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Sample records for shear zone system

  1. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  2. Structural evolution of the Irtysh Shear Zone: implication for the Late Paleozoic amalgamation of multiple arc systems in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-04-01

    The NW-SE Irtysh Shear Zone represents a major tectonic boundary in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, recording the amalgamation history between the peri-Siberian orogenic system and the Kazakhstan orogenic system. The structural evolution and geodynamics of this shear zone is still poorly documented. Here we present new structural data complemented by chronological data in an attempt to unravel the geodynamic significance of the Irtysh Shear Zone in the context of accretion history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Our results show three episodes of deformation for the shear zone. D1 foliation is locally recognized in low strain area and recorded by garnet inclusions, whereas D2 is represented by a sub-horizontal fabric and related NW-SE lineation. D3 is characterized by a transpersonal deformation event, to form a series of NW-SE mylonitic belts with sinistral kinematics, and to overprint D2 fabric forming regional-scale NW-SE upright folds. A paragneiss sample from the shear zone yielded the youngest detrital zircon peaks in the late Carboniferous, placing a maximum age constraint on the deformation, which overlaps in time with the late Paleozoic collision between the Chinese Altai and the intraoceanic arc system of the East Junggar and West Junggar. We interpret three episodes of deformation to represent orogenic thickening (D1), collapse (D2) and thickening (D3) in response to this collisional event. Sinistral shearing (D3) together with the coeval dextral shearing in the Tianshan accommodate eastward extrusion of the Kazakhstan orogenic system during the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by the Major Basic Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant: 2014CB440801), Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P), National Science Foundation of China (41273048, 41273012) and a HKU CRCG grant. The work is a contribution of the Joint

  3. Petrology, chronology and sequence of vein systems: Systematic magmatic and hydrothermal history of a major intracontinental shear zone, Canadian Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; McFarlane, Chris R. M.; Sangster, Chris; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Boucher, Brandon

    2018-04-01

    Intra-continental shear zones developed during continental collision may experience prolonged magmatism and mineralization. The Cobequid Shear Zone formed part of a NE-SW-trending, orogen-parallel shear system in the late Devonian-early Carboniferous, where syn-tectonic granite-gabbro plutons and volcanic rocks 4 km thick were progressively deformed. In late Carboniferous to Permian, Alleghanian collision of Africa with Laurentia formed the E-W trending Minas Fault Zone, reactivating parts of the Cobequid Shear Zone. The 50 Ma history of hydrothermal mineralization following pluton emplacement is difficult to resolve from field relationships of veins, but SEM study of thin sections provides clear detail on the sequence of mineralization. The general paragenesis is: albite ± quartz ± chlorite ± monazite → biotite → calcite, allanite, pyrite → Fe-carbonates, Fe-oxides, minor sulfides, calcite and synchysite. Chronology was determined from literature reports and new U-Pb LA-ICPMS dating of monazite and allanite in veins. Vein mineralization was closely linked to magmatic events. Vein emplacement occurred preferentially during fault movement recognised from basin-margin inversion, as a result of fractures opening in the damage zone of master faults. The sequence of mineralization, from ca. 355 Ma riebeckite and albite veins to ca. 327 (-305?) Ma siderite-magnetite and sulfide mineralization, resembles Precambrian iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) systems in the literature. The abundant magmatic Na, halogens and CO2 in veins and some magmatic bodies, characteristic of IOCG systems, were derived from the deeply subducted Rheic Ocean slab with little terrigenous sediment. Regional extension of the Magdalen Basin caused asthenospheric upwelling and melting of the previously metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Crustal scale strike-slip faulting facilitated the rise of magmas, resulting in high heat flow driving an active hydrothermal system. Table S2

  4. Friction of Shear-Fracture Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikilä, T. I.; Pylväinen, J. I.; Åström, J.

    2017-12-01

    A shear fracture of brittle solids under compression undergoes a substantial evolution from the initial microcracking to a fully formed powder-filled shear zone. Experiments covering the entire process are relatively easy to conduct, but they are very difficult to investigate in detail. Numerically, the large strain limit has remained a challenge. An efficient simulation model and a custom-made experimental device are employed to test to what extent a shear fracture alone is sufficient to drive material to spontaneous self-lubrication. A "weak shear zone" is an important concept in geology, and a large number of explanations, specific for tectonic conditions, have been proposed. We demonstrate here that weak shear zones are far more general, and that their emergence only demands that a microscopic, i.e., fragment-scale, stress relaxation mechanism develops during the fracture process.

  5. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Burchardt, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other. Such ...... given credit for and may be responsible for some reverse kinematics reported in shear zones....... or wakes, elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones or wakes. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators usually display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either side of the shear zone or wake reported here show reverse...... kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit shear zones with opposed senses of movement across their center-lines or -planes.We have used field observations and results from analytical and numerical models to suggest that examples of wakes are the transit paths that develop where denser blocks sink within salt...

  6. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Schmeling, H.; Burchardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    , elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators ideally display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either sides of the shear zone reported here show reverse kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit...... by progressive extension and (perhaps) where slabs of subducted oceanic lithosphere delaminate from the continental crust and sink into the asthenosphere. We also argue that such shear zones may be more common than they have been given the credit for and may be responsible for some of the kinematic reversals...

  7. Geological and structural characterization and microtectonic study of shear zones Colonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, V.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Spoturno, J.; Wemmer, K.

    2010-01-01

    The “Colonia Shear Zone System”, characterized by a transcurrent system of predominant sinistral shear sense, is defined by two approximately parallel shear zones, denominated Isla San Gabriel-Juan Lacaze Shear Zone (ISG-JL S.Z.) and Islas de Hornos-Arroyo Riachuelo Shear Zone (IH-AºR S. Z.). Represented by rocks with ductile and brittle deformation, are defined as a strike slip fault system, with dominant subvertical foliation orientations: 090-100º (dip-direction 190º) and 090-100º (dip-direction 005º). The K/Ar geochronology realized, considering the estimates temperatures conditions for shear zones (450-550º), indicate that 1780-1812 Ma should be considered a cooling age and therefore a minimum deformation age. The observed microstructures suggest deformation conditions with temperatures between 450-550º overprinted by cataclastic flow structures (reactivation at lower temperature)

  8. Deformation of footwall rock of Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phulad Shear Zone (PSZ) of Delhi Fold Belt in Rajasthan is a northeasterly striking ductile shear zone with a well developed mylonitic foliation (035/70E) and a downdip stretching lineation. The deformation in the PSZ has developed in a transpressional regime with thrusting sense of movement. The northeastern unit, i.e. ...

  9. Seismic cycle feedbacks in a mid-crustal shear zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, Benjamin L.; Rowe, Christie D.; Gerbi, Christopher; Smit, Louis; Macey, Paul

    2018-07-01

    Mid-crustal fault rheology is controlled by alternating brittle and plastic deformation mechanisms, which cause feedback cycles that influence earthquake behavior. Detailed mapping and microstructural observations in the Pofadder Shear Zone (Namibia and South Africa) reveal a lithologically heterogeneous shear zone core with quartz-rich mylonites and ultramylonites, plastically overprinted pseudotachylyte and active shear folds. We present evidence for a positive feedback cycle in which coseismic grain size reduction facilitates active shear folding by enhancing competency contrasts and promoting crystal plastic flow. Shear folding strengthens a portion of a shear zone by limb rotation, focusing deformation and promoting plastic flow or brittle slip in resulting areas of localized high stress. Using quartz paleopiezometry, we estimate strain and slip rates consistent with other studies of exhumed shear zones and modern plate boundary faults, helping establish the Pofadder Shear Zone as an ancient analogue to modern, continental-scale, strike-slip faults. This feedback cycle influences seismicity patterns at the scale of study (10s of meters) and possibly larger scales as well, and contributes to bulk strengthening of the brittle-plastic transition on modern plate boundary faults.

  10. Shear heating and metamorphism in subduction zones, 1. Thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, M. J.; Castro, A. E.; Spear, F. S.

    2017-12-01

    Popular thermal-mechanical models of modern subduction systems are 100-500 °C colder at c. 50 km depth than pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions determined from exhumed metamorphic rocks. This discrepancy has been ascribed by some to profound bias in the rock record, i.e. metamorphic rocks reflect only anomalously warm subduction, not normal subduction. Accurately inferring subduction zone thermal structure, whether from models or rocks, is crucial for predicting depths of seismicity, fluid release, and sub-arc melting conditions. Here, we show that adding realistic shear stresses to thermal models implies P-T conditions quantitatively consistent with those recorded by exhumed metamorphic rocks, suggesting that metamorphic rock P-T conditions are not anomalously warm. Heat flow measurements from subduction zone fore-arcs typically indicate effective coefficients of friction (µ) ranging from 0.025 to 0.1. We included these coefficients of friction in analytical models of subduction zone interface temperatures. Using global averages of subducting plate age (50 Ma), subduction velocity (6 cm/yr), and subducting plate geometry (central Chile), temperatures at 50 km depth (1.5 GPa) increase by c. 200 °C for µ=0.025 to 700 °C for µ=0.1. However, at high temperatures, thermal softening will reduce frictional heating, and temperatures will not increase as much with depth. Including initial weakening of materials ranging from wet quartz (c. 300 °C) to diabase (c. 600 °C) in the analytical models produces concave-upward P-T distributions on P-T diagrams, with temperatures c. 100 to 500 °C higher than models with no shear heating. The absolute P-T conditions and concave-upward shape of the shear-heating + thermal softening models almost perfectly matches the distribution of P-T conditions derived from a compilation of exhumed metamorphic rocks. Numerical models of modern subduction zones that include shear heating also overlap metamorphic data. Thus, excepting the

  11. Coexistence and transition between shear zones in slow granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Robabeh; Shaebani, M Reza; Maleki, Maniya; Török, János; Wolf, Dietrich E; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-10-04

    We report experiments on slow granular flows in a split-bottom Couette cell that show novel strain localization features. Nontrivial flow profiles have been observed which are shown to be the consequence of simultaneous formation of shear zones in the bulk and at the boundaries. The fluctuating band model based on a minimization principle can be fitted to the experiments over a large variation of morphology and filling height with one single fit parameter, the relative friction coefficient μ(rel) between wall and bulk. The possibility of multiple shear zone formation is controlled by μ(rel). Moreover, we observe that the symmetry of an initial state, with coexisting shear zones at both side walls, breaks spontaneously below a threshold value of the shear velocity. A dynamical transition between two asymmetric flow states happens over a characteristic time scale which depends on the shear strength.

  12. Shear Zone-Hosted Base Metal Mineralization near Abraha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    of Arabia; B) Plan view of northern Ethiopia showing the roads and position ... within NE trending shear zone in the basement rocks with well developed alterations ...... country rocks and transported to the sites of deposition i.e. structural weak.

  13. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses. Keywords. Strengthened beam; interfacial stresses; cohesive zone; shear deformation. 1. Introduction. The FRP plates can be either ...

  14. The TIPA shear zone (NW-Argentina): Evidence for early devonian movement verified by Sm-Nd dating of garnet and whole rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockenreiner, M.; Sollner, F.; Miller, H

    2001-01-01

    The Sierra de Copacabana (Catamarca province, NW Argentina) hosts in its northernmost part a large shear zone, which can be traced back to the north into the Sa. de Fiambala and to the south at least into the Sa. de Velasco. Timing of mylonitization is an important puzzle-piece in order to understand Paleozoic geotectonic processes on the western border of Gondwana (au)

  15. The importance of strain localisation in shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Paul D.; Finch, Melanie; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Steinbach, Florian; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of various types of shear bands (C, C', C'') in shear zones indicate that heterogeneity of strain is common in strongly deformed rocks. However, the importance of strain localisation is difficult to ascertain if suitable strain markers are lacking, which is usually the case. Numerical modelling with the finite-element method has so far not given much insight in the development of shear bands. We suggest that this is not only because the modelled strains are often not high enough, but also because this technique (that usually assumes isotropic material properties within elements) does not properly incorporate mineral deformation behaviour. We simulated high-strain, simple-shear deformation in single- and polyphase materials with a full-field theory (FFT) model coupled to the Elle modelling platform (www.elle.ws; Lebensohn 2001; Bons et al. 2008). The FFT-approach simulates visco-plastic deformation by dislocation glide, taking into account the different available slip systems and their critical resolved shear stresses in relations to the applied stresses. Griera et al. (2011; 2013) have shown that this approach is particularly well suited for strongly anisotropic minerals, such as mica and ice Ih (Llorens 2015). We modelled single- and polyphase composites of minerals with different anisotropies and strengths, roughly equivalent to minerals such as ice Ih, mica, quartz and feldspar. Single-phase polycrystalline aggregates show distinct heterogeneity of strain rate, especially in case of ice Ih, which is mechanically close to mica (see also Griera et al. 2015). Finite strain distributions are heterogeneous as well, but the patterns may differ from that of the strain rate distribution. Dynamic recrystallisation, however, usually masks any strain and strain rate localisation (Llorens 2015). In case of polyphase aggregates, equivalent to e.g. a granite, we observe extensive localisation in both syn- and antithetic shear bands. The antithetic shear bands

  16. The brittle-viscous-plastic evolution of shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovská, Zita; Jeřábek, Petr; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Lexa, Ondrej; Milke, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Shear bands are microscale shear zones that obliquely crosscut an existing anisotropy such as a foliation. The resulting S-C fabrics are characterized by angles lower than 45° and the C plane parallel to shear zone boundaries. The S-C fabrics typically occur in granitoids deformed at greenschist facies conditions in the vicinity of major shear zones. Despite their long recognition, mechanical reasons for localization of deformation into shear bands and their evolution is still poorly understood. In this work we focus on microscale characterization of the shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone, where the S-C fabrics were first recognized by Berthé et al. (1979). The initiation of shear bands in the right-lateral South Armorican Shear Zone is associated with the occurrence of microcracks crosscutting the recrystallized quartz aggregates that define the S fabric. In more advanced stages of shear band evolution, newly formed dominant K-feldspar, together with plagioclase, muscovite and chlorite occur in the microcracks, and the shear bands start to widen. K-feldspar replaces quartz by progressively bulging into the grain boundaries of recrystallized quartz grains, leading to disintegration of quartz aggregates and formation of fine-grained multiphase matrix mixture. The late stages of shear band development are marked by interconnection of fine-grained white mica into a band that crosscuts the original shear band matrix. In its extremity, the shear band widening may lead to the formation of ultramylonites. With the increasing proportion of shear band matrix from ~1% to ~12%, the angular relationship between S and C fabrics increases from ~30° to ~40°. The matrix phases within shear bands show differences in chemical composition related to distinct evolutionary stages of shear band formation. The chemical evolution is well documented in K-feldspar, where the albite component is highest in porphyroclasts within S fabric, lower in the newly formed grains within

  17. Amphibious Shear Velocity Structure of the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, H. A.; Gaherty, J. B.; Abers, G. A.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    The amphibious Cascadia Initiative crosses the coastline of the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) deploying seismometers from the Juan de Fuca ridge offshore to beyond the volcanic arc onshore. This allows unprecedented seismic imaging of the CSZ, enabling examination of both the evolution of the Juan de Fuca plate prior to and during subduction as well as the along strike variability of the subduction system. Here we present new results from an amphibious shear velocity model for the crust and upper mantle across the Cascadia subduction zone. The primary data used in this inversion are surface-wave phase velocities derived from ambient-noise Rayleigh-wave data in the 10 - 20 s period band, and teleseismic earthquake Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the 20 - 160 s period band. Phase velocity maps from these data reflect major tectonic structures including the transition from oceanic to continental lithosphere, Juan de Fuca lithosphere that is faster than observations in the Pacific for oceanic crust of its age, slow velocities associated with the accretionary prism, the front of the fast subducting slab, and the Cascades volcanic arc which is associated with slower velocities in the south than in the north. Crustal structures are constrained by receiver functions in the offshore forearc and onshore regions, and by active source constraints on the Juan de Fuca plate prior to subduction. The shear-wave velocities are interpreted in their relationships to temperature, presence of melt or hydrous alteration, and compositional variation of the CSZ.

  18. Quantifying the Variation in Shear Zone Character with Depth: a Case Study from the Simplon Shear Zone, Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, T. K.; Platt, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    A widely-accepted model for the rheology of crustal-scale shear zones states that they comprise distributed strain at depth, in wide, high-temperature shear zones, which narrow to more localized, high-strain zones at lower temperature and shallower crustal levels. We test and quantify this model by investigating how the width, stress, temperature and deformation mechanisms change with depth in the Simplon Shear Zone (SSZ). The SSZ marks a major tectonic boundary in the central Alps, where normal-sense motion and rapid exhumation of the footwall have preserved evidence of older, deeper deformation in rocks progressively further into the currently-exposed footwall. As such, microstructures further from the brittle fault (which represents the most localized, most recently-active part of the SSZ) represent earlier, higher- temperature deformation from deeper crustal levels, while rocks closer to the fault have been overprinted by successively later, cooler deformation at shallower depths. This study uses field mapping and microstructural studies to identify zones representing deformation at various crustal levels, and characterize each in terms of zone width (representing width of the shear zone at that time and depth) and dominant deformation mechanism. In addition, quartz- (by Electron Backscatter Diffraction, EBSD) and feldspar grain size (measured optically) piezometry are used to calculate the flow stress for each zone, while the Ti-in-quartz thermometer (TitaniQ) is used to calculate the corresponding temperature of deformation. We document the presence of a broad zone in which quartz is recrystallized by the Grain Boundary Migration (GBM) mechanism and feldspar by Subgrain Rotation (SGR), which represents the broad, deep zone of deformation occurring at relatively high temperatures and low stresses. In map view, this transitions to successively narrower zones, respectively characterized by quartz SGR and feldspar Bulge Nucleation (BLG); quartz BLG and brittle

  19. Thermodynamic modeling of phase relations and metasomatism in shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, P.; Oliot, E.; Marquer, D.

    2009-04-01

    Ductile shear zones have been recognized for a long time as privileged sites of intense fluid-rock interactions in the crust. In most cases they induce focused changes in mineralogy and bulk chemical composition (metasomatism) which in turn may control the deformation and fluid-migration processes. Therefore understanding these processes requires in a first step to be able to model phase relations in such open system. In this contribution, emphasizes in placed on metasomatic aspects of the problem. Indeed , in many ductile shear zones reported in metagranites, deformation and fluid-rock interactions are associated with gain in MgO and losses of CaO and Na2O (K2O is also a mobile component but it can be either gained or lost). Although the mineralogical consequences of this so-called Mg-metasomatism are well-documented (replacement of K-feldspar into phengite, breakdown of plagioclase into ab + ep, crystallization of chlorite), the origin of this coupled mass-transfer is still unknown. We have performed a forward modeling of phase relationships using petrogenetic grids and pseudosections that consider variations in chemical potential (μ) of the mobile elements (MgO, CaO, Na2O). Chemical potential gradients being the driving force of mass transfer, μ-μ diagrams are the most appropriate diagrams to model open systems where fluid-rock interactions are prominent. Chemical potential diagrams are equivalent to activity diagrams but our approach differs from previous work because (1) solid solutions are taken into account (2) phase relations are modeled in a more realistic chemical system (Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O) and (3) the use of pseudosections allows to predict changes of the mineralogy (modes, composition) for the specific bulk composition studied. A particular attention is paid to the relationships between component concentrations and chemical potentials, which is not obvious in multi-component system. The studied shear zone is located in the Grimsel

  20. Structure of pseudotachylyte vein systems as a key to co-seismic rupture dynamics: the case of Gavilgarh-Tan Shear Zone, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2014-04-01

    The secondary fractures associated with a major pseudotachylyte-bearing fault vein in the sheared aplitic granitoid of the Proterozoic Gavilgarh-Tan Shear Zone in central India are mapped at the outcrop scale. The fracture maps help to identify at least three different types of co-seismic ruptures, e.g., X-X', T1 and T2, which characterize sinistral-sense shearing of rocks, confined between two sinistral strike-slip faults slipping at seismic rate. From the asymmetric distribution of tensile fractures around the sinistral-sense fault vein, the direction of seismic rupture propagation is predicted to have occurred from west-southwest to east-northeast, during an ancient (Ordovician?) earthquake. Calculations of approximate co-seismic displacement on the faults and seismic moment ( M 0) of the earthquake are attempted, following the methods proposed by earlier workers. These estimates broadly agree to the findings from other studied fault zones (e.g., Gole Larghe Fault zone, Italian Alps). This study supports the proposition by some researchers that important seismological information can be extracted from tectonic pseudotachylytes of all ages, provided they are not reworked by subsequent tectonic activity.

  1. Inelastic deformations of fault and shear zones in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1986-02-01

    Deformations during heating and cooling of three drifts in granitic rock were influenced by the presence of faults and shear zones. Thermal deformations were significantly larger in sheared and faulted zones than where the rock was jointed, but neither sheared nor faulted. Furthermore, thermal deformations in faulted or sheared rock were not significantly recovered during subsequent cooling, thus a permanent deformation remained. This inelastic response is in contrast with elastic behavior identified in unfaulted and unsheared rock segments. A companion paper indicates that deformations in unsheared or unfaulted rock were effectively modeled as an elastic response. We conclude that permanent deformations occurred in fractures with crushed minerals and fracture filling or gouge materials. Potential mechanisms for this permanent deformation are asperity readjustments during thermal deformations, micro-shearing, asperity crushing and crushing of the secondary fracture filling minerals. Additionally, modulus differences in sheared or faulted rock as compared to more intact rock would result in greater deformations in response to the same thermal loads

  2. Tibet- Himalayan Analogs of Pan-African Shear Zones : Implications for Neoproterozoic Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale shear zones are distinct features of Tibet-Himalayan orogen and the Pan-African Trans-Saharan belt. Prominent examples in the Pan-African-belt extend for ~2500 km from the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea and are characterized by right-slip movements. The NS shear zones, such as 4°50’-Kandi shear zone (KSZ) are complemented by NE-SW shear zones that preserve a record of sinistral movements and are represented by the Central Cameroon shear zone (CCSZ) in the eastern part of the Pan-African domain. The West African shear zones project into similar structures in the Borborema Province of northeast Brazil. In addition, the Pan-African belt preserves structures and rock assemblages that indicate subduction-collision tectonics We propose that structures of Tibet-Himalayan collisional orogen are instructive analogs of the Pan-African structures where: (i) the Pan-African front corresponds to the Main Himalayan thrust and it’s splays; (ii) the main Pan-African suture zone is analogous to the Indus-Tsangpo suture in the Tibet-Himalayan belt; (iii) the 4°50’-KSZ corresponds to Karakoram and it’s linkages with Jiali fault system and (iv) left-slip CCSZ and related shear zones are analogs of Altyn Tagh and Kumlun faults and their splays. This suggests the operation of escape-type tectonics in the Neoproterozoic belt of West-Africa and predicts the nature of the deep structures in the Cenozoic Tibet-Himalayan orogen.

  3. Measuring Local Strain Rates In Ductile Shear Zones: A New Approach From Deformed Syntectonic Dykes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Leloup, P.; Rubatto, D.; Galland, O.; Yue, Y.; Ding, L.

    2006-12-01

    previous methods. From the less to the most deformed dykes, minimum γ values vary between 0.2 to ~10, respectively. Second, we determined the ages of emplacement of each dyke by ion microprobe U-Pb dating of monazites. We obtained three groups of ages at 22Ma, 24-26Ma and 30Ma. Our geochronological data are in good agreement with our structural data, the most deformed dykes being the oldest. The strain rates deduced from these measurements are on the order of 10^{-14}s-1, that is slower than values previously deduced from indirect methods. However, this value only corresponds to a minimum local strain rate. That new method developed to estimate local minimum strain rates in a major ductile shear zone seems to be reliable and could be applied to other shear zones. Such an approach applied at several locations along a single shear zone could also provide new opportunities to understand the evolution of a whole shear system.

  4. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for episodic slow slip events in oceanic subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Meng, L.

    2016-12-01

    Episodic slow slip events occur widely along oceanic subduction zones at the brittle-ductile transition depths ( 20-50 km). Although efforts have been devoted to unravel their mechanical origins, it remains unclear about the physical controls on the wide range of their recurrence intervals and slip durations. In this study we present a simple mechanical model that attempts to account for the observed temporal evolution of slow slip events. In our model we assume that slow slip events occur in a viscoplastic shear zone (i.e., Bingham material), which has an upper static and a lower dynamic plastic yield strength. We further assume that the hanging wall deformation is approximated as an elastic spring. We envision the shear zone to be initially locked during forward/landward motion but is subsequently unlocked when the elastic and gravity-induced stress exceeds the static yield strength of the shear zone. This leads to backward/trenchward motion damped by viscous shear-zone deformation. As the elastic spring progressively loosens, the hanging wall velocity evolves with time and the viscous shear stress eventually reaches the dynamic yield strength. This is followed by the termination of the trenchward motion when the elastic stress is balanced by the dynamic yield strength of the shear zone and the gravity. In order to account for the zig-saw slip-history pattern of typical repeated slow slip events, we assume that the shear zone progressively strengthens after each slow slip cycle, possibly caused by dilatancy as commonly assumed or by progressive fault healing through solution-transport mechanisms. We quantify our conceptual model by obtaining simple analytical solutions. Our model results suggest that the duration of the landward motion increases with the down-dip length and the static yield strength of the shear zone, but decreases with the ambient loading velocity and the elastic modulus of the hanging wall. The duration of the backward/trenchward motion depends

  5. Shear-transformation-zone theory of linear glassy dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchbinder, Eran; Langer, J S

    2011-06-01

    We present a linearized shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory of glassy dynamics in which the internal STZ transition rates are characterized by a broad distribution of activation barriers. For slowly aging or fully aged systems, the main features of the barrier-height distribution are determined by the effective temperature and other near-equilibrium properties of the configurational degrees of freedom. Our theory accounts for the wide range of relaxation rates observed in both metallic glasses and soft glassy materials such as colloidal suspensions. We find that the frequency-dependent loss modulus is not just a superposition of Maxwell modes. Rather, it exhibits an α peak that rises near the viscous relaxation rate and, for nearly jammed, glassy systems, extends to much higher frequencies in accord with experimental observations. We also use this theory to compute strain recovery following a period of large, persistent deformation and then abrupt unloading. We find that strain recovery is determined in part by the initial barrier-height distribution, but that true structural aging also occurs during this process and determines the system's response to subsequent perturbations. In particular, we find by comparison with experimental data that the initial deformation produces a highly disordered state with a large population of low activation barriers, and that this state relaxes quickly toward one in which the distribution is dominated by the high barriers predicted by the near-equilibrium analysis. The nonequilibrium dynamics of the barrier-height distribution is the most important of the issues raised and left unresolved in this paper.

  6. Mesoscale modeling of amorphous metals by shear transformation zone dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Eric R.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    A new mesoscale modeling technique for the thermo-mechanical behavior of metallic glasses is proposed. The modeling framework considers the shear transformation zone (STZ) as the fundamental unit of deformation, and coarse-grains an amorphous collection of atoms into an ensemble of STZs on a mesh. By employing finite element analysis and a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm, the modeling technique is capable of simulating glass processing and deformation on time and length scales greater than those usually attainable by atomistic modeling. A thorough explanation of the framework is presented, along with a specific two-dimensional implementation for a model metallic glass. The model is shown to capture the basic behaviors of metallic glasses, including high-temperature homogeneous flow following the expected constitutive law, and low-temperature strain localization into shear bands. Details of the effects of processing and thermal history on the glass structure and properties are also discussed.

  7. Periodic Viscous Shear Heating Instability in Fine-Grained Shear Zones: Possible Mechanism for Intermediate Depth Earthquakes and Slow Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.

    2004-12-01

    Localized ductile shear zones with widths of cm to m are observed in exposures of Earth's shallow mantle (e.g., Kelemen & Dick JGR 95; Vissers et al. Tectonophys 95) and dredged from oceanic fracture zones (e.g., Jaroslow et al. Tectonophys 96). These are mylonitic (grain size 10 to 100 microns) and record mineral cooling temperatures from 1100 to 600 C. Pseudotachylites in a mantle shear zone show that shear heating temperatures can exceed the mantle solidus (e.g., Obata & Karato Tectonophys 95). Simple shear, recrystallization, and grain boundary sliding all decrease the spacing between pyroxenes, so olivine grain growth at lower stress is inhibited; thus, once formed, these shear zones do not "heal" on geological time scales. Reasoning that grain-size sensitive creep will be localized within these shear zones, rather than host rocks (grain size 1 to 10 mm), and inspired by the work of Whitehead & Gans (GJRAS 74), we thought these might undergo repeated shear heating instabilities. In this view, as elastic stress increases, the shear zone weakens via shear heating; rapid deformation of the weak shear zone releases most stored elastic stress; lower stress and strain rate coupled with diffusion of heat into host rocks leads to cooling and strengthening, after which the cycle repeats. We constructed a simple numerical model incorporating olivine flow laws for dislocation creep, diffusion creep, grain boundary sliding, and low T plasticity. We assumed that viscous deformation remains localized in shear zones, surrounded by host rocks undergoing elastic deformation. We fixed the velocity along one side of an elastic half space, and calculated stress due to elastic strain. This stress drives viscous deformation in a shear zone of specified width. Shear heating and thermal diffusion control temperature evolution in the shear zone and host rocks. A maximum of 1400 C (where substantial melting of peridotite would occur) is imposed. Grain size evolves during dislocation

  8. DISCRETE DEFORMATION WAVE DYNAMICS IN SHEAR ZONES: PHYSICAL MODELLING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of earthquake migration along active fault zones [Richter, 1958; Mogi, 1968] and related theoretical concepts [Elsasser, 1969] have laid the foundation for studying the problem of slow deformation waves in the lithosphere. Despite the fact that this problem has been under study for several decades and discussed in numerous publications, convincing evidence for the existence of deformation waves is still lacking. One of the causes is that comprehensive field studies to register such waves by special tools and equipment, which require sufficient organizational and technical resources, have not been conducted yet.The authors attempted at finding a solution to this problem by physical simulation of a major shear zone in an elastic-viscous-plastic model of the lithosphere. The experiment setup is shown in Figure 1 (A. The model material and boundary conditions were specified in accordance with the similarity criteria (described in detail in [Sherman, 1984; Sherman et al., 1991; Bornyakov et al., 2014]. The montmorillonite clay-and-water paste was placed evenly on two stamps of the installation and subject to deformation as the active stamp (1 moved relative to the passive stamp (2 at a constant speed. The upper model surface was covered with fine sand in order to get high-contrast photos. Photos of an emerging shear zone were taken every second by a Basler acA2000-50gm digital camera. Figure 1 (B shows an optical image of a fragment of the shear zone. The photos were processed by the digital image correlation method described in [Sutton et al., 2009]. This method estimates the distribution of components of displacement vectors and strain tensors on the model surface and their evolution over time [Panteleev et al., 2014, 2015].Strain fields and displacements recorded in the optical images of the model surface were estimated in a rectangular box (220.00×72.17 mm shown by a dot-and-dash line in Fig. 1, A. To ensure a sufficient level of

  9. Petrologic and chemical changes in ductile shear zones as a function of depth in the continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Yue

    in the Parry Sound domain, Ontario, formed at upper amphibolite facies conditions. The deformation process of the shear zone involves fully plastic deformation and high-temperature dynamic recrystallization and annealing recovery of both quartz and plagioclase. Geochemical evidence indicates that the chemical changes in the deformed rocks resulted from mixing of mafic and felsic layers together with fluid-assisted mass transfer within the shear zone. A geochemical model that incorporates closed-system two-component mixing with open-system mass transfer can well explain the observed major and trace element data.

  10. Relating rheology to geometry in large-scale natural shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, John

    2016-04-01

    The geometry and width of the ductile roots of plate boundary scale faults are very poorly understood. Some field and geophysical data suggests widths of tens of km in the lower crust, possibly more in the upper mantle. Other observations suggest they are much narrower. Dip slip shear zones may flatten out and merge into zones of subhorizontal lower crustal or asthenospheric flow. The width of a ductile shear zone is simply related to relative velocity and strain rate. Strain rate is related to stress through the constitutive relationship. Can we constrain the stress, and do we understand the rheology of materials in ductile shear zones? A lot depends on how shear zones are initiated. If they are localized by pre-existing structures, width and/or rheology may be inherited, and we have too many variables. If shear zones are localized primarily by shear heating, initial shear stress has to be very high (> 1 GPa) to overcome conductive heat loss, and very large feedbacks (both positive and negative) make the system highly unstable. Microstructural weakening requires a minimum level of stress to cause deformation and damage in surrounding rock, thereby buffering the stress. Microstructural weakening leads to grain-size sensitive creep, for which we have constitutive laws, but these are complicated by phase mixing in polyphase materials, by viscous anisotropy, by hydration, and by changes in mineral assemblage. Here are some questions that need to be addressed. (1) If grain-size reduction by dynamic recrystallization results in a switch to grain-size sensitive creep (GSSC) in a stress-buffered shear zone, does dynamic recrystallization stop? Does grain growth set in? If grain-size is still controlled by dislocation processes, then the effective stress exponent for GSSC is 4-5, even though the dominant mechanism may be diffusion and/or grain-boundary sliding (GBS). (2) Is phase mixing in ultramylonites primarily a result of GBS + neighbour switching, creep cavitation and

  11. Neoproterozoic structural evolution of the NE-trending Ad-Damm Shear Zone, Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Sawy, El-Sawy K.; El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Matsah, Mohamed; Shujoon, Abdulrahman; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.

    2014-11-01

    The Ad-Damm Shear Zone (AdSZ) is a major NE- (to NNE-) trending fault zone separating Jiddah and Asir tectonic terranes in the Neoproterozoic Juvenile Arabian Shield (AS). AdSZ is characterized by the development of dextral transcurrent shear-sense indicators and moderately to steeply NW plunging stretching lineations. It is mainly developed under high amphibolite-to greenschist-facies conditions and extends ∼380 km, with an average width ∼2-4 km, from the conspicuous Ruwah Fault Zone in the eastern shield to the Red Sea Coastal plain. It was believed to be one of the conjugate shears of the NW- to NNW-trending sinistral Najd Shear System. This assumption is, based on the noteworthy dextral shear criteria recorded within the 620 Ma mylonitic granite of No'man Complex. A total shear-zone strike length exceeding 117 km is carefully investigated during this study to reconstruct its structural evolution. Shear-sense indicators and other field observations including overprinting relations clearly demonstrate a complicated Neoproterozoic history of AdSZ, involving at least three phases of deformations (D1-D3). Both D1 and D2 phases were of contractional regime. During D1 phase a NW-SE compression led to the formation of NE-oriented low-angle thrusts and tight-overturned folds. D2 is represented by a NE-SW stress oriented that led to the development of an open folding. D3 is expressed by the NE-SW intensive dextral transcurrent brittle-ductile shearing. It is overprinting the early formed fabrics and played a significant role in the creation of AdSZ and the mega-scale related folds. Such deformation history reflects the same Neoproterozoic deformation regime recognized in the NE-trending shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS).

  12. Brittle-ductile gliding shear zone and its dynamic metallization in uranium deposit No. 3110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shiyi.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study on the macroscopic geological structure, microstructures of plastic deformation rotary strain, structural geochemistry and zoning regularity of a brittle-ductile gliding shear zone in uranium deposit No. 3110 is made. Structural dynamic metallization of uranium caused by the strong shearing stress is discussed. It is pointed out that great attention must be paid to in further exploration

  13. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  14. Three-dimensional shear transformation zone dynamics model for amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Eric R; Schuh, Christopher A

    2010-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale modeling framework for the mechanical behavior of amorphous metals is proposed. The model considers the coarse-grained action of shear transformation zones (STZs) as the fundamental deformation event. The simulations are controlled through the kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm and the mechanical response of the system is captured through finite-element analysis, where STZs are mapped onto a 3D finite-element mesh and are allowed to shear in any direction in three dimensions. Implementation of the technique in uniaxial creep tests over a wide range of conditions validates the model's ability to capture the expected behaviors of an amorphous metal, including high temperature flow conforming to the expected constitutive law and low temperature localization in the form of a nascent shear band. The simulation results are combined to construct a deformation map that is comparable to experimental deformation maps. The flexibility of the modeling framework is illustrated by performing a contact test (simulated nanoindentation) in which the model deforms through STZ activity in the region experiencing the highest shear stress

  15. FLUID EVOLUTION AND MINERAL REACTIONS DURING SHEAR ZONE FORMATION AT NUSFJORD, LOFOTEN, NORWAY (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullerud, K.

    2009-12-01

    At Nusfjord in Lofoten, Norway, three 0.3 - 3 m thick shear zones occur in a gabbro-anorthosite. During deformation, the shear zones were infiltrated by a hydrous fluid enriched in Cl. In the central parts of the shear zones, fluid-rock interaction resulted in complete break-down of the primary mafic silicates. Complete hydration of these minerals to Cl-free amphibole and biotite suggests that the hydrous fluid was present in excess during deformation in these parts of the shear zones. Along the margins of the shear zones, however, the igneous mafic silicates (Cpx, Bt, Opx) were only partly overgrown by hydrous minerals. Here, Cl-enriched minerals (Amph, Bt, Scp, Ap) can be observed. Amphibole shows compositions covering the range 0.1 - 4.0 wt % Cl within single thin sections. Mineral textures and extreme compositional variations of the Cl-bearing minerals indicate large chemical gradients of the fluid phase. Relics of primary mafic silicates and compositionally zoned reaction coronas around primary mafic silicates suggest that the free fluid was totally consumed before the alteration of the primary phases were completed. The extreme variations in the Cl-content of amphibole are inferred to monitor a gradual desiccation of the Cl-bearing grain-boundary fluid during fluid-mineral reactions accordingly: 1) The first amphibole that formed during the reactions principally extracted water from the fluid, resulting in a slight increase in the Cl content of the fluid. 2) Continued amphibole-forming reactions resulted in gradual consumption of the free fluid phase, principally by extracting water from the fluid, resulting in an increase in its Cl-content. Higher Cl-content of the fluid resulted in higher Cl-content of the equilibrium amphibole. 3) The most Cl-enriched amphibole (4 wt % Cl) formed in equilibrium with the last volumes of the grain-boundary fluid, which had evolved to a highly saline solution. Mineral reactions within a 1-2 thick zone of the host rock along

  16. A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido; Giese, Jörg; Berger, Alfons; Gnos, Edwin

    2010-12-01

    The Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar has been considered in previous studies to be a >350-km-long, intracrustal strike-slip shear zone of Precambrian/Cambrian age. Because of its oblique strike to the east and west coast of Madagascar, the Ranotsara shear zone has been correlated with shear zones in southern India and eastern Africa in Gondwana reconstructions. Our assessment using remote sensing data and field-based investigations, however, reveals that what previously has been interpreted as the Ranotsara shear zone is in fact a composite structure with a ductile deflection zone confined to its central segment and prominent NW-SE trending brittle faulting along most of its length. We therefore prefer the more neutral term “Ranotsara Zone”. Lithologies, tectonic foliations, and axial trace trajectories of major folds can be followed from south to north across most of the Ranotsara Zone and show only a marked deflection along its central segment. The ductile deflection zone is interpreted as a result of E-W indentation of the Antananarivo Block into the less rigid, predominantly metasedimentary rocks of the Southwestern Madagascar Block during a late phase of the Neoproterozoic/Cambrian East African Orogeny (c. 550-520 Ma). The Ranotsara Zone shows significant NW-SE striking brittle faulting that reactivates part of the NW-SE striking ductile structures in the flexure zone, but also extends along strike toward the NW and toward the SE. Brittle reactivation of ductile structures along the central segment of the Ranotsara Zone, confirmed by apatite-fission track results, may have led to the formation of a shallow Neogene basin underlying the Ranotsara plain. The present-day drainage pattern suggests on-going normal fault activity along the central segment. The Ranotsara Zone is not a megascale intracrustal strike-slip shear zone that crosscuts the entire basement of southern Madagascar. It can therefore not be used as a piercing point in Gondwana

  17. Indirect dating of deformation: a geochronological study from the Pan African Ajaj shear zone, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Klötzli, Urs

    2013-04-01

    The metamorphic complexes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield were exhumed by different exhumation mechanisms (i.e. in extension or oblique transpression regime) during the Pan African activity of Najd Fault System - the largest pre-Mesozoic shear zone on Earth. The different exhumation mechanisms could be the consequence of (i) orientation of the complexes at slightly different angles with respect to the overall orientation of the principal stresses of the Najd Fault System, (ii) exhumation from different depths, or (iii) change of the stress regime through time. In order to test the third hypothesis, geochronological work will be applied on a representative suite of complexes across the Najd Fault System. In particular we focus on three complexes in the Arabian part of the shield named Qazaz, Hamadat and Wajh. In general, the metamorphic complexes of the Arabian part of the shield exhibit left-lateral transcurrent tectonism along the NW-SE Najd faults and right-lateral movement along conjugate NE-SW striking structures. The whole unit forms an anastomosing network of planar structures that demarcate large fish-shaped bodies of high grade metamorphics. The Hamadat complex is surrounded by a left-lateral greenshist facies WNW-ESE Ajaj shear zone. The complex consists of folds that are strongly pinched to the north and more open to the south marked by a well-developed parallel stretching sub-horizontal lineation. Granite intrusions along and across the Ajaj shear zone may allow testing the timing of the deformation. Deformed and non-deformed samples of these granites will be examined by age dating to determine the absolute timing of the metamorphism and the deformation for the complex. Some 20 samples are currently being prepared for zircon dating. Whilst no results are available at the time of writing of this abstract, they will be presented at EGU 2013.

  18. A low-temperature ductile shear zone: The gypsum-dominated western extension of the brittle Fella-Sava Fault, Southern Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Esther Maria; Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann

    2014-12-01

    Based on structural and fabric analyses at variable scales we investigate the evaporitic gypsum-dominated Comeglians-Paularo shear zone in the Southern Alps (Friuli). It represents the lateral western termination of the brittle Fella-Sava Fault. Missing dehydration products of gypsum and the lack of annealing indicate temperatures below 100 °C during development of the shear zone. Despite of such low temperatures the shear zone clearly exhibits mylonitic flow, thus evidencing laterally coeval activity of brittle and viscous deformation. The dominant structures within the gypsum rocks of the Lower Bellerophon Formation are a steeply to gently S-dipping foliation, a subhorizontal stretching lineation and pure shear-dominated porphyroclast systems. A subordinate simple shear component with dextral displacement is indicated by scattered σ-clasts. Both meso- and microscale structures are characteristic of a subsimple shear type of deformation with components of both coaxial and non-coaxial strain. Shortening in a transpressive regime was accommodated by right-lateral displacement and internal pure shear deformation within the Comeglians-Paularo shear zone. The shear zone shows evidence for a combination of two stretching faults, where stretching occurred in the rheologically weaker gypsum member and brittle behavior in enveloping lithologies.

  19. Domino structures evolution in strike-slip shear zones; the importance of the cataclastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N.; Dias, R.

    2018-05-01

    The Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo dextral Shear Zone is one of the most important structures of the Iberian Variscides. In its vicinity, close to Abrantes (Central Portugal), a localized heterogeneous strain pattern developed in a decimetric metamorphic siliceous multilayer. This complex pattern was induced by the D2 dextral shearing of the early S0//S1 foliation in brittle-ductile conditions, giving rise to three main shear zone families. One of these families, with antithetic kinematics, delimits blocks with rigid clockwise rotation surrounded by coeval cataclasites, generating a local domino structure. The proposed geometrical and kinematic analysis, coupled with statistical studies, highlights the relation between subsidiary shear zones and the main shear zone. Despite the heterogeneous strain pattern, a quantitative approach of finite strain was applied based on the restoration of the initial fracture pattern. This approach shows the importance of the cataclastic flow coupled with the translational displacement of the domino domain in solving space problems related to the rigid block rotation. Such processes are key in allowing the rigid block rotation inside shear zones whenever the simple shear component is a fundamental mechanism.

  20. Shear zone nucleation and deformation transient: effect of heterogeneities and loading conditions in experimentally deformed calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L. F. G.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G. H.; Kilian, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the Earth's middle to lower crust, strain is frequently localized along ductile shear zones, which commonly nucleate at structural and material heterogeneities. To investigate shear zone nucleation and development due to heterogeneities, we performed constant strain-rate (CSR) and constant stress (CS) simple shear (torsion) deformation experiments on Carrara marble samples containing weak (limestone) inclusions. The experiments were conducted in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at 900 °C temperature and 400 MPa confining pressure and maximum bulk shear strains of 3. Peak shear stress was about 20 MPa for all the samples, followed by smooth weakening and steady state behavior. The strain is predominantly localized in the host marble within the process zone in front of the inclusion, defined by a zone of intense grain size reduction due to dynamic recrystallization. In CS tests a narrow shear zone developed in front of the inclusion, whereas in CSR experiments the deformation is more heterogeneously distributed, up to g=3.. In the later, secondary foliations oblique to the process zone and alternating thin, high-strain layers are common. In samples deformed at the same shear strain (g=1), the average recrystallized grain size in the process zone is similar for CS and CSR conditions. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements shows that different grain sizes have slightly different CPO patterns. CPO strength varies for different grain sizes, with a CPO strength peak between 40-50 μm, decreasing progressively within smaller grain size, but with secondary peaks for different coarse-grained sizes. Our observations suggest that the initial formation and transient deformation of shear zones is strongly affected by loading conditions.

  1. Geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal shear zone in granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, Tobias; Baron, Ludovic; Holliger, Klaus; Egli, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermally active faults and shear zones in the crystalline massifs of the central Alps are currently of particular interest because of their potential similarities and analogies with planned deep petrothermal reservoirs in the Alpine foreland. In order to better understand such hydrothermal systems, a near-vertical, hydrothermally active shear zone embedded in low-permeability granitic rocks has been drilled. This borehole is located on the Grimsel Pass in the central Swiss Alps, has an inclination of 24 degrees with regard to the vertical, and crosses the targeted shear zone between about 82 and 86 meters depth. The borehole has been fully cored and a comprehensive suite of geophysical logging data has been acquired. The latter comprises multi-frequency sonic, ground-penetrating radar, resistivity, self-potential, gamma-gamma, neutron-neutron, optical televiewer, and caliper log data. In addition to this, we have also performed a surface-to-borehole vertical seismic profiling experiment. The televiewer data and the retrieved core samples show a marked increase of the fracture density in the target region, which also finds its expression in rather pronounced and distinct signatures in all other log data. Preliminary results point towards a close correspondence between the ground-penetrating radar and the neutron-neutron log data, which opens the perspective of constraining the effective fracture porosity at vastly differing scales. There is also remarkably good agreement between the sonic log and the vertical seismic profiling data, which may allow for assessing the permeability of the probed fracture network by interpreting these data in a poroelastic context.

  2. The Cora Lake Shear Zone: Strain Localization in an Ultramylonitic, Deep Crustal Shear Zone, Athabasca Granulite Terrain, Western Churchill Province, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.; Mahan, K. H.; Orlandini, O. F.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Leslie, S. R.; Holland, M.

    2012-12-01

    Ultramylonitic shear zones typically involve intense strain localization, and when developed over large regions can introduce considerable heterogeneity into the crust. The Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) displays several 10's to 100's of meters-wide zones of ultramylonite distributed throughout its full 3-5 km mylonitized width. Detailed mapping, petrography, thermobarometry, and in-situ monazite geochronology suggest that it formed during the waning phases of granulite grade metamorphism and deformation, within one of North America's largest exposures of polydeformed lower continental crust. Anastomosing zones of ultramylonite contain recrystallized grain-sizes approaching the micron scale and might appear to suggest lower temperature mylonitization. However, feldspar and even clinopyroxene are dynamically recrystallized, and quantitative thermobarometry of syn-deformational assemblages indicate high P and T conditions ranging from 0.9 -10.6 GPa and 775-850 °C. Even at these high T's, dynamic recovery and recrystallization were extremely limited. Rocks with low modal quartz have extremely small equilibrium volumes. This is likely the result of inefficient diffusion, which is further supported by the unannealed nature of the crystals. Local carbonate veins suggests that H2O poor, CO2 rich conditions may have aided in the preservation of fine grain sizes, and may have inhibited dynamic recovery and recrystallization. The Cora Lake shear zone is interpreted to have been relatively strong and to have hardened during progressive deformation. Garnet is commonly fractured perpendicular to host rock fabric, and statically replaced by both biotite and muscovite. Pseudotachylite, with the same sense of shear, occurs in several ultramylonitized mafic granulites. Thus, cataclasis and frictional melt are interpreted to have been produced in the lower continental crust, not during later reactivation. We suggest that strengthening of rheologically stiffer lithologies led to

  3. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-01-01

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr 87 / Sr 86 initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 ± 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 ± 15 Ma.)

  4. Neoproterozoic Structural Evolution of the NE-trending 620-540 Ma Ad-Damm Shear Zone, Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamimi, Z.; El-Sawy, E. K.; El-Fakharan, A. S.; Shujoon, A.; Matsah, M.; El-Shafei, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ad-Damm Shear Zone (ASZ) is a NE-trending fault zone separating Jeddah and Asir tectonostratigraphic terranes in the Neoproterozoic juvenile Arabian Shield. ASZ extends ~380 km, with an average width ~2-3 km, from the eye-catching Ruwah Fault Zone in the eastern shield to the Red Sea Coastal plain. It was believed to be one of the conjugate shears of the NW- to NNW- trending sinistral Najd Shear System based on noteworthy dextral shear criteria recorded within the 620 Ma sheared granites of Numan Complex, as well as right-lateral offsets within quartz veins and dikes transected by the shear zone. The present study is an integrated field-based structural analysis and remote sensing. We utilized the ASTER data for lithologic discrimination and automatic structural lineament extraction and analysis of the Neoproterozoic basement lithologies encountered along and within the vicinity of ASZ. Various false color composite images were generated and evaluated for lithological mapping and structural lineaments. The obtained map was analyzed using GIS techniques to interpret the behavior of the existing lineaments and their spatial distribution. Based on the results of the ASTER data, two significant areas; around Bir Ad-Damm and to the south of Wadi Numan, are selected for detailed field investigation. Shear-sense indicators and overprinting relations clearly show a complicated Neoproterozoic history of ASZ, involving at least three deformations: (1) an early attenuated NE-SW sinistral shearing; followed by (2) a SE-directed thrusting phase resulted in the formation SE-verging thrusts and associated thrust-related folds; and (3) late NE-SW intensive dextral transcurrent shearing played a significant role in the creation of mesoscopic shear-zone related folds, particularly in the area near Bir Ad-Damm. Such deformation history demonstrates the same episode of Neoproterozoic deformation exhibited in the NE-trending shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS).

  5. Early lineations in a later shear zone: case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Gupta, S.

    2016-12-01

    In polydeformed gneissic terranes, ductile shear zones may cut across rocks with older penetrative fabrics. Earlier lineations in later ductile shear zones need to be identified to avoid incorrect kinematic interpretation. To investigate the fate of early lineations during later ductile shearing, the Mahanadi Shear Zone (MSZ) from the Eastern Ghats Belt (EGB) in India is taken as a case study. The EGB is a Proterozoic granulite terrane correlated with Indo-Antarctica collision. The MSZ lies within the EGB, but is oriented almost perpendicular to the trend of the belt. The penetrative structural fabric in the EGB is NE-SW trending and dipping SE. However, a broad swing in structural trend from NE-SW to WNW-ESE can be detected near the MSZ from satellite imagery. In mylonitised rocks of the shear zone, a discrepancy between the shear zone lineation and inferred shear sense leads to uncertainty in kinematic interpretation of the shear zone. The EGB rock types include charnockites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses and garnet-sillimanite-bearing metapelitic gneisses (khondalites). Outside the MSZ, gneisses preserve an earlier, dominantly down-dip intersection lineation. Sillimanite needles in khondalites are aligned parallel to this lineation, while quartz and garnet are also annealed into the granulite facies fabric. In the vicinity of the shear zone, evidence of dextral non-coaxial shearing progressively increases but the lineation distribution is scattered. Quartz grains show strong undulose extinction caused by strain at lower temperatures, and crystallographic c-axis fabric analyses using EBSD indicate deformation by basal c-slip mechanism. Preferred alignment of the sillimanite needles is disrupted in khondalites within the MSZ because of partial rotation of the needles towards the sub-horizontal movement direction, with the extent of rotation of the needles being apparently controlled by grain size. Some sillimanite needles also appear to have undergone

  6. N-S crustal shear system in the Bundelkhand massif: a unique ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    In the light of our detailed geological studies of the massif (Singh and Bhattacharya,. 2010 .... relations with, and displace, the earlier shear systems, i.e. BS1, BS2 and BS3 (Fig. 3D), (3) ..... and shear zone patterns: The South Indian case. Jour.

  7. Th-Pb ion probe dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite and its implications for repeated shear zone activity: An example from the Central Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, C.; Gnos, E.; Berger, A.; Whitehouse, M.; Mullis, J.; Wehrens, P.; Pettke, T.; Janots, E.

    2017-04-01

    Th-Pb age dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite from alpine-type fissures/clefts is a powerful tool for constraining polyphase deformation at temperatures below 350°C and presents an alternative to K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating techniques for dating brittle tectonics. This study considers the relationship between cleft orientations in ductile shear zones and cleft mineral crystallization during subsequent brittle overprinting. In the Grimsel area, located in the Aar Massif of the Central Alps, horizontal clefts formed during a primary thrust dominated deformation, while younger and vertically oriented clefts developed during secondary strike-slip movements. The change is due to a switch in orientation between the principal stress axes σ2 and σ3. The transition is associated with monazite crystallization and chloritization of biotite at around 11.5 Ma. Quartz fluid inclusion data allow a link between deformation stages and temperatures to be established and indicate that primary monazite crystallization occurred in both cleft systems at 300-350°C. While cleft monazite crystallization ceases at 11 Ma in inactive shear zones, monazite growth, and/or dissolution-reprecipitation continues under brittle deformation conditions in vertical clefts during later deformation until 7 Ma. This younger shear zone activity occurs in association with dextral strike-slip movement of the Rhone-Simplon fault system. With the exception of varying Th/U values correlated with the degree of oxidation, there is only limited compositional variation in the studied cleft monazites.

  8. Active Deformation of Malawi Rift's North Basin Hinge Zone Modulated by Reactivation of Preexisting Precambrian Shear Zone Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R.; Salima, J.; Kalindekafe, L.

    2018-03-01

    We integrated temporal aeromagnetic data and recent earthquake data to address the long-standing question on the role of preexisting Precambrian structures in modulating strain accommodation and subsequent ruptures leading to seismic events within the East African Rift System. We used aeromagnetic data to elucidate the relationship between the locations of the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi, earthquake surface ruptures and buried basement faults along the hinge zone of the half-graben comprising the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Through the application of derivative filters and depth-to-magnetic-source modeling, we identified and constrained the trend of the Precambrian metamorphic fabrics and correlated them to the three-dimensional structure of buried basement faults. Our results reveal an unprecedented detail of the basement fabric dominated by high-frequency WNW to NW trending magnetic lineaments associated with the Precambrian Mughese Shear Zone fabric. The high-frequency magnetic lineaments are superimposed by lower frequency NNW trending magnetic lineaments associated with possible Cenozoic faults. Surface ruptures associated with the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga earthquake swarm aligned with one of the NNW-trending magnetic lineaments defining a normal fault that is characterized by right-stepping segments along its northern half and coalesced segments on its southern half. Fault geometries, regional kinematics, and spatial distribution of seismicity suggest that seismogenic faults reactivated the basement fabric found along the half-graben hinge zone. We suggest that focusing of strain accommodation and seismicity along the half-graben hinge zone is facilitated and modulated by the presence of the basement fabric.

  9. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  10. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for deep (15-50 km) slow-slip events at plate convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, An; Xie, Zhoumin; Meng, Lingsen

    2018-06-01

    A key issue in understanding the physics of deep (15-50 km) slow-slip events (D-SSE) at plate convergent margins is how their initially unstable motion becomes stabilized. Here we address this issue by quantifying a rate-strengthening mechanism using a viscoplastic shear-zone model inspired by recent advances in field observations and laboratory experiments. The well-established segmentation of slip modes in the downdip direction of a subduction shear zone allows discretization of an interseismic forearc system into the (1) frontal segment bounded by an interseismically locked megathrust, (2) middle segment bounded by episodically locked and unlocked viscoplastic shear zone, and (3) interior segment that slips freely. The three segments are assumed to be linked laterally by two springs that tighten with time, and the increasing elastic stress due to spring tightening eventually leads to plastic failure and initial viscous shear. This simplification leads to seven key model parameters that dictate a wide range of mechanical behaviors of an idealized convergent margin. Specifically, the viscoplastic rheology requires the initially unstable sliding to be terminated nearly instantaneously at a characteristic velocity, which is followed by stable sliding (i.e., slow-slip). The characteristic velocity, which is on the order of <10-7 m/s for the convergent margins examined in this study, depends on the (1) effective coefficient of friction, (2) thickness, (3) depth, and (4) viscosity of the viscoplastic shear zone. As viscosity decreases exponentially with temperature, our model predicts faster slow-slip rates, shorter slow-slip durations, more frequent slow-slip occurrences, and larger slow-slip magnitudes at warmer convergent margins.

  11. Shear transformation zone activation during deformation in bulk metallic glasses characterized using a new indentation creep technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Puthoff; H.B. Cao; Joseph E. Jakes; P.M. Voyles; D.S. Stone

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a novel type of nanoindentation creep experiment, called broadband nanoindentation creep (BNC), and used it to characterize the thermal activation of shear transformation zones (STZs) in three BMGs in the Zr-Cu-Al system. Using BNC, material hardness can be determined across a wide range of strain rates (10–4 to 10 s–...

  12. Characterizing fractures and shear zones in crystalline rock using seismic and GPR methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Jordi, Claudio; Laaksonlaita, Niko; Gischig, Valentin; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the natural or artificially created hydraulic conductivity of a rock mass is critical for the successful exploitation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The hydraulic response of fractured crystalline rock is largely governed by the spatial organization of permeable fractures. Defining the 3D geometry of these fractures and their connectivity is extremely challenging, because fractures can only be observed directly at their intersections with tunnels or boreholes. Borehole-based and tunnel-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic measurements have the potential to image fractures and other heterogeneities between and around boreholes and tunnels, and to monitor subtle time-lapse changes in great detail. We present the analysis of data acquired in the Grimsel rock laboratory as part of the In-situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC) experiment, in which a series of stimulation experiments have been and will be performed. The experiments in the granitic rock range from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments. The aim is to obtain a better understanding of coupled seismo-hydro-mechanical processes associated with high-pressure fluid injections in crystalline rocks and their impact on permeability creation and enhancement. GPR and seismic data have been recorded to improve the geological model and characterize permeable fractures and shear zones. The acquired and processed data include reflection GPR profiles measured from tunnel walls, single-borehole GPR images, and borehole-to-borehole and tunnel-to-tunnel seismic and GPR tomograms. The reflection GPR data reveal the geometry of shear zones up to a distance of 30 m from the tunnels and boreholes, but the interpretation is complicated by the geometrical ambiguity around tunnels and boreholes and by spurious reflections from man-made structures such as boreholes. The GPR and seismic traveltime tomography results reveal brittle fractured rock between two ductile shear zones. The

  13. Sense of shear and displacement estimates in the Abeibara-Rarhous late Pan-African shear zone, Adrar des Iforas, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullier, Anne-Marie

    The late Pan-African Abeibara-Rarhous shear zone in the Adrar des Iforas (Mali) is described and studied with the aim of defining the direction, sense of movement and amount of displacement along the zone. It is a strike-slip shear zone, the dextral sense of which is demonstrated at the scale of the map by the rotation of the related mylonitic foliation and at the scale of the thin section with characteristic microstructures. Preferred orientation of quartz c-axes is tentatively used; three quartz-rich samples of 35% or more quartz indicate dextral strike-slip movement, but other samples do not show preferred orientation of quartz c-axes. Strain measurements have been performed on one half of the shear zone using established techniques and a new technique using the thickness of mylonitic layering. The results vary along the length of the shear zone when using the same method and for the same cross-section when using the three methods together. A mean value of 4 km is obtained for total displacement which is low when considering the apparent width of the shear zone. This result is discussed in view of the assumptions involved in the strain estimation. The tectonic history of the Abeibara-Rarhous shear zone and its significance in the Trans-Saharan Pan-African collisional belt are discussed.

  14. Effect of Different Loading Conditions on the Nucleation and Development of Shear Zones Around Material Heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybacki, E.; Nardini, L.; Morales, L. F.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Rock deformation at depths in the Earth's crust is often localized in high temperature shear zones, which occur in the field at different scales and in a variety of lithologies. The presence of material heterogeneities has long been recognized to be an important cause for shear zones evolution, but the mechanisms controlling initiation and development of localization are not fully understood, and the question of which loading conditions (constant stress or constant deformation rate) are most favourable is still open. To better understand the effect of boundary conditions on shear zone nucleation around heterogeneities, we performed a series of torsion experiments under constant twist rate (CTR) and constant torque (CT) conditions in a Paterson-type deformation apparatus. The sample assemblage consisted of copper-jacketed Carrara marble hollow cylinders with one weak inclusion of Solnhofen limestone. The CTR experiments were performed at maximum bulk strain rates of 1.8-1.9*10-4 s-1, yielding shear stresses of 19-20 MPa. CT tests were conducted at shear stresses between 18.4 and 19.8 MPa resulting in shear strain rates of 1-2*10-4 s-1. All experiments were run at 900 °C temperature and 400 MPa confining pressure. Maximum bulk shear strains (γ) were ca. 0.3 and 1. Strain localized within the host marble in front of the inclusion in an area termed process zone. Here grain size reduction is intense and local shear strain (estimated from markers on the jackets) is up to 8 times higher than the applied bulk strain, rapidly dropping to 2 times higher at larger distance from the inclusion. The evolution of key microstructural parameters such as average grain size and average grain orientation spread (GOS, a measure of lattice distortion) within the process zone, determined by electron backscatter diffraction analysis, differs significantly as a function of loading conditions. Both parameters indicate that, independent of bulk strain and distance from the inclusion, the

  15. Finite Strain Analysis of the Wadi Fatima Shear Zone in Western Arabia, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, O. M. K.; Hamimi, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Neoproterozoic rocks, Oligocene to Neogene sediments and Tertiary Red Sea rift-related volcanics (Harrat) are three dominant major groups exposed in the Jeddah tectonic terrane in Western Arabia. The basement complex comprises amphibolites, schists, and older and younger granites unconformably overlain by a post-amalgamation volcanosedimentary sequence (Fatima Group) exhibiting post-accretionary thrusting and thrust-related structures. The older granites and/or the amphibolites and schists display mylonitization and shearing in some outcrops, and the observed kinematic indicators indicate dextral monoclinic symmetry along the impressive Wadi Fatima Shear Zone. Finite strain analysis of the mylonitized lithologies is used to interpret the deformation history of the Wadi Fatima Shear Zone. The measured finite strain data demonstrate that the amphibolites, schists, and older granites are mildly to moderately deformed, where XZ (axial ratios in XZ direction) vary from 2.76 to 4.22 and from 2.04 to 3.90 for the Rf/φ and Fry method respectively. The shortening axes ( Z) have subvertical attitude and are associated with subhorizontal foliation. The data show oblate strain ellipsoids in the different rocks in the studied area and indication bulk flattening strain. We assume that the different rock types have similar deformation behavior. In the deformed granite, the strain data are identical in magnitude with those obtained in the Fatima Group volcanosedimentary sequence. Finite strain accumulated without any significant volume change contemporaneously with syn-accretionary transpressive structures. It is concluded that a simple-shear deformation with constant-volume plane strain exists, where displacement is strictly parallel to the shear plane. Furthermore, the contacts between various lithological units in the Wadi Fatima Shear Zone were formed under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions.

  16. Plankton dynamics associated with the convergence zone of a shear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationships between water quality variables and plankton abundances. Community analysis was also run on the data in order to determine community dynamics associated with frontal system convergence and downwelling. Key words: ichthyoplankton, phytoplankton, ...

  17. Neoproterozoic Evolution and Najd‒Related Transpressive Shear Deformations Along Nugrus Shear Zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt (Implications from Field‒Structural Data and AMS‒Technique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, W.; Moustafa, R.; Hamimi, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The tectonometamorphic evolution of Nugrus Shear Zone (NSZ) in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt was reevaluated through an integrated study including field-structural work and magnetofabric analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique, complemented by detailed microstructural investigation. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust within this high strain zone suffered an impressive tectonic event of left-lateral transpressional regime, transposed the majority of the earlier formed structures into a NNW to NW-directed wrench corridor depicts the northwestern extension of the Najd Shear System (NSS) along the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The core of the southern Hafafit dome underwent a high metamorphic event ( M 1) developed during the end of the main collisional orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The subsequent M 2 metamorphic event was retrogressive and depicts the tectonic evolution and exhumation of the Nugrus-Hafafit area including the Hafafit gneissic domes, during the origination of the left-lateral transpressive wrench corridor of the NSS. The early tectonic fabric within the NSZ and associated highly deformed rocks was successfully detected by the integration of AMS-technique and microstructural observations. Such fabric grain was checked through a field-structural work. The outcomes of the present contribution advocate a complex tectonic evolution with successive and overlapped deformation events for the NSZ.

  18. Intra-Continental Deformation by Mid-Crustal Shearing and Doming in a Cenozoic Compressive Setting Along the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.

    2016-12-01

    Large-scale lateral strike-slip shear zones have been a key point in the debate about the deformation mechanisms of Asia in response to the India-Asia collision. The exhumed gneiss has been attributed to lateral strike-slip shear zone. This hypothesis has been challenged by recent discoveries indicating that a contractional doming deformation prior to the initiation of lateral strike-slip shearing. The Cenozoic Xuelong Shan antiformal dome is located at the northern segment of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone. Subhorizontal foliation in the gneiss core are recognized, representing a broad top-to-NE shear initiated under amphibolite facies conditions and propagated into greenschist facies in the mantling schist and strike-slip shear zone. Quartz CPOs and opening angles of crossed girdle fabrics in quartz suggest that the deformation temperatures increased with increasing structural depth from 300-500 °C in the mantling schist to ≥650 °C in the gneissic core. This trend is mirrored by variations in the metamorphic grade of the syn-kinematic mineral assemblages and microstructures, which ranges from garnet + amphibole + biotite + sillimanite + rutite + feldspar in the core to garnet + staurolite + biotite + epidote + muscovite within the limb units. Five-stage deformation is identified: (1) a broad top-to-NE shear in the subhorizontal level (D1); (2) opposing reverse-sense shear along the two schist limbs of the dome during contraction-related doming (D2-D3); (3) sinistral strike-slip shearing within the eastern limb (D4); and (4) extensional deformation (D5). The antiformal dome formation had been roughly coeval with top-to-NE ductile shearing in the mid-crust at 32 Ma or earlier. The geometries of the antiformal dome in the Xuelong Shan dome are similar to those associated with the antiform in the Dai Nui Con Voi, Diancang Shan and Ailao Shan zones. It is likely that the complex massifs, which define a regional linear gneiss dome zone in Cenozoic intra

  19. Simulations of a stretching bar using a plasticity model from the shear transformation zone theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Gibou, Frederic

    2010-06-05

    An Eulerian simulation is developed to study an elastoplastic model of amorphous materials that is based upon the shear transformation zone theory developed by Langer and coworkers. In this theory, plastic deformation is controlled by an effective temperature that measures the amount of configurational disorder in the material. The simulation is used to model ductile fracture in a stretching bar that initially contains a small notch, and the effects of many of the model parameters are examined. The simulation tracks the shape of the bar using the level set method. Within the bar, a finite difference discretization is employed that makes use of the essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme. The system of equations is moderately stiff due to the presence of large elastic constants, and one of the key numerical challenges is to accurately track the level set and construct extrapolated field values for use in boundary conditions. A new approach to field extrapolation is discussed that is second order accurate and requires a constant amount of work per gridpoint.

  20. The Eastern California Shear Zone as the northward extension of the southern San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Wayne R.; Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers an agnostic way to organize and explore features of the current GPS velocity field without reference to geologic information or physical models using information only contained in the velocity field itself. We have used cluster analysis of the Southern California Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field to determine the partitioning of Pacific-North America relative motion onto major regional faults. Our results indicate the large-scale kinematics of the region is best described with two boundaries of high velocity gradient, one centered on the Coachella section of the San Andreas Fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone and the other defined by the San Jacinto Fault south of Cajon Pass and the San Andreas Fault farther north. The ~120 km long strand of the San Andreas between Cajon Pass and Coachella Valley (often termed the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio sections) is thus currently of secondary importance and carries lesser amounts of slip over most or all of its length. We show these first order results are present in maps of the smoothed GPS velocity field itself. They are also generally consistent with currently available, loosely bounded geologic and geodetic fault slip rate estimates that alone do not provide useful constraints on the large-scale partitioning we show here. Our analysis does not preclude the existence of smaller blocks and more block boundaries in Southern California. However, attempts to identify smaller blocks along and adjacent to the San Gorgonio section were not successful.

  1. Structural setting and magnetic properties of pseudotachylyte in a deep crustal shear zone, western Canadian shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, O. F.; Mahan, K. H.; Brown, L. L.; Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic slip commonly produces pseudotachylytes, a glassy vein-filling substance that is typically interpreted as either a frictional melt or an ultra-triturated cataclasite. In either form, pseudotachylytes are commonly magnetite enriched, even in magnetite-free host rocks, and therefore are potentially useful as high fidelity recorders of natural magnetic fields at the time of slip in a wide array of lithologies. Pseudotachylytes generally have high magnetic susceptibility and thus should preserve the dominant field present as the material passes the Curie temperatures of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite. Two potential sources have been proposed for the dominant magnetic field recorded: the earth's magnetic field at the time of slip or the temporary and orders of magnitude more intense field created by the presence of coseismic currents along the failure plane. Pseudotachylytes of the Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) in the Athabasca Granulite Terrain, western Canadian shield, are consistently hosted in high strain ultramylonitic orthogneiss. Sinistral and extensional oblique-slip in the CLsz occurred at high-pressure granulite-grade conditions of ~1.0 GPa and >800°C and may have persisted to somewhat lower P-T conditions (~0.8 GPa, 700 °C) during ductile deformation. Pseudotachylyte-bearing slip surfaces have sinistral offset, matching the larger shear zone, and clasts of wall rock in the more brecciated veins display field evidence for ductile shear along the same plane prior to brittle failure. The presence of undeformed pseudotachylyte in kinematically compatible fracture arrays localized in ultramylonite indicates that brittle failure may have occurred in the waning stages of shear zone activity and at similar deep crustal conditions. Field-documented occurrences of pseudotachylyte include 2 cm-thick veins that run subparallel to mylonitic foliation and contain small flow-aligned clasts and large, heavily brecciated foliation-crosscutting zones up to

  2. The Sierra de Cabral range: a restraining bend related to the Sierra Ballena shear zone in Dom Feliciano belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H.

    2010-01-01

    Restraining and releasing bends occurring in all crustal environments are common but enigmatic features of strike-slip fault systems. They can be reported in all scales of observation. Regional-scale restraining bends are sites of mountain building, transpressional deformation and basement exhumation. Releasing bends are sites of subsidence, transtensional deformation and pull-apart basins. The Dom Feliciano Belt of Southern Uruguay has two main structures observed from the outer space: (i) the Sierra Ballena Shear Zone and (ii) the Sierra de Cabral flexure located to the SW of the former. Although a transpressional regime is commonly accepted for the Dom Feliciano Belt, the available tectonic models do not provide satisfactory explanations for its building mechanism. A restraining bend is proposed at the SW termination of Sierra Ballena strike-slip ductile shear zone. In a key-area (Alvariza Range) the relationship between the Zanja del Tigre volcanic-detritic and the calcareous succession shows three en-échelon upright bends of the same quartzite hanging-wall between two sub-vertical strike-slip faults, suggesting the existence of a shortened strike-slip duplex operating in viscous-elastic rheology. The deformation partitioning includes strike-slip and dip-slip simple-shear components as well as one contractional pure-shear component. Because restraining bends were scarcely described in Neoproterozoic low-grade regional exhumation conditions, this structural framework would be a natural laboratory to study fault kinematics, fault dynamics, their associated deformation and the tectonic and erosion constraints related to the exhumation of many crystalline terrains

  3. Magma-assisted strain localization in an orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, AndréA.; Vauchez, Alain; Femandes, Luis A. D.; Porcher, Carla C.

    1994-04-01

    In a lithospheric-scale, orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of the Pan-African Dom Feliciano belt of southern Brazil, two successive generations of magmas, an early calc-alkaline and a late peraluminous, have been emplaced during deformation. Microstructures show that these granitoids experienced a progressive deformation from magmatic to solid state under decreasing temperature conditions. Magmatic deformation is indicated by the coexistence of aligned K-feldspar, plagioclase, micas, and/or tourmaline with undeformed quartz. Submagmatic deformation is characterized by strain features, such as fractures, lattice bending, or replacement reactions affecting only the early crystallized phases. High-temperature solid-state deformation is characterized by extensive grain boundary migration in quartz, myrmekitic K-feldspar replacement, and dynamic recrystallization of both K-feldspar and plagioclase. Decreasing temperature during solid-state deformation is inferred from changes in quartz crystallographic fabrics, decrease in grain size of recrystallized feldspars, and lower Ti amount in recrystallized biotites. Final low-temperature deformation is characterized by feldspar replacement by micas. The geochemical evolution of the synkinematic magmatism, from calc-alkaline metaluminous granodiorites with intermediate 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio to peraluminous granites with very high 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio, suggests an early lower crustal source or a mixed mantle/crustal source, followed by a middle to upper crustal source for the melts. Shearing in lithospheric faults may induce partial melting in the lower crust by shear heating in the upper mantle, but, whatever the process initiating partial melting, lithospheric transcurrent shear zones may collect melt at different depths. Because they enhance the vertical permeability of the crust, these zones may then act as heat conductors (by advection), promoting an upward propagation of partial melting in the crust

  4. Research Advances on Fabricated Shear Wall System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Donghui; Wang, Sheng; Zhai, Yu

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of the construction industry, building energy consumption has been increasing, has become a problem that can not be ignored. It is imperative to develop energy-saving buildings. A new type of prefabricated shear wall is assembled and partially assembled by prefabricated parts, and some concrete is spliced together. The new structure has good integrity, seismic resistance and excellent energy saving and environmental protection performance. It reduces building energy consumption to a great extent. Therefore, the design method, manufacturing process, site assembly process and key technical problems of the system are discussed. For the construction industry gradually entered the energy conservation, environmental protection, safety and durability of sustainable development laid the foundation.

  5. Geophysical anomalies associated with uranium mineralization from Beldih mine, South Purulia Shear Zone, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Animesh; Biswas, Arkoprovo; Mittal, Saurabh; Mohanty, William K.; Sharma, Shashi Prakash; Sengupta, Debashish; Sen, Joydip; Bhatt, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Beldih mine at the central part of the South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ) has been reported with low grade uranium-bearing formation within quartz-magnetite-apatite host in kaolinized formation. Therefore, the present integrated geophysical study with gravity, magnetic, radiometric, very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF) and gradient resistivity profiling methods around the known mineralized zones aimed at identifying the exact geophysical signatures and lateral extent of these uranium mineralization bands. The closely spaced gravity-magnetic contours over the low to high anomaly transition zones of Bouguer, reduced-to-pole magnetic, and trend surface separated residual gravity-magnetic anomaly maps indicate the possibility of high altered zone(s) along NW-SE direction at the central part of the study area. High current density plots of VLF method and the low resistive zones in gradient resistivity study depict the coincidence with low gravity, moderately high magnetic and low resistivity anomalies at the same locations. Moderate high radioactive zones have also been observed over these locations. This also suggests the existence of radioactive mineralization over this region. Along profile P2, drilled borehole data revealed the presence of uranium mineralization at a depth of ∼100 m. The vertical projection of this mineralization band also identified as low gravity, low resistivity and high magnetic anomaly zone. Thus, the application of integrated geophysical techniques supported by geological information successfully recognized the nature of geophysical signatures associated with the uranium mineralization of this region. This enhances the scope of further integrated geophysical investigations in the unexplored regions of SPSZ. (author)

  6. Shear wave splitting and crustal anisotropy in the Eastern Ladakh-Karakoram zone, northwest Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arpita; Hazarika, Devajit; Wadhawan, Monika

    2017-06-01

    Seismic anisotropy of the crust beneath the eastern Ladakh-Karakoram zone has been studied by shear wave splitting analysis of S-waves of local earthquakes and P-to-S or Ps converted phases originated at the crust-mantle boundary. The splitting parameters (Φ and δt), derived from S-wave of local earthquakes with shallow focal depths, reveal complex nature of anisotropy with NW-SE and NE oriented Fast Polarization directions (FPD) in the upper ∼22 km of the crust. The observed anisotropy in the upper crust may be attributed to combined effects of existing tectonic features as well as regional tectonic stress. The maximum delay time of fast and slow waves in the upper crust is ∼0.3 s. The Ps splitting analysis shows more consistent FPDs compared to S-wave splitting. The FPDs are parallel or sub parallel to the Karakoram fault (KF) and other NW-SE trending tectonic features existing in the region. The strength of anisotropy estimated for the whole crust is higher (maximum delay time δt: 0.75 s) in comparison to the upper crust. This indicates that the dominant source of anisotropy in the trans-Himalayan crust is confined within the middle and lower crustal depths. The predominant NW-SE trending FPDs consistently observed in the upper crust as well as in the middle and lower crust near the KF zone support the fact that the KF is a crustal-scale fault which extends at least up to the lower crust. Dextral shearing of the KF creates shear fabric and preferential alignment of mineral grains along the strike of the fault, resulting in the observed FPDs. A Similar observation in the Indus Suture Zone (ISZ) also suggests crustal scale deformation owing to the India-Asia collision.

  7. A hidden variable in shear transformation zone volume versus Poisson's ratio relation in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. Y.; Oh, H. S.; Park, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we elucidate a hidden variable in a shear transformation zone (STZ) volume (Ω) versus Poisson's ratio (ν) relation and clarify the correlation between STZ characteristics and the plasticity of metallic glasses (MGs). On the basis of cooperative shear model and atomic stress theories, we carefully formulate Ω as a function of molar volume (Vm) and ν. The twofold trend in Ω and ν is attributed to a relatively large variation of Vm as compared to that of ν as well as an inverse relation between Vm and ν. Indeed, the derived equation reveals that the number of atoms in an STZ instead of Ω is a microstructural characteristic which has a close relationship with plasticity since it reflects the preference of atomistic behaviors between cooperative shearing and the generation of volume strain fluctuation under stress. The results would deepen our understanding of the correlation between microscopic behaviors (STZ activation) and macroscopic properties (plasticity) in MGs and enable a quantitative approach in associating various STZ-related macroscopic behaviors with intrinsic properties of MGs.

  8. Na-metasomatism in the uranium fields of Singhbhum Shear zone, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) of eastern India hosts uranium, copper and apatite-magnetite mineralization, which occurs either independently or overlaps in space. SSZ is a nearly 200 km long, 1-5 km wide, intensely techtonized, northward-convex, arcuate mobile belt that separates the Archaean cratonic nucleus to its south from the Proterozoic North Singhbhum Fold Belt on the north. Except Bagjata mines in the eastern sector, majority of the known uranium deposits and mines (e.g. Jaduguda, Bhatin, Narwapahar, Banduhurang and Mohuldih) are situated in the central sector of the shear zone. All the deposits are of low grade (0.05% U 3 O 8 ) and low to medium tonnage. The common rock types of the SSZ are quartz-chlorite schists, quartzsericite schists, quartzite, metaconglomerate, soda granite, quartz-albite bearing schists/gneisses, granophyres and tourmalinite. The mineralization occur as lenticular to tabular bodies, which are (pene-) concordant with dominant planer structures, i.e. foliation parallel with the lithological layering (S 3 II S 0 ). Principal uranium mineral is uraninite with low thorium (UO 2 /ThO 2 =70-150), high lead (PbO =14-15%) and moderate REE contents with minor pitchblende and some secondary minerals near the surface. Many ore minerals, particularly the sulfide phases of Ni, Co, Mo, Cu and Fe are common

  9. Late extensional shear zones and associated recumbent folds in the Alpujarride subduction complex, Betic Cordillera, southern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, M.; Alonso-Chaves, F.; Platt, J.

    2017-11-01

    The existence in the Alpujarride Complex (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain) of a relatively continuous extensional event (following crustal thickening) is based on detailed structural studies and is consistent with the P-T paths and geochronological data established for the Alpujarride rocks. According to our research, the Alpujarride Complex contains two large-scale shear zones accommodating early Miocene extension. The shear zones contain km-scale recumbent folds, some with sheath fold geometry, and megaboudinage structures, and are closely associated with detachment faults. Large-scale folds and boudins cause dome-like undulations in the detachments, which are inferred to overlap in time with the deformation in the shear zones. One shear zone in the eastern part of the orogen is top-N; the other, in the western part, is top-E. The change in the shear direction may represent a temporal evolution in the direction of shear, possibly related to a change in the subduction direction in space and time.

  10. Late extensional shear zones and associated recumbent folds in the Alpujarride subduction complex, Betic Cordillera, southern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, M.; Alonso-Chaves, F.; Platt, J.

    2017-01-01

    The existence in the Alpujarride Complex (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain) of a relatively continuous extensional event (following crustal thickening) is based on detailed structural studies and is consistent with the P-T paths and geochronological data established for the Alpujarride rocks. According to our research, the Alpujarride Complex contains two large-scale shear zones accommodating early Miocene extension. The shear zones contain km-scale recumbent folds, some with sheath fold geometry, and megaboudinage structures, and are closely associated with detachment faults. Large-scale folds and boudins cause dome-like undulations in the detachments, which are inferred to overlap in time with the deformation in the shear zones. One shear zone in the eastern part of the orogen is top-N; the other, in the western part, is top-E. The change in the shear direction may represent a temporal evolution in the direction of shear, possibly related to a change in the subduction direction in space and time.

  11. The variation of crustal structure along the Song Ma Shear Zone, Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chien-Min; Wen, Strong; Tang, Chi-Chia; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Chen, Chau-Huei

    2018-06-01

    Northern Vietnam is divided into two regions by suture zone. The southwestern region belongs to the Indochina block, and the northeastern region is a portion of the South China block with distinct geological characteristics. From previous studies, the closing the Paleotethys led the collision between the Indochina and South China blocks, and this collision form the suture zone in the Middle Triassic. In the Tertiary, Indian and Eurasian plates started to collide, and this collision caused the extrusion of the Indochina block along the suture zone and a clockwise rotation. Metamorphic rocks associated with the subduction process have been found at the Song Ma Shear Zone (SMSZ) from geological surveys, which indicated that the SMSZ is a possible boundary between the South China and Indochina block. However, according to previous study, there is an argument of whether the SMSZ is a subduction zone of the South China and Indochina plates or not. In this study, we applied the H-κ and the common conversion point (CCP) stacking method using teleseismic converted waves recorded by a seismic broadband array to obtain the Moho depth, VP/VS ratio and the crustal structure along the SMSZ. The CCP results are further used to identify whether the fault extends through the entire crust or not. We have selected two profiles along the SMSZ and a profile across the SMSZ for imaging lateral variations of impedance from stacking. According to H-κ stacking results, crustal thickness vary from 26.0 to 29.3 km, and the average of VP/VS ratio is about 1.77. Finally, the CCP results also show the heterogeneity of crust among the SMSZ. These evidences might support that SMSZ is the suture zone between the South China and Indochina plates.

  12. Middle Jurassic shear zones at Cap de Creus (eastern Pyrenees, Spain) : a record of pre-drift extension of the Piemonte–Ligurian Ocean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Wilkinson, Camilla M.; Ganerød, Morgan

    The Cap de Creus peninsula in NE Spain consists of greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metasediments and granitoid bodies of the Variscan Axial Zone of the Pyrenees, overprinted in the north by anastomosed greenschist-facies shear zones. Current tectonic interpretations ascribe these shear zones to

  13. The Main Shear Zone in Sør Rondane: A key feature for reconstructing the geodynamic evolution of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Lisker, Frank; Jacobs, Joachim; Elburg, Marlina; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    systems. The latter point to a WNW-ESE respectively NW-SE oriented maximum paleostress direction and indicate the latest deformation event; they are possibly related to the break-up and fragmentation of Gondwana. Two contrasting models describe the configuration of East Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic and the final amalgamation of Gondwana. The first model proposes the existence of a Pan-African Orogen (East African/ Antarctic Orogen). The Main Shear Zone could represent the eastern extension of this orogen and may be related to a NE-directed lateral-escape tectonic model. Both published structural data from Sør Rondane and adjacent regions and the outcome of this study agree with this model and propose a suture of East- and West Gondwana located between Mühlig-Hofmann-Gebirge and Sør Rondane. The second model of an overlap of two orogens with different formation ages cannot be proved by structural data from the MSZ. Instead, tight test constraints of the second model may be provided by new magnetic anomaly maps based on a 2012/13 aerogeophysical survey. Shiraishi, K.; Dunkley, D.J.; Hokada, T.; Fanning, C.M.; Kagami, H.; and Hamamoto, T. (2008): Geochronological constraints on the Late Proterozoic to Cambrian crustal evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica: a synthesis of SHRIMP U-Pb age and Nd model age data. Geological Society, 308(1):21-67. Shiraishi, K.; Osanai, Y.; Ishizuka, H.; and Asami, M. (1997): Geological map of the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. Antarctica Geological Map Series, sheet 35, scale 1 : 25 0000. National Institute of PolarResearch, Tokyo.

  14. Ordering fluctuations in a shear-banding wormlike micellar system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelico, R.; Rossi, C. Oliviero; Ambrosone, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a first investigation about the non-linear flow properties and transient orientational-order fluctuations observed in the shear-thinning lecithin–water–cyclohexane wormlike micellar system at a concentration near to the zero-shear isotropic–nematic phase transition. From rheological...

  15. Wind Shear Systems Implementation Plan, Benefit/Cost Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    not. Accordingly, the three self contained Wind Shear Systems currently being marketed by avionics manufacturers are considered to have lower relative... RESEARC { AND I’iVEIOPMEN1 The FAA research ni d development ffort has taken a threefold appro,,ch to the vind sh#ear problem. Ore. approach was to

  16. Rb-Sr dating of strain-induced mineral growth in two ductile shear zones in the western gneiss region of Nord-Troendelag, Central Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasecki, M.A.; Cliff, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the Bjugn district of the northern part of the Western Gneiss Region, Nord-Troendelag, a basement gneiss-cover nappe boundary is marked by a thick zone of ductile shearing. In this zone a layer-parallel mylonitic fabric with related new mineral growth overprints and retrogresses a previous fabric associated with a granulite facies mineral assemblage. Related minor shear belts contain abundant new minerals and vein systems, including pegmatites, believed to represent strain-induced products formed at the time of the shearing movements. Central parts of two large muscovite books from such a pegmatite yielded Rb-Sr, Early to Middle Devonian ages of 389±6 Ma and 386±6 Ma, interpreted as indicating the approximate time of pegmatite formation and of the shearing. Small, matrix-size muscovite and biotite grains from the host mylonite gave ages of 378±6 Ma and 365±5 Ma, respectively, supposed to relate to post-shearing uplift and cooling

  17. The ultimate fate of a synmagmatic shear zone. Interplay between rupturing and ductile flow in a cooling granite pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibra, I.; White, J. C.; Menegon, L.; Dering, G.; Gessner, K.

    2018-05-01

    The Neoarchean Cundimurra Pluton (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia) was emplaced incrementally along the transpressional Cundimurra Shear Zone. During syndeformational cooling, discrete networks of cataclasites and ultramylonites developed in the narrowest segment of the shear zone, showing the same kinematics as the earlier synmagmatic structures. Lithological boundaries between aplite/pegmatite veins and host granitic gneiss show more intense pre-cataclasite fabrics than homogeneous material, and these boundaries later became the preferred sites of shear rupture and cataclasite nucleation. Transient ductile instabilities established along lithological boundaries culminated in shear rupture at relatively high temperature (∼500-600 °C). Here, tensile fractures at high angles from the fault plane formed asymmetrically on one side of the fault, indicating development during seismic rupture, establishing the oldest documented earthquake on Earth. Tourmaline veins were emplaced during brittle shearing, but fluid pressure probably played a minor role in brittle failure, as cataclasites are in places tourmaline-free. Subsequent ductile deformation localized in the rheologically weak tourmaline-rich aggregates, forming ultramylonites that deformed by grain-size sensitive creep. The shape and width of the pluton/shear zone and the regime of strain partitioning, induced by melt-present deformation and established during pluton emplacement, played a key role in controlling the local distribution of brittle and then ductile subsolidus structures.

  18. Quaternary layer anomalies around the Carlsberg Fault zone mapped with high-resolution shear-wave seismics south of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammann, Janina; Hübscher, Christian; Nielsen, Lars

    Fault zone. The portable compact vibrator source ElViS III S8 was used to acquire a 1150 m long seismic section on the island Amager, south of Copenhagen. The shallow subsurface in the investigation area is dominated by Quaternary glacial till deposits in the upper 5-11 m and Danian limestone below....... In the shear-wave profile, we imaged the 30 m of the upward continuation of the Carlsberg Fault zone. In our area of investigation, the fault zone appears to comprise normal block faults and one reverse block fault showing the complexity of the fault zone. The observed faults appear to affect both the Danian...

  19. Stratigraphy, palynology and organic geochemistry of the Devonian-Mississippian metasedimentary Albergaria-a-Velha Unit (Porto-Tomar shear zone, W Portugal)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machado, G.; Franců, E.; Vavrdová, Milada; Flores, D.; Fonseca, P. E.; Rocha, F.; Gama Pereira, L. C.; Gomes, A.; Fonseca, M.; Chaminé, H. I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2011), s. 139-164 ISSN 1641-7291. [International Palynological Conference of the International Commission of the Paleozoic Microflora ( CIMP ). Warsaw-Kielce, 13.09.2010-19.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Mississippian * Late Devonian * Ossa-Morena Zone * Porto-Tomar shear zone * palynology * organic geochemistry * turbidite systems * provenance * phytoplankton Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.844, year: 2011 http://gq.pgi.gov.pl/gq/article/viewFile/7606/pdf_4

  20. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  1. Magnetic fabrics in characterization of magma emplacement and tectonic evolution of the Moyar Shear Zone, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pratheesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Moyar Shear Zone (MSZ of the South Indian granulite terrain hosts a prominent syenite pluton (∼560 Ma and associated NW-SE to NE-SW trending mafic dyke swarm (∼65 Ma and 95 Ma. Preliminary magnetic fabric studies in the mafic dykes, using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibly (AMS studies at low-field, indicate successive emplacement and variable magma flow direction. Magnetic lineation and foliation in these dykes are identical to the mesoscopic fabrics in MSZ mylonites, indicating shear zone guided emplacement. Spatial distribution of magnetic lineation in the dykes suggests a common conduit from which the source magma has been migrated. The magnetic foliation trajectories have a sigmoidal shape to the north of the pluton and curve into the MSZ suggesting dextral sense of shear. Identical fabric conditions for magnetic fabrics in the syenite pluton and measured field fabrics in mylonite indicate syntectonic emplacement along the Proterozoic crustal scale dextral shear zone with repeated reactivation history.

  2. Ring shear characteristics of clays in fractured-zone-landslide. Hasaitai chisuberichi no nenseido no ring sendan tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatabe, R; Yagi, N; Enoki, M [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-20

    The importance of study on the residual strength, in addition to the peak strength, has been pointed out for the study of landslides. The residual strength characteristics, effects of shearing rate, and grain size of clays, as well as the residual strength characteristics of clay minerals of a fractured zone landslide were examined by ring shear tests. The residual friction angles {phi}{sub r} of the tested clays of the fractured zone landslide were from 10 to 31{degree}, and were smaller than those of shearing resistance angles {phi}{prime} obtained by triaxial tests by 5 to 15{degree}. Contrary to the pointing out made hitherto, no correlation between clay content CF and plastic index was recognized for {phi}{sub r} of clays of a fractured zone landslide. As regards CF, the relation with CF was far below the lowest limit indicated by now. Ring shear characteristics of principal structural clay minerals, vermiculite, mica, illite, chlorite, and kaolinite were investigated. {phi}{sub r} of these clay minerals were in the range from 10 to 25{degree}. 20 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Global shear speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2013-07-01

    resolution of the imaging. Our new shear speed model is parametrized on a triangular grid with a ˜280 km spacing. In well-sampled continental domains, lateral resolution approaches or exceeds that of regional-scale studies. The close match of known surface expressions of deep structure with the distribution of anomalies in the model provides a useful benchmark. In oceanic regions, spreading ridges are very well resolved, with narrow anomalies in the shallow mantle closely confined near the ridge axis, and those deeper, down to 100-120 km, showing variability in their width and location with respect to the ridge. Major subduction zones worldwide are well captured, extending from shallow depths down to the transition zone. The large size of our waveform fit data set also provides a strong statistical foundation to re-examine the validity field of the JWKB approximation and surface wave ray theory. Our analysis shows that the approximations are likely to be valid within certain time-frequency portions of most seismograms with high signal-to-noise ratios, and these portions can be identified using a set of consistent criteria that we apply in the course of waveform fitting.

  4. Metal contamination of agricultural soils in the copper mining areas of Singhbhum shear zone in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The study was intended to investigate the heavy metal contamination in the agricultural soils of the copper mining areas in Singhbhum shear zone, India. The total concentrations of the metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICPMS). Pollution levels were assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I_geo), contamination factors (CF), pollution load index ( PLI), Nemerow index and ecological risk index (RI). The metal concentrations in the soil samples exceeded the average shale values for almost all the metals. Principal component analysis resulted in extraction of three factors explaining 82.6% of the data variability and indicated anthropogenic contribution of Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Pb. The EF and I_geo values indicated very high contamination with respect to Cu followed by As and Zn in the agricultural soils. The values of PLI, RI and Nemerow index, which considered the overall effect of all the studied metals on the soils, revealed that 50% of the locations were highly polluted with respect to metals. The pollution levels varied with the proximity to the copper mining and processing units. Consequently, the results advocate the necessity of periodic monitoring of the agricultural soils of the area and development of proper management strategies to reduce the metal pollution.

  5. A review of porosity-generating mechanisms in crustal shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Revets, S.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the spatiotemporal characteristics of permeability is critical for the understanding of fluid migration in rocks. In diagenetic and metamorphic rocks different porosity-generating mechanisms contribute to permeability and so influence fluid migration and fluid/rock interaction. However, little is known about their relative contributions to the porosity architecture of a rock in a tectono-metamorphic environment. This presentation reviews porosity-generating mechanisms that affect fluid migration in shear zones, the most important crustal fluid conduits, in the context of the tectonometamorphic evolution of rocks. Mechanisms that generate porosity can be classified in a) those that involve the direct action of a fluid, b) processes in which a fluid partakes or that are supported by a fluid or c) mechanism that do not involve a fluid. a) Hydraulic fracturing, where it happens through the formation of tensile fractures, occurs where pore fluid pressures equalize the combined lithostatic pressure and strength of the rock (Etheridge et al., 1984, Cox & Etheridge, 1989, Oliver, 1996). Here an internally released (devolatilisation reactions, e.g., Rumble, 1994, Hacker, 1997, Yardley, 1997 and references therein) or externally derived (infiltrating from metamorphic, magmatic or meteoric sources, Baumgartner et al., 1997, Jamtveit et al., 1997, Thompson, 1997, Gleeson et al., 2003) fluid directly causes the mechanical failure of a rock. Where a fluid is in chemical disequilibrium with a rock (undersaturated with regard to a chemical species) minerals will be dissolved, generating dissolution porosity. Rocks ‘leached' by the removal of chemical components by vast amounts of fluid are reported to lose up to 60% of their original volume (e.g., Kerrich et al., 1984, McCaig 1988). Dissolution porosity is probably an underrated porosity-generating mechanism. It can be expected along the entire metamorphic evolution, including diagenesis (Higgs et al., 2007) and

  6. An integrated study of aerospace data for uranium exploration in the Magajhi-Kotapali shear zone, Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, A.K.; Kak, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    Lower Proterozoic granite gneiss and associated cataclastic rocks of Surguja crystalline complex record uranium mineralisation along the WNW-ESE trending Magajhi-Kotapali shear zone. Extension of the shear zone and cross faults trending NE-SW were established using enhanced satellite data. On integrating it with aeroradiometric data, it has been found that uranium mineralisation is shear controlled and occur around the zone of intersection between the WNW-ESE trending shear and the NE-SW faults. The study has narrowed down the target area for detailed ground investigations and finally resulted in locating promising areas such as Chathila Pahar, Haskepi, Jarhakhar-Semarkhar, and Tilti forest with good extensions along the shear zone. (author). 18 refs., 5 figs

  7. The Sundance fault: A newly recognized shear zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Braun, C.A.; Martin, L.G.; Weisenberg, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    Ongoing detailed mapping at a scale of 1:240 of structural features within the potential repository area indicates the presence of several previously unrecognized structural features. Minor north-trending west-side-down faults occur east and west of the Ghost Dance fault and suggest a total width of the Ghost Dance fault system of nearly 366 m (1200 ft). A zone of near-vertical N30 degrees - 40 degrees W - trending faults, at least 274 m (900 ft) wide, has been identified in the northern part of our study area and may traverse across the proposed repository area. On the basis of a preliminary analysis of available data, we propose to name this zone the ''Sundance fault system'' and the dominant structure, occurring near the middle of the zone, the ''Sundance fault.'' Some field relations suggest left-stepping deflections of north-trending faults along a preexisting northwest-trending structural fabric. Other field observations suggest that the ''Sundance fault system'' offsets the Ghost Dance fault system in an apparent right lateral sense by at least 52 m (170 ft). Additional detailed field studies, however, are needed to better understand structural complexities at Yucca Mountain

  8. Microstructures and magnetic fabrics of the Ngaoundéré granite pluton (Cameroon): Implications to the late-Pan-African evolution of Central Cameroon Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawaï, Daouda; Tchameni, Rigobert; Bascou, Jérome; Awe Wangmene, Salomon; Fosso Tchunte, Périclex Martial; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2017-05-01

    between the CCSZ system and the shear zone system of NE-Brazil.

  9. In-situ 40Ar/39Ar Laser Probe Dating of Micas from Mae Ping Shear Zone, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. L.; Yeh, M. W.; Lo, C. H.; Lee, T. Y.; Charusiri, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Mae Ping Shear Zone (MPSZ, also known as Wang Chao Fault Zone), which trends NW-SE from Myanmar to central Thailand, was considered as the southern boundary of the SE extrusion of Indochina and Sibumasu block during the Cenozoic escape tectonic event of SE asia. Many analyses of 40Ar/39Ar dating on biotite and K-feldspar, K/Ar dating on biotite and illite, zircon fission-track and apatite fission-track dating had been accomplished to constrain the shearing period. Nevertheless, it is hard to convince that the ages could represent the end of the shearing since none of the dated minerals have been proved to be crystallized syn-tectonically. Meta-granitoid and gneiss from the MPSZ were analyzed in this study by applying in-situ 40Ar/39Ar laser probe dating with combination of petrology and micro-structural analysis in the purpose to decipher the geological significance of the dates. Plagioclase was replacing K-feldspar for K-feldspar was cut and embayed by plagioclase observed by SEM + EDS. Muscovite in the granitoid own fish shapes of sinistral sense of shearing, and are always in contact with plagioclase and quartz, which suggests that the muscovite crystallized from the dissolving K-feldspar under amphibolite facies condition. 117 spots on 12 muscovite fishes yield ages from 44 Ma to 35 Ma and have a mean age of 40 Ma. Since the growth condition of the muscovite is higher than the closure temperature, thus we can interpret these muscovite ages as cooling ages. Hence left-lateral shearing of the MPSZ can be deduced as syn- to post-muscovite growth and uplifted the crystalline rocks within the shear zone. The ages of matrix biotite in gneiss has a mean age of 35 Ma, which is consistent with the cooling path reconstructed from previous studies. While the ages of inclusion biotite in the K-feldspar phenocryst scatter from 40 to 50 Ma due to the isotopes were not totally re-equilibrated during the shearing. Consequently, the left-lateral shearing of the MPSZ was

  10. Field Observations and Modeling Results of the McMurdo Shear Zone, Antarctica: Implications on Shear Margin Dynamics and Long- Term Viability of the South Pole Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Enderlin, E. M.; Courville, Z.; Campbell, S. W.; Arcone, S.; Jordan, M.; Ray, L.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the flow of inland ice towards the ocean. Understanding the controls on ice-shelf stability are critical to predicting the future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. For the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), an important region of lateral resistance is the McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ), a 5-10 km wide strip of heavily crevassed ice. On a yearly basis the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) mitigates crevasse hazards along the South Pole Traverse (SPoT) route that crosses this region. However, as ice advects northward past the lateral buttress of White Island into a region of greater flow divergence, intensified crevassing has been observed which will continue to place a substantial burden on safety mitigation efforts. The route has advected down-glacier towards this complex region since 2002 so the USAP currently has plans to relocate the shear zone crossing upstream in the near future. Our work aims to assess the feasibility of moving the route to several potential locations based on results from an integrated project incorporating detailed field-based observations of crevasse distributions and orientation from ground-penetrating radar (GPR), GPS and remote sensing observations of the flow and stress field within the MSZ, and finite element numerical modeling of local and regional kinematics within the region. In addition, we assess plausible dynamic forcings both upstream and downstream of the MSZ that could influence shear zone stability. These include changes in mass flux across the grounding lines of tributary glaciers such as the observed increase in ice discharge from of Byrd Glacier (Stearns et al., 2008) as well as changes at the MIS front due to recent intensified rift propagation (Banwel et al., 2017). Results from this work will increase our understanding of ice shelf shear margin dynamics and provide a firm basis for predicting the long-term behavior of the MSZ and viability of the SPoT. Stearns, Leigh A., Benjamin E. Smith, and

  11. U-Pb SHRIMP data and geochemical characterization of granitoids intruded along the Coxixola shear zone, Provincia Borborema, NE Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Ignez de Pinho; Silva Filho, Adejardo Francisco da; Silva, Francis M.J.V. da, E-mail: ignez@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernanmbuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National University (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    A large volume of granitic magmatism associated with large scale shear zone and metamorphism under high-T amphibolite facies conditions characterize the Brasiliano Orogeny in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. Granitoids from two plutons and later dykes intruded along the Coxixola shear zone show distinct crystallization ages and geochemical signature. The oldest granitoids (618 ± 5 Ma), Serra de Inacio Pereira Pluton are coeval with the peak of regional metamorphism and they were probably originated by melting of a paleoproterozoic source. The granitoids from the Serra do Marinho Pluton show crystallization age of 563 ± 4 Ma and geochemical signature of post-collisional A-type granites. The later dykes have crystallization age of 526 ± 7 Ma, geochemical signature of A-type granitoids. (author)

  12. The role of chemical processes and brittle deformation during shear zone formation and its potential geophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Leydier, Thomas; Mahan, Kevin; Albaric, Julie; Trap, Pierre; Marquer, Didier

    2017-04-01

    Ductile shear zones in the middle and lower continental crust are the locus of interactions between mechanical and chemical processes. Chemical processes encompass metamorphic reactions, fluid-rock interactions, fluid flow and chemical mass-transfer. Studying these processes at the grain scale, and even the atom scale, on exposed inactive shear zones can give insights into large-scale geodynamics phenomena (e.g. crustal growth and mountain building through the reconstruction of P-T-t-D-Ɛ evolutionary paths. However, other major issues in earth sciences can be tackled through these studies as well. For instance, the mechanism of fluid flow and mass transfer in the deep crust where permeability should be small and transient is still largely debated. Studying exhumed inactive shear zones can also help to interpret several new geophysical observations like (1) the origin of tremor and very low frequency earthquakes observed in the ductile middle and lower crust, (2) mechanisms for generating slow slip events and (3) the physical origin of puzzling crustal anisotropy observed in major active crustal shear zones. In this contribution, we present a collection of data (deformation, petrology, geochemistry, microtexture) obtained on various shear zones from the Alps that were active within the viscous regime (T > 450°C). Our observations show that the development of a shear zone, from its nucleation to its growth and propagation, is not only governed by ductile deformation coeval with reactions but also involves brittle deformation. Although brittle deformation is a very short-lived phenomenon, our petrological and textural observations show that brittle failure is also associated with fluid flow, mass transfer, metasomatic reactions and recrystallization. We speculate that the fluids and the associated mineralogical changes involved during this brittle failure in the ductile crust might play a role in earthquake / tremor triggering below the brittle - ductile transition

  13. Structural studies of lamellar surfactant systems under shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Recent experimental studies on concentrated surfactant systems are reviewed. Particular attention is focused on the transformation from planar lamellar sheets to multilamellar vesicles. It is discussed whether both of these states are thermodynamic stable, or if the MLV is an artifact of shear in...

  14. Shear-induced transitions in a ternary polymeric system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvelindovsky, AV; Sevink, GJA; Fraaije, JGEM

    The first three-dimensional simulation of shear-induced phase transitions in a polymeric system has been performed. The method is based on dynamic density-functional theory. The pathways between a bicontinuous phase with developing gyroid mesostructure and a lamellar/cylinder phase coexistence are

  15. Metamorphic history of garnet-rich gneiss at Ktiš in the Lhenice shear zone, Moldanubian Zone of the southern Bohemian Massif, inferred from inclusions and compositional zoning of garnet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobayashi, T.; Hirajima, T.; Kawakami, T.; Svojtka, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 124, 1/2 (2011), s. 46-65 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Lhenice shear zone * garnet * P-T path * partial melting Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2011

  16. Butterfly patterns in a sheared lamellar-system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Zipfel, J; Richtering, W [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    A technologically important extension of `classical` scattering techniques is to investigate soft-matter systems under non-equilibrium conditions. Shear flow is known to have a profound influence on the structure and orientation of complex fluids like thermotropic or lyotropic liquid-crystals, colloidal and polymeric solutions. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the microscopic structure and dynamics of such complex fluids as the macroscopic material properties might change with the application of an external perturbation like shear. The following example illustrates a recent study of the influence of shear on the structure of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Results using a cone-and-plate and the ILL Couette type shear-cell were obtained by rheo-small-angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at D11. Because of the broad range of momentum transfer Q available at D11 a characteristic butterfly-pattern with a scattering peak revealing both the structure and the supramolecular structure of the system could be detected at very low Q. (author). 5 refs.

  17. Shear Bond Strengths of Different Adhesive Systems to Biodentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaş, Mesut Enes; Bani, Mehmet; Tirali, Resmiye Ebru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the shear bond strength of different adhesive systems to Biodentine with different time intervals. Eighty specimens of Biodentine were prepared and divided into 8 groups. After 12 minutes, 40 samples were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups of 10 each: group 1: (etch-and-rinse adhesive system) Prime & Bond NT; group 2: (2-step self-etch adhesive system) Clearfil SE Bond; group 3: (1-step self-etch adhesive systems) Clearfil S3 Bond; group 4: control (no adhesive). After the application of adhesive systems, composite resin was applied over Biodentine. This procedure was repeated 24 hours after mixing additional 40 samples, respectively. Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine, and the data were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance and Scheffé post hoc test. No significant differences were found between all of the adhesive groups at the same time intervals (12 minutes and 24 hours) (P > .05). Among the two time intervals, the lowest value was obtained for group 1 (etch-and-rinse adhesive) at a 12-minute period, and the highest was obtained for group 2 (two-step self-etch adhesive) at a 24-hour period. The placement of composite resin used with self-etch adhesive systems over Biodentine showed better shear bond strength. PMID:24222742

  18. Incipient Evolution of the Eastern California Shear Zone through a Transpressional Zone along the San Andreas Fault in the San Bernardino Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, W. J.; Spotila, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring long-term accumulation of strike-slip displacements and transpressional uplift is difficult where strain is accommodated across wide shear zones, as opposed to a single major fault. The Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) in southern California accommodates dextral shear across several strike-slip faults, and is potentially migrating and cutting through a formerly convergent zone of the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM). The advection of crust along the San Andreas fault to the SE has forced these two tectonic regimes into creating a nexus of interacting strike-slip faults north of San Gorgonio Pass. These elements make this region ideal for studying complex fault interactions, evolving fault geometries, and deformational overprinting within a wide shear zone. Using high-resolution topography and field mapping, this study aims to test whether diffuse, poorly formed strike-slip faults within the uplifted SBM block are nascent elements of the ECSZ. Topographic resolution of ≤ 1m was achieved using both lidar and UAV surveys along two Quaternary strike-slip faults, namely the Lake Peak fault and Lone Valley faults. Although the Lone Valley fault cuts across Quaternary alluvium, the geomorphic expression is obscured, and may be the result of slow slip rates. In contrast, the Lake Peak fault is located high elevations north of San Gorgonio Peak in the SBM, and displaces Quaternary glacial deposits. The deposition of large boulders along the escarpment also obscures the apparent magnitude of slip along the fault. Although determining fault offset is difficult, the Lake Peak fault does display evidence for minor right-lateral displacement, where the magnitude of slip would be consistent with individual faults within the ECSZ (i.e. ≤ 1 mm/yr). Compared to the preservation of displacement along strike-slip faults located within the Mojave Desert, the upland region of the SBM adds complexity for measuring fault offset. The distribution of strain across the entire

  19. Radon exhalation and radiometric prospecting on rocks associated with Cu-U mineralizations in the Singhbhum shear zone, Bihar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, D.; Kumar, Rajeev; Singh, A.K.; Prasad, Rajendra E-mail: aptolrp@amu.up.nic.in

    2001-11-01

    The Singhbhum thrust belt is a 200 km long arcuate orogenic belt in Bihar, eastern India. The huge mineral resources, viz. copper, uranium, magnetite, apatite and molybdenite, etc., make it significant from an economic as well as a geological point of view. The belt hosts three types of mineralization: sulphides of copper and other metals, uranium oxides and apatite-magnetite. Several distinct geological episodes are responsible for the evolution of mineralization and the thrust zone itself. Extensive and reliable radiometric prospecting and assaying have been carried out by us for the past 5 years from Dhobani in the east to Turamdih in the west of the Singhbhum shear zone. The present work indicates uranium mineralization in the Pathargora-Rakha area presently being mined for copper and also within areas in the vicinity of Bhatin. Studies on radon emanation have also been undertaken in some parts of the shear zone which indicate reasonably high radon emanation of the soils and rocks studied. This suggests the need for regular monitoring and suitable controls on the mine environment (air quality) and its vicinity. Radon emanation studies coupled with gamma-ray spectrometry and the subsequent modelling of the radiometric and radon measurements will help in the application of radon as a geophysical tracer in exploration of radioactive ore bodies and in radon risk assessment as well as in delineating active and passive faults and even in petroleum exploration.

  20. In-situ tracer tests and models developed to understand flow paths in a shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechschmidt, I.; Martin, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Grimsel Test Site (www.grimsel.com) is an international underground research laboratory excavated at a depth of 450m below the surface in the crystalline Aare Massif of southern Switzerland in 1984. It is operated and owned by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland (NAGRA) which is the organization responsible for managing and researching the geological disposal of all types of radioactive wastes originating in Switzerland. One experiment, the Colloid Formation and Migration test (CFM*), is an ongoing in-situ migration test started in 2004 to study colloid facilitated transport behavior of radionuclides through a shear zone. The importance of colloid transport in the context of a radioactive waste repository is that it provides a mechanism for potentially enhancing the advective transport of radionuclides. The montmorillonite clays that are planned to be used as an engineered barrier around the radioactive waste in many repository concepts may be a source of such colloids under specific hydraulic and/or chemical boundary conditions. The CFM project includes an integrated programme of field testing, laboratory studies and modelling/interpretation. The field tests are performed in a shear zone where the natural outflow has been controlled by a tunnel packer system and flow is monitored with an array of boreholes drilled for CFM and previous experiments at the site. The flow field is controlled by a low-rate extraction from a surface packer. The controlled low-rate extraction creates a region of low hydraulic gradients and fluid velocity within the shear zone, suitable for study under repository-relevant or other geo-resource relevant conditions. Here we present a summary of the migration tracer tests carried out so far to understand the hydraulic properties and transport characteristics of the shear zone using both stable and radioactive (Na-22, Cs-137, Ba-133, Th-232, Np-237, Am-243, Pu-242) tracers as well as colloids, and

  1. Two-stage structural development of a Paleozoic auriferous shear zone at the Globe-Progress deposit, Reefton, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milham, L.; Craw, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Globe-Progress gold deposit at Reefton is hosted in a curvilinear mineralised zone that cuts Paleozoic Greenland Group basement metagreywackes. Two discrete phases of mineralisation have resulted in the formation of five different ore types along the shear. An initial phase of mineralisation formed hydrothermal quartz veins and associated Au, As, and S enrichment, with low-grade mineralised host rock. These quartz veins and mineralised host rocks form the outer regions of the mineralised zone. A second hydrothermal phase introduced Sb, Au, As, and S during brittle shear deformation focused on the pre-existing mineralised rocks. This deformation and mineralisation resulted in the formation of metre-scale cataclasite ore and quartz breccia from mineralised host rock and hydrothermal quartz veins, respectively. Cataclasite was derived from argillite layers in the host rock, from which Na, Fe, and Mg have been leached during mineralisation; Al, Ti, and Cr have been conserved; and there has been minor enrichment in Sr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. No quartz was added to the cataclasite or quartz breccia during mineralisation, but some quartz recrystallisation occurred locally, and quartz clasts were physically incorporated into the cataclasite during deformation. The presence of euhedral sulfides in the cataclasite (40% of total sulfides), late-stage undeformed stibnite veins infilling breccia (1-5 cm 3 scale), and undeformed free gold in quartz breccia, imply that the second phase of mineralisation persisted both during and after cataclasis and brecciation. Antimony deposition is greatest in the central cataclasite, up to 6 wt%, and locally in the quartz breccia where stibnite veins are present. Concentrations of Sb decrease with distance from the shear zone. The second, Sb-rich phase of mineralisation in the Globe-Progress deposit resembles similar Sb-rich overprints in the correlative Victorian goldfield of Australia. (author). 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The effects of lower crustal strength and preexisting midcrustal shear zones on the formation of continental core complexes and low-angle normal faults

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the formation of core complexes and low-angle normal faults, we devise thermomechanical simulations on a simplified wedge-like orogenic hinterland that has initial topography, Moho relief, and a preexisting midcrustal shear zone that can accommodate shear at very low angles (<20°). We mainly vary the strength of the lower crust and the frictional strength of the preexisting midcrustal shear zone. We find that the strength of the lower crust and the existence and strength of a preexisting shear zone significantly affect the formation and evolution of core complexes. With increasing lower crustal strength, we recognize varying extensional features with decreasing exhumation rate: these are characterized by bivergent metamorphic massifs, classic Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, multiple consecutive core complexes (or boudinage structures), and a flexural core complex underlined by a large subsurface low-angle detachment fault with a small convex curvature. Topographic loading and mantle buoyancy forces, together with divergent boundaries, drive a regional lower crustal flow that leads to the exhumation of the lower crust where intensive upper crustal faulting induces strong unloading. The detachment fault is a decoupling zone that accommodates large displacement and accumulates sustained shear strain at very low angle between upper and lower crust. Though the regional stress is largely Andersonian, we find non-Andersonian stress in regions adjacent to the preexisting shear zone and those with high topographic gradient. Our new models provide a view that is generally consistent with geological and geophysical observations on how core complexes form and evolve.

  3. The effects of lower crustal strength and preexisting midcrustal shear zones on the formation of continental core complexes and low-angle normal faults

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang

    2016-08-22

    To investigate the formation of core complexes and low-angle normal faults, we devise thermomechanical simulations on a simplified wedge-like orogenic hinterland that has initial topography, Moho relief, and a preexisting midcrustal shear zone that can accommodate shear at very low angles (<20°). We mainly vary the strength of the lower crust and the frictional strength of the preexisting midcrustal shear zone. We find that the strength of the lower crust and the existence and strength of a preexisting shear zone significantly affect the formation and evolution of core complexes. With increasing lower crustal strength, we recognize varying extensional features with decreasing exhumation rate: these are characterized by bivergent metamorphic massifs, classic Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, multiple consecutive core complexes (or boudinage structures), and a flexural core complex underlined by a large subsurface low-angle detachment fault with a small convex curvature. Topographic loading and mantle buoyancy forces, together with divergent boundaries, drive a regional lower crustal flow that leads to the exhumation of the lower crust where intensive upper crustal faulting induces strong unloading. The detachment fault is a decoupling zone that accommodates large displacement and accumulates sustained shear strain at very low angle between upper and lower crust. Though the regional stress is largely Andersonian, we find non-Andersonian stress in regions adjacent to the preexisting shear zone and those with high topographic gradient. Our new models provide a view that is generally consistent with geological and geophysical observations on how core complexes form and evolve.

  4. Visco-instability of shear viscoelastic collisional dusty plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Gharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the stability of Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscoelastic collisional shear-velocity dusty plasmas is studied, using the framework of a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. Motivated by Banerjee et al.'s work (Banerjee et al., New J. Phys., vol. 12 (12), 2010, p. 123031), employing linear perturbation theory as well as the local approximation method in the inhomogeneous direction, the dispersion relations of the Fourier modes are obtained for Newtonian and non-Newtonian dusty plasma systems in the presence of a dust-neutral friction term. The analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the non-Newtonian case shows that the inhomogeneous viscosity force depending on the velocity shear profile can be the genesis of a free energy source which leads the shear system to be unstable. Study of the dust-neutral friction effect on the instability of the considered systems using numerical analysis of the dispersion relation in the Newtonian case demonstrates that the maximum growth rate decreases considerably by increasing the collision frequency in the hydrodynamic regime, while this reduction can be neglected in the kinetic regime. Results show a more significant stabilization role of the dust-neutral friction term in the non-Newtonian cases, through decreasing the maximum growth rate at any fixed wavenumber and construction of the instable wavenumber region. The results of the present investigation will greatly contribute to study of the time evolution of viscoelastic laboratory environments with externally applied shear; where in these experiments the dust-neutral friction process can play a considerable role.

  5. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Analise estrutural e caracterizacao do magmatismo da zona de cisalhamento Major Gercino, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-12-31

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 {+-} 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 {+-} 15 Ma.) 220 refs., 107 figs., 18 tabs., 4 maps

  6. Integrating Apparent Conductance in Resistivity Sounding to Constrain 2D Gravity Modeling for Subsurface Structure Associated with Uranium Mineralization across South Purulia Shear Zone, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkoprovo Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ is an important area for the prospect of uranium mineralization and no detailed geophysical investigations have been carried out in this region. To delineate the subsurface structure in the present area, vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger array and gravity survey were carried out along a profile perpendicular to the SPSZ. Apparent conductance in the subsurface revealed a possible connection from SPSZ to Raghunathpur. The gravity model reveals the presence of a northerly dipping low density zone (most likely the shear zone extending up to Raghunathpur under a thin cover of granitic schist of Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex (CGGC. The gravity model also depicts the depth of the zone of density low within this shear zone at ~400 m near Raghunathpur village and this zone truncates with a steep slope. Integration of resistivity and gravity study revealed two possible contact zones within this low density zone in the subsurface at depth of 40 m and 200 m. Our study reveals a good correlation with previous studies in Raghunathpur area characterized by medium to high hydro-uranium anomaly. Thus the conducting zone coinciding with the low gravity anomaly is inferred to be a possible uranium mineralized zone.

  7. Micro tectonic milonitas analysis in the extreme south of the Sarandi del Yi shear zone: Kinematics and deformation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyhantçabal, P; Suarez, I; Seluchi, N; Martinez, X.

    2010-01-01

    The Shear Zone divides Sarandi del Yi Craton River Plate in Piedra Alta and Nico Perez land . The southern end of this zone extends to north - south from the vicinity of the town of Minas to Punta Solis. The predominant lithology of the study area consists of a granitic mylonite with abundant muscovite and biotite. Structural data of foliation , stretching lineation and kinematic indicators were surveyed .Petrographic analysis shows that quartz is presented as ribbons polycrystalline product subgrain rotation recrystallization and grain boundary migration . Feldspar porphyroclasts are partially recrystallized in developing type structures c ore and mantle . Kinematic indicators such as sigma porphyroclasts , mica fish and oblique foliation defined consistently sinistral sense . The presence of stable and mirmequitas in the plane of biotite foliation along the microstructures described in quartz and feldspar , can be inferred temperature conditions between 450 ° C and 550° C during deformation

  8. The Santa Rita Shear Zone: Major Mesozoic deformation along the western flank of the White-Inyo Range, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brudos, T.C.; Paterson, S.R. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The Santa Rita Shear Zone (SRSZ), briefly described by Ross (1967), deforms the western part of the 164 Ma Santa Rita Flat pluton (SRFP), located SSE of Big Pine, CA. The SRSZ comprises a subvertical zone of solid-state deformation (strike N15E) over an area at least 13 km long by 2--3 km wide. Exposure of the shear zone is limited to the north and west by overlying Quaternary volcanics and basin fill within the Late Cenozoic Owens Valley graben. The SRSZ is larger than its present outcrop extent: strain magnitudes are highest within the westernmost exposures. The SRSZ along this western margin is a continuous zone of deformation comprising a mm-scale solid-state foliation containing igneous feldspars flattened into ovals with > 10:1 aspect ratios. The authors have identified three dike phases within the SRFP: (1) minor NE-striking Phase 1 dikes, comprising cm-scale aplites; (2) widespread m-scale Phase 2 dikes, which strike N10E; and (3) m-scale NW-striking Phase 3 mafic dikes. The Phase 1 and Phase 3 dikes are pre- and post-tectonic respectively; observations described below indicate the Phase 2 dikes are syn- to post-deformation. Deformation becomes localized along the Phase 2 dikes -- which are parallel to the orientation of the main body of the shear zone. Solid-state fabrics imposed on the Phase 2 dikes formed at higher temperatures than those within the SRFP, and in the east the SRFP is deformed only within a few cm of the dikes. They surmise syntectonic emplacement of the dikes into dislocational surfaces within the SRSZ, followed by solid-state deformation of the cooling dikes. Several workers have suggested the dikes within the SRFP are part of the 148 Ma independence dike swarm (referring to the Phase 2 or 3 dikes). If correct, this correlation indicates a Jurassic age for the SRSZ. Radiometric analyses of the dikes are in progress.

  9. Migration of the deforming zone during seismic shear and implications for field observations, dynamic weakening, and the onset of melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J. D.; Rice, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Prior work in our group has shown how micron-scale strain rate localization can be explained using models for thermal pressurization and thermal decomposition in fluid-saturated gouge materials. Using parameters modeling a typical centroidal depth for a crustal seismogenic zone we predicted localized zone thicknesses in line with laboratory (Brantut et al., 2008; Kitajima et al., 2010) and field (Chester and Chester, 1998; Heermance et al., 2003; De Paola et al., 2008) observations. Further work has shown that the localized zone need not remain in a single location and may migrate across the gouge layer, in agreement with laboratory observations that show a thickening of the highly localized material with slip, and a distinct banded structure within the highly localized material (T. Mitchell, priv. comm.; Kitajima et al., 2010). We have identified two mechanisms that could cause migration. The first is a combination of thermal diffusion, hydraulic diffusion and thermal pressurization, which leads to the location of maximum pore pressure moving away from its initial position [Rice, 2006]. Since the maximum strain rate coincides with the maximum pore pressure, this causes the deforming zone to move across the gouge layer. The second mechanism is reactant depletion in a material undergoing thermal decomposition. Fluid pressurization and strain rate are slaved to the reaction, so as the reactant depletes the deforming zone will migrate towards fresh reactant. An additional symmetry breaking instability exists but is not discussed here. We have also explored how spatial variations in fault gouge properties may control the distribution of seismic shear. Since at seismic slip rates localization in a fluid-saturated material is controlled largely by pore pressure generation and hydraulic diffusion, regions that generate or trap pore pressures more efficiently will attract straining. Numerical simulations show that the deforming zone moves towards regions of low hydraulic

  10. Contact force structure and force chains in 3D sheared granular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Karen; Jettestuen, Espen; Abe, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Faults often exhibit accumulations of granular debris, ground up to create a layer of rock flour or fault gouge separating the rigid fault walls. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments of sheared granular materials, suggest that applied loads are preferentially transmitted across such systems by transient force networks that carry enhanced forces. The characterisation of such features is important since their nature and persistence almost certainly influence the macroscopic mechanical stability of these systems and potentially that of natural faults. 3D numerical simulations of granular shear are a valuable investigation tool since they allow us to track individual particle motions, contact forces and their evolution during applied shear, that are difficult to view directly in laboratory experiments or natural fault zones. In characterising contact force distributions, it is important to use global structure measures that allow meaningful comparisons of granular systems having e.g. different grain size distributions, as may be expected at different stages of a fault's evolution. We therefore use a series of simple measures to characterise the structure, such as distributions and correlations of contact forces that can be mapped onto a force network percolation problem as recently proposed by Ostojic and coworkers for 2D granular systems. This allows the use of measures from percolation theory to both define and characterise the force networks. We demonstrate the application of this method to 3D simulations of a sheared granular material. Importantly, we then compare our measure of the contact force structure with macroscopic frictional behaviour measured at the boundaries of our model to determine the influence of the force networks on macroscopic mechanical stability.

  11. A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreurs, Guido; Giese, Jörg; Berger, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    only a marked deflection along its central segment. The ductile deflection zone is interpreted as a result of E-W indentation of the Antananarivo Block into the less rigid, predominantly metasedimentary rocks of the Southwestern Madagascar Block during a late phase of the Neoproterozoic/Cambrian East...... the central segment of the Ranotsara Zone, confirmed by apatite-fission track results, may have led to the formation of a shallow Neogene basin underlying the Ranotsara plain. The present-day drainage pattern suggests on-going normal fault activity along the central segment. The Ranotsara Zone...

  12. Kinematics and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of the Gaoligong and Chongshan shear systems, western Yunnan, China: Implications for early Oligocene tectonic extrusion of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Zhang, Yanhua; Peng, Touping; Chen, Xinyue; Xu, Yigang

    2006-06-01

    The Gaoligong and Chongshan shear systems (GLSS and CSSS) in western Yunnan, China, have similar tectonic significance to the Ailaoshan-Red River shear system (ASRRSS) during the Cenozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Tibetan syntaxis. To better understand their kinematics and the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of SE Asia, this paper presents new kinematic and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronological data for these shear systems. All the structural and microstructural evidence indicate that the GLSS is a dextral strike-slip shear system while the CSSS is a sinistral strike-slip shear system, and both were developed under amphibolite- to greenschist-grade conditions. The 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of synkinematic minerals revealed that the strike-slip shearing on the GLSS and CSSS at least began at ˜ 32 Ma, possibly coeval with the onset of other major shear systems in SE Asia. The late-stage shearing on the GLSS and CSSS is dated at ˜ 27-29 Ma by the biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages, consistent with that of the Wang Chao shear zone (WCSZ), but ˜ 10 Ma earlier than that of the ASRRSS. The dextral Gaoligong shear zone within the GLSS may have separated the India plate from the Indochina Block during early Oligocene. Combined with other data in western Yunnan, we propose that the Baoshan/Southern Indochina Block escaped faster southeastward along the CSSS to the east and the GLSS to the west than the Northern Indochina Block along the ASRRSS, accompanying with the obliquely northward motion of the India plate during early Oligocene (28-36 Ma). During 28-17 Ma, the Northern Indochina Block was rotationally extruded along the ASRRSS relative to the South China Block as a result of continuously impinging of the India plate.

  13. Low resistivity and permeability in actively deforming shear zones on the San Andreas Fault at SAFOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carolyn A.; Lockner, David A.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) scientific drillhole near Parkfield, California crosses the San Andreas Fault at a depth of 2.7 km. Downhole measurements and analysis of core retrieved from Phase 3 drilling reveal two narrow, actively deforming zones of smectite-clay gouge within a roughly 200 m-wide fault damage zone of sandstones, siltstones and mudstones. Here we report electrical resistivity and permeability measurements on core samples from all of these structural units at effective confining pressures up to 120 MPa. Electrical resistivity (~10 ohm-m) and permeability (10-21 to 10-22 m2) in the actively deforming zones were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding damage zone material, consistent with broader-scale observations from the downhole resistivity and seismic velocity logs. The higher porosity of the clay gouge, 2 to 8 times greater than that in the damage zone rocks, along with surface conduction were the principal factors contributing to the observed low resistivities. The high percentage of fine-grained clay in the deforming zones also greatly reduced permeability to values low enough to create a barrier to fluid flow across the fault. Together, resistivity and permeability data can be used to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault, key to understanding fault structure and strength. The low resistivities and strength measurements of the SAFOD core are consistent with observations of low resistivity clays that are often found in the principal slip zones of other active faults making resistivity logs a valuable tool for identifying these zones.

  14. Structures, microfabrics, fractal analysis and temperature-pressure estimation of the Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone in the North China craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenyue; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Jin, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun; Bernroider, Manfred; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Zhao, Yingli

    2014-05-01

    orientation of quartz determined by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) suggest sinistral strike-slip displacement within a temperature at about 400 to 500° C. Quartz mainly shows low-temperature fabrics with dominant {0001}-slip system. As the deformed rocks show obvious deformation overprint, we have estimated flow stresses from dynamically recrystallized grain sizes of quartz separately. But coincident fractal analysis showed that the boundaries of recrystallized grains had statistically self similarities with the numbers of fractal dimension from 1.153 to 1.196 with the range of deformation temperatures from 500 to 600° C, which is corresponding to upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies conditions. Together with published flow laws to estimated deformation rates between the region of 10-11 - 10-13 S-1depending on the temperature 500 ° C, and the paleo-stress was calculated with grain size of recrystallized quartz to be at 5.0 to 32.3 MPa. Even though the deformation history and kinematics are different, progressive microstructures and texture analysis indicate an overprint by the low-temperature deformation (D3). Typical regional-dynamic metamorphic conditions ere deduced by mineral pair hornblende-plagioclase and phengite barometry identified within the ductile shear zone. The hornblende-plagioclase pair of porphyritic granitic gneiss gives metamorphic conditions of T =450-500 ° C and p=0.39 GPa, which indicate a metamorphic grade of lower-amphibolite facies conditions and a depth of around 13 km estimated following a normal lithostatic pressure. All of the structural characteristics indicate that the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone represents a mainly ENE-striking sinistral ductile strike-slip zone, which formed after intrusion of the Upper Jurassic biotite adamellite and transformed and superimposed previous deformation structures. This deformation event might have occurred in Early Cretaceous times and was related to the lithospheric thinning and

  15. Shear bond strength of hydrophilic adhesive systems to enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, A T; Amaral, C M; Pimenta, L A; Sinhoreti, M A

    1999-08-01

    To compare the enamel shear bond strength of four hydrophilic adhesive systems: one multiple-bottle (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus), two one-bottle (Stae, Single Bond) and one self-etching (Etch & Prime). 120 bovine incisor teeth were obtained, embedded in polyester resin, polished to 600 grit to form standardized enamel surfaces, and randomly assigned to four groups (n = 30). Each adhesive system was used on enamel according to the manufacturer's instructions, and resin-based composite (Z100) cylinders with 3 mm diameter and 5 mm height were bonded. Specimens were stored in humid environment for 1 week, and bond strength was determined using a universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The mean shear bond strength values (MPa +/- SD) were: Single Bond: 24.28 +/- 5.27 (a); Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus: 21.18 +/- 4.35 (ab); Stae: 19.56 +/- 4.71 (b); Etch & Prime 3.0: 15.13 +/- 4.92 (c). ANOVA revealed significant difference in means (P < 0.01) and Tukey's test showed the statistical differences that are expressed by different letters for each group. It could be concluded that the self-etching adhesive system did not provide as good a bond to enamel surface, as did the one- and multiple-bottle systems.

  16. The discovery of a conjugate system of faults in the Wharton Basin intraplate deformation zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satish C; Hananto, Nugroho; Qin, Yanfang; Leclerc, Frederique; Avianto, Praditya; Tapponnier, Paul E; Carton, Helene; Wei, Shengji; Nugroho, Adam B; Gemilang, Wishnu A; Sieh, Kerry; Barbot, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    The deformation at well-defined, narrow plate boundaries depends on the relative plate motion, but how the deformation takes place within a distributed plate boundary zone remains a conundrum. This was confirmed by the seismological analyses of the 2012 great Wharton Basin earthquakes [moment magnitude ( M w ) 8.6], which suggested the rupture of several faults at high angles to one another. Using high-resolution bathymetry and seismic reflection data, we report the discovery of new N294°E-striking shear zones, oblique to the plate fabric. These shear zones are expressed by sets of normal faults striking at N335°E, defining the direction of the principal compressional stress in the region. Also, we have imaged left-lateral strike-slip faults along reactivated N7°E-oriented oceanic fracture zones. The shear zones and the reactivated fracture zones form a conjugate system of faults, which accommodate present-day intraplate deformation in the Wharton Basin.

  17. Crustal-scale shear zones recording 400 m.y. of tectonic activity in the North Caribou greenstone belt, western Superior Province of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, Netasha

    A series of crustal-scale shear zones demarcates the northern and eastern margins of the North Caribou greenstone belt (NCGB), proximal to a Mesoarchean terrane boundary in the core of the western Superior Province of Canada. The dominant deformation produced a pervasive steeply dipping fabric that trends broadly parallel to the doubly arcuate shape of the belt and was responsible for tight folding the banded iron formation host to Goldcorp's prolific gold deposit at Musselwhite mine. The shear zones in the North Caribou greenstone belt are of particular interest because of their ability to channel hydrothermal fluids with the potential to bear ore and cause alteration of the middle to shallow crust. Shear zones are commonly reactivated during subsequent tectonism, but exhibit a consistent and dominant dextral shear sense across the belt; fabric-forming micas and chlorite are generally Mg-rich. Although garnets samples from within the shear zones are dominantly almandine, they possess variable geochemical trends (HREEs of >2 orders of magnitude) and can be syn-, intra-, or post-tectonic in origin. In situ geochronological analysis of zircon (U-Pb) and monazite (total-Pb) in high strain rocks in and around the NCGB, interpreted in light of in situ geochemical analysis of garnet and fabric-forming micas and chlorite, reveals four relatively discrete events that span 400 million years. Metamorphism of the mid-crust was coeval with magmatism during docking of the Island Lake domain at c. 2.86 Ga and subsequent terrane accretion at the north and south margins of the North Caribou Superterrane from c. 2.75 to 2.71 Ga. Transpressive shear at c. 2.60 to 2.56 Ga and late re-activation of shear zones at c. 2.44 Ga produced a steeply-dipping pervasive fabric, and channeled fluids for late crystallization of garnet and monazite recorded in the Markop Lake deformation zone. These observations implicate a horizontal tectonic model similar to the modern eastern Pacific plate

  18. Nanoindentation study on the characteristic of shear transformation zone in a Pd-based bulk metallic glass during serrated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, G. K.; Long, Z. L.; Zhao, M. S. Z.; Peng, L.; Chai, W.; Ping, Z. H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the research on the evolution of shear transformation zone (STZ) in a Pd-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) during serrated flow under nanoindentation. A novel method of estimating the STZ volume through statistical analysis of the serrated flow behavior was proposed for the first time. Based on the proposed method, the STZ volume of the studied BMG at various peak loads have been systematically investigated. The results indicate that the measured STZ volumes are in good agreement with that documented in literature, and the STZ size exhibits an increasing trend during indentation. Moreover, the correlation between the serrated flow dynamics and the STZ activation has also been evaluated. It is found that the STZ activation can promote the formation of self-organized critical (SOC) state during serrated flow.

  19. Structure in sheared supercooled liquids: Dynamical rearrangements of an effective system of icosahedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinney, Rhiannon; Liverpool, Tanniemola B; Royall, C Patrick

    2016-12-21

    We consider a binary Lennard-Jones glassformer whose super-Arrhenius dynamics are correlated with the formation of particles organized into icosahedra under simple steady state shear. We recast this glassformer as an effective system of icosahedra [Pinney et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 244507 (2015)]. From the observed population of icosahedra in each steady state, we obtain an effective temperature which is linearly dependent on the shear rate in the range considered. Upon shear banding, the system separates into a region of high shear rate and a region of low shear rate. The effective temperatures obtained in each case show that the low shear regions correspond to a significantly lower temperature than the high shear regions. Taking a weighted average of the effective temperature of these regions (weight determined by region size) yields an estimate of the effective temperature which compares well with an effective temperature based on the global mesocluster population of the whole system.

  20. GAM - Gas Migration Experiments in a Heterogeneous Shear Zone of the Grimsel Test of the Grimsel Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, P.; Lunati, I.

    2006-12-01

    This report documents the scientific investigations carried out as part of the GAM project between June 1997 and April 2001 at the Grimsel Test Site within the framework of Investigation Phase V (1997 - 2001). Four radioactive waste management organisations participated in the GAM experiment, namely ANDRA, ENRESA, NAGRA and Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy. The experiment team consisted of the delegates of the participating organisations, research groups from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich and from the Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona and, last but not least, several contractor teams. Essential aims of the GAM investigation programme were the development and testing of laboratory and field equipment for tracer experiments. Innovative laboratory technologies were applied, such as Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy and X-ray tomography, flow visualisation in artificial fractures, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and neutron radiography. Furthermore, a new technique was tested for the recovery of well preserved core samples from the GAM shear zone. Novelties in field testing comprised the use of an on-line counter for the particle tracer tests and a georadar survey of gas and brine injection tests with a high frequency borehole antenna. The development of upscaling methodologies and the derivation of effective parameters for single- and two-phase flow models was another issue of interest. The investigations comprised theoretical studies on solute transport in non-uniform flow fields and assessment of the impact of the microstructure on solute and gas transport. Closely related to these theoretical studies was the numerical interpretation of the combined solute and gas tracer tests, which revealed the great potential of such data sets with regard to model discrimination. As a final step in the synthesis task of the GAM project, a model abstraction process was established, aimed at integrating the

  1. Combination of spaceborne radar interferometry (DEM) and Landsat TM imageries contributing to recent tectonic and geology studies in the Aswa lineament shear zone (Sudan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kervyn, V.C.; Slob, S.; Derauw, D.; Cecchi, Giovanna; Zilioli, Eugenio

    1998-01-01

    Until recently, the Aswa lineament shear zone in Uganda and Sudan was considered to be tectonically at rest but the 1990- 1991 seismic events triggered a renewal of interest in this area. Using ERS1 - ERS2 tandem covering the area where earthquakes were observed, we have generated a high resolution

  2. A systems approach framework for coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom Sawyer; Bailly, Denis; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical...... application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods....... The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations...

  3. Integrated geophysical investigations for the delineation of source and subsurface structure associated with hydro-uranium anomaly: A case study from South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. P.; Biswas, A.

    2012-12-01

    South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ) is an important region for prospecting of uranium mineralization. Geological studies and hydro-uranium anomaly suggest the presence of Uranium deposit around Raghunathpur village which lies about 8 km north of SPSZ. However, detailed geophysical investigations have not been carried out in this region for investigation of uranium mineralization. Since surface signature of uranium mineralization is not depicted near the location, a deeper subsurface source is expected for hydro uranium anomaly. To delineate the subsurface structure and to investigate the origin of hydro-uranium anomaly present in the area, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array and Gradient Resistivity Profiling (GRP) were performed at different locations along a profile perpendicular to the South Purulia Shear Zone. Apparent resistivity computed from the measured sounding data at various locations shows a continuously increasing trend. As a result, conventional apparent resistivity data is not able to detect the possible source of hydro uranium anomaly. An innovative approach is applied which depicts the apparent conductivity in the subsurface revealed a possible connection from SPSZ to Raghunathpur. On the other hand resistivity profiling data suggests a low resistive zone which is also characterized by low Self-Potential (SP) anomaly zone. Since SPSZ is characterized by the source of uranium mineralization; hydro-uranium anomaly at Raghunathpur is connected with the SPSZ. The conducting zone has been delineated from SPSZ to Raghunathpur at deeper depths which could be uranium bearing. Since the location is also characterized by a low gravity and high magnetic anomaly zone, this conducting zone is likely to be mineralized zone. Keywords: Apparent resistivity; apparent conductivity; Self Potential; Uranium mineralization; shear zone; hydro-uranium anomaly.

  4. High-mode-number ballooning modes in a heliotron/torsatron system: 1, Local magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, N.

    1996-05-01

    The characteristics of the local magnetic shear, a quantity associated with high-mode-number ballooning mode stability, are considered in heliotron/torsatron devices that have a large Shafranov shift. The local magnetic shear is shown to vanish even in the stellarator-like region in which the global magnetic shear is positive. The reason for this is that the degree of the local compression of the poloidal magnetic field on the outer side of the torus, which maintains the toroidal force balance, is reduced in the stellarator-like region of global magnetic shear because the global rotational transform in heliotron/torsatron systems is a radially increasing function. This vanishing of the local magnetic shear is a universal property in heliotron/torsatron systems with a large Shafranov shift since it results from toroidal force balance in the stellarator-like global shear regime that is inherent to such systems

  5. Preliminary Interpretation of a Radionuclide and Colloid Tracer Test in a Granodiorite Shear Zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    In February and March 2012, a tracer test involving the injection of a radionuclide-colloid cocktail was conducted in the MI shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland, as part of the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) project. The colloids were derived from FEBEX bentonite, which is mined in Spain and is being considered as a potential waste package backfill in a Spanish nuclear waste repository. The tracer test, designated test 12-02 (second test in 2012), involved the injection of the tracer cocktail into borehole CFM 06.002i2 and extraction from the Pinkel surface packer at the main access tunnel wall approximately 6.1 m from the injection interval. The test configuration is depicted in Figure 1. This configuration has been used in several conservative tracer tests and two colloid-homologue tracer tests since 2007, and it is will be employed in an upcoming test involving the emplacement of a radionuclide-doped bentonite plug into CFM 06.002i2 to evaluate the swelling and erosion of the bentonite and the transport of bentonite colloids and radionuclides from the source to the extraction point at the tunnel wall. Interpretive analyses of several of the previous tracer tests, from 09-01 through 12-02 were provided in two previous Used Fuel Disposition Program milestone reports (Arnold et al., 2011; Kersting et al., 2012). However, only the data for the conservative tracer Amino-G Acid was previously analyzed from test 12-02 because the other tracer data from this test were not available at the time. This report documents the first attempt to quantitatively analyze the radionuclide and colloid breakthrough curves from CFM test 12-02. This report was originally intended to also include an experimental assessment of colloid-facilitated transport of uranium by bentonite colloids in the Grimsel system, but this assessment was not conducted because it was reported by German collaborators at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) that neither uranium nor

  6. Solution-mass transfer and grain boundary sliding in mafic shear zones - comparison between experiments and nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Sina; Heilbronner, Renée; Stünitz, Holger; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    Grain size sensitive creep (GSSC) mechanisms are widely recognized to be the most efficient deformation mechanisms in shear zones. With or without initial fracturing and fluid infiltration, the onset of heterogeneous nucleation leading to strong grain size reduction is a frequently described process for the initiation of GSSC. Phase mixing due to reaction and heterogeneous nucleation during GSSC impedes grain growth, sustaining small grain sizes as a prerequisite for GSSC. Here we present rock deformation experiments on 'wet' plagioclase - pyroxene mixtures at T=800°C, P=1.0 and 1.5GPa and strain rates of 2e-5 - 2e-6 1/s, performed with a Griggs-type solid medium deformation apparatus. Microstructural criteria are used to show that both, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and solution-mass transfer processes are active and are interpreted to be the dominant strain accommodating processes. Displacement is localized within shear bands formed by fine-grained ( 300 - 500nm) plagioclase (Pl) and the syn-kinematic reaction products amphibole (Amph), quartz (Qz) and zoisite (Zo). We compare our experiments with a natural case - a sheared mafic pegmatite (P-T during deformation 0.7 - 0.9 GPa, 610 - 710 °C; Getsinger et al., 2013) from Northern Norway. Except for the difference in grain size of the experimental and natural samples, microstructures are strikingly alike. The experimental and natural P- and especially T-conditions are very similar. Consequently, extrapolation from experiments to nature must be made without a significant 'temperature-time' trade-off, which is normally taken advantage of when relating experimental to natural strain rates. We will discuss under which assumptions extrapolation to nature in our case is likely feasible. Syn-kinematic reactions during GBS and solution-mass transport are commonly interpreted to result in an ordered (anticlustered) phase mixture. However, phase mixing in our case is restricted: Mixing is extensive between Pl + Zo + Qz and

  7. A micro-kinematic framework for vorticity analysis in polyphase shear zones using integrated field, microstructural and crystallographic orientation-dispersion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckenberg, S. C.; Michels, Z. D.; Parsons, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from integrated field, microstructural and textural analysis in the Burlington mylonite zone (BMZ) of eastern Massachusetts to establish a unified micro-kinematic framework for vorticity analysis in polyphase shear zones. Specifically, we define the vorticity-normal surface based on lattice-scale rotation axes calculated from electron backscatter diffraction data using orientation statistics. In doing so, we objectively identify a suitable reference frame for rigid grain methods of vorticity analysis that can be used in concert with textural studies to constrain field- to plate-scale deformation geometries without assumptions that may bias tectonic interpretations, such as relationships between kinematic axes and fabric forming elements or the nature of the deforming zone (e.g., monoclinic vs. triclinic shear zones). Rocks within the BMZ comprise a heterogeneous mix of quartzofeldspathic ± hornblende-bearing mylonitic gneisses and quartzites. Vorticity axes inferred from lattice rotations lie within the plane of mylonitic foliation perpendicular to lineation - a pattern consistent with monoclinic deformation geometries involving simple shear and/or wrench-dominated transpression. The kinematic vorticity number (Wk) is calculated using Rigid Grain Net analysis and ranges from 0.25-0.55, indicating dominant general shear. Using the calculated Wk values and the dominant geographic fabric orientation, we constrain the angle of paleotectonic convergence between the Nashoba and Avalon terranes to 56-75º with the convergence vector trending 142-160° and plunging 3-10°. Application of the quartz recrystallized grain size piezometer suggests differential stresses in the BMZ mylonites ranging from 44 to 92 MPa; quartz CPO patterns are consistent with deformation at greenschist- to amphibolite-facies conditions. We conclude that crustal strain localization in the BMZ involved a combination of pure and simple shear in a sinistral reverse transpressional

  8. A Systems Approach Framework for Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S. Hopkins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical application to coastal zone systems (CZSs was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods. The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations appropriate to a selected policy issue and to the social-environmental conditions of each Study Site Application. Their findings are not the result of funded research projects; instead, they are by-products of pilot applications conducted to develop and improve the SAF methodology. The final article of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management.

  9. Application of kinematic vorticity and gold mineralization for the wall rock alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mining, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.; El Nashar, EL Said R.; AL Kahtany, Kaled M.

    2016-11-01

    The use of porphyroclasts rotating in a flowing matrix to estimate mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) is important for quantifying the relative contributions of pure and simple shear in wall rocks alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mine. Furthermore, it shows the relationship between the gold mineralization and deformation and also detects the orientation of rigid objects during progressive deformation. The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. The kinematic vorticity number for the metavolcanic and metasedimentary samples in the Dungash area range from 0.80 to 0.92, and together with the strain data suggest deviations from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during the underthrusting event probably by brittle imbrication and that ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure during thrusting. Furthermore, we conclude that disseminated mineralization, chloritization, carbonatization and silicification of the wall rocks are associated with fluids migrating along shearing, fracturing and foliation of the metamorphosed wall rocks.

  10. Uraninite, Coffinite and Brannerite from Shear-Zone Hosted Uranium Deposits of the Bohemian Massif (Central European Variscan Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš René

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New mineralogical data are presented for shear-zone hosted uranium mineralisation from selected uranium deposits that occur in the Bohemian Massif. The uranium mineralisation is in high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Moldanubian Zone and/or in granitic rocks of the Moldanubian batholith and Bor pluton as complex uraninite–coffinite and uraninite–coffinite–brannerite assemblages. For analysed coffinites and brannerites, anomalous enrichment of Y (up to 3.4 wt % Y2O3 and Zr (up to 13.8 wt % ZrO2 is significant. The microprobe data indicate that coffinites from the Rožná and Okrouhlá Radouň uranium deposits contain variable PbO (0–4.3 wt %, FeO (0–2.5 wt %, Al2O3 (0–3.5 wt %, P2O5 (0–1.8 wt %, and CaO (0.7–3.5 wt %. Brannerite is present in unaltered and altered grains with variable concentrations of U4+ (0–0.5 apfu, U6+ (0.06–0.49 apfu, Ti (0.90–2.63 apfu, Ca (0.09–0.41 apfu, and low concentrations of Al (0–0.19 apfu, Th (0–0.04 apfu, Y (0–0.08 apfu, Zr (0–0.13 apfu and REE (0–0.14 apfu.

  11. Seismic anisotropy in localized shear zones versus distributed tectonic fabrics: examples from geologic and seismic observations in western North America and the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Kevin H.; Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Condit, Cailey; Leydier, Thomas; Goncalves, Philippe; Raju, Anissha; Brownlee, Sarah; Orlandini, Omero F.

    2017-04-01

    Modern methods for detecting seismic anisotropy offer an array of promising tools for imaging deep crustal deformation but also present challenges, especially with respect to potential biases in both the detection methods themselves as well as in competing processes for localized versus distributed deformation. We address some of these issues from the geophysical perspective by employing azimuthally dependent amplitude and polarity variations in teleseismic receiver functions combined with a compilation of published rock elasticity tensors from middle and deep crustal rocks, and from the geological perspective through studies of shear zone deformation processes. Examples are highlighted at regional and outcrop scales from western North America and the European Alps. First, in regional patterns, strikes of seismically detected fabric from receiver functions in California show a strong alignment with current strike-slip motion between the Pacific and North American plates, with high signal strength near faults and from depths below the brittle-ductile transition suggesting these faults have deep ductile roots. In contrast, despite NE-striking shear zones being the most prominent features portrayed on Proterozoic tectonic maps of the southwestern USA, receiver function anisotropy from the central Rocky Mountain region appears to more prominently reflect broadly distributed Proterozoic fabric domains that preceded late-stage localized shear zones. Possible causes for the discrepancy fall into two categories: those that involve a) bias in seismic sampling and/or b) deformation processes that lead to either weaker anisotropy in the shear zones compared to adjacent domains or to a symmetry that is different from that conventionally assumed. Most of these explanations imply that the seismically sampled domains contain important structural information that is distinct from the shear zones. The second set of examples stem from studies of outcrop-scale shear zones in upper

  12. A new dedicated finite element for push-over analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delal Doğru ORMANCI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a finite element which has been analyzed based on anisotropic behavior of reinforced shear walls is developed. Element stiffness matrices were varied based on whether the element is in the tension or the compression zone of the cross-section. Nonlinear behavior of reinforced shear wall model is investigated under horizontal loads. This behavior is defined with a similar approach to plastic hinge assumption in frame structures that the finite element behaves lineer elastic between joints and plastic deformations are concentrated on joints as vertical plastic displacements. According to this acceptance, plastic behavior of reinforced shear wall occurs when the vertical strain reaches elastic strain limit. In the definition of finite element, displacement functions are chosen considering that the partition of shear walls just at floor levels, are enough for solution. Results of this study are compared with the solution obtained from a different computer programme and experimental results.

  13. Geochemical significance of neoproterozoic rasimalai alkali syenite emplaced along Dharmapuri shear zone in the Northern part of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavel, S.; Balasubramani, S.; Nagaraju, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Zakaulla, Syed; Rai, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Rasimalai alkali syenite complex is emplaced within Peninsular Gneissic complex and spatially associated with NE-SW trending major Dharmapuri shear zone (DSZ) in the northern part of Tamil Nadu. It is surrounded by epidote hornblend egneiss, which is the fenetised product of Charnockite and occurs about 20 km NE of Alangayam in Vellore district. It is mainly comprised of medium to coarse grained grey syenite (albite and orthoclase) and medium to micro grained pink syenite (orthoclase, microcline and perthite) at places porphyritic in nature with hornblende, riebeckitc, aegirine and acmite as accessory minerals. Grey syenite is non radioactive and uranium mineralisation is associated with pink syenite (syngenetic and disseminated type) and quartz-barite veins (hydrothermal type). Hydrothermal activity is manifested in the form of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, barite, calcite and calcian-strontianite which occur in the form of disseminations, stringers, lumps, aggregates, veinlets and veins. Presence of high silica (63.14-75.43%) with high field strength elements (U, Th, Nb and Pb) and large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Sr, K, Ba) possibly indicates that Rasimalai alkali syenite is the product of crustal communication and partial melting of protracted emplacement of parental alkali basaltic magma

  14. C-O-H-N fluids circulations and graphite precipitation in reactivated Hudsonian shear zones during basement uplift of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone: Example of the Cigar Lake U deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Pierre; Cathelineau, Michel; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Jaguin, Justine; Tarantola, Alexandre; Demacon, Mickael; Gerbeaud, Olivier; Quirt, David; Doney, Amber; Ledru, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Graphitic shear zones are spatially associated with unconformity-related uranium deposits that are located around the unconformity between the strata of the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) and its underlying Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement. The present study focuses on basement-hosted ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones near the Cigar Lake U deposit, one of the largest unconformity-related U deposits. The goal of the study is to decipher the pre-Athabasca Basin fluid migration history recorded within such structures and its potential role on the formation of such exceptional deposit. Dominantly C-O-H(-N) metamorphic fluids have been trapped in Fluid Inclusion Planes (FIPs) in magmatic quartz within ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones active during retrograde metamorphism associated with the formation of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ) between ca. 1805 and 1720 Ma. Such fluids show a compositional evolution along the retrograde path, from a dense and pure CO2 fluid during the earliest stages, through a lower density CO2 ± CH4-N2 (± H2O) fluid and, finally, to a very low density CH4-N2 fluid. Statistical study of the orientation, distribution, proportion, and chemical characterization of the FIPs shows that: i) CO2 (δ13CCO2 around - 9‰ PDB) from decarbonation reactions and/or partial water-metamorphic graphite equilibrium initially migrated regionally and pervasively under lithostatic conditions at about 500 to 800 °C and 150 to 300 MPa. Such P-T conditions attest to a high geothermal gradient of around 60 to 90 °C/km, probably related to rapid exhumation of the basement or a large-scale heat source. ii) Later brittle reactivation of the shear zone at around 450 °C and 25-50 MPa favored circulation of CO2-CH4-N2(± H2O) fluids in equilibrium with metamorphic graphite (δ13CCO2 around - 14‰) under hydrostatic conditions and only within the shear zones. Cooling of these fluids and the water uptake linked

  15. Possible Different Rifting Mechanisms Between South and North Part of the Fenhe-Weihe Rift Zone Revealed by Shear Velocity Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, S.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As an active intraplate continental rift, FWR plays an important role in accommodating the trans-tension in the Trans North China Craton (TNCO). Velocity field derived from GPS measurements reveals that the northern part of FWR is still under extension in N105°E direction at a rate of 4±2 mm/yr [Shen et al., 2000]. Actually, the FWR has been the most seismically active region in NCC. Bouguer gravity profile and seismic sounding lines [Xu and Ma, 1992] revealed a 2-3 km uplift of Moho depth beneath Taiyuan basin and 5-6 km beneath the Southwestern rift zone, those geophysical observations give clues to the un-evenly upwelling of the asthenosphere beneath the rift system and the different rifting process of the FWR. Therefore, studying the extension process of FWR is meaningful to understanding the NCC geodynamics associated with rifting tectonism. Using vertical continuous waveforms recorded during 2014 from CEarray, we construct a reliable and detailed 3-D crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure of FWR, using a Bayesian Monte-Carlo method to jointly interpret teleseismic P-wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions [Shen et al., 2013]. In the upmost crust, FWR appear as awful low velocity anomaly zone (LVZ), while the Taihang and Lvliang mountain ranges are imaged as strong high velocity anomaly zones(HVZ). In the middle crust, the low velocity zones still keep their LVZ features Additionally, nearly the whole FWR appears as a linearly LVZ line separating Taihang Uplift and Lvliang Uplift, except beneath Shilingguan and Linshi blocks that separate the Xinxian, Taiyuan and Linfen Basins, consisting with the high seismicity there. The velocity of the lower crust beneath Taiyuan and Weihe Basin are relatively higher than the rest rift regions, we interpret them as the limited mafic underplating beneath the TNCO. From the lower crust to upper mantle, the Datong volcanic zone display robust low velocity features, though the lowest velocity

  16. 2D shear-wave ultrasound elastography (SWE) evaluation of ablation zone following radiofrequency ablation of liver lesions: is it more accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiao W; Li, Xiao L; Guo, Le H; Li, Dan D; Liu, Bo J; Wang, Dan; He, Ya P; Xu, Xiao H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of two-dimensional quantitative ultrasound shear-wave elastography (2D-SWE) [i.e. virtual touch imaging quantification (VTIQ)] in assessing the ablation zone after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for ex vivo swine livers. Methods: RFA was performed in 10 pieces of fresh ex vivo swine livers with a T20 electrode needle and 20-W output power. Conventional ultrasound, conventional strain elastography (SE) and VTIQ were performed to depict the ablation zone 0 min, 10 min, 30 min and 60 min after ablation. On VTIQ, the ablation zones were evaluated qualitatively by evaluating the shear-wave velocity (SWV) map and quantitatively by measuring the SWV. The ultrasound, SE and VTIQ results were compared against gross pathological and histopathological specimens. Results: VTIQ SWV maps gave more details about the ablation zone, the central necrotic zone appeared as red, lateral necrotic zone as green and transitional zone as light green, from inner to exterior, while the peripheral unablated liver appeared as blue. Conventional ultrasound and SE, however, only marginally depicted the whole ablation zone. The volumes of the whole ablation zone (central necrotic zone + lateral necrotic zone + transitional zone) and necrotic zone (central necrotic zone + lateral necrotic zone) measured by VTIQ showed excellent correlation (r = 0.915, p  0.05). Conclusion: The quantitative 2D-SWE of VTIQ is useful for the depiction of the ablation zone after RFA and it facilitates discrimination of different areas in the ablation zone qualitatively and quantitatively. This elastography technique might be useful for the therapeutic response evaluation instantly after RFA. Advances in knowledge: A new quantitative 2D-SWE (i.e. VTIQ) for evaluation treatment response after RFA is demonstrated. It facilitates discrimination of the different areas in the ablation zone qualitatively and quantitatively and may be useful for the therapeutic

  17. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  18. Slip rate of the Calico fault: Implications for geologic versus geodetic rate discrepancy in the Eastern California Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskin, Michael; Perg, Lesley; Blumentritt, Dylan; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Iriondo, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Long-term (105 years) fault slip rates test the scale of discrepancy between infrequent paleoseismicity and relatively rapid geodetic rates of dextral shear in the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). The Calico fault is one of a family of dextral faults that traverse the Mojave Desert portion of the ECSZ. Its slip rate is determined from matching and dating incised Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits and surfaces displaced by fault slip. A high-resolution topographic base acquired via airborne laser swath mapping aids in identification and mapping of deformed geomorphic features. The oldest geomorphically preserved alluvial fan, unit B, is displaced 900 ± 200 m from its source at Sheep Springs Wash in the northern Rodman Mountains. This fan deposit contains the first preserved occurrence of basalt clasts derived from the Pipkin lava field and overlies Quaternary conglomerate deposits lacking these clasts. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of two flows from this field yields consistent ages of 770 ± 40 ka and 735 ± 9 ka. An age of 650 ± 100 ka is assigned to this fan deposit based on these ages and on the oldest cosmogenic 3He exposure date of 653 ± 20 ka on a basalt boulder from the surface of unit B. This assigned age and offset together yield a mid-Pleistocene to present average slip rate of 1.4 ± 0.4 mm/yr. A younger fan surface, unit K, records 100 ± 10 m of dextral displacement and preserves original depositional morphology of its surface. Granitic boulders and pavement samples from this surface yield an average age of 56.4 ± 7.7 ka after taking into account minimal cosmogenic inheritance of granitic clasts. The displaced and dated K fans yield a slip rate of 1.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr. Distributed deformation of the region surrounding the fault trace, if active, could increase the overall displacement rate to 2.1 ± 0.5 mm/yr. Acceleration of slip rate from an average of 1.4 mm/yr prior to ˜50 ka to 1.8 mm/yr since ˜50 ka is possible, though a single time-averaged slip

  19. Geometry and subsidence history of the Dead Sea basin: A case for fluid-induced mid-crustal shear zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Flores, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Pull-apart basins are narrow zones of crustal extension bounded by strike-slip faults that can serve as analogs to the early stages of crustal rifting. We use seismic tomography, 2-D ray tracing, gravity modeling, and subsidence analysis to study crustal extension of the Dead Sea basin (DSB), a large and long-lived pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform (DST). The basin gradually shallows southward for 50 km from the only significant transverse normal fault. Stratigraphic relationships there indicate basin elongation with time. The basin is deepest (8-8.5 km) and widest (???15 km) under the Lisan about 40 km north of the transverse fault. Farther north, basin depth is ambiguous, but is 3 km deep immediately north of the lake. The underlying pre-basin sedimentary layer thickens gradually from 2 to 3 km under the southern edge of the DSB to 3-4 km under the northern end of the lake and 5-6 km farther north. Crystalline basement is ???11 km deep under the deepest part of the basin. The upper crust under the basin has lower P wave velocity than in the surrounding regions, which is interpreted to reflect elevated pore fluids there. Within data resolution, the lower crust below ???18 km and the Moho are not affected by basin development. The subsidence rate was several hundreds of m/m.y. since the development of the DST ???17 Ma, similar to other basins along the DST, but subsidence rate has accelerated by an order of magnitude during the Pleistocene, which allowed the accumulation of 4 km of sediment. We propose that the rapid subsidence and perhaps elongation of the DSB are due to the development of inter-connected mid-crustal ductile shear zones caused by alteration of feldspar to muscovite in the presence of pore fluids. This alteration resulted in a significant strength decrease and viscous creep. We propose a similar cause to the enigmatic rapid subsidence of the North Sea at the onset the North Atlantic mantle plume. Thus, we propose that aqueous fluid flux

  20. Rock mechanics observations pertinent to the rheology of the continental lithosphere and the localization of strain along shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    the general phenomenon of ductile faulting in which ductile strains are localized into shear zones. Ductile faults have been produced in experiments of five different rock types and is generally expressed as strain softening in constant-strain-rate tests or as an accelerating-creep-rate stage at constant differential stress. A number of physical mechanisms have been identified that may be responsible for ductile faulting, including the onset of dynamic recrystallization, phase changes, hydrothermal alteration and hydrolytic weakening. Microscopic evidence for these processes as well as larger-scale geological and geophysical observations suggest that ductile faulting in the middle to lower crust and upper mantle may greatly influence the distribution and magnitudes of differential stresses and the style of deformation in the overlying upper continental lithosphere. ?? 1985.

  1. Latest Quaternary paleoseismology and evidence of distributed dextral shear along the Mohawk Valley fault zone, northern Walker Lane, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard; Personius, Stephen; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon; Angster, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The dextral-slip Mohawk Valley fault zone (MVFZ) strikes northwestward along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada in the northern Walker Lane. Geodetic block modeling indicates that the MVFZ may accommodate ~3 mm/yr of regional dextral strain, implying that it is the highest slip-rate strike-slip fault in the region; however, only limited geologic data are available to constrain the system’s slip rate and earthquake history. We mapped the MVFZ using airborne lidar data and field observations and identified a site near Sulphur Creek for paleoseismic investigation. At this site, oblique dextral-normal faulting on the steep valley margin has created a closed depression that floods annually during spring snowmelt to form an ephemeral pond. We excavated three fault-perpendicular trenches at the site and exposed pond sediment that interfingers with multiple colluvial packages eroded from the scarp that bounds the eastern side of the pond. We documented evidence for four surface-rupturing earthquakes on this strand of the MVFZ. OxCal modeling of radiocarbon and luminescence ages indicates that these earthquakes occurred at 14.0 ka, 12.8 ka, 5.7 ka, and 1.9 ka. The mean ~4 kyr recurrence interval is inconsistent with slip rates of ~3 mm/yr; these rates imply surface ruptures of more than 10 m per event, which is geologically implausible for the subdued geomorphic expression and 60 km length of the MVFZ. We propose that unidentified structures not yet incorporated into geodetic models may accommodate significant dextral shear across the northern Walker Lane, highlighting the role of distributed deformation in this region.

  2. Determination of seismic performance factors for CLT shear wall systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Omar Amini; John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Shiling Pei; Philip Line; Marjan Popovski

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents selected results of connector testing and wall testing which were part of a Forest Products Lab-funded project undertaken at Colorado State University in an effort to determine seismic performance factors for cross laminated timber (CLT) shear walls in the United States. Archetype development, which is required as part of the process, is also...

  3. Shear Bond Strength of a Novel Porcelain Repair System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Each fracture type was examined under a stereomicroscope .... fracture types. Statistical analysis. The normal distribution of data was examined using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Shear bond strength data of repaired CAD/CAM .... adhesives to enamel, dentine, and porcelain surfaces can be compared.

  4. crustal shear zone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Textural modeling integrating the textural features and balanced chemical reaction of the calc-silicate ... The style and geometry of the .... analyses return the following amphibole forming reaction: ... based on total Al (AlT) content in hornblende.

  5. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of the granitic magmatism along the Remígio - Pocinhos shear zone, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Jefferson V.; Guimarães, Ignez de P.; Santos, Lucilene; Amorim, José Victor A.; Farias, Douglas José S.

    2017-04-01

    Two granitoid plutons (Pilõezinhos and Curral de Cima) intruded along the Remígio - Pocinhos shear zone, eastern part of the Borborema Province. The Pilõezinhos and Curral de Cima granites were dated at 566 ± 3 Ma and 618 ± 5 Ma respectively. The granitoids from both plutons have distinct initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios, expressed by εNd(t) values, i.e. the granitoids of Pilõezinhos pluton have lower εNd(t) values (-15.47 to -15.81) and negative εHf (t = 570 Ma) values (-16.0 to -18.6), while the granitoids of the Curral de Cima pluton have εNd(t) values between -1.12 and -5.23. The granitoids of the Curral de Cima pluton are epidote bearing, magnesian calcalkaline I-type granitoids, crystallized under high fO2 conditions. The granitoids of the Pilõezinhos pluton are alkaline, low-fO2, ferroan, ilmenite-series, A2-type granite intrusions. The geochemical and isotopic signatures suggest that the origin of magma of the Curral de Cima granitoids involved mixing/mingling at depth between crustal and mantle magmas, associated to decompression (lateral escape) during the convergent stage of Brasiliano/Pan/African orogeny, which lead the asthenosphere melts to rise into the lower crust. The source of magma of the granitoids of the Pilõezinhos pluton involved a strong crustal component with geochemical and isotopic signatures similar to the orthogneisses of the Serrinha-Pedro Velho Complex, and small mantle component. The emplacement of the Pilõezinhos pluton is associated to an extensional space formed during high-T strike-slip shearing developed by the synchronic movement of the Matinhas sinistral shear zone and Remígio - Pocinhos dextral shear zone.

  6. Fault Slip Partitioning in the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane Belt: Pliocene to Late Pleistocene Contraction Across the Mina Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Stockli, D.; Gosse, J.

    2007-12-01

    Two different mechanisms have been proposed for fault slip transfer between the subparallel NW-striking dextral- slip faults that dominant the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ)-Walker Lane Belt (WLB). In the northern WLB, domains of sinistral-slip along NE-striking faults and clockwise block rotation within a zone of distributed deformation accommodated NW-dextral shear. A somewhat modified version of this mechanism was also proposed for the Mina deflection, southern WLB, whereby NE-striking sinistral faults formed as conjugate faults to the primary zone of NW-dextral shear; clockwise rotation of the blocks bounding the sinistral faults accommodated dextral slip. In contrast, in the northern ECSZ and Mina deflection, domains of NE-striking pure dip-slip normal faults, bounded by NW-striking dextral-slip faults, exhibited no rotation; the proposed mechanism of slip transfer was one of right-stepping, high angle normal faults in which the magnitude of extension was proportional to the amount of strike-slip motion transferred. New geologic mapping, tectonic geomorphologic, and geochronologic data from the Queen Valley area, southern Mina deflection constrain Pliocene to late Quaternary fault geometries, slip orientations, slip magnitudes, and slip rates that bear on the mechanism of fault slip transfer from the relatively narrow northern ECSZ to the broad deformation zone that defines the Mina deflection. Four different fault types and orientations cut across the Queen Valley area: (1) The NE-striking normal-slip Queen Valley fault; (2) NE-striking sinistral faults; (3) the NW-striking dextral Coyote Springs fault, which merges into (4) a set of EW-striking thrust faults. (U-Th)/He apatite and cosmogenic radionuclide data, combined with magnitude of fault offset measurements, indicate a Pliocene to late Pleistocene horizontal extension rate of 0.2-0.3 mm/yr across the Queen Valley fault. Our results, combined with published slip rates for the dextral White Mountain

  7. Bauxite to eclogite: Evidence for late Permian supracontinental subduction at the Red River shear zone, northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Nobuhiko; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nam, Nguyen Van; Tri, Tran Van

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the geological processes recorded in aluminous granulites from the Red River shear zone in northern Vietnam using mineral and whole-rock chemistries, fluid inclusions, metamorphic pressure-temperature paths, and geochronology. The granulites are extremely rich in Al2O3 (36.3-50.9 wt%), TiO2, and total Fe2O3, and poor in SiO2 (7.9-24.1 wt%), MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O. The granulites are enriched in high-field-strength elements and rare earth elements, and severely depleted in large-ion lithophile elements. These features strongly suggest the protolith was lateritic bauxite. Moreover, the other elemental concentrations and the Zr/Ti ratios point to basaltic rock as the precursor of the bauxite. Some of the aluminous granulites contain high-pressure mineral inclusions of kyanite, staurolite, siderite, and rutile, none of which are observed in the matrix. Abundant primary carbonic fluid inclusions are observed in garnet, corundum, and staurolite, but are rare in quartz and zircon. The average densities of fluid inclusions in garnet, corundum, staurolite, quartz, and zircon are 1.00 ± 0.06, 1.07 ± 0.04, 1.09 ± 0.03, 0.29 ± 0.07, and 1.15 ± 0.05 g/cm3, respectively. The mineral features not only in the matrix and but also in garnet from all rock types, isochemical phase diagrams obtained for each bulk rock composition, and Zr-in-rutile thermometry indicate an early eclogite-facies metamorphism ( 2.5 GPa at 650 °C) and a subsequent nearly isothermal decompression. Zircons yield a wide range of U-Pb ages from 265 to 36 Ma, whereas the dark luminescent cores of the zircons, which contain high-density CO2 inclusions, yield a concordia age of 257 ± 8 Ma. These observations suggest that the dark luminescent zircon cores were formed at the same time as the garnet, corundum, and staurolite that contain high-density CO2 fluid inclusions. Based on the carbonic fluid inclusion isochore and the densities as well as calculated phase diagram, the concordia

  8. Static and dynamic experimental study of strengthened reinforced short concrete corbel by using carbon fabrics, crack path in shear zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental analysis of tracking the path of the cracks and crack growth in strengthened or repair reinforced concrete short corbels bonded by carbon fiber fabrics under static and dynamic loads. The reinforced short concrete corbel is a used precast element, for industrial buildings and structures. In fact, their functioning interestingly unconventional is compared to classical beam type elements. Then the effects of bending and shearing are combined in this case. The horizontal reinforced steel is localized to resist to tensile strength induced in bending top and a transversal strength-absorbing contribution. The introduction of carbon fiber composite in the field of Civil Engineering allows to strengthen or repair reinforced concrete structures using adhesive. So the carbon fiber material has many advantages as its low weight, flexibility, easier handling and also interesting physicochemical properties. However maintenance of civil engineering works is to protect them by ensuring better sealing or limiting corrosion. Then strengthening is to repair structures by using bonding technique to compensate their rigidity loss and limit the cracking. This allows to improve their performance and durability. Bonding of composite material in tensile zone of corbel retrieves most tensile stress and allows the structure to extend their load-bearing capacity. The local behavior of the structure is measured by means of the extensometer technique based on electrical strain gauges. This technique allowed to measure strains of steel, carbon fiber fabrics and concrete. The results of this investigation showed that strengthened reinforced concrete corbel bonded by carbon fiber fabrics can improve the ultimate load to twice and stiffens less than a third. The ultimate load, strain and displacement of the specimen are compared to reference experimental model of monotonic and cyclic applied loads. The success of strengthening depends strongly

  9. Establishment Criteria for Integrated Wind Shear Detection Systems: Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS), Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), and Modified Airport Surveillance Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Overviev . ......................................... 9 2. Programs , Syr!ems, and Services ........................ 11 a. National Weather Service...Equipment Appropriation. ADA, a computer system developed and maintained by the Office of Aviation Policy and rlans, facilitates APS-I processing... Program Plan. The primary benefit of LLWAS, TDWR, and modified airport surveillance radar is reduced risk and expected incidence of wind shear-related

  10. Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam in Shear Zone by Compensation the Stirrups with Equivalent External Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamail Abdul-Mahdi Mosheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on reinforced concrete beams strengthened with external steel plates instead of shear stirrups has been held in this paper. Eight samples of the same dimensions and properties were used. Two of them were tested up to failure and specified as references beams; one with shear reinforcement and the other without shear reinforcement. Another samples without shear reinforcement were tested until the first shear crack occurs, then the samples strengthened on both sides with external steel plates as equivalent area of removed stirrups. The strengthened beams were divided into three groups according to the thickness of plates (1, 1.5, 2 mm, each group involved two beams; one bonded using epoxy and the other bonded using epoxy with anchored bolts. Finally, the strengthened beams tested when using anchored bolts with epoxy glue to bond plates. Where the increasing in maximum load is higher than that in reference beam with no internal stirrups reach to (75.46 –106.13% and has a good agreement with the control beam with shear reinforcement reach to (76.06 – 89.36% of ultimate load.

  11. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  12. The Black Mountain tectonic zone--a reactivated northeast-trending crustal shear zone in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: Chapter D in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Day, Warren C.; Alienikoff, John N.; Saltus, Richard W.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Mountain tectonic zone in the YukonTanana terrane of east-central Alaska is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can been traced across Black Mountain in the southeast corner of the Big Delta 1°×3° degree quadrangle. Geologic mapping in the larger scale B1 quadrangle of the Big Delta quadrangle, in which Black Mountain is the principal physiographic feature, has revealed a continuous zone of normal and left-lateral strikeslip high-angle faults and shear zones, some of which have late Tertiary to Quaternary displacement histories. The tectonic zone includes complexly intruded wall rocks and intermingled apophyses of the contiguous mid-Cretaceous Goodpaster and Mount Harper granodioritic plutons, mafic to intermediate composite dike swarms, precious metal mineralization, early Tertiary volcanic activity and Quaternary fault scarps. These structures define a zone as much as 6 to 13 kilometers (km) wide and more than 40 km long that can be traced diagonally across the B1 quadrangle into the adjacent Eagle 1°×3° quadrangle to the east. Recurrent activity along the tectonic zone, from at least mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary, suggests the presence of a buried, fundamental tectonic feature beneath the zone that has influenced the tectonic development of this part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The tectonic zone, centered on Black Mountain, lies directly above a profound northeast-trending aeromagnetic anomaly between the Denali and Tintina fault systems. The anomaly separates moderate to strongly magnetic terrane on the northwest from a huge, weakly magnetic terrane on the southeast. The tectonic zone is parallel to the similarly oriented left-lateral, strike-slip Shaw Creek fault zone 85 km to the west.

  13. Do the eclogites of the Variscan Malpica-Tuy shear zone in NW Spain point to continental subduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Botao; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    High-pressure (HP: P > 10 kbar) rocks such as eclogite typically occur in suture zones of collided continental plates in Phanerozoic times. In case of an extended area at the surface of a denuded orogen with HP and even ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks, they are often interpreted as the result of continental subduction. We have tested this idea for the HP-UHP area of the Malpica-Tuy zone of the Variscan orogen, which was formed by the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. For the test, we have initially studied an eclogite and its surrounding gneiss of this zone in detail. The eclogite contains the assemblage garnet, omphacite, amphibole, rutile, ilmenite, clinozoisite/epidote, quartz, and phengite with Si-contents as high as 3.45 per formula unit (pfu) in inner portions and 3.27-3.35 pfu in rims. Garnet exhibits chemical zonation with Gro25Alm55Pyr15Spe5, Gro29Alm57Pyr13Spe1, and Gro23Alm56Pyr20Spe1 as inner core, mantle, and outermost rim compositions, respectively. The gneiss is a former medium-grained granite now composed of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, phengite, garnet, clinozoisite/epidote, titanite, apatite and ilmenite. Phengite shows Si contents between 3.40 (core) and 3.00 (rim) pfu. Garnet is chemically zoned with Gro69.6Alm27Pyr0.4Spe3, Gro65.5Alm32.5Pyr0.5Spe1.5, Gro65.7Alm31.7Pyr0.6Spe2, and Gro56.6Alm41.6Pyr1.2Spe0.6 as core, mantle, rim and outermost rim compositions, respectively. P-T pseudosections were calculated with the PERPLEX computer program in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-FeO-O2-MnO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-H2O for the bulk-rock compositions of the studied eclogite and gneiss. These pseudosections were contoured by isopleths of various parameters such as molar fractions of garnet components. Based on this contouring a P-T path was derived that starts at HP conditions for both lithologies. Garnet began to form at 22 kbar and 565°C in the eclogite. Subsequently, the temperatures increased to 585°C and the pressure decreased to

  14. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  15. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP; in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching; and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  16. Computerized radiation control system in the Chernobyl 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'chenko, D.L.; Pis'mak, A.D.; Livertovskij, G.P.; Chikhladze, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    Computerized radiation control system is intended for monitoring radiation in the zone of radiation-hazardous objects for providing nuclear power station services with current information on radiactive situation in the zone of observation and the doses of radiation taken by the personnel. Described are tasks and functions of the system, as well as its structure. It is noted that unique conditions of the Chernobyl' 30-km zone open up opportunities for experiments and testing new models of equipment. 2 figs

  17. Strain-dependent evolution of garnets in a high pressure ductile shear zone using Synchroton x-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macente, Alice; Fusseis, Florian; Menegon, Luca; John, Timm

    2016-04-01

    Synkinematic reaction microfabrics carry important information on the kinetics, timing and rheology of tectonometamorphic processes. Despite being routinely interpreted in metamorphic and structural studies, reaction and deformation microfabrics are usually described in two dimensions. We applied Synchrotron-based x-ray microtomography to document the evolution of a pristine olivine gabbro into a deformed omphacite-garnet eclogite in 3D. In the investigated samples, which cover a strain gradient into a shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway) previously described by John et al., (2009), we focused on the spatial transformation of garnet coronas into elongated clusters of garnets. Our microtomographic data allowed us to quantify changes to the garnet volume, their shapes and their spatial arrangement. We combined microtomographic observations with light microscope- and backscatter electron images as well as electron microprobe- (EMPA) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses to correlate mineral composition and orientation data with the x-ray absorption signal of the same mineral grains. This allowed us to extrapolate our interpretation of the metamorphic microfabric evolution to the third dimension, effectively yielding a 4-dimensional dataset. We found that: - The x-ray absorption contrast between individual mineral phases in our microtomographic data is sufficient to allow the same petrographic observations than in light- and electron microscopy, but extended to 3D. - Amongst the major constituents of the synkinematic reactions, garnet is the only phase that can be segmented confidently from the microtomographic data. - With increasing deformation, the garnet volume increases from about 9% to 25%. - Garnet coronas in the gabbros never completely encapsulate olivine grains. This may indicate that the reaction progressed preferentially in some directions, but also leaves pathways for element transport to and from the olivines that are

  18. Evaluation of mobile work zone alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Maintenance of highways often involves mobile work zones for various types of low speed moving operations such as : striping and sweeping. The speed differential between the moving operation and traffic, and the increasing problem of : distracted dri...

  19. Texture, microstructure and geochemistry of magnetite from the Banduhurang uranium mine, Singhbhum shear zone, India - implications for physico-chemical evolution of magnetite mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Dutta, Tusar; Samanta, Susanta K.; Pal, Dipak C.

    2013-01-01

    The Singhbhum Shear zone in eastern India is one of the largest repositories of uranium and copper in India. Besides uranium and copper, apatite-magnetite mineralization is widespread in this shear zone. This study aims at deciphering the physico-chemical evolution of magnetite mineralization in relation to progressive shearing integrating field relations, micro-textures, structures and compositions of magnetite in the Banduhurang uranium mine. Apatite-magnetite ores occur as discrete patches, tongues, and veins in the strongly deformed, fine grained quartz-chlorite schist. Textures and microstructures of magnetite indicate at least three stages of magnetite formation. Coarse-grained magnetite (magnetite-1) with long, rotational, and complex strain fringes, defined by fibrous and elongate quartz, is assigned to a stage of pre-/early-shearing magnetite formation. Medium grained magnetite (magnetite-2), characterized by single non-rotational strain fringe equivalent to the youngest fringe of magnetite-1, grew likely at the mid-/late-stage of shearing. Fine grained magnetite (magnetite-3) is generally devoid of any pressure shadow. This indicates even a much later stage of formation of this magnetite, presumably towards the closing stage of shearing. Some of the magnetite-1 grains are optically heterogeneous with a dark, pitted Cr-Ti-bearing core overgrown by lighter, fresh rim locally containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, and chlorite inclusions. The cores are also locally characterized by high AI and Si content. Homogeneous magnetite-1 is optically and compositionally similar to the overgrowth of heterogeneous magnetite-1. This homogeneous magnetite-1 that grew as separate phase is contemporaneous with the overgrowth on pitted core of heterogeneous magnetite-1. Magnetite-2 is compositionally very similar to homogeneous magnetite-1, but is devoid of sulfide inclusion. Magnetite-3 is generally devoid of any silicate or sulfide inclusion and is most pure with least

  20. Preservation of Permian allanite within an Alpine eclogite facies shear zone at Mt Mucrone, Italy: Mechanical and chemical behaviour of allanite during mylonitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cenki-Tok, Benedicte; Oliot, E.; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the mechanical and cehmical behavior of allanite during shear zone formation under high-pressure metamorphism. Understanding physico-chemical processes related to the retention or resetting of Pb isotopes in allanite during geological processes is essential for robust......, and they were thus chemically and mechanically shielded during Alpine mylonitization. In undeformed samples (8a and 8b), two populations of epidote group minerals were found. Allanite forms either coronas around Permianmonazite or individual grains with patchy zoning. Both types yield Permian ages (208Pb/232Th...... age: 291±5 Ma). On the other hand, grains of REE-rich clinozoisite of Cretaceous age are found in undeformed rocks. These grains appear as small fragments with embayed surface outlines and minute satellites or rims around Permian allanite. These (re)crystallized grains are Sr-rich and show mosaic...

  1. Finite strain analysis of metavolcanics and metapyroclastics in gold-bearing shear zone of the Dungash area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.

    2014-11-01

    The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures, which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. Field geology, finite strain and microstructural analyses were carried out and the relation-ships between the lithological contacts and major/minor structures have been studied. The R f/ϕ and Fry methods were applied on the metavolcano-sedimentary and metapyroclastic samples from 5 quartz veins samples, 7 metavolcanics samples, 3 metasedimentary samples and 4 metapyroclastic samples in Dungash area. Finite-strain data show that a low to moderate range of deformation of the metavolcano-sedimentary samples and axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.70 to 4.80 for the R f/ϕ method and from 1.65 to 4.50 for the Fry method. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. Furthermore, the contact between principal rock units is sheared in the Dungash area under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. In this case, the accumulated finite strain is associated with the deformation during thrusting to assemble nappe structure. It indicates that the sheared contacts have been formed during the accumulation of finite strain.

  2. Linenament analysis on LANDSAT imagery in the central Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone. Arguments for brittle stain partitioning and block rotation under transpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Torres, L. M.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we deal with the statistical study oC the lineaments drawn by three different analysts on the same LANDSAT image on a geologically well-known portion oC the southem lberian Massif: the Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone. The results obtained let us establish the presence of two structural domains separated by a central band coinciding with the outcrop of the most metamorphic rocks of the central Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone. Each of these domains hold a distinctive lineament distribution arrangement, the whole being ascribable to a scheme of transpressive sinistral shearing within a band which rather fits a Bouguer gravity anomaly and a set of late-hercynian wrench faults.Se realiza un estudio estadístico de los tecto-lineamientos observados por tres analistas diferentes sobre una fotografía de satélite de la porción central de la Zona de Cizalla de Badajoz-Córdoba (Macizo Ibérico Meridional. Los resultados alcanzados permiten establecer la presencia de dos dominios estructurales separados entre sí por una banda central que coincide con el afloramiento de las rocas más metamórficas de la Zona de Cizalla. Cada uno de estos tres dominios tiene una distribución particular de lineamientos estructurales, explicándose el conjunto en el marco de un cizallamiento sinistroso en régimen transpresivo en una banda que se ajusta bastante a la distribución conocida para ese área de fallas y accidentes tardi-hercínicos de desgarre y a la posición de una anomalía gravimétrica de Bouguer.

  3. Engineering scale tests of mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing systems for FBR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kitagaki, Toru; Koizumi, Kenji; Hirano, Hiroyasu; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Washiya, Tadahiro; Kawabe, Yukinari; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki

    2011-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) have been developing an advanced head-end process based on mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing systems as a part of Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT). Fuel pins for a fast reactor are installed within a hexagonal shaped wrapper tube made of stainless steel. In order to reprocess the fast reactor fuel pins, they must be removed from the wrapper tube and transported to the shearing system without failure. In addition, the advanced aqueous reprocessing process, called 'NEXT' (New Extraction System for TRU Recovery) process requires a solution of the spent fuel with relatively high concentration (500g/L). JAEA and JAPC have developed the mechanical disassembly and the short stroke shearing technology which is expected to make fragmented fuel to satisfy these requirements. This paper reports the results of engineering scale tests on the mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing systems. These tests were carried out with simulated FBR fuel assembly and removed pins. The mechanical cutting method has been developed to avoid fuel pin failure during disassembly operation. The cutting process is divided into two modes, so called 'slit-cut' for cutting the wrapper tube and 'crop-cut' for the end plug region of the fuel pin bundle. In the slit-cut mode, the depth of cutting was automatically controlled based on the calculated wastage of the cutting tool and deformation of the wrapper tube which had been measured before the cutting. This procedure was confirmed to minimize the fuel pin failure which was hard to prevent in the case of laser cutting. The cutting speed was also controlled automatically by the electric current of the cutting motor to lower the load of the cutting tool. The removed fuel pins were transported to the shearing machine, whose fuel shearing magazine width was set to be narrow to realize the suitable configuration for the short stroke shearing

  4. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat

    2015-04-01

    The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyceğiz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this

  5. Geotechnical studies at Jaduguda uranium mine for optimisation of stopping and support parameters in molybdenite shear zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Sinha, A.; Prasad, L.; Prasad, M.; Raju, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, a few geotechnical studies have been conducted by the Central Mining Research Station, Dhanbad, at Jaduguda mine to improve ground control system and to optimise stopping parameters in the wide orebody zone at deeper levels and thus to add to productivity and recovery of these mines ensuring adequate safety. The replacement of mechanical point-anchored rock-bolts by full column cement grouted bolts, installed as per the designed pattern, has improved the ground condition, decreased the consumption of timber supports by around 70%, curtailed the support installation time and reduced the support cost to a remarkable extent even at the most problematic sites of Jaduguda mine. The analysis of stress development observations in the slope pillars of this mine reveals that the size of the slope pillars may be reduced by 20% in width which means an extra recovery of about 75 to 100 tonnes of ore per pillar per slice. In this paper, the authors have presented a brief account of their studies at this mine in the last four years. (author). 10 refs., 10 tabs., 9 figs

  6. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydrogen ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2005), s. 446-452 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0023; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031401; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  7. A microstructural study of SAFOD gouge from actively creeping San Andreas Fault zone; Implications for shear localization models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, E. D.; Hadizadeh, J.; Babaie, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    The prevailing models of shear localization in fault gouges are mainly based on experimental aggregates that necessarily neglect the effects of chemical and mechanical maturation with time. The SAFOD cores have provided a chance to test whether cataclasis as a deformation mechanism and factors such as porosity and particle size, critical in some existing shear localization models continue to be critical in mature gouges. We studied a core sample from 3194m MD in the SAFOD phase 3, which consists of intensely foliated shale-siltstone cataclasites in contact with less deformed shale. Microstructures were studied in 3 perpendicular planes with reference to foliation using high resolution scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, X-ray fluorescence mapping, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The cataclastic foliation, recognizable at length scales >100 μm, is primarily defined by bands of clay gouge with distinct microstructure, clay content, and porosity. Variations in elemental composition and porosity of the clay gouge were measured continuously across the foliation. Prominent features within the foliation bands include lens-shaped clusters of highly brecciated and veined siltstone fragments, pyrite smears, and pyrite-cemented cataclasites. The microstructural relations and chemical data provide clear evidence of multiple episodes of veining and deformation with some possibility of relative age determination for the episodes. There is evidence of syn-deformation hydrothermal changes including growth and brittle shear of pyrite, alteration of host shale clays to illite-smectite clays and Fe-rich smectite. Evidence of grain-boundary corrosion of non-clay mineral fragments suggests pressure solution creep. The gouge porosity estimates varied from 0-18% (about 3% in less deformed shale) with the highest value in the bands with abundant siltstone fragments. The banding is mechanically significant since it pervasively segregates the gouge into

  8. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    In-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change the subsurface hydrological, physical and chemical conditions in order to enable development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria. As such the remediation efficiency is much dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. These conditions are usually determined in laboratory experiments where parameters such as the chemical composition of the soil water solution, redox potential and water content of the sediment are fully controlled. Usually, implementation of desired optimal degradation conditions in deep vadose zone at full scale field setups is achieved through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives on the land surface. It is assumed that deep percolation into the vadose zone would create chemical conditions that promote biodegradation of specific compounds. However, application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily results in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) that was recently developed allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of deep sections of the unsaturated zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes which allow continuous monitoring of the temporal variation of the vadose zone water content, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) which are designed to allow frequent sampling of the sediment pore-water and gas at multiple depths. Implementation of the vadose zone monitoring system in sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the actual chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Up-to-date the system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and contaminant transport in

  9. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    Technical scale (≥5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of μ=0.56 h⁻¹ (bag) and μ=0.53 h⁻¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l⁻¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l⁻¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrodynamic Study of a Hollow Fiber Membrane System Using Experimental and Numerical Derived Surface Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Hunze, M.; Nopens, I.

    2012-01-01

    .39 – 0.69 Pa) were in good agreement, with an error less that 15 %. Based on comparison of the cumulative frequency distribution of shear stresses from experiments and simulation: (i) moderate shear stresses (i.e. 50th percentile) were found to be accurately predicted (model: 0.24 – 0.45 Pa; experimental......Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) models can be used to gain insight into the shear stresses induced by air sparging on submerged hollow fiber Membrane BioReactor (MBR) systems. It was found that the average range of shear stresses obtained by the CFD model (0.30 – 0.60 Pa) and experimentally (0......: 0.25 – 0.49 Pa) with an error of less than 5 %; (ii) high shear stresses (i.e. 90th percentile) predictions were much less accurate (model: 0.60 – 1.23 Pa; experimental: 1.04 – 1.90 Pa) with an error up to 38 %. This was attributed to the fact that the CFD model only considers the two-phase flow (50...

  11. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Rodney S.

    2011-07-01

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  12. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  13. Self-organized criticality in a sheared granular stick-slip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Fergal; Corcoran, David

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of results obtained from a mechanical apparatus consisting of an annular plate shearing over a granular bed. The size, energy dissipation, and duration of slips in the system exhibit power-law distributions and a 1/f 2 power spectrum, in accordance with self-organized criticality. We draw similarities with earthquakes

  14. A Shear-Wave Seismic System to Look Ahead of a Tunnel Boring Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharadwaj, Pawan; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Mulder, W.A.; Tscharner, Thomas; Jenneskens, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s properties, composition and structure ahead of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) should be mapped for hazard assessment during excavation. We study the use of seismic-exploration techniques for this purpose. We focus on a seismic system for soft soils, where shear waves are better and easier

  15. Evolution of Brasiliano-age granitoid types in a shear-zone environment, Umarizal-Caraubas region, Rio Grande do Norte, northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, A. C.; Dall'Agnol, R.; McReath, I.; Lafon, J. M.; Teixeira, N.

    1995-01-01

    A sequence of Brasiliano-age granitoid types is exposed in a small area near the cities of Umarizal and Caraúbas in Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeast Brazil. Porphyritic K-alkali-calcic monzogranite is an important facies of the oldest Caraúbas intrusion (RbSr whole rock isochron age of ca. 630 Ma), which suffered solid-state deformation due to movements on a major NE-trending shear zone. The intrusion of the Prado and part of the Quixaba bodies was probably controlled by the shear zone. These two bodies include mafic/intermediate rocks, some of which contain two pyroxenes, and have hybrid, partly alkaline and partly shoshonitic geochemical characteristics. Rock types and ages are similar to those of some Pan-African occurrences in southwestern Nigeria. The Tourão body, intruded at ca. 590 Ma, presents preferred mineral orientations which are probably largely magmatic, since little evidence is found for widespread solid-state deformation. On the other hand, its intrusion may have been facilitated by the presence of the shear-zone faults. The rocks form a monomodal felsic K-alkali-calcic suite. With the exception of the Quixaba body, all these earlier granitoids are magmatic epidote- and magnetite-bearing porphyritic monzogranites with trace element geochemical characteristics of modern syn-collisional granites. The latest intrusion at ca. 545 Ma is mainly represented by potassic quartz syenites and related rocks, some of which contain fayalite or ferrohypersthene. These rocks possess neither well developed mineral orientations of magmatic origin nor signs of solid-state deformation. They are mineralogically similar to, but younger than some of the "bauchites" of central Nigeria. Geochemical signatures are comparable with those of modern within-plate granites. All granitoids present high ( 87Sr/ 86Sr)i ratios which range from 0.708 to 0.712, and increase with decreasing age. Such ratios are compatible with important or dominant crustal contributions. On the

  16. Re-Os, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, and stepwise lead leaching isotope systematics in shear-zone hosted gold mineralization: genetic tracing and age constraints of crustal hydrothermal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, R.; Nägler, Th. F.; Schönberg, R.; Kramers, J. D.

    1998-06-01

    A combined Re-Os, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, and stepwise Pb leaching (PbSL) isotope study of hydrothermal (Mo-W)-bearing minerals and base metal sulfides from two adjacent shear zone hosted gold deposits (RAN, Kimberley) in the Harare-Shamva greenstone belt (Zimbabwe) constrain the timing of the mineralizing events to two periods. During an initial Late Archean event (2.60 Ga) a first molybdenite-scheelite bearing paragenesis was deposited in both shear zone systems, followed by a local reactivation of the shear systems during an Early Proterozoic (1.96 Ga) tectono-thermal overprint, during which base metal sulfides and most of the gold was (re-)deposited. While PbSL has revealed an open-system behavior of the U-Pb systematics in molybdenite and wolframite from the RAN mine, initial Archean Re-Os ages are still preserved implying that this system in these minerals was more resistant to the overprint. A similar retentivity could be shown for the Sm-Nd system in scheelite and powellite associated with the above ore minerals. Re-Os isotopic data from the Proterozoic mineralization in the Kimberley mine point to a recent gain of Re, most pronouncedly affecting Fe-rich sulfides such as pyrrhotite. A significant Re-loss in powellitic scheelite (an alteration phase of molybdenite-bearing scheelite), coupled with a marked loss of U in W-Mo ore minerals, complements the observation of a major Re uptake in Fe-sulfides during oxidizing conditions in a weathering environment. Pyrrhotite under these conditions behaves as an efficient Re-sink. Lead isotope signatures from PbSL residues of molybdenite, powellite, and quartz indicate a continental crustal source and/or contamination for the mineralizing fluid by interaction of the fluids with older sedimentary material as represented by the direct host country rocks. Our investigation reveals the potential of the Re-Os isotopic system applied to crustal hydrothermal ore minerals for genetic tracing and dating purposes. The simplified chemical

  17. Post retention and post/core shear bond strength of four post systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, L W; Williams, P T; Clarke, C T

    2000-01-01

    As clinicians we continue to search for a post system which will give us maximum retention while maximizing resistance to root fracture. The introduction of several new post systems, with claims of high retentive and resistance to root fracture values, require that independent studies be performed to evaluate these claims. This study tested the tensile and shear dislodgment forces of four post designs that were luted into roots 10 mm apical of the CEJ. The Para Post Plus (P1) is a parallel-sided, passive design; the Para Post XT (P2) is a combination active/passive design; the Flexi-Post (F1) and the Flexi-Flange (F2) are active post designs. All systems tested were stainless steel. This study compared the test results of the four post designs for tensile and shear dislodgment. All mounted samples were loaded in tension until failure occurred. The tensile load was applied parallel to the long axis of the root, while the shear load was applied at 450 to the long axis of the root. The Flexi-Post (F1) was significantly different from the other three in the tensile test, however, the Para Post XT (P2) was significantly different to the other three in the shear test and had a better probability for survival in the Kaplan-Meier survival function test. Based on the results of this study, our recommendation is for the Para Post XT (P2).

  18. Seismic Failure Mechanism of Reinforced Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall System Based on Structural Vulnerability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Ye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of structural vulnerability analyses are conducted on a reinforced cold-formed steel (RCFS shear wall system and a traditional cold-formed steel (CFS shear wall system subjected to earthquake hazard based on forms in order to investigate their failure mechanisms. The RCFS shear wall adopts rigid beam-column joints and continuous concrete-filled CFS tube end studs rather than coupled-C section end studs that are used in traditional CFS shear walls, to achieve the rigid connections in both beam-column joints and column bases. The results show that: the RCFS and traditional CFS shear wall systems both exhibit the maximum vulnerability index associated with the failure mode in the first story. Therefore, the first story is likely to be a weakness of the CFS shear wall system. Once the wall is damaged, the traditional CFS shear wall system would collapse because the shear wall is the only lateral-resisting component. However, the collapse resistance of the RCFS shear wall system is effectively enhanced by the second defense, which is provided by a framework integrated by rigid beam-column joints and fixed column bases. The predicted collapse mode with maximum vulnerability index that was obtained by structural vulnerability analysis agrees well with the experimental result, and the structural vulnerability method is thereby verified to be reasonable to identify the weaknesses of framed structures and predict their collapse modes. Additionally, the quantitative vulnerability index indicates that the RCFS shear wall system exhibits better robustness compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the “strong frame weak wallboard” and the “strong column weak beam” are proposed in this study as conceptional designations for the RCFS shear wall systems.

  19. Uraninite, coffinite and brannerite from shear-zone hosted uranium deposits of the Bohemian Massif (Central European Variscan belt)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    René, Miloš; Dolníček, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 50. ISSN 2075-163X Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : uranium deposits * mineralogy * uraninite * coffinite * brannerite * Moldanubian Zone * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.088, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/2075-163X/7/4/50

  20. Clarification on shear transformation zone size and its correlation with plasticity for Zr-based bulk metallic glass in different structural states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.Q.; Huang, L. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang, P., E-mail: huangping@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Xu, K.W. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, F., E-mail: wangfei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lu, T.J. [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); MOE Key Laboratory for Multifunctional Materials and Structures Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-11-20

    To clarify the real size of shear transformation zone (STZ) and its correlation with the plasticity of metallic glass, STZ sizes of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) in three different structural states (as-cast, annealed and confining annealed) were examined using both rate-change and statistical methods upon nanoindentation. STZ sizes (less than 24 atoms) obtained by the statistical method approached the real STZ size of very few atoms, and showed no correlation with BMG plasticity. In sharp contrast, STZ sizes (hundreds of atoms) obtained by the rate-change method not only were much larger than the real STZ size but also exhibited a positive correlation with BMG plasticity. These discrepancies were discussed in terms of the structural evolution of BMGs upon nanoindentation.

  1. Unexpected earthquake hazard revealed by Holocene rupture on the Kenchreai Fault (central Greece): Implications for weak sub-fault shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Alex; Grützner, Christoph; Howell, Andy; Jackson, James; Penney, Camilla; Wimpenny, Sam

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution elevation models, palaeoseismic trenching, and Quaternary dating demonstrate that the Kenchreai Fault in the eastern Gulf of Corinth (Greece) has ruptured in the Holocene. Along with the adjacent Pisia and Heraion Faults (which ruptured in 1981), our results indicate the presence of closely-spaced and parallel normal faults that are simultaneously active, but at different rates. Such a configuration allows us to address one of the major questions in understanding the earthquake cycle, specifically what controls the distribution of interseismic strain accumulation? Our results imply that the interseismic loading and subsequent earthquakes on these faults are governed by weak shear zones in the underlying ductile crust. In addition, the identification of significant earthquake slip on a fault that does not dominate the late Quaternary geomorphology or vertical coastal motions in the region provides an important lesson in earthquake hazard assessment.

  2. Distribution of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanchang; Yang, Huiqin; Wu, Linying

    2017-03-01

    Dilemma zone refers to an area where vehicles can neither clear the intersection during the yellow interval nor stop safely before the stop line. The purpose of this paper is to analyzing the distribution of two types of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system (ITS) established at Outer Ring Roads signalized intersections in Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center. To collect field data a drone aircraft was used. When calculating the type II dilemma zone's distribution, we considered the information of drivers' aggressiveness, which was classified by driving speed and type I dilemma zone as well. We also compared the two types dilemma zone's distribution before and after ITS established and analyzed the changes, which was brought by ITS.

  3. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid...... is described and provides information on the structural design with its advantages. Experimental and numerical investigations of the BFRP connecting systems were performed. The experimental program included testing of small scale specimens by applying shear (push-off) loading and semi-full scale specimens...... on finite element modelling showed that the developed panel system meets the objectives of the research and is expected to have promising future....

  4. The Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWSAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    ALERT SYSTEM (LLWSAS). (May R.. a.-ol - 8..’P" Imng Organization Report No, 9, Perfo~ring Or~ni-otlon Ro-r. -andAddress 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) Federal...rather than electronic approach. The 2-minute average adheres to recommended International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards (referernce 14...speed of 140 knots. **Cold front. 80 ’ # 90 0 STRONG CASES: COFF , 1975 80 9STRONG CASES: UNPU1BLISHED 70 60 A STRONG CASES: COFF , et al., 1978 50 \\ 50 -0

  5. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  6. Kinematics of syn- and post-exhumational shear zones at Lago di Cignana (Western Alps, Italy): constraints on the exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (ultra)high-pressure rocks and deformation along the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Frederik; Leiss, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Kinematic analyses of shear zones at Lago di Cignana in the Italian Western Alps were used to constrain the structural evolution of units from the Piemont-Ligurian oceanic realm (Zermatt-Saas and Combin zones) and the Adriatic continental margin (Dent Blanche nappe) during Palaeogene syn- and post-exhumational deformation. Exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (U)HP rocks to approximately lower crustal levels at ca. 39 Ma occurred during normal-sense top-(S)E shearing under epidote-amphibolite-facies conditions. Juxtaposition with the overlying Combin zone along the Combin Fault at mid-crustal levels occurred during greenschist-facies normal-sense top-SE shearing at ca. 38 Ma. The scarcity of top-SE kinematic indicators in the hanging wall of the Combin Fault probably resulted from strain localization along the uppermost Zermatt-Saas zone and obliteration by subsequent deformation. A phase of dominant pure shear deformation around 35 Ma affected units in the direct footwall and hanging wall of the Combin Fault. It is interpreted to reflect NW-SE crustal elongation during updoming of the nappe stack as a result of underthrusting of European continental margin units and the onset of continental collision. This phase was partly accompanied and followed by ductile bulk top-NW shearing, especially at higher structural levels, which transitioned into semi-ductile to brittle normal-sense top-NW deformation due to Vanzone phase folding from ca. 32 Ma onwards. Our structural observations suggest that syn-exhumational deformation is partly preserved within units and shear zones exposed at Lago di Cignana but also that the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust experienced significant post-exhumational deformation reworking and overprinting earlier structures.

  7. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydroxide ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Urbánek, Marek; Boček, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2005), s. 1869-1873 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : background electrolyte * capillary electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  8. Integration of remote sensing, geochemical and field data in the Qena-Safaga shear zone: Implications for structural evolution of the Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Din, Gamal Kamal; Abdelkareem, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    The Qena-Safaga shear zone (QSSZ) represents a significant structural characteristic in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Remote Sensing, field and geochemical data were utilized in the present study. The results revealed that the QSSZ dominated by metamorphic complex (MC) that intruded by syn-tectonic granitoids. The low angle thrust fault brings calc-alkaline metavolcanics to overlie MC and its association. Subsequently, the area is dissected by strike-slip faults and the small elongated basins of Hammamat sediments of Precambrian were accumulated. The MC intruded by late-to post-tectonic granites (LPG) and Dokhan Volcanics which comprise felsic varieties forming distinctive columnar joints. Remote sensing analysis and field data revealed that major sub-vertical conspicuous strike-slip faults (SSF) including sinistral NW-SE and dextral ca. E-W shaped the study area. Various shear zones that accompanying the SSF are running NW-SE, NE-SW, E-W, N-S and ENE-WSW. The obtained shear sense presented a multiphase of deformation on each trend. i.e., the predominant NW-SE strike-slip fault trend started with sinistral displacement and is reactivated during later events to be right (dextral) strike slip cutting with dextral displacement the E-W trending faults; while NE-SW movements are cut by both the N-S and NNW - SSE trends. Remote sensing data revealed that the NW-SE direction that dominated the area is associated with hydrothermal alteration processes. This allowed modifying the major and trace elements of the highly deformed rocks that showed depletion in SiO2 and enrichments in Fe2O3, MnO, Al2O3, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, Cu, Zn and Pb contents. The geochemical signatures of major and trace elements revealed two types of granites including I-type calc-alkaline granites (late-to post-tectonic) that formed during an extensional regime. However, syn-tectonic granitoids are related to subduction-related environment.

  9. Effect of shear strain on the deflection of a clamped magnetostrictive film-substrate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Zhenghui; Ming Li; Bo Zou; Xia Luo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of in-plane shear strain of a clamped bimorph on the deflection produced by magnetization of the film is investigated. The deflection is found by minimizing the Gibbs free energy with respect to four parameters, strains and curvatures along x and y directions at the interface, by assuming that the curvature in the y direction varies as a function of aspect ratio w/l along x. A set of standard linear equations of four parameters are obtained and the deflection is expressed in terms of the four parameters by solving the equations using Cramer rules. The inconsistencies pointed out by previous authors are also reviewed. For actuators made of thick and short clamped film-substrate system, the in-plane shear deformation should not be omitted. The present calculation model can give a relatively simple and accurate prediction of deflection for thick and short specimens of aspect ratio w/l<10, which supports the results obtained by finite element modeling. - Highlights: → We model the deflection of a thick magnetostrictive film-substrate cantilever plate. → Total stress along z from magnetic field is not zero without external force. → Effect of in-plane shear strain in calculating deflection examined. → Analytical solution of deflection obtained by assuming a curvature function. → Shear strain for short cantilever film-substrate plate considered.

  10. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  11. Stability performance and interface shear strength of geocomposite drain/soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Maidiana; Frost, Matthew; Dixon, Neil

    2018-02-01

    Landfill covers are designed as impermeable caps on top of waste containment facilities after the completion of landfill operations. Geocomposite drain (GD) materials consist of a geonet or geospacer (as a drainage core) sandwiched between non-woven geotextiles that act as separators and filters. GD provides a drainage function as part of the cover system. The stability performance of landfill cover system is largely controlled by the interface shear strength mobilized between the elements of the cover. If a GD is used, the interface shear strength properties between the upper surface of the GD and the overlying soil may govern stability of the system. It is not uncommon for fine grained materials to be used as cover soils. In these cases, understanding soil softening issues at the soil interface with the non-woven geotextile is important. Such softening can be caused by capillary break behaviour and build-up of water pressures from the toe of the drain upwards into the cover soil. The interaction processes to allow water flow into a GD core through the soil-geotextile interface is very complex. This paper reports the main behaviour of in-situ interface shear strength of soil-GD using field measurements on the trial landfill cover at Bletchley, UK. The soil softening at the interface due to soaked behaviour show a reduction in interface shear strength and this aspect should be emphasized in design specifications and construction control. The results also help to increase confidence in the understanding of the implications for design of cover systems.

  12. Innovative Seismic Response-Controlled System with Shear Wall and Concentrated Dampers in Lower Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Tani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new structural control system using damper-installed shear walls in lower stories with reduced stiffness is proposed for vibration control of high-rise RC buildings. That system has some design variables, i.e., height of shear wall, degree of stiffness reduction at lower stories, and quantity of dampers. In this paper, some parametric studies on the shear-beam model with a stiff beam against two kinds of ground motion, a pulse-type sinusoidal wave and a resonant sinusoidal wave, are conducted to clarify the vibration characteristics of the proposed structural control system. It is shown that the optimal combination of design parameters depends on the input ground motion. It is also shown that it is possible to prevent from increasing the response under the one-cycle sinusoidal input resonant to the lowest mode and reduce the steady-state response under the harmonic input with the resonant fundamental period by reducing the stiffness in the lower structure and increasing the damper deformation.

  13. Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of three resin systems for a Base Metal Alloy bonded to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlali H

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (F.P.D can be used for conservative treatment of partially edentulous"npatients. There are numerous studies regarding the strength of resin composite bond to base meta! alloys. Shear bond"nstrength of three resin systems were invistigated. In this study these systems consisted of: Panavia Ex, Mirage FLC and"nMarathon V. Thirty base metal specimens were prepared from rexillium III alloy and divided into three groups. Then each"ngroup was bonded to enamel of human extracted molar teeth with these systems. All of specimens were stored in water at"n37ac for 48 hours. A shear force was applied to each specimen by the instron universal testing machine. A statistical"nevaluation of the data using one-way analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant difference (P<0.01"nbetween the bond strengths of these three groups."nThe base metal specimens bonded with panavia Ex luting agent, exhibited the highest mean bond strength. Shear bond"nstrength of the specimens bonded to enamel with Mirage F1C showed lower bond strenght than panavia EX. However, the"nlowest bond strength was obtained by the specimens bonded with Marathon V.

  14. Reaction softening by dissolution–precipitation creep in a retrograde greenschist facies ductile shear zone, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Ryan J.; Bish, David L.; Kunk, Michael J.; Sicard, Karri R.; Valley, Peter M.; Walsh, Gregory J.; Wathen, Bryan A.; Wintsch, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    We describe strain localization by a mixed process of reaction and microstructural softening in a lower greenschist facies ductile fault zone that transposes and replaces middle to upper amphibolite facies fabrics and mineral assemblages in the host schist of the Littleton Formation near Claremont, New Hampshire. Here, Na-poor muscovite and chlorite progressively replace first staurolite, then garnet, and finally biotite porphyroblasts as the core of the fault zone is approached. Across the transect, higher grade fabric-forming Na-rich muscovite is also progressively replaced by fabric-forming Na-poor muscovite. The mineralogy of the new phyllonitic fault-rock produced is dominated by Na-poor muscovite and chlorite together with late albite porphyroblasts. The replacement of the amphibolite facies porphyroblasts by muscovite and chlorite is pseudomorphic in some samples and shows that the chemical metastability of the porphyroblasts is sufficient to drive replacement. In contrast, element mapping shows that fabric-forming Na-rich muscovite is selectively replaced at high-strain microstructural sites, indicating that strain energy played an important role in activating the dissolution of the compositionally metastable muscovite. The replacement of strong, high-grade porphyroblasts by weaker Na-poor muscovite and chlorite constitutes reaction softening. The crystallization of parallel and contiguous mica in the retrograde foliation at the expense of the earlier and locally crenulated Na-rich muscovite-defined foliation destroys not only the metastable high-grade mineralogy, but also its stronger geometry. This process constitutes both reaction and microstructural softening. The deformation mechanism here was thus one of dissolution–precipitation creep, activated at considerably lower stresses than might be predicted in quartzofeldspathic rocks at the same lower greenschist facies conditions.

  15. High resolution Fresnel zone plate laser alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler, V.E.; Fischer, G.E.; Ruland, R.E.; Wang, T.

    1992-03-01

    The existing Fresnel zone plate laser alignment system is currently being extended and upgraded for the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). Previously, the resolution of this system has been several tens of micrometers. After the upgrade, the resolution will be a few micrometers. Details of the upgrade as well as simulation and experimental results will be presented

  16. Shear Resistance Variations in Experimentally Sheared Mudstone Granules: A Possible Shear-Thinning and Thixotropic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Gonghui; Scaringi, Gianvito; Mcsaveney, Mauri; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    We present results of ring shear frictional resistance for mudstone granules of different size obtained from a landslide shear zone. Little rate dependency of shear resistance was observed in sand-sized granules in any wet or dry test, while saturated gravel-sized granules exhibited significant and abrupt reversible rate-weakening (from μ = 0.6 to 0.05) at about 2 mm/s. Repeating resistance variations occurred also under constant shear displacement rate. Mudstone granules generate mud as they are crushed and softened. Shear-thinning and thixotropic behavior of the mud can explain the observed behavior: with the viscosity decreasing, the mud can flow through the coarser soil pores and migrate out from the shear zone. This brings new granules into contact which produces new mud. Thus, the process can start over. Similarities between experimental shear zones and those of some landslides in mudstone suggest that the observed behavior may play a role in some landslide kinematics.

  17. Evaluation of Nonlinear Behavior of Dual Steel Frame-Shear Wall System by a Group of Real Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Bemanian; Hamzeh Shakib

    2016-01-01

    Dual system of steel moment frame and steel plate shear wall has many advantages in comparison to the other systems. Since the last four decades the dual system has been used more frequently in new and existing structures. the steel shear wall has many advantages such as high ductility, strength, stiffness and it has light weight, it consequent reduce lateral forces and time efficiency in contracture procedure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the dual steel fra...

  18. Tracing of paleo-shear zones by self-potential data inversion: case studies from the KTB, Rittsteig, and Grossensees graphite-bearing fault planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanee, Salah A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for tracing paleo-shear zones of the continental crust by self-potential (SP) data inversion. The method falls within the deterministic inversion framework, and it is exclusively applicable for the interpretation of the SP anomalies measured along a profile over sheet-type structures such as conductive thin films of interconnected graphite precipitations formed on shear planes. The inverse method fits a residual SP anomaly by a single thin sheet and recovers the characteristic parameters (depth to the top h, extension in depth a, amplitude coefficient k, and amount and direction of dip θ) of the sheet. This method minimizes an objective functional in the space of the logarithmed and non-logarithmed model parameters (log( h), log( a), log( k), and θ) successively by the steepest descent (SD) and Gauss-Newton (GN) techniques in order to essentially maintain the stability and convergence of this inverse method. Prior to applying the method to real data, its accuracy, convergence, and stability are successfully verified on numerical examples with and without noise. The method is then applied to SP profiles from the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutschla - KTB), Rittsteig, and Grossensees sites in Germany for tracing paleo-shear planes coated with graphitic deposits. The comparisons of geologic sections constructed in this paper (based on the proposed deterministic approach) against the existing published interpretations (obtained based on trial-and-error modeling) for the SP data of the KTB and Rittsteig sites have revealed that the deterministic approach suggests some new details that are of some geological significance. The findings of the proposed inverse scheme are supported by available drilling and other geophysical data. Furthermore, the real SP data of the Grossensees site have been interpreted (apparently for the first time ever) by the deterministic inverse

  19. A polarized digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry system based on temporal wavelet transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ziang; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Shengjia; Yang, Dong; Yuan, Hao; Qin, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry (DSSPI) has been recognized as a practical tool in testing strain. The DSSPI system which is based on temporal analysis is attractive because of its ability to measure strain dynamically. In this paper, such a DSSPI system with Wollaston prism has been built. The principles and system arrangement are described and the preliminary experimental result of the displacement-derivative test of an aluminum plate is shown with the wavelet transformation method and the Fourier transformation method. The simulations have been conducted with the finite element method. The comparison of the results shows that quantitative measurement of displacement-derivative has been realized.

  20. 'One physical system': Tansley's ecosystem as Earth's critical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Daniel deB; Billings, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Integrative concepts of the biosphere, ecosystem, biogeocenosis and, recently, Earth's critical zone embrace scientific disciplines that link matter, energy and organisms in a systems-level understanding of our remarkable planet. Here, we assert the congruence of Tansley's (1935) venerable ecosystem concept of 'one physical system' with Earth science's critical zone. Ecosystems and critical zones are congruent across spatial-temporal scales from vegetation-clad weathering profiles and hillslopes, small catchments, landscapes, river basins, continents, to Earth's whole terrestrial surface. What may be less obvious is congruence in the vertical dimension. We use ecosystem metabolism to argue that full accounting of photosynthetically fixed carbon includes respiratory CO₂ and carbonic acid that propagate to the base of the critical zone itself. Although a small fraction of respiration, the downward diffusion of CO₂ helps determine rates of soil formation and, ultimately, ecosystem evolution and resilience. Because life in the upper portions of terrestrial ecosystems significantly affects biogeochemistry throughout weathering profiles, the lower boundaries of most terrestrial ecosystems have been demarcated at depths too shallow to permit a complete understanding of ecosystem structure and function. Opportunities abound to explore connections between upper and lower components of critical-zone ecosystems, between soils and streams in watersheds, and between plant-derived CO₂ and deep microbial communities and mineral weathering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Nonlinear stability research on the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Qingxue; An, Gaocheng; Qi, Qisong; Sun, Binyu

    2015-10-01

    This paper researches the stability of the nonlinear system taking the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear as an example. The hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear uses unsymmetrical electro-hydraulic proportional servo valve to control the cylinder with single piston rod, which can make best use of the space and reduce reversing shock. It is a typical nonlinear structure. The nonlinear state-space equations of the unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder system are built first, and the second Lyapunov method is used to evaluate its stability. Second, the software AMEsim is applied to simulate the nonlinear system, and the results indicate that the system is stable. At last, the experimental results show that the system unsymmetrical valve controlling the cylinder with single piston rod is stable and conforms to what is deduced by theoretical analysis and simulation. The construction and application of Lyapunov function not only provide the theoretical basis for using of unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder with single piston rod but also develop a new thought for nonlinear stability evaluation.

  2. Effect of saliva decontamination procedures on shear bond strength of a one-step adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülker, E; Bilgin, S; Kahvecioğlu, F; Erkan, A I

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of different saliva decontamination procedures on the shear bond strength of a one-step universal adhesive system (Single Bond™ Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA). The occlusal surfaces of 75 human third molars were ground to expose dentin. The teeth were divided into the following groups: Group 1 (control group): Single Bond™ Universal Adhesive was applied to the prepared tooth according to the manufacturer's recommendations and light cured; no contamination procedure was performed. Group 2: Bonding, light curing, saliva contamination, and dry. Group 3: Bonding, light curing, saliva contamination, rinse, and dry. Group 4: After the procedure performed in Group 2, reapplication of bonding. Group 5: After the procedure performed in Group 3, reapplication of bonding. Then, composite resins were applied with cylindrical-shaped plastic matrixes and light cured. For shear bond testing, a notch-shaped force transducer apparatus was applied to each specimen at the interface between the tooth and composite until failure occurred. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in shear bond strength between the control group and experimental Groups 2 and 4 (P 0.05). The present in vitro study showed that water rinsing is necessary if cured adhesive resin is contaminated with saliva to ensure adequate bond strength.

  3. Recycling and utilisation of industrial solid waste: an explorative study on gold deposit tailings of ductile shear zone type in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Fei; Du, Runxiang; Zhao, Chunming; Li, Yongli; Yu, Haoran

    2015-06-01

    Tailings are solid waste arising from mineral processing. This type of waste can cause severe damage to the environment during stockpiling as a result of the leaching of something harmful into the ecosystem. Gold deposit of ductile shear zone type is an important type of gold deposit, and the recycling of its tailings has been challenging researchers for a long time. In this article, the characteristics of this type of tailings were systematically studied by using modern technical means. Considering the characteristics of the tailings, clay was selected to make up for the shortcomings of the tailings and improve their performance. Water and raw materials were mixed to produce green bodies, which are subsequently sintered into ceramic bodies at 980 °C~1020 °C (sintering temperature). The results showed that some new kinds of mineral phases, such as mullite, anorthite and orthoclase, appear in ceramic bodies. Furthermore, the ceramic bodies have a surface hardness of 5 to 6 (Mohs scale), and their water absorption and modulus of rupture can meet some technical requirements of ceramic materials described in ISO 13006-2012 and GB 5001-1985. These gold mine tailings can be made into ceramic tiles, domestic ceramic bodies, and other kinds of ceramic bodies for commercial and industrial purposes after further improvements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. On some aspects of the stratigraphy, depositional environment and its bearing on uranium mineralisation in parts of the Singhbhum shear zone, Bihar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virnave, S.N.; Mukhopadhyay, T.K.; Krishnabadri, N.S.R.

    1994-01-01

    A review of the geology and controls of uranium mineralisation in the Singhbhum Shear Zone between Narwapahar (Lat. 22deg44'N; Long. 86deg15'E) in the west, to Ghatsila (Lat. 22deg25'N; Long. 86deg20'E) in the southeast and up to Dalmas in the north is presented in the light of new data based on facies analysis and palaeo-current studies on the conglomerate and associated meta-sediments in the area. Synthesis and integration of geologic data have led to the following conclusions: a) The facies variation and its distribution pattern in the area demonstrate fluviatile conditions of deposition with upward fining and thinning sequences b) The sedimentary sequence shows progressive younging towards north without any obvious break or juxta-position of the older over the younger. c) The nature of Jaduguda sedimentary facies assemblage is indicative of a fluvial fan with conglomerate gray-wacke-arenite assemblage representing proximal fan facies. On the basis of facies model, the area north of Subarnarekha river represents a meandering fluvial pattern. d) Uranium mineralisation is distinctly stratabound with characteristic facies association. (author). 13 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Velocity Field of the McMurdo Shear Zone from Annual Three-Dimensional Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging and Crevasse Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L.; Jordan, M.; Arcone, S. A.; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Lever, J.; Walker, B.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ) is a narrow, intensely crevassed strip tens of km long separating the Ross and McMurdo ice shelves (RIS and MIS) and an important pinning feature for the RIS. We derive local velocity fields within the MSZ from two consecutive annual ground penetrating radar (GPR) datasets that reveal complex firn and marine ice crevassing; no englacial features are evident. The datasets were acquired in 2014 and 2015 using robot-towed 400 MHz and 200 MHz GPR over a 5 km x 5.7 km grid. 100 west-to-east transects at 50 m spacing provide three-dimensional maps that reveal the length of many firn crevasses, and their year-to-year structural evolution. Hand labeling of crevasse cross sections near the MSZ western and eastern boundaries reveal matching firn and marine ice crevasses, and more complex and chaotic features between these boundaries. By matching crevasse features from year to year both on the eastern and western boundaries and within the chaotic region, marine ice crevasses along the western and eastern boundaries are shown to align directly with firn crevasses, and the local velocity field is estimated and compared with data from strain rate surveys and remote sensing. While remote sensing provides global velocity fields, crevasse matching indicates greater local complexity attributed to faulting, folding, and rotation.

  6. Hydration of an active shear zone: Interactions between deformation, metasomatism and magmatism - the spinel-lherzolites from the Montferrier (southern France) Oligocene basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, N.; Briqueu, L.

    1987-01-01

    Geochemical and textural investigations have been simultaneously performed on spinel-lherzolite xenoliths from the Oligo-Miocene alkali basalts of Montferrier (southern France). All the investigated samples have undergone a deformation very particular by intense shearing under high stresses (up to 1.75 kbar), low temperatures (≤900 0 C) and strain rates of about 10 -18 to 10 -15 s -1 . Mineral chemistry reveals that the Montferrier lherzolites are fragments of an undepleted relatively shallow upper mantle level located at a depth of 50 km (15 kbar). Moreover, Na and Ti enrichment in diopside would reflect a metasomatic event, also emphasized by the common occurrence of pargasite in 50-70% of the investigated samples. Crystallization of this amphibole is attributed to a hydrous infiltration which is related in time and space to the deformation. Indeed, amphibole is preferentially concentrated in strongly deformed zones and in kink-band boundaries of orthopyroxene porphyroclasts. Moreover, the grain boundaries were used by the pervasive agent to percolate into the lherzolite: significant chemical variations (increase in MgO: 15% and decrease in Al 2 O 3 : 55%) are observed within the range of 7-5 μm adjacent to the grain boundary. Finally, Sr isotopic data ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) demonstrate that the amphibole, i.e. the metasomatic agent, is genetically related to the host lava of the xenoliths. Thus, the hydrous silicate liquid from which the amphibole has crystallized may be an early percolation of the ascending alkali magma. (orig.)

  7. The complex systematics of zircons in migmatitic gneisses: An example from an Archean migmatite along the Patos Shear Zone, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.D; Hackspacher, P.C; Dantas, E.L; Fetter, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Northem Tectonic Domain Borborema Province, in Northeast of Brazil records a complex history of tectonic activity ranging from 3.4 Ga to 0.6 Ga (Brito Neves, 1995 and Dantas, 1996). U-Pb systematics of zircons from a migmatitic gneiss just north of the Patos Shear Zone provide an excellent example of the difficulties encountered using conventional single-grain U/Pb zircon geochronology in polydeformed gneiss terranes. Our conventional single grain zircon analyses of a migmatite yielded Archean ages between ca. 3.3 at 2.8 a, as well as some highly discordant Paleoproterozoic ages. Subsequent cathodoluminescence images of these zircon grains showed complex internal structures that possibly record up to 4 separate stages of zircon growth. With such internal complexity, is impossible resolve primary crystallization ages as well as the ages of subsequent overgrowth events using conventional single grain analyses. Such resolution will require analyses of the individual grain domains using the SHRIMP method (au)

  8. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  9. Amalgam shear bond strength to dentin using single-bottle primer/adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, D S; Denehy, G E; Vargas, M A

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate the in vitro shear bond strengths (SBS) of a spherical amalgam alloy (Tytin) to dentin using several single-bottle primer/adhesive systems both alone: Single Bond (SB), OptiBond Solo (Sol), Prime & Bond 2.1 (PB), One-Step (OS) and in combination with the manufacturer's supplemental amalgam bonding agent: Single Bond w/3M RelyX ARC (SBX) and Prime & Bond 2.1 w/Amalgam Bonding Accessory Kit (PBA). Two, three-component adhesive systems, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus w/light curing (S + V) and w/o light curing (S+) were used for comparison. One hundred eight extracted human third molars were mounted lengthwise in phenolic rings with acrylic resin. The proximal surfaces were ground to expose a flat dentin surface, then polished to 600 grit silicon carbide paper. The teeth were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n = 12), and dentin surfaces in each group were treated with an adhesive system according to the manufacturer's instructions, except for S + V specimens, where the adhesive was light cured for 10 s before placing the amalgam. Specimens were then secured in a split Teflon mold, having a 3 mm diameter opening and amalgam was triturated and condensed onto the treated dentin surfaces. Twenty minutes after condensation, the split mold was separated. Specimens were placed in distilled water for 24 hrs, then thermocycled (300 cycles, between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C, with 12 s dwell time). All specimens were stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 7 days, prior to shear strength testing using a Zwick Universal Testing Machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The highest to the lowest mean dentin shear bond strength values (MPa) for the adhesive systems tested were: S + V (10.3 +/- 2.3), SBX (10.2 +/- 3.5), PBA, (6.4 +/- 3.6), SOL (5.8 +/- 2.5), SBMP (5.7 +/- 1.8), S+ (4.8 +/- 2.3), PB (2.7 +/- 2.6), SB (2.7 +/- 1.1) and OS (2.5 +/- 1.8). One-way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated significant

  10. Design architecture for multi-zone HVAC control systems from existing single-zone systems using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew; Koplow, Michael; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems utilize a single zone for conditioning air throughout the entire house. While inexpensive, these systems lead to wide temperature distributions and inefficient cooling due to the difference in thermal loads in different rooms. The end result is additional cost to the end user because the house is over conditioned. To reduce the total amount of energy used in a home and to increase occupant comfort there is a need for a better control system using multiple temperature zones. Typical multi-zone systems are costly and require extensive infrastructure to function. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have enabled a low cost drop-in wireless vent register control system. The register control system is controlled by a master controller unit, which collects sensor data from a distributed wireless sensor network. Each sensor node samples local settings (occupancy, light, humidity and temperature) and reports the data back to the master control unit. The master control unit compiles the incoming data and then actuates the vent resisters to control the airflow throughout the house. The control system also utilizes a smart thermostat with a movable set point to enable the user to define their given comfort levels. The new system can reduce the run time of the HVAC system and thus decreasing the amount of energy used and increasing the comfort of the home occupations.

  11. Shear bond strength of three adhesive systems to enamel and dentin of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Shadman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the shear bond strength of three new adhesive systems to enamel and dentin of permanent human teeth using three new etch and rinse and self-etch adhesive systems.Materials and Methods: Sixty intact caries-free third molars were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups. Flat buccal and lingual enamel and dentin surfaces were prepared and mounted in the acrylic resin perpendicular to the plan of the horizon. Adhesives used in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE-One F (Ivoclar/Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein. The adhesives were applied on the surfaces and cured with quartz tungsten halogen curing unit (600 mW/cm2 intensity for 20 s. After attaching composite to the surfaces and thermocycling (500 cycles, 5-55ºC, shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The failure modes were examined under a stereomicroscope. The data were statistically analyzed using T-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Fisher's exact tests.Results: In enamel, Tetric N-Bond (28.57±4.58 MPa and AdheSE (21.97±7.6 MPa had significantly higher bond strength than AdheSE-One F (7.16±2.09 MPa (P0.05.Conclusion: Shear bond strength to dentin in Tetric N-Bond (etch and rinse system( was higher than self-etch adhesives (AdheSE and AdheSE-One F. The bond strength to enamel and dentin in two-step self-etch (AdheSE was higher than one-step self-etch (AdheSE-One F.

  12. Focus detection by shearing interference of vortex beams for non-imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongfeng; Zhan, Shichao; Liang, Yiyong

    2018-02-10

    In focus detection of non-imaging systems, the common image-based methods are not available. Also, interference techniques are seldom used because only the degree with hardly any direction of defocus can be derived from the fringe spacing. In this paper, we propose a vortex-beam-based shearing interference system to do focus detection for a focused laser direct-writing system, where a vortex beam is already involved. Both simulated and experimental results show that fork-like features are added in the interference patterns due to the existence of an optical vortex, which makes it possible to distinguish the degree and direction of defocus simultaneously. The theoretical fringe spacing and resolution of this method are derived. A resolution of 0.79 μm can be achieved under the experimental combination of parameters, and it can be further improved with the help of the image processing algorithm and closed-loop controlling in the future. Finally, the influence of incomplete collimation and the wedge angle of the shear plate is discussed. This focus detection approach is extremely appropriate for those non-imaging systems containing one or more focused vortex beams.

  13. Performance analysis and technical assessment of coherent lidar systems for airborne wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, R. Milton; Targ, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Detailed computer simulations of the lidar wind-measuring process have been conducted to evaluate the use of pulsed coherent lidar for airborne windshear monitoring. NASA data fields for an actual microburst event were used in the simulation. Both CO2 and Ho:YAG laser lidar systems performed well in the microburst test case, and were able to measure wind shear in the severe weather of this wet microburst to ranges in excess of 1.4 km. The consequent warning time gained was about 15 sec.

  14. Improving substructure identification accuracy of shear structures using virtual control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Tingqiang; Li, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Substructure identification is a powerful tool to identify the parameters of a complex structure. Previously, the authors developed an inductive substructure identification method for shear structures. The identification error analysis showed that the identification accuracy of this method is significantly influenced by the magnitudes of two key structural responses near a certain frequency; if these responses are unfavorable, the method cannot provide accurate estimation results. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to improve the substructure identification accuracy by introducing a virtual control system (VCS) into the structure. A virtual control system is a self-balanced system, which consists of some control devices and a set of self-balanced forces. The self-balanced forces counterbalance the forces that the control devices apply on the structure. The control devices are combined with the structure to form a controlled structure used to replace the original structure in the substructure identification; and the self-balance forces are treated as known external excitations to the controlled structure. By optimally tuning the VCS’s parameters, the dynamic characteristics of the controlled structure can be changed such that the original structural responses become more favorable for the substructure identification and, thus, the identification accuracy is improved. A numerical example of 6-story shear structure is utilized to verify the effectiveness of the VCS based controlled substructure identification method. Finally, shake table tests are conducted on a 3-story structural model to verify the efficacy of the VCS to enhance the identification accuracy of the structural parameters.

  15. Seismic attribute detection of faults and fluid pathways within an active strike-slip shear zone: New insights from high-resolution 3D P-Cable™ seismic data along the Hosgri Fault, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluesner, Jared W.; Brothers, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Poststack data conditioning and neural-network seismic attribute workflows are used to detect and visualize faulting and fluid migration pathways within a 13.7 km2 13.7 km2 3D P-Cable™ seismic volume located along the Hosgri Fault Zone offshore central California. The high-resolution 3D volume used in this study was collected in 2012 as part of Pacific Gas and Electric’s Central California Seismic Imaging Project. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data were acquired using a triple-plate boomer source (1.75 kJ) and a short-offset, 14-streamer, P-Cable system. The high-resolution seismic data were processed into a prestack time-migrated 3D volume and publically released in 2014. Postprocessing, we employed dip-steering (dip and azimuth) and structural filtering to enhance laterally continuous events and remove random noise and acquisition artifacts. In addition, the structural filtering was used to enhance laterally continuous edges, such as faults. Following data conditioning, neural-network based meta-attribute workflows were used to detect and visualize faults and probable fluid-migration pathways within the 3D seismic volume. The workflow used in this study clearly illustrates the utility of advanced attribute analysis applied to high-resolution 3D P-Cable data. For example, results from the fault attribute workflow reveal a network of splayed and convergent fault strands within an approximately 1.3 km wide shear zone that is characterized by distinctive sections of transpressional and transtensional dominance. Neural-network chimney attribute calculations indicate that fluids are concentrated along discrete faults in the transtensional zones, but appear to be more broadly distributed amongst fault bounded anticlines and structurally controlled traps in the transpressional zones. These results provide high-resolution, 3D constraints on the relationships between strike-slip fault mechanics, substrate deformation, and fluid migration along an active

  16. Experimental and Numerical Analyses of New Massive Wooden Shear-Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pozza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.

  17. Analysis of Shear Stress and Energy Consumption in a Tubular Airlift Membrane System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Chan, C.C.V.; Berube, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    of fouling by imposing high shear stress near the surface of the membrane. Previously, shear stress histograms (SSH) have been introduced to summarize results from an experimental setup developed to investigate the shear stress imposed on the surface of a membrane under different two-phase flow conditions...

  18. The shear zone-related gold mineralization at the Turmalina deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil: structural evolution and the two stages of mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio-Silva, Wendell; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Bühn, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    Turmalina is an important orogenic gold deposit located in the NW region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. The deposit is hosted in an Archean greenstone belt composed of ortho-amphibolites and pelites with interleaved tuffs metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions and intruded by a granite stock. The orebodies are controlled by WNW-ESE-trending shear zones, associated with hydrothermal alteration. Three deformation events are recognized in the Turmalina gold deposit: D1 and D2 are the result of a progressive Archean deformation under ductile conditions between 2749 ± 7 and 2664 ± 35 Ma; D3 is characterized by a transpressional event under ductile-brittle conditions with the age still unclear. The three generations of garnet observed show that Grt1 blastesis is pre- to syn-D1 and Grt2 growth during the late to post-deformation stages of the D2 event. The initial temperature (Grt1 core) is around 548-600 °C, whereas during late D2, the temperatures reached 633 °C (metamorphic peak-Grt2 rim), likely as a result of granite intrusion. The Grt3 resulted from re-equilibration under retrograde conditions. Two gold-bearing sulfide stages were identified: pyrrhotite-arsenopyrite ± löllingite ± chalcopyrite ± gold stage I precipitated below a metamorphic peak temperature of 598 ± 19 °C associated with S1 foliation (D1), and pyrrhotite-pyrite-arsenopyrite ± chalcopyrite ± gold stage II is located commonly along V3 quartz-carbonate veinlets with a temperature range between 442 ± 9 and 510 ± 30 °C. We suggest that the granite intrusion imposed an additional thermal effect that promoted further dehydration of country rocks. The Au derived mainly from a metamorphic fluid source but potentially mixed with magmatic fluids from the granite.

  19. Texture evolution by shear on two planes during ECAP of a high-strength aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuncai; Starink, Marco J.; Gao Nong; Qiao Xiaoguang; Xu Cheng; Langdon, Terence G.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of texture was examined during equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy having a strong initial texture. An analysis of the local texture using electron backscatter diffraction demonstrates that shear occurs on two shear planes: the main shear plane (MSP) equivalent to the simple shear plane, and a secondary shear plane which is perpendicular to the MSP. Throughout most regions of the ECAP billet, the MSP is close to the intersection plane of the two channels but with a small (5 deg.) deviation. Only the {1 1 1} and {0 0 1} shear systems were activated and there was no experimental evidence for the existence of other shear systems. In a small region at the bottom edge of the billet that passed through the zone of intersection of the channels, the observed textures were fully consistent with the rolling textures of Copper and Goss

  20. Shear bond strength of amalgam to dentin using different dentin adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Sardari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the shear bond strength of amalgam to dentin using four dentin adhesive systems.Materials and Methods: One hundred human molars were selected. After enamel removal, a dentin cylinder with 3 mm thickness was prepared. Eighty specimens were resorted with amalgam and four dentin adhesive systems as follows (n=20: group 1, Scotch Bond Multi-Purpose; group 2, One Coat Bond; group 3, PQ1; and group 4, Panavia-F. In group 5, 20 specimens were resorted with amalgam and varnish as control group. The specimens were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The shear bond strengths were then measured by using push out method. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan's tests.Results: Mean values for bond strengths of test groups were as follows: group 1=21.03±8.9, group 2=23.47±9, group 3=13.16±8.8, group 4=20.07±8.9 and group 5=14.15±8.7 MPa±SD. One-way ANOVA showed the statistically significant difference between the bond strengths of five groups (P=0.001. Post hoc Duncan's test showed significant difference between groups 1and 3 (P=0.008, groups 1 and 5 (P=0.019, groups 2 and 5 (P=0.0008, groups 4 and 5 (P=0.042, and groups 3 and 4 (P=0.018.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the bond strength of amalgam to dentin using One Coat Bond as dentin adhesive system was higher than that observed in other dentin adhesive systems.

  1. Modelling of two-zone accelerator-driven systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Babenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutron-physical modelings of two-zone subcritical reactor driven by high-intensity neutron generator are considered. The cascade principle in subcritical reactors, the use of which can hypothetically substantially amplify the neutron flux from the external source is discussed in this article. The theoretical preconditions of the cascade principle are discussed, and the directions of practical realization of the cascade subcritical system are considered, namely the possible methods of neutron feedback between reactor sections elimination. The results of Monte Carlo neutron-physical modeling of the cascade subcritical systems are presented and discussed.

  2. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  3. A study on plate anchor detailing systems of shear re-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaki, S.; Ujiie, K.; Nishikawa, T.; Kitayama, K.

    1995-01-01

    For shell walls and base slabs in reactor buildings, besides a large amount of main bars, numerous shear re-bars have been employed to resist to out-of-plane force. As a result , detailing work involving shear re-bar is extremely involved. For example, the employed re-bar anchor method differs from the ordinary methods in which, a end of shear re-bar with 135-degrees hook or with anchor plate type and another re-bar end with 90-degrees hook are used. However the structural characteristics in members using shear re-bar of the bolt-mounted anchor plate have not yet been examined. A test was performed to confirm the effects of anchor methods for shear re-bars on shearing behavior of members. This paper describes the test plan, method and results. (author). 12 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Evaluation of Nonlinear Behavior of Dual Steel Frame-Shear Wall System by a Group of Real Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bemanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dual system of steel moment frame and steel plate shear wall has many advantages in comparison to the other systems. Since the last four decades the dual system has been used more frequently in new and existing structures. the steel shear wall has many advantages such as high ductility, strength, stiffness and it has light weight, it consequent reduce lateral forces and time efficiency in contracture procedure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the dual steel frame steel plate shear wall system in comparison with the moment resisting frame using nonlinear dynamic analysis. A dual System of Steel Moment frame and steel Plate shear walls system and a moment resisting frame is chosen a frame of four stories building were designed by used existing code. The height of each floor is 3.5 m. Seismic behavior of frame evaluate using nonlinear dynamic analysis. For this purpose a set of seven earthquake ground motions were appropriately selected and applied to the systems. Interstory drift ratio, input energy, distribution frames responses in height were compared for the systems under two different hazard level of ground motion and the results were analyzed.

  5. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  6. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengrong; PAN

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system,discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone,and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  7. Enamel shear bond strength of two orthodontic self-etching bonding systems compared to Transbond™ XT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellak, Andreas; Rusdea, Patrick; Schauseil, Michael; Stein, Steffen; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike Maria

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (Prompt L-Pop™ and Scotchbond™) for orthodontic appliances to the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT™ (in combination with phosphoric acid). In all, 60 human premolars were randomly divided into three groups of 20 specimens each. In group 1 (control), brackets were bonded with Transbond™ XT primer. Prompt L-Pop™ (group 2) and Scotchbond™ Universal (group 3) were used in the experimental groups. Lower premolar brackets were bonded by light curing the adhesive. After 24 h of storage, the shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a Zwicki 1120 testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was determined under 10× magnification. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to statistically compare the SBS and the ARI scores. No significant differences in the SBS between any of the experimental groups were detected (group 1: 15.49 ± 3.28 MPa; group 2: 13.89 ± 4.95 MPa; group 3: 14.35 ± 3.56 MPa; p = 0.489), nor were there any significant differences in the ARI scores (p = 0.368). Using the two self-etching no-mix adhesives (Prompt L-Pop™ and Scotchbond™) for orthodontic appliances does not affect either the SBS or ARI scores in comparison with the commonly used total-etch system Transbond™ XT. In addition, Scotchbond™ Universal supports bonding on all types of surfaces (enamel, metal, composite, and porcelain) with no need for additional primers. It might therefore be helpful for simplifying bonding in orthodontic procedures.

  8. Brittle deformation in Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT): A study of pseudotachylyte bearing fractures along Gangavalli Shear Zone (GSZ), Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    mohan Behera, Bhuban; Thirukumaran, Venugopal; Biswal, Tapas kumar

    2016-04-01

    High grade metamorphism and intense deformation have given a well recognition to the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India. TTG-Charnockite and basic granulites constitute the dominant lithoassociation of the area. Dunite-peridotite-anorthosite-shonkinite and syenites are the intrusives. TTG-charnockite-basic granulite have undergone F1 (isoclinal recumbent), F2 (NE-SW) and F3 (NW-SE) folds producing several interference pattern. E-W trending Neoarchean and Palaeoproterozoic Salem-Attur Shear Zone exhibits a low angle ductile thrust as well as some foot print of late stage brittle deformation near Gangavalli area of Tamil Nadu. The thrust causes exhumation of basic granulites to upper crust. Thrusting along the decollement has retrograded the granulite into amphibolite rock. Subsequently, deformation pattern of Gangavalli area has distinctly marked by numerous vertical to sub-vertical fractures mostly dominating along 0-15 and 270-300 degree within charnockite hills that creates a maximum stress (σ1) along NNW and minimum stress (σ3) along ENE. However, emplacement of pseudotachylyte vein along N-S dominating fracture indicates a post deformational seismic event. Extensive fractures produce anastomose vein with varying thickness from few millimeters to 10 centimeters on the outcrop. ICP-AES study results an isochemical composition of pseudotachylyte vein that derived from the host charnockitic rock where it occurs. But still some noticeable variation in FeO-MgO and Na2O-CaO are obtained from different parts within the single vein showing heterogeneity melt. Electron probe micro analysis of thin sections reveals the existence of melt immiscibility during its solidification. Under dry melting condition, albitic rich melts are considered to be the most favorable composition for microlites (e.g. sheaf and acicular micro crystal) re-crystallization. Especially, acicular microlites preserved tachylite texture that suggest its formation before the final coagulation

  9. DETECTION OF THE VELOCITY SHEAR EFFECT ON THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE GALACTIC SATELLITES IN ISOLATED SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Choi, Yun-Young

    2015-01-01

    We report a detection of the effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the spatial distributions of the galactic satellites around the isolated hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems, each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites, from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and reconstructing linearly the velocity shear field in the local universe, we measure the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors projected onto the plane of sky. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the large-scale velocity shear field. Those galactic satellites that are spirals, are brighter, are located at distances larger than the projected virial radii of the hosts, and belong to the spiral hosts yield stronger alignment signals, which implies that the alignment strength depends on the formation and accretion epochs of the galactic satellites. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment, as well as the size and luminosity of the isolated hosts. Although this result is consistent with the numerical finding of Libeskind et al. based on an N-body experiment, owing to the very low significance of the observed signals, it remains inconclusive whether or not the velocity shear effect on the satellite distribution is truly universal

  10. Detection of the Velocity Shear Effect on the Spatial Distributions of the Galactic Satellites in Isolated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghun; Choi, Yun-Young

    2015-02-01

    We report a detection of the effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the spatial distributions of the galactic satellites around the isolated hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems, each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites, from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and reconstructing linearly the velocity shear field in the local universe, we measure the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors projected onto the plane of sky. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the large-scale velocity shear field. Those galactic satellites that are spirals, are brighter, are located at distances larger than the projected virial radii of the hosts, and belong to the spiral hosts yield stronger alignment signals, which implies that the alignment strength depends on the formation and accretion epochs of the galactic satellites. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment, as well as the size and luminosity of the isolated hosts. Although this result is consistent with the numerical finding of Libeskind et al. based on an N-body experiment, owing to the very low significance of the observed signals, it remains inconclusive whether or not the velocity shear effect on the satellite distribution is truly universal.

  11. Influence of the Eastern California Shear Zone on deposition of the Mio-Pliocene Bouse Formation: Insights from the Cibola area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O'Connell, Brennan; Homan, Mindy B.; Bennett, Scott E. K.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) is a wide zone of late Cenozoic strike-slip faults and related diffuse deformation that currently accommodates ~20–25% of relative Pacific–North America plate motion in the lower Colorado River region (Fig. 1A; Dokka and Travis, 1990; Miller et al., 2001; Guest et al., 2007; Mahan et al., 2009). The ECSZ is kinematically linked southward to dextral faults in the northern Gulf of California (Bennett et al., 2016a), and it may have initiated ca. 8 Ma when major strike-slip faults developed in the northern Gulf and Salton Trough region (Bennett et al., 2016b; Darin et al., 2016; Woodburne, 2017). Thus deformation related to the ECSZ occurred in the lower Colorado River region during deposition of the Bouse Formation, which is commonly bracketed between 6.0 and 4.8 Ma (House et al., 2008; Sarna-Wojcicki et al., 2011; Spencer et al., 2013) and may be as old as 6–7 Ma in the south (McDougall and Miranda Martínez, 2014, 2016). Post-4.5 Ma broad sagging is recognized along the lower Colorado River (Howard et al., 2015), but the possibility that faults of the ECSZ influenced local to regional subsidence patterns during deposition of the Bouse Formation has received little attention to date (e.g., Homan, 2014; O’Connell et al., 2016). The Bouse Formation is a widespread sequence of late Miocene to early Pliocene deposits exposed discontinuously along the lower Colorado River corridor (Fig. 1A). In the southern Blythe basin it consists of three regionally correlative members: (1) Basal Carbonate, consisting of supratidal and intertidal mud-flat marls, intertidal and shallow subtidal bioclastic grainstone and conglomerate, and subtidal marl; (2) Siliciclastic member, consisting of Colorado River-derived green claystone, red mudstone and siltstone, and cross-bedded river channel sandstone; and (3) Upper Bioclastic member fossiliferous sandy calcarenite, coarse pebbly grainstone, and calcareous-matrix conglomerate (Homan, 2014

  12. Late Paleozoic closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean along the Irtysh/Chara shear zone and implications for arc amalgamation and oroclinal bending in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The Irtysh/Chara Shear Zone is one of the largest strike-slip systems in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It records collisional processes of the peri-Siberian orogenic system with the West Junggar-Kazakhstan-Tianshan orogenic system following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean, but the exact timing of these events remains enigmatic. We conducted detailed structural analysis along the Irtysh Shear Zone (NW China), which together with new geochronological data allows us to reconstruct the tectonic evolution during the final closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean. Our results showed that subduction-accretion processes lasted at least until the Late Carboniferous in the Chinese Altai and the East/West Junggar. The subsequent arc amalgamation is characterized by a cycle of crustal thickening, orogenic collapse and transpressional thickening. On a larger scale, the West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system defines a U-shape oroclinal structure (e.g. Xiao et al., 2010). A major phase of oroclinal bending that involved ~110° rotation may have occurred during the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous (Levashova et al., 2012). Previous authors have linked oroclinal bending with the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the western CAOB, and proposed that a quasi-linear West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system was buckled during the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean (in the north) and the South Tianshan Ocean (in the south) (e.g. Abrajevitch et al., 2008). This model, however, is not supported by our new data that constrain the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean to the Late Carboniferous. Alternatively, we propose that oroclinal bending may have involved two phases of bending, with the ~110° rotation in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous possibly associated with trench retreat. Further tightening may have occurred in response to the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons during the Late

  13. Double system wave energy converter for the breaker zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Stefano; Negri; Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a particular type of wave energy converter, namely EDS (Energy Double System) is presented. It is a two-body point absorber composed by a heaving float and a surging paddle, mounted on the same structure and aligned along the wave propagation direction. The system is designed for working in the breaker zone, where waves close to breaking can generate a considerable surging force on the paddle. A scale EDS model has been built and tested in the wave flume of the Hydraulics Laboratory of the 'Politecnico' of Milan. The power absorbed by the system, varying its configuration, position and wave, has been measured, and interesting efficiencies have been found.

  14. Shear bond strength of different adhesive systems to normal and caries-affected dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Shadman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: According to the effect of the adhesive and substrate type on the bond strength, examination of the adhesive is required in all aspects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of different adhesive systems to normal dentin (ND and caries affected dentin (CAD in permanent teeth. METHODS: Thirty extracted molars with small occlusal caries were selected. After preparation and determination of ND and CAD by caries detector, teeth were divided into three groups and treated with one of the two tested adhesives: Single Bond 2 (SB2, Scotchbond Universal with etch (SBU-ER, and Scotchbond Universal without etch (SBU-SE. Then composite (Filtek Z-250 XT were attached to the surfaces and cured. After water storage (24 hours and thermocycling (500 cycles 5-55 °C, bond strength was calculated and failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test [Tukey HSD (honest significant difference] and with P ˂ 0.050 as the level of significance. RESULTS: Only SBU-ER had significantly higher shear bond strength than SBU-SE in ND (P = 0.027 and CAD (P = 0.046. Bond strength in SBU-ER the highest and in SBU-SE had the lowest amounts in CAD and ND. There was no significant difference in each group between ND and CAD. CONCLUSION: The 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (SBU-ER had higher bond strength to ND and CAD than the selfetch adhesive (SBU-SE.

  15. Role of upper-level wind shear on the structure and maintenance of derecho-producing convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniglio, Michael Charles

    Common large-scale environments associated with the development of derecho-producing convective systems from a large number of events are identified using statistical clustering of the 500-mb geopotential heights as guidance. The majority of the events (72%) fall into three main patterns that include a well-defined upstream trough (40%), a ridge (20%), and a zonal, low-amplitude flow (12%), which is defined as an additional warm-season pattern that is not identified in past studies of derecho environments. Through an analysis of proximity soundings, discrepancies are found in both low-level and deep-tropospheric shear parameters between observations and the shear profiles considered favorable for strong, long-lived convective systems in idealized simulations. To explore the role of upper-level shear in derecho environments, a set of two-dimensional simulations of density currents within a dry, neutrally stable environment are used to examine the ability of a cold pool to lift environmental air within a vertically sheared flow. The results confirm that the addition of upper-level shear to a wind profile with weak to moderate low-level shear increases the vertical displacement of low-level parcels despite a decrease in the vertical velocity along the cold pool interface, as suggested by previous studies. Parcels that are elevated above the surface (1-2 km) overturn and are responsible for the deep lifting in the deep-shear environments. This deep overturning caused by the upper-level shear helps to maintain the tilt of the convective systems in more complex two-dimensional and three dimensional simulations. The overturning also is shown to greatly increase the size of the convective systems in the three-dimensional simulations by facilitating the initiation and maintenance of convective cells along the cold pool. When combined with estimates of the cold pool motion and the storm-relative hodograph, these results may best be used for the prediction of the demise of

  16. 40Ar/39Ar ages (600-570 Ma of the Serra do Azeite transtensional shear zone: evidence for syncontractional extension in the Cajati area, southern Ribeira belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Machado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 40Ar/39Ar ages of the rocks from the Serra do Azeite transtensional shear zone in the southern part of the Ribeira belt, between the States of São Paulo and Paraná, and also discusses the regional correlations and the tectonic implications for other parts of the belt. The geochronological data suggest that transtensional deformation was active between 600 and 580 Ma (hornblende and muscovite apparent ages, respectively. This time span is considerably older than previous proposals for the period of activity of these structures (520-480 Ma in the northern segment of this belt and in the Araçuaí belt. Kinematic analysis of the dated mylonites shows extensional structures with top-down movement to ESE compatible with structures found in other tectonic segments in the eastern portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and in the Rio Doce Valley region. Our ages are situated in the same time interval defined for the alkaline magmatism of the Serra do Mar suite. We suggest that the regional tectonic framework was developed during continental-scale extension. This process has been coeval with convergent strain in the adjacent Neoproterozoic shear zones of the Apiaí/Ribeira and Araçuaí belts, which make up significant segments of these belts. The available data show that these structures may not be simply related to post-orogenic gravitational collapse, but must involve a more complex process probably related to dynamic balance between crustal thickening and thinning during tectonic convergence, basin formation and exhumation processes.Este trabalho apresenta idades 40Ar/39Ar de rochas da Zona de Cisalhamento Transtrativa Sinistral da Serra do Azeite, situada na parte sul do cinturão Ribeira, entre os Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, bem como discute a correlação regional e as implicações tectônicas com outras partes do cinturão. Os dados geocronológicos sugerem que a deformação extensional foi ativa entre 600 e 580 Ma

  17. N-S crustal shear system in the Bundelkhand massif: A unique crustal evolution signature in the northern Indian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Bhattacharya, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Bundelkhand massif, located in the northern part of the Indian shield, is a poly-deformed and poly-metamorphic terrain. This paper reports a new shear system developed throughout the massif in the form of N-S trending quartz veins that are sometimes quartzo-feldspathic and rarely granitic in composition. The veins are vertical and commonly occur in conjugate sets. This tectono-magmatic event appears to represent the youngest shear system of the massif as it cross-cuts all the earlier shear systems (E-W, NE-SE and NW-SE). Emplacement of this N-S vein system may have taken place due to extensional processes that developed some cracks along which siliceous magma was vertically emplaced. The complete absence of signature of the N-S event from the surrounding sedimentary cover of Vindhyan Supergroup, Bijawar and Gwalior Groups suggests that this shear system is pre-tectonic to the nearly E-W trending passive basins developed at the margins of the Bundelkhand craton. Further, several workers have considered the Bundelkhand massif as a part of the Aravalli craton. However, due to the absence of N-S, as well as the other (i.e., E-W, NW-SE and NW-SE), tectonic fabrics of the Bundelkhand massif in other cratons of the Peninsular India, and vice versa, makes the Bundelkhand block a separate and unique craton of its own and is not part of the Aravalli craton.

  18. Proportional Derivative Control with Inverse Dead-Zone for Pendulum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A proportional derivative controller with inverse dead-zone is proposed for the control of pendulum systems. The proposed method has the characteristic that the inverse dead-zone is cancelled with the pendulum dead-zone. Asymptotic stability of the proposed technique is guaranteed by the Lyapunov analysis. Simulations of two pendulum systems show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  19. Metallurgical analysis of a failed maraging steel shear screw used in the band separation system of a satellite launch vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S. Narayana Murty

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maraging steels have excellent combination of strength and toughness and are extensively used for a variety of aerospace applications. In one such critical application, this steel was used to fabricate shear screws of a stage separation system in a satellite launch vehicle. During assembly preparations, one of the shear screws which connected the separation band and band end block has failed at the first thread. Microstructural analysis revealed that the crack originated from the root of the thread and propagated in an intergranular mode. The failure is attributed to combined effect of stress and corrosion leading to stress corrosion cracking.

  20. Shear bond strength of two bonding systems on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Magro, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the shear bond strength of two bonding dentin systems, one 'one step' (Single Bond - 3M) and one 'self-etching' (Prompt-L-ESPE), when applied on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser (2,94μm) that underwent ar not, acid etched. Forty one human molars just extracted were selected and after the cut with diamond disc and included in acrylic resin, resulting in 81 specimens (hemi crowns). After, the specimens were divided in one group treated with sand paper and another two groups treated with Er:YAG laser with 200 mJ and 250 mJ of energy and 2 Hz of frequency. Next, the prepared surfaces received three treatments with following application: 1) acid + Single Bond + Z 250 resin, 2) prompt-L-Pop + Z 250 resin, and 3) acid without, Single Bond + Z 250 resin. The Z 250 resin was applied and photopolymerized in increments on a Teflon matrix that belonged to an apparatus called 'Assembly Apparatus' machine producing cylinders of 3,5 mm of diameter and 5 mm of height. After these specimens were submitted to thermo cycling during 1 minute the 55 deg C and during 1 minute with 5 deg C with a total of 500 cycles for specimen, and the measures of shear bond strength were abstained using EMIC model DL 2000 rehearsed machine, with speed of 0,5 mm/min, measuring the final rupture tension (Mpa). The results showed an statistic superiority of 5% of probability level in dentin flattened with sandpaper and with laser using 200 mJ of energy with aspect to the ones flattened with laser using 250 mJ of energy. It was observed that using 'Single Bond' bonding dentin system the marks were statistically superior at 5% of probability with reference to the use of the Prompt-L-Pop adhesive system. So, it was concluded that Er:YAG Laser with 200 mJ of energy produced similar dentin cavity prepare than sandpaper and Single Bond seemed the best bonding agent system between restorative material and dentin. (author)

  1. Numerical simulation of systems of shear bands in ductile metal with inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohr, JeeYeon N., E-mail: jplohr@lanl.gov; Plohr, Bradley J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We develop a method for numerical simulations of high strain-rate loading of mesoscale samples of ductile metal with inclusions. Because of its small-scale inhomogeneity, the composite material is prone to localized shear deformation (adiabatic shear bands). This method employs the Generalized Method of Cells of Paley and Aboudi [Mech. Materials, vol. 14, pp. 127–139, 1992] to ensure that the micro mechanical behavior of the metal and inclusions is reflected properly in the behavior of the composite at the mesoscale. To find the effective plastic strain rate when shear bands are present, we extend and apply the analytic and numerical analysis of shear bands of Glimm, Plohr, and Sharp [Mech. Materials, vol. 24, pp. 31–41, 1996]. Our tests of the method focus on the stress/strain response in uniaxial-strain flow, both compressive and tensile, of depleted uranium metal containing silicon carbide inclusions. We use the Preston-Tonks-Wallace viscoplasticity model [J. Appl. Phys., vol. 93, pp. 211–220, 2003], which applies to the high strain-rate regime of an isotropic viscoplastic solid. In results, we verify the elevated temperature and thermal softening at shear bands in our simulations of pure DU and DU/SiC composites. We also note that in composites, due the asymmetry caused by the inclusions, shear band form at different times in different subcells. In particular, in the subcells near inclusions, shear band form much earlier than they do in pure DU.

  2. Numerical simulation of systems of shear bands in ductile metal with inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JeeYeon N. Plohr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a method for numerical simulations of high strain-rate loading of mesoscale samples of ductile metal with inclusions. Because of its small-scale inhomogeneity, the composite material is prone to localized shear deformation (adiabatic shear bands. This method employs the Generalized Method of Cells of Paley and Aboudi [Mech. Materials, vol. 14, pp. 127–139, 1992] to ensure that the micro mechanical behavior of the metal and inclusions is reflected properly in the behavior of the composite at the mesoscale. To find the effective plastic strain rate when shear bands are present, we extend and apply the analytic and numerical analysis of shear bands of Glimm, Plohr, and Sharp [Mech. Materials, vol. 24, pp. 31–41, 1996]. Our tests of the method focus on the stress/strain response in uniaxial-strain flow, both compressive and tensile, of depleted uranium metal containing silicon carbide inclusions. We use the Preston-Tonks-Wallace viscoplasticity model [J. Appl. Phys., vol. 93, pp. 211–220, 2003], which applies to the high strain-rate regime of an isotropic viscoplastic solid. In results, we verify the elevated temperature and thermal softening at shear bands in our simulations of pure DU and DU/SiC composites. We also note that in composites, due the asymmetry caused by the inclusions, shear band form at different times in different subcells. In particular, in the subcells near inclusions, shear band form much earlier than they do in pure DU.

  3. Continuous shear - a method for studying material elements passing a stationary shear plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Maria; Wiwe, Birgitte; Wanheim, Tarras

    2003-01-01

    circumferential groove. Normally shear in metal forming processes is of another nature, namely where the material elements move through a stationary shear zone, often of small width. In this paper a method enabling the simulation of this situation is presented. A tool for continuous shear has beeen manufactured...... and tested with AlMgSil and copper. The sheared material has thereafter been tested n plane strain compression with different orientation concerning the angle between the shear plane and the compression direction....

  4. A variable-frequency structural health monitoring system based on omnidirectional shear horizontal wave piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Qiang; Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2018-02-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is of great importance for engineering structures as it may detect the early degradation and thus avoid life and financial loss. Guided wave based inspection is very useful in SHM due to its capability for long distance and wide range monitoring. The fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) wave based method should be most promising since SH0 is the unique non-dispersive wave mode in plate-like structures. In this work, a sparse array SHM system based on omnidirectional SH wave piezoelectric transducers (OSH-PT) was proposed and the multi data fusion method was used for defect inspection in a 2 mm thick aluminum plate. Firstly, the performances of three types OSH-PTs was comprehensively compared and the thickness-poled d15 mode OSH-PT used in this work was demonstrated obviously superior to the other two. Then, the signal processing method and imaging algorithm for this SHM system was presented. Finally, experiments were carried out to examine the performance of the proposed SHM system in defect localization and imaging. Results indicated that this SHM system can locate a through hole as small as 0.12λ (4 mm) in diameter (where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the central operation frequency) under frequencies from 90 to 150 kHz. It can also locate multiple defects accurately based on the baseline subtraction method. Obviously, this SHM system can detect larger areas with sparse sensors because of the adopted single mode, non-dispersive and low frequency SH0 wave which can propagate long distance with small attenuation. Considering its good performances, simple data processing and sparse array, this SH0 wave-based SHM system is expected to greatly promote the applications of guided wave inspection.

  5. Development of Wearable Sheet-Type Shear Force Sensor and Measurement System that is Insusceptible to Temperature and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Shigeru; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shirogane, Satoshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Umino, Tokio; Uehara, Ryo; Okamoto, Takuma; Igarashi, Hiroshi

    2017-07-31

    A sheet-type shear force sensor and a measurement system for the sensor were developed. The sensor has an original structure where a liquid electrolyte is filled in a space composed of two electrode-patterned polymer films and an elastic rubber ring. When a shear force is applied on the surface of the sensor, the two electrode-patterned films mutually move so that the distance between the internal electrodes of the sensor changes, resulting in current increase or decrease between the electrodes. Therefore, the shear force can be calculated by monitoring the current between the electrodes. Moreover, it is possible to measure two-dimensional shear force given that the sensor has multiple electrodes. The diameter and thickness of the sensor head were 10 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. Additionally, we also developed a measurement system that drives the sensor, corrects the baseline of the raw sensor output, displays data, and stores data as a computer file. Though the raw sensor output was considerably affected by the surrounding temperature, the influence of temperature was drastically decreased by introducing a simple arithmetical calculation. Moreover, the influence of pressure simultaneously decreased after the same calculation process. A demonstrative measurement using the sensor revealed the practical usefulness for on-site monitoring.

  6. Numerical simulation of systems of shear bands in ductile metal with inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plohr, Jeeyeon

    2017-06-01

    We develop a method for numerical simulations of high strain-rate loading of mesoscale samples of ductile metal with inclusions. Because of its small-scale inhomogeneity, the composite material is prone to localized shear deformation. This method employs the Generalized Method of Cells to ensure that the micro mechanical behavior of the metal and inclusions is reflected properly in the behavior of the composite at the mesoscale. To find the effective plastic strain rate when shear bands are present, we extend and apply the analytic and numerical analysis of shear bands of Glimm, Plohr, and Sharp. Our tests of the method focus on the stress/strain response in uniaxial-strain flow, both compressive and tensile, of depleted uranium metal containing silicon carbide inclusions. In results, we verify the elevated temperature and thermal softening at shear bands in our simulations of pure DU and DU/SiC composites. We also note that in composites, due the asymmetry caused by the inclusions, shear band form at different times in different subcells. In particular, in the subcells near inclusions, shear band form much earlier than they do in pure DU.

  7. Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    presents a simulation model of a variable speed wind farm with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) and fullscale back-to-back converters in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. In this paper, the impacts of wind shear and tower shadow effects on the small signal stability of power......Grid connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources due to wind speed variations, the wind shear and the tower shadow effects. The fluctuating power may be able to excite the power system oscillation at a frequency close to the natural oscillation frequency of a power system. This paper...... systems with large scale wind power penetrations are investigated during continuous operation based on the wind turbine model and the power system model....

  8. Open quantum system model of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with tunable shear viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Presented is an analysis of an open quantum model of the time-dependent evolution of a flow field governed by the nonlinear Burgers equation in one spatial dimension. The quantum model is a system of qubits where there exists a minimum time interval in the time-dependent dynamics. Each temporally discrete unitary quantum-mechanical evolution is followed by state reduction of the quantum state. The mesoscopic behavior of this quantum model is described by a quantum Boltzmann equation with a naturally emergent entropy function and H theorem and the model obeys the detailed balance principle. The macroscopic-scale effective field theory for the quantum model is derived using a perturbative Chapman-Enskog expansion applied to the linearized quantum Boltzmann equation. The entropy function is consistent with the quantum-mechanical collision process and a Fermi-Dirac single-particle distribution function for the occupation probabilities of the qubit's energy eigenstates. Comparisons are presented between analytical predictions and numerical predictions and the agreement is excellent, indicating that the nonlinear Burgers equation with a tunable shear viscosity is the operative macroscopic scale effective field theory

  9. Shear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems on Enamel and Restorative Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hellak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS and adhesive remnant index (ARI score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond™ and Scotchbond™ on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT™. Materials and Methods. A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, n=30 were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer. In the experimental groups iBond adhesive (group 2 and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (group 3 were used. The SBS was measured using a Zwicki 1120™ testing machine. The ARI and SBS were compared statistically using the Kruskal–Wallis test (P≤0.05. Results. Significant differences in SBS and ARI were found between the control group and experimental groups. Conclusions. Transbond XT showed the highest SBS on human enamel. Scotchbond Universal on average provides the best bonding on all other types of surface (metal, composite, and porcelain, with no need for additional primers. It might therefore be helpful for simplifying bonding in orthodontic procedures on restorative materials in patients. If metal brackets have to be bonded to a metal surface, the use of a dual-curing resin is recommended.

  10. Shear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems on Enamel and Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellak, Andreas; Ebeling, Jennifer; Schauseil, Michael; Stein, Steffen; Roggendorf, Matthias; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond ™ and Scotchbond ™ ) on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT ™ . Materials and Methods . A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, n = 30) were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control) brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer. In the experimental groups iBond adhesive (group 2) and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (group 3) were used. The SBS was measured using a Zwicki 1120 ™ testing machine. The ARI and SBS were compared statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test ( P ≤ 0.05). Results . Significant differences in SBS and ARI were found between the control group and experimental groups. Conclusions . Transbond XT showed the highest SBS on human enamel. Scotchbond Universal on average provides the best bonding on all other types of surface (metal, composite, and porcelain), with no need for additional primers. It might therefore be helpful for simplifying bonding in orthodontic procedures on restorative materials in patients. If metal brackets have to be bonded to a metal surface, the use of a dual-curing resin is recommended.

  11. Effect of nanotechnology in self-etch bonding systems on the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Shaza M.; El-Wassefy, Noha; Maher, Ahmed; Fawakerji, Shafik M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of silica dioxide (SiO2) nanofillers in different bonding systems on shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of orthodontic brackets at two experimental times. Methods: Ninety-six intact premolars were divided into four groups: A) Conventional acid-etch and primer Transbond XT; B) Transbond Plus self-etch primer; and two self-etch bonding systems reinforced with silica dioxide nanofiller at different concentrations: C) Futurabond DC at 1%; D...

  12. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  13. Root Zone Respiration on Hydroponically Grown Wheat Plant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Crespo, R. A.; Monje, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Root respiration is a biological phenomenon that controls plant growth and physiological development during a plant's lifespan. This process is dependent on the availability of oxygen in the system where the plant is located. In hydroponic systems, where plants are submerged in a solution containing vital nutrients but no type of soil, the availability of oxygen arises from the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution. This oxygen concentration is dependent on the , gas-liquid interface formed on the upper surface of the liquid, as given by Henry's Law, depending on pressure and temperature conditions. Respiration rates of the plants rise as biomass and root zone increase with age. The respiration rate of Apogee wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) was measured as a function of light intensity (catalytic for photosynthesis) and CO2 concentration to determine their effect on respiration rates. To determine their effects on respiration rate and plant growth microbial communities were introduced into the system, by Innoculum. Surfactants were introduced, simulating gray-water usage in space, as another factor to determine their effect on chemical oxygen demand of microbials and on respiration rates of the plants. It is expected to see small effects from changes in CO2 concentration or light levels, and to see root respiration decrease in an exponential manner with plant age and microbial activity.

  14. Performance of a Polymer Flood with Shear-Thinning Fluid in Heterogeneous Layered Systems with Crossflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sang Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the potential of a polymer flood for mobility control requires an accurate model on the viscosities of displacement fluids involved in the process. Because most polymers used in EOR exhibit shear-thinning behavior, the effective viscosity of a polymer solution is a highly nonlinear function of shear rate. A reservoir simulator including the model for the shear-rate dependence of viscosity was used to investigate shear-thinning effects of polymer solution on the performance of the layered reservoir in a five-spot pattern operating under polymer flood followed by waterflood. The model can be used as a quantitative tool to evaluate the comparative studies of different polymer flooding scenarios with respect to shear-rate dependence of fluids’ viscosities. Results of cumulative oil recovery and water-oil ratio are presented for parameters of shear-rate dependencies, permeability heterogeneity, and crossflow. The results of this work have proven the importance of taking non-Newtonian behavior of polymer solution into account for the successful evaluation of polymer flood processes. Horizontal and vertical permeabilities of each layer are shown to impact the predicted performance substantially. In reservoirs with a severe permeability contrast between horizontal layers, decrease in oil recovery and sudden increase in WOR are obtained by the low sweep efficiency and early water breakthrough through highly permeable layer, especially for shear-thinning fluids. An increase in the degree of crossflow resulting from sufficient vertical permeability is responsible for the enhanced sweep of the low permeability layers, which results in increased oil recovery. It was observed that a thinning fluid coefficient would increase injectivity significantly from simulations with various injection rates. A thorough understanding of polymer rheology in the reservoir and accurate numerical modeling are of fundamental importance for the exact estimation

  15. A Novel Geometry for Shear Test Using Axial Tensile Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibo Yuan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a novel geometry for the in-plane shear test performed with an axial electromechanical testing machine. In order to investigate the influence of the triaxiality rate on the mechanical behavior, different tests will be performed on the studied material: simple tensile tests, large tensile tests and shear tests. For the whole campaign, a common equipment should be employed to minimize the impact of the testing device. As a consequence, for the shear tests, the geometry of the specimen must be carefully designed in order to adapt the force value and make it comparable to the one obtained for the tensile tests. Like most of the existing shear-included tensile test specimens, the axial loading is converted to shear loading at a particular region through the effect of geometry. A symmetric shape is generally preferred, since it can restrict the in-plane rotation of the shear section, keep shear increasing in a more monotonic path and double the force level thanks to the two shear zones. Due to the specific experimental conditions, such as dimensions of the furnace and the clamping system, the position of the extensometer or the restriction of sheet thickness (related to the further studies of size effect at mesoscale and hot temperature, several geometries were brought up and evaluated in an iterative procedure via finite element simulations. Both the numerical and experimental results reveal that the final geometry ensures some advantages. For instance, a relatively low triaxiality in the shear zone, limited in-plane rotation and no necking are observed. Moreover, it also prevents any out-of-plane displacement of the specimen which seems to be highly sensitive to the geometry, and presents a very limited influence of the material and the thickness.

  16. Evaluation of shear-compressive strength properties for laminated GFRP composites in electromagnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun Hee; Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Sam Yeon

    2014-07-01

    Laminated fiber-reinforced composites can be applied to an insulating structure of a nuclear fusion device. It is necessary to investigate the interlaminar fracture characteristics of the laminated composites for the assurance of design and structural integrity. The three methods used to prepare the glass fiber reinforced plastic composites tested in this study were vacuum pressure impregnation, high pressure laminate (HPL), and prepreg laminate. We discuss the design criteria for safe application of composites and the shear-compressive test methods for evaluating mechanical properties of the material. Shear-compressive tests could be performed successfully using series-type test jigs that were inclined 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° to the normal axis. Shear strength depends strongly on the applied compressive stress. The design range of allowable shear stress was extended by use of the appropriate composite fabrication method. HPL had the largest design range, and the allowable interlaminar shear stress was 0.254 times the compressive stress.

  17. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    OpenAIRE

    PAN, Chengrong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system, discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone, and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  18. Terminal zone glacial sediment transfer at a temperate overdeepened glacier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, D. A.; Cook, S. J.; Graham, D. J.; Midgley, N. G.; Fallick, A. E.; Storrar, R.; Toubes Rodrigo, M.; Evans, D. J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Continuity of sediment transfer through glacial systems is essential to maintain subglacial bedrock erosion, yet transfer at temperate glaciers with overdeepened beds, where subglacial fluvial sediment transport should be greatly limited by adverse slopes, remains poorly understood. Complex multiple transfer processes in temperate overdeepened systems has been indicated by the presence of large frontal moraine systems, supraglacial debris of mixed transport origin, thick basal ice sequences, and englacial thrusts and eskers. At Svínafellsjökull, thrusts comprising decimetre-thick debris-rich bands of stratified facies ice of basal origin, with a coarser size distribution and higher clast content than that observed in basal ice layers, contribute substantially to the transfer of subglacial material in the terminal zone. Entrainment and transfer of material occurs by simple shear along the upper surface of bands and by strain-induced deformation of stratified and firnified glacier ice below. Thrust material includes rounded and well-rounded clasts that are also striated, indicating that fluvial bedload is deposited as subglacial channels approach the overdeepening and then entrained along thrusts. Substantial transfer also occurs within basal ice, with facies type and debris content dependent on the hydrological connectedness of the adverse slope. A process model of transfer at glaciers with terminal overdeepenings is proposed, in which the geometry of the overdeepening influences spatial patterns of ice deformation, hydrology, and basal ice formation. We conclude that the significance of thrusting in maintaining sediment transfer continuity has likely been overlooked by glacier sediment budgets and glacial landscape evolution studies.

  19. On the appearance of vorticity and gradient shear bands in wormlike micellar solutions of different CPCl/salt systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mütze, Annekathrin, E-mail: muetzea@ethz.ch; Heunemann, Peggy; Fischer, Peter [ETH Zürich, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Schmelzbergstrasse 9, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-11-01

    Wormlike micellar salt/surfactant solutions (X-salicylate, cetylpyridinium chloride) are studied with respect to the applied shear stress, concentration, temperature, and composition of the counterions (X = lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) of the salicylate salt solute to determine vorticity and gradient shear bands. A combination of rheological measurements, laser technique, video analysis, and rheo-small-angle neutron scattering allow for a detailed exploration of number and types of shear bands. Typical flow curves of the solutions show Newtonian, shear-thinning, and shear-thickening flow behavior. In the shear-thickening regime, the solutions show vorticity and gradient shear bands simultaneously, in which vorticity shear bands dominate the visual effect, while gradient shear bands always coexist and predominate the rheological response. It is shown that gradient shear bands change their phases (turbid, clear) with the same frequency as the shear rate oscillates, whereas vorticity shear bands change their phases with half the frequency of the shear rate. Furthermore, we show that with increasing molecular mass of the counterions the number of gradient shear bands increases, while the number of vorticity shear bands remains constant. The variation of temperature, shear stress, concentration, and counterions results in a predictable change in the rheological behavior and therefore allows adjustment of the number of vorticity shear bands in the shear band regime.

  20. Dynamic behavior of tuning fork shear-force structures in a SNOM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fengli [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Xide, E-mail: lixide@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fu, Yu [Temasek Laboratories, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-07-01

    Piezoelectric tuning fork shear-force structures are widely used as a distance control unit in a scanning near-field optical microscopy. However, the complex dynamic behavior among the micro-tuning forks (TFs), optical fiber probes, and the probe–surface interactions is still a crucial issue to achieve high-resolution imaging or near-field interaction inspections. Based on nonlinear beam tension-bending vibration theory, vibration equations in both longitudinal and lateral directions have been established when the TF structure and the optical fiber are treated as deformable structures. The relationship of the probe–surface interaction induced by Van der Waals force has been analyzed and the corresponding numerical results used to describe the vibrational behavior of the probe approaching the sample surface are obtained. Meanwhile, the viscous resistance of the liquid film on the sample surface has also been investigated using linear beam-bending vibration theory. Experiments testing the interaction between the probe and the water film on a single crystal silicon wafer have been carried out and the viscous resistance of the water film was estimated using the established equations. Finally, to use the TF-probe structure as a force sensor, the relation between the dynamic response of the TF-probe system and an external force on the probe tip was obtained. - Highlights: • Nonlinear vibration equation is established for a deformable tuning fork probe assembly. • Probe–sample interactions induced by Van der Waals force and viscous resistance are investigated. • The viscous resistance between the probe and the water film is estimated using testing results.

  1. Superficial ultrasound shear wave speed measurements in soft and hard elasticity phantoms: repeatability and reproducibility using two ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L

    2015-03-01

    There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three imaging methods, two US systems and multiple operators. Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution No. 1 used an Acuson S3000 US system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Malvern, PA) and three shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution No. 2 used an Aixplorer US system (SuperSonic Imagine, Bothell, WA) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0 cm, 2.5 cm and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student's t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single-measure intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (P = 0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (P > 0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5-6.8%), and interoperator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥ 0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth significantly affected measured SWS (P

  2. Effect of vadose zone on the steady-state leakage rates from landfill barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, B.; Rowe, R.K.; Unlue, K.

    2009-01-01

    Leakage rates are evaluated for a landfill barrier system having a compacted clay liner (CCL) underlain by a vadose zone of variable thickness. A numerical unsaturated flow model SEEP/W is used to simulate the moisture flow regime and steady-state leakage rates for the cases of unsaturated zones with different soil types and thicknesses. The results of the simulations demonstrate that harmonic mean hydraulic conductivity of coarse textured vadose zones is 3-4 orders of magnitude less than saturated hydraulic conductivity; whereas, the difference is only one order of magnitude for fine textured vadose zones. For both coarse and fine textured vadose zones, the effective hydraulic conductivity of the barrier system and the leakage rate to an underlying aquifer increases with increasing thickness of the vadose zone and ultimately reaches an asymptotic value for a coarse textured vadose zone thickness of about 10 m and a fine textured vadose zone thickness of about 5 m. Therefore, the fine and coarse textured vadose zones thicker than about 5 m and 10 m, respectively, act as an effective part of the barrier systems examined. Although the thickness of vadose zone affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the overall barrier system, the results demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity of the CCL is the dominant factor controlling the steady-state leakage rates through barrier systems having single low permeability clay layers

  3. A multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system for studying the effect of exercise-induced wall shear stress on endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Xia; Xiang, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yong; Luan, Yong; Liu, Shu-Tian; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2016-12-28

    In vivo studies have demonstrated that reasonable exercise training can improve endothelial function. To confirm the key role of wall shear stress induced by exercise on endothelial cells, and to understand how wall shear stress affects the structure and the function of endothelial cells, it is crucial to design and fabricate an in vitro multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system which can closely replicate exercise-induced wall shear stress waveforms in artery. The in vivo wall shear stress waveforms from the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer in resting and immediately after 30 min acute aerobic cycling exercise were first calculated by measuring the inner diameter and the center-line blood flow velocity with a color Doppler ultrasound. According to the above in vivo wall shear stress waveforms, we designed and fabricated a parallel-plate flow chamber system with appropriate components based on a lumped parameter hemodynamics model. To validate the feasibility of this system, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) line were cultured within the parallel-plate flow chamber under abovementioned two types of wall shear stress waveforms and the intracellular actin microfilaments and nitric oxide (NO) production level were evaluated using fluorescence microscope. Our results show that the trends of resting and exercise-induced wall shear stress waveforms, especially the maximal, minimal and mean wall shear stress as well as oscillatory shear index, generated by the parallel-plate flow chamber system are similar to those acquired from the common carotid artery. In addition, the cellular experiments demonstrate that the actin microfilaments and the production of NO within cells exposed to the two different wall shear stress waveforms exhibit different dynamic behaviors; there are larger numbers of actin microfilaments and higher level NO in cells exposed in exercise-induced wall shear stress condition than resting wall shear stress condition

  4. Influence of shear during enzymatic gelation of caseinate-water and caseinate-water-fat systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manski, J.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Solidification, emulsification and application of shear were combined to induce diversity and heterogeneity in the micro- and macrostructure of concentrated caseinate-based food matrices containing a dispersed fat phase. The products were evaluated with selected parameters from small-scale and

  5. Development of geoinformation zoning model of urban territories for use in urban cadaster systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Вікторович Горковчук

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and composition of zoning spatial resources is explored. Geoinformation mode of geospatial zoning data on the basis of object-relational database management system is developed. Developed zoning model is tested in the environment of open-source database management system PostgreSQL. Applied SQL-function for automatic creation of build conditions and restrictions of land development is implemented

  6. Comparative study to evaluate shear bond strength of RMGIC to composite resin using different adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Chandak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study is to compare and evaluate the role of new dental adhesives to bond composite to the resinmodified glass inomer cement (RMGIC. Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens were prepared on acrylic blocks, with wells prepared in it by drilling holes, to retain the RMGIC. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups of ten specimens each. In Group a thin layer of selfetch adhesive (3M ESPE was applied between the RMGIC and the composite resin FILTEK P60 (3M SPE. In Group II, total etch adhesive (Adeper Scotch bond 2, 3M ESPE was applied, and in Group III, there was no application of any adhesive between RMGIC and the composite resin. After curing all the specimens, the shear bond strength was measured using an Instron universal testing machine. Results: The results were drawn and tabulated using ANOVA-fishers and Dunnet D statistical tests.The maximum shear bond strength values were recorded in Group I specimens with self-etch adhesive showing a mean value of 2.74 when compared to the Group II adhesive (Total etch showing a mean shear strength of value 1.89, where no adhesive was used, showed a minimum mean shear bond strength of 1.42. There was a great and significant difference between Group I and Group II (P value 0.05 whereas, both Group I and Group II showed a vast and significant difference from Group III (P value = 0-001. Conclusion: Hence, this present study concludes that application of self-etch adhesive (3M ESPE, U.S.A in between RMGIC and composite resin increases the shear bond strength between RMGIC and the resin composites, as compared to the total-etch type adhesive (Adeper Scotch bond 2,3M ESPE, U.S.A as well as without application of the adhesive agent.

  7. Integrating GIS-based geologic mapping, LiDAR-based lineament analysis and site specific rock slope data to delineate a zone of existing and potential rock slope instability located along the grandfather mountain window-Linville Falls shear zone contact, Southern Appalachian Mountains, Watauga County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, K.A.; Wooten, R.M.; Latham, R.L.; Witt, A.W.; Douglas, T.J.; Bauer, J.B.; Fuemmeler, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Landslide hazard maps of Watauga County identify >2200 landslides, model debris flow susceptibility, and evaluate a 14km x 0.5km zone of existing and potential rock slope instability (ZEPRSI) near the Town of Boone. The ZEPRSI encompasses west-northwest trending (WNWT) topographic ridges where 14 active/past-active rock/weathered rock slides occur mainly in rocks of the Grandfather Mountain Window (GMW). The north side of this ridgeline is the GMW / Linville Falls Fault (LFF) contact. Sheared rocks of the Linville Falls Shear Zone (LFSZ) occur along the ridge and locally in the valley north of the contact. The valley is underlain principally by layered granitic gneiss comprising the Linville Falls/Beech Mountain/Stone Mountain Thrust Sheet. The integration of ArcGIS??? - format digital geologic and lineament mapping on a 6m LiDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) digital elevation model (DEM) base, and kinematic analyses of site specific rock slope data (e.g., presence and degree of ductile and brittle deformation fabrics, rock type, rock weathering state) indicate: WNWT lineaments are expressions of a regionally extensive zone of fractures and faults; and ZEPRSI rock slope failures concentrate along excavated, north-facing LFF/LFSZ slopes where brittle fabrics overprint older metamorphic foliations, and other fractures create side and back release surfaces. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  8. Shear bond strength of self-etch and total-etch bonding systems at different dentin depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Maito Villela-Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentin shear bond strength of four adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond 2, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Magic Bond DE and Self Etch Bond in regards to buccal and lingual surfaces and dentin depth. Forty extracted third molars had roots removed and crowns bisected in the mesiodistal direction. The buccal and lingual surfaces were fixed in a PVC/acrylic resin ring and were divided into buccal and lingual groups assigned to each selected adhesive. The same specimens prepared for the evaluation of superficial dentin shear resistance were used to evaluate the different depths of dentin. The specimens were identified and abraded at depths of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm. Each depth was evaluated by ISO TR 11405 using an EMIC-2000 machine regulated at 0.5 mm/min with a 200 Kgf load cell. We performed statistical analyses on the results (ANOVA, Tukey and Scheffé tests. Data revealed statistical differences (p < 0.01 in the adhesive and depth variation as well as adhesive/depth interactions. The Adper Single Bond 2 demonstrated the highest mean values of shear bond strength. The Prompt L-Pop product, a self-etching adhesive, revealed higher mean values compared with Magic Bond DE and Self Etch Bond adhesives, a total and self-etching adhesive respectively. It may be concluded that the shear bond strength of dentin is dependent on material (adhesive system, substrate depth and adhesive/depth interaction.

  9. Shear of ordinary and elongated granular mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Alexander; Kern, Matthew; Marschall, Theodore; Teitel, Stephen; Franklin, Scott

    2015-03-01

    We present an experimental and computational study of a mixture of discs and moderate aspect-ratio ellipses under two-dimensional annular planar Couette shear. Experimental particles are cut from acrylic sheet, are essentially incompressible, and constrained in the thin gap between two concentric cylinders. The annular radius of curvature is much larger than the particles, and so the experiment is quasi-2d and allows for arbitrarily large pure-shear strains. Synchronized video cameras and software identify all particles and track them as they move from the field of view of one camera to another. We are particularly interested in the global and local properties as the mixture ratio of discs to ellipses varies. Global quantities include average shear rate and distribution of particle species as functions of height, while locally we investigate the orientation of the ellipses and non-affine events that can be characterized as shear transformational zones or possess a quadrupole signature observed previously in systems of purely circular particles. Discrete Element Method simulations on mixtures of circles and spherocylinders extend the study to the dynamics of the force network and energy dissipated as the system evolves. Supported by NSF CBET #1243571 and PRF #51438-UR10.

  10. Vadose zone studies at an industrial contaminated site: the vadose zone monitoring system and cross-hole geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, most technologies are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of information, in particular on field scale heterogeneity. In order to overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in Belgium. Industrial activities carried out on site left a legacy of soil and groundwater contamination in BTEX, PAH, cyanide and heavy metals. The experiment comprises the combination of two techniques: the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS) and cross-hole geophysics. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content and temperature at different depths of the vadose zone. In addition, it provides the possibility of pore water sampling at different depths. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The flexible sleeve contains three types of monitoring units in the vadose zone: Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT), which allows water content measurements; Vadose Sampling Ports (VSP), used for collecting water samples coming from the matrix; the Fracture Samplers (FS), which are used for retrieving water samples from the fractures. Cross-hole geophysics techniques consist in the injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes. From measured potential differences, detailed spatial patterns about electrical properties of the subsurface can be inferred. Such spatial patterns are related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations. Two VMS were

  11. Effects of Noise and Vibration on the Solid to Liquid Fluidization Transition in Small Dense Granular Systems Under Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhus, Martin Frederic

    2011-07-01

    Granular materials exhibit bulk properties that are distinct from conventional solids, liq- uids, and gases, due to the dissipative nature of the inter-granular forces. Understanding the fundamentals of granular materials draws upon and gives insight into many fields at the current frontiers of physics, such as plasticity of solids, fracture and friction, com- plex systems such as colloids, foams and suspensions, and a variety of biological systems. Particulate flows are widespread in geophysics, and are also essential to many industries. Despite the importance of these phenomena, we lack a theoretical model that explains most behaviors of granular materials. Since granular assemblies are highly dissipative, they are often far from mechanical equilibrium, making most classical analyses inappli- cable. A theory for dilute granular systems exists, but for dense granular systems (by far the majority of granular systems in the real world) no comparable theory is accepted. We approach this problem by examining the fluidization, or transition from solid to liquid, in dense granular systems. In this study, the separate effects of random noise and vibration on the static to flowing transition of a dense granular assembly under planar shear is studied numerically using soft contact particle dynamics simulations in two dimensions. We focus on small systems in a thin planar Couette cell, examining the bistable region while increasing shear, with varying amounts of random noise or vibration, and determine the statistics of the shear required for the onset of flow. We find that the applied power is the key parameter in determining the magnitude of the effects of the noise or vibration, with vibration frequency also having an influence. Similarities and differences between noise and vibration are determined, and the results compare favorably with a two phase model for dense granular flow.

  12. Validating a perceptual distraction model using a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user's perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music targets and interferers using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two...... sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. The results show that the model performance is equally good in both zones, i.e., with both speech- on-music and music-on-speech stimuli...

  13. Numerical modeling of injection, stress and permeability enhancement during shear stimulation at the Desert Peak Enhanced Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, David; Kelkar, Sharad; Davatzes, Nick; Hickman, Stephen H.; Moos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System relies on stimulation of fracture permeability through self-propping shear failure that creates a complex fracture network with high surface area for efficient heat transfer. In 2010, shear stimulation was carried out in well 27-15 at Desert Peak geothermal field, Nevada, by injecting cold water at pressure less than the minimum principal stress. An order-of-magnitude improvement in well injectivity was recorded. Here, we describe a numerical model that accounts for injection-induced stress changes and permeability enhancement during this stimulation. In a two-part study, we use the coupled thermo-hydrological-mechanical simulator FEHM to: (i) construct a wellbore model for non-steady bottom-hole temperature and pressure conditions during the injection, and (ii) apply these pressures and temperatures as a source term in a numerical model of the stimulation. In this model, a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and empirical fracture permeability is developed to describe permeability evolution of the fractured rock. The numerical model is calibrated using laboratory measurements of material properties on representative core samples and wellhead records of injection pressure and mass flow during the shear stimulation. The model captures both the absence of stimulation at low wellhead pressure (WHP ≤1.7 and ≤2.4 MPa) as well as the timing and magnitude of injectivity rise at medium WHP (3.1 MPa). Results indicate that thermoelastic effects near the wellbore and the associated non-local stresses further from the well combine to propagate a failure front away from the injection well. Elevated WHP promotes failure, increases the injection rate, and cools the wellbore; however, as the overpressure drops off with distance, thermal and non-local stresses play an ongoing role in promoting shear failure at increasing distance from the well.

  14. Superficial Ultrasound Shear Wave Speed Measurements in Soft and Hard Elasticity Phantoms: Repeatability and Reproducibility Using Two Different Ultrasound Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R.; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S.; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W.; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. Purpose To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three different imaging methods, two different ultrasound systems, and multiple operators. Methods and Materials Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution #1 used an Acuson S3000 ultrasound system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.) and three different shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution #2 used an Aixplorer ultrasound system (Supersonic Imagine) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student’s t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single measure intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. Results For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (p=0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (p>0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5–6.8%), and inter-operator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth

  15. Coastal zone color scanner ``system calibration'': A retrospective examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert H.; Gordon, Howard R.

    1994-04-01

    During its lifetime the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) produced approximately 66,000 images. These have been placed in an archive of "raw" radiance (sensor counts) in a subsampled format that is easily accessible. They have also been processed to form global fields, at reduced resolution, of normalized water-leaving radiance, phytoplankton pigments, and diffuse attenuation coefficient. Using this archive, we have tried to characterize some aspects of the "system calibration" for the 8-year lifetime of CZCS. Specifically, we have assumed that the sensitivity of the red band decayed in a simple manner similar to the well-known long-term degradation of the shorter-wavelength bands, and we examined the sensitivity of the green and yellow bands by computing the globally averaged water-leaving radiance, over 10-day periods, for all of the imagery. The results provide evidence that in addition to the long-term degradation, short-term (2 weeks to 1 month) variations in the radiometric sensitivity of these bands started in early fall 1981 and continued for the rest of the mission. In contrast, the data suggest the absence of such variations prior to August 1981. It is reasonable to believe that the sensitivity of the blue (and probably the red) band underwent such variations as well; however, our methodology cannot be used to study the other bands. Thus after these fluctuations began, the actual values of CZCS-estimated pigment concentrations at a given location should be viewed with skepticism; however, the global patterns of derived pigment concentration should be valid. Had an extensive set of surface measurements of water-leaving radiance, e.g., from moored buoys or drifters, been available during the CZCS mission, these fluctuations could have been removed from the data set, and this would have greatly increased its value. The lessons learned from CZCS, that is, the requirement of good radiometric calibration and stability and the necessity of "sea truth" stations

  16. Coastal zone color scanner 'system calibration': A retrospective examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert H.; Gordon, Howard R.

    1994-01-01

    During its lifetime the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) produced approximately 66,000 images. These have been placed in an archive of 'raw' radiance (sensor counts) in a subsampled format that is easily accessible. They have also been processed to form global fields, at reduced resolution, of normalized water-leaving radiance, phytoplankton pigments, and diffuse attenuation coefficient. Using this archive, we have tried to characterize some aspects of the 'system calibration' for the 8-year lifetime of CZCS. Specifically, we have assumed that the sensitivity of the red band decayed in a simple manner similar to the well-known long-term degradation of the shorter-wavelength bands, and we examined the sensitivity of the green and yellow bands by computing the globally averaged water-leaving radiance, over 10-day periods, for all of the imagery. The results provided evidence that in addition to the long-term degradation, short-term (2 weeks to 1 month) variations in the radiometric sensitivity of these bands started in early fall 1981 and continued for the rest of the mission. In contrast, the data suggested the absence of such variations prior to August 1981. It is reasonable to believe that the sensitivity of the blue (and probably the red) band underwent such variations as well; however our methodology cannot be used to study the other bands. Thus, after these fluctuations began, the actual values of CZCS - estimated pigment concentrations at a given location should be viewed with skepticism; however, the global patterns of derived pigment concentrations should be valid. Had an extensive set of surface measurements of water-leaving radiance, e.r., from moored buoyes or drifters, had been available during the CZCS mission, these fluctuations could have been removed from the data set, and this would have greatly increased its value. The lessons learned from CZCS that is, the requirement of good radiometric calibration and stability and the necessity of 'sea truth

  17. Portable traffic management system smart work zone application : operational test evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    As part of its statewide Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) sponsored an operational test of the Portable Traffic Management System (PTMS) in a work zone application in cooperation with its pr...

  18. Validating a perceptual distraction model in a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user’s perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference, e.g., two competing audio sources within the same listening space. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music-on-music stimuli...... using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two loudspeakers, one for the target sound source and the other for the interfering sound source. Recently, the model was successfully validated in a complex personal sound-zone system with speech-on-music stimuli. Second round of validations were...... conducted by physically altering the sound-zone system and running a set of new listening experiments utilizing two sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. Preliminary results show...

  19. The influence of salivary contamination on shear bond strength of dentin adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-won; Lee, Kyung Chae

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of salivary contamination during dentin bonding procedures on shear bond strength and investigated the effect of contaminant-removing treatments on the recovery of bond strength for two dentin bonding agents. One hundred and ten human molars were embedded in cylindrical molds with self-curing acrylic resin. The occlusal dentin surface was exposed by wet grinding with #800 silicon carbide abrasive paper. The teeth were divided into five groups for One-step (OS) (BISCO, Inc) and six groups for Clearfil SE Bond (SE) (Kuraray Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan). For One-step, the grinding surface was treated with 32% phosphoric acid; BAC (BISCO Inc) and divided into five groups: OS control group (uncontaminated), OS I (salivary contamination, blot dried), OS II (salivary contamination, completely dried), OS III (salivary contamination, wash and blot dried) and OS IV (salivary contamination, re-etching for 10 seconds, wash and blot dried). For SE bond, the following surface treatments were done: SE control group (primer applied to the fresh dentin surface), SE I (after salivary contamination, primer applied), SE II (primer, salivary contamination, dried), SE III (primer, salivary contamination, wash and dried), SE IV (after procedure of SE II, re-application of primer) and SE V (after procedure of SE III, re-application of primer). Each bonding agent was applied and light cured for 10 seconds. Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Co, Ltd) composite was packed into the Ultradent mount jig mold and light cured for 40 seconds. The bonded specimens were stored for 24 hours in a 37 degrees C waterbath. The shear bond strengths were measured using an Instron testing machine (Model 4202, Instron Corp). The data for each group were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman-Keuls test to make comparisons among the groups. The results were as follows: In the One-step groups, the OS II group showed statistically significant lower shear bond strength than the OS

  20. Effect of collagen fibrils removal on shear bond strength of total etch and self etch adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishevar L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Sodium hypochlorite can remove the organic phase of the demineralized dentin and it produces direct resin bonding with hydroxyapatite crystals. Therefore, the hydrolytic degradation of collagen fibrils which might affect the bonding durability is removed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of collagen fibrils removal by 10% NaOCl on dentin shear bond strength of two total etch and self etch adhesive systems."nMaterials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolar teeth were used in this study. Buccal surface of teeth were grounded until dentin was exposed. Then teeth were divided into four groups. According to dentin surface treatment, experimental groups were as follows: Group I: Single Bond (3M according to manufacture instruction, Group II: 10% NaOCl+Single bond (3M, Group III: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray according to manufacture instruction, and Group IV: Clearfil SE Bond primer. After that, the specimens were immersed in 50% acetone solution for removing extra monomer. Then the specimens were rinsed and dried. 10% NaOCl was applied and finally adhesive was used. Then composite was bonded to the treated surfaces using a 4 2 mm cylindrical plastic mold. Specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5-55ºC. A shear load was employed by a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The data were analyzed for statistical significance with One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests."nResults: The mean shear bond strengths of groups were as follows: Single Bond=16.8±4.2, Clearfil SE Bond=23.7±4.07, Single Bond+NaOCl=10.5±4.34, Clearfil SE Bond+NaOCl=23.3±3.65 MPa. Statistical analysis revealed that using 10% NaOCl significantly decreased the shear bond strength in Single Bond group (P=0.00, but caused no significant difference in the shear bond strength in Clearfil SE Bond group (P=0.99."nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, NaOCl treatment did not improve the bond

  1. Observing Complex Systems Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Joshua; Saleh, Asmalina; Andrade, Alejandro; Bryan, Branden

    2017-01-01

    Our paper builds on the construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky in Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978) to analyze the relationship between students' answers and the help they receive as they construct them. We report on a secondary analysis of…

  2. Two-dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions: Comparison of two different systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei-Wei; Li, Xiao-Long; He, Ya-Ping; Li, Dan-Dan; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Liu, Bo-Ji; Yue, Wen-Wen; Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of two different shear wave elastography (SWE) techniques in distinguishing malignant breast lesions from benign ones. From March 2016 to May 2016, a total of 153 breast lesions (mean diameter, 16.8 mm±10.5; range 4.1-90.0 mm) in 153 patients (mean age, 46.4 years±15.1; age range 20-86 years) were separately performed by two different SWE techniques (i.e. T-SWE, Aplio500, Toshiba Medical System, Tochigi, Japan; and S-SWE, the Aixplorer US system, SuperSonic Imagine, Provence, France). The maximum (Emax), mean (Emean) and standard deviation (ESD) of elasticity modulus values in T-SWE and S-SWE were analyzed. All the lesions were confirmed by ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy (n = 26), surgery (n = 122), or both (n = 5), with pathological results as the gold standard. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to assess the diagnostic performance between T-SWE and S-SWE. Operator consistency was also evaluated. Among the 153 lesions, 41 (26.8%) were malignant and 112 (73.2%) were benign. Emax (T-SWE: 40.10±37.14 kPa vs. 118.78±34.41 kPa; S-SWE: 41.22±22.54 kPa vs. 134.77±60.51 kPa), Emean (T-SWE: 19.75±16.31 kPa vs. 52.93±25.75 kPa; S-SWE: 20.95±10.98 kPa vs. 55.95±22.42 kPa) and ESD (T-SWE: 9.00±8.55 kPa vs. 38.44±12.30 kPa; S-SWE: 8.17±6.14 kPa vs. 29.34±13.88 kPa) showed statistical differences in distinguishing malignant lesions from benign ones both in T-SWE and S-SWE (all p  0.05 in comparison with Emax) and Emean (AUROC = 0.930, p = 0.034 in comparison with Emax). AUROC-max (T-SWE: 0.909 vs. 0.967), AUROC-mean (T-SWE: 0.892 vs. 0.930) and AUROC-SD (T-SWE: 0.958 vs. 0.962) showed no significant difference between T-SWE and S-SWE (all p > 0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficients

  3. "AfterZone:" Outcomes for Youth Participating in Providence's Citywide After-School System. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauh, Tina J.

    2011-01-01

    This executive summary highlights the main findings from our participation and outcomes analysis of the "AfterZone" initiative--a citywide system-building effort in Providence, Rhode Island, that aims to provide high-quality, accessible out-of-school-time services to middle school youth. The summary briefly defines the AfterZone's unique…

  4. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Manideepa Roy Choudhury. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 5 July 2016 pp 1033-1040. Deformation of footwall rock of Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan: Evidence of transpressional shear zone · Manideepa Roy Choudhury Subhrajyoti ...

  5. Heat-And-Mass Transfer Relationship to Determine Shear Stress in Tubular Membrane Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    The main drawback of Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs) is the fouling of the membrane. One way to reduce this fouling is through controlling the hydrodynamics of the two-phase slug flow near the membrane surface. It has been proven in literature that the slug flow pattern has a higher scouring effect...... to remove particulates due to the high shear rates and high mass transfer between the membrane surface and the bulk region. However, to calculate the mass transfer coefficient in an efficient and accurate way is not straightforward. Indeed, for accurate determination, numerous complex experimental...

  6. Fault Identification Algorithm Based on Zone-Division Wide Area Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun Liu; Youcheng Wang; Hub Hu

    2014-01-01

    As the power grid becomes more magnified and complicated, wide-area protection system in the practical engineering application is more and more restricted by the communication level. Based on the concept of limitedness of wide-area protection system, the grid with complex structure is divided orderly in this paper, and fault identification and protection action are executed in each divided zone to reduce the pressure of the communication system. In protection zone, a new wide-area...

  7. Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, Chris H; Orpe, Ashish V; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2009-09-01

    We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity-driven sheared granular flow with a discrete-element simulation performed in the same geometry. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross section and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index-matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The simulations use a Cundall-Strack contact model between the grains using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. We then perform a detailed comparison of the particle fluctuation properties as measured by the displacement probability distribution function and the mean square displacement. All in all, our study suggests a high level of quantitative agreement between the simulations and experiments.

  8. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Fixed with Remineralizing Adhesive Systems after Simulating One Year of Orthodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Lima Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n=16: XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (p<0.05. Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT and self-etching (SEP adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance.

  9. Cardiac-vessels system violations of children moved from radiation polluted zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobovich, A.A.; Kokorina, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    In the work are presented results of circulation system status and heard pre-pathology processes of 60 children moved from radiation polluted zones. Some connections between cardiac-vessels system violation and neural system violations are ascertained. Role of neural system functions fallen down and non-adaptive cardiac-vessels system changes in pathogenesis are discussed. (authors)

  10. Displacement-length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2011-11-01

    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement-distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow.

  11. Displacement–length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement–distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow. PMID:26806996

  12. Novel systems for the application of isolated tensile, compressive, and shearing stimulation of distraction callus tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholaus Meyers

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a procedure widely used for the correction of large bone defects. However, a high complication rate persists, likely due to insufficient stability during maturation. Numerical fracture healing models predict bone regeneration under different mechanical conditions allowing fixation stiffness optimization. However, most models apply a linear elastic material law inappropriate for the transient stresses/strains present during limb lengthening or segment transport. They are also often validated using in vivo osteotomy models lacking precise mechanical regulation due to the unavoidable stimulation of secondary interfragmentary motion during ambulation under finitely stiff fixation. Therefore, in order to create a robust numerical model of distraction osteogenesis, it is necessary to both characterize the new tissue's viscoelasticity during distraction and determine the influence of strictly isolated stimulation in each loading mode (tension, compression, and shear to account for potential differences in mechanical and histological response.Two electromechanical fixators with integrated load cells were designed to precisely perform and monitor in vivo lateral distraction and isolated stimulation in sheep tibiae using a mobile, hydroxyapatite-coated titanium plate. The novel surgical procedure circumvents osteotomy, eliminating the undesirable and unquantifiable mechanical stimulation during ambulation.After a 10-day post-surgery latency period, two 0.275 mm distraction steps were performed daily for 10 days. The load cell collected data before, during, and after each distraction step and was terminated after no less than one minute from the time of distraction. A 7-day consolidation period separated the distraction phase and 18-day stimulation phase. Stimulation was carried out in isolated tension, compression, or shear while recording force/time data. Each stimulation session consisted of 120 cycles with a magnitude of

  13. Performance investigation of solid desiccant evaporative cooling system configurations in different climatic zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muzaffar; Vukovic, Vladimir; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Ali, Hafiz M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five configurations of a DEC system are analyzed in five climate zones. • DEC system model configurations are developed in Dymola/Modelica. • Performance analysis predicted a suitable DEC system configuration for each climate zone. • Results show that climate of Vienna, Sao Paulo, and Adelaide favors the ventilated-dunkle cycle. • While ventilation cycle configuration suits the climate of Karachi and Shanghai. - Abstract: Performance of desiccant evaporative cooling (DEC) system configurations is strongly influenced by the climate conditions and varies widely in different climate zones. Finding the optimal configuration of DEC systems for a specific climatic zone is tedious and time consuming. This investigation conducts performance analysis of five DEC system configurations under climatic conditions of five cities from different zones: Vienna, Karachi, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, and Adelaide. On the basis of operating cycle, three standard and two modified system configurations (ventilation, recirculation, dunkle cycles; ventilated-recirculation and ventilated-dunkle cycles) are analyzed in these five climate zones. Using an advance equation-based object-oriented (EOO) modeling and simulation approach, optimal configurations of a DEC system are determined for each climate zone. Based on the hourly climate data of each zone for its respective design cooling day, performance of each system configuration is estimated using three performance parameters: cooling capacity, COP, and cooling energy delivered. The results revealed that the continental/micro-thermal climate of Vienna, temperate/mesothermal climate of Sao Paulo, and dry-summer subtropical climate of Adelaide favor the use of ventilated-dunkle cycle configuration with average COP of 0.405, 0.89 and 1.01 respectively. While ventilation cycle based DEC configuration suits arid and semiarid climate of Karachi and another category of temperate/mesothermal climate of Shanghai with average COP of

  14. The continuation of the Kazerun fault system across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Homayon

    2009-08-01

    The Kazerun (or Kazerun-Qatar) fault system is a north-trending dextral strike-slip fault zone in the Zagros mountain belt of Iran. It probably originated as a structure in the Panafrican basement. This fault system played an important role in the sedimentation and deformation of the Phanerozoic cover sequence and is still seismically active. No previous studies have reported the continuation of this important and ancient fault system northward across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. The Isfahan fault system is a north-trending dextral strike-slip fault across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone that passes west of Isfahan city and is here recognized for the first time. This important fault system is about 220 km long and is seismically active in the basement as well as the sedimentary cover sequence. This fault system terminates to the south near the Main Zagros Thrust and to the north at the southern boundary of the Urumieh-Dokhtar zone. The Isfahan fault system is the boundary between the northern and southern parts of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, which have fundamentally different stratigraphy, petrology, geomorphology, and geodynamic histories. Similarities in the orientations, kinematics, and geologic histories of the Isfahan and Kazerun faults and the way they affect the magnetic basement suggest that they are related. In fact, the Isfahan fault is a continuation of the Kazerun fault across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone that has been offset by about 50 km of dextral strike-slip displacement along the Main Zagros Thrust.

  15. The acid-base resistant zone in three dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2009-11-01

    An acid-base resistant zone has been found to exist after acid-base challenge adjacent to the hybrid layer using SEM. The aim of this study was to examine the acid-base resistant zone using three different bonding systems. Dentin disks were applied with three different bonding systems, and then a resin composite was light-cured to make dentin disk sandwiches. After acid-base challenge, the polished surfaces were observed using SEM. For both one- and two-step self-etching primer systems, an acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed adjacent to the hybrid layer - but with differing appearances. For the wet bonding system, the presence of an acid-base resistant zone was unclear. This was because the self-etching primer systems etched the dentin surface mildly, such that the remaining mineral phase of dentin and the bonding agent yielded clear acid-base resistant zones. In conclusion, the acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed when self-etching primer systems were used, but not so for the wet bonding system.

  16. Upgrade of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System at the VNIIEF Industrial Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.C.; Maltsev, V.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Zone at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center/All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC/VNEEF) consists of ten guarded areas with twenty two material balance areas (A and As). The type of facilities in the Industrial Zone include storage sites, machine shops, research facilities, and training facilities. Modernization of the Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) System at the Industrial Zone started in 1997. This paper provides a description of, the methodology/strategy used in the upgrade of the MFC and A system

  17. Using purposeful landscape zoning of Ukraine to improve soil protection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Тишковець

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects of Ukrainian landscapes target zoning use for maintenance of soil protection system on agricultural lands have been presented. The analysis of current systems of purposeful zoning of territories in the country and modern approaches to its modernization has been done. The ameliorative functions of forest in accordance with existing main and supportive negative factors, forms and intensiveness of its appearance in concrete types of landscapes have been explained. The questions of forest projection optimization in accordance with natural-climatic conditions of certain regions have been described. The ways of qualitative new use of agroforest ameliorative measures have been determined. The new zoning system on the basis of main soil erosion factors principally differs from the previous systems. The proposed zoning method is characterized by complexity, involving main physical, geographical and agricultural factors in the order of their impact on soil erosion processes. These factors consist of climate (water and temperature regime, relief and character of agricultural use of territory. Meanwhile, other factors (soil, vegetative cover and other are used simultaneously with the main factors. That kind of zoning by the main factors of soil erosion is only the first stage. The second stage should be zoning by types of systems of counter erosion measures. In this article the authors have shown that when choosing agrarian ameliorative methods, the influence on negative factors on agriculture should be considered in the new zoning of the territory. A number of references and fund materials, including those of territorial zoning have been analyzed in the article. Preferences and negative aspects as well as selection of a basis for new agrarian ameliorative zoning of Ukrainian landscapes which includes the full information of factors and conditions of formation and expansion of negative factors for agriculture have been proposed.

  18. Economic analysis of hybrid power systems (PV/diesel) in different climatic zones of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, U.; Manoharan, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation on economic feasibility of PV/diesel system in various climatic zones. • HOMER is used to solve economic feasibility analysis. • By the sensitivity analysis, the net present cost is reduced. • Optimum climatic zone in Tamil Nadu, India is recommended. - Abstract: With the increasing threat to environment and the fast depleting fossil fuel resources, hybrid power systems consisting of two or more renewable energy sources such as solar PV, wind, biomass, ocean thermal-with or without the back up of diesel generator have come to the forefront. These hybrid systems are normally integrated with battery banks for total reliability; such systems have brought about better quality of life in remote areas of developing economics. The remote areas in the state of Tamil Nadu in India possess excellent renewable energy sources. These areas fall under different climatic zones, are sparsely populated and are in the process of development. Though these areas are connected to the grid, Tamil Nadu grid is not stable; it is currently experiencing 40% short fall in generation. Thus grid power is available to these remote areas only for 10 h a day and even when available, there are voltage frequency problems. This paper analyses the economic feasibility of installing and operating hybrid systems in these areas. The areas are divided into different climatic zones and the hybrid system economy is analyzed for each climatic zone on the basis of NPC (net present cost), consumption of diesel and renewable fraction for all climate zones. The analysis indicates that the interior climatic zone – the area would be the optimum climatic zone to install HPS PV/diesel. The sensitivity analysis proves that the NPC of such a system can be reduced. It is suggested that due to high initial cost, government subsidy is necessary to adopt the system on a large scale. Such a profit will encourage development of renewable energy utilization and bring about rapid

  19. Tank waste remediation system vadose zone program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenburg, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the vadose zone characterization under this program is to develop a better conceptual geohydrologic model of identified tank farms which will be characterized so that threats to human health and the environment from past leaks and spills, intentional liquid discharges, potential future leaks during retrieval, and from residual contaminants that may remain in tank farms at closure can be explicitly addressed in decision processes. This model will include geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical parameters as defined by the requirements of each of the TWRS programs identified here. The intent of this TWRS Vadose Zone Program Plan is to provide justification and an implementation plan for the following activities: Develop a sufficient understanding of subsurface conditions and transport processes to support decisions on management, cleanup, and containment of past leaks, spills, and intentional liquid discharges; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on controlling potential retrieval leaks; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on tank farm closure, including allowable residual waste that may remain at closure; and Provide new information on geotechnical properties in the 200 Area to supplement data used for design and performance assessment for immobilized low-activity waste disposal facilities

  20. Tank waste remediation system vadose zone program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, E.A.

    1998-07-27

    The objective of the vadose zone characterization under this program is to develop a better conceptual geohydrologic model of identified tank farms which will be characterized so that threats to human health and the environment from past leaks and spills, intentional liquid discharges, potential future leaks during retrieval, and from residual contaminants that may remain in tank farms at closure can be explicitly addressed in decision processes. This model will include geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical parameters as defined by the requirements of each of the TWRS programs identified here. The intent of this TWRS Vadose Zone Program Plan is to provide justification and an implementation plan for the following activities: Develop a sufficient understanding of subsurface conditions and transport processes to support decisions on management, cleanup, and containment of past leaks, spills, and intentional liquid discharges; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on controlling potential retrieval leaks; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on tank farm closure, including allowable residual waste that may remain at closure; and Provide new information on geotechnical properties in the 200 Area to supplement data used for design and performance assessment for immobilized low-activity waste disposal facilities.

  1. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pseudotachylytes, as well as the country rock, bear the evidence of conjugate strike slip shearing along NNE–SSW and NW–SE directions, suggesting an N–S compression. The Gangavalli Shear Zone represents the NNE–SSW fault of the conjugate system along which a right lateral shear has produced seismic slip motion ...

  2. Water and saliva contamination effect on shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a moisture-tolerant light cure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Ascensión; Mena, Ana; Ortiz, Antonio José; Bravo, Luis Alberto

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of water and saliva contamination on shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a moisture-tolerant light cure system. Brackets were bonded to 240 bovine lower incisors divided into 12 groups. Four bonding procedures were evaluated, including (1) TSEP/Transbond XT, (2) TMIP/ Transbond XT, (3) TSEP/Transbond PLUS, and (4) TMIP/Transbond PLUS, each under three different bonding conditions: without contamination, with water contamination, and with saliva contamination. Shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant on the teeth was quantified with the use of image analyzing equipment. Without contamination, bond strengths for the four procedures were similar (P > .05). TSEP/Tranbond PLUS and TMIP/Transbond PLUS left significantly less adhesive on the teeth after debonding than TSEP/Transbond XT and TMIP/Transbond XT (P .017), although for TMIP/ Transbond XT, both variables showed significant reductions after contamination (P < .017). TSEP/Transbond PLUS, TMIP/Transbond PLUS, and TSEP/Transbond XT showed greater tolerance to wet conditions than was shown by TMIP/Transbond XT.

  3. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.

  4. FaCT phase-I evaluation on the advanced aqueous reprocessing process (2). Development of mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing systems for FBR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Toru; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Fukushima, Mineo; Washiya, Tadahiro; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki

    2011-01-01

    JAEA promotes a development of an advanced head-end process in FaCT project. We selected mechanical cutting method for disassembly process and short stroke method for shearing process. In the FaCT phase-I, the criteria was set for decision about the innovative technology and some fundamental performances of the innovative technology such as precision, speed, durability, operation performance and system concept were discussed by the engineering test and design work. We designed and fabricated an engineering-scale test device for mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing and have carried out the engineering tests using simulated fuel assemblies. As a part of the engineering test results, the effects of cutting conditions on the durability of cutting tool and cutting stability were discussed. Also, the reduction of magazine width is effective to improve the precision of sheared pin length, and the bundle of simulated fuel pins were successfully sheared to 10 ± 5mm, which is a target for the sheared pin length. The criteria for the mechanical disassembly technology and the short stroke shearing technology were satisfied, so we judged that the development of innovative technologies has worth going on for the next phase in the FaCT project. (author)

  5. Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris; Orpe, Ashish; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2009-01-15

    We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity driven sheared granular flow with a computational model performed with the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). To our knowledge, this is the first thorough test of the LAMMPS model with a laboratory granular flow. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross-section, and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The boundary imposes a packing order, and the grains are observed to flow in layers which get progressively more disordered with distance from the walls. The computations use a Cundall--Strack contact model between the grains, using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies, and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. After appropriate scaling, we find that the mean velocity of the grains and the number density as a function of flow cross-section observed in the experiments and the simulations are in excellent agreement. The mean flow profile is observed to be unchanged over a broad range of coefficient of friction, except near the smooth wall. We show that the flow profile is not sensitive to atleast 10\\percent polydispersity in particle size. Because the grain elasticity used is smaller in the computations as compared with glass grains, wave-like features can be noted over short time scales in the mean velocity and the velocity auto-correlations measured in the simulations. These wave features occur over an intermediate timescale larger than the particle interaction but smaller than the

  6. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside... of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., within Sites 11-13 of FTZ 153, located in Riverside County... behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., as described in the application and Federal Register...

  7. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  8. A new confined high pressure rotary shear apparatus: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, D.; Coughlan, G.; Bedford, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The frictional properties of fault zone materials, and their evolution during slip, are of paramount importance for determining the earthquake mechanics of large tectonic faults. Friction is a parameter that is difficult to determine from seismological methods so much of our understanding comes from experiment. Rotary shear apparatuses have been widely used in experimental studies to elucidate the frictional properties of faults under realistic earthquake slip velocities (0.1-10 m/s) and displacements (>20 m). However one technical limitation of rotary shear experiments at seismic slip rates has been the lack of confinement. This has led to a limit on the normal stress (due to the strength of the forcing blocks) and also a lack of control of measurements of the pore fluid pressure. Here we present the first preliminary results from a rotary shear apparatus that has been developed to attempt to address this issue. The new fully confined ring shear apparatus has a fast-acting servo-hydraulic confining pressure system of up to 200 MPa and a servo-controlled upstream and downstream pore pressure system of up to 200 MPa. Displacement rates of 0.01μ/s to 2 m/s can be achieved. Fault gouge samples can therefore be sheared at earthquake speed whilst being subject to pressures typically associated with the depth of earthquake nucleation.

  9. Influence of Reinforcement Anisotropy on the Stress Distribution in Tension and Shear of a Fusion Magnet Insulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, K.; Raff, S.; Prokopec, R.; Weber, H. W.

    2008-03-01

    A glass fiber reinforced plastic laminate, which consists of half-overlapped wrapped Kapton/R-glass-fiber reinforcing tapes vacuum-pressure impregnated in a cyanate ester/epoxy blend, is proposed as the insulation system for the ITER Toroidal Field coils. In order to assess its mechanical performance under the actual operating conditions, cryogenic (77 K) tensile and interlaminar shear tests were done after irradiation to the ITER design fluence of 1×1022 m-2 (E>0.1 MeV). The data were then used for a Finite Element Method (FEM) stress analysis. We find that the mechanical strength and the fracture behavior as well as the stress distribution and the failure criteria are strongly influenced by the winding direction and the wrapping technique of the reinforcing tapes.

  10. Shear Strains, Strain Rates and Temperature Changes in Adiabatic Shear Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    X14A. It has been found that when bainitic and martensitic steels are sheared adiabatically, a layer of material within ths shear zone is altezed and...Sooiety for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1978, pp. 148-0. 21 TABLE II SOLID-STATE TRANSFORMATIONS IN BAINITIC STEEL TRANSFORMATION TRANSFORMATION...shear, thermoplastic, plasticity, plastic deformation, armor, steel IL AnSRACT ( -=nba asoa.tm a naeoesM iN faity by bleak n bet/2972 Experiments

  11. Sheared Electroconvective Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.

  12. Satellite communication system for emergency monitoring within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, C.; Mensa, M.; Kanevsky, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A Satellite Emergency Monitoring system of the Chernobyl Exclusive Zone (SEM CEZ) was designed to provide the Ukraine authorities and the neighbouring countries with updated information when an emergency situation occurs in the Exclusion Zone. This is of particular importance when environment contamination has transboundary effect. SEM system consists of mobile and fixed sensors reporting data via a dedicated satellite communications link. Mobile sensors are fitted with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers that determine current coordinates of the sensor. Sensors data are transmitted to the Emergency Monitoring Centre equipped with PC and a satellite terminal. Both sensors data and the current position are visualized on digital maps

  13. Prediction of Compressional, Shear, and Stoneley Wave Velocities from Conventional Well Log Data Using a Committee Machine with Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of compressional, shear, and Stoneley wave velocities, carried out by dipole sonic imager (DSI) logs, provides invaluable data in geophysical interpretation, geomechanical studies and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. The presented study proposes an improved methodology for making a quantitative formulation between conventional well logs and sonic wave velocities. First, sonic wave velocities were predicted from conventional well logs using artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, and neuro-fuzzy algorithms. Subsequently, a committee machine with intelligent systems was constructed by virtue of hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique while outputs of artificial neural network, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy models were used as inputs of the committee machine. It is capable of improving the accuracy of final prediction through integrating the outputs of aforementioned intelligent systems. The hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search tool, embodied in the structure of committee machine, assigns a weight factor to each individual intelligent system, indicating its involvement in overall prediction of DSI parameters. This methodology was implemented in Asmari formation, which is the major carbonate reservoir rock of Iranian oil field. A group of 1,640 data points was used to construct the intelligent model, and a group of 800 data points was employed to assess the reliability of the proposed model. The results showed that the committee machine with intelligent systems performed more effectively compared with individual intelligent systems performing alone.

  14. S3: School Zone Safety System Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seong-eun; Chong, Poh Kit; Kim, Daeyoung

    2009-01-01

    School zones are areas near schools that have lower speed limits and where illegally parked vehicles pose a threat to school children by obstructing them from the view of drivers. However, these laws are regularly flouted. Thus, we propose a novel wireless sensor network application called School zone Safety System (S3) to help regulate the speed limit and to prevent illegal parking in school zones. S3 detects illegally parked vehicles, and warns the driver and records the license plate number. To reduce the traveling speed of vehicles in a school zone, S3 measures the speed of vehicles and displays the speed to the driver via an LED display, and also captures the image of the speeding vehicle with a speed camera. We developed a state machine based vehicle detection algorithm for S3. From extensive experiments in our testbeds and data from a real school zone, it is shown that the system can detect all kinds of vehicles, and has an accuracy of over 95% for speed measurement. We modeled the battery life time of a sensor node and validated the model with a downscaled measurement; we estimate the battery life time to be over 2 years. We have deployed S3 in 15 school zones in 2007, and we have demonstrated the robustness of S3 by operating them for over 1 year. PMID:22454567

  15. System and method for investigating sub-surface features and 3D imaging of non-linear property, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-06-02

    A system and a method for generating a three-dimensional image of a rock formation, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation are provided. A first acoustic signal includes a first plurality of pulses. A second acoustic signal from a second source includes a second plurality of pulses. A detected signal returning to the borehole includes a signal generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic signals in a non-linear mixing zone within an intersection volume. The received signal is processed to extract the signal over noise and/or signals resulting from linear interaction and the three dimensional image of is generated.

  16. Effective ODE Zones in a Multi- Agent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    Simulations which contain a large number of agents with rules for agent-agent interactions may grow to a level of complexity where it is cumbersome to extract useful information, difficult to split or agregate parts, and taxing on computational resources. We present here an example where a coarse...... graining of the system, and replacement of individual interactions with ODEs describing dynamical interactions between ‘effective zones’, leads to a fast and useful simplified model of the original complex system....

  17. Vehicle emission implications of drivers' smart advisory system for traffic operations in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Wireless communication systems have been broadly applied in various complicated traffic operations to improve mobility and safety on roads, which may raise a concern about the implication of the new technology on vehicle emissions. This paper explores how the wireless communication systems improve drivers' driving behaviors and its contributions to the emission reduction, in terms of Operating Mode (OpMode) IDs distribution used in emission estimation. A simulated work zone with completed traffic operation was selected as a test bed. Sixty subjects were recruited for the tests, whose demographic distribution was based on the Census data in Houston, Texas. A scene of a pedestrian's crossing in the work zone was designed for the driving test. Meanwhile, a wireless communication system called Drivers Smart Advisory System (DSAS) was proposed and introduced in the driving simulation, which provided drivers with warning messages in the work zone. Two scenarios were designed for a leading vehicle as well as for a following vehicle driving through the work zone, which included a base test without any wireless communication systems, and a driving test with the trigger of the DSAS. Subjects' driving behaviors in the simulation were recorded to evaluate safety and estimate the vehicle emission using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released emission model MOVES. The correlation between drivers' driving behavior and the distribution of the OpMode ID during each scenario was investigated. Results show that the DSAS was able to induce drivers to accelerate smoothly, keep longer headway distance and stop earlier for a hazardous situation in the work zone, which driving behaviors result in statistically significant reduction in vehicle emissions for almost all studied air pollutants (p-values range from 4.10E-51 to 2.18E-03). The emission reduction was achieved by the switching the distribution of the OpMode IDs from higher emission zones to lower emission zones

  18. An automatic braking system that stabilizes leukocyte rolling by an increase in selectin bond number with shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Springer, T A

    1999-01-11

    Wall shear stress in postcapillary venules varies widely within and between tissues and in response to inflammation and exercise. However, the speed at which leukocytes roll in vivo has been shown to be almost constant within a wide range of wall shear stress, i.e., force on the cell. Similarly, rolling velocities on purified selectins and their ligands in vitro tend to plateau. This may be important to enable rolling leukocytes to be exposed uniformly to activating stimuli on endothelium, independent of local hemodynamic conditions. Wall shear stress increases the rate of dissociation of individual selectin-ligand tether bonds exponentially (, ) thereby destabilizing rolling. We find that this is compensated by a shear-dependent increase in the number of bonds per rolling step. We also find an increase in the number of microvillous tethers to the substrate. This explains (a) the lack of firm adhesion through selectins at low shear stress or high ligand density, and (b) the stability of rolling on selectins to wide variation in wall shear stress and ligand density, in contrast to rolling on antibodies (). Furthermore, our data successfully predict the threshold wall shear stress below which rolling does not occur. This is a special case of the more general regulation by shear of the number of bonds, in which the number of bonds falls below one.

  19. Karst system vadose zone hydrodynamics highlighted by an integrative geophysical and hydrogeological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Rochez, G.; Kaufmann, O.

    2015-12-01

    The vadose zone of karst systems plays an important role on the water dynamics. In particular, temporary perched aquifers can appear in the subsurface due to changes of climate conditions, diminished evapotranspiration and differences of porosity relative to deeper layers. It is therefore crucial, but challenging, to separate the hydrological signature of the vadose zone from the one of the saturated zone for understanding hydrological processes that occur in the vadose zone. Although many difficulties are usually encountered when studying karst environments due to their heterogeneities, cave systems offer an outstanding opportunity to investigate vadose zone from the inside with various techniques. We present results covering two years of hydrogeological and geophysical monitoring at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL), located in the Variscan fold-and-thrust belt (Belgium), a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. Hydrogeological data such as flows and levels monitoring or tracer tests performed in both vadose and saturated zones bring valuable information on the hydrological context of the studied area. Combining those results with geophysical measurements allows validating and imaging them with more integrative techniques. A microgravimetric monitoring involves a superconducting gravimeter continuously measuring at the surface of the RCL. Early in 2015, a second relative gravimeter was installed in the underlying cave system located 35 meters below the surface. This set up allows highlighting vadose gravity changes. These relative measurements are calibrated using an absolute gravimeter. 12 additional stations (7 at the surface, 5 in the cave) are monitored on a monthly basis by a spring gravimeter. To complete these gravimetric measurements, the site has been equipped with a permanent Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring system comprising an uncommon array of surface, borehole and cave electrodes. Although such

  20. Material flow enhancement in production assembly lines under application of zoned order picking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Živanić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduced research work relates to the possibility of material flow enhancement in production systems, with the apostrophe on material order picking in production assembly lines. The paper presents basic rules and the results related to formed computer models of zoned order picking systems under the application of developed bound cavities method.

  1. Analisis Pindah Panas pada Pipa Pendingin untuk Root Zone Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbaiti Araswati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Root zone cooling system is needed to alleviate high-temperature injury for high-yield greenhouse vegetables production. Analysis of heat transfer along the cooling pipe is very important in designing the root zone cooling system. The objectives of this research were (1 to analyze heat transfer in cooling pipe for zone cooling in a hydroponic system, (2 to validate the heat transfer dynamics model to predict the water temperature at the outlet of the cooling pipe, and (3 to perform model simulations for various types of pipe materials and lengths in several thermal conditions in the greenhouse. Root zone cooling system was performed by flowing water (10oC through a steel pipe along 25 m to the root zone. The analysis showed a decrease up to 2.8oC in the planting medium temperature 28.6oC from control 31.4oC. The validation of heat transfer model was conducted by comparing the predicted water temperature to that of measured on linear regression plot. The result showed a straight line Y=1.0026X and the coefficient of determination (R2 0.9867. Based on data analysis, the temperature of water reaches 1oC in steel and copper cooling pipes along 40 m and significantly different from the PVC that is 0.8oC.

  2. Thermal treatment system of hazardous residuals in three heating zones based on a microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna H, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal treatment system consists of a high power electric oven of three heating zones where each zone works up to 1200 Centigrades; it has the capacity of rising the central zone temperature up to 1000 Centigrades in 58 minutes approximately. This configuration of three zones could be programmed to different temperatures and they will be digitally controlled by a control microprocessor, which has been controlled by its own assembler language, in function of the PID control. There are also other important controls based on this microprocessor, as a signal amplification, starting and shutdown of high power step relays, activation and deactivation of both analogic/digital and digital/analogic convertors, port activation and basic data storage of the system. Two main characteristics were looked for this oven design; the first was the possibility of controlling the three zone temperature and the second was to reduce the rising and stabilization operation time and its digitized control. The principal function of the three zone oven is to accelerate the degradation of hazardous residuals by an oxidation instead combustion, through relatively high temperatures (minimum 800 Centigrades and maximum 1200 Centigrades); this process reduces the ash and volatile particulate production. The hazardous residuals will be pumped into the degradation system and after atomized through a packaged column; this step will avoid the direct contact of the residuals with the oven cores. These features make this system as closed process, which means that the residuals can not leak to the working area, reducing the exposure risk to the personnel. This three step oven system is the first stage of the complete hazardous residuals degradation system; after this, the flow will go into a cold plasma region where the process is completed, making a closed system. (Author)

  3. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-64-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 277--Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic Containers Production); Goodyear, Arizona On June 13, 2013, the Greater Maricopa Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 277, submitted a...

  4. Comparison of shear wave velocity measurements assessed with two different ultrasound systems in an ex-vivo tendon strain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Andrea B; Bachmann, Elias; Snedeker, Jess G; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Buck, Florian M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the reliability of SW velocity measurements of two different ultrasound systems and their correlation with the tangent traction modulus in a non-static tendon strain model. A bovine tendon was fixed in a custom-made stretching device. Force was applied increasing from 0 up to 18 Newton. During each strain state the tangent traction modulus was determined by the stretcher device, and SW velocity (m/s) measurements using a Siemens S3000 and a Supersonic Aixplorer US machine were done for shear modulus (kPa) calculation. A strong significant positive correlation was found between SW velocity assessed by the two ultrasound systems and the tangent traction modulus (r = 0.827-0.954, p Aixplorer 0.25 ± 0.3 m/s (p = 0.034). Mean difference of SW velocity between the two US-systems was 0.37 ± 0.3 m/s (p = 0.012). In conclusion, SW velocities are highly dependent on mechanical forces in the tendon tissue, but for controlled mechanical loads appear to yield reproducible and comparable measurements using different US systems.

  5. Shear instability of a gyroid diblock copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskimergen, Rüya; Mortensen, Kell; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2005-01-01

    -induced destabilization is discussed in relation to analogous observations on shear-induced order-to-order and disorder-to-order transitions observed in related block copolymer systems and in microemulsions. It is discussed whether these phenomena originate in shear-reduced fluctuations or shear-induced dislocations....

  6. The dynamics of a shear band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Diana; Capuani, Domenico; Bigoni, Davide

    2018-03-01

    A shear band of finite length, formed inside a ductile material at a certain stage of a continued homogeneous strain, provides a dynamic perturbation to an incident wave field, which strongly influences the dynamics of the material and affects its path to failure. The investigation of this perturbation is presented for a ductile metal, with reference to the incremental mechanics of a material obeying the J2-deformation theory of plasticity (a special form of prestressed, elastic, anisotropic, and incompressible solid). The treatment originates from the derivation of integral representations relating the incremental mechanical fields at every point of the medium to the incremental displacement jump across the shear band faces, generated by an impinging wave. The boundary integral equations (under the plane strain assumption) are numerically approached through a collocation technique, which keeps into account the singularity at the shear band tips and permits the analysis of an incident wave impinging a shear band. It is shown that the presence of the shear band induces a resonance, visible in the incremental displacement field and in the stress intensity factor at the shear band tips, which promotes shear band growth. Moreover, the waves scattered by the shear band are shown to generate a fine texture of vibrations, parallel to the shear band line and propagating at a long distance from it, but leaving a sort of conical shadow zone, which emanates from the tips of the shear band.

  7. motorable roads and transportation system in the agricultural zones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustain the traditional farming system. ... Consequently, people have to travel to work, to play, to buy and sell, to obtain professional services, to socialize and to convey agricultural products from one place to another. Road is an asset to ..... Cleaver, K.M (1993) A Strategy to Develop Agriculture in Sub-Saharan African and a.

  8. An underwater shear compactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biver, E.; Sims, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper, originally presented at the WM'96 Conference in Tucson Arizona, describes a concept of a specialised decommissioning tool designed to operate underwater and to reduce the volume of radioactive components by shearing and compacting. The shear compactor was originally conceived to manage the size reduction of a variety of decommissioned stainless steel tubes stored within a reactor fuel cooling pond and which were consuming a substantial volume of the pond. The main objective of this tool was to cut the long tubes into shorter lengths and to compact them into a flat rectangular form which could be stacked on the pond floor, thus saving valuable space. The development programme, undertaken on this project, investigated a wide range of factors which could contribute to an extended cutting blade performance, ie: materials of construction, cutting blade shape and cutting loads required, shock effects, etc. The second phase was to review other aspects of the design, such as radiological protection, cutting blade replacement, maintenance, pond installation and resultant wall loads, water hydraulics, collection of products of shearing/compacting operations, corrosion of the equipment, control system, operational safety and the ability of the equipment to operate in dry environments. The paper summarises the extended work programme involved with this shear compactor tool. (author)

  9. Study of two-zone reactor system using a pulsed neutron technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishin, B P; Platovskikh, Yu A; Didejkin, T S

    1977-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of a neutron flux time dependence after a sport fast neutron pulse in a reactor core - neutron reflector multiplying system have been conducted. A correlation between eigenvalues governing neutron flux decrease at t..-->..infinity for the two-zone system and eigenvalues for each zone has been established in terms of the one-group diffusion approximation. Experiments have been performed in an experimental subcritical assembly comprising a cylindrical uranium core surrounded by a radial water reflector with different boric acid concentrations.

  10. Effect of nanotechnology in self-etch bonding systems on the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaza M. Hammad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of silica dioxide (SiO2 nanofillers in different bonding systems on shear bond strength (SBS and mode of failure of orthodontic brackets at two experimental times. Methods: Ninety-six intact premolars were divided into four groups: A Conventional acid-etch and primer Transbond XT; B Transbond Plus self-etch primer; and two self-etch bonding systems reinforced with silica dioxide nanofiller at different concentrations: C Futurabond DC at 1%; D Optibond All-in-One at 7%. Each group was allocated into two subgroups (n = 12 according to experimental time (12 and 24 hours. SBS test was performed using a universal testing machine. ARI scores were determined under a stereomicroscope. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to determine the size and distribution of nanofillers. One-way ANOVA was used to compare SBS followed by the post-hoc Tukey test. The chi-square test was used to evaluate ARI scores. Results: Mean SBS of Futurabond DC and Optibond All-in-One were significantly lower than conventional system, and there were no significant differences between means SBS obtained with all self-etch bonding systems used in the study. Lower ARI scores were found for Futurabond DC and Optibond All-in-One. There was no significant difference of SBS and ARI obtained at either time points for all bonding systems. Relative homogeneous distribution of the fillers was observed with the bonding systems. Conclusion: Two nanofilled systems revealed the lowest bond strengths, but still clinically acceptable and less adhesive was left on enamel. It is advisable not to load the brackets immediately to the maximum.

  11. Effect of nanotechnology in self-etch bonding systems on the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shaza M.; El-Wassefy, Noha; Maher, Ahmed; Fawakerji, Shafik M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of silica dioxide (SiO2) nanofillers in different bonding systems on shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of orthodontic brackets at two experimental times. Methods: Ninety-six intact premolars were divided into four groups: A) Conventional acid-etch and primer Transbond XT; B) Transbond Plus self-etch primer; and two self-etch bonding systems reinforced with silica dioxide nanofiller at different concentrations: C) Futurabond DC at 1%; D) Optibond All-in-One at 7%. Each group was allocated into two subgroups (n = 12) according to experimental time (12 and 24 hours). SBS test was performed using a universal testing machine. ARI scores were determined under a stereomicroscope. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to determine the size and distribution of nanofillers. One-way ANOVA was used to compare SBS followed by the post-hoc Tukey test. The chi-square test was used to evaluate ARI scores. Results: Mean SBS of Futurabond DC and Optibond All-in-One were significantly lower than conventional system, and there were no significant differences between means SBS obtained with all self-etch bonding systems used in the study. Lower ARI scores were found for Futurabond DC and Optibond All-in-One. There was no significant difference of SBS and ARI obtained at either time points for all bonding systems. Relative homogeneous distribution of the fillers was observed with the bonding systems. Conclusion: Two nanofilled systems revealed the lowest bond strengths, but still clinically acceptable and less adhesive was left on enamel. It is advisable not to load the brackets immediately to the maximum. PMID:28444018

  12. Soil attributes of a silvopastoral system in Pernambuco Forest Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo N.B. Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated soil properties in a silvopastoral system using double rows of tree legumes. Treatments were signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens in monoculture or in consortium with sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia or gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium. Treatments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with 4 replications. Response variables included chemical characteristics and physical attributes of the soil. Silvopastoral systems had greater (P<0.001 soil exchangeable Ca (gliricidia = 3.2 and sabiá = 3.0 mmolc/dm3 than signalgrass monoculture (2.0 mmolc/dm3. Water infiltration rate was greater within the tree legume double rows (366 mm/h than in signalgrass (162 mm/h (P = 0.02. However, soil moisture was greater in signalgrass pastures (15.9% (P = 0.0020 than in silvopastures (14.9 and 14.8%, where soil moisture levels increased as distance from the tree rows increased. Conversely, the light fraction of soil organic matter was greater within the tree legume double rows than in the grassed area (P = 0.0019. Long-term studies are needed to determine if these benefits accumulate further and the productivity benefits which result.

  13. Ecosystem health evaluation system of the water-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ao; YUAN Hui; ZHANG Yan-hui; HU Gang

    2004-01-01

    This paper discribes the definition of ecosystem health for the water-level flutuation zone of the Three Gorges Region and puts forward an evaluation system involving indicators in three groups: 1) structural indicators comprise slope, biodiversity,environmental capacity, stability, restoration ability and damage situation; 2) functional indicators including probability of geological hazard, erosion rate, habitat rate, land use intension and days of tourist season; 3) environmental indicatiors made up of population quality, potential intension of human, ground water quality, ambient air quality, wastewater treatment rate, pesticide use rate, fertilizer use rate, environmental management and public participation. In the design of the system, the subject zone is regarded as the type similar to wetland and the impacts of human activities on the zone are attached great importance to.

  14. A control systems approach to quantify wall shear stress normalization by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C G van Bussel

    Full Text Available Flow-mediated dilation is aimed at normalization of local wall shear stress under varying blood flow conditions. Blood flow velocity and vessel diameter are continuous and opposing influences that modulate wall shear stress. We derived an index FMDv to quantify wall shear stress normalization performance by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery. In 22 fasting presumed healthy men, we first assessed intra- and inter-session reproducibilities of two indices pFMDv and mFMDv, which consider the relative peak and relative mean hyperemic change in flow velocity, respectively. Second, utilizing oral glucose loading, we evaluated the tracking performance of both FMDv indices, in comparison with existing indices [i.e., the relative peak diameter increase (%FMD, the peak to baseline diameter ratio (Dpeak/Dbase, and the relative peak diameter increase normalized to the full area under the curve of blood flow velocity with hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC or with area integrated to peak hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC_peak]. Inter-session and intra-session reproducibilities for pFMDv, mFMDv and %FMD were comparable (intra-class correlation coefficients within 0.521-0.677 range. Both pFMDv and mFMDv showed more clearly a reduction after glucose loading (reduction of ~45%, p≤0.001 than the other indices (% given are relative reductions: %FMD (~11%, p≥0.074; Dpeak/Dbase (~11%, p≥0.074; FMD/shearAUC_peak (~20%, p≥0.016 and FMD/shearAUC (~38%, p≤0.038. Further analysis indicated that wall shear stress normalization under normal (fasting conditions is already far from ideal (FMDv << 1, which (therefore does not materially change with glucose loading. Our approach might be useful in intervention studies to detect intrinsic changes in shear stress normalization performance in conduit arteries.

  15. The Ansel Adams zone system: HDR capture and range compression by chemical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J.

    2010-02-01

    We tend to think of digital imaging and the tools of PhotoshopTM as a new phenomenon in imaging. We are also familiar with multiple-exposure HDR techniques intended to capture a wider range of scene information, than conventional film photography. We know about tone-scale adjustments to make better pictures. We tend to think of everyday, consumer, silver-halide photography as a fixed window of scene capture with a limited, standard range of response. This description of photography is certainly true, between 1950 and 2000, for instant films and negatives processed at the drugstore. These systems had fixed dynamic range and fixed tone-scale response to light. All pixels in the film have the same response to light, so the same light exposure from different pixels was rendered as the same film density. Ansel Adams, along with Fred Archer, formulated the Zone System, staring in 1940. It was earlier than the trillions of consumer photos in the second half of the 20th century, yet it was much more sophisticated than today's digital techniques. This talk will describe the chemical mechanisms of the zone system in the parlance of digital image processing. It will describe the Zone System's chemical techniques for image synthesis. It also discusses dodging and burning techniques to fit the HDR scene into the LDR print. Although current HDR imaging shares some of the Zone System's achievements, it usually does not achieve all of them.

  16. Fault Identification Algorithm Based on Zone-Division Wide Area Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the power grid becomes more magnified and complicated, wide-area protection system in the practical engineering application is more and more restricted by the communication level. Based on the concept of limitedness of wide-area protection system, the grid with complex structure is divided orderly in this paper, and fault identification and protection action are executed in each divided zone to reduce the pressure of the communication system. In protection zone, a new wide-area protection algorithm based on positive sequence fault components directional comparison principle is proposed. The special associated intelligent electronic devices (IEDs zones which contain buses and transmission lines are created according to the installation location of the IEDs. When a fault occurs, with the help of the fault information collecting and sharing from associated zones with the fault discrimination principle defined in this paper, the IEDs can identify the fault location and remove the fault according to the predetermined action strategy. The algorithm will not be impacted by the load changes and transition resistance and also has good adaptability in open phase running power system. It can be used as a main protection, and it also can be taken into account for the back-up protection function. The results of cases study show that, the division method of the wide-area protection system and the proposed algorithm are effective.

  17. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  18. VADOSE ZONE STUDIES AT AN INDUSTRIAL CONTAMINATED SITE: THE VADOSE ZONE MONITORING SYSTEM AND CROSS-HOLE GEOPHYSICS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-01-01

    In situ vadose zone characterization is essential to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Most of these methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, they are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of informatio...

  19. Self-diffusion in the non-Newtonian regime of shearing liquid crystal model systems based on the Gay-Berne potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarman, Sten, E-mail: sarman@ownit.nu; Wang, Yong-Lei; Laaksonen, Aatto [Arrhenius Laboratory, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-02-07

    The self-diffusion coefficients of nematic phases of various model systems consisting of regular convex calamitic and discotic ellipsoids and non-convex bodies such as bent-core molecules and soft ellipsoid strings have been obtained as functions of the shear rate in a shear flow. Then the self-diffusion coefficient is a second rank tensor with three different diagonal components and two off-diagonal components. These coefficients were found to be determined by a combination of two mechanisms, which previously have been found to govern the self-diffusion of shearing isotropic liquids, namely, (i) shear alignment enhancing the diffusion in the direction parallel to the streamlines and hindering the diffusion in the perpendicular directions and (ii) the distortion of the shell structure in the liquid whereby a molecule more readily can escape from a surrounding shell of nearest neighbors, so that the mobility increases in every direction. Thus, the diffusion parallel to the streamlines always increases with the shear rate since these mechanisms cooperate in this direction. In the perpendicular directions, these mechanisms counteract each other so that the behaviour becomes less regular. In the case of the nematic phases of the calamitic and discotic ellipsoids and of the bent core molecules, mechanism (ii) prevails so that the diffusion coefficients increase. However, the diffusion coefficients of the soft ellipsoid strings decrease in the direction of the velocity gradient because the broadsides of these molecules are oriented perpendicularly to this direction due the shear alignment (i). The cross coupling coefficient relating a gradient of tracer particles in the direction of the velocity gradient and their flow in the direction of the streamlines is negative and rather large, whereas the other coupling coefficient relating a gradient in the direction of the streamlines and a flow in the direction of the velocity gradient is very small.

  20. Self-diffusion in the non-Newtonian regime of shearing liquid crystal model systems based on the Gay-Berne potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarman, Sten; Wang, Yong-Lei; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2016-02-01

    The self-diffusion coefficients of nematic phases of various model systems consisting of regular convex calamitic and discotic ellipsoids and non-convex bodies such as bent-core molecules and soft ellipsoid strings have been obtained as functions of the shear rate in a shear flow. Then the self-diffusion coefficient is a second rank tensor with three different diagonal components and two off-diagonal components. These coefficients were found to be determined by a combination of two mechanisms, which previously have been found to govern the self-diffusion of shearing isotropic liquids, namely, (i) shear alignment enhancing the diffusion in the direction parallel to the streamlines and hindering the diffusion in the perpendicular directions and (ii) the distortion of the shell structure in the liquid whereby a molecule more readily can escape from a surrounding shell of nearest neighbors, so that the mobility increases in every direction. Thus, the diffusion parallel to the streamlines always increases with the shear rate since these mechanisms cooperate in this direction. In the perpendicular directions, these mechanisms counteract each other so that the behaviour becomes less regular. In the case of the nematic phases of the calamitic and discotic ellipsoids and of the bent core molecules, mechanism (ii) prevails so that the diffusion coefficients increase. However, the diffusion coefficients of the soft ellipsoid strings decrease in the direction of the velocity gradient because the broadsides of these molecules are oriented perpendicularly to this direction due the shear alignment (i). The cross coupling coefficient relating a gradient of tracer particles in the direction of the velocity gradient and their flow in the direction of the streamlines is negative and rather large, whereas the other coupling coefficient relating a gradient in the direction of the streamlines and a flow in the direction of the velocity gradient is very small.

  1. Measurement of interfacial shear mechanical properties in thermal barrier coating systems by a barb pullout method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.Q.; Mumm, D.R.; Karlsson, A.M.; Kagawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A test technique has been developed to facilitate evaluation of the fracture characteristics of coatings and interfaces in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The methodology has particular application in analyzing delamination crack growth, where crack propagation occurs under predominantly mode II loading. The technique has been demonstrated by quantitatively measuring the effective delamination fracture resistance of an electron-beam physical vapor deposition TBC

  2. Hybrid system of unbonded post-tensioned CLT panels and light-frame wood shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ho; T. Dao; S. Aaleti; J. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer

    2016-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a relatively new type of massive timber system that has shown to possess excellent mechanical properties and structural behavior in building construction. When post-tensioned with high-strength tendons, CLT panels perform well under cyclic loadings because of two key characteristics: their rocking behavior and self-centering capacity....

  3. Localized stability criterion for kink modes in systems with small shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastie, R.J.; Johnson, J.L.

    1986-02-01

    A localized magnetohydrodynamic stability criterion for ideal kink instabilities is determined for systems where the safety factor has a local minimum on a rational surface with no pressure gradient. These modes are stable in the cylindrical limit, but toroidal effects can make them unstable. They could provide a partial explanation for the rapid current penetration observed in tokamaks. 7 refs

  4. Cost optimization of ADS design: Comparative study of externally driven heterogeneous and homogeneous two-zone subcritical reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulik, Volodymyr; Tkaczyk, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization of two-zone homogeneous subcritical systems has been performed. • A Serpent model for two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been developed. • The optimization of two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been carried out. • Economically optimal core composition of two-zone subcritical system was found. • The neutron spectra of the heterogeneous subcritical systems have been obtained. - Abstract: Subcritical systems driven by external neutron sources, commonly known as Accelerator-Driven System (ADS), are one type of advanced nuclear reactor exhibiting attractive characteristics, distinguished from the traditional critical systems by their intrinsic safety features. In addition, an ADS can be used for the transmutation of the nuclear waste, accumulated during the operation of existing reactors. The optimization of a subcritical nuclear reactor in terms of materials (fuel content, coolant, etc.), geometrical, and economical parameters is a crucial step in the process of their design and construction. This article describes the optimization modeling performed for homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems in terms of geometry of the fuel zones. Economical assessment was also carried out for the costs of the fuel in the core of the system. Optimization modeling was performed with the Serpent-1.1.18 Monte Carlo code. The model of a two-zone subcritical system with a fast inner and a thermal gas-cooled graphite-moderated outer zone was developed, simulated, and analyzed. The optimal value for the pitch of fuel elements in the thermal outer zone was investigated from the viewpoint of the cost of subcritical system. As the main goal of ADS development is nuclear waste transmutation, neutron spectra for both fast and thermal zones were obtained for different system configurations. The results of optimization modeling of homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems show that an optimal

  5. A new computer aided diagnosis system for evaluation of chronic liver disease with ultrasound shear wave elastography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Loupas, Thanasis; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C

    2016-03-01

    Classify chronic liver disease (CLD) from ultrasound shear-wave elastography (SWE) imaging by means of a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The proposed algorithm employs an inverse mapping technique (red-green-blue to stiffness) to quantify 85 SWE images (54 healthy and 31 with CLD). Texture analysis is then applied involving the automatic calculation of 330 first and second order textural features from every transformed stiffness value map to determine functional features that characterize liver elasticity and describe liver condition for all available stages. Consequently, a stepwise regression analysis feature selection procedure is utilized toward a reduced feature subset that is fed into the support vector machines (SVMs) classification algorithm in the design of the CAD system. With regard to the mapping procedure accuracy, the stiffness map values had an average difference of 0.01 ± 0.001 kPa compared to the quantification results derived from the color-box provided by the built-in software of the ultrasound system. Highest classification accuracy from the SVM model was 87.0% with sensitivity and specificity values of 83.3% and 89.1%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis gave an area under the curve value of 0.85 with [0.77-0.89] confidence interval. The proposed CAD system employing color to stiffness mapping and classification algorithms offered superior results, comparing the already published clinical studies. It could prove to be of value to physicians improving the diagnostic accuracy of CLD and can be employed as a second opinion tool for avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures.

  6. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  7. Estimating the Spatial Extent of Unsaturated Zones in Heterogeneous River-Aquifer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver S.; Irvine, Dylan J.; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Brunner, Philip

    2017-12-01

    The presence of unsaturated zones at the river-aquifer interface has large implications on numerous hydraulic and chemical processes. However, the hydrological and geological controls that influence the development of unsaturated zones have so far only been analyzed with simplified conceptualizations of flow processes, or homogeneous conceptualizations of the hydraulic conductivity in either the aquifer or the riverbed. We systematically investigated the influence of heterogeneous structures in both the riverbed and the aquifer on the development of unsaturated zones. A stochastic 1-D criterion that takes both riverbed and aquifer heterogeneity into account was developed using a Monte Carlo sampling technique. The approach allows the reliable estimation of the upper bound of the spatial extent of unsaturated areas underneath a riverbed. Through systematic numerical modeling experiments, we furthermore show that horizontal capillary forces can reduce the spatial extent of unsaturated zones under clogged areas. This analysis shows how the spatial structure of clogging layers and aquifers influence the propensity for unsaturated zones to develop: In riverbeds where clogged areas are made up of many small, spatially disconnected patches with a diameter in the order of 1 m, unsaturated areas are less likely to develop compared to riverbeds where large clogged areas exist adjacent to unclogged areas. A combination of the stochastic 1-D criterion with an analysis of the spatial structure of the clogging layers and the potential for resaturation can help develop an appropriate conceptual model and inform the choice of a suitable numerical simulator for river-aquifer systems.

  8. STABILITY OF ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN AND AROUND THE HABITABLE ZONE OF THE HD 47186 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Raymond, Sean N.; Barnes, Rory

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamical stability of an additional, potentially habitable planet in the HD 47186 planetary system. Two planets are currently known in this system: a 'hot Neptune' with a period of 4.08 days and a Saturn-mass planet with a period of 3.7 years. Here we consider the possibility that one or more undetected planets exist between the two known planets and possibly within the habitable zone (HZ) in this system. Given the relatively low masses of the known planets, additional planets could have masses ∼ + , and hence be terrestrial-like and further improving potential habitability. We perform N-body simulations to identify the stable zone between planets b and c and find that much of the inner HZ can harbor a 10 M + planet. With the current radial velocity threshold of ∼1 m s -1 , an additional planet should be detectable if it lies at the inner edge of the habitable zone at 0.8 AU. We also show that the stable zone could contain two additional planets of 10 M + each if their eccentricities are lower than ∼0.3.

  9. Gelation under shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Straty, G.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States); Muzny, C.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An experimental small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of dense silica gels, prepared from suspensions of 24 nm colloidal silica particles at several volume fractions {theta} is discussed. Provided that {theta}{approx_lt}0.18, the scattered intensity at small wave vectors q increases as the gelation proceeds, and the structure factor S(q, t {yields} {infinity}) of the gel exhibits apparent power law behavior. Power law behavior is also observed, even for samples with {theta}>0.18, when the gel is formed under an applied shear. Shear also enhances the diffraction maximum corresponding to the inter-particle contact distance of the gel. Difficulties encountered when trying to interpret SANS data from these dense systems are outlined. Results of computer simulations intended to mimic gel formation, including computations of S(q, t), are discussed. Comments on a method to extract a fractal dimension characterizing the gel are included.

  10. Adaptive variable structure control for uncertain chaotic systems containing dead-zone nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.-J.; Shyu, K.-K.; Lin, J.-S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a practical tracking problem for a class of uncertain chaotic systems with dead-zone nonlinearity in the input function. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem and Barbalat lemma, an adaptive variable structure controller (AVSC) is proposed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding mode even though the control input contains a dead-zone. Also it is worthy of note that the proposed AVSC involves no information of the upper bound of uncertainty. Thus, the limitation of knowing the bound of uncertainty in advance is certainly released. Furthermore, in the sliding mode, the investigated uncertain chaotic system remains insensitive to the uncertainty, and behaves like a linear system. Finally, a well-known Duffing-Holmes chaotic system is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed AVSC

  11. Robust multi-model predictive control of multi-zone thermal plate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poom Jatunitanon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A modern controller was designed by using the mathematical model of a multi–zone thermal plate system. An important requirement for this type of controller is that it must be able to keep the temperature set-point of each thermal zone. The mathematical model used in the design was determined through a system identification process. The results showed that when the operating condition is changed, the performance of the controller may be reduced as a result of the system parameter uncertainties. This paper proposes a weighting technique of combining the robust model predictive controller for each operating condition into a single robust multi-model predictive control. Simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional multi-model predictive control in rise time of transient response, when used in a system designed to work over a wide range of operating conditions.

  12. Adaptive Neural Tracking Control for Discrete-Time Switched Nonlinear Systems with Dead Zone Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the adaptive neural controllers of subsystems are proposed for a class of discrete-time switched nonlinear systems with dead zone inputs under arbitrary switching signals. Due to the complicated framework of the discrete-time switched nonlinear systems and the existence of the dead zone, it brings about difficulties for controlling such a class of systems. In addition, the radial basis function neural networks are employed to approximate the unknown terms of each subsystem. Switched update laws are designed while the parameter estimation is invariable until its corresponding subsystem is active. Then, the closed-loop system is stable and all the signals are bounded. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an example is employed.

  13. A Method for Optimal Load Dispatch of a Multi-zone Power System with Zonal Exchange Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Durlav; Das, Ranjay

    2018-04-01

    This paper presented a method for economic generation scheduling of a multi-zone power system having inter zonal operational constraints. For this purpose, the generator rescheduling for a multi area power system having inter zonal operational constraints has been represented as a two step optimal generation scheduling problem. At first, the optimal generation scheduling has been carried out for the zone having surplus or deficient generation with proper spinning reserve using co-ordination equation. The power exchange required for the deficit zones and zones having no generation are estimated based on load demand and generation for the zone. The incremental transmission loss formulas for the transmission lines participating in the power transfer process among the zones are formulated. Using these, incremental transmission loss expression in co-ordination equation, the optimal generation scheduling for the zonal exchange has been determined. Simulation is carried out on IEEE 118 bus test system to examine the applicability and validity of the method.

  14. Thermocapillary and shear driven flows in gas/liquid system in annular duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, Yu; Shevtsova, V; Nepomnyashchy, A

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of numerical study of two-phase flows in annulus for different aspect ratios obtained in the frame of the JEREMI experiment preparation. The geometry of the physical problem is a cylindrical and non-deformable liquid bridge concentrically surrounded by an annular gas channel under conditions of zero gravity. Thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection in liquid bridge of Pr = 68 is analyzed in the case when the interface is subjected to an axial gas stream. The gas flow is counter-directed with respect to the Marangoni flow. The inlet gas velocity U 0 g , temperature difference ΔT between end rods of the liquid bridge and aspect ratio are the control parameters of the system. In the case when the gas stream comes from the cold side, it cools down the interface to a temperature lower than that of the liquid beneath, and in a certain region of the parameter space that cooling causes instability due to a temperature difference in the direction, perpendicular to the interface. The present study is focused on the influence of the aspect ratio on the existence and characteristic features of the oscillatory regime.

  15. Study on the construction of Guangdong coastal zone sustainable development decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yong-zhu; Zhang, Mei-ying; Xia, Bin; Zhang, Zheng-dong

    2008-10-01

    Coastal zones in Guangdong province are increasingly facing an ecological, economic and social pressure due to the increasing economic utilization and human activities in these regions worldwide, which is threatening the sustainable development of human being. How to take effective measurements and adopt integrated management to ensure sustainable development in these areas is ever becoming a focus that attracts close attentions to the governmental and academic sectors recently. It is important to resolve the problem to establish an advanced decision support system for the coastal zone sustainable development to help scientific decision-making and carry out integrated coastal zone management. This paper mainly introduces the general framework of Guangdong coastal zone sustainable development decision support system (GDCZSDDSS), including its requirements, general objectives, function and structure, and key technologies etc. After expounding the basic concept and requirements of GDCZSDDSS, the paper discusses generally the three-tier architecture and six kinds of functional modules, and lays a particular emphasis on the crucial role of such key technologies as GIS, RS and GPS (3S), spatial metadata and data warehouse etc., and discusses the methods of the GCZSDDSS integration, which aims at offering a whole solution for realization of the GCZSDDSS ultimately.

  16. Development of a system for measuring wall shear stress in blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Keita; Nagao, Taisuke; Okada, Kouji; Miyazaki, Shohei; Yang, Xiaomei; Yamazaki, Youichi; Murase, Kenya

    2008-01-01

    We developed a system for measuring the wall shear stress (WSS) in blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The time-dependent velocity at the center of the blood vessel was measured by phase-contrast MRI and was approximated by finite Fourier series, which was used for generating the velocity profile at the inlet for the boundary condition to the CFD method. To validate the CFD method, we compared the WSS obtained by the CFD method with the theoretical value in a straight cylinder with various radii for both steady and pulsatile flows. We also investigated the dependence of the WSS on the inlet velocity profile incorporated into the CFD method. For steady flow, there was a good agreement between the WSS obtained by the CFD method and the theoretical value. For pulsatile flow, there was a relatively good agreement between them when the radius of the cylinder was 2.5 mm and the inlet velocity profile was given by the Womersley solution for fully developed pulsatile flow in a straight circular cylinder. When the radius of the cylinder was 5 mm and/or the inlet velocity profile was assumed to be parabolic, large differences were observed between them, suggesting that the assumption of fully developed flow does not hold true in these cases. In human studies, the vortex due to the secondary blood flow in the carotid arterial sinus was clearly observed. The WSS in the bifurcation was the highest, while that in the carotid arterial sinus was the smallest. In conclusion, the system presented here appears to be useful for measuring the WSS in blood vessels and for analyzing the cause and/or extent of atherosclerosis, and our results suggest that the inlet velocity profile should be carefully considered. (author)

  17. Generalized projective chaos synchronization of gyroscope systems subjected to dead-zone nonlinear inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, H.-T.

    2008-01-01

    This Letter presents a robust control scheme to generalized projective synchronization between two identical two-degrees-of-freedom heavy symmetric gyroscopes with dead zone nonlinear inputs. Because of the nonlinear terms of the gyroscope system, the system exhibits complex and chaotic motions. By the Lyapunov stability theory with control terms, two suitable sliding surfaces are proposed to ensure the stability of the controlled closed-loop system in sliding mode. Then, two sliding mode controllers (SMC) are designed to guarantee the hitting of the sliding surfaces even when the control inputs contain dead-zone nonlinearity. This method allows us to arbitrarily direct the scaling factor onto a desired value. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well for the proposed controller

  18. Control of oxygen tension recapitulates zone-specific functions in human liver microphysiology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Montiel, Felipe T; George, Subin M; Gough, Albert H; Sharma, Anup D; Wu, Juanfang; DeBiasio, Richard; Vernetti, Lawrence A; Taylor, D Lansing

    2017-10-01

    This article describes our next generation human Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System (LAMPS). The key demonstration of this study was that Zone 1 and Zone 3 microenvironments can be established by controlling the oxygen tension in individual devices over the range of ca. 3 to 13%. The oxygen tension was computationally modeled using input on the microfluidic device dimensions, numbers of cells, oxygen consumption rates of hepatocytes, the diffusion coefficients of oxygen in different materials and the flow rate of media in the MicroPhysiology System (MPS). In addition, the oxygen tension was measured using a ratiometric imaging method with the oxygen sensitive dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (RTDP) and the oxygen insensitive dye, Alexa 488. The Zone 1 biased functions of oxidative phosphorylation, albumin and urea secretion and Zone 3 biased functions of glycolysis, α1AT secretion, Cyp2E1 expression and acetaminophen toxicity were demonstrated in the respective Zone 1 and Zone 3 MicroPhysiology System. Further improvements in the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System included improved performance of selected nonparenchymal cells, the inclusion of a porcine liver extracellular matrix to model the Space of Disse, as well as an improved media to support both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. In its current form, the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System is most amenable to low to medium throughput, acute through chronic studies, including liver disease models, prioritizing compounds for preclinical studies, optimizing chemistry in structure activity relationship (SAR) projects, as well as in rising dose studies for initial dose ranging. Impact statement Oxygen zonation is a critical aspect of liver functions. A human microphysiology system is needed to investigate the impact of zonation on a wide range of liver functions that can be experimentally manipulated. Because oxygen zonation has such diverse physiological effects in the liver, we

  19. The strain-dependent spatial evolution of garnet in a high- P ductile shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway): a synchrotron X-ray microtomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macente, A. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Fusseis, F. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Menegon, L. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Fitzroy Drake Circus Plymouth Devon PL4 8AA UK; Xianghui, X. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave Building 431-B003 Argonne IL USA; John, T. [Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100 12249 Berlin Germany

    2017-03-27

    Reaction and deformation microfabrics provide key information to understand the thermodynamic and kinetic controls of tectono-metamorphic processes, however they are usually analysed in two dimensions, omitting important information regarding the third spatial dimension. We applied synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography to document the evolution of a pristine olivine gabbro into a deformed omphacite-garnet eclogite in four dimensions, where the 4th dimension is represented by the degree of strain. In the investigated samples, which cover a strain gradient into a shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), we focused on the spatial transformation of garnet coronas into elongated clusters of garnets with increasing strain. Our microtomographic data allowed quantification of garnet volume, shape and spatial arrangement evolution with increasing strain. We combined microtomographic observations with light microscope- and backscatter electron images as well as electron microprobe- (EMPA) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis to correlate mineral composition and orientation data with the X-ray absorption signal of the same mineral grains. With increasing deformation, the garnet volume almost triples. In the low strain domain, garnets form a well interconnected large garnet aggregate that develops throughout the entire Page 1 of 52 sample. We also observed that garnet coronas in the gabbros never completely encapsulate olivine grains. In the most highly deformed eclogites, the oblate shapes of garnet clusters reflect a deformational origin of the microfabrics. We interpret the aligned garnet aggregates to direct synkinematic fluid flow and consequently influence the transport of dissolved chemical components. EBSD analyses reveal that garnet show a near-random crystal preferred orientation that testifies no evidence for crystal plasticity. There is, however evidence for minor fracturing, neo-nucleation and overgrowth. Microprobe chemical analysis

  20. An Operational Web-Based Indicator System for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Sten Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the last twenty years, provides the overall policy frames, but tools to support the planning and management efforts are almost lacking. Furthermore, the forward-looking dimension to embrace the effects of climate change is nearly absent in most implementations. The BLAST project, financed by the European Union Regional Fund through the INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, aimed at developing a web-based decision support system to assist Integrated Coastal Zone Management from a climate change perspective, and the current paper describes the methods used and the computing platform for implementing a decision support system. The software applied in developing the system is mainly Open Source components, thus, facilitating a more widespread use of the system.

  1. Magnetron sputtering system with an annual discharge zone and two cathode modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savich, V. A.; Yasyunas, A. A.; Kovrigo, V. M.; Kotov, D. A.; Shiripov, V. Ya.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, general discharge characteristics of a cylindrical magnetron sputtering system with an annual sputtering zone and a high target usage coefficient designed for transparent conducting coatings are shown. Two coupled DC-cathodes are used to improve coating uniformity. Radial sputtered material fluxes are being created. The engineered magnetic system is extremely balanced (G-factor is much higher than 2) and thus provides maximal effective operating power higher than 6 kW. The effectiveness of a magnetic trap results in a fast work cycle (less than 1.5 min) and a high target material usage coefficient (higher than 40%). A multipole magnetic field with null magnetic flux density zones lower target’s surface is being created. There is an influence between cathode modules despite mutual magnetic isolation, so magnetic conductors-shunts are used to weaken it. The magnetron can be used to sputter both metals and conducting ceramics (including ITO). (authors)

  2. Study of two-zone reactor system using a pulsed neutron technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishin, B.P.; Platovskikh, Yu.A.; Didejkin, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of a neutron flux time dependence after a sport fast neutron pulse in a reactor core - neutron reflector multiplying system have been conducted. A correlation between eigenvalues governing neutron flux decrease at t→infinity for the two-zone system and eigenvalues for each zone has been established in terms of the one-group diffusion approximation. Experiments have been performed in an experimental subcritical assembly comprising a cylindrical uranium core surrounded by a radial water reflector with different boric acid concentrations. The experiments show that the observed neutron flux decrease in the core is governed by an exponent exp(-Λ 1 t), whereas in the reflector by a sum of two exponents exp(-Λ 1 t) and exp(-Λ 2 t). The eigenvalue Λ 1 reflects multiplying properties of the reactor, and Λ 2 is determined by the reflector absorption cross section

  3. MODELING OF THERMOELECTRIC SYSTEM FOR LOCAL THERMAL EFFECTS ON HUMAN FOREARM ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a model of the thermoelectric system for the thermal effect on the human forearm. The model is implemented on the basis of numerical solution of differentialequations of heat conduction for bodies of complex configuration. Two-dimensional and onedimensional graphs of the temperature change in different zones of the object of exposure aregiven.

  4. Quasistationary Plasma Predator-Prey System of Coupled Turbulence, Drive, and Sheared E ×B Flow During High Performance DIII-D Tokamak Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barada, K.; Rhodes, T. L.; Burrell, K. H.; Zeng, L.; Bardóczi, L.; Chen, Xi; Muscatello, C. M.; Peebles, W. A.

    2018-03-01

    A new, long-lived limit cycle oscillation (LCO) regime has been observed in the edge of near zero torque high performance DIII-D tokamak plasma discharges. These LCOs are localized and composed of density turbulence, gradient drives, and E ×B velocity shear damping (E and B are the local radial electric and total magnetic fields). Density turbulence sequentially acts as a predator (via turbulence transport) of profile gradients and a prey (via shear suppression) to the E ×B velocity shear. Reported here for the first time is a unique spatiotemporal variation of the local E ×B velocity, which is found to be essential for the existence of this system. The LCO system is quasistationary, existing from 3 to 12 plasma energy confinement times (˜30 - 900 LCO cycles) limited by hardware constraints. This plasma system appears to contribute strongly to the edge transport in these high performance and transient-free plasmas, as evident from oscillations in transport relevant edge parameters at LCO time scale.

  5. Shear bond strength of self-etching adhesive systems with different pH values to bleached and/or CPP-ACP-treated enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Navimipour, Elmira Jafari; Firouzmandi, Maryam

    2012-08-01

    To compare shear bond strengths of three different self-etching adhesive systems of different pH values to enamel bleached with carbamide peroxide, treated with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), or treated with CPP-ACP subsequent to bleaching with carbamide peroxide. Thirty-six human third molars were cut into 4 sections and randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 36): group I: no treatment; group II: bleaching; group III: CPP-ACP; group IV: bleaching and CPP-ACP. After surface treatments, the samples of each group were further divided into three subgroups (n = 12) based on the adhesive used. The adhesives Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), AdhesE (ADE), and Adper SE Plus (ADP) were applied, and resin composite cylinders with a diameter of 2 mm and a height of 4 mm were bonded to the enamel. Then the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. Two-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). There were significant differences between the adhesive systems (p system showed the highest bond strength, and the bleaching procedure reduced bond strengths (p = 0.001). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in shear bond strength values between the control and CPP groups. However, the differences between other groups were statistically significant (p material dependent.

  6. Variation in village chicken production systems among agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchadeyi, F C; Wollny, C B A; Eding, H; Weigend, S; Makuza, S M; Simianer, H

    2007-08-01

    The degree to which village chickens are integrated in the smallholder farming systems differs depending on the socio-economic, cultural and biological factors within each system. The objective of this study was to characterise the village chicken farming systems and identify possible threats to, and opportunities for, local chickens in the agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to households randomly selected from five districts, Risitu (n=97), Hurungwe (n=56), Gutu (n=77), Gokwe-South (n=104) and Beitbridge (n=37) in eco-zones I-V, respectively. Age of head of household averaged 47 years (SD = 14.3). Land holdings per household averaged 4.82 ha (SD = 3.6). Overall, 17.7 percent of the households ranked livestock as the major source of income compared to 70.8 percent who ranked crops as the main contributor. Chicken flock size averaged 16.7 (SD = 12.4), and the highest flock sizes were observed in eco-zones I and IV. Households owning cattle, goats and other livestock assigned less important ranks to chickens. Chickens were usedmainly for the provision of meat and eggs whilst the use of chicken feathers and investment were uncommon practises. Results indicate that more support is necessary for village chickens in the non-cropping regions of the country.

  7. Development and Application of a Planning Support System for Regional Spatial Functional Zoning Based on GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional spatial functional zoning in China is a large-scale strategic planning and requires very advanced planning decision support technology. With respect to spatial functional zoning, the planning support system (PSS is introduced as one of the most popular computer aided planning systems at the present time in this paper, and is further explained with the example of the latest regional main functional area (RMFA planning in China. On the Visual Studio.NET visualization development platform, the planning decision model, planning decision method, and GIS are organically integrated and customized by using the component-type secondary development technology of the ArcGIS Engine with the development language VB.NET. Hence, a highly efficient and flexible planning support system of regional main functional areas (RMFA-PSS is established. It was adopted in the research of the Beijing–Tianjin area in China and accordingly two types of main functional area planning are acquired. The RMFA-PSS offers an efficient and flexible decision support with regard to RMFA planning. The research can provide a reference for further PSS development and applications related to other types of spatial functional zoning.

  8. Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar (CZMIL): first flights and system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Aitken, Jennifer; Kim, Minsu; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2012-09-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery sensor system and software suite designed for the highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for mapping the coastal zone. This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. The system performance test shows that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) in Mississippi and up to 41m when Kd=0.11m-1 in Florida. With a seven segment array for topographic mode and the shallow water zone, CZMIL generated high resolution products with a maximum pulse rate of 70 kHz, and with 10 kHz in the deep water zone. Diffuse attenuation coefficient, bottom reflectance and other environmental parameters for the whole multi km2 area were estimated based on fusion of lidar and CASI-1500 hyperspectral camera data.

  9. Design Optimization of a Small-Scale Polygeneration Energy System in Different Climate Zones in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ghaem Sigarchian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Design and performance of polygeneration energy systems are highly influenced by several variables, including the climate zone, which can affect the load profile as well as the availability of renewable energy sources. To investigate the effects, in this study, the design of a polygeneration system for identical residential buildings that are located in three different climate zones in Iran has been investigated. To perform the study, a model has previously developed by the author is used. The performance of the polygeneration system in terms of energy, economy and environment were compared to each other. The results show significant energetic and environmental benefits of the implementation of polygeneration systems in Iran, especially in the building that is located in a hot climate, with a high cooling demand and a low heating demand. Optimal polygeneration system for an identical building has achieved a 27% carbon dioxide emission reduction in the cold climate, while this value is around 41% in the hot climate. However, when considering the price of electricity and gas in the current energy market in Iran, none of the systems are feasible and financial support mechanisms or other incentives are required to promote the application of decentralized polygeneration energy systems.

  10. Evaluation of a real-time travel time prediction system in a freeway construction work zone : final report, March 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A real-time travel time prediction system (TIPS) was evaluated in a construction work zone. TIPS includes changeable message signs (CMSs) displaying the travel time and distance to the end of the work zone to motorists. The travel times displayed by ...

  11. Evaluation of a real-time travel time prediction system in a freeway construction work zone : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A real-time travel time prediction system (TIPS) was evaluated in a construction work : zone. TIPS includes changeable message signs (CMSs) displaying the travel time and : distance to the end of the work zone to motorists. The travel times displayed...

  12. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  13. Origins of Shear Jamming for Frictional Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Hu; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Granular systems have been shown to be able to behave like solids, under shear, even when their densities are below the critical packing fraction for frictionless isotropic jamming. To understand such a phenomena, called shear jamming, the question we address here is: how does shear bring a system from a unjammed state to a jammed state, where the coordination number, Z, is no less than 3, the isotropic jamming point for frictional grains? Since Z can be used to distinguish jammed states from unjammed ones, it is vital to understand how shear increases Z. We here propose a set of three particles in contact, denoted as a trimer, as the basic unit to characterize the deformation of the system. Trimers, stabilized by inter-grain friction, fail under a certain amount of shear and bend to make extra contacts to regain stability. By defining a projection operator of the opening angle of the trimer to the compression direction in the shear, O, we see a systematically linear decrease of this quantity with respect to shear strain, demonstrating the bending of trimers as expected. In addition, the average change of O from one shear step to the next shows a good collapse when plotted against Z, indicating a universal behavior in the process of shear jamming. We acknowledge support from NSF DMR1206351, NASA NNX15AD38G, the William M. Keck Foundation and a RT-MRSEC Fellowship.

  14. Study of toluene rotary fluid management device and shear flow condenser performance for a space-based organic Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Vance; Ragaller, Dana

    1988-01-01

    Management of two-phase fluid and control of the heat transfer process in microgravity is a technical challenge that must be addressed for an orbital Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application. A test program was performed in 1-g that satisfactorily demonstrated the two-phase management capability of the rotating fluid management device (RFMD) and shear-flow condenser. Operational tests of the RFMD and shear flow condenser in adverse gravity orientations, confirmed that the centrifugal forces in the RFMD and the shear forces in the condenser were capable of overcoming gravity forces. In a microgravity environment, these same forces would not have to compete against gravity and would therefore be dominant. The specific test program covered the required operating range of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Rankine Cycle power system. Review of the test data verified that: fluid was pumped from the RFMD in all attitudes; subcooled states in the condenser were achieved; condensate was pushed uphill against gravity; and noncondensible gases were swept through the condenser.

  15. Chemical controls on fault behavior: weakening of serpentinite sheared against quartz-bearing rocks and its significance for fault creep in the San Andreas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The serpentinized ultramafic rocks found in many plate-tectonic settings commonly are juxtaposed against crustal rocks along faults, and the chemical contrast between the rock types potentially could influence the mechanical behavior of such faults. To investigate this possibility, we conducted triaxial experiments under hydrothermal conditions (200-350°C), shearing serpentinite gouge between forcing blocks of granite or quartzite. In an ultramafic chemical environment, the coefficient of friction, µ, of lizardite and antigorite serpentinite is 0.5-0.6, and µ increases with increasing temperature over the tested range. However, when either lizardite or antigorite serpentinite is sheared against granite or quartzite, strength is reduced to µ ~ 0.3, with the greatest strength reductions at the highest temperatures (temperature weakening) and slowest shearing rates (velocity strengthening). The weakening is attributed to a solution-transfer process that is promoted by the enhanced solubility of serpentine in pore fluids whose chemistry has been modified by interaction with the quartzose wall rocks. The operation of this process will promote aseismic slip (creep) along serpentinite-bearing crustal faults at otherwise seismogenic depths. During short-term experiments serpentine minerals reprecipitate in low-stress areas, whereas in longer experiments new Mg-rich phyllosilicates crystallize in response to metasomatic exchanges across the serpentinite-crustal rock contact. Long-term shear of serpentinite against crustal rocks will cause the metasomatic mineral assemblages, which may include extremely weak minerals such as saponite or talc, to play an increasingly important role in the mechanical behavior of the fault. Our results may explain the distribution of creep on faults in the San Andreas system.

  16. Conservatism in SRS Criticality Alarm System 12 Rad Zone Calculations - How Much is Enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) uses two methods (i.e., Approximate Method and MCNP) of calculating the 12-rad zone. The reasons for the two-tier approach are described in Ref. 1 and 2. Lately, there have been occasions in which the use of either the Approximate Method (AM) or MCNP3 calculations indicated potential facility impacts. For example, one or both methods may indicate that a 12-rad zone extends outside of relatively thick shielding, or extends to the roof of a facility, or extends through shielding to part of a stairwell. In such cases, a criticality alarm system may have to be installed to protect workers in a small, localized area from a potential dose that is not substantially greater than 12 rad in air. But, is the potential dose really greater than 12 rad in air? A subcommittee was appointed to look into the two 12-rad zone calculation methods for the purpose of identifying items contributing to over-conservatism and under-conservatism, and to recommend a path forward

  17. Analysis of Small ruminant market system in different agro-climatic zones of Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ramesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the marketing system of small ruminants in three different agro-climatic zones of Karnataka in India. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 60 small ruminant farmers from three viz. Bijapur (Arid zone, Gulbarga (Semi-arid zone and Udupi (Coastal zone district of Karnataka state. A structured questionnaire which had earlier been subject to face validity and has a reliability coefficient of 0.87 was used to collect data from the samples respondents. Data was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS.The results of the study revealed that marketing of small ruminants is haphazard in the study areas. Majority of the respondents (85% sold their animal when they needed cash for home consumption followed by to pay off loan (28.3% was the main reason to sell their animals. Important marketing channels were relatives and friends, local markets and village collectors. Farmers gave different reasons for selling their animals through different channels. Majority of the farmers used relatives and friends as one of the marketing channels. Most of farmers also felt that there was a difference in the price offered by village collectors and the price they were getting in the livestock markets. And a few of them were of the opinion that village collectors were not reliable in marketing. Price of the animals was establishing based on the body confirmation of the animal. Study also revealed that injured animals fetch less value than the healthy animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 288-293

  18. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results

  19. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  20. Coastal zone environment measurements at Sakhalin Island using autonomous mobile robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyugin, Dmitry; Kurkin, Andrey; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    To perform continuous complex measurements of environment characteristics in coastal zones autonomous mobile robotic system was built. The main advantage of such system in comparison to manual measurements is an ability to quickly change location of the equipment and start measurements. AMRS allows to transport a set of sensors and appropriate power source for long distances. The equipment installed on the AMRS includes: a modern high-tech ship's radar «Micran» for sea waves measurements, multiparameter platform WXT 520 for weather monitoring, high precision GPS/GLONASS receiver OS-203 for georeferencing, laser scanner platform based on two Sick LMS-511 scanners which can provide 3D distance measurements in up to 80 meters on the AMRS route and rugged designed quad-core fanless computer Matrix MXE-5400 for data collecting and recording. The equipment is controlled by high performance modular software developed specially for the AMRS. During the summer 2016 the experiment was conducted. Measurements took place at the coastal zone of Sakhalin Island (Russia). The measuring system of AMRS was started in automatic mode controlled by the software. As result a lot of data was collected and processed to database. It consists of continuous measurements of the coastal zone including different weather conditions. The most interesting for investigation is a period of three-point storm detected on June, 2, 2016. Further work will relate to data processing of measured environment characteristics and numerical models verification based on the collected data. The presented results of research obtained by the support of the Russian president's scholarship for young scientists and graduate students №SP-193.2015.5

  1. A web accessible scientific workflow system for vadoze zone performance monitoring: design and implementation examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, E.; Versteeg, R.; Ankeny, M.; Stormberg, G.

    2005-12-01

    Long term performance monitoring has been identified by DOE, DOD and EPA as one of the most challenging and costly elements of contaminated site remedial efforts. Such monitoring should provide timely and actionable information relevant to a multitude of stakeholder needs. This information should be obtained in a manner which is auditable, cost effective and transparent. Over the last several years INL staff has designed and implemented a web accessible scientific workflow system for environmental monitoring. This workflow environment integrates distributed, automated data acquisition from diverse sensors (geophysical, geochemical and hydrological) with server side data management and information visualization through flexible browser based data access tools. Component technologies include a rich browser-based client (using dynamic javascript and html/css) for data selection, a back-end server which uses PHP for data processing, user management, and result delivery, and third party applications which are invoked by the back-end using webservices. This system has been implemented and is operational for several sites, including the Ruby Gulch Waste Rock Repository (a capped mine waste rock dump on the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund Site), the INL Vadoze Zone Research Park and an alternative cover landfill. Implementations for other vadoze zone sites are currently in progress. These systems allow for autonomous performance monitoring through automated data analysis and report generation. This performance monitoring has allowed users to obtain insights into system dynamics, regulatory compliance and residence times of water. Our system uses modular components for data selection and graphing and WSDL compliant webservices for external functions such as statistical analyses and model invocations. Thus, implementing this system for novel sites and extending functionality (e.g. adding novel models) is relatively straightforward. As system access requires a standard webbrowser

  2. Numerical Simulation of a Non-volcanic Hydrothermal System Caused by Formation of a High Permeability Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Daisuke; Ehara, Sachio; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2010-05-01

    Because in the Japanese islands the earth crust activity is very active, a disposal stratum for high-level radioactive waste produced by reprocessing the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants will be selected in the tectonically stable areas in which the waste can be disposed underground safely for a long term and there is no influence of earthquakes, seismic activities, volcanic activities, upheaval, sedimentation, erosion, climate and global sea level change and so on, which causes the risk of the inflow of the groundwater to destroy the disposal site or the outflow to the ground surface. However, even if the disposal stratum in such condition will be chosen, in case that a new high permeability fracture zone is formed by the earthquake, and a new hydrothermal system may be formed for a long term (thousands or millions years) and the system may affect the disposal site. Therefore, we have to understand the feature of the non-volcanic hydrothermal system through the high permeability fracture zone. We estimated such influence by using HYDROTHERM Ver2.2 (Hayba & Ingebritsen, 1994), which is a three-dimensional numerical reservoir simulator. The model field is the northwestern part of Kego Fault, which was formed by a series of earthquakes called "the 2005 Fukuoka Prefecture Western Offshore Earthquakes" (the main shock of Mjma 7.0 on 20 March 2005) in Kyushu, Japan. The results of the numerical simulations show the development of a low temperature hydrothermal system as a new fracture zone is formed, in case that there is no volcanic heat source. The results of the simulations up to 100,000 years after formation of the fracture zone show that the higher heat flow and the wider and more permeable fracture zone accelerate the development of the hydrothermal system in the fracture zone. As a result of calculation of up to10 million years, we clarified the evolutional process of the non-volcanic hydrothermal system through the high permeability fracture zone. At

  3. Shear bond strength and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic brackets bonded with conventional acid-etch and self-etch primer systems: An in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Shirazi, Sajjad; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Samaneh; Moghimi, Mahsan; Shahrbaf, Shirin

    2016-02-01

    Different in-vitro studies have reported various results regarding shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets when SEP technique is compared to conventional system. This in-vivo study was designed to compare the effect of conventional acid-etching and self-etching primer adhesive (SEP) systems on SBS and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. 120 intact first maxillary and mandibular premolars of 30 orthodontic patients were selected and bonded with metal and ceramic brackets using conventional acid-etch or self-etch primer system. The bonded brackets were incorporated into the wire during the study period to simulate the real orthodontic treatment condition. The teeth were extracted and debonded after 30 days. The SBS, debonding characteristics and adhesive remnant indices (ARI) were determined in all groups. The mean SBS of metal brackets was 10.63±1.42 MPa in conventional and 9.38±1.53 MPa in SEP system, (P=0.004). No statistically significant difference was noted between conventional and SEP systems in ceramic brackets. The frequency of 1, 2 and 3 ARI scores and debonding within the adhesive were the most common among all groups. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding ARI or failure mode of debonded specimens in different brackets or bonding systems. The SBS of metal brackets bonded using conventional system was significantly higher than SEP system, although the SBS of SEP system was clinically acceptable. No significant difference was found between conventional and SEP systems used with ceramic brackets. Total SBS of metal brackets was significantly higher than ceramic brackets. Due to adequate SBS of SEP system in bonding the metal brackets, it can be used as an alternative for conventional system. Shear bond strength, Orthodontic brackets, Adhesive remnant index, self-etch.

  4. Identification and adaptive neural network control of a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzhu; Dubay, Rickey

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, an adaptive control approach based on the neural networks is presented to control a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics (DZC), where two neural networks are proposed to formulate the traditional identification and control approaches. First, a Wiener-type neural network (WNN) is proposed to identify the motor DZC, which formulates the Wiener model with a linear dynamic block in cascade with a nonlinear static gain. Second, a feedforward neural network is proposed to formulate the traditional PID controller, termed as PID-type neural network (PIDNN), which is then used to control and compensate for the DZC. In this way, the DC motor system with DZC is identified by the WNN identifier, which provides model information to the PIDNN controller in order to make it adaptive. Back-propagation algorithms are used to train both neural networks. Also, stability and convergence analysis are conducted using the Lyapunov theorem. Finally, experiments on the DC motor system demonstrated accurate identification and good compensation for dead-zone with improved control performance over the conventional PID control. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling of shear wall buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A K [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1984-05-01

    Many nuclear power plant buildings, for example, the auxiliary building, have reinforced concrete shear walls as the primary lateral load resisting system. Typically, these walls have low height to length ratio, often less than unity. Such walls exhibit marked shear lag phenomenon which would affect their bending stiffness and the overall stress distribution in the building. The deformation and the stress distribution in walls have been studied which is applicable to both the short and the tall buildings. The behavior of the wall is divided into two parts: the symmetric flange action and the antisymmetry web action. The latter has two parts: the web shear and the web bending. Appropriate stiffness equations have been derived for all the three actions. These actions can be synthesized to solve any nonlinear cross-section. Two specific problems, that of lateral and torsional loadings of a rectangular box, have been studied. It is found that in short buildings shear lag plays a very important role. Any beam type formulation which either ignores shear lag or includes it in an idealized form is likely to lead to erroneous results. On the other hand a rigidity type approach with some modifications to the standard procedures would yield nearly accurate answers.

  6. A Unified Approach to Adaptive Neural Control for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Nonlinear Dead-Zone Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Gao, Ying; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an effective adaptive control approach is constructed to stabilize a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems, which contain unknown functions, unknown dead-zone input, and unknown control direction. Different from linear dead zone, the dead zone, in this paper, is a kind of nonlinear dead zone. To overcome the noncausal problem, which leads to the control scheme infeasible, the systems can be transformed into a m -step-ahead predictor. Due to nonlinear dead-zone appearance, the transformed predictor still contains the nonaffine function. In addition, it is assumed that the gain function of dead-zone input and the control direction are unknown. These conditions bring about the difficulties and the complicacy in the controller design. Thus, the implicit function theorem is applied to deal with nonaffine dead-zone appearance, the problem caused by the unknown control direction can be resolved through applying the discrete Nussbaum gain, and the neural networks are used to approximate the unknown function. Based on the Lyapunov theory, all the signals of the resulting closed-loop system are proved to be semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded. Moreover, the tracking error is proved to be regulated to a small neighborhood around zero. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by a simulation example.

  7. Evidence of linked biogeochemical and hydrological processes in homogeneous and layered vadose zone systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D. J.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2010-12-01

    flux. No such mineral bands developed in the sterilized column. As a consequence, water content in the lenses of the sterilized column was half that of the other column and flow rates through the lenses were an order of magnitude lower. This flow impedance limited the interaction and mixing of groundwater with infiltrating vadose zone water and led to the formation of geochemically distinct water masses residing in relatively close proximity to one another. Results provide a specific examples of the direct impact of biogeochemical cycling on water flow in the vadose zone and vice versa. In addition, these demonstrate that the presence of layers in vadose zone environments may be an important control on overall chemical fate and transport in subsurface systems.

  8. Rheological structure of the lithosphere in plate boundary strike-slip fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaras, Vasileios; Tikoff, Basil; Kruckenberg, Seth C.; Newman, Julie; Titus, Sarah J.; Withers, Anthony C.; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-04-01

    How well constrained is the rheological structure of the lithosphere in plate boundary strike-slip fault systems? Further, how do lithospheric layers, with rheologically distinct behaviors, interact within the strike-slip fault zones? To address these questions, we present rheological observations from the mantle sections of two lithospheric-scale, strike-slip fault zones. Xenoliths from ˜40 km depth (970-1100 ° C) beneath the San Andreas fault system (SAF) provide critical constraints on the mechanical stratification of the lithosphere in this continental transform fault. Samples from the Bogota Peninsula shear zone (BPSZ, New Caledonia), which is an exhumed oceanic transform fault, provide insights on lateral variations in mantle strength and viscosity across the fault zone at a depth corresponding to deformation temperatures of ˜900 ° C. Olivine recrystallized grain size piezometry suggests that the shear stress in the SAF upper mantle is 5-9 MPa and in the BPSZ is 4-10 MPa. Thus, the mantle strength in both fault zones is comparable to the crustal strength (˜10 MPa) of seismogenic strike-slip faults in the SAF system. Across the BPSZ, shear stress increases from 4 MPa in the surrounding rocks to 10 MPa in the mylonites, which comprise the core of the shear zone. Further, the BPSZ is characterized by at least one order of magnitude difference in the viscosity between the mylonites (1018 Paṡs) and the surrounding rocks (1019 Paṡs). Mantle viscosity in both the BPSZ mylonites and the SAF (7.0ṡ1018-3.1ṡ1020 Paṡs) is relatively low. To explain our observations from these two strike-slip fault zones, we propose the "lithospheric feedback" model in which the upper crust and lithospheric mantle act together as an integrated system. Mantle flow controls displacement and the upper crust controls the stress magnitude in the system. Our stress data combined with data that are now available for the middle and lower crustal sections of other transcurrent fault

  9. The Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX): Centrifugal Confinement and Velocity Shear Stabilization of Plasmas in Shaped Open Magnetic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, Adil; Ellis, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    The Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) Project has investigated the concepts of centrifugal plasma confinement and stabilization of instabilities by velocity shear. The basic requirement is supersonic plasma rotation about a shaped, open magnetic field. Overall, the MCX Project attained three primary goals that were set out at the start of the project. First, supersonic rotation at Mach number up to 2.5 was obtained. Second, turbulence from flute interchange modes was found considerably reduced from conventional. Third, plasma pressure was contained along the field, as evidenced by density drops of x10 from the center to the mirror throats.

  10. Characteristics of Relocated Quiet Zones Using Virtual Microphone Algorithm in an Active Headrest System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study displays theoretical and experimental investigation on the characteristics of the relocated zone of quiet by a virtual microphone (VM based filtered-x LMS (FxLMS algorithm which can be embedded in a real-time digital controller for an active headrest system. The attenuation changes at the relocated zones of quiet by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone are mainly examined. An active headrest system was implemented for the control experiment at a chair and consists of two (left and right secondary loudspeakers, two error microphones, two observer microphones at ear positions in a HATS, and other electronics including a dSPACE 1401 controller. The VM based FxLMS algorithm achieved an attenuation of about 22 dB in the control experiment against a narrowband primary noise by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone. The important factors for the algorithm are discussed as well.

  11. Development of hardwood seed zones for Tennessee using a geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, L.S.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; Van Manen, F.; Cecich, R.A.; Saxton, A.M.; Schneider, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have had no genetic testing to define guidelines for seed collection location and can be distributed to sites that have a very different environment than that of seed origin(s). Poor survival and/or growth may result if seedlings are not adapted to environmental conditions at the planting location. To address this problem, 30 yr of Tennessee county precipitation and minimum temperature data were analyzed and grouped using a centroid hierarchical cluster analysis. The weather data and elevational data were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and separately layered over Bailey's Ecoregions to develop a seed zone system for Tennessee. The seed zones can be used as a practical guideline for collecting seeds to ensure that the resulting seedlings will be adapted to planting environments.

  12. Single-crystal-material-based induced-shear actuation for vibration reduction of helicopters with composite rotor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, Prashant M; Jung, Sung Nam

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an assessment is made for the helicopter vibration reduction of composite rotor blades using an active twist control concept. Special focus is given to the feasibility of implementing the benefits of the shear actuation mechanism along with elastic couplings of composite blades for achieving maximum vibration reduction. The governing equations of motion for composite rotor blades with surface bonded piezoceramic actuators are obtained using Hamilton's principle. The equations are then solved for dynamic response using finite element discretization in the spatial and time domains. A time domain unsteady aerodynamic theory with free wake model is used to obtain the airloads. A newly developed single-crystal piezoceramic material is introduced as an actuator material to exploit its superior shear actuation authority. Seven rotor blades with different elastic couplings representing stiffness properties similar to stiff-in-plane rotor blades are used to investigate the hub vibration characteristics. The rotor blades are modeled as a box beam with actuator layers bonded on the outer surface of the top and bottom of the box section. Numerical results show that a notable vibration reduction can be achieved for all the combinations of composite rotor blades. This investigation also brings out the effect of different elastic couplings on various vibration-reduction-related parameters which could be useful for the optimal design of composite helicopter blades

  13. Single-crystal-material-based induced-shear actuation for vibration reduction of helicopters with composite rotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Prashant M.; Jung, Sung Nam

    2008-12-01

    In this study, an assessment is made for the helicopter vibration reduction of composite rotor blades using an active twist control concept. Special focus is given to the feasibility of implementing the benefits of the shear actuation mechanism along with elastic couplings of composite blades for achieving maximum vibration reduction. The governing equations of motion for composite rotor blades with surface bonded piezoceramic actuators are obtained using Hamilton's principle. The equations are then solved for dynamic response using finite element discretization in the spatial and time domains. A time domain unsteady aerodynamic theory with free wake model is used to obtain the airloads. A newly developed single-crystal piezoceramic material is introduced as an actuator material to exploit its superior shear actuation authority. Seven rotor blades with different elastic couplings representing stiffness properties similar to stiff-in-plane rotor blades are used to investigate the hub vibration characteristics. The rotor blades are modeled as a box beam with actuator layers bonded on the outer surface of the top and bottom of the box section. Numerical results show that a notable vibration reduction can be achieved for all the combinations of composite rotor blades. This investigation also brings out the effect of different elastic couplings on various vibration-reduction-related parameters which could be useful for the optimal design of composite helicopter blades.

  14. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  15. Characterisation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells under shear stress using an easy-to-use microfluidic cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani-Kaneko, Rsituko; Sato, Kenjiro; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Nakagawa, Yuka; Hashizume, Kazutoshi; Tazawa, Hidekatsu

    2017-10-09

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) can contribute to elucidating the pathogenesis of heart and vascular diseases and developing their treatments. Their precise characteristics in fluid flow however remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to characterise these features. We cultured three types of ECs in a microfluidic culture system: commercially available human iPS-ECs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs). We then examined the mRNA expression levels of endothelial marker gene cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), fit-related receptor tyrosine kinase (Flk-1), and the smooth muscle marker gene smooth muscle alpha-actin, and investigated changes in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) secretion and intracellular F-actin arrangement following heat stress. We also compared expressions of the arterial and venous marker genes ephrinB2 and EphB4, and the endothelial gap junction genes connexin (Cx) 37, 40, and 43 under fluidic shear stress to determine their arterial or venous characteristics. We found that iPS-ECs had similar endothelial marker gene expressions and exhibited similar increases in PAI-1 secretion under heat stress as HUVECs and HUAECs. In addition, F-actin arrangement in iPSC-ECs also responded to heat stress, as previously reported. However, they had different expression patterns of arterial and venous marker genes and Cx genes under different fluidic shear stress levels, showing that iPSC-ECs exhibit different characteristics from arterial and venous ECs. This microfluidic culture system equipped with variable shear stress control will provide an easy-to-use assay tool to examine characteristics of iPS-ECs generated by different protocols in various laboratories and contribute to basic and applied biomedical researches on iPS-ECs.

  16. Lateral Displacement And Shear Lag Effect Of High-Rise Buildings With Diagrid SystemThat Is Constructed Above A Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd. Samat Roslida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagrid system has gained a wide acceptance in the design of tall buildings due to its many advantages including its high structural efficiency in resisting both gravity and lateral loads. Most diagrid structures that had been studied have full triangulated members from the ground level to the top of the buildings where comparison in the effectiveness in minimizing the lateral displacement was often made between structures with full diagrid, frame and outrigger system. Nevertheless, no study has been performed on the effectiveness of the diagrid that is constructed above a frame system. The objective of this research is to understand the behavior of the lateral displacement and shear lag effect due to wind load when the diagrid structure is constructed above a frame. Models of sixty storey buildings were analyzed by using Staad.Pro software. The level where the diagrid members started and the spacing of vertical base columns of the frame were altered. The lateral displacement and shear lag effect resembled closely of those of the model of full diagrid when the diagrid was started at level 3, and the vertical base columns were uniformly spaced at 6 metres.

  17. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  18. The Habitable Zone Gallery 2.0: The Online Exoplanet System Visualization Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. O.; Kane, S. R.; Gelino, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery 2.0 provides new and improved visualization and data analysis tools to the exoplanet habitability community and beyond. Modules include interactive habitable zone plotting and downloadable 3D animations.

  19. Seismic qualification of a commercial grade emergency diesel generator system in high seismic zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohsin R.; Chen, Wayne W.H.; Chu, Winnie S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the seismic qualification of a commercially procured emergency diesel generator (EDG) system for use in a nuclear power plant. Response spectrum analyses of finite element models, validated using in situ vibration test data, were performed to qualify the skid and floor mounted mechanical components whose functional capacity and structural integrity can be analyzed. Time history analyses of these models were also performed to obtain the amplified response spectra for seismic testing of small valves, electrical and electro-mechanical components whose functional capacity can not be analyzed to establish the seismic qualification. The operational loads were obtained by in-plant vibration monitoring. Full scale shake table testing was performed for auxiliary electrical cabinets. It is concluded that with some minor structural modifications, a commercial grade EDG system can be qualified for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants located in high seismic zones. (author)

  20. Hydric results in Guarani Aquifer System formation zone through by hydrogeological monitoring in representative basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, E.; Barreto, C.; Gomes, L.; Dias Paiva, J.

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the direct and deep recharge in the Guarani Aquifer System, based on the evaluation of data acquired at the Ribeirao da Onca watershed, which is located at the outcrop zone of the GAS in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. During one year hydrological data (precipitation, temperature, discharge etc) have been monitored at the watershed. Using water level fluctuation measured in 23 monitoring wells, the direct recharge, the free aquifer storage and the base flow could be evaluated.The direct recharge of the system at the watershed has been estimated to 29% of the total precipitation in the period. Due to the drainage by the Ribeirao da Onca, the deep recharge, which effectively reaches the GAS, is reduced to 3,5% of the annual precipitation

  1. Development and testing of a system for meteorological and radiological data centralizing on Magurele zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaus, M.; Niculescu, D.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of European collaboration co-ordinated by F.Z. Karlsruhe, the adapting, installing and developing of a decision support system for nuclear emergency management is now in progress in NIPNE. The decision support system RODOS will be available to the Romanian competent authorities - as well as to many western and eastern countries - in case of nuclear accidents. One main task in implementing the decision support system is to provide as input, among others, on-line real-time radiological and meteorological data, measured in national territory. For that purpose the regional and national measuring networks had to be connected to the central RODOS station in NIPNE. As the first step the sources of data existing on the Magurele zone were coupled to the RODOS system. The main sources of data are different meteorological sensors and flowmeters installed at three levels on the meteorological tower and a remote gamma-ray area monitor with several measuring locations in Magurele zone, connected by radio links to the central unit in Nuclear Instruments and Methods Department. For transmission of collected data to the central RODOS station, a local area network was implemented to connect all the computers. The Ethernet - based network uses optical fiber between buildings, coaxial and twisted cable inside buildings and suitable Hewlett-Packard hubs and transceivers. Several communication software packages based on TCP/IP protocols were installed on the computers and tested. The real-time data transfer between collecting computers and the central station will be carried out by automatic triggering of FTP programs at regular time intervals. The local network provides also a link to Internet, so that the indispensable exchange of data with similar RODOS centers in other countries, especially with the coordinating institute in Karlsruhe, as well as with other organizations is ensured. (authors)

  2. Assessing recharge using remotely sensed data in the Guarani Aquifer System outcrop zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M. C.; Oliveira, P. T. S.; Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is an essential hydrology component for sustainable water withdrawal from an aquifer. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest (~1.2 million km2) transboundary groundwater reservoir in South America, supplying freshwater to four countries: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. However, recharge in the GAS outcrop zones is one of the least known hydrological variables, in part because studies from hydrological data are scarce or nonexistent. We assess recharge using the water-budget as the difference of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). Data is derived from remotely sensed estimates of P (TRMM 3B42 V7) and ET (MOD16) in the Onça Creek watershed over the 2004­-12 period. This is an upland-flat watershed (slope steepness < 1%) dominated by sand soils and representative of the GAS outcrop zones. We compared the remote sensing approach against Water Table Fluctuation (WTF) method and another water-budget using ground-based measurements. Uncertainty propagation analysis were also performed. On monthly basis, TRMM P exhibited a great agreement with ground-based P data (R2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 41 mm). Historical (2004-12) mean(±sd) satellite-based recharge (Rsat) was 537(±224) mm y-1, while ground-based recharge using water-budget (Rgr) and WTF (Rwtf) method was 469 mm y-1 and 311(±150) mm y-1, respectively. We found that ~440 mm y-1 is a reasonable historical mean (between Rsat, Rgr and Rwtf) recharge for the study area over 2004-2012 period. The latter mean recharge estimate is about 29% of the mean historical P (1,514 mm y-1). Our results provide the first insight about an intercomparison of water budget from remote sensing and measured data to estimate recharge in the GAS outcrop zone. These results should be useful for future studies on assessing recharge in the GAS outcrop zones. Since accurate and precise recharge estimation still is a gap, our recharge satellite-based is considered acceptable for the Onça Creek

  3. The Role of Boron Chloride and noble gas isotope ratios in Taupo Volcanic Zone geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulston, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The model of the geothermal system in which deep circulating groundwater con noble gases, at air saturated water concentrations, mixes with hot fluids of man origin at depth, is extended to include the effect of interaction of the ascending fluid with both solid and gaseous phases of basement (or other) rocks 'en route' the surface. It is demonstrated that this interaction is responsible for most of CO/sub 2/ in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) geothermal systems. It is proposed th the modelling of this interaction might be accomplished by techniques similar to those used for the understanding of the oxygen isotope shift found in geothermal systems. The water rock interaction experiments of Ellis and Mahon (1964, 1967) provides some data on the kinetic rates for B and Cl dissolution from rocks like to be encountered in the geothermal system, but further information on the behaviour of B may be needed. If these problems can be overcome this modelling technique has promise for the estimation of the recharge of geothermal systems a hence the sustainability of these systems. (author). 17 refs., 4 figs

  4. The Rotary Zone Thermal Cycler: A Low-Power System Enabling Automated Rapid PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Van de Vreugde, James L.; Kim, Hanyoup; Knight, Daniel L.; Sinha, Anupama; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology (e.g., aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling) to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system that uses low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between-run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, we present preliminary results for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis. PMID:25826708

  5. The rotary zone thermal cycler: a low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Bartsch

    Full Text Available Advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology (e.g., aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC, a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR system that uses low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between-run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, we present preliminary results for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.

  6. Interpretation of vadose zone monitoring system data near Engineered Trench 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-12

    The E-Area Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) includes lysimeter sampling points at many locations alongside and angling beneath the Engineered Trench #1 (ET1) disposal unit footprint. The sampling points for ET1 were selected for this study because collectively they showed consistently higher tritium (H-3) concentrations than lysimeters associated with other trench units. The VZMS tritium dataset for ET1 from 2001 through 2015 comprises concentrations at or near background levels at approximately half of locations through time, concentrations up to about 600 pCi/mL at a few locations, and concentrations at two locations that have exceeded 1000 pCi/mL. The highest three values through 2015 were 6472 pCi/mL in 2014 and 4533 pCi/mL in 2013 at location VL-17, and 3152 pCi/mL in 2007 at location VL-15. As a point of reference, the drinking water standard for tritium and a DOE Order 435.1 performance objective in the saturated zone at the distant 100-meter facility perimeter is 20 pCi/mL. The purpose of this study is to assess whether these elevated concentrations are indicative of a general trend that could challenge 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) conclusions, or are isolated perturbations that when considered in the context of an entire disposal unit would support PA conclusions.

  7. Effect of Boundary Condition on the Shear Behaviour of Rock Joints in the Direct Shear Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaaddini, M.

    2017-05-01

    The common method for determination of the mechanical properties of the rock joints is the direct shear test. This paper aims to study the effect of boundary condition on the results of direct shear tests. Experimental studies undertaken in this research showed that the peak shear strength is mostly overestimated. This problem is more pronounced for steep asperities and under high normal stresses. Investigation of the failure mode of these samples showed that tensile cracks are generated at the boundary of sample close to the specimen holders and propagated inside the intact materials. In order to discover the reason of observed failure mechanism in experiments, the direct shear test was simulated using PFC2D. Results of numerical models showed that the gap zone size between the upper and lower specimen holders has a significant effect on the shear mechanism. For the high gap size, stresses concentrate at the vicinity of the tips of specimen holders and result in generation and propagation of tensile cracks inside the intact material. However, by reducing the gap size, stresses are concentrated on asperities, and damage of specimen at its boundary is not observed. Results of this paper show that understanding the shear mechanism of rock joints is an essential step prior to interpreting the results of direct shear tests.

  8. Modelling of composite concrete block pavement systems applying a cohesive zone model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the fracture behaviour of the cement bound base material in composite concrete block pavement systems, using a cohesive zone model. The functionality of the proposed model is tested on experimental and numerical investigations of beam bending tests....... The pavement is modelled as a simple slab on grade structure and parameters influencing the response, such as analysis technique, geometry and material parameters are studied. Moreover, the analysis is extended to a real scale example, modelling the pavement as a three-layered structure. It is found...... block pavements. It is envisaged that the methodology implemented in this study can be extended and thereby contribute to the ongoing development of rational failure criteria that can replace the empirical formulas currently used in pavement engineering....

  9. Shear banding, discontinuous shear thickening, and rheological phase transitions in athermally sheared frictionless disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vâgberg, Daniel; Olsson, Peter; Teitel, S.

    2017-05-01

    We report on numerical simulations of simple models of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, massive disks in two dimensions, as a function of packing fraction ϕ , inelasticity of collisions as measured by a parameter Q , and applied uniform shear strain rate γ ˙. Our particles have contact interactions consisting of normally directed elastic repulsion and viscous dissipation, as well as tangentially directed viscous dissipation, but no interparticle Coulombic friction. Mapping the phase diagram in the (ϕ ,Q ) plane for small γ ˙, we find a sharp first-order rheological phase transition from a region with Bagnoldian rheology to a region with Newtonian rheology, and show that the system is always Newtonian at jamming. We consider the rotational motion of particles and demonstrate the crucial importance that the coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom has on the phase structure at small Q (strongly inelastic collisions). At small Q , we show that, upon increasing γ ˙, the sharp Bagnoldian-to-Newtonian transition becomes a coexistence region of finite width in the (ϕ ,γ ˙) plane, with coexisting Bagnoldian and Newtonian shear bands. Crossing this coexistence region by increasing γ ˙ at fixed ϕ , we find that discontinuous shear thickening can result if γ ˙ is varied too rapidly for the system to relax to the shear-banded steady state corresponding to the instantaneous value of γ ˙.

  10. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems {010} and {110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system {001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system {110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the crust, and, possibly, the timing of

  11. System to provide 3D information on geological anomaly zone in deep subsea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kwon, O.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    The study on building the ultra long and deep subsea tunnel of which length is 50km and depth is 200m at least, respectively, is underway in Korea. To analyze the geotechnical information required for designing and building subsea tunnel, topographic/geologiccal information analysis using 2D seabed geophysical prospecting and topographic, geologic, exploration and boring data were analyzed comprehensively and as a result, automation method to identify the geological structure zone under seabed which is needed to design the deep and long seabed tunnel was developed using geostatistical analysis. In addition, software using 3D visualized ground information to provide the information includes Gocad, MVS, Vulcan and DIMINE. This study is intended to analyze the geological anomaly zone for ultra deep seabed l and visualize the geological investigation result so as to develop the exclusive system for processing the ground investigation information which is convenient for the users. Particularly it's compatible depending on file of geophysical prospecting result and is realizable in Layer form and for 3D view as well. The data to be processed by 3D seabed information system includes (1) deep seabed topographic information, (2) geological anomaly zone, (3) geophysical prospecting, (4) boring investigation result and (5) 3D visualization of the section on seabed tunnel route. Each data has own characteristics depending on data and interface to allow interlocking with other data is granted. In each detail function, input data is displayed in a single space and each element is selectable to identify the further information as a project. Program creates the project when initially implemented and all output from detail information is stored by project unit. Each element representing detail information is stored in image file and is supported to store in text file as well. It also has the function to transfer, expand/reduce and rotate the model. To represent the all elements in

  12. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume II, TRANZ, a prototype expert system for traffic control in highway work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The development of a prototype knowledge-based expert system (KBES) for selecting appropriate traffic control strategies and management techniques around highway work zones was initiated. This process was encompassed by the steps that formulate the p...

  13. Adaptive NN tracking control of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with nonaffine dead-zone input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Tong, Shaocheng

    2015-03-01

    In the paper, an adaptive tracking control design is studied for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems with dead-zone input. The considered systems are of the nonaffine pure-feedback form and the dead-zone input appears nonlinearly in the systems. The contributions of the paper are that: 1) it is for the first time to investigate the control problem for this class of discrete-time systems with dead-zone; 2) there are major difficulties for stabilizing such systems and in order to overcome the difficulties, the systems are transformed into an n-step-ahead predictor but nonaffine function is still existent; and 3) an adaptive compensative term is constructed to compensate for the parameters of the dead-zone. The neural networks are used to approximate the unknown functions in the transformed systems. Based on the Lyapunov theory, it is proven that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of zero. Two simulation examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the control approach in the paper.

  14. CORMIX2: An expert system for hydrodynamic mixing zone analysis of conventional and toxic multiport diffuser discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar, P.J.; Jirka, G.H.

    1991-12-01

    One of the most important tasks in the management of water quality is the ability to achieve pollutant concentrations within regulated standards. The Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System (CORMIX) is a series of software systems for the analysis, prediction, and design of aqueous toxic or conventional pollutant discharges into watercourses, with emphasis on the geometry and dilution characteristics of the initial mixing zone. The present development, subsystem CORMIX2 is concerned with submerged multiport discharges into flowing water environments, such as rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. It includes effects of ambient stratification, dynamic attachment of the plume to the bottom of the receiving water, and the limiting case of stagnant conditions

  15. Fault plane orientations of deep earthquakes in the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, R.; Warren, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of directivity analysis on 45 deep earthquakes within the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone between 1993 and 2011. The age of the subducting Pacific plate increases from north to south along the trench, from 120 Ma offshore Tokyo to over 150 Ma east of the Mariana Islands. The dip of the deep slab generally increases from north to south, and is steep to overturned beneath the southern Bonin Islands and Marianas. Between 34 and 26 degrees north, a peak in seismicity at 350-450 km depth marks a decrease in dip as the slab approaches the base of the upper mantle. We observe directivity for around 60 percent of the analysed earthquakes, and use the propagation characteristics to find the best fitting rupture vector. In 60-70 percent of cases with well constrained rupture directivity, the best fitting rupture vector allows discrimination of the fault plane and the auxiliary plane of the focal mechanism. The identified fault planes between 100 km and 500 km are predominantly near-horizontal or south-southwest dipping. Rotated into the plane of the slab, the fault plane poles form a single cluster, since the more steeply dipping fault planes are found within more steeply dipping sections of slab. The dominance of near-horizontal fault planes at intermediate depth agrees with results from previous studies of the Tonga and Middle-America subduction zones. However, the presence of a single preferred fault plane orientation for large deep-focus earthquakes has not been previously reported, and contrasts with the situation for deep-focus earthquakes in the Tonga-Kermadec subduction system. Ruptures tend to propagate away from the top surface of the slab. We discuss potential causes of preferred fault plane orientations within subducting slabs in the light of existing available data, and the implications for mechanisms of faulting at great depths within the Earth.

  16. Time Variability of the Dust Sublimation Zones in Pre-Main Sequence Disk Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Carpenter, W. J.; Grady, C. A.; Russel, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Rudy, R. J.; Mazuk, S. M.; Venturini, C. C.; Kimes, R. L.; Beerman, L. C.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The dust sublimation zone (DSZ) is the region of pre-main sequence (PMS) disks where dust grains most easily anneal, sublime, and condense out of the gas. Because of this, it is a location where crystalline material may be enhanced and redistributed throughout the rest of the disk. A decade-long program to monitor the thermal emission of the grains located in this region demonstrates that large changes in emitted flux occur in many systems. Changes in the thermal emission between 3 and 13.5 microns were observed in HD 31648 (MWC 480), HD 163296 (MWC 275), and DG Tau. This emission is consistent with it being produced at the DSZ, where the transition from a disk of gas to one of gas+dust occurs. In the case of DG Tau, the outbursts were accompanied by increased emission on the 10 micron silicate band on one occasion, while on another occasion it went into absorption. This requires lofting of the material above the disk into the line of sight. Such changes will affect the determination of the inner disk structure obtained through interferometry measurements, and this has been confirmed in the case of HD 163296. Cyclic variations in the heating of the DSZ will lead to the annealing of large grains, the sublimation of smaller grains, possibly followed by re-condensation as the zone enters a cooling phase. Lofting of dust above the disk plane, and outward acceleration by stellar winds and radiation pressure, can re-distribute the processed material to cooler regions of the disk, where cometesimals form. This processing is consistent with the detection of the preferential concentration of large crystalline grains in the inner few AU of PMS disks using interferometric spectroscopy with the VLTI.

  17. Shear induced orientation of edible fat and chocolate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    Shear-induced orientation of fat crystallites was observed during crystallization of cocoa butter, milk fat, stripped milk fat and palm oil. This universal effect was observed in systems crystallized under high shear. The minor polar components naturally present in milk fat were found to decrease the shear-induced orientation effect in this system. The competition between Brownian and shear forces, described by the Peclet number, determines the crystallite orientation. The critical radius size, from the Gibbs-Thomson equation, provides a tool to understand the effect of shear at the onset stages of crystallization.

  18. Shear-hosted base metal mineralisation at the Dana Peaks, Murchison Mountains, Fiordland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.; Ashley, P.; Craw, D.

    2010-01-01

    Darran Suite dioritic, tonalitic and granodioritic plutonic rocks and schistose Loch Burn Formation volcaniclastic rocks in the central Murchison Mountains at the Dana Peaks have been affected by widespread biotite-sericite-chlorite-albite-quartz-pyrite ± carbonate ± epidote/clinozoisite ± titanite/rutile ± actinolite alteration. More intense, paler coloured sericite-albite-quartz-pyrite ± carbonate alteration is concentrated along orange weathered shear zones. Alteration assemblages are transitional between those commonly referred to as propylitic, potassic and phyllic. Altered rocks contain anomalous concentrations of copper, lead, zinc and silver over an area of c. 2.56 km. Metal concentrations 2-5 times those typical of Darran Suite plutonic rocks and the Loch Burn Formation are commonly associated with more extensive weak to moderate intensity alteration. Higher metal grades up to c. 0.5% copper, 1% zinc, 1.3% lead and 30 ppm silver are concentrated in or adjacent to the 1-5 m wide, more intensely altered shear zones which contain entrained lenses of pyritised country rock, breccias and quartz ± K-feldspar ± chlorite ± carbonate ± hematite ± tourmaline veins. Some mineralised rocks also contain traces of tungsten (2-7 ppm), arsenic (<5-35 ppm) and tellurium (0.2-5.4 ppm). Most samples lack detectable molybdenum (<3 ppm), gold (<0.004 ppm) or bismuth (<0.2 ppm), with atypical higher values (40, 0.03 and 50 ppm, respectively) generally restricted to the most intensely altered and/or deformed rocks. The mineralised rocks show a close spatial and temporal relationship with several narrow ductile shear zones that probably developed in the Early Cretaceous between c. 128 and 110 Ma. Mineralised shear zones form minor splays off larger shear zones that are part of a major intra-arc fault system, active along or near the boundary between inboard and outboard parts of the Median Batholith at this time. Traces of similar lead mineralisation are present at the

  19. Examining shear processes during magma ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Wallace, P. A.; Coats, R.; Lamur, A.; Lavallée, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Lava dome eruptions are prone to rapid shifts from effusive to explosive behaviour which reflects the rheology of magma. Magma rheology is governed by composition, porosity and crystal content, which during ascent evolves to yield a rock-like, viscous suspension in the upper conduit. Geophysical monitoring, laboratory experiments and detailed field studies offer the opportunity to explore the complexities associated with the ascent and eruption of such magmas, which rest at a pivotal position with regard to the glass transition, allowing them to either flow or fracture. Crystal interaction during flow results in strain-partitioning and shear-thinning behaviour of the suspension. In a conduit, such characteristics favour the formation of localised shear zones as strain is concentrated along conduit margins, where magma can rupture and heal in repetitive cycles. Sheared magmas often record a history of deformation in the form of: grain size reduction; anisotropic permeable fluid pathways; mineral reactions; injection features; recrystallisation; and magnetic anomalies, providing a signature of the repetitive earthquakes often observed during lava dome eruptions. The repetitive fracture of magma at ( fixed) depth in the conduit and the fault-like products exhumed at spine surfaces indicate that the last hundreds of meters of ascent may be controlled by frictional slip. Experiments on a low-to-high velocity rotary shear apparatus indicate that shear stress on a slip plane is highly velocity dependent, and here we examine how this influences magma ascent and its characteristic geophysical signals.

  20. AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  1. Fluid Effects on Shear Waves in Finely Layered Porous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J G

    2004-01-01

    Although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, one and only one effective shear modulus for the layered system contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves. Pore fluids can increase the magnitude the shear energy stored by this modulus by a term that ranges from the smallest to the largest shear moduli of the VTI system. But, since there are five shear moduli in play, the increase in shear energy overall is reduced by a factor of about 5 in general. We can therefore give definite bounds on the maximum increase of shear modulus, being about 20% of the permitted range, when gas is fully replaced by liquid. An attendant increase of density (depending on porosity and fluid density) by approximately 5 to 10% partially offsets the effect of this shear modulus increase. Thus, an increase of shear wave speed on the order of 5 to 10% is shown to be possible when circumstances are favorable - i.e., when the shear modulus fluctuations are large (resulting in strong anisotropy), and the medium behaves in an undrained fashion due to fluid trapping. At frequencies higher than seismic (such as sonic and ultrasonic waves for well-logging or laboratory experiments), short response times also produce the requisite undrained behavior and, therefore, fluids also affect shear waves at high frequencies by increasing rigidity

  2. Modelling Ecosystem Dynamics of the Oxygen Minimum Zones in the Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Eggert, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System are two major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of different kind connected by the system of African Eastern Boundary Currents. We discuss results from a 3-dimensional coupled biogeochemical model covering both oxygen-deficient systems. The biogeochemical model component comprises trophic levels up to zooplankton. Physiological properties of organisms are parameterized from field data gained mainly in the course of the project "Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling System" (GENUS). The challenge of the modelling effort is the different nature of both systems. The Angola Gyre, located in a "shadow zone" of the tropical Atlantic, has a low productivity and little ventilation, hence a long residence time of water masses. In the northern Benguela Upwelling System, trade winds drive an intermittent, but permanent nutrient supply into the euphotic zone which fuels a high coastal productivity, large particle export and high oxygen consumption from dissimilatory processes. In addition to the local processes, oxygen-deficient water formed in the Angola Gyre is one of the source water masses of the poleward undercurrent, which feeds oxygen depleted water into the Benguela system. In order to simulate the oxygen distribution in the Benguela system, both physical transport as well as local biological processes need to be carefully adjusted in the model. The focus of the analysis is on the time scale and the relative contribution of the different oxygen related processes to the oxygen budgets in both the oxygen minimum zones. Although these are very different in both the OMZ, the model is found as suitable to produce oxygen minimum zones comparable with observations in the Benguela and the Angola Gyre as well. Variability of the oxygen concentration in the Angola Gyre depends strongly on organismic oxygen consumption, whereas the variability of the oxygen concentration on the Namibian shelf is governed mostly by

  3. Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Jin; Hu, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS) on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which relates the tie......-line power variation to the mechanical power variation of a wind turbine, and the expression of the maximum magnitude of tie-line power oscillations are derived to identify the resonant condition and evaluate the potential risk. The effects of the parameters on the resonant magnitude of the tie-line power...... are also discussed. The frequency domain analysis reveals that TSWS can excite large tie-line power oscillations if the frequency of TSWS approaches the tie-line resonant frequency, especially in the case that the wind farm is integrated into a relatively small grid and the tie-line of the interconnected...

  4. Work zone variable speed limit systems: Effectiveness and system design issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Variable speed limit (VSL) systems have been used in a number of countries, particularly in Europe, as a method to improve flow and increase safety. VSLs use detectors to collect data on current traffic and/or weather conditions. Posted speed limits ...

  5. Aplikasi Root Zone Cooling System Untuk Perbaikan Pembentukan Umbi Bawang Merah (Allium cepa var. aggregatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahyuningsih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research can be formulated as follows: to analyze the effect of different root zone temperature to some extent the temperature is 10oC, 15oC, control and vernalization of plant growth and the formation of shallot bulbs by using aeroponic system. The experimental design used was a draft Plots Divided (Split Plot Design, which is arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The main plot is a vernalization treatment (without vernalization and with vernalization. The subplots in the form of a nutrient solution temperature at 10oC, 15oC, and without cooling system as a control. The parameters measured were the number of leaves, the number of tillers, the number of bulbs, the weight of bulbs and the wet weight of root. There are no interaction between the annealing temperature by vernalization to the number of leaves, the bulb number, the weight of bulbs, and the weight of the roots. Cooling temperatures nutrient solution to improving root growth and bulb formation of shallot. Optimal root growth can improve nutrient uptaken by plants then can improve plant growth and bulb yield larger and heavier. Temperatures suitable for shallot cultivation in lowland tropical for producing tubers with quenching temperature is 10°C, non vernalization.

  6. Development of an automated processing system for potential fishing zone forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardianto, R.; Setiawan, A.; Hidayat, J. J.; Zaky, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    The Institute for Marine Research and Observation (IMRO) - Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Republic of Indonesia (MMAF) has developed a potential fishing zone (PFZ) forecast using satellite data, called Peta Prakiraan Daerah Penangkapan Ikan (PPDPI). Since 2005, IMRO disseminates everyday PPDPI maps for fisheries marine ports and 3 days average for national areas. The accuracy in determining the PFZ and processing time of maps depend much on the experience of the operators creating them. This paper presents our research in developing an automated processing system for PPDPI in order to increase the accuracy and shorten processing time. PFZ are identified by combining MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (CHL) data in order to detect the presence of upwelling, thermal fronts and biological productivity enhancement, where the integration of these phenomena generally representing the PFZ. The whole process involves data download, map geo-process as well as layout that are carried out automatically by Python and ArcPy. The results showed that the automated processing system could be used to reduce the operator’s dependence on determining PFZ and speed up processing time.

  7. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.

  8. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886

  9. Spontaneous formation of densely packed shear bands of rotating fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, J A; Timonen, J

    2012-05-01

    Appearance of self-similar space-filling ball bearings has been suggested to provide the explanation for seismic gaps, shear weakness, and lack of detectable frictional heat formation in mature tectonic faults (shear zones). As the material in a shear zone fractures and grinds, it could be thought to eventually form a conformation that allows fragments to largely roll against each other without much sliding. This type of space-filling "ball bearing" can be constructed artificially, but so far how such delicate structures may appear spontaneously has remained unexplained. It is demonstrated here that first-principles simulations of granular packing with fragmenting grains indeed display spontaneous formation of shear bands with fragment conformations very similar to those of densely packed ball bearings.

  10. Shear-Rate-Dependent Behavior of Clayey Bimaterial Interfaces at Landslide Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Gianvito; Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Huang, Runqiu

    2018-01-01

    The behavior of reactivated and first-failure landslides after large displacements is controlled by the available shear resistance in a shear zone and/or along slip surfaces, such as a soil-bedrock interface. Among the factors influencing the resistance parameter, the dependence on the shear rate can trigger catastrophic evolution (rate-weakening) or exert a slow-down feedback (rate-strengthening) upon stress perturbation. We present ring-shear test results, performed under various normal stresses and shear rates, on clayey soils from a landslide shear zone, on its parent lithology and other lithologies, and on clay-rock interface samples. We find that depending on the materials in contact, the normal stress, and the stress history, the shear-rate-dependent behaviors differ. We discuss possible models and underlying mechanisms for the time-dependent behavior of landslides in clay soils.

  11. Identifying functional zones of denitrification in heterogeneous aquifer systems by numerical simulations - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; He, W.; Shao, H.; Schueth, C.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate contamination in shallow groundwater is still one of the common problems in many countries. Because of its high solubility and anionic nature, nitrate can easily leach through soil and persist in groundwater for decades. High nitrate concentration has been suggested as a major cause of accelerated eutrophication, methemoglobinemia and gastric cancer. There are several factors influencing the fate of nitrate in groundwater system, which is e.g. distribution of N- sources to soil and groundwater, distribution and amount of reactive substances maintaining denitrification, rate of nitrate degradation and its kinetics, and geological characteristics of the aquifer. Nitrate transport and redox transformation processes are closely linked to complex and spatially distributed physical and chemical interaction, therefore it is difficult to predict and quantify in the field and laboratory experiment. Models can play a key role in elucidation of nitrate reduction pathway in groundwater system and in the design and evaluation of field tests to investigate in situ remediation technologies as well. The goal of the current study is to predict groundwater vulnerability to nitrate, to identify functional zones of denitrification in heterogeneous aquifer systems and to describe the uncertainty of the predictions due to scale effects. For this aim, we developed a kinetic model using multi-component mass transport code OpenGeoSys coupling with IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The developed model included sequential aerobic and nitrate-based respiration, multi-Monod kinetics, multi-species biogeochemical reactions, and geological characteristics of the groundwater aquifer. Moreover water-rock interaction such as secondary mineral precipitation was also included in this model. In this presentation, we focused on the general modelling approach and present the simulation results of nitrate transport simulation in a hypothetical aquifer systems based on data from

  12. Identifying Stream/Aquifer Exchange by Temperature Gradient in a Guarani Aquifer System Outcrop Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, E.; Rosa, D. M. S.; Anache, J. A. A.; Lowry, C.; Lin, Y. F. F.

    2017-12-01

    Recharge of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in South America is supposed to occur mainly in the outcrop zones, where the GAS appears as an unconfined aquifer (10% of the 1.2 Million km2 aquifer extension). Previous evaluations of recharge are based essentially on water balance estimates for the whole aquifer area or water table fluctuations in monitoring wells. To gain a more detailed understanding of the recharge mechanisms the present work aimed to study the stream aquifer interaction in a watershed (Ribeirão da Onça) at an outcrop zone. Two Parshall flumes were installed 1.3 km apart for discharge measurement in the stream. Along this distance an optic fiber cable was deployed to identify stretches with gaining and losing behavior. In order to estimate groundwater discharge in specific locations, 8 temperature sticks were set up along the stream reach to measure continuously the vertical temperature gradient. A temperature probe with 4 thermistors was also used to map the shallow streambed temperature gradient manually along the whole distance. The obtained results show a discharge difference of 250 m3/h between both flumes. Since the last significant rainfall (15 mm) in the watershed occurred 3 months ago, this value can be interpreted as the base flow contribution to the stream during the dry season. Given the temperature difference between groundwater ( 24oC) and surface water ( 17oC) the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) allowed the identification of stretches with gaining behavior. Temperature gradients observed at the streambed varied between 0.67 and 14.33 oC/m. The study demonstrated that heat may be used as natural tracer even in tropical conditions, where the groundwater temperature is higher than the surface water temperature during the winter. The obtained results show that the discharge difference between both flumes can not be extrapolated without detailed analysis. Gaining and loosing stretches have to be identified on order

  13. Strain gradient drives shear banding in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-Li; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Chen, Yan; Dai, Lan-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Shear banding is a nucleation-controlled process in metallic glasses (MGs) involving multiple temporal-spatial scales, which hinders a concrete understanding of its structural origin down to the atomic scale. Here, inspired by the morphology of composite materials, we propose a different perspective of MGs as a hard particle-reinforced material based on atomic-scale structural heterogeneity. The local stable structures indicated by a high level of local fivefold symmetry (L5FS) act as hard "particles" which are embedded in the relatively soft matrix. We demonstrate this concept by performing atomistic simulations of shear banding in CuZr MG. A shear band is prone to form in a sample with a high degree of L5FS which is slowly quenched from the liquid. An atomic-scale analysis on strain and the structural evolution reveals that it is the strain gradient effect that has originated from structural heterogeneity that facilitates shear transformation zones (STZs) to mature shear bands. An artificial composite model with a high degree of strain gradient, generated by inserting hard MG strips into a soft MG matrix, demonstrates a great propensity for shear banding. It therefore confirms the critical role strain gradient plays in shear banding. The strain gradient effect on shear banding is further quantified with a continuum model and a mechanical instability analysis. These physical insights might highlight the strain gradient as the hidden driving force in transforming STZs into shear bands in MGs.

  14. Shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers to enamel, dentine and enamel-dentine complex bonded with different adhesive luting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Elif; Bolay, Şükran; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers to 3 different surfaces by means of enamel, dentine, and enamel-dentine complex. One hundred thirty-five extracted human maxillary central teeth were used, and the teeth were randomly divided into 9 groups (n=15). The teeth were prepared with 3 different levels for bonding surfaces of enamel (E), dentine (D), and enamel-dentine complex (E-D). Porcelain discs (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) of 2mm in thickness and 4mm in diameter were luted to the tooth surfaces by using 2 light-curing (RelyX Veneer [RV], 3M ESPE; Variolink Veneer [VV], Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-curing (Variolink II [V2], Ivoclar Vivadent) adhesive systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. Shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine at 0.5mm/min until bonding failure. Failure modes were determined under a stereomicroscope, and fracture surfaces were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. The data were statistically analysed (SPSS 17.0) (p=0.05). Group RV-D exhibited the lowest bond strength value (5.42±6.6MPa). There was statistically no difference among RV-D, V2-D (13.78±8.8MPa) and VV-D (13.84±6.2MPa) groups (p>0.05). Group VV-E exhibited the highest bond strength value (24.76±8.8MPa). The type of tooth structure affected the shear bond strength of the porcelain laminate veneers to the 3 different types of tooth structures (enamel, dentine, and enamel-dentine complex). When dentine exposure is necessary during preparation, enough sound enamel must be protected as much as possible to maintain a good bonding; to obtain maximum bond strength, preparation margins should be on sound enamel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitrogen dynamics in the soil-plant system under deficit and partial root-zone drying irrigation strategies in potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in lysimeters with sandy soil under an automatic rain-out shelter to study the effects of subsurface drip irrigation treatments, full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD), on nitrogen (N) dynamics in the soil-plant system of potatoes...

  16. Stress analysis of shear/compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Ueno, S.

    1997-01-01

    Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed

  17. CZMIL (coastal zone mapping and imaging lidar): from first flights to first mission through system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Wozencraft, Jennifer; Aitken, Jennifer; Macon, Christopher; Mathur, Abhinav; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery system and software suite designed for highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for coastal zone mapping in the framework of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP). This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. Results of the USACE May-October 2012 mission in Green Bay, WI and Lake Erie are presented. The system performance tests show that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Mississippi with Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) and up to 41m in Florida when Kd=0.11m-1. Bathymetric accuracy of CZMIL was measured by comparing CZMIL depths with multi-beam sonar data from Cat Island, MS and from off the coast of Fort. Lauderdale, FL. Validation demonstrated that CZMIL meets USACE specifications (two standard deviation, 2σ, ~30 cm). To measure topographic accuracy we made direct comparisons of CZMIL elevations to GPS-surveyed ground control points and vehicle-based lidar scans of topographic surfaces. Results confirmed that CZMIL meets the USACE topographic requirements (2σ, ~15 cm). Upon completion of the Green Bay and Lake Erie mission there were 89 flights with 2231 flightlines. The general hours of aircraft engine time (which doesn't include all transit/ferry flights) was 441 hours with 173 hours of time on survey flightlines. The 4.8 billion (!) laser shots and 38.6 billion digitized waveforms covered over 1025 miles of shoreline.

  18. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun

    In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all

  19. Readiness of freight transportation system at special economic zone of Lhokseumawe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fithra, Herman; Sirojuzilam, Saleh, Sofyan M.; Erlina

    2017-11-01

    Geo-economic advantages of Lhokseumawe and Aceh Utara District lies on the geographical location of Aceh crossed by Sea Lane of Communication (Sloc), the Malacca Strait. Located at the Malacca Strait, the Special Economic Zone (Kawasan Ekonomi Khusus/ KEK) of Arun Lhokseumawe has a comparative advantage to be part of the global production network or the global value chain. This study aims to determine freight transportation system to support KEK Lhokseumawe, especially the availability of multimodal transport and multimodal infrastructure. The result shows that KEK Lhokseumawe driven by SOEs in Lhokseumawe and Aceh Utara is urgent to be realized for economic acceleration and to grow new economic growth in Aceh. Multimodal transport in KEK Lhokseumawe is also available, including Ro-Ro ships, train availability from Dewantara sub-district to Muara Batu Sub-district, various types of truck with small, medium and large capacity. The available multimodal infrastructure includes international sea ports, road network connectivity with structure pavement rating of 94.62%, and railroad tracks indicating that multimodal transportation in KEK Lhokseumawe are ready to utilize. Regulatory requirements relating to the operation of all ports in KEK Lhokseumawe as export / import gate are required and serve the loading and loading activities of Containers, and as a place of origin of goods on the east coast of Aceh.

  20. [Baroreflexes originated in vertebral artery zones upon peripheral vein tonus, systemic arterial blood pressure, and external respiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadzhanian, N A; Kupriianov, S V

    2008-06-01

    The investigation was intended to study the role ofbaroreceptors ofhemodynamically isolated zone of vertebral arteries in regulation of peripheral veins tonus, arterial pressure and external respiration. Pressure decrease in this vascular reflexogenic zone led to reflex responses of increase in femoral vein tonus, elevation of blood pressure level and stimulation of external respiration. The opposite reflex responses of cardio-respiratory functional system to initial pressure activation of vertebral arteries baroreceptors are observed. Basing on generalization of our own findings and similar physiological and morphological researches of other authors, it is established that afferentation from the vertebral artery zone is a reflexogenic factor of somatic muscles' veins tonus regulation. These reflexes of capacity vessels tonic activity changes are part of cardio-respiratory responses of maintaining the tissue gaseous exchange.

  1. Determination of pumper truck intervention ratios in zones with high fire potential by using geographical information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricak, Burak; Kucuk, Omer; Enez, Korhan

    2014-01-01

    Fighting forest fires not only depends on the forest type, topography, and weather conditions, but is also closely related to the technical properties of fire-fighting equipment. Firefighting is an important part of fire management planning. However, because of the complex nature of forests, creating thematic layers to generate potential fire risk maps is difficult. The use of remote sensing data has become an efficient method for the discrete classification of potential fire risks. The study was located in the Central District of the Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate, covering an area of 24,320 ha, 15,685 ha of which is forested. On the basis of stand age, crown closure, and tree species, the sizes and distributions of potential fire risk zones within the study area were determined using high-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery and geographical information system data. The status of pumper truck intervention in zones with high fire risk and the sufficiency of existing forest roads within an existing forest network were discussed based on combustible matter characteristics. Pumper truck intervention was 83% for high-risk zones, 79% for medium-risk zones, and 78% for low-risk zones. A pumper truck intervention area map along existing roads was also created.

  2. Distribution of effluent injected into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, southeastern Florida, 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2018-02-09

    Nonhazardous, secondarily treated, domestic wastewater (effluent) has been injected about 1 kilometer below land surface into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southeastern Florida. The Boulder Zone contains saline, nonpotable water. Effluent transport out of the injection zone is a risk of underground effluent injection. At the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, injected effluent was detected outside the Boulder Zone. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, investigated effluent transport from the Boulder Zone to overlying permeable zones in the Floridan aquifer system.One conceptual model is presented to explain the presence of effluent outside of the injection zone in which effluent injected into the Boulder Zone was transported to the Avon Park permeable zone, forced by buoyancy and injection pressure. In this conceptual model, effluent injected primarily into the Boulder Zone reaches a naturally occurring feature (a karst-collapse structure) near an injection well, through which the effluent is transported vertically upward to the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The effluent is then transported laterally through the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer to another naturally occurring feature northwest of the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, through which it is then transported vertically upward into the Avon Park permeable zone. In addition, a leak within a monitoring well, between monitoring zones, allowed interflow between the Avon Park permeable zone and the Upper Floridan aquifer. A groundwater flow and effluent transport simulation of the hydrogeologic system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, based on the hypothesized and non-unique conceptualization of the subsurface hydrogeology and flow system, generally replicated measured effluent constituent

  3. Tectonic Constraints on the Evolution of Geothermal Systems in the Central Andean Volcanic Zone (CAVZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, E. E.; Tardani, D.; Aron, F.; Elizalde, J. D.; Sanchez-Alfaro, P.; Godoy, B.

    2017-12-01

    South of 19°S, geothermal fields and Pliocene-to-Holocene volcanic centers of the Central Andean Volcanic Zone are spatially associated with distinct, large-scale fault systems disrupting the volcanic arc, which control the architecture and dynamics of the fluids reservoirs at shallow crustal levels. Based on an extensive compilation of structural, lithological and isotopic data, and satellite imagery band-ratio analyses, we produced detailed maps of 13 areas comprising 19 identified and/or potential geothermal fields, to examine if particular local-scale tectonic configurations are associated to fluids migrating from different crustal levels. We defined three main tectonic environments according to the specific, kilometer-scale structural arrangement and its spatial relation to the geothermal surface manifestations. T1, dominated by left-lateral, pure strike-slip motion on a NW-trending duplex-like geometry with geothermal fields located along the faults - in turn distributed into five major subparallel zones cutting across the orogenic belt between ca. 20° and 27°S. T2, dominated by shortening on a series of N-trending thrust faults and fault-propagated folds, cut and displaced by the above mentioned NW-trending faults, with geothermal fields hosted at fault intersections and at fold hinges. And T3, characterized by transtension accommodated by NW-to-WNW-trending left-lateral/normal faults, with hot-springs lying along the fault traces. Interestingly, each of the independently defined tectonic environments has distinctive helium (in fluids) and strontium (in lavas) isotopic signatures and estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures. T1 shows a large 4He contribution, low 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperatures varying between ca. 220°-310°C; T3 low 4He and high 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperature (260°-320°C); T2 isotopic values fall between T1 and T3, yet showing the lowest (130°-250°C) temperatures. We suggest that these particular isotopic signatures are due to

  4. Mash evaluation of TxDOT high-mounting-height temporary work zone sign support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a nonproprietary, lightweight, crashworthy, temporary work-zone single sign support for use with an aluminum sign substrate. The device is intended to meet the evaluation criteria in American Association ...

  5. Developing a smartphone based warning system application to enhance the safety at work zones : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Collisions in the work zone have always been a contributing factor to compromising safety on urban roadways. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the State Transportation Authorities have implemented many safety countermeasu...

  6. Small ruminant feed systems: perceptions and practices in the transitional zone of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Zijpp Akke J

    2010-03-01

    and agronomic investigations into major feeds, the creation of non-cropping zones around village fringes and studies on labour demands of different feed systems are proposed. The insight gained in this study on farmers' perceptions and practices relating to small ruminant feeds could guide in the selection and introduction of feed innovations that fit into current feed systems to enhance adoption.

  7. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  8. Adrift in the Gray Zone: IRB Perspectives on Research in the Learning Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Kelley, Maureen; Cho, Mildred K; Kraft, Stephanie Alessi; James, Cyan; Constantine, Melissa; Meyer, Adrienne N; Diekema, Douglas; Capron, Alexander M; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Magnus, David

    2016-01-01

    Human subjects protection in healthcare contexts rests on the premise that a principled boundary distinguishes clinical research and clinical practice. However, growing use of evidence-based clinical practices by health systems makes it increasingly difficult to disentangle research from a wide range of clinical activities that are sometimes called "research on medical practice" (ROMP), including quality improvement activities and comparative effectiveness research. The recent growth of ROMP activities has created an ethical and regulatory gray zone with significant implications for the oversight of human subjects research. We conducted six semi-structured, open-ended focus group discussions with IRB members to understand their experiences and perspectives on ethical oversight of ROMP, including randomization of patients to standard treatments. Our study revealed that IRB members are unclear or divided on the central questions at stake in the current policy debate over ethical oversight of ROMP: IRB members struggle to make a clear distinction between clinical research and medical practice improvement, lack consensus on when ROMP requires IRB review and oversight, and are uncertain about what constitutes incremental risk when patients are randomized to different treatments, any of which may be offered in usual care. They characterized the central challenge as a balancing act, between, on the one hand, making information fully transparent to patients and providing adequate oversight, and on the other hand, avoiding a chilling effect on the research process or harming the physician-patient relationship. Evidence-based guidance that supports IRB members in providing adequate and effective oversight of ROMP without impeding the research process or harming the physician-patient relationship is necessary to realize the full benefits of the learning health system.

  9. Quantum-chemical studies of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems. Part 2. Cumulenes and origin of the forbidden zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Kruglyak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the basic problem in quantum theory of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems like polyenes (Part 1 and cumulenes (Part 2 – physical origin of the forbidden zone in these and analogous 1D electron systems due to two possible effects – Peierls instability (bond alternation and Mott instability (electron correlation. Both possible contradiction and coexistence of the Mott and Peierls instabilities are summerized on the basis of the Kiev quantum chemistry team research projects.

  10. How weak is the subduction zone interface?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that subduction zones are weak and that the unique availability of water on Earth is a critical factor in the weakening process. We have evaluated the strength of subduction zone interfaces using two approaches: (i) from empirical relationships between shear stress

  11. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2016-09-18

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros; Lee, Min-Gi; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  13. A Study on a Control Method with a Ventilation Requirement of a VAV System in Multi-Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jun Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to propose a control method with a ventilation requirement of variable air volume (VAV system in multi-zone. In order to control the VAV system inmulti-zone, it is essential to control the terminal unit installed in each zone. A VAV terminal unit with conventional control method using a fixed minimum air flow can cause indoor air quality (IAQ issues depending on the variation in the number of occupants. This research proposes a control method with a ventilation requirement of the VAV terminal unit and AHU inmulti-zone. The integrated control method with an air flow increase model in the VAV terminal unit, AHU, and outdoor air intake rate increase model in the AHU was based on the indoor CO2 concentration. The conventional and proposed control algorithms were compared through a TRNSYS simulation program. The proposed VAV terminal unit control method satisfies all the conditions of indoor temperature, IAQ, and stratification. An energy comparison with the conventional control method showed that the method satisfies not only the indoor thermal comfort, IAQ, and stratification issue, but also reduces the energy consumption.

  14. Application of the zone-melting technique to metal chelate systems-VI A new apparatus for zone-melting chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, S; Kobayashi, H; Ueno, K

    1973-07-01

    An improved apparatus has been constructed for zone-melting chromatography. An essential feature of the apparatus is that the length of the molten zone can be kept constant during a zone-melting operation, by employing heating and cooling compartments which are separated from each other by double partition plates. Each compartment is heated or cooled with jets of hot or cold air. The apparatus is suitable for organic materials melting in the range between 40 degrees and 180 degrees . The distribution of metal ion along the column after zone melting of copper acetylacetonate in 2-methoxynaphthalene was a smooth curve. The plot of the position of maximum concentration, x(max), against the number of zone passes, n, gave a relationship in accordance with theoretical prediction.

  15. Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic

  16. Effect of cutter tip angle on cutting characteristics of acrylic worksheet subjected to punch/die shearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Kojima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the effect of tool geometry on cutting characteristics of a 1.0 mm thickness acrylic worksheet subjected to a punch/die shearing. A set of side-wedge punch and side-wedge die which had the edge angle of 30°, 60° and/or 90° was prepared and used for cutting off the worksheet. A load cell and a CCD camera were installed in the cutting system to investigate the cutting load resistance and the side-view deformation of the worksheet. From experimental results, it was revealed that a cracking pattern at a sheared zone was remarkably affected by the edge angle of cutting tool. A cracking direction was almost coincident to the edge angle when considering the punch/die edge angle of 30°, while any matching of them was not observed in case of the punch/die edge angle of 60°, 90°. By using the 30° side-wedge tool, a flat-smooth sheared surface was generated. When combing the punch edge angle of 90° and the die edge angle of 60°, the cracking profile was characterized by the both edge angles for each part (die and punch. Carrying out an elasto-plastic finite element method analysis of cutter indentation with a few of symmetric and asymmetric punch/die edges, the stress distribution and deformation flow at the sheared zone were discussed with the initiation of surface cracks

  17. DETERMINATION OF THE ZONE ENDANGERED BY METHANE EXPLOSION IN GOAF WITH CAVING OF LONGWALLS VENTILATED ON „Y” SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław BRODNY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most dangerous and most commonly present risks in hard coal mines is methane hazard. During exploitation by longwall system with caving, methane is emitted to mine heading from the mined coal and coal left in a pile. A large amount of methane also flows from neighboring seams through cracks and fissures formed in rock mass. In a case of accumulation of explosive methane concentration in goaf zone and with appropriate oxygen concentration and occur-rence of initials (e.g. spark or endogenous fire, it may come to the explosion of this gas. In the paper there are present-ed results of numerical analysis of mixture of air and methane streams flow through the real heading system of a mine, characterized by high methane hazard. The aim of the studies was to analyze the ventilation system of considered head-ing system and determination of braking zones in goaf zone, in which dangerous and explosive concertation of methane can occur with sufficient oxygen concentration equal to at least 12%. Determination of position of these zones is neces-sary for the selection of appropriate parameters of the ventilation system to ensure safety of the crew. Analysis of the scale of methane hazard allows to select such a ventilation system of exploitation and neighboring headings that ensures chemical composition of mining atmosphere required by regulation, and required efficiency of methane drainage. The obtained results clearly show that numerical methods, combined with the results of tests in real conditions can be suc-cessfully used for the analysis of variants of processes related to ventilation of underground mining, and also in the anal-ysis of emergency states.

  18. Degree of saturation effect on the grout-soil interface shear strength of soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the grouted soil nailing system, the bonding strength of cement grout-soil interface offers the required resistance to maintain the stability of whole structure. In practice, soil nailing applications are often placed at unsaturated conditions, such as soil slopes, shallow foundations, retaining walls and pavement structures. In these cases, the water content in the soil nail zone may increase or decrease due to rain water or dry weather, and even cannot become saturated during their design service life. In this study, the effect of water content (degree of saturation on the shear strength of interface between cement grout and sand are experimentally investigated by means of direct shear test. Meanwhile the water retention curve was determined and interface microstructure was observed. Experimental results show that the shear strength of interface changes non-monotonously with degree of saturation when the interface was prepared, due to the non-monotonousness of the cohesiveness between soil particles. The less the cohesiveness between sand particles, the more grout was observed been penetrated into the voids, and thus the larger the interface shear stress.

  19. Fitting Formulae and Constraints for the Existence of S-type and P-type Habitable Zones in Binary Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaopeng; Cuntz, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    We derive fitting formulae for the quick determination of the existence of S-type and P-type habitable zones (HZs) in binary systems. Based on previous work, we consider the limits of the climatological HZ in binary systems (which sensitively depend on the system parameters) based on a joint constraint encompassing planetary orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet. Additionally, we employ updated results on planetary climate models obtained by Kopparapu and collaborators. Our results are applied to four P-type systems (Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413, and Kepler-1647) and two S-type systems (TrES-2 and KOI-1257). Our method allows us to gauge the existence of climatological HZs for these systems in a straightforward manner with detailed consideration of the observational uncertainties. Further applications may include studies of other existing systems as well as systems to be identified through future observational campaigns.

  20. Fitting Formulae and Constraints for the Existence of S-type and P-type Habitable Zones in Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhaopeng; Cuntz, Manfred, E-mail: zhaopeng.wang@mavs.uta.edu, E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We derive fitting formulae for the quick determination of the existence of S-type and P-type habitable zones (HZs) in binary systems. Based on previous work, we consider the limits of the climatological HZ in binary systems (which sensitively depend on the system parameters) based on a joint constraint encompassing planetary orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet. Additionally, we employ updated results on planetary climate models obtained by Kopparapu and collaborators. Our results are applied to four P-type systems (Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413, and Kepler-1647) and two S-type systems (TrES-2 and KOI-1257). Our method allows us to gauge the existence of climatological HZs for these systems in a straightforward manner with detailed consideration of the observational uncertainties. Further applications may include studies of other existing systems as well as systems to be identified through future observational campaigns.

  1. Formation of albitite-hosted uranium within IOCG systems: the Southern Breccia, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montreuil, Jean-François; Corriveau, Louise; Potter, Eric G.

    2015-03-01

    Uranium and polymetallic U mineralization hosted within brecciated albitites occurs one kilometer south of the magnetite-rich Au-Co-Bi-Cu NICO deposit in the southern Great Bear magmatic zone (GBMZ), Canada. Concentrations up to 1 wt% U are distributed throughout a 3 by 0.5 km albitization corridor defined as the Southern Breccia zone. Two distinct U mineralization events are observed. Primary uraninite precipitated with or without pyrite-chalcopyrite ± molybdenite within magnetite-ilmenite-biotite-K-feldspar-altered breccias during high-temperature potassic-iron alteration. Subsequently, pitchblende precipitated in earthy hematite-specular hematite-chlorite veins associated with a low-temperature iron-magnesium alteration. The uraninite-bearing mineralization postdates sodic (albite) and more localized high-temperature potassic-iron (biotite-magnetite ± K-feldspar) alteration yet predates potassic (K-feldspar), boron (tourmaline) and potassic-iron-magnesium (hematite ± K-feldspar ± chlorite) alteration. The Southern Breccia zone shares attributes of the Valhalla (Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) albitite-hosted U deposits but contains greater iron oxide contents and lower contents of riebeckite and carbonates. Potassium, Ni, and Th are also enriched whereas Zr and Sr are depleted with respect to the aforementioned albitite-hosted U deposits. Field relationships, geochemical signatures and available U-Pb dates on pre-, syn- and post-mineralization intrusions place the development of the Southern Breccia and the NICO deposit as part of a single iron oxide alkali-altered (IOAA) system. In addition, this case example illustrates that albitite-hosted U deposits can form in albitization zones that predate base and precious metal ore zones in a single IOAA system and become traps for U and multiple metals once the tectonic regime favors fluid mixing and oxidation-reduction reactions.

  2. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  3. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  4. Optimization of the exploitation system of a low enthalpy geothermal aquifer with zones of different transmissivities and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tselepidou, K.; Katsifarakis, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Market penetration of renewable energy sources, such as geothermal energy, could be promoted even by small cost reductions, achieved through improved development design. This paper deals with optimization of the exploitation system of a low enthalpy geothermal aquifer, by means