the name given to the methodological steps necessary for releasing organelles and other cellular constituents as a free suspension of intact individual components. Most homogenization procedures used for mammalian cells (e.g., cavitation pump and Dounce homogenizer) rely on mechanical force to break the plasma membrane and may be supplemented with osmotic or temperature alterations to facilitate membrane disruption. In this protocol, we describe a syringe-based homogenization method that does not require specialized equipment, is easy to handle, and gives reproducible results. The method may be adapted for cells that require hypotonic shock before homogenization. We routinely use it as part of our workflow to isolate endocytic organelles from mammalian cells. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Patterson, G.K.; Zakin, J.L.
1983-01-01
Investigations related to the study of boundary layers are discussed, taking into account the simulation of turbulent shear flows, turbulent shear flows behind two-dimensional obstacles placed on a plane boundary, the development of turbulent boundary layers in open channel flows, the turbulent kinetic energy balance in a conical diffuser, strong adverse pressure gradient effects on supersonic turbulent boundary layers, the effects of upstream boundary layer thickness upon flow past a backward-facing step, and a turbulent wall jet issued from a Coanda nozzle. Other topics considered are concerned with scalar transport and combustion, particulate flows, experimental techniques and signal processing, thermal anemometry, complient surface and polymer effects, the coherent structure of turbulence, laser Doppler anemometry, and the transition to turbulence. Attention is given to a pattern recognition study of coherent motion in a transpired turbulent boundary layer, investigations of flow visualization techniques for detecting turbulent bursts, and the frequency response of cold wires
Advancements in engineering turbulence modeling
Shih, T.-H.
1991-01-01
Some new developments in two-equation models and second order closure models are presented. Two-equation models (k-epsilon models) have been widely used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for engineering problems. Most of low-Reynolds number two-equation models contain some wall-distance damping functions to account for the effect of wall on turbulence. However, this often causes the confusion and difficulties in computing flows with complex geometry and also needs an ad hoc treatment near the separation and reattachment points. A set of modified two-equation models is proposed to remove the aforementioned shortcomings. The calculations using various two-equation models are compared with direct numerical simulations of channel flow and flat boundary layers. Development of a second order closure model is also discussed with emphasis on the modeling of pressure related correlation terms and dissipation rates in the second moment equations. All the existing models poorly predict the normal stresses near the wall and fail to predict the 3-D effect of mean flow on the turbulence (e.g. decrease in the shear stress caused by the cross flow in the boundary layer). The newly developed second order near-wall turbulence model is described and is capable of capturing the near-wall behavior of turbulence as well as the effect of 3-D mean flow on the turbulence.
Park, G. I.; Wallace, J.; Wu, X.; Moin, P.
2010-11-01
Using a recent DNS of a flat-plate boundary layer, statistics of turbulence in transition at Reθ= 500 where spots merge (distributions of the mean velocity, rms velocity and vorticity fluctuations, Reynolds shear stress, kinetic energy production and dissipation rates and enstrophy) have been compared to these statistics for the developed boundary layer turbulence at Reθ= 1850. When the distributions in the transitional region, determined in narrow planes 0.03 Reθ wide, exclude regions and times when the flow is not turbulent, they closely resemble those in the developed turbulent state at the higher Reynolds number, especially in the buffer and sublayers. The skin friction coefficient, determined in this conditional manner in the transitional flow is, of course, much larger than that obtained by including both turbulent and non-turbulent information there, and is consistent with a value obtained by extrapolating from the developed turbulent region. We are attempting to perform this data analysis even further upstream in the transitioning flow at Reθ= 300 where the turbulent spots are individuated. These results add further evidence to support the view that the structure of a developed turbulent boundary layer is little different from its structure in its embryonic form in turbulent spots. *CTR 2010 Summer Program research.
Flux-driven simulations of turbulence collapse
Park, G. Y.; Kim, S. S.; Jhang, Hogun; Rhee, T. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); CASS and Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
2015-03-15
Using three-dimensional nonlinear simulations of tokamak turbulence, we show that an edge transport barrier (ETB) forms naturally once input power exceeds a threshold value. Profiles, turbulence-driven flows, and neoclassical coefficients are evolved self-consistently. A slow power ramp-up simulation shows that ETB transition is triggered by the turbulence-driven flows via an intermediate phase which involves coherent oscillation of turbulence intensity and E×B flow shear. A novel observation of the evolution is that the turbulence collapses and the ETB transition begins when R{sub T} > 1 at t = t{sub R} (R{sub T}: normalized Reynolds power), while the conventional transition criterion (ω{sub E×B}>γ{sub lin} where ω{sub E×B} denotes mean flow shear) is satisfied only after t = t{sub C} ( >t{sub R}), when the mean flow shear grows due to positive feedback.
Drury, L.O.; Stewart, J.M.
1976-01-01
A generalization of a transformation due to Kurskov and Ozernoi is used to rewrite the usual equations governing subsonic turbulence in Robertson-Walker cosmological models as Navier-Stokes equations with a time-dependent viscosity. This paper first rederives some well-known results in a very simple way by means of this transformation. The main result however is that the establishment of a Kolmogorov spectrum at recombination appears to be incompatible with subsonic turbulence. The conditions after recombination are also discussed briefly. (author)
Theoretical and numerical study of highly anisotropic turbulent flows
Biferale, L.; Daumont, I.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.
2004-01-01
We present a detailed numerical study of anisotropic statistical fluctuations in stationary, homogeneous turbulent flows. We address both problems of intermittency in anisotropic sectors, and the relative importance of isotropic and anisotropic fluctuations at different scales on a direct numerical
Laurence, D.
1997-01-01
The k-ε model and Reynolds stress transport model are set out in a few words. Limitations of models are shown, particularly for turbulence generation in the turbulent viscosity context, and, more generally, the uncertainties and miscellaneous changes made to the dissipation equation. The performances of models are then compared, using results of the three latest ERCOFTA/IAHR workshops. It is shown that algebraic constraints which can be derived exactly by assuming asymptotic limits (rapid distortion, homogeneous shear at infinite time, 2D turbulence) have inhibited a better tuning of the models for real life flow where these limits are not encountered. A more pragmatic approach could be taken by allowing the constants to be functions of invariant parameters. But these functions, making the models non-linear, can lead to bifurcations or instability. One essential parameter is the distance to the wall, which recent models have tried to eliminate, although this parameter appears indirectly through the Poisson equation for the fluctuating pressure. A possible indirect model is the elliptic relaxation. Progress was recently achieved in near-wall low Re modelling, but these advances do not always result in benefits to industry since only the 'wall function' approaches can be used in the high Re, 3D flows that we need to study. With the knowledge gained from near-wall modelling, it might be profitable to revisit the 'wall functions' devised 20 years ago. (author)
The SPH homogeneization method
Kavenoky, Alain
1978-01-01
The homogeneization of a uniform lattice is a rather well understood topic while difficult problems arise if the lattice becomes irregular. The SPH homogeneization method is an attempt to generate homogeneized cross sections for an irregular lattice. Section 1 summarizes the treatment of an isolated cylindrical cell with an entering surface current (in one velocity theory); Section 2 is devoted to the extension of the SPH method to assembly problems. Finally Section 3 presents the generalisation to general multigroup problems. Numerical results are obtained for a PXR rod bundle assembly in Section 4
Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses
Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf
2011-01-01
Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...
Dynamical eigenfunction decomposition of turbulent channel flow
Ball, K. S.; Sirovich, L.; Keefe, L. R.
1991-01-01
The results of an analysis of low-Reynolds-number turbulent channel flow based on the Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion are presented. The turbulent flow field is generated by a direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations at a Reynolds number Re(tau) = 80 (based on the wall shear velocity and channel half-width). The K-L procedure is then applied to determine the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for this flow. The random coefficients of the K-L expansion are subsequently found by projecting the numerical flow field onto these eigenfunctions. The resulting expansion captures 90 percent of the turbulent energy with significantly fewer modes than the original trigonometric expansion. The eigenfunctions, which appear either as rolls or shearing motions, possess viscous boundary layers at the walls and are much richer in harmonics than the original basis functions.
Garcia-Cortes, I.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Hidalgo, C.
1992-01-01
The structure of the electrostatic and magnetic turbulence changes in the proximity of the naturally velocity shear layer in the TJ-I tokamak. A decorrelation in the broad-band magnetic fluctuations and a decreasing in the density fluctuation levels have been observed in the proximity (scrape-off layer side) of the shear layer. The results are interpreted in terms of turbulence characteristics modified by sheared poloidal flows or/and magnetic configuration. (author) 8 fig. 16 ref
Ernst, D.R.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.
2001-01-01
Turbulence suppression by radial electric field shear (E r ) is shown to be important in the enhanced confinement of TFTR supershot plasmas. Simulations of supershot ion temperature profiles are performed using an existing parameterization of transport due to toroidal ion temperature gradient modes, extended to include suppression by E r shear. New spectroscopic measurements of E r differ significantly from prior neoclassical estimates. Supershot temperature profiles appear to be consistent with a criterion describing near-complete turbulence suppression by intrinsically generated E r shear. Helium spoiling and xenon puffing experiments are simulated to illustrate the role of E r shear in the confinement changes observed. (author)
Ernst, D.R.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.
1999-01-01
Turbulence suppression by radial electric field shear (E r ) is shown to be important in the enhanced confinement of TFTR supershot plasmas. Simulations of supershot ion temperature profiles are performed using an existing parameterization of transport due to toroidal ion temperature gradient modes, extended to include suppression by E r shear. New spectroscopic measurements of E r differ significantly from prior neoclassical estimates. Supershot temperature profiles appear to be consistent with a criterion describing near-complete turbulence suppression by intrinsically generated E r shear. Helium spoiling and xenon puffing experiments are simulated to illustrate the role of E r shear in the confinement changes observed. (author)
Kahn, F.D.
1983-01-01
A relativistic plasma flow can explain many of the observations on the one-sided jets, which are associated with radio sources that show superluminal motions in their cores. The pressure from the ambient medium will communicate across the jet in a relatively short distance, typically 30 kpc. The friction between the jet and the external medium then makes the flow go turbulent. As a result the jet dissipates energy and will be brought to rest within a few hundred kpc, if it does not strike an obstacle before. The mean flow in the jet is strongly sheared and stretches the lines of force of any magnetic field frozen into the plasma. The dominant field direction, as seen from the rest frame of the plasma, is therefore parallel to the length of the jet. Polarization measurements have shown that this is in fact the case. (author)
Schäfer, L.; Dierksheide, U.; Klaas, M.; Schröder, W.
2011-03-01
A new method to describe statistical information from passive scalar fields has been proposed by Wang and Peters ["The length-scale distribution function of the distance between extremal points in passive scalar turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 554, 457 (2006)]. They used direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous shear flow to introduce the innovative concept. This novel method determines the local minimum and maximum points of the fluctuating scalar field via gradient trajectories, starting from every grid point in the direction of the steepest ascending and descending scalar gradients. Relying on gradient trajectories, a dissipation element is defined as the region of all the grid points, the trajectories of which share the same pair of maximum and minimum points. The procedure has also been successfully applied to various DNS fields of homogeneous shear turbulence using the three velocity components and the kinetic energy as scalar fields [L. Wang and N. Peters, "Length-scale distribution functions and conditional means for various fields in turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 608, 113 (2008)]. In this spirit, dissipation elements are, for the first time, determined from experimental data of a fully developed turbulent channel flow. The dissipation elements are deduced from the gradients of the instantaneous fluctuation of the three velocity components u', v', and w' and the instantaneous kinetic energy k', respectively. The measurements are conducted at a Reynolds number of 1.7×104 based on the channel half-height δ and the bulk velocity U. The required three-dimensional velocity data are obtained investigating a 17.75×17.75×6 mm3 (0.355δ×0.355δ×0.12δ) test volume using tomographic particle-image velocimetry. Detection and analysis of dissipation elements from the experimental velocity data are discussed in detail. The statistical results are compared to the DNS data from Wang and Peters ["The length-scale distribution function of the distance between
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms
Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.
2011-08-01
The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data
Transport reduction via shear flow modification of the cross phase
Ware, A.S.; Terry, P.W.; Diamond, P.H.; Carreras, B.A.
1996-01-01
As a model example of the effect of E x B shear flow on the cross phase between electrostatic potential and pressure fluctuations, a nonlinear theory of resistive pressure gradient driven turbulence (RPGDT) in a shear flow is presented. This work builds on numerical studies of RPGDT, which have shown that both flow shear and curvature can affect the cross phase as well as the fluctuation levels. In this work, we show that the effect of shear flow on transport can be expressed through the temporal response of pressure to potential. It is shown heuristically that even in the case where the fluctuation levels are not modified, the flow shear still acts to reduce the phase angle between potential and pressure fluctuations, thereby suppressing transport. The scaling of the cross phase with flow shear and flow curvature is presented. (author)
Critical wall shear stress for the EHEDG test method
Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Friis, Alan
2004-01-01
In order to simulate the results of practical cleaning tests on closed processing equipment, based on wall shear stress predicted by computational fluid dynamics, a critical wall shear stress is required for that particular cleaning method. This work presents investigations that provide a critical...... wall shear stress of 3 Pa for the standardised EHEDG cleaning test method. The cleaning tests were performed on a test disc placed in a radial flowcell assay. Turbulent flow conditions were generated and the corresponding wall shear stresses were predicted from CFD simulations. Combining wall shear...... stress predictions from a simulation using the low Re k-epsilon and one using the two-layer model of Norris and Reynolds were found to produce reliable predictions compared to empirical solutions for the ideal flow case. The comparison of wall shear stress curves predicted for the real RFC...
Some consequences of shear on galactic dynamos with helicity fluxes
Zhou, Hongzhe; Blackman, Eric G.
2017-08-01
Galactic dynamo models sustained by supernova (SN) driven turbulence and differential rotation have revealed that the sustenance of large-scale fields requires a flux of small-scale magnetic helicity to be viable. Here we generalize a minimalist analytic version of such galactic dynamos to explore some heretofore unincluded contributions from shear on the total turbulent energy and turbulent correlation time, with the helicity fluxes maintained by either winds, diffusion or magnetic buoyancy. We construct an analytic framework for modelling the turbulent energy and correlation time as a function of SN rate and shear. We compare our prescription with previous approaches that include only rotation. The solutions depend separately on the rotation period and the eddy turnover time and not just on their ratio (the Rossby number). We consider models in which these two time-scales are allowed to be independent and also a case in which they are mutually dependent on radius when a radial-dependent SN rate model is invoked. For the case of a fixed rotation period (or a fixed radius), we show that the influence of shear is dramatic for low Rossby numbers, reducing the correlation time of the turbulence, which, in turn, strongly reduces the saturation value of the dynamo compared to the case when the shear is ignored. We also show that even in the absence of winds or diffusive fluxes, magnetic buoyancy may be able to sustain sufficient helicity fluxes to avoid quenching.
Drift Wave Test Particle Transport in Reversed Shear Profile
Horton, W.; Park, H.B.; Kwon, J.M.; Stronzzi, D.; Morrison, P.J.; Choi, D.I.
1998-01-01
Drift wave maps, area preserving maps that describe the motion of charged particles in drift waves, are derived. The maps allow the integration of particle orbits on the long time scale needed to describe transport. Calculations using the drift wave maps show that dramatic improvement in the particle confinement, in the presence of a given level and spectrum of E x B turbulence, can occur for q(r)-profiles with reversed shear. A similar reduction in the transport, i.e. one that is independent of the turbulence, is observed in the presence of an equilibrium radial electric field with shear. The transport reduction, caused by the combined effects of radial electric field shear and both monotonic and reversed shear magnetic q-profiles, is also investigated
Local particle flux reversal under strongly sheared flow
Terry, P.W.; Newman, D.E.; Ware, A.S.
2003-01-01
The advection of electron density by turbulent ExB flow with linearly varying mean yields a particle flux that can reverse sign at certain locations along the direction of magnetic shear. The effect, calculated for strong flow shear, resides in the density-potential cross phase. It is produced by the interplay between the inhomogeneities of magnetic shear and flow shear, but subject to a variety of conditions and constraints. The regions of reversed flux tend to wash out if the turbulence consists of closely spaced modes of different helicities, but survive if modes of a single helicity are relatively isolated. The reversed flux becomes negligible if the electron density response is governed by electron scales while the eigenmode is governed by ion scales. The relationship of these results to experimentally observe flux reversals is discussed
Design of a Turbulence Generator of Medium Consistency Pulp Pumps
Hong Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The turbulence generator is a key component of medium consistency centrifugal pulp pumps, with functions to fluidize the medium consistency pulp and to separate gas from the liquid. Structure sizes of the generator affect the hydraulic performance. The radius and the blade laying angle are two important structural sizes of a turbulence generator. Starting with the research on the flow inside and shearing characteristics of the MC pulp, a simple mathematical model at the flow section of the shearing chamber is built, and the formula and procedure to calculate the radius of the turbulence generator are established. The blade laying angle is referenced from the turbine agitator which has the similar shape with the turbulence generator, and the CFD simulation is applied to study the different flow fields with different blade laying angles. Then the recommended blade laying angle of the turbulence generator is formed to be between 60° and 75°.
Internal wave energy radiated from a turbulent mixed layer
Munroe, James R., E-mail: jmunroe@mun.ca [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada); Sutherland, Bruce R., E-mail: bsuther@ualberta.ca [Departments of Physics and Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)
2014-09-15
We examine mixed-layer deepening and the generation of internal waves in stratified fluid resulting from turbulence that develops in response to an applied surface stress. In laboratory experiments the stress is applied over the breadth of a finite-length tank by a moving roughened conveyor belt. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy density. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine their amplitudes, frequencies, and energy density. We also perform fully nonlinear numerical simulations restricted to two dimensions but in a horizontally periodic domain. These clearly demonstrate that internal waves are generated by transient eddies at the integral length scale of turbulence and which translate with the background shear along the base of the mixed layer. In both experiments and simulations we find that the energy density of the generated waves is 1%–3% of the turbulent kinetic energy density of the turbulent layer.
The lattice Boltzmann method and the problem of turbulence
Djenidi, L. [School of Engineering The University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia)
2015-03-10
This paper reports a brief review of numerical simulations of homogeneous isotopic turbulence (HIT) using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The LBM results shows that the details of HIT are well captured and in agreement with existing data. This clearly indicates that the LBM is as good as current Navier-Stokes solvers and is very much adequate for investigating the problem of turbulence.
The lattice Boltzmann method and the problem of turbulence
Djenidi, L.
2015-01-01
This paper reports a brief review of numerical simulations of homogeneous isotopic turbulence (HIT) using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The LBM results shows that the details of HIT are well captured and in agreement with existing data. This clearly indicates that the LBM is as good as current Navier-Stokes solvers and is very much adequate for investigating the problem of turbulence
Control over multiscale mixing in broadband-forced turbulence
Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Geurts, Bernardus J.
2008-01-01
The effects of explicit flow modulation on the dispersion of a passive scalar field are studied. Broadband forcing is applied to homogeneous isotropic turbulence to modulate the energy cascading and alter the kinetic energy spectrum. Consequently, a manipulation of turbulent flow can be achieved
Krommes, J.A.
2000-01-01
Recent results and future challenges in the systematic analytical description of plasma turbulence are described. First, the importance of statistical realizability is stressed, and the development and successes of the Realizable Markovian Closure are briefly reviewed. Next, submarginal turbulence (linearly stable but nonlinearly self-sustained fluctuations) is considered and the relevance of nonlinear instability in neutral-fluid shear flows to submarginal turbulence in magnetized plasmas is discussed. For the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, a self-consistency loop that leads to steady-state vortex regeneration in the presence of dissipation is demonstrated and a partial unification of recent work of Drake (for plasmas) and of Waleffe (for neutral fluids) is given. Brief remarks are made on the difficulties facing a quantitatively accurate statistical description of submarginal turbulence. Finally, possible connections between intermittency, submarginal turbulence, and self-organized criticality (SOC) are considered and outstanding questions are identified
Wang, A.K.; Dong, J.Q.; Qu, W.X.; Qiu, X.M.
2002-01-01
A new suppression mechanism of turbulent transport, characteristic of the synergism between safety factor and shear flows, is proposed to explain the internal transport barriers (ITBs) observed in neutral-beam-heated tokamak discharges with reversed magnetic shear. It is shown that the evolution of turbulent transport with the strength of the suppression mechanism reproduces the basic features of the formation and development of ITBs observed in experiments. In addition, the present analyses predict the possibility of global ion and electron heat transport barriers
Interaction of a strong vortex with decaying turbulence
Terry, P.W.
1988-01-01
The evolution of a localized, axially symmetric vortex under the action of shear stresses associated with decaying two-dimensional turbulent vorticity which is inhomogeneous in the presence of the vortex is studied analytically. For a vortex which is sufficiently strong relative to the coefficient of turbulent eddy viscosity, it is shown that turbulent fluctuations in the vortex interior and diffusion of coherent vorticity by the turbulence localize to the vortex periphery. It is also found that the coefficient of diffusion is small compared to the coefficient of eddy viscosity. 8 refs
Vertical structure of turbulence in offshore flow during RASEX
Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Edson, J.
2001-01-01
and dissipation. However, weakly stable and weakly unstable cases exhibit completely different vertical structure. With flow of warm air from land over cooler water, modest buoyancy destruction of turbulence and reduced shear generation of turbulence over the less rough sea surface cause the turbulence to rapidly...... with height and downward transport of turbulence energy toward the surface. With flow of cool air over a warmer sea surface, a convective internal boundary layer develops downstream from the coast. An overlying relatively thick layer of downward buoyancy flux (virtual temperature flux) is sometimes maintained...
Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer
Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.
2003-01-01
This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...
Mean wall-shear stress measurements using the micro-pillar shear-stress sensor MPS3
Große, S; Schröder, W
2008-01-01
A new sensor to measure the mean turbulent wall-shear stress in turbulent flows is described. The wall-shear stress sensor MPS 3 has been tested in a well-defined fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers Re b based on the bulk velocity U b and the pipe diameter D in the range of Re b = 10 000–20 000. The results demonstrate a convincing agreement of the mean wall-shear stress obtained with the new sensor technique with analytical and experimental results from the literature. The sensor device consists of a flexible micro-pillar that extends from the wall into the viscous sublayer. Bending due to the exerting fluid forces, the pillar-tip deflection serves as a measure for the local wall-shear stress. The sensor concept, calibration techniques, the achievable accuracy and error estimates, the fields of application and the sensor limits will be discussed. Furthermore, a first estimate of the pillar dynamic response will be derived showing the potential of the sensor to also measure the turbulent fluctuating wall-shear stress
Lagrangian statistics across the turbulent-nonturbulent interface in a turbulent plane jet.
Taveira, Rodrigo R; Diogo, José S; Lopes, Diogo C; da Silva, Carlos B
2013-10-01
Lagrangian statistics from millions of particles are used to study the turbulent entrainment mechanism in a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent plane jet at Re(λ) ≈ 110. The particles (tracers) are initially seeded at the irrotational region of the jet near the turbulent shear layer and are followed as they are drawn into the turbulent region across the turbulent-nonturbulent interface (TNTI), allowing the study of the enstrophy buildup and thereby characterizing the turbulent entrainment mechanism in the jet. The use of Lagrangian statistics following fluid particles gives a more correct description of the entrainment mechanism than in previous works since the statistics in relation to the TNTI position involve data from the trajectories of the entraining fluid particles. The Lagrangian statistics for the particles show the existence of a velocity jump and a characteristic vorticity jump (with a thickness which is one order of magnitude greater than the Kolmogorov microscale), in agreement with previous results using Eulerian statistics. The particles initially acquire enstrophy by viscous diffusion and later by enstrophy production, which becomes "active" only deep inside the turbulent region. Both enstrophy diffusion and production near the TNTI differ substantially from inside the turbulent region. Only about 1% of all particles find their way into pockets of irrotational flow engulfed into the turbulent shear layer region, indicating that "engulfment" is not significant for the present flow, indirectly suggesting that the entrainment is largely due to "nibbling" small-scale mechanisms acting along the entire TNTI surface. Probability density functions of particle positions suggests that the particles spend more time crossing the region near the TNTI than traveling inside the turbulent region, consistent with the particles moving tangent to the interface around the time they cross it.
Compressibility effects in the shear layer over a rectangular cavity
Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin; Casper, Katya Marie
2016-10-26
we studied the influence of compressibility on the shear layer over a rectangular cavity of variable width in a free stream Mach number range of 0.6–2.5 using particle image velocimetry data in the streamwise centre plane. As the Mach number increases, the vertical component of the turbulence intensity diminishes modestly in the widest cavity, but the two narrower cavities show a more substantial drop in all three components as well as the turbulent shear stress. Furthermore, this contrasts with canonical free shear layers, which show significant reductions in only the vertical component and the turbulent shear stress due to compressibility. The vorticity thickness of the cavity shear layer grows rapidly as it initially develops, then transitions to a slower growth rate once its instability saturates. When normalized by their estimated incompressible values, the growth rates prior to saturation display the classic compressibility effect of suppression as the convective Mach number rises, in excellent agreement with comparable free shear layer data. The specific trend of the reduction in growth rate due to compressibility is modified by the cavity width.
Evolution of thermal ion transport barriers in reversed shear/ optimised shear plasmas
Voitsekhovitch, I.; Garbet, X.; Moreau, D.; Bush, C.E.; Budny, R.V.; Gohil, P.; Kinsey, J.E.; Talyor, T.S.; Litaudon, X.
2001-01-01
The effects of the magnetic and ExB rotation shears on the thermal ion transport in advanced tokamak scenarios are analyzed through the predictive modelling of the evolution of internal transport barriers. Such a modelling is performed with an experimentally validated L-mode thermal diffusivity completed with a semi-empirical shear correction which is based on simple theoretical arguments from turbulence studies. A multi-machine test of the model on relevant discharges from the ITER Data Base (TFTR, DIII-D and JET) is presented. (author)
Dissipative structures in magnetorotational turbulence
Ross, Johnathan; Latter, Henrik N.
2018-03-01
Via the process of accretion, magnetorotational turbulence removes energy from a disk's orbital motion and transforms it into heat. Turbulent heating is far from uniform and is usually concentrated in small regions of intense dissipation, characterised by abrupt magnetic reconnection and higher temperatures. These regions are of interest because they might generate non-thermal emission, in the form of flares and energetic particles, or thermally process solids in protoplanetary disks. Moreover, the nature of the dissipation bears on the fundamental dynamics of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) itself: local simulations indicate that the large-scale properties of the turbulence (e.g. saturation levels, the stress-pressure relationship) depend on the short dissipative scales. In this paper we undertake a numerical study of how the MRI dissipates and the small-scale dissipative structures it employs to do so. We use the Godunov code RAMSES and unstratified compressible shearing boxes. Our simulations reveal that dissipation is concentrated in ribbons of strong magnetic reconnection that are significantly elongated in azimuth, up to a scale height. Dissipative structures are hence meso-scale objects, and potentially provide a route by which large scales and small scales interact. We go on to show how these ribbons evolve over time — forming, merging, breaking apart, and disappearing. Finally, we reveal important couplings between the large-scale density waves generated by the MRI and the small-scale structures, which may illuminate the stress-pressure relationship in MRI turbulence.
Kohlberg, I.
1993-06-01
This study provides a mathematical determination of the spatial distribution of aerosols due to turbulent shear coagulation and turbulent inertial coagulation, as applied to the conditions of the Kuwaiti Oil Fires (KOF) of 1991. Using an approximation from a forest fire for the normalized size distribution of aerosols, the downstream particle concentration is found by the concurrent solution of the coagulations' kinetics combined with turbulent atmospheric diffusion. The result shows the explicit dependence of the concentration on the following principal parameters: turbulent energy dissipation rate, turbulent diffusion constant, average wind speed, mass ejection from a well, Kolmorogov time scale for turbulence, and Kolmorogov length scale for turbulence. For very large values of turbulent energy dissipation rate, turbulent inertial coagulation is more effective than turbulent shear coagulation in particle growth. The spatial dependence of concentration attributed to turbulent coagulation may vary considerably. Depending on the choice of parameters, the importance of turbulent coagulation in particle transport processes may extend from less than a kilometer to tens of kilometers. Kuwaiti Oil Fires (KOF), Particle transport, Turbulent inertial coagulation, Turbulent shear coagulation.
Homogenization approach in engineering
Babuska, I.
1975-10-01
Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table
Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows
Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.
1999-11-01
Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic
Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows
Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion and Physical Sciences Center
1997-08-01
Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.
Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation
Toxværd, Søren
2015-01-01
The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...
Homogeneous bilateral block shifts
Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.
Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS
Homogeneous Poisson structures
Shafei Deh Abad, A.; Malek, F.
1993-09-01
We provide an algebraic definition for Schouten product and give a decomposition for any homogenenous Poisson structure in any n-dimensional vector space. A large class of n-homogeneous Poisson structures in R k is also characterized. (author). 4 refs
López-Barrón, Carlos R; Gurnon, A Kate; Eberle, Aaron P R; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J
2014-04-01
We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations.
Turbulence modulation induced by bubble swarm in oscillating-grid turbulence
Morikawa, Koichi; Urano, Shigeyuki; Saito, Takayuki
2007-01-01
In the present study, liquid-phase turbulence modulation induced by a bubble swarm ascending in arbitrary turbulence was experimentally investigated. Liquid-phase homogeneous isotropic turbulence was formed using an oscillating grid in a cylindrical acrylic vessel of 149 mm in inner diameter. A bubble swarm consisting of 19 bubbles of 2.8 mm in equivalent diameter was examined; the bubble size and launching time were completely controlled using a bubble launching device through audio speakers. This bubble launching device was able to repeatedly control the bubble swarm arbitrarily and precisely. The bubble swarm was launched at a frequency of 4 Hz. The liquid phase motion was measured via two LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer) probes. The turbulence intensity, spatial correlation and integral scale were calculated from LDA data obtained by the two spatially-separate-point measurement. When the bubble swarm was added, the turbulence intensity dramatically changed. The original isotropic turbulence was modulated to the anisotropic turbulence by the mutual interference between the bubble swarm and ambient isotropic turbulence. The integral scales were calculated from the spatial correlation function. The effects of the bubble swarm on the integral scales showed the tendencies similar to those on turbulence intensity. (author)
Tokamak turbulence in self-regulated differentially rotating flow and L-H transition dynamics
Terry, P.W.; Carreras, B.A.; Sidikman, K.
1992-01-01
An analytical study of turbulence in the presence of turbulently generated differentially rotating flow is presented as a paradigm for fluctuation dynamics in L- and H-mode plasmas. Using a drift wave model, the role of both flow shear and flow curvature (second radial derivative of the poloidal ExB flow) is detailed in linear and saturated turbulence phases. In the strong turbulence saturated state, finite amplitude-induced modification of the fluctuation structure near low order rational surfaces strongly inhibits flow shear suppression. Suppression by curvature is not diminished, but it occurs through a frequency shift. A description of L-H mode transition dynamics based on the self-consistent linking of turbulence suppression by differentially rotating flow and generation of flow by turbulent momentum transport is presented. In this model, rising edge temperature triggers a transition characterized by spontaneous generation of differentially rotating flow and decreasing turbulence intensity
Edge-core interaction of ITG turbulence in Tokamaks: Is the Tail Wagging the Dog?
Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Diamond, P. H.
2010-11-01
A full-f XGC1 gyrokinetic simulation of ITG turbulence, together with the neoclassical dynamics without scale separation, has been performed for the whole-volume plasma in realistic diverted DIII-D geometry. The simulation revealed that the global structure of the turbulence and transport in tokamak plasmas results from a synergy between edge-driven inward propagation of turbulence intensity and the core-driven outward heat transport. The global ion confinement and the ion temperature gradient then self-organize quickly at turbulence propagation time scale. This synergy results in inward-outward pulse scattering leading to spontaneous production of strong internal shear layers in which the turbulent transport is almost suppressed over several radial correlation lengths. Co-existence of the edge turbulence source and the strong internal shear layer leads to radially increasing turbulence intensity and ion thermal transport profiles.
Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer
Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping
1988-03-01
The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Influence of turbulence on bed load sediment transport
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Chua, L.; Cheng, N. S.
2003-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on the influence of an external turbulence field on the bedload sediment transport in an open channel. The external turbulence was generated by: (1) with a horizontal pipe placed halfway through the depth, h; (2) with a series of grids......-bed experiments and the ripple-covered-bed experiments. In the former case, the flow in the presence of the turbulence generator was adjusted so that the mean bed shear stress was the same as in the case without the turbulence generator in order to single out the effect of the external turbulence on the sediment...... correlated with the sediment transport rate. The sediment transport increases markedly with increasing turbulence level....
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Simulation of a 3D Turbulent Wavy Channel based on the High-order WENO Scheme
Tsai, Bor-Jang; Chou, Chung-Chyi; Tsai, Yeong-Pei; Chuang, Ying Hung
2018-02-01
Passive interest turbulent drag reduction, effective means to improve air vehicle fuel consumption costs. Most turbulent problems happening to the nature and engineering applications were exactly the turbulence problem frequently caused by one or more turbulent shear flows. This study was operated with incompressible 3-D channels with cyclic wavy boundary to explore the physical properties of turbulence flow. This research measures the distribution of average velocity, instant flowing field shapes, turbulence and pressure distribution, etc. Furthermore, the systematic computation and analysis for the 3-D flow field was also implemented. It was aimed to clearly understand the turbulence fields formed by wavy boundary of tube flow. The purpose of this research is to obtain systematic structural information about the turbulent flow field and features of the turbulence structure are discussed.
[Statistical modeling studies of turbulent reacting flows
Dwyer, H.A.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses the study of turbulent wall shear flows, and we feel that this problem is both more difficult and a better challenge for the new methods we are developing. Turbulent wall flows have a wide variety of length and time scales which interact with the transport processes to produce very large fluxes of mass, heat, and momentum. At the present time we have completed the first calculation of a wall diffusion flame, and we have begun a velocity PDF calculation for the flat plate boundary layer. A summary of the various activities is contained in this report
Measurements of turbulence in a microscale multi-inlet vortex nanoprecipitation reactor
Shi, Yanxiang; Cheng, Janine Chungyin; Fox, Rodney O; Olsen, Michael G
2013-01-01
The microscale multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) is designed for use in Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP), a promising technique for producing nanoparticles within small particle size distribution. Fluid mixing is crucial in the FNP process, and due to mixing’s strong dependence upon fluid kinematics, investigating velocity and turbulence within the reactor is crucial to optimizing reactor design. To this end, microscopic particle image velocimetry has been used to investigate flow within the MIVR. Three Reynolds numbers are studied, namely, Re j = 53, 93 and 240. At Re j = 53, the flow is laminar and steady. Due to the strong viscous effects at this Reynolds number, distinct flow patterns are observed at different distances from the reactor top and bottom walls. The viscous effects also retard the tangential motions within the reactor, resulting in a weaker vortex than appears at the higher Reynolds numbers. As the Reynolds number is increased to 93, the flow becomes more homogeneous over the depth of the reactor due to weaker viscous effects, yet the flow is still steady. The diminishing effects of viscosity also result in a stronger vortex. At the highest Reynolds number investigated, the flow is turbulent. Turbulent statistics including tangential and radial velocity fluctuations and Reynolds shear stresses are analyzed for this case in addition to the mean velocity field. The tangential motions of the flow are strongest at Re j = 240. Both the tangential and radial velocity fluctuations increase as the flow spirals toward the center of the reactor. The magnitudes of the tangential and radial velocity fluctuations are similar, suggesting that the turbulence is locally isotropic. (paper)
Seo, Jongmin; Mani, Ali
2018-04-01
Superhydrophobic surfaces demonstrate promising potential for skin friction reduction in naval and hydrodynamic applications. Recent developments of superhydrophobic surfaces aiming for scalable applications use random distribution of roughness, such as spray coating and etched process. However, most previous analyses of the interaction between flows and superhydrophobic surfaces studied periodic geometries that are economically feasible only in laboratory-scale experiments. In order to assess the drag reduction effectiveness as well as interfacial robustness of superhydrophobic surfaces with randomly distributed textures, we conduct direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over randomly patterned interfaces considering a range of texture widths w+≈4 -26 , and solid fractions ϕs=11 %-25 % . Slip and no-slip boundary conditions are implemented in a pattern, modeling the presence of gas-liquid interfaces and solid elements. Our results indicate that slip of randomly distributed textures under turbulent flows is about 30 % less than those of surfaces with aligned features of the same size. In the small texture size limit w+≈4 , the slip length of the randomly distributed textures in turbulent flows is well described by a previously introduced Stokes flow solution of randomly distributed shear-free holes. By comparing DNS results for patterned slip and no-slip boundary against the corresponding homogenized slip length boundary conditions, we show that turbulent flows over randomly distributed posts can be represented by an isotropic slip length in streamwise and spanwise direction. The average pressure fluctuation on a gas pocket is similar to that of the aligned features with the same texture size and gas fraction, but the maximum interface deformation at the leading edge of the roughness element is about twice as large when the textures are randomly distributed. The presented analyses provide insights on implications of texture randomness on drag
Turbulent magnetohydrodynamics in liquid metals
Berhanu, Michael
2008-01-01
In electrically conducting fluids, the electromagnetic field is coupled with the fluid motion by induction effects. We studied different magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, using two experiments involving turbulent flows of liquid metal. The first mid-sized uses gallium. The second, using sodium, is conducted within the VKS (Von Karman Sodium) collaboration. It has led to the observation of the dynamo effect, namely converting a part of the kinetic energy of the fluid into magnetic energy. We have shown that, depending on forcing conditions, a statistically stationary dynamo, or dynamical regimes of magnetic field can be generated. In particular, polarity reversals similar to those of Earth's magnetic field were observed. Meanwhile, experiment with Gallium has been developed to study the effects of electromagnetic induction by turbulent flows in a more homogeneous and isotropic configuration than in the VKS experiment. Using data from these two experiments, we studied the advection of magnetic field by a turbulent flow and the induced fluctuations. The development of probes measuring electrical potential difference allowed us to further highlight the magnetic braking of a turbulent flow of Gallium by Lorentz force. This mechanism is involved in the saturation of the dynamo instability. (author) [fr
Resolution of axial shear strain elastography
Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan
2006-01-01
The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 45 0 to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45 0 orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift
Shear modulation experiments with ECCD on TCV
Cirant, S.; Alberti, S.; Gandini, F.; Behn, R.; Goodman, T.P.; Nikkola, P.
2006-01-01
Anomalous electron transport is determined by turbulence, which in turn is affected by magnetic shear. A novel application of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), aiming at localized shear modulation, has been applied on the TCV tokamak for experiments on shear-dependent electron transport. Pairs of EC beams, absorbed at the same radius, with one oriented for co- and the other for counter-injection, are modulated out of phase in order to force a local modulation of current-density at constant input power. Off-axis deposition (ρ dep = 0.24) is performed to avoid the central region, where the low heat flux would make transport analysis difficult. In addition some sawteeth control is achieved in this way. A significant impact on local shear is achieved with I ECCD ∼ 0.1I OH , even when the modulation period is much shorter than the current diffusion time across the whole plasma radius. The main result is that although source (heat and particle) terms are constant, both electron density and temperature are modulated during alternated ECCD. Once equilibrium effects are taken into account for appropriate mapping of Thomson scattering measurements onto flux coordinates, modulation of T e and electron pressure, peaked on-axis, is confirmed at all radii internal to EC deposition. The best confinement occurs for co-injection, in which case a local decrease (∼55%) in the magnetic shear causes a decrease in the electron thermal diffusivity of a similar amount (∼65%)
Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-01-01
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304
Hasegawa, A [Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA)
1982-02-01
Theoretical treatments of turbulence in fluids and plasmas often assume that the turbulence is isotropic and homogeneous. It is also often considered that turbulence produces uniformly distributed chaos, even when starting with a coherent initial condition. Recently, however, phenomena which do not obey these classic concepts have emerged. For example, in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence, an organized flow or structure is found to appear even from a chaotic initial condition. The author attempts to review some of the recent developments of a phenomenon called self-organization in the field of hydrodynamics and plasma physics.
Homogeneous group, research, institution
Francesca Natascia Vasta
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome
Homogen Mur - et udviklingsprojekt
Dahl, Torben; Beim, Anne; Sørensen, Peter
1997-01-01
Mølletorvet i Slagelse er det første byggeri i Danmark, hvor ydervæggen er udført af homogene bærende og isolerende teglblokke. Byggeriet viser en række af de muligheder, der både med hensyn til konstruktioner, energiforhold og arkitektur ligger i anvendelsen af homogent blokmurværk.......Mølletorvet i Slagelse er det første byggeri i Danmark, hvor ydervæggen er udført af homogene bærende og isolerende teglblokke. Byggeriet viser en række af de muligheder, der både med hensyn til konstruktioner, energiforhold og arkitektur ligger i anvendelsen af homogent blokmurværk....
Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g modes
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1993-01-01
The authors have investigated suppression of the resistive g mode turbulence by background shear flow produced by the external source and by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress. For that purpose, the authors used the model consisting of the equations describing the electrostatic potential φ≡(φ 0 +φ) and the pressure fluctuation p of the resistive g mode, and the equation for the background poloidal flow. They have done the single-helicity nonlinear simulations using the model equations in the sheared slab configuration. They find that, in the nonlinear turbulent regime, significant suppression of the turbulent transport is realized only when the shear flow v' E exceeds that which makes the fastest-growing linear modes marginally stable. With the shear flow which decreases the fastest linear growth rates by about a half, the turbulent transport in the saturated state is about the same as in the case of no shear flow. As seen from the equation for the background flow v E , the relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the parameter ν. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow although its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. On the other hand, for small ν, they observe that, as the fluctuations grow, the Reynolds stress becomes large and suddenly at some critical point in time shear flow much larger than the external one is generated and leads to the significant reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is remarkable that the Reynolds stress due to the resistive g mode fluctuations works not as a conventional viscosity term weakening the shear flow but as a negative viscosity term enhancing it
Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials
Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten
2010-01-01
Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....
Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Ungureanu, Mara
2016-01-01
Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS 4 ×P 7 , with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S 4 ×Q 7 with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.
Figueroa-O’Farrill, José [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King’s Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ungureanu, Mara [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik,Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)
2016-01-25
Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS{sub 4}×P{sup 7}, with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S{sup 4}×Q{sup 7} with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.
Turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle
Rehme, K.
1978-04-01
The turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle was investigated experimentally by means of hotwires und Pitot-tubes. The aim of this investigation was to get experimental information on the transport properties of turbulent flow especially on the momentum transport. Detailed data were measured of the distributions of the time-mean velocity, the turbulence intensities and, hence the kinetic of turbulence, of the shear stresses in the directions normal and parallel to the walls, and of the wall shear stresses. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of the rods equal to the wall-to-diameter ratio was 1.15, the Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 1.23.10 5 . On the basis of the measurements the eddy viscosities normal and parallel to the walls were calculated. The eddy viscosities observed showed a considerable deviation from the data known up-to-now and from the assumptions introduced in the codes. (orig.) [de
How shear increments affect the flow production branching ratio in CSDX
Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.
2018-06-01
The coupling of turbulence-driven azimuthal and axial flows in a linear device absent magnetic shear (Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment) is investigated. In particular, we examine the apportionment of Reynolds power between azimuthal and axial flows, and how the azimuthal flow shear affects axial flow generation and saturation by drift wave turbulence. We study the response of the energy branching ratio, i.e., ratio of axial and azimuthal Reynolds powers, PzR/PyR , to incremental changes of azimuthal and axial flow shears. We show that increasing azimuthal flow shear decreases the energy branching ratio. When axial flow shear increases, this ratio first increases but then decreases to zero. The axial flow shear saturates below the threshold for parallel shear flow instability. The effects of azimuthal flow shear on the generation and saturation of intrinsic axial flows are analyzed. Azimuthal flow shear slows down the modulational growth of the seed axial flow shear, and thus reduces intrinsic axial flow production. Azimuthal flow shear reduces both the residual Reynolds stress (of axial flow, i.e., ΠxzR e s ) and turbulent viscosity ( χzDW ) by the same factor |⟨vy⟩'|-2Δx-2Ln-2ρs2cs2 , where Δx is the distance relative to the reference point where ⟨vy⟩=0 in the plasma frame. Therefore, the stationary state axial flow shear is not affected by azimuthal flow shear to leading order since ⟨vz⟩'˜ΠxzR e s/χzDW .
Fuhrman, David R.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2009-01-01
measurements for steady streaming induced by a skewed free stream velocity signal is also provided. We then simulate a series of experiments involving oscillatory flow in a convergent-divergent smooth tunnel, and a good match with respect to bed shear stresses and streaming velocities is achieved......A numerical model solving incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, combined with a two-equation k-omega turbulence closure, is used to study converging-diverging effects from a sloping bed on turbulent (oscillatory) wave boundary layers. Bed shear stresses from the numerical model....... The streaming is conceptually explained using analogies from steady converging and diffuser flows. A parametric study is undertaken to assess both the peak and time-averaged bed shear stresses in converging and diverging half periods under rough-turbulent conditions. The results are presented as friction factor...
The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal MHD Turbulence
Shebalin, John V.
2003-01-01
Turbulence is a universal, nonlinear phenomenon found in all energetic fluid and plasma motion. In particular. understanding magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and incorporating its effects in the computation and prediction of the flow of ionized gases in space, for example, are great challenges that must be met if such computations and predictions are to be meaningful. Although a general solution to the "problem of turbulence" does not exist in closed form, numerical integrations allow us to explore the phase space of solutions for both ideal and dissipative flows. For homogeneous, incompressible turbulence, Fourier methods are appropriate, and phase space is defined by the Fourier coefficients of the physical fields. In the case of ideal MHD flows, a fairly robust statistical mechanics has been developed, in which the symmetry and ergodic properties of phase space is understood. A discussion of these properties will illuminate our principal discovery: Coherent structure and randomness co-exist in ideal MHD turbulence. For dissipative flows, as opposed to ideal flows, progress beyond the dimensional analysis of Kolmogorov has been difficult. Here, some possible future directions that draw on the ideal results will also be discussed. Our conclusion will be that while ideal turbulence is now well understood, real turbulence still presents great challenges.
Pebble Accretion in Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks
Xu, Ziyan; Bai, Xue-Ning; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.
2017-09-01
It has been realized in recent years that the accretion of pebble-sized dust particles onto planetary cores is an important mode of core growth, which enables the formation of giant planets at large distances and assists planet formation in general. The pebble accretion theory is built upon the orbit theory of dust particles in a laminar protoplanetary disk (PPD). For sufficiently large core mass (in the “Hill regime”), essentially all particles of appropriate sizes entering the Hill sphere can be captured. However, the outer regions of PPDs are expected to be weakly turbulent due to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), where turbulent stirring of particle orbits may affect the efficiency of pebble accretion. We conduct shearing-box simulations of pebble accretion with different levels of MRI turbulence (strongly turbulent assuming ideal magnetohydrodynamics, weakly turbulent in the presence of ambipolar diffusion, and laminar) and different core masses to test the efficiency of pebble accretion at a microphysical level. We find that accretion remains efficient for marginally coupled particles (dimensionless stopping time {τ }s˜ 0.1{--}1) even in the presence of strong MRI turbulence. Though more dust particles are brought toward the core by the turbulence, this effect is largely canceled by a reduction in accretion probability. As a result, the overall effect of turbulence on the accretion rate is mainly reflected in the changes in the thickness of the dust layer. On the other hand, we find that the efficiency of pebble accretion for strongly coupled particles (down to {τ }s˜ 0.01) can be modestly reduced by strong turbulence for low-mass cores.
On the self-organizing process of large scale shear flows
Newton, Andrew P. L. [Department of Applied Maths, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Kim, Eun-jin [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Liu, Han-Li [High Altitude Observatory, National Centre for Atmospheric Research, P. O. BOX 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80303-3000 (United States)
2013-09-15
Self organization is invoked as a paradigm to explore the processes governing the evolution of shear flows. By examining the probability density function (PDF) of the local flow gradient (shear), we show that shear flows reach a quasi-equilibrium state as its growth of shear is balanced by shear relaxation. Specifically, the PDFs of the local shear are calculated numerically and analytically in reduced 1D and 0D models, where the PDFs are shown to converge to a bimodal distribution in the case of finite correlated temporal forcing. This bimodal PDF is then shown to be reproduced in nonlinear simulation of 2D hydrodynamic turbulence. Furthermore, the bimodal PDF is demonstrated to result from a self-organizing shear flow with linear profile. Similar bimodal structure and linear profile of the shear flow are observed in gulf stream, suggesting self-organization.
Mueller, J.; Petersen, J. C.; Pilz, E.; Wiegand, H.
1981-06-01
The flow behavior in a jet mixing visualization chamber for turbulent fuel spray mixing with air under compression, e.g., at top dead center in diesel engines, was investigated with a laser Doppler velocimeter. The measurements were performed in two cuts in the profile perpendicular to the flow direction. The range of flow conditions in the measuring chamber was tested. The measurements were conducted with and without turbulence grids and shear flow grids behind the inlet nozzle. Wire grids did not enhance the turbulence in the measuring chamber. One of the tested shear flow grids produced shear flow as expected. A turbulence grid whose design was based on experimental results, produced a turbulence degree of up to 30% over the whole measuring cross section.
Aviation Turbulence: Dynamics, Forecasting, and Response to Climate Change
Storer, Luke N.; Williams, Paul D.; Gill, Philip G.
2018-03-01
Atmospheric turbulence is a major hazard in the aviation industry and can cause injuries to passengers and crew. Understanding the physical and dynamical generation mechanisms of turbulence aids with the development of new forecasting algorithms and, therefore, reduces the impact that it has on the aviation industry. The scope of this paper is to review the dynamics of aviation turbulence, its response to climate change, and current forecasting methods at the cruising altitude of aircraft. Aviation-affecting turbulence comes from three main sources: vertical wind shear instabilities, convection, and mountain waves. Understanding these features helps researchers to develop better turbulence diagnostics. Recent research suggests that turbulence will increase in frequency and strength with climate change, and therefore, turbulence forecasting may become more important in the future. The current methods of forecasting are unable to predict every turbulence event, and research is ongoing to find the best solution to this problem by combining turbulence predictors and using ensemble forecasts to increase skill. The skill of operational turbulence forecasts has increased steadily over recent decades, mirroring improvements in our understanding. However, more work is needed—ideally in collaboration with the aviation industry—to improve observations and increase forecast skill, to help maintain and enhance aviation safety standards in the future.
Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement
Wagner, Rozenn
the vertical wind shear and the turbulence intensity. The work presented in this thesis consists of the description and the investigation of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ignoring this effect was shown to result in a power curve dependant on the shear...... for turbulence intensity suggested by Albers. The second method was found to be more suitable for normalising the power curve for the turbulence intensity. Using the equivalent wind speed accounting for the wind shear in the power performance measurement was shown to result in a more repeatable power curve than......The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary characteristic of the machine as it is the basis of the warranty for it power production. The current IEC standard for power performance measurement only requires the measurement of the wind speed at hub height and the air density to characterise...
Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers
Eitel-Amor, G; Schlatter, P; Flores, O
2014-01-01
The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Re τ = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Re τ < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.
Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence
Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wang, E.; Bell, R.E.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Yuh, H.
2011-01-01
This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.
Effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading: A fluctuation intensity transport analysis
Yi, S.; Kwon, J. M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States); Hahm, T. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-09-15
This paper studies effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading. It reports results of numerical experiments using global gyrokinetic simulations. We examine propagation of turbulence, triggered by an identical linear instability in a source region, into an adjacent, linearly stable region with variable q-profile. The numerical experiments are designed so as to separate the physics of turbulence spreading from that of linear stability. The strength of turbulence spreading is measured by the penetration depth of turbulence. Dynamics of spreading are elucidated by fluctuation intensity balance analysis, using a model intensity evolution equation which retains nonlinear diffusion and damping, and linear growth. It is found that turbulence spreading is strongly affected by magnetic shear s, but is hardly altered by the safety factor q itself. There is an optimal range of modest magnetic shear which maximizes turbulence spreading. For high to modest shear values, the spreading is enhanced by the increase of the mode correlation length with decreasing magnetic shear. However, the efficiency of spreading drops for sufficiently low magnetic shear even though the mode correlation length is comparable to that for the case of optimal magnetic shear. The reduction of spreading is attributed to the increase in time required for the requisite nonlinear mode-mode interactions. The effect of increased interaction time dominates that of increased mode correlation length. Our findings of the reduction of spreading and the increase in interaction time at weak magnetic shear are consistent with the well-known benefit of weak or reversed magnetic shear for core confinement enhancement. Weak shear is shown to promote locality, as well as stability.
HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR
King, L.D.P.
1959-09-01
A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.
Deng, Shaoqiang
2012-01-01
"Homogeneous Finsler Spaces" is the first book to emphasize the relationship between Lie groups and Finsler geometry, and the first to show the validity in using Lie theory for the study of Finsler geometry problems. This book contains a series of new results obtained by the author and collaborators during the last decade. The topic of Finsler geometry has developed rapidly in recent years. One of the main reasons for its surge in development is its use in many scientific fields, such as general relativity, mathematical biology, and phycology (study of algae). This monograph introduc
Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy
Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.
1987-01-01
One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy
Application of some turbulence models
Ushijima, Sho; Kato, Masanobu; Fujimoto, Ken; Moriya, Shoichi
1985-01-01
In order to predict numerically the thermal stratification and the thermal striping phenomena in pool-type FBRs, it is necessary to simulate adequately various turbulence properties of flows with good turbulence models. This report presents numerical simulations of two dimensional isothermal steady flows in a rectangular plenum using three types of turbulence models. Three models are general k-ε model and two Reynolds stress models. The agreements of these results are examined and the properties of these models are compared. The main results are summarized as follows. (1) Concerning the mean velocity distributions, although a little differences exist, all results of three models agree with experimental values. (2) It can be found that non-isotropy of normal Reynolds stresses (u' 2 , v' 2 ) distributions is qwite well simulated by two Reynolds stress models, but not adequately by k-ε model, shear Reynolds stress (-u', v') distribations of three models have little differences and agree good with experiments. (3) Balances of the various terms of Reynolds stress equations are examined. Comparing the results obtained by analyses and those of previous experiments, both distributions show qualitative agreements. (author)
Homogenization of discrete media
Pradel, F.; Sab, K.
1998-01-01
Material such as granular media, beam assembly are easily seen as discrete media. They look like geometrical points linked together thanks to energetic expressions. Our purpose is to extend discrete kinematics to the one of an equivalent continuous material. First we explain how we build the localisation tool for periodic materials according to estimated continuum medium type (classical Cauchy, and Cosserat media). Once the bridge built between discrete and continuum media, we exhibit its application over two bidimensional beam assembly structures : the honey comb and a structural reinforced variation. The new behavior is then applied for the simple plan shear problem in a Cosserat continuum and compared with the real discrete solution. By the mean of this example, we establish the agreement of our new model with real structures. The exposed method has a longer range than mechanics and can be applied to every discrete problems like electromagnetism in which relationship between geometrical points can be summed up by an energetic function. (orig.)
Reynolds stress and shear flow generation
Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.
2001-01-01
The so-called Reynolds stress may give a measure of the self-consistent flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas by the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. A measurement of the Reynolds stress can thus help to predict flows, e.g. shear flows in plasmas. This may assist the understanding...... of improved confinement scenarios such as H-mode confinement regimes. However, the determination of the Reynolds stress requires measurements of the plasma potential, a task that is difficult in general and nearly impossible in hot plasmas in large devices. In this work we investigate an alternative method......, based on density measurements, to estimate the Reynolds stress, and demonstrate the validity range of this quantity, which we term the pseudo-Reynolds stress. The advantage of such a quantity is that accurate measurements of density fluctuations are much easier to obtain experimentally. Prior...
Shear bands as growing instabilities in viscoanelastic media with memory
Marina Dolfin
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the critical conditions under which a small perturbation in an homogeneous continuum can possibly grows into a shear band instability. In particular, we analyze from a thermodynamical viewpoint the phenomenon of shear bands in viscoanelastic media with memory. It is emphasized, in the scientific literature, that the specific adopted rheology strongly affects the results so that a special attention has to be paid, also for engineering purposes, to the accuracy of the rheological model. Several well-known rheological model (for instance the so called Maxwell or Jeffreys media are particular cases of the general model we adopt in the paper to analyze shear bands. Instability conditions, giving rise to shear bands formation, are obtained by introducing small perturbations around an homogeneous deformation into the system of differential equations governing the problem of homogeneous deformations in the considered continuous medium; as a result a non-homogeneous linear dynamical system is obtained whose stability is analyzed. A research perspective in view of a possible comparison with experimental results is proposed; in particular the simple methodology proposed in the paper should be applied in view of using the phenomenon of the initiation of shear bands to calculate the thermomechanical coefficients of real materials.
Statistics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in a spatially evolving mixing layer
Cristancho, Juan
2012-12-01
The thin interface separating the inner turbulent region from the outer irrotational fluid is analyzed in a direct numerical simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. A vorticity threshold is defined to detect the interface separating the turbulent from the non-turbulent regions of the flow, and to calculate statistics conditioned on the distance from this interface. Velocity and passive scalar statistics are computed and compared to the results of studies addressing other shear flows, such as turbulent jets and wakes. The conditional statistics for velocity are in remarkable agreement with the results for other types of free shear flow available in the literature. In addition, a detailed analysis of the passive scalar field (with Sc 1) in the vicinity of the interface is presented. The scalar has a jump at the interface, even stronger than that observed for velocity. The strong jump for the scalar has been observed before in the case of high Schmidt number, but it is a new result for Schmidt number of order one. Finally, the dissipation for the kinetic energy and the scalar are presented. While the kinetic energy dissipation has its maximum far from the interface, the scalar dissipation is characterized by a strong peak very close to the interface.
Accounting for the effect of turbulence on wind turbine power curves
Clifton, A.; Wagner, Rozenn
2014-01-01
in turbulence; the turbulence renormalization method cannot account for changes in shear other than by using the the equivalent wind speed, which is derived from wind speed data at multiple heights in the rotor disk. The machine learning method is best able to predict the power as conditions change, and could...
Understanding the sub-critical transition to turbulence in wall flows
In contrast with free shear flows presenting velocity profiles with injection points which cascade to turbulence in a relatively mild way, wall bounded flows are deprived of (inertial) instability modes at low Reynolds numbers and become turbulent in a much wilder way, most often marked by the coexistence of laminar and ...
Statistical analysis of anomalous transport in resistive interchange turbulence
Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.
1992-01-01
A new anomalous transport model for resistive interchange turbulence is derived from statistical analysis applying two-scale direct-interaction approximation to resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations with a gravity term. Our model is similar to the K-ε model for eddy viscosity of turbulent shear flows in that anomalous transport coefficients are expressed in terms of by the turbulent kinetic energy K and its dissipation rate ε while K and ε are determined by transport equations. This anomalous transport model can describe some nonlocal effects such as those from boundary conditions which cannot be treated by conventional models based on the transport coefficients represented by locally determined plasma parameters. (author)
Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Porter, G.D.; Rognlien, T.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.
2001-01-01
Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the ExB drift speed, ion diamagnetism and nite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)
Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Por, G.D. ter; Rognlien, T.D.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.
1999-01-01
Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the E x B drift speed, ion diamagnetism and finite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)
Mantzaras, I; Benz, P; Schaeren, R; Bombach, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
The catalytically stabilised thermal combustion (CST) of lean hydrogen-air mixtures was investigated numerically in a turbulent channel flow configuration using a two-dimensional elliptic model with detailed heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions. Comparison between turbulent and laminar cases having the same incoming mean properties shows that turbulence inhibits homogeneous ignition due to increased heat transport away from the near-wall layer. The peak root-mean-square temperature and species fluctuations are always located outside the extent of the homogeneous reaction zone indicating that thermochemical fluctuations have no significant influence on gaseous combustion. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs.
Role of E x B Shear and Magnetic Shear in the Formation of Transport Barriers in DIII-D
Burrell, K.H.
2005-01-01
Development of the E x B shear stabilization model to explain the formation of transport barriers in magnetic confinement devices is a major achievement of fusion research. This concept has the universality needed to explain the H-mode edge transport barriers seen in limiter and divertor tokamaks, stellarators, and mirror machines; the broader edge transport barrier seen in VH-mode plasmas; and the core transport barriers formed in tokamaks with low or negative magnetic shear. These examples of confinement improvement are of considerable physical interest; it is not often that a system self-organizes to reduce transport when an additional source of free energy is applied to it. The transport decrease associated with E x B velocity shear is also of great practical benefit to fusion research. The fundamental physics involved in transport reduction is the effect of E x B shear on the growth, radial extent, and phase correlation of turbulent eddies in the plasma. The same basic transport reduction process can be operational in various portions of the plasma because there are a number of ways to change the radial electric field E r . An important theme in this area is the synergistic effect of E x B velocity shear and magnetic shear. Although the E x B velocity shear appears to have an effect on broader classes of microturbulence, magnetic shear can mitigate some potentially harmful effects of E x B velocity shear and facilitate turbulence stabilization. The experimental results on DIII-D and other devices are generally consistent with the basic theoretical models
Rai, Raj K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Pekour, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Kosovic, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Mirocha, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Ennis, Brandon L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
2017-12-01
The assumption of sub-grid scale (SGS) horizontal homogeneity within a model grid cell, which forms the basis of SGS turbulence closures used by mesoscale models, becomes increasingly tenuous as grid spacing is reduced to a few kilometers or less, such as in many emerging high-resolution applications. Herein, we use the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation to study the spatio-temporal variability in two types of terrain—complex (Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study [CBWES] site, north-eastern Oregon) and flat (ScaledWind Farm Technologies [SWiFT] site, west Texas) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In each case six-nested domains (three domains each for mesoscale and large-eddy simulation [LES]) are used to downscale the horizontal grid spacing from 10 km to 10 m using the WRF model framework. The model output was used to calculate the values of the TKE budget terms in vertical and horizontal planes as well as the averages of grid cells contained in the four quadrants (a quarter area) of the LES domain. The budget terms calculated along the planes and the mean profile of budget terms show larger spatial variability at CBWES site than at the SWiFT site. The contribution of the horizontal derivative of the shear production term to the total production shear was found to be 45% and 15% of the total shear, at the CBWES and SWiFT sites, respectively, indicating that the horizontal derivatives applied in the budget equation should not be ignored in mesoscale model parameterizations, especially for cases with complex terrain with <10 km scale.
Homogeneous instantons in bigravity
Zhang, Ying-li; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han
2015-01-01
We study homogeneous gravitational instantons, conventionally called the Hawking-Moss (HM) instantons, in bigravity theory. The HM instantons describe the amplitude of quantum tunneling from a false vacuum to the true vacuum. Corrections to General Relativity (GR) are found in a closed form. Using the result, we discuss the following two issues: reduction to the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity and the possibility of preference for a large e-folding number in the context of the Hartle-Hawking (HH) no-boundary proposal. In particular, concerning the dRGT limit, it is found that the tunneling through the so-called self-accelerating branch is exponentially suppressed relative to the normal branch, and the probability becomes zero in the dRGT limit. As far as HM instantons are concerned, this could imply that the reduction from bigravity to the dRGT massive gravity is ill-defined.
Nonlinear Flow Generation By Electrostatic Turbulence In Tokamaks
Wang, W.X.; Diamond, P.H.; Hahm, T.S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
2010-01-01
Global gyrokinetic simulations have revealed an important nonlinear flow generation process due to the residual stress produced by electrostatic turbulence of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM). In collisionless TEM (CTEM) turbulence, nonlinear residual stress generation by both the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of broken symmetry in the parallel wave number spectrum is identified for the first time. Concerning the origin of the symmetry breaking, turbulence self-generated low frequency zonal flow shear has been identified to be a key, universal mechanism in various turbulence regimes. Simulations reported here also indicate the existence of other mechanisms beyond E - B shear. The ITG turbulence driven 'intrinsic' torque associated with residual stress is shown to increase close to linearly with the ion temperature gradient, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations in various devices. In CTEM dominated regimes, a net toroidal rotation is driven in the cocurrent direction by 'intrinsic' torque, consistent with the experimental trend of observed intrinsic rotation. The finding of a 'flow pinch' in CTEM turbulence may offer an interesting new insight into the underlying dynamics governing the radial penetration of modulated flows in perturbation experiments. Finally, simulations also reveal highly distinct phase space structures between CTEM and ITG turbulence driven momentum, energy and particle fluxes, elucidating the roles of resonant and non-resonant particles.
Definition of Turbulent Boundary-Layer with Entropy Concept
Zhao Rui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the entropy increment and the viscosity dissipation in turbulent boundary-layer is systematically investigated. Through theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS, an entropy function fs is proposed to distinguish the turbulent boundary-layer from the external flow. This approach is proved to be reliable after comparing its performance in the following complex flows, namely, low-speed airfoil flows with different wall temperature, supersonic cavity-ramp flow dominated by the combination of free-shear layer, larger recirculation and shocks, and the hypersonic flow past an aeroplane configuration. Moreover, fs is deduced from the point of energy, independent of any particular turbulent quantities. That is, this entropy concept could be utilized by other engineering applications related with turbulent boundary-layer, such as turbulence modelling transition prediction and engineering thermal protection.
Turbulent flow simulation of the NREL S809 airfoil
Guerri, Ouahiba; Bouhadef, Khadidja; Harhad, Ameziane
2006-05-15
Numerical computations are carried out for the NREL S809 airfoil. The flow is modelled using an unsteady incompressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver. Two turbulence models (SST {kappa}/{omega}of Menter and RNG {kappa}/{epsilon}) are applied to close the RANS equations. All computations are performed assuming fully turbulent flow. The flow field is analyzed at various angles of attack from 0 to 20 degrees. Lift and drag forces are obtained from the computations by integrating the pressure and shear stress over the blade surface. The performance of the two turbulence models is compared and the influence of the free stream turbulence intensity is checked. The results confirm the satisfactory performance of the SST {kappa}/{omega} model of Menter for modelling turbulent flow around airfoils. (author)
Laminar turbulent transition in heated free jet
Krejci, L.; Marsik, F.; Nenicka, V.
1998-01-01
The evolution of heat and mass transfer in the initial region of a transitional plasma plume is investigated and discussed. The results show that these transport processes are controlled and limited by the plume shear layer instability. The process of laminar-turbulent transition is consecutively controlled by the plume core shear layer instability where interrelation of the effective thickness of the shear temperature and density layers play decisive role. When the absolute instability occurs the resonances in the jet and arc chamber must be taken into account. These processes are manifested in three events. Between the first and second phase, there is a maximum of arc heater exit average enthalpy. The other two thresholds occur at maximum and minimum stagnation heat flux from the plume core. It seems that these processes also influence the thermal energy production in the arc chamber cavity. (author)
Influence of equilibrium shear flow in the parallel magnetic direction on edge localized mode crash
Luo, Y.; Xiong, Y. Y. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Chen, S. Y., E-mail: sychen531@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, J.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)
2016-04-15
The influence of the parallel shear flow on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with the BOUT++ four-field code in this paper. The parallel shear flow has different effects in linear simulation and nonlinear simulation. In the linear simulations, the growth rate of edge localized mode (ELM) can be increased by Kelvin-Helmholtz term, which can be caused by the parallel shear flow. In the nonlinear simulations, the results accord with the linear simulations in the linear phase. However, the ELM size is reduced by the parallel shear flow in the beginning of the turbulence phase, which is recognized as the P-B filaments' structure. Then during the turbulence phase, the ELM size is decreased by the shear flow.
Richardson effects in turbulent buoyant flows
Biggi, Renaud; Blanquart, Guillaume
2010-11-01
Rayleigh Taylor instabilities are found in a wide range of scientific fields from supernova explosions to underwater hot plumes. The turbulent flow is affected by the presence of buoyancy forces and may not follow the Kolmogorov theory anymore. The objective of the present work is to analyze the complex interactions between turbulence and buoyancy. Towards that goal, simulations have been performed with a high order, conservative, low Mach number code [Desjardins et. al. JCP 2010]. The configuration corresponds to a cubic box initially filled with homogeneous isotropic turbulence with heavy fluid on top and light gas at the bottom. The initial turbulent field was forced using linear forcing up to a Reynolds number of Reλ=55 [Meneveau & Rosales, POF 2005]. The Richardson number based on the rms velocity and the integral length scale was varied from 0.1 to 10 to investigate cases with weak and strong buoyancy. Cases with gravity as a stabilizer of turbulence (gravity pointing up) were also considered. The evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and the total kinetic energy was analyzed and a simple phenomenological model was proposed. Finally, the energy spectra and the isotropy of the flow were also investigated.
Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources
Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.
2016-06-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.
Effects of the finite particle size in turbulent wall-bounded flows of dense suspensions
Costa, Pedro; Picano, Francesco; Brandt, Luca; Breugem, Wim-Paul
2018-05-01
We use interface-resolved simulations to study finite-size effects in turbulent channel flow of neutrally-buoyant spheres. Two cases with particle sizes differing by a factor of 2, at the same solid volume fraction of 20% and bulk Reynolds number are considered. These are complemented with two reference single-phase flows: the unladen case, and the flow of a Newtonian fluid with the effective suspension viscosity of the same mixture in the laminar regime. As recently highlighted in Costa et al. (PRL 117, 134501), a particle-wall layer is responsible for deviations of the statistics from what is observed in the continuum limit where the suspension is modeled as a Newtonian fluid with an effective viscosity. Here we investigate the fluid and particle dynamics in this layer and in the bulk. In the particle-wall layer, the near wall inhomogeneity has an influence on the suspension micro-structure over a distance proportional to the particle size. In this layer, particles have a significant (apparent) slip velocity that is reflected in the distribution of wall shear stresses. This is characterized by extreme events (both much higher and much lower than the mean). Based on these observations we provide a scaling for the particle-to-fluid apparent slip velocity as a function of the flow parameters. We also extend the flow scaling laws in to second-order Eulerian statistics in the homogeneous suspension region away from the wall. Finite-size effects in the bulk of the channel become important for larger particles, while negligible for lower-order statistics and smaller particles. Finally, we study the particle dynamics along the wall-normal direction. Our results suggest that 1-point dispersion is dominated by particle-turbulence (and not particle-particle) interactions, while differences in 2-point dispersion and collisional dynamics are consistent with a picture of shear-driven interactions.
Homogenization of discrete media
Pradel, F.; Sab, K. [CERAM-ENPC, Marne-la-Vallee (France)
1998-11-01
Material such as granular media, beam assembly are easily seen as discrete media. They look like geometrical points linked together thanks to energetic expressions. Our purpose is to extend discrete kinematics to the one of an equivalent continuous material. First we explain how we build the localisation tool for periodic materials according to estimated continuum medium type (classical Cauchy, and Cosserat media). Once the bridge built between discrete and continuum media, we exhibit its application over two bidimensional beam assembly structures : the honey comb and a structural reinforced variation. The new behavior is then applied for the simple plan shear problem in a Cosserat continuum and compared with the real discrete solution. By the mean of this example, we establish the agreement of our new model with real structures. The exposed method has a longer range than mechanics and can be applied to every discrete problems like electromagnetism in which relationship between geometrical points can be summed up by an energetic function. (orig.) 7 refs.
Pedrosa, M.A.; Hidalgo, C.; Alonso, A.; Calderon, E.; Orozco, O.; Pablos, J.L. de
2005-01-01
Experimental results have shown that the generation of spontaneous perpendicular sheared flow (i.e. the naturally occurring shear layer) requires a minimum plasma density or gradient in the TJ-II stellarator. This finding has been observed by means of multiple plasma diagnostics, including probes, fast cameras, reflectometry and HIBP. The obtained shearing rate of the naturally occurring shear layer results in general comparable to the one observed during biasing-improved confinement regimes. It has been found that there is a coupling between the onset of sheared flow development and an increase in the level of plasma edge fluctuations pointing to turbulence as the main ingredient of the radial electric field drive; once the shear flow develops the level of turbulence tends to decrease. The link between the development of sheared flows and plasma density in TJ-II has been observed in different magnetic configurations and plasma regimes. Preliminary results show that the threshold density value depends on the iota value and on the magnetic ripple (plasma volume). Recent experiments carried out in the LHD stellarator have shown that edge sheared flows are also affected by the magnitude of edge magnetic ripple: the threshold density to trigger edge sheared flows increases with magnetic ripple . Those results have been interpreted as an evidence of the importance of neoclassical effect in the physics of ExB sheared flows. For some TJ-II magnetic configurations with higher edge iota (ι/2π≥ 1.8) there is a sharp increase in the edge density gradient simultaneous to a strong reduction of fluctuations and transport and a slight increase of the shearing rate and perpendicular rotation (≥2 km/s) as density increases above the threshold. The role of the edge ripple, the presence of edge rational surfaces and properties of turbulent transport are considered as possible ingredients to explain the spontaneous development of edge sheared flows in TJ-II. (author)
Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation
Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.
2018-04-01
We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γLcase of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.
The relationship between continuum homogeneity and statistical homogeneity in cosmology
Stoeger, W.R.; Ellis, G.F.R.; Hellaby, C.
1987-01-01
Although the standard Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) Universe models are based on the concept that the Universe is spatially homogeneous, up to the present time no definition of this concept has been proposed that could in principle be tested by observation. Such a definition is here proposed, based on a simple spatial averaging procedure, which relates observable properties of the Universe to the continuum homogeneity idea that underlies the FLRW models. It turns out that the statistical homogeneity often used to describe the distribution of matter on a large scale does not imply spatial homogeneity according to this definition, and so cannot be simply related to a FLRW Universe model. Values are proposed for the homogeneity parameter and length scale of homogeneity of the Universe. (author)
Vortex locking in direct numerical simulations of quantum turbulence.
Morris, Karla; Koplik, Joel; Rouson, Damian W I
2008-07-04
Direct numerical simulations are used to examine the locking of quantized superfluid vortices and normal fluid vorticity in evolving turbulent flows. The superfluid is driven by the normal fluid, which undergoes either a decaying Taylor-Green flow or a linearly forced homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, although the back reaction of the superfluid on the normal fluid flow is omitted. Using correlation functions and wavelet transforms, we present numerical and visual evidence for vortex locking on length scales above the intervortex spacing.
A statistical theory on the turbulent diffusion of Gaussian puffs
Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S.E.; Pecseli, H.L.
1982-12-01
The relative diffusion of a one-dimensional Gaussian cloud of particles is related to a two-particle covariance function in a homogeneous and stationary field of turbulence. A simple working approximation is suggested for the determination of this covariance function in terms of entirely Eulerian fields. Simple expressions are derived for the growth of the puff's standard deviation for diffusion times that are small compared to the integral time scale of the turbulence. (Auth.)
Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct
Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M.; Murao, Y.
1995-01-01
Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods
Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct
Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Murao, Y. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan)] [and others
1995-09-01
Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.
Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abutment
Experimental investigation of the 3D turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld around a 45° wing-wall abutment, resting on a rough rigid bed, is reported. The experiment was conducted ... The shear stresses acting on the bed around the abutment are estimated from the Reynolds stresses and velocity gradients. The data presented in this study ...
Macro-scale turbulence modelling for flows in porous media
Pinson, F.
2006-03-01
- This work deals with the macroscopic modeling of turbulence in porous media. It concerns heat exchangers, nuclear reactors as well as urban flows, etc. The objective of this study is to describe in an homogenized way, by the mean of a spatial average operator, turbulent flows in a solid matrix. In addition to this first operator, the use of a statistical average operator permits to handle the pseudo-aleatory character of turbulence. The successive application of both operators allows us to derive the balance equations of the kind of flows under study. Two major issues are then highlighted, the modeling of dispersion induced by the solid matrix and the turbulence modeling at a macroscopic scale (Reynolds tensor and turbulent dispersion). To this aim, we lean on the local modeling of turbulence and more precisely on the k - ε RANS models. The methodology of dispersion study, derived thanks to the volume averaging theory, is extended to turbulent flows. Its application includes the simulation, at a microscopic scale, of turbulent flows within a representative elementary volume of the porous media. Applied to channel flows, this analysis shows that even within the turbulent regime, dispersion remains one of the dominating phenomena within the macro-scale modeling framework. A two-scale analysis of the flow allows us to understand the dominating role of the drag force in the kinetic energy transfers between scales. Transfers between the mean part and the turbulent part of the flow are formally derived. This description significantly improves our understanding of the issue of macroscopic modeling of turbulence and leads us to define the sub-filter production and the wake dissipation. A f - f - w >f model is derived. It is based on three balance equations for the turbulent kinetic energy, the viscous dissipation and the wake dissipation. Furthermore, a dynamical predictor for the friction coefficient is proposed. This model is then successfully applied to the study of
Coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence
Jiménez, Javier
2018-05-01
This article discusses the description of wall-bounded turbulence as a deterministic high-dimensional dynamical system of interacting coherent structures, defined as eddies with enough internal dynamics to behave relatively autonomously from any remaining incoherent part of the flow. The guiding principle is that randomness is not a property, but a methodological choice of what to ignore in the flow, and that a complete understanding of turbulence, including the possibility of control, requires that it be kept to a minimum. After briefly reviewing the underlying low-order statistics of flows at moderate Reynolds numbers, the article examines what two-point statistics imply for the decomposition of the flow into individual eddies. Intense eddies are examined next, including their temporal evolution, and shown to satisfy many of the properties required for coherence. In particular, it is shown that coherent structures larger than the Corrsin scale are a natural consequence of the shear. In wall-bounded turbulence, they can be classified into coherent dispersive waves and transient bursts. The former are found in the viscous layer near the wall and as very-large structures spanning the boundary layer thickness. Although they are shear-driven, these waves have enough internal structure to maintain a uniform advection velocity. Conversely, bursts exist at all scales, are characteristic of the logarithmic layer, and interact almost linearly with the shear. While the waves require a wall to determine their length scale, the bursts are essentially independent from it. The article concludes with a brief review of our present theoretical understanding of turbulent structures, and with a list of open problems and future perspectives.
High Reynolds Number Turbulence
Smits, Alexander J
2007-01-01
The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...
Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g-modes
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1993-08-01
Suppression of resistive g-mode turbulence by background shear flow generated from a small external flow source and amplified by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress is demonstrated and analyzed. The model leads to a paradigm for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement mode transition. To demonstrate the L-H transition model, single-helicity nonlinear fluid simulations using the vorticity equation for the electrostatic potential, the pressure fluctuation equation and the background poloidal flow equation are used in the sheared slab configuration. The relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the poloidal flow damping parameter ν which is given by neoclassical theory. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow and its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. In contrast, for small ν, we show that the fluctuations drive a Reynolds stress that becomes large and suddenly, at some critical point in time, shear flow much larger than the external flow is generated and leads to an abrupt, order unity reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is also found that, even in the case of no external flow, the shear flow generation due to the Reynolds stress occurs through the nonlinear interaction of the resistive g-modes and reduces the transport. To supplement the numerical solutions we derive the Landau equation for the mode amplitude of the resistive g-mode taking into account the fluctuation-induced shear flow and analyze the opposite action of the Reynolds stress in the resistive g turbulence compared with the classical shear flow Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) driven turbulence
Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob
2011-01-01
The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....
On Challenges for Hypersonic Turbulent Simulations
Yee, H.C.; Sjogreen, B.
2009-01-01
This short note discusses some of the challenges for design of suitable spatial numerical schemes for hypersonic turbulent flows, including combustion, and thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flows. Often, hypersonic turbulent flows in re-entry space vehicles and space physics involve mixed steady strong shocks and turbulence with unsteady shocklets. Material mixing in combustion poses additional computational challenges. Proper control of numerical dissipation in numerical methods beyond the standard shock-capturing dissipation at discontinuities is an essential element for accurate and stable simulations of the subject physics. On one hand, the physics of strong steady shocks and unsteady turbulence/shocklet interactions under the nonequilibrium environment is not well understood. On the other hand, standard and newly developed high order accurate (fourth-order or higher) schemes were developed for homogeneous hyperbolic conservation laws and mixed hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) (without source terms). The majority of finite rate chemistry and thermal nonequilibrium simulations employ methods for homogeneous time-dependent PDEs with a pointwise evaluation of the source terms. The pointwise evaluation of the source term might not be the best choice for stability, accuracy and minimization of spurious numerics for the overall scheme
Turbulent resistivity driven by the magnetorotational instability
Fromang, S.; Stone, J. M.
2009-11-01
Aims: We measure the turbulent resistivity in the nonlinear regime of the MRI, and evaluate the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number. Methods: We perform a set of numerical simulations with the Eulerian finite volume codes Athena and Ramses in the framework of the shearing box model. We consider models including explicit dissipation coefficients and magnetic field topologies such that the net magnetic flux threading the box in both the vertical and azimuthal directions vanishes. Results: We first demonstrate good agreement between the two codes by comparing the properties of the turbulent states in simulations having identical microscopic diffusion coefficients (viscosity and resistivity). We find the properties of the turbulence do not change when the box size is increased in the radial direction, provided it is elongated in the azimuthal direction. To measure the turbulent resistivity in the disk, we impose a fixed electromotive force on the flow and measure the amplitude of the saturated magnetic field that results. We obtain a turbulent resistivity that is in rough agreement with mean field theories like the Second Order Smoothing Approximation. The numerical value translates into a turbulent magnetic Prandtl number Pmt of order unity. Pmt appears to be an increasing function of the forcing we impose. It also becomes smaller as the box size is increased in the radial direction, in good agreement with previous results obtained in very large boxes. Conclusions: Our results are in general agreement with other recently published papers studying the same problem but using different methodology. Thus, our conclusion that Pmt is of order unity appears robust.
On the phase lag of turbulent dissipation in rotating tidal flows
Zhang, Qianjiang; Wu, Jiaxue
2018-03-01
Field observations of rotating tidal flows in a shallow tidally swept sea reveal that a notable phase lag of both shear production and turbulent dissipation increases with height above the seafloor. These vertical delays of turbulent quantities are approximately equivalent in magnitude to that of squared mean shear. The shear production approximately equals turbulent dissipation over the phase-lag column, and thus a main mechanism of phase lag of dissipation is mean shear, rather than vertical diffusion of turbulent kinetic energy. By relating the phase lag of dissipation to that of the mean shear, a simple formulation with constant eddy viscosity is developed to describe the phase lag in rotating tidal flows. An analytical solution indicates that the phase lag increases linearly with height subjected to a combined effect of tidal frequency, Coriolis parameter and eddy viscosity. The vertical diffusion of momentum associated with eddy viscosity produces the phase lag of squared mean shear, and resultant delay of turbulent quantities. Its magnitude is inhibited by Earth's rotation. Furthermore, a theoretical formulation of the phase lag with a parabolic eddy viscosity profile can be constructed. A first-order approximation of this formulation is still a linear function of height, and its magnitude is approximately 0.8 times that with constant viscosity. Finally, the theoretical solutions of phase lag with realistic viscosity can be satisfactorily justified by realistic phase lags of dissipation.
Hong, R.; Li, J. C.; Hajjar, R.; Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Diamond, P. H.; Tynan, G. R.
2018-05-01
Detailed measurements of intrinsic axial flow generation parallel to the magnetic field in the controlled shear decorrelation experiment linear plasma device with no axial momentum input are presented and compared to theory. The results show a causal link from the density gradient to drift-wave turbulence with broken spectral symmetry and development of the axial mean parallel flow. As the density gradient steepens, the axial and azimuthal Reynolds stresses increase and radially sheared azimuthal and axial mean flows develop. A turbulent axial momentum balance analysis shows that the axial Reynolds stress drives the radially sheared axial mean flow. The turbulent drive (Reynolds power) for the azimuthal flow is an order of magnitude greater than that for axial flow, suggesting that the turbulence fluctuation levels are set by azimuthal flow shear regulation. The direct energy exchange between axial and azimuthal mean flows is shown to be insignificant. Therefore, the axial flow is parasitic to the turbulence-zonal flow system and is driven primarily by the axial turbulent stress generated by that system. The non-diffusive, residual part of the axial Reynolds stress is found to be proportional to the density gradient and is formed due to dynamical asymmetry in the drift-wave turbulence.
Goldman, M.V.
1984-01-01
After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)
Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials
Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Malureanu, Radu; Lederer, Falk; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2010-01-01
Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as e.g. propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size a critical density exists above which increasing coupling between neighboring meta-atoms prevails a reasonable homogenization. On the contrary, a dilution in excess will induce features reminiscent to pho...
Bilipschitz embedding of homogeneous fractals
Lü, Fan; Lou, Man-Li; Wen, Zhi-Ying; Xi, Li-Feng
2014-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a class of fractals named homogeneous sets based on some measure versions of homogeneity, uniform perfectness and doubling. This fractal class includes all Ahlfors-David regular sets, but most of them are irregular in the sense that they may have different Hausdorff dimensions and packing dimensions. Using Moran sets as main tool, we study the dimensions, bilipschitz embedding and quasi-Lipschitz equivalence of homogeneous fractals.
Stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows
Grigoryev, Yurii N
2017-01-01
This book presents an in-depth systematic investigation of a dissipative effect which manifests itself as the growth of hydrodynamic stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows. The work describes the theoretical foundations of a new way to control stability and laminar turbulent transitions in aerodynamic flows. It develops hydrodynamic models for describing thermal nonequilibrium gas flows which allow the consideration of suppression of inviscid acoustic waves in 2D shear flows. Then, nonlinear evolution of large-scale vortices and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves in relaxing shear flows are studied. Critical Reynolds numbers in supersonic Couette flows are calculated analytically and numerically within the framework of both linear and nonlinear classical energy hydrodynamic stability theories. The calculations clearly show that the relaxation process can appreciably delay the laminar-turbulent transition. The aim of the book is to show the new dissipative effect, which can be used for flo...
Spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations in jet mixing layers
Jones, B. G.; Adrian, R. J.; Nithianandan, C. K.; Planchon, H. P., Jr.
1977-01-01
Spectral similarity laws are derived for the power spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations by application of dimensional analysis in the limit of large turbulent Reynolds number. The theory predicts that pressure spectra are generated by three distinct types of interaction in the velocity fields: a fourth order interaction between fluctuating velocities, an interaction between the first order mean shear and the third order velocity fluctuations, and an interaction between the second order mean shear rate and the second order fluctuating velocity. Measurements of one-dimensional power spectra of the turbulent static pressure fluctuations in the driven mixing layer of a subsonic, circular jet are presented, and the spectra are examined for evidence of spectral similarity. Spectral similarity is found for the low wavenumber range when the large scale flow on the centerline of the mixing layer is self-preserving. The data are also consistent with the existence of universal inertial subranges for the spectra of each interaction mode.
Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting flows: Theory and numerical simulations.
Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Liberman, M; Lipatnikov, A N; Rogachevskii, I; Yu, R
2017-11-01
The theory of turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures developed previously [T. Elperin et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 053001 (2014)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.90.053001] is generalized for large yet finite Reynolds numbers and the dependence of turbulent diffusion coefficient on two parameters, the Reynolds number and Damköhler number (which characterizes a ratio of turbulent and reaction time scales), is obtained. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a finite-thickness reaction wave for the first-order chemical reactions propagating in forced, homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible turbulence are performed to validate the theoretically predicted effect of chemical reactions on turbulent diffusion. It is shown that the obtained DNS results are in good agreement with the developed theory.
Evaporation of polydispersed droplets in a highly turbulent channel flow
Cochet, M.; Bazile, Rudy; Ferret, B.; Cazin, S. [INPT, UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Universite de Toulouse (France)
2009-09-15
A model experiment for the study of evaporating turbulent two-phase flows is presented here. The study focuses on a situation where pre-atomized and dispersed droplets vaporize and mix in a heated turbulent flow. The test bench consists in a channel flow with characteristics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence where fluctuations levels reach very high values (25% in the established zone). An ultrasonic atomizer allows the injection of a mist of small droplets of acetone in the carrier flow. The large range diameters ensure that every kind of droplet behavior with regards to turbulence is possible. Instantaneous concentration fields of the vaporized phase are extracted from fluorescent images (PLIF) of the two phase flow. The evolution of the mixing of the acetone vapor is analyzed for two different liquid mass loadings. Despite the high turbulence levels, concentration fluctuations remain significant, indicating that air and acetone vapor are not fully mixed far from the injector. (orig.)
Understanding Turbulence in Compressing Plasmas and Its Exploitation or Prevention
Davidovits, Seth
Unprecedented densities and temperatures are now achieved in compressions of plasma, by lasers and by pulsed power, in major experimental facilities. These compressions, carried out at the largest scale at the National Ignition Facility and at the Z Pulsed Power Facility, have important applications, including fusion, X-ray production, and materials research. Several experimental and simulation results suggest that the plasma in some of these compressions is turbulent. In fact, measurements suggest that in certain laboratory plasma compressions the turbulent energy is a dominant energy component. Similarly, turbulence is dominant in some compressing astrophysical plasmas, such as in molecular clouds. Turbulence need not be dominant to be important; even small quantities could greatly influence experiments that are sensitive to mixing of non-fuel into fuel, such as compressions seeking fusion ignition. Despite its important role in major settings, bulk plasma turbulence under compression is insufficiently understood to answer or even to pose some of the most fundamental questions about it. This thesis both identifies and answers key questions in compressing turbulent motion, while providing a description of the behavior of three-dimensional, isotropic, compressions of homogeneous turbulence with a plasma viscosity. This description includes a simple, but successful, new model for the turbulent energy of plasma undergoing compression. The unique features of compressing turbulence with a plasma viscosity are shown, including the sensitivity of the turbulence to plasma ionization, and a "sudden viscous dissipation'' effect which rapidly converts plasma turbulent energy into thermal energy. This thesis then examines turbulence in both laboratory compression experiments and molecular clouds. It importantly shows: the possibility of exploiting turbulence to make fusion or X-ray production more efficient; conditions under which hot-spot turbulence can be prevented; and a
Tokamak fluidlike equations, with applications to turbulence and transport in H mode discharges
Kim, Y.B.; Biglari, H.; Carreras, B.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Kwon, O.J.; Spong, D.A.; Callen, J.D.; Chang, Z.; Hollenberg, J.B.; Sundaram, A.K.; Terry, P.W.; Wang, J.F.
1990-01-01
Significant progress has been made in developing tokamak fluidlike equations which are valid in all collisionality regimes in toroidal devices, and their applications to turbulence and transport in tokamaks. The areas highlighted in this paper include: the rigorous derivation of tokamak fluidlike equations via a generalized Chapman-Enskog procedure in various collisionality regimes and on various time scales; their application to collisionless and collisional drift wave models in a sheared slab geometry; applications to neoclassical drift wave turbulence; i.e. neoclassical ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence and neoclassical electron-drift-wave turbulence; applications to neoclassical bootstrap-current-driven turbulence; numerical simulation of nonlinear bootstrap-current-driven turbulence and tearing mode turbulence; transport in Hot-Ion H mode discharges. 20 refs., 3 figs
Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Thompson, D. S. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2013-05-15
The spherical torus edge region is among the most challenging regimes for plasma turbulence simulations. Here, we measure the spatial and temporal properties of ion-scale turbulence in the steep gradient region of H-mode pedestals during edge localized mode-free, MHD quiescent periods in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Poloidal correlation lengths are about 10 ρ{sub i}, and decorrelation times are about 5 a/c{sub s}. Next, we introduce a model aggregation technique to identify parametric dependencies among turbulence quantities and transport-relevant plasma parameters. The parametric dependencies show the most agreement with transport driven by trapped-electron mode, kinetic ballooning mode, and microtearing mode turbulence, and the least agreement with ion temperature gradient turbulence. In addition, the parametric dependencies are consistent with turbulence regulation by flow shear and the empirical relationship between wider pedestals and larger turbulent structures.
The role of the intense vorticity structures in the turbulent structure of the jet edge
Reis, Ricardo J. N.; da Silva, Carlos B.; Pereira, José C. F.
In free shear flows (jets, mixing layers and wakes) there is an highly contorted interface dividing the turbulent from the non-turbulent flow: the turbulent/non-turbulent (T/NT) interface. Across this interface important exchanges of mass, momentum and heat take place, in a process known as turbulent entrainment. Recently, the classical idea of the turbulent entrainment caused by engulfing [1] have been questioned, and it has been shown that the entrainment is mainly caused by small scale eddy motions (nibbling) [2, 3]). However, it is still argued that the entrainment rate is still largely governed by the large scale motions induced by the intense vorticity structures (IVS). The goal of the present work is to assess characterize the geometry and analyze the influence of these large scales structures in shaping the turbulent/nonturbulent interface.
Magnetorotational Dynamo Action in the Shearing Box
Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav
2017-10-01
Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale nonzero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. NSF AGS-1261659, Vilas Associates Award, NSF-Teragrid Project TG-PHY110016.
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: the ``atom'' of geophysical turbulence?
Smyth, William
2017-11-01
Observations of small-scale turbulence in Earth's atmosphere and oceans have most commonly been interpreted in terms of the Kolmogorov theory of isotropic turbulence, despite the fact that the observed turbulence is significantly anisotropic due to density stratification and sheared large-scale flows. I will describe an alternative picture in which turbulence consists of distinct events that occur sporadically in space and time. The simplest model for an individual event is the ``Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) ansatz'', in which turbulence relieves the dynamic instability of a localized shear layer. I will summarize evidence that the KH ansatz is a valid description of observed turbulence events, using microstructure measurements from the equatorial Pacific ocean as an example. While the KH ansatz has been under study for many decades and is reasonably well understood, the bigger picture is much less clear. How are the KH events distributed in space and time? How do different events interact with each other? I will describe some tentative steps toward a more thorough understanding.
Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Dynamos
Shebalin, John V.
2014-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much
Turbulence modeling of natural convection in enclosures: A review
Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong O
2012-01-01
In this paper a review of recent developments of turbulence models for natural convection in enclosures is presented. The emphasis is placed on the effect of the treatments of Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux on the stability and accuracy of the solution for natural convection in enclosures. The turbulence models considered in the preset study are the two-layer k -ε model, the shear stress transport (SST) model, the elliptic-relaxation (V2-f) model and the elliptic-blending second-moment closure (EBM). Three different treatments of the turbulent heat flux are the generalized gradient diffusion hypothesis (GGDH), the algebraic flux model (AFM) and the differential flux model (DFM). The mathematical formulation of the above turbulence models and their solution method are presented. Evaluation of turbulence models are performed for turbulent natural convection in a 1:5 rectangular cavity ( Ra = 4.3x10 10 ) and in a square cavity with conducting top and bottom walls ( Ra =1.58x10 9 ) and the Rayleigh-Benard convection ( Ra = 2x10 6 ∼ Ra =10 9 ). The relative performances of turbulence models are examined and their successes and shortcomings are addressed
Progress in turbulence research
Bradshaw, P.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in experiments and eddy simulations, as an introduction to a discussion of turbulence modeling for engineers is reviewed. The most important advances in the last decade rely on computers: microcomputers to control laboratory experiments, especially for multidimensional imaging, and supercomputers to simulate turbulence. These basic studies in turbulence research are leading to genuine breakthroughs in prediction methods for engineers and earth scientists. The three main branches of turbulence research: experiments, simulations (numerically-accurate three-dimensional, time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, with any empiricism confined to the smallest eddies), and modeling (empirical closure of time-averaged equations for turbulent flow) are discussed. 33 refs
Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces
Wang, Chi R.
2005-01-01
This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one
On two-dimensionalization of three-dimensional turbulence in shell models
Chakraborty, Sagar; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Sarkar, A.
2010-01-01
Applying a modified version of the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada (GOY) shell model, the signatures of so-called two-dimensionalization effect of three-dimensional incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic fully developed unforced turbulence have been studied and reproduced. Within the framework of shell m......-similar PDFs for longitudinal velocity differences are also presented for the rotating 3D turbulence case....
Group-theoretical model of developed turbulence and renormalization of the Navier-Stokes equation.
Saveliev, V L; Gorokhovski, M A
2005-07-01
On the basis of the Euler equation and its symmetry properties, this paper proposes a model of stationary homogeneous developed turbulence. A regularized averaging formula for the product of two fields is obtained. An equation for the averaged turbulent velocity field is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation by renormalization-group transformation.
Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue
Yang, Yiqun
In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all
Simulation Of Microtearing Turbulence In NSTX
Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wanag, E.; Zhang, J.; Bell, R.E.; Crocker, N.A.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Ren, Y.; Yuh, H.
2012-01-01
Thermal energy confinement times in NSTX dimensionless parameter scans increase with decreasing collisionality. While ion thermal transport is neoclassical, the source of anomalous electron thermal transport in these discharges remains unclear, leading to considerable uncertainty when extrapolating to future ST devices at much lower collisionality. Linear gyrokinetic simulations find microtearing modes to be unstable in high collisionality discharges. First non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence in NSTX show they can yield experimental levels of transport. Magnetic flutter is responsible for almost all the transport (∼98%), perturbed field line trajectories are globally stochastic, and a test particle stochastic transport model agrees to within 25% of the simulated transport. Most significantly, microtearing transport is predicted to increase with electron collisionality, consistent with the observed NSTX confinement scaling. While this suggests microtearing modes may be the source of electron thermal transport, the predictions are also very sensitive to electron temperature gradient, indicating the scaling of the instability threshold is important. In addition, microtearing turbulence is susceptible to suppression via sheared E-B flows as experimental values of E-B shear (comparable to the linear growth rates) dramatically reduce the transport below experimental values. Refinements in numerical resolution and physics model assumptions are expected to minimize the apparent discrepancy. In cases where the predicted transport is strong, calculations suggest that a proposed polarimetry diagnostic may be sensitive to the magnetic perturbations associated with the unique structure of microtearing turbulence.
A theoretical description of inhomogeneous turbulence
Turner, L.
2000-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this LDRD, we have developed a highly compact and descriptive formalism that allows us to broach the theoretically formidable morass of inhomogeneous turbulence. Our formalism has two novel aspects: (a) an adaptation of helicity basis functions to represent an arbitrary incompressible channel flow and (b) the invocation of a hypothesis of random phase. A result of this compact formalism is that the mathematical description of inhomogeneous turbulence looks much like that of homogeneous turbulence--at the moment, the most rigorously explored terrain in turbulence research. As a result, we can explore the effect of boundaries on such important quantities as the gradients of mean flow, mean pressure, triple-velocity correlations and pressure velocity correlations, all of which vanish under the conventional, but artificial, assumption that the turbulence is statistically spatially uniform. Under suitable conditions, we have predicted that a mean flow gradient can develop even when none is initially present
Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence
Shen Zhi; Zhang Zhaoshun; Cui Guixiang; Xu Chunxiao
2011-01-01
Stably stratified turbulence is a common phenomenon in atmosphere and ocean. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating homogeneous stably stratified turbulence numerically at Reynolds number Re = uL/v = 10 2 ∼10 3 and Froude number Fr = u/NL = 10 −2 ∼10 0 in which u is root mean square of velocity fluctuations, L is integral scale and N is Brunt-Vaïsälä frequency. Three sets of computation cases are designed with different initial conditions, namely isotropic turbulence, Taylor Green vortex and internal waves, to investigate the statistical properties from different origins. The computed horizontal and vertical energy spectra are consistent with observation in atmosphere and ocean when the composite parameter ReFr 2 is greater than O(1). It has also been found in this paper that the stratification turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominated in the developed stably stratified turbulence.
Compressibility effects on turbulent mixing
Panickacheril John, John; Donzis, Diego
2016-11-01
We investigate the effect of compressibility on passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence with a focus on the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for such effects using a large Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database. The database includes simulations with Taylor Reynolds number (Rλ) up to 100, turbulent Mach number (Mt) between 0.1 and 0.6 and Schmidt number (Sc) from 0.5 to 1.0. We present several measures of mixing efficiency on different canonical flows to robustly identify compressibility effects. We found that, like shear layers, mixing is reduced as Mach number increases. However, data also reveal a non-monotonic trend with Mt. To assess directly the effect of dilatational motions we also present results with both dilatational and soleniodal forcing. Analysis suggests that a small fraction of dilatational forcing decreases mixing time at higher Mt. Scalar spectra collapse when normalized by Batchelor variables which suggests that a compressive mechanism similar to Batchelor mixing in incompressible flows might be responsible for better mixing at high Mt and with dilatational forcing compared to pure solenoidal mixing. We also present results on scalar budgets, in particular on production and dissipation. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.
Homogeneous versus heterogeneous zeolite nucleation
Dokter, W.H.; Garderen, van H.F.; Beelen, T.P.M.; Santen, van R.A.; Bras, W.
1995-01-01
Aggregates of fractal dimension were found in the intermediate gel phases that organize prior to nucleation and crystallization (shown right) of silicalite from a homogeneous reaction mixture. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies prove that for zeolites nucleation may be homogeneous or
Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers.
Schick, C; Androsch, R; Schmelzer, J W P
2017-11-15
The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 10 6 K s -1 , allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation.
Homogenization theory in reactor lattices
Benoist, P.
1986-02-01
The purpose of the theory of homogenization of reactor lattices is to determine, by the mean of transport theory, the constants of a homogeneous medium equivalent to a given lattice, which allows to treat the reactor as a whole by diffusion theory. In this note, the problem is presented by laying emphasis on simplicity, as far as possible [fr
Non-gyrotropic pressure anisotropy induced by velocity shear.
Tenerani, A.; Del Sarto, D.; Pegoraro, F.; Califano, F.
2015-12-01
We discuss how, in a collisionless magnetized plasma, a sheared velocity field may lead to the anisotropization of an initial Maxwellian state. By including the full pressure tensor dynamics in a fluid plasma model, we show, analytically and numerically, that a sheared velocity field makes an initial isotropic state anisotropic and non-gyrotropic [1], i.e., makes the plasma pressure tensor anisotropic also in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The propagation of transverse magneto-elastic waves in the anisotropic plasma affects the process of formation of a non-gyrotropic pressure and can lead to its spatial filamentation. This plasma dynamics implies in particular that isotropic MHD equilibria cease to be equilibria in presence of a stationary sheared flow. Similarly, in the case of turbulence, where small-scale spatial inhomogeneities are naturally developed during the direct cascade, we may expect that isotropic turbulent states are not likely to exist whenever a full pressure tensor evolution is accounted for. These results may be relevant to understanding the agyrotropic pressure configurations which are well documented in solar wind measurements and possibly correlated to plasma flows (see e.g. Refs.[2,3]), and which have also been measured in Vlasov simulations of Alfvenic turbulence [4]. [1] D. Del Sarto, F. Pegoraro, F. Califano, "Pressure anisotropy and small spatial scales induced by a velocity shear", http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.04895 [2] H.F. Astudillo, E. Marsch, S. Livi, H. Rosenbauer, "TAUS measurements of non-gyrotropic distribution functions of solar wind alpha particles", AIP Conf. Proc. 328, 289 (1996). [3] A. Posner, M.W. Liemhon, T.H. Zurbuchen, "Upstream magnetospheric ion flux tube within a magnetic cloud: Wind/STICS", Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, (2003). [4] S. Servidio, F. Valentini, F. Califano, P. Veltri, "Local kinetic effects in Two-Dimensional Plasma Turbulence", Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045001 (2012).
Wang, Chi R.; Yeh, Frederick C.
1987-01-01
A theoretical analysis and numerical calculations for the turbulent flow field and for the effect of free-stream turbulence on the surface heat transfer rate of a stagnation flow are presented. The emphasis is on the modeling of turbulence and its augmentation of surface heat transfer rate. The flow field considered is the region near the forward stagnation point of a circular cylinder in a uniform turbulent mean flow. The free stream is steady and incompressible with a Reynolds number of the order of 10 to the 5th power and turbulence intensity of less than 5 percent. For this analysis, the flow field is divided into three regions: (1) a uniform free-stream region where the turbulence is homogeneous and isotropic; (2) an external viscid flow region where the turbulence is distorted by the variation of the mean flow velocity; and, (3) an anisotropic turbulent boundary layer region over the cylinder surface. The turbulence modeling techniques used are the kappa-epsilon two-equation model in the external flow region and the time-averaged turbulence transport equation in the boundary layer region. The turbulence double correlations, the mean velocity, and the mean temperature within the boundary layer are solved numerically from the transport equations. The surface heat transfer rate is calculated as functions of the free-stream turbulence longitudinal microlength scale, the turbulence intensity, and the Reynolds number.
Determination of wall shear stress from mean velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles
Volino, Ralph J.; Schultz, Michael P.
2018-03-01
An analytical method is presented for determining the Reynolds shear stress profile in steady, two-dimensional wall-bounded flows using the mean streamwise velocity. The method is then utilized with experimental data to determine the local wall shear stress. The procedure is applicable to flows on smooth and rough surfaces with arbitrary pressure gradients. It is based on the streamwise component of the boundary layer momentum equation, which is transformed into inner coordinates. The method requires velocity profiles from at least two streamwise locations, but the formulation of the momentum equation reduces the dependence on streamwise gradients. The method is verified through application to laminar flow solutions and turbulent DNS results from both zero and nonzero pressure gradient boundary layers. With strong favorable pressure gradients, the method is shown to be accurate for finding the wall shear stress in cases where the Clauser fit technique loses accuracy. The method is then applied to experimental data from the literature from zero pressure gradient studies on smooth and rough walls, and favorable and adverse pressure gradient cases on smooth walls. Data from very near the wall are not required for determination of the wall shear stress. Wall friction velocities obtained using the present method agree with those determined in the original studies, typically to within 2%.
Ghannam, Khaled
The atmospheric boundary-layer is the lowest 500-2000 m of the Earth's atmosphere where much of human life and ecosystem services reside. This layer responds to land surface (e.g. buoyancy and roughness elements) and slowly evolving free tropospheric (e.g. temperature and humidity lapse rates) conditions that arguably mediate and modulate biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Such response often results in spatially- and temporally-rich turbulence scales that continue to be the subject of inquiry given their significance to a plethora of applications in environmental sciences and engineering. The work here addresses key aspects of boundary layer turbulence with a focus on the role of roughness elements (vegetation canopies) and buoyancy (surface heating) in modifying the well-studied picture of shear-dominated wall-bounded turbulence. A combination of laboratory channel experiments, field experiments, and numerical simulations are used to explore three distinct aspects of boundary layer turbulence. These are: • The concept of ergodicity in turbulence statistics within canopies: It has been long-recognized that homogeneous and stationary turbulence is ergodic, but less is known about the effects of inhomogeneity introduced by the presence of canopies on the turbulence statistics. A high resolution (temporal and spatial) flume experiment is used here to test the convergence of the time statistics of turbulent scalar concentrations to their ensemble (spatio-temporal) counterpart. The findings indicate that within-canopy scalar statistics have a tendency to be ergodic, mostly in shallow layers (close to canopy top) where the sweeping flow events appear to randomize the statistics. Deeper layers within the canopy are dominated by low-dimensional (quasi-deterministic) von Karman vortices that tend to break ergodicity. • Scaling laws of turbulent velocity spectra and structure functions in near-surface atmospheric turbulence: the existence of a logarithmic scaling in the
Velocity-pressure correlation measurements in complex free shear flows
Naka, Yoshitsugu; Obi, Shinnosuke
2009-01-01
Simultaneous measurements of fluctuating velocity and pressure were performed in various turbulent free shear flows including a turbulent mixing layer and the wing-tip vortex trailing from a NACA0012 half-wing. Two different methods for fluctuating static pressure measurement were considered: a direct method using a miniature Pitot tube and an indirect method where static pressure was calculated from total pressure. The pressure obtained by either of these methods was correlated with the velocity measured by an X-type hot-wire probe. The results from these two techniques agreed with each other in the turbulent mixing layer. In the wing-tip vortex case, however, some discrepancies were found, although overall characteristics of the pressure-related statistics were adequately captured by both methods.
Velocity and shear stress distribution downstream of mechanical heart valves in pulsatile flow.
Giersiepen, M; Krause, U; Knott, E; Reul, H; Rau, G
1989-04-01
Ten mechanical valves (TAD 27 mm): Starr-Edwards Silastic Ball, Björk-Shiley Standard, Björk-Shiley Concave-Convex, Björk-Shiley Monostrut, Hall-Kaster (Medtronic-Hall), OmniCarbon, Bicer Val, Sorin, Saint-Jude Medical and Hemex (Duromedics) are investigated in a comparative in vitro study. The velocity and turbulent shear stress profiles of the valves were determined by Laser Doppler anemometry in two different downstream axes within a model aortic root. Depending on the individual valve design, velocity peaks up to 1.5 m/s and turbulent shear stress peaks up to 150 N/m2 were measured during the systolic phase. These shear stress peaks mainly occurred in areas of flow separation and intense momentum exchange. Directly downstream of the valves (measuring axis 0.55.dAorta) turbulent shear stress peaks occurred at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, while in the second measuring axis (1.5.dAorta) turbulence levels were lower. Shear stress levels were high at the borders of the fluid jets. The results are discussed from a fluid-dynamic point of view.
3D fluid simulations of tokamak edge turbulence
Zeiler, A.; Biskamp, D.; Drake, J.F.; Guzdar, P.N.
1995-09-01
3D simulations of drift resistive ballooning turbulence are presented. The turbulence is basically controlled by a parameter α, the ratio of the drift wave frequency to the ideal ballooning growth rate. If this parameters is small (α≤1, corresponding to Ohmic or L-mode plasmas), the system is dominated by ballooning turbulence, which is strongly peaked at the outside of the torus. If it is large (α≥1, corresponding to H-mode plasmas) field line curvature plays a minor role. The turbulence is nonlinearly sustained even if curvature is removed and all modes are linearly stable due to magnetic shear. In the nonlinear regime without curvature the system obeys a different scaling law compared to the low α regime. The transport scaling is discussed in both regimes and the implications for OH-, L-mode and H-mode transport are discussed. (orig.)
Regulation of ETG turbulence by TEM driven zonal flows
Asahi, Yuuichi; Ishizawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji
2013-10-01
Anomalous heat transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It is found that the ETG turbulence can be suppressed by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs). The TEMs appear in a statistically steady state of ETG turbulence and generate zonal flows, while its growth rate is much smaller than those of ETGs. The TEM-driven zonal flows with lower radial wave numbers are more strongly generated than those driven by ETG modes, because of the higher zonal flow response to a density source term. An ExB shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is strong enough to suppress the long-wavelength ETG modes which make the main contribution to the turbulent transport.
Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings
Timashev, DA
2011-01-01
Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em
Momentum transport in gyrokinetic turbulence
Buchholz, Rico
2016-07-01
In this thesis, the gyrokinetic-Vlasov code GKW is used to study turbulent transport, with a focus on radial transport of toroidal momentum. To support the studies on turbulent transport an eigenvalue solver has been implemented into GKW. This allows to find, not only the most unstable mode, but also subdominant modes. Furthermore it is possible to follow the modes in parameter scans. Furthermore, two fundamental mechanisms that can generate an intrinsic rotation have been investigated: profile shearing and the velocity nonlinearity. The study of toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak due to profile shearing reveals that the momentum flux can not be accurately described by the gradient in the turbulent intensity. Consequently, a description using the profile variation is used. A linear model has been developed that is able to reproduce the variations in the momentum flux as the profiles of density and temperature vary, reasonably well. It uses, not only the gradient length of density and temperature profile, but also their derivative, i.e. the second derivative of the logarithm of the temperature and the density profile. It is shown that both first as well as second derivatives contribute to the generation of a momentum flux. A difference between the linear and nonlinear simulations has been found with respect to the behaviour of the momentum flux. In linear simulations the momentum flux is independent of the normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}, whereas it is linear in ρ{sub *} for nonlinear simulations, provided ρ{sub *} is small enough (≤4.10{sup -3}). Nonlinear simulations reveal that the profile shearing can generate an intrinsic rotation comparable to that of current experiments. Under reactor conditions, however, the intrinsic rotation from the profile shearing is expected to be small due to the small normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}
Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III
1996-01-01
The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.
Hidden imperfect synchronization of wall turbulence.
Tardu, Sedat F
2010-03-01
Instantaneous amplitude and phase concept emerging from analytical signal formulation is applied to the wavelet coefficients of streamwise velocity fluctuations in the buffer layer of a near wall turbulent flow. Experiments and direct numerical simulations show both the existence of long periods of inert zones wherein the local phase is constant. These regions are separated by random phase jumps. The local amplitude is globally highly intermittent, but not in the phase locked regions wherein it varies smoothly. These behaviors are reminiscent of phase synchronization phenomena observed in stochastic chaotic systems. The lengths of the constant phase inert (laminar) zones reveal a type I intermittency behavior, in concordance with saddle-node bifurcation, and the periodic orbits of saddle nature recently identified in Couette turbulence. The imperfect synchronization is related to the footprint of coherent Reynolds shear stress producing eddies convecting in the low buffer.
On temperature spectra in grid turbulence
Jayesh; Tong, C.; Warhaft, Z.
1994-01-01
This paper reports wind tunnel measurements of passive temperature spectra in decaying grid generated turbulence both with and without a mean transverse temperature gradient. The measurements cover a turbulence Reynolds number range 60 l 3/4 l . The remarkably low Reynolds number onset (Re l ∼70) of Kolmogorov--Obukhov--Corrsin scaling in isotropic grid turbulence is contrasted to the case of scalars in (anisotropic) shear flows where KOC scaling only appears at very high-Reynolds numbers (Re l ∼10 5 ). It is also shown that when the temperature fluctuations are inserted very close to the grid in the absence of a gradient (by means of a mandoline), the temperature spectrum behaves in a similar way to the linear gradient case, i.e., a spectrum with a scaling exponent close to -5/3 is observed, a result noted earlier in heated grid experiments. However, when the scalar is inserted farther downstream of the grid (in the fully developed turbulence), the spectrum has a scaling region of -1.3 and its dilation with Re is less well defined than for the other cases. The velocity spectrum is also shown to have a scaling region, of slope -1.3, and its onset occurs at higher Reynolds number than for the case of the scalar experiments that exhibit the KOC scaling
Regeneration of near-wall turbulence structures
Hamilton, James M.; Kim, John J.; Waleffe, Fabian A.
1993-01-01
An examination of the regeneration mechanisms of near-wall turbulence and an attempt to investigate the critical Reynolds number conjecture of Waleffe & Kim is presented. The basis is an extension of the 'minimal channel' approach of Jimenez and Moin which emphasizes the near-wall region and further reduces the complexity of the turbulent flow. Reduction of the flow Reynolds number to the minimum value which will allow turbulence to be sustained has the effect of reducing the ratio of the largest scales to the smallest scales or, equivalently, of causing the near-wall region to fill more of the area between the channel walls. In addition, since each wall may have an active near-wall region, half of the channel is always somewhat redundant. If a plane Couette flow is instead chosen as the base flow, this redundancy is eliminated: the mean shear of a plane Couette flow has a single sign, and at low Reynolds numbers, the two wall regions share a single set of structures. A minimal flow with these modifications possesses, by construction, the strongest constraints which allow sustained turbulence, producing a greatly simplified flow in which the regeneration process can be examined.
Turbulent mixing in nonreactive and reactive flows
1975-01-01
Turbulence, mixing and the mutual interaction of turbulence and chemistry continue to remain perplexing and impregnable in the fron tiers of fluid mechanics. The past ten years have brought enormous advances in computers and computational techniques on the one hand and in measurements and data processing on the other. The impact of such capabilities has led to a revolution both in the understanding of the structure of turbulence as well as in the predictive methods for application in technology. The early ideas on turbulence being an array of complicated phenomena and having some form of reasonably strong coherent struc ture have become well substantiated in recent experimental work. We are still at the very beginning of understanding all of the aspects of such coherence and of the possibilities of incorporating such structure into the analytical models for even those cases where the thin shear layer approximation may be valid. Nevertheless a distinguished body of "eddy chasers" has come into existence. T...
Statistics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in a spatially developing mixing layer
Attili, Antonio
2014-06-02
The thin interface separating the inner turbulent region from the outer irrotational fluid is analysed in a direct numerical simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. A vorticity threshold is defined to detect the interface separating the turbulent from the non-turbulent regions of the flow, and to calculate statistics conditioned on the distance from this interface. The conditional statistics for velocity are in remarkable agreement with the results for other free shear flows available in the literature, such as turbulent jets and wakes. In addition, an analysis of the passive scalar field in the vicinity of the interface is presented. It is shown that the scalar has a jump at the interface, even stronger than that observed for velocity. The strong jump for the scalar has been observed before in the case of high Schmidt number (Sc). In the present study, such a strong jump is observed for a scalar with Sc ≈ 1. Conditional statistics of kinetic energy and scalar dissipation are presented. While the kinetic energy dissipation has its maximum far from the interface, the scalar dissipation is characterised by a strong peak very close to the interface. Finally, it is shown that the geometric features of the interfaces correlate with relatively large scale structures as visualised by low-pressure isosurfaces. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow
Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.
2012-01-01
The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.
Flame Speed and Self-Similar Propagation of Expanding Turbulent Premixed Flames
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.
2012-01-01
In this Letter we present turbulent flame speeds and their scaling from experimental measurements on constant-pressure, unity Lewis number expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and the thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from the present expanding flames and those from the Bunsen geometry in the literature can be unified by a turbulent Reynolds number based on flame length scales using recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the transformed G equation.
Physics of turbulence control and transport barrier formation in DIII-D
Doyle, E.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.
1996-10-01
This paper describes the physical mechanisms responsible for turbulence control and transport barrier formation on DIII-D as determined from a synthesis of results from different enhanced confinement regimes, including quantitative and qualitative comparisons to theory. A wide range of DIII-D data support the hypothesis that a single underlying physical mechanism, turbulence suppression via E x B shear flow is playing an essential, though not necessarily unique, role in reducing turbulence and transport in all of the following improved confinement regimes: H-mode, VH-mode, high-ell i modes, improved performance counter-injection L-mode discharges and high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges. DIII-D data also indicate that synergistic effects are important in some cases, as in NCS discharges where negative magnetic shear also plays a role in transport barrier formation. This work indicates that in order to control turbulence and transport it is important to focus on understanding physical mechanisms, such as E x B shear, which can regulate and control entire classes of turbulent modes, and thus control transport. In the highest performance DIII-D discharges, NCS plasmas with a VH-mode like edge, turbulence is suppressed at all radii, resulting in neoclassical levels of ion transport over most of the plasma volume
Turbulence generation by waves
Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.
STOCHASTIC PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN TURBULENCE GENERATED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY
Kimura, Shigeo S.; Toma, Kenji [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: shigeo@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)
2016-05-10
We investigate stochastic particle acceleration in accretion flows. It is believed that magnetorotational instability (MRI) generates turbulence inside accretion flows and that cosmic rays (CRs) are accelerated by the turbulence. We calculate equations of motion for CRs in the turbulent fields generated by MRI with the shearing box approximation and without back reaction to the field. Our results show that the CRs randomly gain or lose their energy through interaction with the turbulent fields. The CRs diffuse in the configuration space anisotropically: the diffusion coefficient in the direction of the unperturbed flow is about 20 times higher than the Bohm coefficient, while those in the other directions are only a few times higher than the Bohm. The momentum distribution is isotropic and its evolution can be described by the diffusion equation in momentum space where the diffusion coefficient is a power-law function of the CR momentum. We show that the shear acceleration works efficiently for energetic particles. We also cautiously note that in the shearing box approximation, particles that cross the simulation box many times along the radial direction undergo unphysical runaway acceleration by the Lorentz transformation, which needs to be taken into account with special care.
Edge-Induced Shear Banding in Entangled Polymeric Fluids.
Hemingway, Ewan J; Fielding, Suzanne M
2018-03-30
Despite decades of research, the question of whether solutions and melts of highly entangled polymers exhibit shear banding as their steady state response to a steadily imposed shear flow remains controversial. From a theoretical viewpoint, an important unanswered question is whether the underlying constitutive curve of shear stress σ as a function of shear rate γ[over ˙] (for states of homogeneous shear) is monotonic, or has a region of negative slope, dσ/dγ[over ˙]<0, which would trigger banding. Attempts to settle the question experimentally via velocimetry of the flow field inside the fluid are often confounded by an instability of the free surface where the sample meets the outside air, known as "edge fracture." Here we show by numerical simulation that in fact even only very modest edge disturbances-which are the precursor of full edge fracture but might well, in themselves, go unnoticed experimentally-can cause strong secondary flows in the form of shear bands that invade deep into the fluid bulk. Crucially, this is true even when the underlying constitutive curve is monotonically increasing, precluding true bulk shear banding in the absence of edge effects.
Effects of forcing in three-dimensional turbulent flows
Biferale, L.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.
2004-01-01
We present the results of a numerical investigation of three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, stirred by a random forcing with a power-law spectrum, Ef(k)~k3-y. Numerical simulations are performed at different resolutions up to 5123. We show that at varying the spectrum slope y,
Qualitative analysis of homogeneous universes
Novello, M.; Araujo, R.A.
1980-01-01
The qualitative behaviour of cosmological models is investigated in two cases: Homogeneous and isotropic Universes containing viscous fluids in a stokesian non-linear regime; Rotating expanding universes in a state which matter is off thermal equilibrium. (Author) [pt
A second stage homogenization method
Makai, M.
1981-01-01
A second homogenization is needed before the diffusion calculation of the core of large reactors. Such a second stage homogenization is outlined here. Our starting point is the Floquet theorem for it states that the diffusion equation for a periodic core always has a particular solution of the form esup(j)sup(B)sup(x) u (x). It is pointed out that the perturbation series expansion of function u can be derived by solving eigenvalue problems and the eigenvalues serve to define homogenized cross sections. With the help of these eigenvalues a homogenized diffusion equation can be derived the solution of which is cos Bx, the macroflux. It is shown that the flux can be expressed as a series of buckling. The leading term in this series is the well known Wigner-Seitz formula. Finally three examples are given: periodic absorption, a cell with an absorber pin in the cell centre, and a cell of three regions. (orig.)
Homogenization methods for heterogeneous assemblies
Wagner, M.R.
1980-01-01
The third session of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting is concerned with the problem of homogenization of heterogeneous assemblies. Six papers will be presented on the theory of homogenization and on practical procedures for deriving homogenized group cross sections and diffusion coefficients. That the problem of finding so-called ''equivalent'' diffusion theory parameters for the use in global reactor calculations is of great practical importance. In spite of this, it is fair to say that the present state of the theory of second homogenization is far from being satisfactory. In fact, there is not even a uniquely accepted approach to the problem of deriving equivalent group diffusion parameters. Common agreement exists only about the fact that the conventional flux-weighting technique provides only a first approximation, which might lead to acceptable results in certain cases, but certainly does not guarantee the basic requirement of conservation of reaction rates
Spinor structures on homogeneous spaces
Lyakhovskii, V.D.; Mudrov, A.I.
1993-01-01
For multidimensional models of the interaction of elementary particles, the problem of constructing and classifying spinor fields on homogeneous spaces is exceptionally important. An algebraic criterion for the existence of spinor structures on homogeneous spaces used in multidimensional models is developed. A method of explicit construction of spinor structures is proposed, and its effectiveness is demonstrated in examples. The results are of particular importance for harmonic decomposition of spinor fields
A personal view on homogenization
Tartar, L.
1987-02-01
The evolution of some ideas is first described. Under the name homogenization are collected all the mathematical results who help understanding the relations between the microstructure of a material and its macroscopic properties. Homogenization results are given through a critically detailed bibliography. The mathematical models given are systems of partial differential equations, supposed to describe some properties at a scale ε and we want to understand what will happen to the solutions if ε tends to 0
Bentaleb, Y.; Leschziner, M.A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • We study a spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer. • We impose a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient. • A collateral flow is formed close to the wall, and this is investigated alongside the skewed upper part of the boundary layer. • A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied. -- Abstract: A spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer, subjected to a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient, equivalent to a body force, is investigated by way of direct numerical simulation. The pressure gradient, prescribed to change its sign half-way along the boundary layer, provokes strong skewing of the velocity vector, with a layer of nearly collateral flow forming close to the wall up to the position of maximum spanwise velocity. A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied, with particular emphasis on the near-wall layer, including second-moments, major budget contributions and wall-normal two-point correlations of velocity fluctuations and their angles, relative to wall-shear fluctuations. The results illustrate the complexity caused by skewing, including a damping in turbulent mixing and a significant lag between strains and stresses. The study has been undertaken in the context of efforts to develop and test novel hybrid LES–RANS schemes for non-equilibrium near-wall flows, with an emphasis on three-dimensional near-wall straining. Fundamental flow-physical issues aside, the data derived should be of particular relevance to a priori studies of second-moment RANS closure and the development and validation of RANS-type near-wall approximations implemented in LES schemes for high-Reynolds-number complex flows
Influence of gravity on inertial particle clustering in turbulence
Lu, J.; Nordsiek, H.; Saw, E. W.; Fugal, J. P.; Shaw, R. A.
2008-11-01
We report results from experiments aimed at studying inertial particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, under the influence of gravitational settling. Conditions are selected to investigate the transition from negligible role of gravity to gravitationally dominated, as is expected to occur in atmospheric clouds. We measure droplet clustering, relative velocities, and the distribution of collision angles in this range. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory chamber with nearly homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The turbulence is characterized using LDV and 2-frame holographic particle tracking velocimetry. We seed the flow with particles of various Stokes and Froude numbers and use digital holography to obtain 3D particle positions and velocities. From particle positions, we investigate the impact of gravity on inertial clustering through the calculation of the radial distribution function and we compare to computational results and other recent experiments.
Plasma Turbulence General Topics
Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)
1965-06-15
It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.
Hansen, Klaus
This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...
Sheared Electroconvective Instability
Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon
2012-11-01
Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.
Biver, E.; Sims, J.
1997-01-01
This paper, originally presented at the WM'96 Conference in Tucson Arizona, describes a concept of a specialised decommissioning tool designed to operate underwater and to reduce the volume of radioactive components by shearing and compacting. The shear compactor was originally conceived to manage the size reduction of a variety of decommissioned stainless steel tubes stored within a reactor fuel cooling pond and which were consuming a substantial volume of the pond. The main objective of this tool was to cut the long tubes into shorter lengths and to compact them into a flat rectangular form which could be stacked on the pond floor, thus saving valuable space. The development programme, undertaken on this project, investigated a wide range of factors which could contribute to an extended cutting blade performance, ie: materials of construction, cutting blade shape and cutting loads required, shock effects, etc. The second phase was to review other aspects of the design, such as radiological protection, cutting blade replacement, maintenance, pond installation and resultant wall loads, water hydraulics, collection of products of shearing/compacting operations, corrosion of the equipment, control system, operational safety and the ability of the equipment to operate in dry environments. The paper summarises the extended work programme involved with this shear compactor tool. (author)
Chaotic Lagrangian models for turbulent relative dispersion.
Lacorata, Guglielmo; Vulpiani, Angelo
2017-04-01
A deterministic multiscale dynamical system is introduced and discussed as a prototype model for relative dispersion in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence. Unlike stochastic diffusion models, here trajectory transport and mixing properties are entirely controlled by Lagrangian chaos. The anomalous "sweeping effect," a known drawback common to kinematic simulations, is removed through the use of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates. Lagrangian dispersion statistics of the model are accurately analyzed by computing the finite-scale Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), which is the optimal measure of the scaling properties of dispersion. FSLE scaling exponents provide a severe test to decide whether model simulations are in agreement with theoretical expectations and/or observation. The results of our numerical experiments cover a wide range of "Reynolds numbers" and show that chaotic deterministic flows can be very efficient, and numerically low-cost, models of turbulent trajectories in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic conditions. The mathematics of the model is relatively simple, and, in a geophysical context, potential applications may regard small-scale parametrization issues in general circulation models, mixed layer, and/or boundary layer turbulence models as well as Lagrangian predictability studies.