WorldWideScience

Sample records for shear modulus reconstruction

  1. Increasing Accuracy of Tissue Shear Modulus Reconstruction Using Ultrasonic Strain Tensor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, C.

    Previously, we developed three displacement vector measurement methods, i.e., the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method (MCSPGM), the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM), and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM). To increase the accuracies and stabilities of lateral and elevational displacement measurements, we also developed spatially variant, displacement component-dependent regularization. In particular, the regularization of only the lateral/elevational displacements is advantageous for the lateral unmodulated case. The demonstrated measurements of the displacement vector distributions in experiments using an inhomogeneous shear modulus agar phantom confirm that displacement-component-dependent regularization enables more stable shear modulus reconstruction. In this report, we also review our developed lateral modulation methods that use Parabolic functions, Hanning windows, and Gaussian functions in the apodization function and the optimized apodization function that realizes the designed point spread function (PSF). The modulations significantly increase the accuracy of the strain tensor measurement and shear modulus reconstruction (demonstrated using an agar phantom).

  2. Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1998-01-01

    time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  3. The instantaneous shear modulus in the shoving model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.; Wang, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    We point out that the instantaneous shear modulus G∞ of the shoving model for the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of viscous liquids’ relaxation time is the experimentally accessible highfrequency plateau modulus, not the idealized instantaneous affine shear modulus that cannot be measured....... Data for a large selection of metallic glasses are compared to three different versions of the shoving model. The original shear-modulus based version shows a slight correlation to the Poisson ratio, which is eliminated by the energy-landscape formulation of the model in which the bulk modulus plays...

  4. Calculating tissue shear modulus and pressure by 2D log-elastographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Joyce R; Zhang, Ning; Manduca, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Shear modulus imaging, often called elastography, enables detection and characterization of tissue abnormalities. In this paper the data are two displacement components obtained from successive MR or ultrasound data sets acquired while the tissue is excited mechanically. A 2D plane strain elastic model is assumed to govern the 2D displacement, u. The shear modulus, μ, is unknown and whether or not the first Lamé parameter, λ, is known the pressure p = λ∇ . u which is present in the plane strain model cannot be measured and is unreliably computed from measured data and can be shown to be an order one quantity in the units kPa. So here we present a 2D log-elastographic inverse algorithm that (1) simultaneously reconstructs the shear modulus, μ, and p, which together satisfy a first-order partial differential equation system, with the goal of imaging μ; (2) controls potential exponential growth in the numerical error and (3) reliably reconstructs the quantity p in the inverse algorithm as compared to the same quantity computed with a forward algorithm. This work generalizes the log-elastographic algorithm in Lin et al (2009 Inverse Problems 25) which uses one displacement component, is derived assuming that the component satisfies the wave equation and is tested on synthetic data computed with the wave equation model. The 2D log-elastographic algorithm is tested on 2D synthetic data and 2D in vivo data from Mayo Clinic. We also exhibit examples to show that the 2D log-elastographic algorithm improves the quality of the recovered images as compared to the log-elastographic and direct inversion algorithms

  5. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Nordez, Antoine; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties. (note)

  6. Effect of single-particle magnetostriction on the shear modulus of compliant magnetoactive elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Viktor M.; Snarskii, Andrei A.; Shamonin, Mikhail; Zorinets, Denis

    2017-03-01

    The influence of an external magnetic field on the static shear strain and the effective shear modulus of a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) is studied theoretically in the framework of a recently introduced approach to the single-particle magnetostriction mechanism [V. M. Kalita et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 062503 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062503]. The planar problem of magnetostriction in an MAE with magnetically soft inclusions in the form of a thin disk (platelet) having the magnetic anisotropy in the plane of this disk is solved analytically. An external magnetic field acts with torques on magnetic filler particles, creates mechanical stresses in the vicinity of inclusions, induces shear strain, and increases the effective shear modulus of these composite materials. It is shown that the largest effect of the magnetic field on the effective shear modulus should be expected in MAEs with soft elastomer matrices, where the shear modulus of the matrix is less than the magnetic anisotropy constant of inclusions. It is derived that the effective shear modulus is nonlinearly dependent on the external magnetic field and approaches the saturation value in magnetic fields exceeding the field of particle anisotropy. It is shown that model calculations of the effective shear modulus correspond to a phenomenological definition of effective elastic moduli and magnetoelastic coupling constants. The obtained theoretical results compare well with known experimental data. Determination of effective elastic coefficients in MAEs and their dependence on magnetic field is discussed. The concentration dependence of the effective shear modulus at higher filler concentrations has been estimated using the method of Padé approximants, which predicts that both the absolute and relative changes of the magnetic-field-dependent effective shear modulus will significantly increase with the growing concentration of filler particles.

  7. Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun; Zhang, Zhao-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse

  8. Shear modulus and damping ratio of natural rubber containing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the potential application of Natural rubber (NR) containing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) by measuring its shear modulus and damping ratio. Four different types of rubber specimens which fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. It is observed that the shear modulus and damping ratio of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs.

  9. 3-D FDTD simulation of shear waves for evaluation of complex modulus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Marko; Wang, Yue; Insana, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The Navier equation describing shear wave propagation in 3-D viscoelastic media is solved numerically with a finite differences time domain (FDTD) method. Solutions are formed in terms of transverse scatterer velocity waves and then verified via comparison to measured wave fields in heterogeneous hydrogel phantoms. The numerical algorithm is used as a tool to study the effects on complex shear modulus estimation from wave propagation in heterogeneous viscoelastic media. We used an algebraic Helmholtz inversion (AHI) technique to solve for the complex shear modulus from simulated and experimental velocity data acquired in 2-D and 3-D. Although 3-D velocity estimates are required in general, there are object geometries for which 2-D inversions provide accurate estimations of the material properties. Through simulations and experiments, we explored artifacts generated in elastic and dynamic-viscous shear modulus images related to the shear wavelength and average viscosity.

  10. Minimization of complementary energy to predict shear modulus of laminates with intralaminar cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannadakis, K; Varna, J

    2012-01-01

    The most common damage mode and the one examined in this work is the formation of intralaminar cracks in layers of laminates. These cracks can occur when the composite structure is subjected to mechanical and/or thermal loading and eventually lead to degradation of thermo-elastic properties. In the present work, the shear modulus reduction due to cracking is studied. Mathematical models exist in literature for the simple case of cross-ply laminates. The in-plane shear modulus of a damaged laminate is only considered in a few studies. In the current work, the shear modulus reduction in cross-plies will be analysed based on the principle of minimization of complementary energy. Hashin investigated the in-plane shear modulus reduction of cross-ply laminates with cracks in inside 90-layer using this variational approach and assuming that the in-plane shear stress in layers does not depend on the thickness coordinate. In the present study, a more detailed and accurate approach for stress estimation is followed using shape functions for this dependence with parameters obtained by minimization. The results for complementary energy are then compared with the respective from literature and finally an expression for shear modulus degradation is derived.

  11. Shear elastic modulus of magnetic gels with random distribution of magnetizable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakova, L. Yu; Zubarev, A. Yu

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic gels present new type of composite materials with rich set of uniquie physical properties, which find active applications in many industrial and bio-medical technologies. We present results of mathematically strict theoretical study of elastic modulus of these systems with randomly distributed magnetizable particles in an elastic medium. The results show that an external magnetic field can pronouncedly increase the shear modulus of these composites.

  12. Room temperature Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and hardness of PbTe-PbS thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Jennifer E [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Case, Eldon D., E-mail: casee@egr.msu.edu [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Khabir, Kristen N; Stewart, Ryan C [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wu, Chun-I; Hogan, Timothy P [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Timm, Edward J [Mechanical Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Girard, Steven N; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Two-phase PbTe-PbS materials, in which PbS is a nanostructured phase, are promising thermoelectric materials for the direct conversion of heat energy into electricity. In this study, a Vickers indentation mean hardness of 1.18 {+-} 0.09 GPa was measured for hot pressed specimens Pb{sub 0.95}Sn{sub 0.05}Te-PbS 8% while the mean hardness of cast specimens was 0.68 {+-} 0.07 GPa. The mean fracture toughness of the not pressed specimens was estimated as 0.35 {+-} 0.04 MPa m{sup 1/2} via Vickers indentation. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) measurements on hot pressed specimens gave mean values of Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio of 53.1 GPa, 21.4 GPa and 0.245, respectively while for the cast specimens the Young's and shear moduli were about 10% lower than for the hot pressed, with a mean value of Poisson's ratio of 0.245. The differences between the hardness and elastic moduli values for the cast and hot pressed specimens are discussed.

  13. Shear Modulus of Sintered 'House of Cards'-Like Assemblies of Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaink, H.M.; Malssen, van K.

    2007-01-01

    A cell model of a 'house of cards'-like assembly of crystals is used for the study of the evolution of the shear modulus during sintering. The crystals are assumed to have a lozenge shape. The cell model takes different crystal-crystal contacts into account. The force needed to separate two sintered

  14. Determining shear modulus of thin wood composite materials using a cantilever beam vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Haicheng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Shear modulus (G) of thin wood composite materials is one of several important indicators that characterizes mechanical properties. However, there is not an easy method to obtain this value. This study presents the use of a newly developed cantilever beam free vibration test apparatus to detect in-plane G of thin wood composite...

  15. Elastic modulus of muscle and tendon with shear wave ultrasound elastography: variations with different technical settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available Standardization on Shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE technical settings will not only ensure that the results are accurate, but also detect any differences over time that may be attributed to true physiological changes. The present study evaluated the variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon using SWUE when different technical aspects were altered. The results of this study indicated that variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon were found when different transducer's pressure and region of interest (ROI's size were applied. No significant differences in elastic modulus of the rectus femoris muscle and patellar tendon were found with different acquisition times of the SWUE sonogram. The SWUE on the muscle and tendon should be performed with the lightest transducer's pressure, a shorter acquisition time for the SWUE sonogram, while measuring the mean elastic modulus regardless the ROI's size.

  16. Loss tangent and complex modulus estimated by acoustic radiation force creep and shear wave dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F

    2012-03-07

    Elasticity imaging methods have been used to study tissue mechanical properties and have demonstrated that tissue elasticity changes with disease state. In current shear wave elasticity imaging methods typically only shear wave speed is measured and rheological models, e.g. Kelvin-Voigt, Maxwell and Standard Linear Solid, are used to solve for tissue mechanical properties such as the shear viscoelastic complex modulus. This paper presents a method to quantify viscoelastic material properties in a model-independent way by estimating the complex shear elastic modulus over a wide frequency range using time-dependent creep response induced by acoustic radiation force. This radiation force induced creep method uses a conversion formula that is the analytic solution of a constitutive equation. The proposed method in combination with shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry is used to measure the complex modulus so that knowledge of the applied radiation force magnitude is not necessary. The conversion formula is shown to be sensitive to sampling frequency and the first reliable measure in time according to numerical simulations using the Kelvin-Voigt model creep strain and compliance. Representative model-free shear complex moduli from homogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms and one excised swine kidney were obtained. This work proposes a novel model-free ultrasound-based elasticity method that does not require a rheological model with associated fitting requirements.

  17. A Six-Week Resistance Training Program Does Not Change Shear Modulus of the Triceps Brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Shikiba, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Jun; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effect of a 6-week resistance training program on the shear modulus of the triceps brachii (TB). Twenty-three young men were randomly assigned to either the training (n = 13) or control group (n = 10). Before and after conducting the resistance training program, the shear modulus of the long head of the TB was measured at the point 70% along the length of the upper arm from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus using shear wave ultrasound elastography. Muscle thickness of the long head of the TB was also determined at the same site by ultrasonography used during both tests. A resistance exercise was performed 3 days a week for 6 weeks using a dumbbell mass-adjusted to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The training effect on the muscle thickness and 1RM was significant. Nevertheless, the muscle shear modulus was not significantly changed after the training program. From the perspective of muscle mechanical properties, the present results indicate that significant adaptation must occur to make the TB more resistant to subsequent damaging bouts during the 6-week training program to target the TB.

  18. Influence of grain size distribution on dynamic shear modulus of sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyka Ireneusz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory tests, that verify the correlation between the grain-size characteristics of non-cohesive soils and the value of the dynamic shear modulus. The problem is a continuation of the research performed at the Institute of Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics in Karlsruhe, by T. Wichtmann and T. Triantafyllidis, who derived the extension of the applicability of the Hardin’s equation describing the explicite dependence between the grain size distribution of sands and the values of dynamic shear modulus. For this purpose, piezo-ceramic bender elements generating elastic waves were used to investigate the mechanical properties of the specimens with artificially generated particle distribution. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis that grain size distribution of non-cohesive soils has a significant influence on the dynamic shear modulus, but at the same time they have shown that obtaining unambiguous results from bender element tests is a difficult task in practical applications.

  19. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest and Shear Modulus Measurements on Hanford Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bauman, Nathan N.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Arduino, P.; Keller, P. J.

    2010-09-30

    This report describes the equipment, techniques, and results of lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus measurements on kaolin clay as well as two chemical sludge simulants. The testing was performed in support of the problem of hydrogen gas retention and release encountered in the double- shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) are being transferred to double-shell tanks (DSTs) for safety reasons (some SSTs are leaking or are in danger of leaking), but the available DST space is limited.

  1. Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2011-09-02

    We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse waves can propagate with a negative dispersion while longitudinal waves are forbidden. This leads to many interesting phenomena such as negative refraction, which is demonstrated by using a wedge sample and a significant amount of mode conversion from transverse waves to longitudinal waves that cannot occur on the interface of two natural solids.

  2. Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. de Korte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.

  3. The Evaluation of the Initial Shear Modulus of Selected Cohesive Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabryś, Katarzyna; Szymański, Alojzy

    2015-06-01

    The paper concerns the evaluation of the initial stiffness of selected cohesive soils based on laboratory tests. The research materials used in this study were clayey soils taken from the area of the road embankment No. WD-18, on the 464th km of the S2 express-way, Konotopa-Airport route, Warsaw. The initial stiffness is represented here by the shear modulus (Gmax) determined during resonant column tests. In the article, a number of literature empirical formulas for defining initial value of the shear modulus of soils being examined were adopted from the literature in order to analyze the data set. However, a large discrepancy between laboratory test results and the values of Gmax calculated from empirical relationships resulted in the rejection of these proposals. They are inaccurate and do not allow for an exact evaluation of soil stiffness for selected cohesive soils. Hence, the authors proposed their own empirical formula that enables the evaluation of the test soils' Gmax in an easy and uncomplicated way. This unique formula describes mathematically the effect of certain soil parameters, namely mean effective stress ( p') and void ratio (e), on the initial soil stiffness.

  4. A practical method for estimating maximum shear modulus of cemented sands using unconfined compressive strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyunwook; Nam, Hongyeop; Lee, Woojin

    2017-12-01

    The composition of naturally cemented deposits is very complicated; thus, estimating the maximum shear modulus (Gmax, or shear modulus at very small strains) of cemented sands using the previous empirical formulas is very difficult. The purpose of this experimental investigation is to evaluate the effects of particle size and cement type on the Gmax and unconfined compressive strength (qucs) of cemented sands, with the ultimate goal of estimating Gmax of cemented sands using qucs. Two sands were artificially cemented using Portland cement or gypsum under varying cement contents (2%-9%) and relative densities (30%-80%). Unconfined compression tests and bender element tests were performed, and the results from previous studies of two cemented sands were incorporated in this study. The results of this study demonstrate that the effect of particle size on the qucs and Gmax of four cemented sands is insignificant, and the variation of qucs and Gmax can be captured by the ratio between volume of void and volume of cement. qucs and Gmax of sand cemented with Portland cement are greater than those of sand cemented with gypsum. However, the relationship between qucs and Gmax of the cemented sand is not affected by the void ratio, cement type and cement content, revealing that Gmax of the complex naturally cemented soils with unknown in-situ void ratio, cement type and cement content can be estimated using qucs.

  5. Internal friction and shear modulus in Al-Ga alloys (80-320 K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chountas, K.; Andronikos, P.; Papathanassopoulos, K.

    1977-01-01

    The internal friction and shear modulus of polycrystalline Al + (0.2, 0.7, 2 and 4) at.% Ga was measured as a function of temperature, using measurements of logarithmic decrement and frequency of free sample vibration. The internal friction curves for the smaller solute concentrations went through a maximum (peak) at 230 K. The height of the peak increased initially with solute concentration, then disappeared at higher concentrations. This peak is probably due to the interaction of solute atoms with dislocations. The continuous increase in internal friction at higher temperatures, reported in pure Al, was not found in these alloys. This absence is probably due to the pinning of dislocations by Ga atoms. (author)

  6. Perbaikan Sifat Reologi Visco-Elastic Aspal dengan Penambahan Asbuton Murni Menggunakan Parameter Complex Shear Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wahyu Indriyati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of crude oil will increase the price of petroleum asphalt. Indonesia has imported asphalt to meet the need for the annually road construction and maintenance. One solution to improving the rheological properties of bitumen is by adding the harder bitumen or other chemical compound to reduce dependence to petroleum asphalt. In Indonesia there is a source of natural asphalt in Buton Island, Sulawesi with huge amount of deposit that potentially could improve the rheological properties of Pen 60/70 Petroleum Asphalt. In order to obtain a better understanding on the contribution of Asbuton to the improvement of performance on rheological properties, this research used 19 variations of Asbuton and pen 60/70 petroleum bitumen. This variation is then subjected to the basic rheology test and the mechanistic test using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. The conclusion of basic rheological performance is obtained that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petroleum bitumen will increase hardness of bitumen. Conclusion on mechanistic rheological performance is that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petrol bitumen will increase Performance Grade (PG and Complex Shear Modulus (G*. The results from the analysis of Master Curve and Black Diagram, it is shown that the increasing proportion of bitumen Asbuton will decrease the phase angle (δ but its temperature susceptibility is worse.

  7. Temperature dependence of the shear modulus of soft tissues assessed by ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapin-de Brosses, E; Gennisson, J-L; Pernot, M; Fink, M; Tanter, M [Langevin Institute (CNRS UMR 7587), INSERM ERL U979, ESPCI ParisTech, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75 005 Paris (France)], E-mail: emilie.sapin@espci.fr

    2010-03-21

    Soft tissue stiffness was shown to significantly change after thermal ablation. To better understand this phenomenon, the study aims (1) to quantify and explain the temperature dependence of soft tissue stiffness for different organs, (2) to investigate the potential relationship between stiffness changes and thermal dose and (3) to study the reversibility or irreversibility of stiffness changes. Ex vivo bovine liver and muscle samples (N = 3 and N = 20, respectively) were slowly heated and cooled down into a thermally controlled saline bath. Temperatures were assessed by thermocouples. Sample stiffness (shear modulus) was provided by the quantitative supersonic shear imaging technique. Changes in liver stiffness are observed only after 45 deg. C. In contrast, between 25 deg. C and 65 deg. C, muscle stiffness varies in four successive steps that are consistent with the thermally induced proteins denaturation reported in the literature. After a 6 h long heating and cooling process, the final muscle stiffness can be either smaller or bigger than the initial one, depending on the stiffness at the end of the heating. Another important result is that stiffness changes are linked to thermal dose. Given the high sensitivity of ultrasound to protein denaturation, this study gives promising prospects for the development of ultrasound-guided HIFU systems.

  8. Temperature dependence of the shear modulus of soft tissues assessed by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin-de Brosses, E; Gennisson, J-L; Pernot, M; Fink, M; Tanter, M

    2010-01-01

    Soft tissue stiffness was shown to significantly change after thermal ablation. To better understand this phenomenon, the study aims (1) to quantify and explain the temperature dependence of soft tissue stiffness for different organs, (2) to investigate the potential relationship between stiffness changes and thermal dose and (3) to study the reversibility or irreversibility of stiffness changes. Ex vivo bovine liver and muscle samples (N = 3 and N = 20, respectively) were slowly heated and cooled down into a thermally controlled saline bath. Temperatures were assessed by thermocouples. Sample stiffness (shear modulus) was provided by the quantitative supersonic shear imaging technique. Changes in liver stiffness are observed only after 45 deg. C. In contrast, between 25 deg. C and 65 deg. C, muscle stiffness varies in four successive steps that are consistent with the thermally induced proteins denaturation reported in the literature. After a 6 h long heating and cooling process, the final muscle stiffness can be either smaller or bigger than the initial one, depending on the stiffness at the end of the heating. Another important result is that stiffness changes are linked to thermal dose. Given the high sensitivity of ultrasound to protein denaturation, this study gives promising prospects for the development of ultrasound-guided HIFU systems.

  9. Supersonic Shear Imaging Elastography in Skeletal Muscles: Relationship Between In Vivo and Synthetic Fiber Angles and Shear Modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Kelly; Rouffaud, Remi; Pereira, Wagner; Oliveira, Liliam F

    2018-04-30

    To verify a relationship between the pennation angle of synthetic fibers and muscle fibers with the shear modulus (μ) generated by Supersonic shear imaging (SSI) elastography and to compare the anisotropy of synthetic and in vivo pennate muscle fibers in the x 2 -x 3 plane (probe perpendicular to water surface or skin). First, the probe of Aixplorer ultrasound scanner (v.9, Supersonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) was placed in 2 positions (parallel [aligned] and transverse to the fibers) to test the anisotropy in the x 2 -x 3 plane. Subsequently, it was inclined (x 1 -x 3 plane) in relation to the fibers, forming 3 angles (18.25 °, 21.55 °, 36.86 °) for synthetic fibers and one (approximately 0 °) for muscle fibers. On the x 2 -x 3 plane, μ values of the synthetic and vastus lateralis fibers were significantly lower (P < .0001) at the transverse probe position than the longitudinal one. In the x 1 -x 3 plane, the μ values were significantly reduced (P < .0001) with the probe angle increasing, only for the synthetic fibers (approximately 0.90 kPa for each degree of pennation angle). The pennation angle was not related to the μ values generated by SSI elastography for the in vivo lateral head of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles. However, a μ reduction with an angle increase in the synthetic fibers was observed. These findings contribute to increasing the applicability of SSI in distinct muscle architecture at normal or pathologic conditions. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Shear-wave elastography for breast masses: local shear wave speed (m/sec) versus Young modulus (kPa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Park, Ah Young; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the performance of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for breast masses using the local shear wave speed (m/sec) vs. Young modulus (kPa). A total of 130 breast lesions in 123 women who underwent SWE before ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy or surgical excision were included. With the region-of-interest placed over the stiffest areas of the lesion on SWE, the quantitative mean, maximum, and standard deviation (SD) of the elasticity values were measured in kPa and m/sec for each lesion. The SD was also measured with the region-of-interest including the whole breast lesion (wSD). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of each elasticity value measured in kPa and m/sec were compared. Of the 130 lesions, 49 (37.7%) were malignant and 81 (62.3%) were benign. The AUCs for the mean, maximum, and SD of the elasticity values using kPa and m/sec did not differ significantly: mean, 0.974 vs. 0.974; maximum, 0.960 vs. 0.976; SD, 0.916 vs. 0.916. However, the AUC for wSD showed a significant difference: 0.964 (kPa) vs. 0.960 (m/sec) (P=0.036). There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the mean, maximum, and wSD of the elasticity values. However, the specificity of the SD was significantly different between the two different measurements: 95.1% (kPa) vs. 87.7% (m/sec) (P=0.031). The quantitative elasticity values measured in kPa and m/sec on SWE showed good diagnostic performance. The specificity of the SD and AUC of the wSD measured in kPa were significantly higher than those measured in m/sec.

  11. Shear-wave elastography for breast masses: local shear wave speed (m/sec) versus Young modulus (kPa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Park, Ah Young; Kim, Jeong Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate and compare the performance of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for breast masses using the local shear wave speed (m/sec) vs. Young modulus (kPa). A total of 130 breast lesions in 123 women who underwent SWE before ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy or surgical excision were included. With the region-of-interest placed over the stiffest areas of the lesion on SWE, the quantitative mean, maximum, and standard deviation (SD) of the elasticity values were measured in kPa and m/sec for each lesion. The SD was also measured with the region-of-interest including the whole breast lesion (wSD). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of each elasticity value measured in kPa and m/sec were compared. Of the 130 lesions, 49 (37.7%) were malignant and 81 (62.3%) were benign. The AUCs for the mean, maximum, and SD of the elasticity values using kPa and m/sec did not differ significantly: mean, 0.974 vs. 0.974; maximum, 0.960 vs. 0.976; SD, 0.916 vs. 0.916. However, the AUC for wSD showed a significant difference: 0.964 (kPa) vs. 0.960 (m/sec) (P=0.036). There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the mean, maximum, and wSD of the elasticity values. However, the specificity of the SD was significantly different between the two different measurements: 95.1% (kPa) vs. 87.7% (m/sec) (P=0.031). The quantitative elasticity values measured in kPa and m/sec on SWE showed good diagnostic performance. The specificity of the SD and AUC of the wSD measured in kPa were significantly higher than those measured in m/sec.

  12. Shear-wave elastography for breast masses: local shear wave speed (m/sec) versus Young modulus (kPa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Park, Ah Young; Kim, Jeong Ah

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the performance of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for breast masses using the local shear wave speed (m/sec) vs. Young modulus (kPa). A total of 130 breast lesions in 123 women who underwent SWE before ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy or surgical excision were included. With the region-of-interest placed over the stiffest areas of the lesion on SWE, the quantitative mean, maximum, and standard deviation (SD) of the elasticity values were measured in kPa and m/sec for each lesion. The SD was also measured with the region-of-interest including the whole breast lesion (wSD). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of each elasticity value measured in kPa and m/sec were compared. Of the 130 lesions, 49 (37.7%) were malignant and 81 (62.3%) were benign. The AUCs for the mean, maximum, and SD of the elasticity values using kPa and m/sec did not differ significantly: mean, 0.974 vs. 0.974; maximum, 0.960 vs. 0.976; SD, 0.916 vs. 0.916. However, the AUC for wSD showed a significant difference: 0.964 (kPa) vs. 0.960 (m/sec) (P=0.036). There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the mean, maximum, and wSD of the elasticity values. However, the specificity of the SD was significantly different between the two different measurements: 95.1% (kPa) vs. 87.7% (m/sec) (P=0.031). The quantitative elasticity values measured in kPa and m/sec on SWE showed good diagnostic performance. The specificity of the SD and AUC of the wSD measured in kPa were significantly higher than those measured in m/sec.

  13. Determining a membrane's shear modulus, independent of its area-dilatation modulus, via capsule flow in a converging micro-capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, P; Kuriakose, S

    2015-04-14

    Determination of the elastic properties of the membrane of artificial capsules is essential for the better design of the various devices that are utilized in their engineering and biomedical applications. However this task is complicated owing to the combined effects of the shear and area-dilatation moduli on the capsule deformation. Based on computational investigation, we propose a new methodology to determine a membrane's shear modulus, independent of its area-dilatation modulus, by flowing strain-hardening capsules in a converging micro-capillary of comparable size under Stokes flow conditions, and comparing the experimental measurements of the capsule elongation overshooting with computational data. The capsule prestress, if any, can also be determined with the same methodology. The elongation overshooting is practically independent of the viscosity ratio for low and moderate viscosity ratios, and thus a wide range of capsule fluids can be employed. Our proposed experimental device can be readily produced via glass fabrication while owing to the continuous flow in the micro-capillary, the characterization of a large number of artificial capsules is possible.

  14. Relationship between low-temperature boson heat capacity peak and high-temperature shear modulus relaxation in a metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A. N.; Voloshok, T. N.; Granato, A. V.; Joncich, D. M.; Mitrofanov, Yu. P.; Khonik, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Low-temperature (2 K≤T≤350 K) heat capacity and room-temperature shear modulus measurements (ν=1.4 MHz) have been performed on bulk Pd 41.25 Cu 41.25 P 17.5 in the initial glassy, relaxed glassy, and crystallized states. It has been found that the height of the low-temperature Boson heat capacity peak strongly correlates with the changes in the shear modulus upon high-temperature annealing. It is this behavior that was earlier predicted by the interstitialcy theory, according to which dumbbell interstitialcy defects are responsible for a number of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of crystalline, (supercooled) liquid, and solid glassy states.

  15. Determination of the shear modulus of gelatine hydrogels by magnetization measurements using dispersed nickel nanorods as mechanical probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, P.; Tschöpe, A.; Birringer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ni nanorods are dispersed into gelatine gels and used as nanoprobes to estimate the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix by magnetization measurements. The nanorods are synthesized via pulsed electrodeposition of Ni into porous alumina, released from the templates by dissolution of the oxide layer and after several processing steps dispersed into gelatine gels with an isotropic orientation-distribution. Magnetization measurements of the resulting gels show a significant influence of the gelatine concentration on their magnetic behavior. In particular, with decreasing gelatine concentration the measured coercivity is reduced indicating a mechanical rotation of the nanorods in the field direction. A theoretical model which relates the measured coercivity to the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix is introduced and applied to investigate the ageing process of gelatine gels with different gelatine concentrations at room temperature. - Highlights: • AAO-template synthesis of uniaxial ferromagnetic single domain Ni nanorods. • Embedding nanorods as magnetic probes in soft elastic gelatine hydrogels. • Coercivity of isotropic samples increases with gelation time and gelatine concentration. • Quantitative relationship between coercivity and matrix shear modulus is obtained from an extended Stoner–Wohlfarth-model. • Semi-quantitative method for magnetic rheometry of soft elastic materials

  16. Determination of the shear modulus of gelatine hydrogels by magnetization measurements using dispersed nickel nanorods as mechanical probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P., E-mail: nano@p-bender.de; Tschöpe, A., E-mail: antsch@mx.uni-saarland.de; Birringer, R., E-mail: r.birringer@nano.uni-saarland.de

    2013-11-15

    Ni nanorods are dispersed into gelatine gels and used as nanoprobes to estimate the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix by magnetization measurements. The nanorods are synthesized via pulsed electrodeposition of Ni into porous alumina, released from the templates by dissolution of the oxide layer and after several processing steps dispersed into gelatine gels with an isotropic orientation-distribution. Magnetization measurements of the resulting gels show a significant influence of the gelatine concentration on their magnetic behavior. In particular, with decreasing gelatine concentration the measured coercivity is reduced indicating a mechanical rotation of the nanorods in the field direction. A theoretical model which relates the measured coercivity to the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix is introduced and applied to investigate the ageing process of gelatine gels with different gelatine concentrations at room temperature. - Highlights: • AAO-template synthesis of uniaxial ferromagnetic single domain Ni nanorods. • Embedding nanorods as magnetic probes in soft elastic gelatine hydrogels. • Coercivity of isotropic samples increases with gelation time and gelatine concentration. • Quantitative relationship between coercivity and matrix shear modulus is obtained from an extended Stoner–Wohlfarth-model. • Semi-quantitative method for magnetic rheometry of soft elastic materials.

  17. The dependence of shear modulus on dynamic relaxation and evolution of local structural heterogeneity in a metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, L.S.; Zeng, J.F.; Wang, W.H.; Liu, C.T.; Yang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the nanoscale structural heterogeneities intrinsic to metallic glasses (MGs), here we show that there are two concurrent contributions to their microscale quasi-static shear modulus G I : one (μ) is related to the atomic bonding strength of solid-like regions and the other (G II ) to the change in the possible configurations of liquid-like regions (dynamic relaxation). Through carefully designed high-rate nanoscale indentation tests, a simple constitutive relation (μ = G I + G II ) is experimentally verified. On a fundamental level, our current work provides a structure–property correlation that may be applicable to a wide range of glassy materials

  18. Connection between fragility, mean-squared displacement and shear modulus in two van der Waals bonded glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette Wase; Frick, Bernhard; Hecksher, Tina

    2017-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the high-frequency shear modulus measured in the kHz range is compared with the mean-squared displacement measured in the nanosecond range for the two van der Waals bonded glass-forming liquids cumene and 5-polyphenyl ether. This provides an experimental test for the...... for the assumption connecting two versions of the shoving model for the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the relaxation time in glass formers. The two versions of the model are also tested directly and both are shown to work well for these liquids....

  19. Pore Fluid Effects on Shear Modulus for Sandstones with Soft Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J G

    2004-01-01

    A general analysis of poroelasticity for vertical transverse isotropy (VTI) shows that four eigenvectors are pure shear modes with no coupling to the pore-fluidmechanics. The remaining two eigenvectors are linear combinations of pure compression and uniaxial shear, both of which are coupled to the fluid mechanics. After reducing the problem to a 2x2 system, the analysis shows in a relatively elementary fashion how a poroelastic system with isotropic solid elastic frame, but with anisotropy introduced through the poroelastic coefficients, interacts with the mechanics of the pore fluid and produces shear dependence on fluid properties in the overall mechanical system. The analysis shows, for example, that this effect is always present (though sometimes small in magnitude) in the systems studied, and can be quite large (up to a definite maximum increase of 20 per cent) in some rocks--including Spirit River sandstone and Schuler-Cotton Valley sandstone

  20. Enhancing the performance of model-based elastography by incorporating additional a priori information in the modulus image reconstruction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyley, Marvin M; Srinivasan, Seshadri; Dimidenko, Eugene; Soni, Nirmal; Ophir, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Model-based elastography is fraught with problems owing to the ill-posed nature of the inverse elasticity problem. To overcome this limitation, we have recently developed a novel inversion scheme that incorporates a priori information concerning the mechanical properties of the underlying tissue structures, and the variance incurred during displacement estimation in the modulus image reconstruction process. The information was procured by employing standard strain imaging methodology, and introduced in the reconstruction process through the generalized Tikhonov approach. In this paper, we report the results of experiments conducted on gelatin phantoms to evaluate the performance of modulus elastograms computed with the generalized Tikhonov (GTK) estimation criterion relative to those computed by employing the un-weighted least-squares estimation criterion, the weighted least-squares estimation criterion and the standard Tikhonov method (i.e., the generalized Tikhonov method with no modulus prior). The results indicate that modulus elastograms computed with the generalized Tikhonov approach had superior elastographic contrast discrimination and contrast recovery. In addition, image reconstruction was more resilient to structural decorrelation noise when additional constraints were imposed on the reconstruction process through the GTK method

  1. Determination of PVB interlayer’s shear modulus and its effect on normal stress distribution in laminated glass panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hána, T.; Eliášová, M.; Machalická, K.; Vokáč, M.

    2017-10-01

    Noticing the current architecture, there are many examples of glass bearing members such as beams, panes, ribs stairs or even columns. Most of these elements are made of laminated glass from panes bonded by polymer interlayer so the task of transferring shear forces between the glass panes needs to be investigated due to the lack of knowledge. This transfer depends on stiffness of polymer material, which is affected by temperature and load duration. It is essential to catch the safe side with limit cases when designing these members if the exact material behaviour is not specified. There are lots of interlayers for structural laminated glass applications available on a market. Most of them exhibit different properties, which need to be experimentally verified. This paper is focused on tangent shear modulus of PVB (polyvinyl-buthyral) interlayer and its effect on the stress distribution in glass panes when loaded. This distribution may be determined experimentally or numerically, respectively. This enables to design structural laminated glass members more effectively regarding price and safety. Furthermore, this is the way, how to extend the use of laminated glass in architectural design.

  2. Instrument for determining the complex shear modulus of soft-tissue-like materials from 10 to 300 Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, E L; Frank, G R; Hobson, M A; Hall, T J; Jiang, J; Stiles, T A [Medical Physics Department, 1005 Wisconsin, Institute for Medical Research, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Lin-Gibson, S [Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)], E-mail: elmadsen@wisc.edu

    2008-10-07

    Accurate determination of the complex shear modulus of soft tissues and soft-tissue-like materials in the 10-300 Hz frequency range is very important to researchers in MR elastography and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. A variety of instruments for making such measurements has been reported, but none of them is easily reproduced, and none have been tested to conform to causality via the Kramers-Kronig (K-K) relations. A promising linear oscillation instrument described in a previous brief report operates between 20 and 160 Hz, but results were not tested for conformity to the K-K relations. We have produced a similar instrument with our own version of the electronic components and have also accounted for instrumental effects on the data reduction, which is not addressed in the previous report. The improved instrument has been shown to conform to an accurate approximation of the K-K relations over the 10-300 Hz range. The K-K approximation is based on the Weichert mechanical circuit model. We also found that the sample thickness must be small enough to obtain agreement with a calibrated commercial rheometer. A complete description of the improved instrument is given, facilitating replication in other labs.

  3. Shear modulus estimation on vastus intermedius of elderly and young females over the entire range of isometric contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Elderly people often suffer from sarcopenia in their lower extremities, which gives rise to the increased susceptibility of fall. Comparing the mechanical properties of the knee extensor/flexors on elderly and young subjects is helpful in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the muscle aging process. However, although the stiffness of skeletal muscle has been proved to be positively correlated to its non-fatiguing contraction intensity by some existing methods, this conclusion has not been verified above 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC due to the limitation of their measurement range. In this study, a vibro-ultrasound system was set up to achieve a considerably larger measurement range on muscle stiffness estimation. Its feasibility was verified on self-made silicone phantoms by comparing with the mechanical indentation method. The system was then used to assess the stiffness of vastus intermedius (VI, one of the knee extensors, on 10 healthy elderly female subjects (56.7 ± 4.9 yr and 10 healthy young female subjects (27.6 ± 5.0 yr. The VI stiffness in its action direction was confirmed to be positively correlated to the % MVC level (R2 = 0.999 over the entire range of isometric contraction, i.e. from 0% MVC (relaxed state to 100% MVC. Furthermore, it was shown that there was no significant difference between the mean VI shear modulus of the elderly and young subjects in a relaxed state (p > 0.1. However, when performing step isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of young female subjects was found to be larger than that of elderly participants (p < 0.001, especially at the relatively higher contraction levels. The results expanded our knowledge on the mechanical property of the elderly's skeletal muscle and its relationship with intensity of active contraction. Furthermore, the vibro-ultrasound system has a potential to become a powerful tool for investigating the elderly's muscle diseases.

  4. A sensitive dynamic viscometer for measuring the complex shear modulus in a steady shear flow using the method of orthogonal superposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, J.C.H.; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Blom, C.; Altena, E.G.; Beukema, Gerrit J.; Beukema, G.J.; Mellema, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new instrument to carry out complex viscosity measurements in equilibrium and in a steady shear flow has been developed. A small amplitude harmonic excitation is superimposed orthogonally to the steady shear rate component. It is realized by a thin-walled cylinder, which oscillates in the axial

  5. Soil behavior under earthquake loading conditions. In situ impulse test for determination of shear modulus for seismic response analyses. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-06-01

    Progress is reported in the determination of the best methods of evaluation and prediction of soil behavior of potential nuclear power plant sites under seismic loading conditions. Results are reported of combined experimental and analytical studies undertaken to continue development of an in situ impulse test for determination of the soil shear modulus. Emphasis of the field work was directed toward making the field measurements at frequent depth intervals and at shear strains in the strong motion earthquake range. Emphasis of the analytical work was aimed toward supporting the field effort through processing and evaluation of the experimental test results combined with additional calculations required to gain insight into data interpretation and the in situ test setup itself. Continuing studies to evaluate free field soil behavior under earthquake loading conditions are discussed. (U.S.)

  6. Evaluation of filler effects on SBR in large shearing deformations 1. Utility of differential dynamic modulus as predictor for wet skid resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Y.; Oyama, T.; Kawahara, S.

    2003-01-01

    Now the use of silica in tire tread applications is increasing. This is because of not so different rolling resistance for silica (Si) filled and carbon black (CB) filled rubbers, and of higher wet skid resistance for the former than the latter. Such difference should be attributed to the variation in viscoelasticity. It is, however, still unknown what viscoelastic function should be used as a predictor. At the place in contact with the road, a tire tread rubber undergoes a large deformation on which small oscillations are superposed. Hence differential dynamic modulus measured by intermittently superposing small oscillations on a large deformation may provide useful information. In this work, nonlinear viscoelastic properties of CB and Si (with coupling agent) filled SBR vulcanizates were studied in cycles of large shearing deformation (γ = 2) and recovery (γ = 0) on which small shear oscillations (γ osc = 0.005) were superposed. CB filled SBR showed different responses in deformed and recovered states: Values of tanδ are lower in deformed state than in recovered state. However, Si filled one showed no change in tanδ in the two states. In the deformed state, Si system showed higher tanδ than CB system. The results agree with our experience of higher wet skid resistance for Si than for CB, showing validity of differential loss tangent as the predictor. Copyright (2003) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  7. Metodologia para o cálculo dos módulos de elasticidade longitudinal e transversal em vigas de madeira de dimensões estruturais Methodology used to determine the shear and longitudinal modulus of elasticity in timber beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Christoforo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalhou objetiva apresentar uma metodologia analítica para o cálculo dos módulos de elasticidade longitudinal (E e transversal (G em vigas de madeira de dimensões estruturais, segundo o emprego das teorias de vigas de Euler Bernoulli e Timoshenko, sendo utilizado o ensaio de flexão estática a três pontos. As madeiras testadas foram o Pinus elliottii e a Corymbia citriodora. Os resultados encontrados relevaram ser o módulo de elasticidade longitudinal 18,70 vezes superior ao módulo transversal do Pinus elliottii e 21,2 superior ao módulo transversal do Corymbia citriodora, sendo estes compatíveis quando comparada a relação entre E e G estabelecida pela norma Brasileira ABNT NBR 7190:1997 (Projeto de Estruturas de Madeira, que define ser o módulo de elasticidade longitudinal vinte vezes superior ao transversal.This paper proposed a test method to obtain the shear (G and longitudinal (E modulus of elasticity in timber beams with structural dimensions, based on the static three-points bending tests and the Euler Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams theories. The woods tested were the Corymbia citriodora and Pinus elliottii. The results revealed that the longitudinal modulus of elasticity of Pinus elliottii is 18.70 greater than the shear modulus, and 21.16 greater than the shear modulus of Corymbia citriodora, being consistent this results when compared to the proposed by the Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 7190:1997 (Design of Wood Structures, being the longitudinal modulus of elasticity twenty times greater than the shear modulus.

  8. An improved wavelet-Galerkin method for dynamic response reconstruction and parameter identification of shear-type frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Haifeng; Wang, Dansheng; Zhou, Pin; Zhu, Hongping

    2018-04-01

    An improved wavelet-Galerkin (IWG) method based on the Daubechies wavelet is proposed for reconstructing the dynamic responses of shear structures. The proposed method flexibly manages wavelet resolution level according to excitation, thereby avoiding the weakness of the wavelet-Galerkin multiresolution analysis (WGMA) method in terms of resolution and the requirement of external excitation. IWG is implemented by this work in certain case studies, involving single- and n-degree-of-freedom frame structures subjected to a determined discrete excitation. Results demonstrate that IWG performs better than WGMA in terms of accuracy and computation efficiency. Furthermore, a new method for parameter identification based on IWG and an optimization algorithm are also developed for shear frame structures, and a simultaneous identification of structural parameters and excitation is implemented. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed identification method is effective for shear frame structures.

  9. Least-squares wave-front reconstruction of Shack-Hartmann sensors and shearing interferometers using multigrid techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    This article details a multigrid algorithm that is suitable for least-squares wave-front reconstruction of Shack-Hartmann and shearing interferometer wave-front sensors. The algorithm detailed in this article is shown to scale with the number of subapertures in the same fashion as fast Fourier transform techniques, making it suitable for use in applications requiring a large number of subapertures and high Strehl ratio systems such as for high spatial frequency characterization of high-density plasmas, optics metrology, and multiconjugate and extreme adaptive optics systems

  10. The Main Shear Zone in Sør Rondane: A key feature for reconstructing the geodynamic evolution of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Lisker, Frank; Jacobs, Joachim; Elburg, Marlina; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Structural investigations were carried out along the Main Shear Zone (MSZ) of western Sør Rondane (22°-25°E, 71.5°-72.5°S) to gain new information about the position of the East-/West-Gondwana suture and the ancient plate tectonic configuration during Gondwana amalgamation. The WSW-ENE striking MSZ divides south-western Sør Rondane in a northern amphibolite-facies terrane and a southern tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) terrane. The structure can be traced over a distance of ca. 100 km and reaches several hundred meters in width. It is characterized by a right-lateral sense of movement and marked by a transpressional and also transtensional regime. Ductilely deformed granitoids (ca. 560 Ma: SHRIMP U-Pb of zircon) and ductile - brittle structures, which evolved in a transitional ductile to brittle regime in an undeformed syenite (ca. 499-459 Ma, Ar-Ar mica), provide a late Proterozoic/ early Paleozoic time limit for the activity of the shear zone (Shiraishi et al., 2008; Shiraishi et al., 1997). Documentation of ductile and brittle deformation allows reconstructing up to eight deformation stages. Cross-cutting relationships of structural features mapped in the field complemented by published kinematic data reveal the following relative age succession: [i] Dn+1 - formation of the main foliation during peak metamorphism, [ii] Dn+2 - isoclinal, intrafolial folding of the main foliation, mostly foliation-parallel mylonitic shear zones (1-2 meter thick), [iii] Dn+3 - formation of tight to closed folds, [iv] Dn+4 - formation of relatively upright, large-scale open folds, [v] Dn+5 - granitoid intrusion (e.g. Vengen granite), [vi] Dn+6 - dextral shearing between amphibolite and TTG terranes, formation of the MSZ, [vii] Dn+7 - intrusion of late- to post-tectonic granitoids, first stage of brittle deformation (late shearing along MSZ), intrusion of post-kinematic mafic dykes, [viii] Dn+8 - second stage of brittle deformation including formation of conjugate fault

  11. Experimental Young's modulus calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Yu, K.

    1994-01-01

    Coil is a very important magnet component. The turn location and the coil size impact both mechanical and magnetic behavior of the magnet. The Young's modulus plays a significant role in determining the coil location and size. Therefore, Young's modulus study is essential in predicting both the analytical and practical magnet behavior. To determine the coil Young's modulus, an experiment has been conducted to measure azimuthal sizes of a half quadrant QSE101 inner coil under different loading. All measurements are made at four different positions along an 8-inch long inner coil. Each measurement is repeated three times to determine the reproducibility of the experiment. To ensure the reliability of this experiment, the same measurement is performed twice with a open-quotes dummy coil,close quotes which is made of G10 and has the same dimension and similar azimuthal Young's modulus as the inner coil. The difference between the G10 azimuthal Young's modulus calculated from the experiments and its known value from the manufacturer will be compared. Much effort has been extended in analyzing the experimental data to obtain a more reliable Young's modulus. Analysis methods include the error analysis method and the least square method

  12. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Jelle T. C.; Karanasos, Antonios; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S.; Aben, Jean-Paul; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Wall shear stress (WSS) plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression. Materials Methods Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography. Results The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area. Discussion This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the

  13. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle T C Schrauwen

    Full Text Available Wall shear stress (WSS plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression.Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography.The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area.This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the low WSS regions directly distal to

  14. Analyzing the Impact of Increasing Mechanical Index and Energy Deposition on Shear Wave Speed Reconstruction in Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L; Rouze, Ned C; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2015-07-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) has found success in liver fibrosis staging. This work evaluates hepatic SWEI measurement success as a function of push pulse energy using two mechanical index (MI) values (1.6 and 2.2) over a range of pulse durations. Shear wave speed (SWS) was measured in the livers of 26 study subjects with known or potential chronic liver diseases. Each measurement consisted of eight SWEI sequences, each with different push energy configurations. The rate of successful SWS estimation was linearly proportional to the push energy. SWEI measurements with higher push energy were successful in patients for whom standard push energy levels failed. The findings also suggest that liver capsule depth could be used prospectively to identify patients who would benefit from elevated output. We conclude that there is clinical benefit to using elevated acoustic output for hepatic SWS measurement in patients with deeper livers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Relationship between radial compressive modulus of elasticity and shear modulus of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu; Robert J. Ross

    2005-01-01

    Wood properties in transverse compression are difficult to determine because of such factors as anatomical complexity, specimen geometry, and loading conditions. The mechanical properties of wood, considered as an anisotropic or orthotropic material, are related by certain tensor transformation rules when the reference coordinate system changes its orientation. In this...

  16. Fluid Effects on Shear Waves in Finely Layered Porous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J G

    2004-01-01

    Although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, one and only one effective shear modulus for the layered system contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves. Pore fluids can increase the magnitude the shear energy stored by this modulus by a term that ranges from the smallest to the largest shear moduli of the VTI system. But, since there are five shear moduli in play, the increase in shear energy overall is reduced by a factor of about 5 in general. We can therefore give definite bounds on the maximum increase of shear modulus, being about 20% of the permitted range, when gas is fully replaced by liquid. An attendant increase of density (depending on porosity and fluid density) by approximately 5 to 10% partially offsets the effect of this shear modulus increase. Thus, an increase of shear wave speed on the order of 5 to 10% is shown to be possible when circumstances are favorable - i.e., when the shear modulus fluctuations are large (resulting in strong anisotropy), and the medium behaves in an undrained fashion due to fluid trapping. At frequencies higher than seismic (such as sonic and ultrasonic waves for well-logging or laboratory experiments), short response times also produce the requisite undrained behavior and, therefore, fluids also affect shear waves at high frequencies by increasing rigidity

  17. Modulus D-term inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kenji; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Saga, Ikumi; Sumita, Keigo

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new model of single-field D-term inflation in supergravity, where the inflation is driven by a single modulus field which transforms non-linearly under the U(1) gauge symmetry. One of the notable features of our modulus D-term inflation scenario is that the global U(1) remains unbroken in the vacuum and hence our model is not plagued by the cosmic string problem which can exclude most of the conventional D-term inflation models proposed so far due to the CMB observations.

  18. Simulations of biopolymer networks under shear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Elisabeth Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we present a new method to simulate realistic three-dimensional networks of biopolymers under shear. These biopolymer networks are important for the structural functions of cells and tissues. We use the method to analyze these networks under shear, and consider the elastic modulus,

  19. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  20. Examining Young's modulus for wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S; Freeman, J Reuben; Suhov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Symmetry considerations, dimensional analysis and simple approximations are used to derive a formula for Young's modulus of a simple anisotropic system, a straight-layer wood bar whose fibre axis makes an angle with respect to the bar's longitudinal axis. Agreement between the derived formula and experiment (carried out in far from ideal conditions) is within 10%. Improvements and extensions are suggested for this undergraduate physics experiment

  1. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Modified with Different Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate comprehensive performance of high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC and propose common values for establishing evaluation system. Three gradations with different modifiers were conducted to study the high and low temperature performance, shearing behavior, and water stability. The laboratory tests for HMAC included static and dynamic modulus tests, rutting test, uniaxial penetration test, bending test, and immersion Marshall test. Dynamic modulus test results showed that modifier can improve the static modulus and the improvements were remarkable at higher temperature. Moreover, modulus of HMAC-20 was better than those of HMAC-16 and HMAC-25. The results of performance test indicated that HMAC has good performance to resist high temperature rutting, and the resistances of the HMAC-20 and HMAC-25 against rutting were better than that of HMAC-16. Then, the common values of dynamic stability were recommended. Furthermore, common values of HMAC performance were established based on pavement performance tests.

  2. Shear weakening for different lithologies observed at different saturation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethart-Jauk, Elisabeth; Gegenhuber, Nina

    2018-01-01

    For this study, samples from different lithologies ("Leitha"-limestone, "Dachstein"-limestone, "Haupt"-dolomite, "Bunt"-sandstone, Grey Berea sandstone, granite, quartzite and basalt) were selected. Samples were dried at 70 °C, respectively 105 °C and were saturated with brine. Mass, porosity, permeability, compressional and shear wave velocity were determined from dry and brine saturated samples at laboratory conditions, based on an individual measurement program. Shear modulus was calculated to find out, if shear weakening exists for the dataset. Shear weakening means that shear modulus of dry samples is higher than of saturated samples, but it is assumed that shear modulus is unaffected by saturation. "Dachstein"-limestone and basalt show shear weakening, quartzite samples show both weakening and hardening. Granite samples are affected by temperature, after drying with 105 °C no change can be observed anymore. "Bunt"-sandstone samples show a change in the shear modulus in a small extent, although they may contain clay minerals. The other lithologies show no effect. Explanations for carbonate samples can be the complicated pore structure, for basalt it could be that weathering creates clay minerals which are known as causes for a change of the shear modulus. Fluid viscosity can also be an important factor.

  3. Small compression modulus of the flux line lattice and large density fluctuations at high fields may explain peak effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    The elastic properties of the flux line lattice in Type II superconductors as calculated from the Ginsburg-Landau theory are discussed. They are non-local on a length scale much larger than the flux line distance and divergent at Hsub(c2). The compression modulus may become much smaller than its long-wavelength limit, B 2 /4π, and if the deformation is not homogeneous, at Hsub(c2) the modulus vanishes as (Hsub(c2) - B) 2 . At arbitrary induction the compression modulus of strain waves with wavelengths of several flux line distances is of the order of the (small) shear modulus. (author)

  4. Determining the complex modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Shalinie; See, Howard; Thomas, Graham; Swain, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the visco-elastic response of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material during setting. A novel squeeze film Micro-Fourier Rheometer (MFR, GBC Scientific Equipment, Australia) was used to determine the complex modulus of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material (Algident, ISO 1563 Class A Type 1, Dentalfarm Australia Pty. Ltd.) during setting after mixing. Data was collected every 30s for 10 min in one study and every 10 min for a total of 60 min in another study. A high level of repeatability was observed. The results indicate that the MFR is capable of recording the complex shear modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid for 60 min from the start of mixing and to simultaneously report the changing visco-elastic parameters at all frequencies between 1 Hz and 100 Hz. The storage modulus shows a dramatic increase to 370% of its starting value after 6 min and then reduces to 55% after 60 min. The loss modulus increases to a maximum of 175% of its starting value after 10 min and then reduces to 94% after 60 min. The MFR enables the changes in the complex modulus through the complete setting process to be followed. It is anticipated this approach may provide a better method to compare the visco-elastic properties of impression materials and assist with identification of optimum types for different clinical requirements. The high stiffness of the instrument and the use of band-limited pseudo-random noise as the input signal are the main advantages of this technique over conventional rheometers for determining the changes in alginate visco-elasticity.

  5. Characterizing shear properties of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available properties including friction angle and cohesion for strength properties and shear modulus of the soil at three moisture states. Mohr-Coulomb failure models were developed together with shear modulus correlations for the soil sample. These models can be used...

  6. Thermal compression modulus of polarized neutron matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Alla, M.

    1990-05-01

    We applied the equation of state for pure polarized neutron matter at finite temperature, calculated previously, to calculate the compression modulus. The compression modulus of pure neutron matter at zero temperature is very large and reflects the stiffness of the equation of state. It has a little temperature dependence. Introducing the spin excess parameter in the equation of state calculations is important because it has a significant effect on the compression modulus. (author). 25 refs, 2 tabs

  7. Intravascular Young's modulus reconstruction using a parametric finite element model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldewsing, R.A.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Steen, van der A.F.W.; Yuhas, D.; Schneider, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    IntraVascular UltraSound (IVUS) elastography may be used to detect vulnerable, rupture prone plaques, which are held responsible for the majority of acute coronary syndromes. IVUS elastography accomplishes this by visualising local incremental radial strain of arteries, in so-called elastograms.

  8. Accurate and reproducible reconstruction of coronary arteries and endothelial shear stress calculation using 3D OCT: comparative study to 3D IVUS and 3D QCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Riga, Maria; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Tu, Shengxian; Fujino, Yusuke; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Doulaverakis, Charalampos; Tsampoulatidis, Ioannis; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Bouki, Konstantina; Li, Yingguang; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Cheimariotis, Grigorios; Maglaveras, Nicos; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Nakamura, Sunao; Reiber, Johan H C; Rybicki, Frank; Karvounis, Haralambos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Giannoglou, George D

    2015-06-01

    Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a new imaging modality with the potential to investigate the association of local hemodynamic microenvironment with OCT-derived high-risk features. We aimed to describe the methodology of 3D OCT and investigate the accuracy, inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT in reconstructing coronary arteries and calculating ESS, using 3D IVUS and 3D QCA as references. 35 coronary artery segments derived from 30 patients were reconstructed in 3D space using 3D OCT. 3D OCT was validated against 3D IVUS and 3D QCA. The agreement in artery reconstruction among 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA was assessed in 3-mm-long subsegments using lumen morphometry and ESS parameters. The inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA were assessed in a representative sample of 61 subsegments (n = 5 arteries). The data processing times for each reconstruction methodology were also calculated. There was a very high agreement between 3D OCT vs. 3D IVUS and 3D OCT vs. 3D QCA in terms of total reconstructed artery length and volume, as well as in terms of segmental morphometric and ESS metrics with mean differences close to zero and narrow limits of agreement (Bland-Altman analysis). 3D OCT exhibited excellent inter- and intra-observer agreement. The analysis time with 3D OCT was significantly lower compared to 3D IVUS. Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a feasible, accurate and reproducible 3D reconstruction technique that can perform reliable ESS calculations in coronary arteries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Micromechanics of soil responses in cyclic simple shear tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind turbine (OWT foundations are subjected to a combination of cyclic and dynamic loading arising from wind, wave, rotor and blade shadowing. Under cyclic loading, most soils change their characteristics including stiffness, which may cause the system natural frequency to approach the loading frequency and lead to unplanned resonance and system damage or even collapse. To investigate such changes and the underlying micromechanics, a series of cyclic simple shear tests were performed on the RedHill 110 sand with different shear strain amplitudes, vertical stresses and initial relative densities of soil. The test results showed that: (a Vertical accumulated strain is proportional to the shear strain amplitude but inversely proportional to relative density of soil; (b Shear modulus increases rapidly in the initial loading cycles and then the rate of increase diminishes and the shear modulus remains below an asymptote; (c Shear modulus increases with increasing vertical stress and relative density, but decreasing with increasing strain amplitude. Coupled DEM simulations were performed using PFC2D to analyse the micromechanics underlying the cyclic behaviour of soils. Micromechanical parameters (e.g. fabric tensor, coordination number were examined to explore the reasons for the various cyclic responses to different shear strain amplitudes or vertical stresses. Both coordination number and magnitude of fabric anisotropy contribute to the increasing shear modulus.

  10. Elastic modulus, thermal expansion, and specific heat at a phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testardi, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    The interrelation of the elastic modulus, thermal-expansion coefficient, and specific heat of a transformed phase relative to the untransformed phase is calculated assuming a particular but useful form of the thermodynamic potential. For second-order phase transitions where this potential applies, measurements of modulus, expansion, and specific heat can yield the general (longitudinal as well as shear) first- and second-order stress (or strain) dependences of the transition temperature and of the order parameter at absolute zero. An exemplary application to one type of phase transition is given

  11. Shearing single crystal magnesium in the close-packed basal plane at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Li, Lili; Zhao, Guangming

    2018-05-01

    Shear behaviors of single crystal magnesium (Mg) in close-packed (0001) basal plane along the [ 1 bar 2 1 bar 0 ], [ 1 2 bar 10 ], [ 10 1 bar 0 ] and [ 1 bar 010 ] directions were studied using molecular dynamics simulations via EAM potential. The results show that both shear stress-strain curves along the four directions and the motion path of free atoms during shearing behave periodic characteristics. It reveals that the periodic shear displacement is inherently related to the crystallographic orientation in single crystal Mg. Moreover, different temperatures in a range from 10 to 750 K were considered, demonstrating that shear modulus decreases with increasing temperatures. The results agree well with the MTS model. It is manifested that the modulus is independent with the shear direction and the size of the atomic model. This work also demonstrates that the classical description of shear modulus is still effective at the nanoscale.

  12. Size dependent elastic modulus and mechanical resilience of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Zhao, Xiaoli; Abbott, Paul V; Munroe, Paul; Xu, Jiang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2014-03-21

    Human tooth enamel exhibits a unique microstructure able to sustain repeated mechanical loading during dental function. Although notable advances have been made towards understanding the mechanical characteristics of enamel, challenges remain in the testing and interpretation of its mechanical properties. For example, enamel was often tested under dry conditions, significantly different from its native environment. In addition, constant load, rather than indentation depth, has been used when mapping the mechanical properties of enamel. In this work, tooth specimens are prepared under hydrated conditions and their stiffnesses are measured by depth control across the thickness of enamel. Crystal arrangement is postulated, among other factors, to be responsible for the size dependent indentation modulus of enamel. Supported by a simple structure model, effective crystal orientation angle is calculated and found to facilitate shear sliding in enamel under mechanical contact. In doing so, the stress build-up is eased and structural integrity is maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems {010} and {110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system {001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system {110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the crust, and, possibly, the timing of

  14. Use of the laboratory tests of soil modulus in modelling pile behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyka, Ireneusz

    2012-10-01

    This article deals with the question of theoretical description of behaviour of a single pile rested in a layered soil medium. Particular attention is paid to soil modulus which is used in calculation method for pile load-settlement curve. A brief analysis of the results obtained by laboratory tests to assess soil modulus and its nonlinear variability has been presented. The results of tests have been used in triaxial apparatus and resonant column/torsional shear device. There have also been presented the results of load-settlement calculation for a single pile under axial load with implementation of different models of soil modulus degradation. On this basis, possibilities of using particular kinds of laboratory tests in calculation procedure of foundation settlement have been presented as well as further developments of them.

  15. Effects of SBS Configuration on Performance of High Modulus Bitumen Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’ is obviously less than loss modulus (G”, which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The morphology indicated that star SBS improved the softening point more obviously, tending to form a cross-linked network in bitumen. As for linear SBS, it is dispersed in bitumen in the form of globules and enhances the ductility of binder.

  16. Influence of substrate modulus on gecko adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klittich, Mena R.; Wilson, Michael C.; Bernard, Craig; Rodrigo, Rochelle M.; Keith, Austin J.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-03-01

    The gecko adhesion system fascinates biologists and materials scientists alike for its strong, reversible, glue-free, dry adhesion. Understanding the adhesion system’s performance on various surfaces can give clues as to gecko behaviour, as well as towards designing synthetic adhesive mimics. Geckos encounter a variety of surfaces in their natural habitats; tropical geckos, such as Gekko gecko, encounter hard, rough tree trunks as well as soft, flexible leaves. While gecko adhesion on hard surfaces has been extensively studied, little work has been done on soft surfaces. Here, we investigate for the first time the influence of macroscale and nanoscale substrate modulus on whole animal adhesion on two different substrates (cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane) in air and find that across 5 orders of magnitude in macroscale modulus, there is no change in adhesion. On the nanoscale, however, gecko adhesion is shown to depend on substrate modulus. This suggests that low surface-layer modulus may inhibit the gecko adhesion system, independent of other influencing factors such as macroscale composite modulus and surface energy. Understanding the limits of gecko adhesion is vital for clarifying adhesive mechanisms and in the design of synthetic adhesives for soft substrates (including for biomedical applications and wearable electronics).

  17. Study on Size-Dependent Young’s Modulus of a Silicon Nano beam by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.; Sun, C.; Zhang, W.W.; Lei, S.Y.; Huang, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Young’s modulus of a silicon nano beam with a rectangular cross-section is studied by molecular dynamics method. Dynamic simulations are performed for doubly clamped silicon nano beams with lengths ranging from 4.888 to 12.491 nm and cross-sections ranging from 1.22 nm ×1.22 nm to 3.39 nm × 3.39 nm. The results show that Young’s moduli of such small silicon nano beams are much higher than the value of Young’s modulus for bulk silicon. Moreover, the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus of the Si nano beam are strongly dependent not only on the size of the nano beam but also on surface effects. Young’s modulus increases significantly with the decreasing of the thickness of the silicon nano beam. This result qualitatively agrees with one of the conclusions based on a semi continuum model, in which the surface relaxation and the surface tension were taken into consideration. The impacts of the surface reconstruction with (2 ×1) dimmers on the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus are studied in this paper too. It is shown that the surface reconstruction makes the silicon nano beam stiffer than the one without the surface reconstruction, resulting in a higher resonant frequency and a larger Young’s modulus

  18. Computerized lateral-shear interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegan, Sorin A.; Jianu, Angela; Vlad, Valentin I.

    1998-07-01

    A lateral-shear interferometer, coupled with a computer for laser wavefront analysis, is described. A CCD camera is used to transfer the fringe images through a frame-grabber into a PC. 3D phase maps are obtained by fringe pattern processing using a new algorithm for direct spatial reconstruction of the optical phase. The program describes phase maps by Zernike polynomials yielding an analytical description of the wavefront aberration. A compact lateral-shear interferometer has been built using a laser diode as light source, a CCD camera and a rechargeable battery supply, which allows measurements in-situ, if necessary.

  19. Elastic modulus and fracture of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Walther, G.

    1978-12-01

    The elastic modulus of hot-pressed boron carbide with 1 to 15% porosity was measured at room temperature. K/sub IC/ values were determined for the same porosity range at 500 0 C by the double torsion technique. The critical stress intensity factor of boron carbide with 8% porosity was evaluated from 25 to 1200 0 C

  20. Thickness dependence of nanofilm elastic modulus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Wang, A. B.; Cheng, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 15 (2009), s. 152111-152113 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nanofilm * elastic modulus * thickness dependence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/94/152111/1

  1. Resilient modulus prediction of soft low-plasticity Piedmont residual soil using dynamic cone penetrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hamed Mousavi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP has been used for decades to estimate the shear strength and stiffness properties of the subgrade soils. There are several empirical correlations in the literature to predict the resilient modulus values at only a specific stress state from DCP data, corresponding to the predefined thicknesses of pavement layers (a 50 mm asphalt wearing course, a 100 mm asphalt binder course and a 200 mm aggregate base course. In this study, field-measured DCP data were utilized to estimate the resilient modulus of low-plasticity subgrade Piedmont residual soil. Piedmont residual soils are in-place weathered soils from igneous and metamorphic rocks, as opposed to transported or compacted soils. Hence the existing empirical correlations might not be applicable for these soils. An experimental program was conducted incorporating field DCP and laboratory resilient modulus tests on “undisturbed” soil specimens. The DCP tests were carried out at various locations in four test sections to evaluate subgrade stiffness variation laterally and with depth. Laboratory resilient modulus test results were analyzed in the context of the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG recommended universal constitutive model. A new approach for predicting the resilient modulus from DCP by estimating MEPDG constitutive model coefficients (k1, k2 and k3 was developed through statistical analyses. The new model is capable of not only taking into account the in situ soil condition on the basis of field measurements, but also representing the resilient modulus at any stress state which addresses a limitation with existing empirical DCP models and its applicability for a specific case. Validation of the model is demonstrated by using data that were not used for model development, as well as data reported in the literature. Keywords: Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP, Resilient modulus, Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG, Residual

  2. Resilient modulus of black cotton soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Mamatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus (MR values of pavement layers are the basic input parameters for the design of pavements with multiple layers in the current mechanistic empirical pavement design guidelines. As the laboratory determination of resilient modulus is costly, time consuming and cumbersome, several empirical models are developed for the prediction of resilient modulus for different regions of the world based on the database of resilient modulus values of local soils. For use of these relationships there is a need to verify the suitability of these models for local conditions. Expansive clay called black cotton soil (BC soil is found in several parts of India and is characterized by low strength and high compressibility. This soil shows swell – shrink behaviour upon wetting and drying and are problematic. The BC soil shows collapse behaviour on soaking and therefore the strength of the soil needs to be improved. Additive stabilization is found to be very effective in stabilizing black cotton soils and generally lime is used to improve the strength and durability of the black cotton soil. In this paper, the results of repeated load tests on black cotton soil samples for the determination of MR under soaked and unsoaked conditions at a relative compaction levels of 100% and 95% of both standard and modified proctor conditions are reported. The results indicate that the black cotton soil fails to meet the density requirement of the subgrade soil and shows collapse behaviour under soaked condition. To overcome this, lime is added as an additive to improve the strength of black cotton soil and repeated load tests were performed as per AASHTO T 307 - 99 for MR determination. The results have shown that the samples are stable under modified proctor condition with MR values ranging from 36 MPa to 388 MPa for a lime content of 2.5% and curing period ranging from 7 to 28 days. Also, it is observed that, the CBR based resilient modulus is not in agreement

  3. Shear-stress fluctuations and relaxation in polymer glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriuchevskyi, I.; Wittmer, J. P.; Meyer, H.; Benzerara, O.; Baschnagel, J.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate by means of molecular dynamics simulation a coarse-grained polymer glass model focusing on (quasistatic and dynamical) shear-stress fluctuations as a function of temperature T and sampling time Δ t . The linear response is characterized using (ensemble-averaged) expectation values of the contributions (time averaged for each shear plane) to the stress-fluctuation relation μsf for the shear modulus and the shear-stress relaxation modulus G (t ) . Using 100 independent configurations, we pay attention to the respective standard deviations. While the ensemble-averaged modulus μsf(T ) decreases continuously with increasing T for all Δ t sampled, its standard deviation δ μsf(T ) is nonmonotonic with a striking peak at the glass transition. The question of whether the shear modulus is continuous or has a jump singularity at the glass transition is thus ill posed. Confirming the effective time-translational invariance of our systems, the Δ t dependence of μsf and related quantities can be understood using a weighted integral over G (t ) .

  4. In vivo performance of a reduced-modulus bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Brett Ramsey

    Total joint replacement has become one of the most common procedures in the area of orthopedics and is often the solution in patients with diseased or injured hip joints. Component loosening is a significant problem and is primarily caused by bone resorption at the bone-cement interface in cemented implants. It is our hypothesis that localized shear stresses are responsible for the resorption. It was previously shown analytically that local stresses at the interface could be reduced by using a cement of lower modulus. A new reduced modulus cement, polybutyl methylmethacrylate (PBMMA), was developed to test the hypothesis. PBMMA was formulated to exist as polybutyl methacrylate filler in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix. The success of PBMMA cement is based largely on the fact that the polybutyl component of the cement will be in the rubbery state at body temperature. In vitro characterization of the cement was undertaken previously and demonstrated a modulus of approximately one-eighth that of conventional bone cement, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and increased fracture toughness. The purpose of this experiment was to perform an in vivo comparison of the two cements. A sheep model was selected. Total hip arthroplasty was performed on 50 ewes using either PBMMA or PMMA. Radiographs were taken at 6 month intervals. At one year, the contralateral femur of each sheep was implanted so that each animal served as its own control, and the animals were sacrificed. The stiffness of the bone-cement interface of the femoral component within the femur was assessed by applying a torque to the femoral component and demonstrated a significant difference in loosening between the cements when the specimens were tested in external rotation (p sheep had a greater amount of loosening for each subject, 59% versus 4% for standard PMMA. A radiographic analysis demonstrated more signs of loosening in the PMMA series of subjects. A brief histological examination showed similar bony

  5. Fibonacci difference sequence spaces for modulus functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldip Raj

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we introduce Fibonacci difference sequence spaces l(F, Ƒ, p, u and  l_∞(F, Ƒ, p, u by using a sequence of modulus functions and a new band matrix F. We also make an effort to study some inclusion relations, topological and geometric properties of these spaces. Furthermore, the alpha, beta, gamma duals and matrix transformation of the space l(F, Ƒ, p, u are determined.

  6. Theory of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish

    2005-01-01

    The expression for thermal expansivity and bulk modulus, claimed by Shanker et al. to be new [Physica B 233 (1977) 78; 245 (1998) 190; J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59 (1998) 197] are compared with the theory of high pressure-high temperature reported by Kumar and coworkers. It is concluded that the Shanker formulation and the relations based on this are equal to the approach of Kumar et al. up to second order

  7. Elastic modulus and internal friction of SOFC electrolytes at high temperatures under controlled atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushi, Takuto; Sato, Kazuhisa; Unemoto, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Amezawa, Koji; Kawada, Tatsuya

    2011-10-01

    Mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and internal friction of conventional electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells, Zr0.85Y0.15 O1.93 (YSZ), Zr0.82Sc0.18O1.91 (ScSZ), Zr0.81Sc0.18Ce0.01O2-δ (ScCeSZ), Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ (GDC), La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.15Co0.05O3-δ (LSGMC), La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM), were evaluated by a resonance method at temperatures from room temperature to 1273 K in various oxygen partial pressures. The Young's modulus of GDC gradually decreased with increasing temperature in oxidizing conditions. The Young's moduli of the series of zirconia and lanthanum gallate based materials drastically decreased in an intermediate temperature range and increased slightly with increasing temperature at higher temperatures. The Young's modulus of GDC considerably decreased above 823 K in reducing atmospheres in response to the change of oxygen nonstoichiometry. However, temperature dependences of the Young's moduli of ScCeSZ and LSGMC in reducing atmospheres did not show any significant differences with those in oxidizing atmospheres.

  8. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  9. Mechanical properties of jammed packings of frictionless spheres under an applied shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hao; Tong Hua; Xu Ning

    2014-01-01

    By minimizing a thermodynamic-like potential, we unbiasedly sample the potential energy landscape of soft and frictionless spheres under a constant shear stress. We obtain zero-temperature jammed states under desired shear stresses and investigate their mechanical properties as a function of the shear stress. As a comparison, we also obtain the jammed states from the quasistatic-shear sampling in which the shear stress is not well-controlled. Although the yield stresses determined by both samplings show the same power-law scaling with the compression from the jamming transition point J at zero temperature and shear stress, for finite size systems the quasistatic-shear sampling leads to a lower yield stress and a higher critical volume fraction at point J. The shear modulus of the jammed solids decreases with increasing shear stress. However, the shear modulus does not decay to zero at yielding. This discontinuous change of the shear modulus implies the discontinuous nature of the unjamming transition under nonzero shear stress, which is further verified by the observation of a discontinuous jump in the pressure from the jammed solids to the shear flows. The pressure jump decreases upon decompression and approaches zero at the critical-like point J, in analogy with the well-known phase transitions under an external field. The analysis of the force networks in the jammed solids reveals that the force distribution is more sensitive to the increase of the shear stress near point J. The force network anisotropy increases with increasing shear stress. The weak particle contacts near the average force and under large shear stresses it exhibit an asymmetric angle distribution. (special topic — non-equilibrium phenomena in soft matters)

  10. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    are described. Most of our new results are related to the two-dimensional problem. A numerical topology optimization procedure that solves the inverse homogenization problem is adopted and used to look for two-dimensional three-phase composites with a maximal effective bulk modulus. For the combination...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Young Modulus of Crystalline Polyethylene from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Meier, Robert J.; Heinemann, M.; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    The Young modulus for crystalline polyethylene is calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics based on density functional theory in the local density approximation (DFT-LDA). This modulus, which can be seen as the ultimate value for the Young modulus of polyethylene fibers, is found to be 334 GPa.

  12. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  13. Dynamic modulus of nanosilica modified porous asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. K.; Masri, K. A.; Ahmad, J.; Samsudin, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) is a flexible pavement layer with high interconnected air void contents and constructed using open-graded aggregates. Due to high temperature environment and increased traffic volume in Malaysia, PA may have deficiencies particularly in rutting and stiffness of the mix. A possible way to improve these deficiencies is to improve the asphalt binder used. Binder is normally modified using polymer materials to improve its properties. However, nanotechnology presently is being gradually used for asphalt modification. Nanosilica (NS), a byproduct of rice husk and palm oil fuel ash is used as additive in this study. The aim of this study is to enhance the rutting resistance and stiffness performance of PA using NS. This study focused on the performance of PA in terms of dynamic modulus with the addition of NS modified binder to produce better and more durable PA. From the result of Dynamic SPT Test, it shows that the addition of NS was capable in enhancing the stiffness and rutting resistance of PA. The addition of NS also increase the dynamic modulus value of PA by 50%.

  14. Development and validation of the downhole freestanding shear device (DFSD) for measuring the dynamic properties of clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Downhole Freestanding Shear Device (DFSD) is an innovative tool developed for in situ measurement of dynamic : properties (modulus and damping) of clay soils over a broad range of strains. The device essentially performs : laboratory-quality tors...

  15. Effective elastic modulus of isolated gecko setal arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, K; Majidi, C; Groff, R E; Dittmore, A; Fearing, R

    2006-09-01

    Conventional pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are fabricated from soft viscoelastic materials that satisfy Dahlquist's criterion for tack with a Young's modulus (E) of 100 kPa or less at room temperature and 1 Hz. In contrast, the adhesive on the toes of geckos is made of beta-keratin, a stiff material with E at least four orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of Dahlquist's criterion. Therefore, one would not expect a beta-keratin structure to function as a PSA by deforming readily to make intimate molecular contact with a variety of surface profiles. However, since the gecko adhesive is a microstructure in the form of an array of millions of high aspect ratio shafts (setae), the effective elastic modulus (E(eff)) is much lower than E of bulk beta-keratin. In the first test of the E(eff) of a gecko setal adhesive, we measured the forces resulting from deformation of isolated arrays of tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) setae during vertical compression, and during tangential compression at angles of +45 degrees and -45 degrees . We tested the hypothesis that E(eff) of gecko setae falls within Dahlquist's criterion for tack, and evaluated the validity of a model of setae as cantilever beams. Highly linear forces of deformation under all compression conditions support the cantilever model. E(eff) of setal arrays during vertical and +45 degrees compression (along the natural path of drag of the setae) were 83+/-4.0 kPa and 86+/-4.4 kPa (means +/- s.e.m.), respectively. Consistent with the predictions of the cantilever model, setae became significantly stiffer when compressed against the natural path of drag: E(eff) during -45 degrees compression was 110+/-4.7 kPa. Unlike synthetic PSAs, setal arrays act as Hookean elastic solids; setal arrays function as a bed of springs with a directional stiffness, assisting alignment of the adhesive spatular tips with the contact surface during shear loading.

  16. Shear-wave elastography for breast masses: local shear wave speed (m/sec versus Young modulus (kPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Youk

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion:

    The quantitative elasticity values measured in kPa and m/sec on SWE showed good diagnostic performance. The specificity of the SD and AUC of the wSD measured in kPa were significantly higher than those measured in m/sec.

  17. A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus for potential application in seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Miao, E-mail: yumiao@cqu.edu.cn; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie; Zhu, Mi [Key Lab for Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-09-14

    A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus is developed. This MRE was synthesized by filling NdFeB particles into polyurethane (PU)/ epoxy (EP) interpenetrating network (IPN) structure. The anisotropic samples were prepared in a permanent magnetic field and magnetized in an electromagnetic field of 1 T. Dynamic mechanical responses of the MRE to applied magnetic fields are investigated through magneto-rheometer, and morphology of MREs is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). Test result indicates that when the test field orientation is parallel to that of the sample's magnetization, the shear modulus of sample increases. On the other hand, when the orientation is opposite to that of the sample's magnetization, shear modulus decreases. In addition, this PU/EP IPN matrix based MRE has a high-damping property, with high loss factor and can be controlled by applying magnetic field. It is expected that the high damping property and the ability of bi-directional magnetic-control modulus of this MRE offer promising advantages in seismologic application.

  18. Investigation of modulus hardening of various co-clusters in aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy by atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Song; Liu, Zhiyi; Ying, Puyou; Wang, Jian; Li, Junlin

    2016-01-01

    The modulus hardening capability of various co-clusters in a low Cu/Mg ratio Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy aged at 165 °C is investigated by quantitative atom probe tomography analysis. Prolonged aging from 5 min to 2 h leads to the simultaneous increase in the critical shear stress of both Mg-Ag and Cu-Mg co-clusters. Regardless of the higher shear modulus of Cu-Mg co-clusters, calculation results show that Mg-Ag co-clusters possess a greater modulus hardening capability than Cu-Mg co-clusters, suggesting its primary contribution to the rapid hardening at the early aging stage. As aging extends from 30 min to 2 h, the increment in the critical shear stress of Mg-Ag co-clusters is lower than that of Cu-Mg co-clusters due to the precipitation of high density Ω phase. In addition, the shear modulus of Mg-Ag co-clusters is generally independent on its size at each investigated condition.

  19. Investigation of modulus hardening of various co-clusters in aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Song [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Zhiyi, E-mail: liuzhiyi@csu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ying, Puyou; Wang, Jian; Li, Junlin [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-06-21

    The modulus hardening capability of various co-clusters in a low Cu/Mg ratio Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy aged at 165 °C is investigated by quantitative atom probe tomography analysis. Prolonged aging from 5 min to 2 h leads to the simultaneous increase in the critical shear stress of both Mg-Ag and Cu-Mg co-clusters. Regardless of the higher shear modulus of Cu-Mg co-clusters, calculation results show that Mg-Ag co-clusters possess a greater modulus hardening capability than Cu-Mg co-clusters, suggesting its primary contribution to the rapid hardening at the early aging stage. As aging extends from 30 min to 2 h, the increment in the critical shear stress of Mg-Ag co-clusters is lower than that of Cu-Mg co-clusters due to the precipitation of high density Ω phase. In addition, the shear modulus of Mg-Ag co-clusters is generally independent on its size at each investigated condition.

  20. Advanced testing and characterization of shear modulus and deformation characteristics of oil sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available and Pressures,” Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 24, 1987, pp. 1–10. [5] Samieh, A.M. and Wong, R.C.K., “Deformation of Athabasca Oil Sand in Triaxial Compression Tests at Low Effective Stresses under Varying Boundary Conditions,” Can. Geotech. J., Vol.34, 1997, pp.... 985– 990. [6] Samieh, A.M. and Wong, R.C.K., “Modeling the Responses of Athabasca Oil Sand in Triaxial Compression Tests at Low Pressure,” Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 35, 1998, pp. 395–406. [7] AASHTO Standard T265, 2009, “Laboratory Determination...

  1. Experimental study on the determination of small strain-shear modulus of loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona El Mosallamy

    2016-08-01

    Test results also show that (Gmax increases with the increase of confining pressure and relative density. The change in damping properties is not significant under the effect of silt content and water content, and it reduces slightly with the increase of confining pressure and relative density. Empirical equations based on the results of the experimental work were proposed to predict (Gmax with respect to (Cp, voids ratio and applied pressure.

  2. Temperature Effects on Adhesive Bond Strengths and Modulus for Commonly Used Spacecraft Structural Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Cassandra E.; Oakes, Eric J.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Aldi, Dominic; Forsberg, Gustaf A.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to observe how changes in temperature and substrate material affected the strength and modulus of an adhesive bondline. Seven different adhesives commonly used in aerospace bonded structures were tested. Aluminum, titanium and Invar adherends were cleaned and primed, then bonded using the manufacturer's recommendations. Following surface preparation, the coupons were bonded with the adhesives. The single lap shear coupons were then pull tested per ASTM D 1002 Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap-Joint over a temperature range from -150 deg C up to +150 deg C. The ultimate strength was calculated and the resulting data were converted into B-basis design allowables. Average and Bbasis results were compared. Results obtained using aluminum adherends are reported. The effects of using different adherend materials and temperature were also studied and will be reported in a subsequent paper. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study variations in adhesive modulus with temperature. This work resulted in a highly useful database for comparing adhesive performance over a wide range of temperatures, and has facilitated selection of the appropriate adhesive for spacecraft structure applications.

  3. Measurement of the temperature dependence of Young's modulus of cartilage by phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C H; Li, J; Singh, M; Larin, K V [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Skryabina, M N [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Sobol, E N [Institute of Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The development of an effective system to monitor the changes in the elastic properties of cartilage tissue with increasing temperature in laser reconstruction is an urgent practical task. In this paper, the use of phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for detection of elastic waves in the sample has allowed Young's modulus of cartilage tissue to be measured directly during heating. Young's modulus was calculated from the group velocity of propagation of elastic waves excited by means of a system supplying focused air pulses. The measurement results are in agreement with the results of measurements of the modulus of elasticity under mechanical compression. The technique developed allows for noninvasive measurements; its development is promising for the use in vivo. (laser biophotonics)

  4. Stiffness of individual quadriceps muscle assessed using ultrasound shear wave elastography during passive stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently it has not been possible to isolate the mechanical behavior of individual muscles during passive stretching. Muscle shear modulus (an index of muscle stiffness measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography can be used to estimate changes in stiffness of an individual muscle. The aims of the present study were (1 to determine the shear modulus–knee angle relationship and the slack angle of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO, rectus femoris (RF, and vastus lateralis (VL muscles; (2 to determine whether this differs between the muscles. Methods: Nine male rowers took part in the study. The shear modulus of VMO, RF, and VL muscles was measured while the quadriceps was passively stretched at 3°/s. The relationship between the muscle shear modulus and knee angle was plotted as shear modulus–knee angle curve through which the slack angle of each muscle was determined. Results: The shear modulus of RF was higher than that of VMO and VL when the muscles were stretched over 54° (all p  0.05. The slack angle was similar among the muscles: 41.3° ± 10.6°, 44.3° ± 9.1°, and 44.3° ± 5.6° of knee flexion for VMO, RF, and VL, respectively (p = 0.626. Conclusion: This is the first study to experimentally determine the muscle mechanical behavior of individual heads of the quadriceps during passive stretching. Different pattern of passive tension was observed between mono- and bi-articular muscles. Further research is needed to determine whether changes in muscle stiffness are muscle-specific in pathological conditions or after interventions such as stretching protocols. Keywords: Muscle tension, Optimal length, Shear modulus, Slack angle, Stretch, Ultrasonography, Vastus lateralis, Vastus medialis

  5. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  6. Temperature dependence of Young's modulus of silica refractories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregorová, E.; Černý, Martin; Pabst, W.; Esposito, L.; Zanelli, C.; Hamáček, J.; Kutzendorfer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2015), s. 1129-1138 ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : mechanical properties * elastic modulus (Young's modulus ) * SiO2 * Silica brick materials (cristobalite, tridymite) Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.758, year: 2015

  7. On Young's modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    load transfer in nanocomposites. In the present work, CNT/Al ... calculations. The theoretical modulus of the graphene sheet is supposed to be 1060 GPa (Harris 2004). The reason why multi-walled nanotubes have a modulus > 1060 GPa (that of graphene sheet) is currently not understood. However, in the present paper, ...

  8. Determination of elastic modulus in nickel alloy from ultrasonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    als scientists, and solid-state theorists; they connect to tech- nological, structural economics and safety, to various mate- rials phenomena and to their fundamental interatomic forces. (Ledbetter 1983). In any material which is a multiphase alloy, the elastic modulus is determined by the modulus of the indi- vidual phases and ...

  9. Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikang Deng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model for calculating the Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers with a coating is proposed, and validated by a three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE model using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL and atomic force microscopy (AFM characterization. Compared with typical theoretical models (Rayleigh-Ritz model, Euler-Bernoulli (E-B beam model and spring mass model, the proposed theoretical model can obtain Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers more precisely. Also, the influences of coating’s geometric dimensions on Young’s modulus and resonant frequency of microcantilevers are discussed. The thickness of coating has a great influence on Young’s modulus and resonant frequency of multi-layer microcantilevers, and the coating should be considered to calculate Young’s modulus more precisely, especially when fairly thicker coating is employed.

  10. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Woo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE- based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard tumor and surrounding tissue (soft. The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  11. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  12. Experimental Validation of the Transverse Shear Behavior of a Nomex Core for Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, M. I.; Nasir, M. A.; Ali, H. M.; Ali, Y.

    2017-05-01

    This work deals with determination of the transverse shear moduli of a Nomex® honeycomb core of sandwich panels. Their out-of-plane shear characteristics depend on the transverse shear moduli of the honeycomb core. These moduli were determined experimentally, numerically, and analytically. Numerical simulations were performed by using a unit cell model and three analytical approaches. Analytical calculations showed that two of the approaches provided reasonable predictions for the transverse shear modulus as compared with experimental results. However, the approach based upon the classical lamination theory showed large deviations from experimental data. Numerical simulations also showed a trend similar to that resulting from the analytical models.

  13. The value of quantitative shear wave elastography in differentiating the cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jun; Chen, Juan; Xiang, Feixiang; Song, Yue; Khamis, Simai; Lu, Chengfa; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Yanrong; Xie, Mingxing

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in differentiating metastatic cervical lymph nodes from benign nodes in patients with thyroid nodules. One hundred and forty-one cervical lymph nodes from 39 patients with thyroid nodules that were diagnosed as papillary thyroid cancer had been imaged with SWE. The shear elasticity modulus, which indicates the stiffness of the lymph nodes, was measured in terms of maximum shear elasticity modulus (maxSM), minimum shear elasticity modulus (minSM), mean shear elasticity modulus (meanSM), and standard deviation (SD) of the shear elasticity modulus. All the patients underwent thyroid surgery, 50 of the suspicious lymph nodes were resected, and 91 lymph nodes were followed up for 6 months. The maxSM value, minSM value, meanSM value, and SD value of the metastatic lymph nodes were significantly higher than those of the benign nodes. The area under the curve of the maxSM value, minSM value, meanSM value, and SD value were 0.918, 0.606, 0.865, and 0.915, respectively. SWE can differentiate metastasis from benign cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid nodules, and the maxSM, meanSM, and SD may be valuable quantitative indicators for characterizing cervical lymph nodes.

  14. Effect of Li level, artificial aging, and TiB2 reinforcement on the modulus of Weldalite (tm) 049

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic Young's Modulus (E) was determined for (1) alloys 049(1.3)(heat 072), (2) 049(1.9), and (3) 049(1.3) TiB2 in the T3 temper and after aging at 160 C were made on a single 0.953 cm (0.375 in) cube to reduce scatter from microstructural inhomogeneities. Both shear and transverse wave velocities were measured for the L, LT, and ST directions by a pulse echo technique. These velocities were then used to calculate modulus. The change is shown in E with aging time at 160 C (320 F) for the three alloys. It is clear from the plots that aging has a minor, but measurable, influence on the E of alloys 049(1.3) and 049(1.9): E decreases by -2.5 pct. for 2 and 3 during the initial stages of artificial aging. This decrease in E generally follows the strength reversion. On further aging beyond the reversion well, E increases and then decreases again as the alloy overage. The slightly higher modulus in the T8 than in the T3 temper is consistent with the presence of the high modulus T sub 1 phase in the T8 temper. A similar change in E was observed on aging for the TiB2 reinforced variant that also follows the aging curve.

  15. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  16. Standardizing lightweight deflectometer modulus measurements for compaction quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the compaction of unbound geomaterials under unsaturated conditions and replace the conventional methods with a practical modulus-based specification using LWD, this study examined three different LWDs, the Zorn ZFG 3000 LWD, Dynatest 303...

  17. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on Rd. Author Affiliations. M El Hamma1 R Daher1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences Aïn Chock, University of Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco. Dates.

  18. Frequency-dependent complex modulus of the uterus: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Miklos Z [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hobson, Maritza A [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Varghese, Tomy [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Harter, Josephine [Department of Surgical Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kliewer, Mark A [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hartenbach, Ellen M [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zagzebski, James A [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    The frequency-dependent complex moduli of human uterine tissue have been characterized. Quantification of the modulus is required for developing uterine ultrasound elastography as a viable imaging modality for diagnosing and monitoring causes for abnormal uterine bleeding and enlargement, as well assessing the integrity of uterine and cervical tissue. The complex modulus was measured in samples from hysterectomies of 24 patients ranging in age from 31 to 79 years. Measurements were done under small compressions of either 1 or 2%, at low pre-compression values (either 1 or 2%), and over a frequency range of 0.1-100 Hz. Modulus values of cervical tissue monotonically increased from approximately 30-90 kPa over the frequency range. Normal uterine tissue possessed modulus values over the same range, while leiomyomas, or uterine fibroids, exhibited values ranging from approximately 60-220 kPa.

  19. Frequency-dependent complex modulus of the uterus: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Miklos Z; Hobson, Maritza A; Varghese, Tomy; Harter, Josephine; Kliewer, Mark A; Hartenbach, Ellen M; Zagzebski, James A

    2006-01-01

    The frequency-dependent complex moduli of human uterine tissue have been characterized. Quantification of the modulus is required for developing uterine ultrasound elastography as a viable imaging modality for diagnosing and monitoring causes for abnormal uterine bleeding and enlargement, as well assessing the integrity of uterine and cervical tissue. The complex modulus was measured in samples from hysterectomies of 24 patients ranging in age from 31 to 79 years. Measurements were done under small compressions of either 1 or 2%, at low pre-compression values (either 1 or 2%), and over a frequency range of 0.1-100 Hz. Modulus values of cervical tissue monotonically increased from approximately 30-90 kPa over the frequency range. Normal uterine tissue possessed modulus values over the same range, while leiomyomas, or uterine fibroids, exhibited values ranging from approximately 60-220 kPa

  20. Arithmetic convergent sequence space defined by modulus function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taja Yaying

    2019-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce the sequence spaces $AC(f$ and $AS(f$ using arithmetic convergence and modulus function, and study algebraic and topological properties of this space, and certain inclusion results.

  1. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Alaskan Granular Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Resilient modulus (MR) of base course material is an important material input for : pavement design. In Alaska, due to distinctiveness of local climate, material source, : fines content and groundwater level, resilient properties of D-1 granular base...

  2. Influence of various factors on the Young modulus of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drapkin, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The equivalence of temperature and pressure effects in the elastic area on the Young modulus of different metals (Ni, Mo, W, Na, Fe and ets.) is established on the basis of the analysis of literature and calculated data. It is shown that the value of the change in the Young modulus of the alloy is connected with mutual arrangement of alloy components in the periodic system of elements

  3. Non-toxic invert analog glass compositions of high modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi are described. They and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consist essentially of, in mols, 15 to 40% SiO2, 6 to 15% Li2O, 24 to 45% of at least two bivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Ca, NzO, MgO and CuO; 13 to 39% of at least two trivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, La2O3, and Y2O3 and up to 15% of one or more tetravelent oxides selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2. The high modulus, low density glass compositions contain no toxic elements. The composition, glass density, Young's modulus, and specific modulus for 28 representative glasses are presented. The fiber modulus of five glasses are given.

  4. Determination of elastic modulus of ceramics using ultrasonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmita, Firmansyah; Wibisono, Gatot; Judawisastra, Hermawan; Priambodo, Toni Agung

    2018-04-01

    Elastic modulus is important material property on structural ceramics application. However, bending test as a common method for determining this property require particular specimen preparation. Furthermore, elastic modulus of ceramics could vary because it depends on porosity content. For structural ceramics industry, such as ceramic tiles, this property is very important. This drives the development of new method to improve effectivity or verification method as well. In this research, ultrasonic testing was conducted to determine elastic modulus of soda lime glass and ceramic tiles. The experiment parameter was frequency of probe (1, 2, 4 MHz). Characterization of density and porosity were also done for analysis. Results from ultrasonic testing were compared with elastic modulus resulted from bending test. Elastic modulus of soda-lime glass based on ultrasonic testing showed excellent result with error 2.69% for 2 MHz probe relative to bending test result. Testing on red and white ceramic tiles were still contained error up to 41% and 158%, respectively. The results for red ceramic tile showed trend that 1 MHz probe gave better accuracy in determining elastic modulus. However, testing on white ceramic tile showed different trend. It was due to the presence of porosity and near field effect.

  5. Young's modulus of BF wood material by longitudinal vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadke, Sushil; Shrivastava, Bhakt Darshan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Dagaonkar, N

    2014-01-01

    All engineered structures are designed and built with consideration of resisting the same fundamental forces of tension, compression, shear, bending and torsion. Structural design is a balance of these internal and external forces. So, it is interesting to calculate the Young's moduli of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood are quite important from the application point of view. The ultrasonic waves are closely related with the elastic and inelastic properties of the materials. In the present study, we measured longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocities in BF wood material by longitudinal vibration method. After measuring ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material, we calculated Young's modulus of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material. We used ultrasonic interferometer for measuring longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material made by Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India in our laboratory. Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material was collected from Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India.

  6. Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.W.; Lao, L.L.; Taylor, T.S.

    1994-11-01

    A new code demonstrates the stabilization of MHD ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation. A shifted model is used to elucidate the physics and numerically reconstructed equilibria are used to analyze DIII-D discharges. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and, in the shifted circle model, direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is a fraction of the Alfven frequency ω A = V A /qR. Shear stabilization is also demonstrated for an equilibrium reconstruction of a DIII-D VH-mode

  7. Assessment of dynamic modulus of high density polypropylene waste fiber reinforcement in asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S. OTUOZE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional asphalt tests like Hveem and Marshall tests are at best mere characterization than effective test of pavement field performance because of complex viscoelastic behavior of asphalt. Mechanical properties otherwise called simple performance tests (SPT are performance criteria of asphalt. Dynamic modulus among other SPT’s like permanent deformation, fatigue cracking, thermal cracking, moisture susceptibility, shear and friction properties; determines stress-strain to time-temperature relationships that imparts on strength, service life and durability. The test followed the recommendations of NCHRP 1-37a (2004 and mixes were prepared using 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% HDPP contents. The parameters tested for dynamic modulus, /E*/, are stiffness, recoverable strain (ε, and phase angle (ξ. Time – temperature superposition (TTS called master curve was fitted using sigmoidal curve to interpolate the parameters beyond measured data set so as to observe the viscoelastic behavior outside the physical properties. The performance of 0.5% HDPP asphalt is better enhanced than the conventional asphalt to improve upon strength, service and durability.

  8. A simple model to understand the role of membrane shear elasticity and stress-free shape on the motion of red blood cells in shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules

    2015-11-01

    The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.

  9. Variable modulus cellular structures using pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Michael E.; Niemiec, Robert J.; Gandhi, Farhan S.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a novel variable modulus cellular structure based on a hexagonal unit cell with pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) inclusions. The cell considered is pin-jointed, loaded in the horizontal direction, with three PAMs (one vertical PAM and two horizontal PAMs) oriented in an "H" configuration between the vertices of the cell. A method for calculation of the hexagonal cell modulus is introduced, as is an expression for the balance of tensile forces between the horizontal and vertical PAMs. An aluminum hexagonal unit cell is fabricated and simulation of the hexagonal cell with PAM inclusions is then compared to experimental measurement of the unit cell modulus in the horizontal direction with all three muscles pressurized to the same value over a pressure range up to 758 kPa. A change in cell modulus by a factor of 1.33 and a corresponding change in cell angle of 0.41° are demonstrated experimentally. A design study via simulation predicts that differential pressurization of the PAMs up to 2068 kPa can change the cell modulus in the horizontal direction by a factor of 6.83 with a change in cell angle of only 2.75°. Both experiment and simulation show that this concept provides a way to decouple the length change of a PAM from the change in modulus to create a structural unit cell whose in-plane modulus in a given direction can be tuned based on the orientation of PAMs within the cell and the pressure supplied to the individual muscles.

  10. Young's modulus of crystal bar zirconium and zirconium alloys (zircaloy-2, zircaloy-4, zirconium-2.5wt% niobium) to 1000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinger, H.E.; Ritchie, I.G.; Shillinglaw, A.J.

    1975-09-01

    This report contains experimentally determined data on the dynamic elastic moduli of zircaloy-2, zircaloy-4, zirconium-2.5wt% niobium and Marz grade crystal bar zirconium. Data on both the dynamic Young's moduli and shear moduli of the alloys have been measured at room temperature and Young's modulus as a function of temperature has been determined over the temperature range 300 K to 1000 K. In every case, Young's modulus decreases linearly with increasing temperature and is expressed by an empirical equation fitted to the data. Differences in Young's modulus values determined from specimens with longitudinal axes parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction are small, as are the differences between Young's moduli determined from strip, bar stock and fuel sheathing. (author)

  11. Probabilistic Cosmological Mass Mapping from Weak Lensing Shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M. D.; Dawson, W. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Ng, K. Y. [University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Marshall, P. J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94035 (United States); Meyers, J. E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bard, D. J., E-mail: schneider42@llnl.gov, E-mail: dstn@cmu.edu, E-mail: boutigny@in2p3.fr, E-mail: djbard@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: jmeyers314@stanford.edu [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8150 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We infer gravitational lensing shear and convergence fields from galaxy ellipticity catalogs under a spatial process prior for the lensing potential. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm with simulated Gaussian-distributed cosmological lensing shear maps and a reconstruction of the mass distribution of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 781 using galaxy ellipticities measured with the Deep Lens Survey. Given interim posterior samples of lensing shear or convergence fields on the sky, we describe an algorithm to infer cosmological parameters via lens field marginalization. In the most general formulation of our algorithm we make no assumptions about weak shear or Gaussian-distributed shape noise or shears. Because we require solutions and matrix determinants of a linear system of dimension that scales with the number of galaxies, we expect our algorithm to require parallel high-performance computing resources for application to ongoing wide field lensing surveys.

  12. Fabrication of microfibrillated cellulose gel from waste pulp sludge via mild maceration combined with mechanical shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusheng Chen; Junyong Zhu; Zhaohui Tong

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a facile route, which combines mild maceration of waste pulp sludge and a mechanical shearing process, to prepare microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) with a high storage modulus. In the maceration, the mixture of glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide was used to extract cellulose from never-dried waste pulp sludge. Then, two different mechanical...

  13. Determination of Young's Modulus of Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Ung; Yoon, Duhee; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical properties of graphene are interesting research subjects because its Young's modulus and strength are extremely high. Values of ˜1 TPa for the Young's modulus have been reported [Lee et al. Science, 321, 385 (2008), Koenig et al. Nat. Nanotech. 6, 543 (2011)]. We made a graphene sample on a SiO2/Si substrate with closed-bottom holes by mechanical exfoliation. A pressure difference across the graphene membrane was applied by putting the sample in a vacuum chamber. This pressure difference makes the graphene membrane bulge upward like a balloon. By measuring the shifts of the Raman G and 2D bands, we estimated the amount of strain on the graphene membrane. By comparing the strain estimated from the Raman measurements with numerical simulations based on the finite element method, we obtained the Young's modulus of graphene.

  14. Bias of shear wave elasticity measurements in thin layer samples and a simple correction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianqiang; Xu, Hao; Qiang, Bo; Giambini, Hugo; Kinnick, Randall; An, Kai-Nan; Chen, Shigao; Luo, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) is an emerging technique for measuring biological tissue stiffness. However, the application of SWE in thin layer tissues is limited by bias due to the influence of geometry on measured shear wave speed. In this study, we investigated the bias of Young's modulus measured by SWE in thin layer gelatin-agar phantoms, and compared the result with finite element method and Lamb wave model simulation. The result indicated that the Young's modulus measured by SWE decreased continuously when the sample thickness decreased, and this effect was more significant for smaller thickness. We proposed a new empirical formula which can conveniently correct the bias without the need of using complicated mathematical modeling. In summary, we confirmed the nonlinear relation between thickness and Young's modulus measured by SWE in thin layer samples, and offered a simple and practical correction strategy which is convenient for clinicians to use.

  15. Inelastic deformations of fault and shear zones in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1986-02-01

    Deformations during heating and cooling of three drifts in granitic rock were influenced by the presence of faults and shear zones. Thermal deformations were significantly larger in sheared and faulted zones than where the rock was jointed, but neither sheared nor faulted. Furthermore, thermal deformations in faulted or sheared rock were not significantly recovered during subsequent cooling, thus a permanent deformation remained. This inelastic response is in contrast with elastic behavior identified in unfaulted and unsheared rock segments. A companion paper indicates that deformations in unsheared or unfaulted rock were effectively modeled as an elastic response. We conclude that permanent deformations occurred in fractures with crushed minerals and fracture filling or gouge materials. Potential mechanisms for this permanent deformation are asperity readjustments during thermal deformations, micro-shearing, asperity crushing and crushing of the secondary fracture filling minerals. Additionally, modulus differences in sheared or faulted rock as compared to more intact rock would result in greater deformations in response to the same thermal loads

  16. Temperature, Frequency and Young’s Modulus of a Wineglass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitta Miller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A crystal soda-lime wineglass, heated to temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 150 °C, was tapped and the frequency recorded. It was shown that the relative change in the frequency at different temperatures can be used to determine the effect of temperature on Young’s Modulus of the glass. This simple method of tapping a wineglass is proposed as an effective way of determining the relative effect of temperature on Young’ Modulus of glass.

  17. Effective Elastic Modulus of Structured Adhesives: From Biology to Biomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano-hierarchical structures (lamellae, setae, branches, and spatulae on the toe pads of many animals play key roles for generating strong but reversible adhesion for locomotion. The hierarchical structure possesses significantly reduced, effective elastic modulus (Eeff, as compared to the inherent elastic modulus (Einh of the corresponding biological material (and therefore contributes to a better compliance with the counterpart surface. Learning from nature, three types of hierarchical structures (namely self-similar pillar structure, lamella–pillar hybrid structure, and porous structure have been developed and investigated.

  18. Estimation of viscoelastic parameters in Prony series from shear wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae-Wook; Hong, Jung-Wuk, E-mail: j.hong@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: jwhong@alum.mit.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 291 Deahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Choi, Kiwan [Health and Medical Equipment, Samsung Electronics, 1003 Daechi-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-280 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-21

    When acquiring accurate ultrasonic images, we must precisely estimate the mechanical properties of the soft tissue. This study investigates and estimates the viscoelastic properties of the tissue by analyzing shear waves generated through an acoustic radiation force. The shear waves are sourced from a localized pushing force acting for a certain duration, and the generated waves travel horizontally. The wave velocities depend on the mechanical properties of the tissue such as the shear modulus and viscoelastic properties; therefore, we can inversely calculate the properties of the tissue through parametric studies.

  19. Comparison of elastic--plastic and variable modulus-cracking constitutive models for prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.A.; Smith, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The variable modulus-cracking model is capable of predicting the behavior of reinforced concrete structures (such as the reinforced plate under transverse pressure described previously) well into the range of nonlinear behavior including the prediction of the ultimate load. For unreinforced thick-walled concrete vessels under internal pressure the use of elastic--plastic concrete models in finite element codes enhances the apparent ductility of the vessels in contrast to variable modulus-cracking models that predict nearly instantaneous rupture whenever the tensile strength at the inner wall is exceeded. For unreinforced thick-walled end slabs representative of PCRV heads, the behavior predicted by finite element codes using variable modulus-cracking models is much stiffer in the nonlinear range than that observed experimentally. Although the shear type failures and crack patterns that are observed experimentally are predicted by such concrete models, the ultimate load carrying capacity and vessel-ductility are significantly underestimated. It appears that such models do not adequately model such features as aggregate interlock that could lead to an enhanced vessel reserve strength and ductility

  20. Connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    found in the literature do not involve any change in the modulus parameter m. For ... Here, the right-hand side contains the sum of two terms with arguments separated ...... able thing is that, it is precisely these sums for which Landen formulas, mentioned above ... ematical sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989) vol. 80.

  1. Device to measure elastic modulus of superconducting windings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903547X, 7901386.

  2. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and -functionals. The main result of the paper is the proof of the equivalence theorem for a -functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on R d . Author Affiliations. M El Hamma1 R Daher1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences Aïn Chock, University of Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco ...

  3. Effect of bulk modulus on performance of a hydrostatic transmission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an induction motor, a fixed or variable displacement motor, and all required ... oped a linear relation between oil bulk modulus and pressure for a HST system. ..... Piotrowska A 2003 The control of the rotational speed of hydraulic engine in ...

  4. Binding Energy and Compression Modulus of Infinite Nuclear Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MeV at the normal nuclear matter saturation density consistent with the best available density-dependent potentials derived from the G-matrix approach. The results of the incompressibility modulus, k∞ is in excellent agreement with the results of other workers. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, ...

  5. Modulus of smoothness and theorems concerning approximation on compact groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vaezi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the generalized shift operator defined by (Shuf(g=∫Gf(tut−1gdt on a compact group G, and by using this operator, we define “spherical” modulus of smoothness. So, we prove Stechkin and Jackson-type theorems.

  6. Elastic Modulus at High Frequency of Polymerically Stabilized Suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nommensen, P.A.; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.

    2000-01-01

    The elastic moduli of polymerically stabilized suspensions consisting of colloidal silica particles coated with endgrafted PDMS (Mn = 80 000) in heptane, were measured as a function of concentration. And the elastic modulus at high frequency G'.. was quantitatively described by model calculations

  7. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun

    In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all

  8. Model-Based Reconstructive Elasticity Imaging Using Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavat R. Aglyamov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity imaging is a reconstructive imaging technique where tissue motion in response to mechanical excitation is measured using modern imaging systems, and the estimated displacements are then used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of Young's modulus. Here we present an ultrasound elasticity imaging method that utilizes the model-based technique for Young's modulus reconstruction. Based on the geometry of the imaged object, only one axial component of the strain tensor is used. The numerical implementation of the method is highly efficient because the reconstruction is based on an analytic solution of the forward elastic problem. The model-based approach is illustrated using two potential clinical applications: differentiation of liver hemangioma and staging of deep venous thrombosis. Overall, these studies demonstrate that model-based reconstructive elasticity imaging can be used in applications where the geometry of the object and the surrounding tissue is somewhat known and certain assumptions about the pathology can be made.

  9. Quantitative methods for reconstructing tissue biomechanical properties in optical coherence elastography: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Sudheendran, Narendran; Larin, Kirill V; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Twa, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the accuracy of five different methods for extracting the biomechanical properties of soft samples using optical coherence elastography (OCE). OCE is an emerging noninvasive technique, which allows assessment of biomechanical properties of tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. However, in order to accurately extract biomechanical properties from OCE measurements, application of a proper mechanical model is required. In this study, we utilize tissue-mimicking phantoms with controlled elastic properties and investigate the feasibilities of four available methods for reconstructing elasticity (Young’s modulus) based on OCE measurements of an air-pulse induced elastic wave. The approaches are based on the shear wave equation (SWE), the surface wave equation (SuWE), Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE), and finite element method (FEM), Elasticity values were compared with uniaxial mechanical testing. The results show that the RLFE and the FEM are more robust in quantitatively assessing elasticity than the other simplified models. This study provides a foundation and reference for reconstructing the biomechanical properties of tissues from OCE data, which is important for the further development of noninvasive elastography methods. (paper)

  10. [Assessment of plantar fasciitis using shear wave elastography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lining; Wan, Wenbo; Zhang, Lihai; Xiao, Hongyu; Luo, Yukun; Fei, Xiang; Zheng, Zhixin; Tang, Peifu

    2014-02-01

    To assess the stiffness and thickness of the plantar fascia using shear wave elastography (SWE) in healthy volunteers of different ages and in patients with plantar fasciitis. The bilateral feet of 30 healthy volunteers and 23 patients with plantar fasciitis were examined with SWE. The plantar fascia thickness and elasticity modulus value were measured at the insertion of the calcaneus and at 1 cm from the insertion. The elderly volunteers had a significantly greater plantar fascia thickness measured using conventional ultrasound (P=0.005) and a significantly lower elasticity modulus value than the young volunteers (P=0.000). The patients with fasciitis had a significantly greater plantar fascia thickness (P=0.001) and a lower elasticity modulus value than the elderly volunteers (P=0.000). The elasticity modulus value was significantly lower at the calcaneus insertion than at 1 cm from the insertion in patients with fasciitis (P=0.000) but showed no significantly difference between the two points in the elderly or young volunteers (P=0.172, P=0.126). SWE allows quantitative assessment of the stiffness of the plantar fascia, which decreases with aging and in patients with plantar fasciitis.

  11. Compressive and Shear Wave Velocity Profiles using Seismic Refraction Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziman, M; Hazreek, Z A M; Azhar, A T S; Haimi, D S

    2016-01-01

    Seismic refraction measurement is one of the geophysics exploration techniques to determine soil profile. Meanwhile, the borehole technique is an established way to identify the changes of soil layer based on number of blows penetrating the soil. Both techniques are commonly adopted for subsurface investigation. The seismic refraction test is a non-destructive and relatively fast assessment compared to borehole technique. The soil velocities of compressive wave and shear wave derived from the seismic refraction measurements can be directly utilised to calculate soil parameters such as soil modulus and Poisson’s ratio. This study investigates the seismic refraction techniques to obtain compressive and shear wave velocity profile. Using the vertical and horizontal geophones as well as vertical and horizontal strike directions of the transient seismic source, the propagation of compressive wave and shear wave can be examined, respectively. The study was conducted at Sejagung Sri Medan. The seismic velocity profile was obtained at a depth of 20 m. The velocity of the shear wave is about half of the velocity of the compression wave. The soil profiles of compressive and shear wave velocities were verified using the borehole data and showed good agreement with the borehole data. (paper)

  12. Modulus stabilization in a non-flat warped braneworld scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Indrani [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Kolkata (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2017-05-15

    The stability of the modular field in a warped brane world scenario has been a subject of interest for a long time. Goldberger and Wise (GW) proposed a mechanism to achieve this by invoking a massive scalar field in the bulk space-time neglecting the back-reaction. In this work, we examine the possibility of stabilizing the modulus without bringing about any external scalar field. We show that instead of flat 3-branes as considered in Randall-Sundrum (RS) warped braneworld model, if one considers a more generalized version of warped geometry with de Sitter 3-brane, then the brane vacuum energy automatically leads to a modulus potential with a metastable minimum. Our result further reveals that in this scenario the gauge hierarchy problem can also be resolved for an appropriate choice of the brane's cosmological constant. (orig.)

  13. Young's Modulus of Single-Crystal Fullerene C Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokushi Kizuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed bending tests on single-crystal nanotubes composed of fullerene C70 molecules by in situ transmission electron microscopy with measurements of loading forces by an optical deflection method. The nanotubes with the outer diameters of 270–470 nm were bent using simple-beam and cantilever-beam loading by the piezomanipulation of silicon nanotips. Young's modulus of the nanotubes increased from 61 GPa to 110 GPa as the outer diameter decreased from 470 nm to 270 nm. Young's modulus was estimated to be 66% of that of single-crystal C60 nanotubes of the same outer diameter.

  14. Mechanical Researches on Young's Modulus of SCS Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinhua Jin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructures of SingleCrystalSilicon (SCS with superior electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical properties are emerging in the development of novel nanodevices. Mechanical properties especially Young's modulus are essential in developing and utilizing such nanodevices. In this paper, experimental researches including bending tests, resonance tests, and tensile tests on Young' s modulus of nanoscaled SCS are reviewed, and their results are compared. It was found that the values of E measured by different testing methods cannot match to each other. As the differences cannot be explained as experimental errors, it should be understood by taking surface effect into account. With a simplified model, we qualitatively explained the difference in E value measured by tensile test and by resonance test for Si nanobeams.

  15. Effect of uncertainty parameters on graphene sheets Young's modulus prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlaoui, Habib; Sidhom Habib; Guedri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Software based on molecular structural mechanics approach (MSMA) and using finite element method (FEM) has been developed to predict the Young's modulus of graphene sheets. Obtained results have been compared to results available in the literature and good agreement has been shown when the same values of uncertainty parameters are used. A sensibility of the models to their uncertainty parameters has been investigated using a stochastic finite element method (SFEM). The different values of the used uncertainty parameters, such as molecular mechanics force field constants k_r and k_θ, thickness (t) of a graphene sheet and length ( L_B) of a carbon carbon bonds, have been collected from the literature. Strong sensibilities of 91% to the thickness and of 21% to the stretching force (k_r) have been shown. The results justify the great difference between Young's modulus predicted values of the graphene sheets and their large disagreement with experimental results.

  16. High modulus invert analog glass compositions containing beryllia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of, in mols, 10-45% SiO2, 2-15% Li2O, 3-34% BeO, 12-36% of at least one bivalent oxide selected from the group consisting of CaO, ZnO, MgO and CuO, 10-39% of at least one trivalent oxide selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, B2O3, La2O3, Y2O3 and the mixed rare earth oxides, the total number of said bivalent and trivalent oxides being at least three, and up to 10% of a tetravalent oxide selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2.

  17. Multigene Genetic Programming for Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohammadi Bayazidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new multigene genetic programming (MGGP approach for estimation of elastic modulus of concrete. The MGGP technique models the elastic modulus behavior by integrating the capabilities of standard genetic programming and classical regression. The main aim is to derive precise relationships between the tangent elastic moduli of normal and high strength concrete and the corresponding compressive strength values. Another important contribution of this study is to develop a generalized prediction model for the elastic moduli of both normal and high strength concrete. Numerous concrete compressive strength test results are obtained from the literature to develop the models. A comprehensive comparative study is conducted to verify the performance of the models. The proposed models perform superior to the existing traditional models, as well as those derived using other powerful soft computing tools.

  18. Charged string solutions with dilaton and modulus fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetic, M

    1994-01-01

    We find charged, abelian, spherically symmetric solutions (in flat space-time) corresponding to the effective action of $D=4$ heterotic string theory with scale-dependent dilaton $\\p$ and modulus $\\vp$ fields. We take into account perturbative (genus-one), moduli-dependent `threshold' corrections to the coupling function $f(\\p,\\vp)$ in the gauge field kinetic term $f(\\p,\\vp) F^2_{\\m\

  19. Determination of dynamic Young’s modulus of vulnerable speleothems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Pavel; Lednická, Markéta; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Kubina, Lukáš; Gribovszki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 156-163 ISSN 1335-1788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : dynamic Young´s modulus * speleothem * bulk density * X-Ray Computed Tomography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.390, year: 2015 http://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2015/n2/10Konecny.pdf

  20. A maximum modulus theorem for the Oseen problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kračmar, S.; Medková, Dagmar; Nečasová, Šárka; Varnhorn, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 6 (2013), s. 1059-1076 ISSN 0373-3114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304; GA MŠk LC06052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Oseen problem * maximum modulus theorem * Oseen potentials Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10231-012-0258-x

  1. Young's modulus of elasticity of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dehong; Juzkiw, Taras; Read, A Thomas; Chan, Darren W-H; Glucksberg, Matthew R; Ethier, C Ross; Johnson, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelial cells are likely important in the physiology and pathophysiology of the aqueous drainage system of the eye, particularly in glaucoma. The mechanical stiffness of these cells determines, in part, the extent to which they can support a pressure gradient and thus can be used to place limits on the flow resistance that this layer can generate in the eye. However, little is known about the biomechanical properties of SC endothelial cells. Our goal in this study was to estimate the effective Young's modulus of elasticity of normal SC cells. To do so, we combined magnetic pulling cytometry of isolated cultured human SC cells with finite element modeling of the mechanical response of the cell to traction forces applied by adherent beads. Preliminary work showed that the immersion angles of beads attached to the SC cells had a major influence on bead response; therefore, we also measured bead immersion angle by confocal microscopy, using an empirical technique to correct for axial distortion of the confocal images. Our results showed that the upper bound for the effective Young's modulus of elasticity of the cultured SC cells examined in this study, in central, non-nuclear regions, ranged between 1,007 and 3,053 Pa, which is similar to, although somewhat larger than values that have been measured for other endothelial cell types. We compared these values to estimates of the modulus of primate SC cells in vivo, based on images of these cells under pressure loading, and found good agreement at low intraocular pressure (8-15 mm Hg). However, increasing intraocular pressure (22-30 mm Hg) appeared to cause a significant increase in the modulus of these cells. These moduli can be used to estimate the extent to which SC cells deform in response to the pressure drop across the inner wall endothelium and thereby estimate the extent to which they can generate outflow resistance.

  2. Using data logging to measure Young’s modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David

    2018-03-01

    Historically the Young’s modulus of a material is measured by increasing the applied force to a wire and measuring the extension. The cross sectional area and original length allow this to be plotted as a graph of stress versus strain. This article describes how data logging sensors can be used to measure how the force changes with extension, allowing a strain versus stress graph to be plotted into the region of plastic deformation.

  3. Estimation of Bulk modulus and microhardness of tetrahedral semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A general empirical formula was found for calculating of bulk modulus (B) and microhardness (H) from electronegativity and principal quantum number of II-VI, III-V semiconductors. Constant C1, appearing the in the expression of bulk modulus and constants C2 and C3, appearing in the expression of microhardness and the exponent M have following values respectively The numerical values of C1,C2, C3 and M are respectively 206.6, 8.234, 1.291, -1.10 for II-VI 72.4, 31.87, 7.592, -0.95 for III-V semiconductors. Both electro-negativity and principal quantum number can effectively reflect on the chemical bonding behaviour of constituent atoms in these semiconductors. The calculated values of bulk modulus and microhardness are in good agreement with the reported values in the literature. Present study helps in designing novel semiconductor materials, and to further explore the mechanical properties of these semiconductors.

  4. Elastic modulus of tree frog adhesive toe pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, W Jon P; Goodwyn, Pablo J Perez; Nokhbatolfoghahai, Mohsen; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-10-01

    Previous work using an atomic force microscope in nanoindenter mode indicated that the outer, 10- to 15-μm thick, keratinised layer of tree frog toe pads has a modulus of elasticity equivalent to silicone rubber (5-15 MPa) (Scholz et al. 2009), but gave no information on the physical properties of deeper structures. In this study, micro-indentation is used to measure the stiffness of whole toe pads of the tree frog, Litoria caerulea. We show here that tree frog toe pads are amongst the softest of biological structures (effective elastic modulus 4-25 kPa), and that they exhibit a gradient of stiffness, being stiffest on the outside. This stiffness gradient results from the presence of a dense network of capillaries lying beneath the pad epidermis, which probably has a shock absorbing function. Additionally, we compare the physical properties (elastic modulus, work of adhesion, pull-off force) of the toe pads of immature and adult frogs.

  5. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  6. Sheared Electroconvective Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.

  7. An underwater shear compactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biver, E.; Sims, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper, originally presented at the WM'96 Conference in Tucson Arizona, describes a concept of a specialised decommissioning tool designed to operate underwater and to reduce the volume of radioactive components by shearing and compacting. The shear compactor was originally conceived to manage the size reduction of a variety of decommissioned stainless steel tubes stored within a reactor fuel cooling pond and which were consuming a substantial volume of the pond. The main objective of this tool was to cut the long tubes into shorter lengths and to compact them into a flat rectangular form which could be stacked on the pond floor, thus saving valuable space. The development programme, undertaken on this project, investigated a wide range of factors which could contribute to an extended cutting blade performance, ie: materials of construction, cutting blade shape and cutting loads required, shock effects, etc. The second phase was to review other aspects of the design, such as radiological protection, cutting blade replacement, maintenance, pond installation and resultant wall loads, water hydraulics, collection of products of shearing/compacting operations, corrosion of the equipment, control system, operational safety and the ability of the equipment to operate in dry environments. The paper summarises the extended work programme involved with this shear compactor tool. (author)

  8. Structure and Young modulus of age hardening elinvar 45NKhT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraz, V.R.; Strizhak, V.A.; Tsykin, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of quenching and ageing on structural features and Young modulus of precipitation hardening elinvar alloy 45 NKhT is under study. It is shown that the quenched alloy possesses a decreased elastic modulus which value drops with a quenching temperature increase. The ally ageing results in restoration of elastic modulus. The temperature range of Young modulus stability is shown to be independent of heat treatment conditions. The anomalies of elastic modulus in quenched alloy are conditioned by structural and magnetoelastic factors. The mechanisms of continuous and discontinuous precipitation mechanism has no effect on efficiency of Young modulus restoration. 13 refs., 6 figs

  9. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  10. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  11. CAT LIDAR wind shear studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The studies considered the major meteorological factors producing wind shear, methods to define and classify wind shear in terms significant from an aircraft perturbation standpoint, the significance of sensor location and scan geometry on the detection and measurement of wind shear, and the tradeoffs involved in sensor performance such as range/velocity resolution, update frequency and data averaging interval.

  12. Determination of resilient modulus values for typical plastic soils in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The objectives of this research are to establish a resilient modulus test results database and to develop : correlations for estimating the resilient modulus of Wisconsin fine-grained soils from basic soil properties. A : laboratory testing program ...

  13. Standardizing lightweight deflectometer modulus measurements for compaction quality assurance : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The mechanistic-empirical pavement design method requires the elastic resilient modulus as the key input for characterization of geomaterials. Current density-based QA procedures do not measure resilient modulus. Additionally, the density-based metho...

  14. Gelation under shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Straty, G.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States); Muzny, C.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An experimental small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of dense silica gels, prepared from suspensions of 24 nm colloidal silica particles at several volume fractions {theta} is discussed. Provided that {theta}{approx_lt}0.18, the scattered intensity at small wave vectors q increases as the gelation proceeds, and the structure factor S(q, t {yields} {infinity}) of the gel exhibits apparent power law behavior. Power law behavior is also observed, even for samples with {theta}>0.18, when the gel is formed under an applied shear. Shear also enhances the diffraction maximum corresponding to the inter-particle contact distance of the gel. Difficulties encountered when trying to interpret SANS data from these dense systems are outlined. Results of computer simulations intended to mimic gel formation, including computations of S(q, t), are discussed. Comments on a method to extract a fractal dimension characterizing the gel are included.

  15. Forflytning: shear og friktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    friktion). Formålet med filmprojektet er: At give personalet i Apopleksiafsnittet viden om shear og friktion, så det motiveres til forebyggelse. Mål At udarbejde et enkelt undervisningsmateriale til bed-side-brug Projektbeskrivelse (resume) Patienter med apopleksi er særligt udsatte for tryksår, fordi de...... ofte er immobile, har svært ved at opretholde en god siddestilling eller ligger tungt i sengen som følger efter apopleksien Hvis personalet bruger forkert lejrings-og forflytningsteknik, udsættes patienterne for shear og friktion. Målgruppen i projektet er de personer, der omgås patienterne, dvs...

  16. Monitoring the lesion formation during histotripsy treatment using shear wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Bastien; Lee, Wei-Ning; Pernot, Mathieu; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickael

    2012-11-01

    Monitoring the lesion formation induced by histotripsy has mainly relied on the quantitative change in backscatter intensity using ultrasound B-mode imaging. However, how the mechanical properties of the histotripsy-treated tissue region alter during the procedure is yet to be fully investigated. We thus proposed here to monitor such a therapeutic process based on shear modulus estimated by shear wave imaging (SWI). In the therapeutic procedure, a single-element piezo-composite focused transducer (Imasonic, Besançon, France) with a center frequency of 660 kHz, a focal length of 45 mm, and an fnumber of 1 was driven by a function generator (AFG 3101, Tektronix, Beaverton, OR) and a gated RF power amplifier (GA-2500A, RITEC Inc., USA) to generate ultrasound histotripsy pulses. Histotripsy pulses were delivered for 20 seconds and then followed by a 30-second pause and a rapid monitoring step. Such a treatment and monitoring scheme was repeated for 10 mins. Both the reference measurement and monitoring were realized by SWI, where plane shear waves were generated by an 8 MHz linear array probe connected to a prototype ultrasound scanner, and acquired at a frame rate of 10000 Hz. Shear modulus was estimated and mapped in 2D through a time-of-flight algorithm. Gelatin (8%)-agar (2%) phantoms and ex-vivo porcine liver samples were tested. Regions of interests (ROI's) of 2 mm-by-2 mm in both untreated and treated regions were selected to compute the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In all three scenarios where different PD's and PRF's were implemented, during the first 100 seconds of the treatment, 50% decrease in the shear modulus within the histotripsy-targeted zone was already observed, and the CNR of the shear modulus increased by 18 dB. In contrast, the backscatter intensity began to reduce and the corresponding CNR was found to increase by 6 dB only after 120 seconds of treatment. The results demonstrated that SWI can map quantitatively the change of mechanical

  17. Low modulus Ti–Nb–Hf alloy for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M., E-mail: Marta.Gonzalez.Colominas@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Materials Science, Elisava Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona, La Rambla 30-32, 08002 Barcelona (Spain); Peña, J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Materials Science, Elisava Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona, La Rambla 30-32, 08002 Barcelona (Spain); Gil, F.J.; Manero, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    β-Type titanium alloys with a low elastic modulus are a potential strategy to reduce stress shielding effect and to enhance bone remodeling in implants used to substitute failed hard tissue. For biomaterial application, investigation on the mechanical behavior, the corrosion resistance and the cell response is required. The new Ti25Nb16Hf alloy was studied before and after 95% cold rolling (95% C.R.). The mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing and its corrosion behavior was analyzed by potentiostatic equipment in Hank's solution at 37 °C. The cell response was studied by means of cytotoxicity evaluation, cell adhesion and proliferation measurements. The stress–strain curves showed the lowest elastic modulus (42 GPa) in the cold worked alloy and high tensile strength, similar to that of Ti6Al4V. The new alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance in terms of open circuit potential (E{sub OCP}), but was similar in terms of corrosion current density (i{sub CORR}) compared to Ti grade II. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the chemical composition of the alloy does not induce cytotoxic activity. Cell studies in the new alloy showed a lower adhesion and a higher proliferation compared to Ti grade II presenting, therefore, mechanical features similar to those of human cortical bone and, simultaneously, a good cell response. - Highlights: • Presents low elastic modulus and high strength and elastic deformability. • Exhibits good biocompatibility in terms of cytotoxicity and cell response. • Corrosion resistance of this alloy is good, similar to that of Ti grade II. • Potential candidate for implants used to substitute failed hard tissue.

  18. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  19. The temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus at 1 bar pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garai, J.; Laugier, A.

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that the product of the volume coefficient of thermal expansion and the bulk modulus is nearly constant at temperatures higher than the Debye temperature. Using this approximation allows predicting the values of the bulk modulus. The derived analytical solution for the temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus has been applied to ten substances. The good correlations to the experiments indicate that the expression may be useful for substances for which bulk modulus data are lacking

  20. Mechanical Components from Highly Recoverable, Low Apparent Modulus Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Stanford, Malcolm K. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A material for use as a mechanical component is formed of a superelastic intermetallic material having a low apparent modulus and a high hardness. The superelastic intermetallic material is conditioned to be dimensionally stable, devoid of any shape memory effect and have a stable superelastic response without irrecoverable deformation while exhibiting strains of at least 3%. The method of conditioning the superelastic intermetallic material is described. Another embodiment relates to lightweight materials known as ordered intermetallics that perform well in sliding wear applications using conventional liquid lubricants and are therefore suitable for resilient, high performance mechanical components such as gears and bearings.

  1. Simple Backdoors on RSA Modulus by Using RSA Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hung-Min; Wu, Mu-En; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    This investigation proposes two methods for embedding backdoors in the RSA modulus N=pq rather than in the public exponent e. This strategy not only permits manufacturers to embed backdoors in an RSA system, but also allows users to choose any desired public exponent, such as e=216+1, to ensure efficient encryption. This work utilizes lattice attack and exhaustive attack to embed backdoors in two proposed methods, called RSASBLT and RSASBES, respectively. Both approaches involve straightforward steps, making their running time roughly the same as that of normal RSA key-generation time, implying that no one can detect the backdoor by observing time imparity.

  2. Resonant frequency and elastic modulus measurements on hardened cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.J.

    1982-12-01

    A new technique for measuring resonant frequency and elastic modulus is described. This has been used on specimens of hardened cement paste containing water with no simulated waste, and the results compared with measurements of ultrasonic pulse velocity, dimensional movements and compressive strength made on the same formulations. In addition, measurements were made on a specimen containing simulated waste which demonstrated the applicability of the new technique for following the development of the mechanical properties of cemented simulant radioactive waste in the laboratory. (U.K.)

  3. Viscoelastic properties of soft gels: comparison of magnetic resonance elastography and dynamic shear testing in the shear wave regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, R. J.; Clayton, E. H.; Bayly, P. V.

    2011-10-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is used to quantify the viscoelastic shear modulus, G*, of human and animal tissues. Previously, values of G* determined by MRE have been compared to values from mechanical tests performed at lower frequencies. In this study, a novel dynamic shear test (DST) was used to measure G* of a tissue-mimicking material at higher frequencies for direct comparison to MRE. A closed-form solution, including inertial effects, was used to extract G* values from DST data obtained between 20 and 200 Hz. MRE was performed using cylindrical 'phantoms' of the same material in an overlapping frequency range of 100-400 Hz. Axial vibrations of a central rod caused radially propagating shear waves in the phantom. Displacement fields were fit to a viscoelastic form of Navier's equation using a total least-squares approach to obtain local estimates of G*. DST estimates of the storage G' (Re[G*]) and loss modulus G'' (Im[G*]) for the tissue-mimicking material increased with frequency from 0.86 to 0.97 kPa (20-200 Hz, n = 16), while MRE estimates of G' increased from 1.06 to 1.15 kPa (100-400 Hz, n = 6). The loss factor (Im[G*]/Re[G*]) also increased with frequency for both test methods: 0.06-0.14 (20-200 Hz, DST) and 0.11-0.23 (100-400 Hz, MRE). Close agreement between MRE and DST results at overlapping frequencies indicates that G* can be locally estimated with MRE over a wide frequency range. Low signal-to-noise ratio, long shear wavelengths and boundary effects were found to increase residual fitting error, reinforcing the use of an error metric to assess confidence in local parameter estimates obtained by MRE.

  4. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  5. Plasticity Approach to Shear Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in non......-shear reinforced beams as well as in lightly shear reinforced beams. For such beams the shear strength is determined by the recently developed crack sliding model. This model is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed...... in uncracked concrete. Good agree between theory and tests has been found.Keywords: dsign, plasticity, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, shear, web crushing....

  6. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young's moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young's modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temperature, doughing time, setting time and the complex viscosity curves during curing, were determined. The cytotoxicity of the materials extracts was assessed on cells of an osteoblast-like cell line. The addition of up to 12 wt% castor oil decreased yield strength from 88 to 15 MPa, Young's modulus from 1500 to 446 MPa and maximum polymerization temperature from 41.3 to 25.6°C, without affecting the setting time. However, castor oil seemed to interfere with the polymerization reaction, giving a negative effect on cell viability in a worst-case scenario.

  7. Dynamic behavior of dual cross-linked nanoparticle networks under oscillatory shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Balaji V S; Yashin, Victor V; Balazs, Anna C

    2014-01-01

    Via computer simulations, we investigate the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic response of polymer grafted nanoparticle networks subject to oscillatory shear at different amplitudes and frequencies. The individual nanoparticles are composed of a rigid spherical core and a corona of grafted polymers that encompass reactive end groups. With the overlap of the coronas on adjacent particles, the reactive end groups form permanent or labile bonds, and thus form a ‘dual cross-linked’ network. The existing labile bonds between particles can break and reform depending on the bond rupture rate, extent of deformation and the frequency of oscillation. We study how the viscoelastic behavior of the material depends on the energy of the labile bonds and identify the network characteristics that give rise to the observed viscoelastic response. We observe that with an increase in labile bond energy, the storage modulus increases while the loss modulus shows a more complex response depending on the labile bond energy. Specifically, in the case of the samples with the weaker labile bonds, the loss modulus increases monotonically, while for the samples with the stronger labile bonds, the loss modulus exhibits a minimum with an increase in frequency. We show that an increase in the storage modulus corresponds to an enhancement in the average number of bonds in the samples and the characteristics of the loss modulus depend on both the bond kinetics and the mobility of the particles in the network. Furthermore, we determine that the effective contribution of the bonds to the storage modulus decreases with increase in strain amplitude. In particular, while bond formation at small amplitude drives an increase in storage modulus, at large amplitudes it promotes clustering and formation of voids leading to strain softening. Our simulations provide a mesoscopic picture of how the nature of labile bonds affects the performance of cross-linked polymer-grafted nanoparticle networks. (paper)

  8. Ultrasonic backscatter imaging by shear-wave-induced echo phase encoding of target locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for ultrasound backscatter image formation wherein lateral resolution of the target is obtained by using traveling shear waves to encode the lateral position of targets in the phase of the received echo. We demonstrate that the phase modulation as a function of shear wavenumber can be expressed in terms of a Fourier transform of the lateral component of the target echogenicity. The inverse transform, obtained by measurements of the phase modulation over a range of shear wave spatial frequencies, yields the lateral scatterer distribution. Range data are recovered from time of flight as in conventional ultrasound, yielding a B-mode-like image. In contrast to conventional ultrasound imaging, where mechanical or electronic focusing is used and lateral resolution is determined by aperture size and wavelength, we demonstrate that lateral resolution using the proposed method is independent of the properties of the aperture. Lateral resolution of the target is achieved using a stationary, unfocused, single-element transducer. We present simulated images of targets of uniform and non-uniform shear modulus. Compounding for speckle reduction is demonstrated. Finally, we demonstrate image formation with an unfocused transducer in gelatin phantoms of uniform shear modulus.

  9. Steady shear characteristic and behavior of magneto-thermo-elasticity of isotropic MR elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Xingzhe

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-thermo-elastic steady shear behaviors of isotropic smart composites of silicon rubber matrix randomly filled with ferromagnetic particles, commonly referred to as magnetorheological (MR) elastomers, are investigated experimentally and theoretically in the present study. The strip specimens of the MR elastomer composite with different ferromagnetic particle concentrations are fabricated and implemented for lap-shear tests under both magnetic and thermal fields. It is illustrated that the magneto-thermo-elastic shear modulus of the MR elastomer is markedly enhanced with the volume fraction of ferromagnetic particles and the applied external magnetic field, while the shear modulus is decreased with the environment temperature. To qualitatively elucidate the magneto-thermo-elastic shear performance of this kind of magnetic smart composites, a modified constitutive of hyperelasticity is suggested taking into account the influence of magnetic field and temperature on the magnetic potential energy and strain energy. The theoretical modeling predictions on the stress–strain behaviors for different applied magnetic fields and environment temperatures are compared to experimental observations to demonstrate a good agreement. (paper)

  10. Multiscale modeling of the effect of carbon nanotube orientation on the shear deformation properties of reinforced polymer-based composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazeri, A. [Institute for Nano-Science and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, M. [Institute for Nano-Science and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghdabadi, R., E-mail: naghdabd@sharif.ed [Institute for Nano-Science and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafii-Tabar, H. [Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and Research Centre for Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-04

    A combination of molecular dynamics (MD), continuum elasticity and FEM is used to predict the effect of CNT orientation on the shear modulus of SWCNT-polymer nanocomposites. We first develop a transverse-isotropic elastic model of SWCNTs based on the continuum elasticity and MD to compute the transverse-isotropic elastic constants of SWCNTs. These constants are then used in an FEM-based simulation to investigate the effect of SWCNT alignment on the shear modulus of nanocomposites. Furthermore, shear stress distributions along the nanotube axis and over its cross-sectional area are investigated to study the effect of CNT orientation on the shear load transfer. - Highlights: A transverse-isotropic elastic model of SWCNTs is presented. A hierarchical MD/FEM multiscale model of SWCNT-polymer composites is developed. Behavior of these nanocomposites under shear deformation is studied. A symmetric shear stress distribution occurs only in SWCNTs with 45{sup o} orientation. The total shear load sustained is greatest in the case of 45{sup o} orientation.

  11. Multiscale modeling of the effect of carbon nanotube orientation on the shear deformation properties of reinforced polymer-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazeri, A.; Sadeghi, M.; Naghdabadi, R.; Rafii-Tabar, H.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of molecular dynamics (MD), continuum elasticity and FEM is used to predict the effect of CNT orientation on the shear modulus of SWCNT-polymer nanocomposites. We first develop a transverse-isotropic elastic model of SWCNTs based on the continuum elasticity and MD to compute the transverse-isotropic elastic constants of SWCNTs. These constants are then used in an FEM-based simulation to investigate the effect of SWCNT alignment on the shear modulus of nanocomposites. Furthermore, shear stress distributions along the nanotube axis and over its cross-sectional area are investigated to study the effect of CNT orientation on the shear load transfer. - Highlights: → A transverse-isotropic elastic model of SWCNTs is presented. → A hierarchical MD/FEM multiscale model of SWCNT-polymer composites is developed. → Behavior of these nanocomposites under shear deformation is studied. → A symmetric shear stress distribution occurs only in SWCNTs with 45 o orientation. → The total shear load sustained is greatest in the case of 45 o orientation.

  12. Shear Resistance Variations in Experimentally Sheared Mudstone Granules: A Possible Shear-Thinning and Thixotropic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Gonghui; Scaringi, Gianvito; Mcsaveney, Mauri; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    We present results of ring shear frictional resistance for mudstone granules of different size obtained from a landslide shear zone. Little rate dependency of shear resistance was observed in sand-sized granules in any wet or dry test, while saturated gravel-sized granules exhibited significant and abrupt reversible rate-weakening (from μ = 0.6 to 0.05) at about 2 mm/s. Repeating resistance variations occurred also under constant shear displacement rate. Mudstone granules generate mud as they are crushed and softened. Shear-thinning and thixotropic behavior of the mud can explain the observed behavior: with the viscosity decreasing, the mud can flow through the coarser soil pores and migrate out from the shear zone. This brings new granules into contact which produces new mud. Thus, the process can start over. Similarities between experimental shear zones and those of some landslides in mudstone suggest that the observed behavior may play a role in some landslide kinematics.

  13. Shear-induced chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Kevin K; Young, Lai-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a geometric understanding developed in earlier works of Wang and Young, we carry out numerical studies of shear-induced chaos in several parallel but different situations. The settings considered include periodic kicking of limit cycles, random kicks at Poisson times and continuous-time driving by white noise. The forcing of a quasi-periodic model describing two coupled oscillators is also investigated. In all cases, positive Lyapunov exponents are found in suitable parameter ranges when the forcing is suitably directed

  14. Shear-induced chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kevin K.; Young, Lai-Sang

    2008-05-01

    Guided by a geometric understanding developed in earlier works of Wang and Young, we carry out numerical studies of shear-induced chaos in several parallel but different situations. The settings considered include periodic kicking of limit cycles, random kicks at Poisson times and continuous-time driving by white noise. The forcing of a quasi-periodic model describing two coupled oscillators is also investigated. In all cases, positive Lyapunov exponents are found in suitable parameter ranges when the forcing is suitably directed.

  15. Bolt Shear Force Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    0030] FIG. 7 is an isometric view of a deformable ring of the bolt shear force sensor of the present invention with an optical Attorney Docket No...102587 9 of 19 fiber having Bragg gratings wound around the ring; [0031] FIG. 8 is an isometric view of the deformable ring with wire strain... strength . [0047] Once the joint is subjected to an external load (see force arrows “F” and “F/2”); any frictional resistance to slip is overcome and

  16. Effect of time of sintering of a castable with andalusite aggregates in the rupture modulus and elastic modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.R.; Garcia, G.C.R.; Claudinei, S.; Ribeiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    The studied castable contain andalusite aggregates, and when sintered in temperatures above 1280 deg C, transformed into mullite improving the properties of concrete due to its low expansion and thermal conductivity, creep resistance and thermal shock. The refractory was homogenized in a mixer with 5.5% m/m of water and poured into a metal mold resulting in prismatic bars. After curing for 48 hours, were sintered at 1450 ° C for 0 h, 1 h, 2.5 h and 10 h with heating and cooling rates of 2 ° C / min. The results of elastic modules were, respectively, in GPa: 25.75±1.75, 37.79±0.36, 39.03±1.97 and 54.47±4.01, and rupture, MPa: 8.40±0.78, 11.94±0.68, 10.91±0.91 and 11,34±1.16, showing the increase in elastic modulus for longer times and for times exceeding one hour, no significant changes in results of the modulus of rupture , stabilizing the change of this refractory's properties after the first hour of sintering. (author)

  17. Excited waves in shear layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  18. Designing shear-thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Arif Z.; Ewoldt, Randy H.

    2017-11-01

    Design in fluid mechanics often focuses on optimizing geometry (airfoils, surface textures, microfluid channels), but here we focus on designing fluids themselves. The dramatically shear-thinning ``yield-stress fluid'' is currently the most utilized non-Newtonian fluid phenomenon. These rheologically complex materials, which undergo a reversible transition from solid-like to liquid-like fluid flow, are utilized in pedestrian products such as paint and toothpaste, but also in emerging applications like direct-write 3D printing. We present a paradigm for yield-stress fluid design that considers constitutive model representation, material property databases, available predictive scaling laws, and the many ways to achieve a yield stress fluid, flipping the typical structure-to-rheology analysis to become the inverse: rheology-to-structure with multiple possible materials as solutions. We describe case studies of 3D printing inks and other flow scenarios where designed shear-thinning enables performance remarkably beyond that of Newtonian fluids. This work was supported by Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1463203.

  19. Separation of attractors in 1-modulus quantum corrected special geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Marrani, A; Shcherbakov, A

    2008-01-01

    We study the solutions to the N=2, d=4 Attractor Equations in a dyonic, extremal, static, spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat black hole background, in the simplest case of perturbative quantum corrected cubic Special Kahler geometry consistent with continuous axion-shift symmetry, namely in the 1-modulus Special Kahler geometry described (in a suitable special symplectic coordinate) by the holomorphic Kahler gauge-invariant prepotential F=t^3+i*lambda, with lambda real. By performing computations in the ``magnetic'' charge configuration, we find evidence for interesting phenomena (absent in the classical limit of vanishing lambda). Namely, for a certain range of the quantum parameter lambda we find a ``splitting'' of attractors, i.e. the existence of multiple solutions to the Attractor Equations for fixed supporting charge configuration. This corresponds to the existence of ``area codes'' in the radial evolution of the scalar t, determined by the various disconnected regions of the moduli space, wh...

  20. Young’s modulus of [111] germanium nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksud, M.; Palapati, N. K. R.; Subramanian, A., E-mail: asubramanian@vcu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Yoo, J. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Harris, C. T. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports a diameter-independent Young’s modulus of 91.9 ± 8.2 GPa for [111] Germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). When the surface oxide layer is accounted for using a core-shell NW approximation, the YM of the Ge core approaches a near theoretical value of 147.6 ± 23.4 GPa. The ultimate strength of a NW device was measured at 10.9 GPa, which represents a very high experimental-to-theoretical strength ratio of ∼75%. With increasing interest in this material system as a high-capacity lithium-ion battery anode, the presented data provide inputs that are essential in predicting its lithiation-induced stress fields and fracture behavior.

  1. Magnetization measurements reveal the local shear stiffness of hydrogels probed by ferromagnetic nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P., E-mail: nano@p-bender.de; Tschöpe, A., E-mail: antsch@mx.uni-saarland.de; Birringer, R., E-mail: r.birringer@nano.uni-saarland.de

    2014-12-15

    The local mechanical coupling of ferromagnetic nanorods in hydrogels was characterized by magnetization measurements. Nickel nanorods were synthesized by the AAO-template method and embedded in gelatine hydrogels with mechanically soft or hard matrix properties determined by the gelatine weight fraction. By applying a homogeneous magnetic field during gelation the nanorods were aligned along the field resulting in uniaxially textured ferrogels. The magnetization curves of the soft ferrogel exhibited not only important similarities but also characteristic differences as compared to the hard ferrogel. The hystereses measured in a field parallel to the texture axis were almost identical for both samples indicating effective coupling of the nanorods with the polymer network. By contrast, measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the texture axis revealed a much higher initial susceptibility of the soft as compared to the hard ferrogel. This difference was attributed to the additional rotation of the nanorods allowed by the reduced shear modulus in the soft ferrogel matrix. Two methods for data analysis were presented which enabled us to determine the shear modulus of the gelatine matrix which was interpreted as a local rather than macroscopic quantity in consideration of the nanoscale of the probe particles. - Highlights: • Nanorods are embedded as magnetic probes in gelatine gels. • Elastic rotation of the rods can be induced by applying a homogeneous magnetic field. • Rod rotation has significant influence on the magnetization curves. • Two methods are presented to estimate the shear modulus of the matrix from the magnetization curves.

  2. Nanoscale elastic modulus variation in loaded polymeric micelle reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Alim; Aytun, Taner; Deuschle, Julia K; Ow-Yang, Cleva W

    2012-07-17

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) enables mapping of chemical composition at the nanoscale by taking advantage of the variation in phase angle shift arising from an embedded second phase. We demonstrate that phase contrast can be attributed to the variation in elastic modulus during the imaging of zinc acetate (ZnAc)-loaded reverse polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock co-polymer micelles less than 100 nm in diameter. Three sample configurations were characterized: (i) a 31.6 μm thick polystyrene (PS) support film for eliminating the substrate contribution, (ii) an unfilled PS-b-P2VP micelle supported by the same PS film, and (iii) a ZnAc-loaded PS-b-P2VP micelle supported by the same PS film. Force-indentation (F-I) curves were measured over unloaded micelles on the PS film and over loaded micelles on the PS film, using standard tapping mode probes of three different spring constants, the same cantilevers used for imaging of the samples before and after loading. For calibration of the tip geometry, nanoindentation was performed on the bare PS film. The resulting elastic modulus values extracted by applying the Hertz model were 8.26 ± 3.43 GPa over the loaded micelles and 4.17 ± 1.65 GPa over the unloaded micelles, confirming that phase contrast images of a monolayer of loaded micelles represent maps of the nanoscale chemical and mechanical variation. By calibrating the tip geometry indirectly using a known soft material, we are able to use the same standard tapping mode cantilevers for both imaging and indentation.

  3. Inductive shearing of drilling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Wilgen, John; Kisner, Roger; Mcintyre, Timothy

    2016-04-19

    Induction shearing may be used to cut a drillpipe at an undersea well. Electromagnetic rings may be built into a blow-out preventer (BOP) at the seafloor. The electromagnetic rings create a magnetic field through the drillpipe and may transfer sufficient energy to change the state of the metal drillpipe to shear the drillpipe. After shearing the drillpipe, the drillpipe may be sealed to prevent further leakage of well contents.

  4. Magnetorheological dampers in shear mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wereley, N M; Cho, J U; Choi, Y T; Choi, S B

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three types of shear mode damper using magnetorheological (MR) fluids are theoretically analyzed: linear, rotary drum, and rotary disk dampers. The damping performance of these shear mode MR dampers is characterized in terms of the damping coefficient, which is the ratio of the equivalent viscous damping at field-on status to the damping at field-off status. For these three types of shear mode MR damper, the damping coefficient or dynamic range is derived using three different constitutive models: the Bingham–plastic, biviscous, and Herschel–Bulkley models. The impact of constitutive behavior on shear mode MR dampers is theoretically presented and compared

  5. The response of dense dry granular material to the shear reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ren, Jie; Farhadi, Somayeh; Behringer, Robert

    2008-11-01

    We have performed two dimensional granular experiments under pure shear using bidisperse photo-elastic disks. Starting from a stress free state, a square box filled with granular particles is subject to shear. The forward shears involved various number of steps, leading to maximum strains between 0.1 and 0.3. The area is kept constant during the shear. The network of force chains gradually built up as the strain increased, leading to increased pressure and shear stress. Reverse shear was then applied to the system. Depending on the initial packing fraction and the strain at which the shear is reversed, the force chain network built prior to the shear reversal may be destroyed completely or partially destroyed. Following the force chain weakening, when the reserve shear is continuously applied to the system, there is a force chain strengthening. Following each change of the system, contact forces of individual disks were measured by applying an inverse algorithm. We also kept track of the displacement and angle of rotation of every particle from frame to frame. We present the results for the structure failure and reconstruction during shear reversals. We also present data for stresses, contact force distributions and other statistical measures.

  6. Effect of Processing Variables on Tensile Modulus and Morphology of Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites Prepared in an Internal Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Jollands, M.; Kao, N.

    2018-03-01

    A comparative study on effect of internal mixer on high density Polyethylene (HDPE)/clay nanocomposites preparation was done. Effect of temperature, rotor rotation (rpm), and mixing time, as well as rotor type (Roller and Banbury) on mechanical properties and morphology of HDPE/clay nanocomposites were studied using Box-Behnken experimental design. The model was developed according to secant modulus and confirmed to morphology analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The finding suggests that there is different mechanisms occurred in each rotor to improve the mechanical properties. The mechanism in Roller is medium shear and medium diffusion, while Banbury is high shear and low diffusion. The difference in mechanism to disperse the clay particles attribute to the different optimum processing conditions in each rotor. The settings for roller samples are predicted around mid temperature, mid speed, and mid mixing time. There is no optimum setting for Banbury within the processing boundaries. The best settings for Banbury are at low, high, low settings. The morphology results showed a hybrid composite structure, with some exfoliations and some intercalations. There was a correlation between better mechanical properties and morphology with more exfoliation and thinner intercalated particles.

  7. Vaginal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients

  8. ACL Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in moderate exercise and recreational activities, or play sports that put less stress on the knees. ACL reconstruction is generally recommended if: You're an athlete and want to continue in your sport, especially if the sport involves jumping, cutting or ...

  9. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions.In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding...

  10. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  11. Elevated Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistulae: Is There Mechanical Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide access for dialysis in patients with renal failure. The current hypothesis is that the rapid remodeling occurring after the fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level (i.e. mechanical homeostasis). Given that nearly 50% of fistulae require an intervention after one year, understanding the altered hemodynamic stress is important in improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of four patient-specific models of functioning fistulae reconstructed from 3D Doppler ultrasound scans. Our results show that the vessels are subjected to `normal' shear stresses away from the anastomosis; about 1 Pa in the veins and about 2.5 Pa in the arteries. However, simulations show that part of the anastomoses are consistently subjected to very high shear stress (>10Pa) over the cardiac cycle. These elevated values shear stresses are caused by the transitional flows at the anastomoses including flow separation and quasiperiodic vortex shedding. This suggests that the remodeling process lowers shear stress in the fistula but that it is limited as evidenced by the elevated shear at the anastomoses. This constant insult on the arterialized venous wall may explain the process of late fistula failure in which the dialysis access become occluded after years of use. Supported by an R21 Grant from NIDDK (DK081823).

  12. Structure, rheology and shear alignment of Pluronic block copolymer mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Gemma E; Hamley, Ian W; King, Stephen M; Martin, Christopher M; Terrill, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    The structure and flow behaviour of binary mixtures of Pluronic block copolymers P85 and P123 is investigated by small-angle scattering, rheometry and mobility tests. Micelle dimensions are probed by dynamic light scattering. The micelle hydrodynamic radius for the 50/50 mixture is larger than that for either P85 or P123 alone, due to the formation of mixed micelles with a higher association number. The phase diagram for 50/50 mixtures contains regions of cubic and hexagonal phases similar to those for the parent homopolymers, however the region of stability of the cubic phase is enhanced at low temperature and concentrations above 40 wt%. This is ascribed to favourable packing of the mixed micelles containing core blocks with two different chain lengths, but similar corona chain lengths. The shear flow alignment of face-centred cubic and hexagonal phases is probed by in situ small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering with simultaneous rheology. The hexagonal phase can be aligned using steady shear in a Couette geometry, however the high modulus cubic phase cannot be aligned well in this way. This requires the application of oscillatory shear or compression.

  13. Characterization of Shear Properties for APO/MBI Syntactic Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reser, Patrick M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Matthew W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, Jarod [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ahuja, Nishant [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lenke, Lary R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-14

    Triaxial compression testing is a means for mechanical characterization of a material. A unique feature of the triaxial compression test is the application of two different magnitudes of compressive pressures on the material simultaneously. The material behavior under these different compressive pressures can be monitored over time. Several important characteristics of the material, such as stress yield values and the shear failure envelope may then be determined. Also mechanical properties such as Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus and bulk modulus can be determined from the triaxial compression test. The triaxial compression test was employed in this investigation to characterize the shear behavior, shear failure envelope, and mechanical properties of a syntactic foam. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a total of 36 samples of APO-BMI syntactic foam to the University of New Mexico, Department of Civil Engineering for testing between December 2003 and May 2004. Each sample had a diameter of 1.395±0.005 in. (3.543±0.013cm.) and a length of 2.796±0.004 in. (7.102±0.010 cm.). The samples had an average density of 0.295 g/cm3. Additional information about the material tested in this investigation can be found in the “Specimen Description” section contained in Chapter 1. The nomenclatures used in this study is presented in Chapter 1. In addition to designing and implementing triaxial compression tests capable of up to 2,000 psi. confining pressure (minor principal stress) and roughly 13,000 psi. in axial pressure (major principal stress), a pure tension test was designed and conducted on the foam material. The purpose of this pure tension test was to obtain maximum tensile stress values to enhance the characterization of the shear envelope in the stress space. The sampling procedure and specimen preparation for a standard test can be found in the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 5379/ D 5379 – 93. The above tests mentioned and

  14. The difference in passive tension applied to the muscles composing the hamstrings - Comparison among muscles using ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Nishishita, Satoru; Kobayashi, Takuya; Fujita, Kosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ibuki, Satoko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-08-01

    Hamstring muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in sports. Therefore, to investigate the factors influencing hamstring strain, the differences in passive tension applied to the hamstring muscles at the same knee and hip positions as during terminal swing phase would be useful information. In addition, passive tension applied to the hamstrings could change with anterior or posterior tilt of the pelvis. The aims of this study were to investigate the difference in passive tension applied to the individual muscles composing the hamstrings during passive elongation, and to investigate the effect of pelvic position on passive tension. Fifteen healthy men volunteered for this study. The subject lay supine with the angle of the trunk axis to the femur of their dominant leg at 70° and the knee angle of the dominant leg fixed at 30° flexion. In three pelvic positions ("Non-Tilt", "Anterior-Tilt" and "Posterior-Tilt"), the shear elastic modulus of each muscle composing the hamstrings (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris) was measured using an ultrasound shear wave elastography. The shear elastic modulus of semimembranosus was significantly higher than the others. Shear elastic modulus of the hamstrings in Anterior-Tilt was significantly higher than in Posterior-Tilt. Passive tension applied to semimembranosus is higher than the other muscles when the hamstring muscle is passively elongated, and passive tension applied to the hamstrings increases with anterior tilt of the pelvis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maxillary reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown James

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the various defects that occur with maxillectomy with a full review of the literature and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques described. Reconstruction of the maxilla can be relatively simple for the standard low maxillectomy that does not involve the orbital floor (Class 2. In this situation the structure of the face is less damaged and the there are multiple reconstructive options for the restoration of the maxilla and dental alveolus. If the maxillectomy includes the orbit (Class 4 then problems involving the eye (enopthalmos, orbital dystopia, ectropion and diplopia are avoided which simplifies the reconstruction. Most controversy is associated with the maxillectomy that involves the orbital floor and dental alveolus (Class 3. A case is made for the use of the iliac crest with internal oblique as an ideal option but there are other methods, which may provide a similar result. A multidisciplinary approach to these patients is emphasised which should include a prosthodontist with a special expertise for these defects.

  16. Impedance and modulus spectroscopic study of nano hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogiya, B. V.; Jethava, H. O.; Tank, K. P.; Raviya, V. R.; Joshi, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2, HAP) is the main inorganic component of the hard tissues in bones and also important material for orthopedic and dental implant applications. Nano HAP is of great interest due to its various bio-medical applications. In the present work the nano HAP was synthesized by using surfactant mediated approach. Structure and morphology of the synthesized nano HAP was examined by the Powder XRD and TEM. Impedance study was carried out on pelletized sample in a frequency range of 100Hz to 20MHz at room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and a.c. conductivity with frequency of applied field was studied. The Nyquist plot as well as modulus plot was drawn. The Nyquist plot showed two semicircle arcs, which indicated the presence of grain and grain boundary effect in the sample. The typical behavior of the Nyquist plot was represented by equivalent circuit having two parallel RC combinations in series.

  17. Low elastic modulus titanium–nickel scaffolds for bone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Huifeng; Ruan, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    The superelastic nature of repeating the human bones is crucial to the ideal artificial biomedical implants to ensure smooth load transfer and foster the ingrowth of new bone tissues. Three dimensional interconnected porous TiNi scaffolds, which have the tailorable porous structures with micro-hole, were fabricated by slurry immersing with polymer sponge and sintering method. The crystallinity and phase composition of scaffolds were studied by X-ray diffraction. The pore morphology, size and distribution in the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The porosity ranged from 65 to 72%, pore size was 250–500 μm. Compressive strength and elastic modulus of the scaffolds were ∼ 73 MPa and ∼ 3GPa respectively. The above pore structural and mechanical properties are similar to those of cancellous bone. In the initial cell culture test, osteoblasts adhered well to the scaffold surface during a short time, and then grew smoothly into the interconnected pore channels. These results indicate that the porous TiNi scaffolds fabricated by this method could be bone substitute materials. - Highlights: • A novel approach for the fabrication of porous TiNi scaffolds • Macroporous structures are replicated from the polymer sponge template. • The pore characteristics and mechanical properties of TiNi scaffolds agree well with the requirement of trabecular bone. • Cytocompatibility of TiNi scaffolds is assessed, and it closely associated with pore property

  18. Application of diffusion barriers to high modulus fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, R. D.; Douglas, F. C.; Paradis, E. L.; Galasso, F. S.

    1977-01-01

    Barrier layers were coated onto high-modulus fibers, and nickel and titanium layers were overcoated as simulated matrix materials. The objective was to coat the high-strength fibers with unreactive selected materials without degrading the fibers. The fibers were tungsten, niobium, and single-crystal sapphire, while the materials used as barrier coating layers were Al2O3, Y2O3, TiC, ZrC, WC with 14% Co, and HfO2. An ion-plating technique was used to coat the fibers. The fibers were subjected to high-temperature heat treatments to evaluate the effectiveness of the barrier layer in preventing fiber-metal interactions. Results indicate that Al2O3, Y2O3, and HfO2 can be used as barrier layers to minimize the nickel-tungsten interaction. Further investigation, including thermal cycling tests at 1090 C, revealed that HfO2 is probably the best of the three.

  19. Regional variation in wood modulus of elasticity (stiffness) and modulus of rupture (strength) of planted loblolly pine in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Finto; Lewis Jordan; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter; Richard F. Daniels

    2011-01-01

    Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and specific gravity (SG) are important properties for determining the end-use and value of a piece of lumber. This study addressed the variation in MOE, MOR, and SG with physiographic region, tree height, and wood type. Properties were measured from two static bending samples (dimensions 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm × 406.4...

  20. Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. I. Low-frequency bulk and shear moduli of DC704 and 5-PPE measured by piezoceramic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Nelson, Keith Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present dynamic shear and bulk modulus measurements of supercooled tetraphenyl-tetramethyl-trisiloxane (DC704) and 5-phenyl-4-ether over a range of temperatures close to their glass transition. The data are analyzed and compared in terms of time-temperature superposition (TTS), the relaxation ...

  1. The variation in elastic modulus throughout the compression of foam materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongle; Amirrasouli, B.; Razavi, S.B.; Li, Q.M.; Lowe, T.; Withers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental study of the variation in apparent unloading elastic modulus of polymer (largely elastic), aluminium (largely plastic) and fibre-reinforced cement (quasi-brittle) closed-cell foams throughout uniaxial compression. The results show a characteristic “zero-yield-stress” response and thereafter a rapid increase in unloading modulus during the supposedly “elastic” regime of the compressive stress–strain curve. The unloading modulus then falls with strain due to the localised cell-wall yielding or failure in the pre-collapse stage and the progressive cell crushing in the plateau stage, before rising sharply during the densification stage which is associated with global cell crushing and foam compaction. A finite element model based on the actual 3D cell structure of the aluminium foam imaged by X-ray computed tomography (CT) predicts an approximately linear fall of elastic modulus from zero strain until a band of collapsed cells forms. It shows that the subsequent gradual decrease in modulus is caused by the progressive collapse of cells. The elastic modulus rises sharply after the densification initiation strain has been reached. However, the elastic modulus is still well below that of the constituent material even when the “fully” dense state is approached. This work highlights the fact that the unloading elastic modulus varies throughout compression and challenges the idea that a constant elastic modulus can be applied in a homogenised foam model. It is suggested that the most representative value of elastic modulus may be obtained by extrapolating the measured unloading modulus to zero strain.

  2. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  3. The effect of elastic modulus on ablation catheter contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jon J; Linte, Cristian A; Rettmann, Maryam E; Sun, Deyu; Packer, Douglas L; Robb, Richard A; Holmes, David R

    2015-02-21

    Cardiac ablation consists of navigating a catheter into the heart and delivering RF energy to electrically isolate tissue regions that generate or propagate arrhythmia. Besides the challenges of accurate and precise targeting of the arrhythmic sites within the beating heart, limited information is currently available to the cardiologist regarding intricate electrode-tissue contact, which directly impacts the quality of produced lesions. Recent advances in ablation catheter design provide intra-procedural estimates of tissue-catheter contact force, but the most direct indicator of lesion quality for any particular energy level and duration is the tissue-catheter contact area, and that is a function of not only force, but catheter pose and material elasticity as well. In this experiment, we have employed real-time ultrasound (US) imaging to determine the complete interaction between the ablation electrode and tissue to accurately estimate contact, which will help to better understand the effect of catheter pose and position relative to the tissue. By simultaneously recording tracked position, force reading and US image of the ablation catheter, the differing material properties of polyvinyl alcohol cryogel [1] phantoms are shown to produce varying amounts of tissue depression and contact area (implying varying lesion quality) for equivalent force readings. We have shown that the elastic modulus significantly affects the surface-contact area between the catheter and tissue at any level of contact force. Thus we provide evidence that a prescribed level of catheter force may not always provide sufficient contact area to produce an effective ablation lesion in the prescribed ablation time.

  4. Structural strength assessment of the reconstructed road structure in terms of the loading time and yield criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Grzegorz; Iwański, Marek

    2018-05-01

    This article reports the results of numerical simulations of the stress-strain states in the rebuilt road structure compared to the solutions contained in the Polish Catalogue, with the true characteristics of the layer materials taken into account. In the case analysed, a cold-recycled base layer with foamed bitumen as a recycling agent was used. The presented analysis is complementary to the mandatory in Poland procedure of mechanistic pavement design based on a linear elastic model. The temperature distribution in the road structure was analysed at the reference temperature of 40°C on the asphalt layer surface. The loading time was included in the computer simulations through the use of the classic generalized Maxwell model and thus the stiffness-time history of the layers had to be determined. For this purpose, the dynamic modulus E* tests of the loading time frequency from 0.1 Hz to 20 Hz were carried out, and the yield point was modelled using the Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion calculated on the basis of triaxial compression tests. The analytical solution to the problem was found with ABAQUS. The results demonstrate that the high temperature of asphalt layers and long loading time noticeably reduces the stiffness modulus in those layers. That reduction changes the principal stress levels, which significantly influences the shear stress both in the recycled base layer and in the subgrade soil. Should the yield point be exceeded rapidly in the recycled layer, the horizontal stresses in the asphalt layers will increase and adversely affect the durability of the reconstructed road pavement structure, especially in the zones of slow heavy vehicle traffic.

  5. Estimation of the Young’s modulus of cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young’s modulus provides a measure of the resistance to deformation of an elastic material. In this study, modulus estimations for models of cellulose Iß relied on calculations performed with molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) programs. MM computations used the second generation emp...

  6. Particle size dependence of the Young's modulus of filled polymers: 1. Preliminary experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenberg, P.H.T.; Heikens, D.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results are reported from which it appears that in the case of polymer filled with silane-treated glass beads the Young's modulus is, in accordance with present theory, independent of the particle size of the filler. However, if pure glass beads are used as filler, the Young's modulus

  7. Determination of young's modulus of PZT-influence of cantilever orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Calculation of the resonance frequency of cantilevers fabricated from an elastically anisotropic material requires the use of an effective Young’s modulus. In this paper a technique to determine the appropriate effective Young’s modulus for arbitrary cantilever geometries is introduced. This

  8. E-modulus evolution and its relation to solids formation of pastes from commercial cements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Geiker, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Models for early age E-modulus evolution of cement pastes are available in the literature, but their validation is limited. This paper provides correlated measurements of early age evolution of E-modulus and hydration of pastes from five commercial cements differing in limestone content. A recently...

  9. Resilient modulus characteristics of soil subgrade with geopolymer additive in peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nasuhi; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Rahayu, Wiwik

    2017-06-01

    Resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil are generally very low with high potential of deformation and low bearing capacity. The efforts to improve the peat subgrade resilient modulus characteristics is required, one among them is by adding the geopolymer additive. Geopolymer was made as an alternative to replace portland cement binder in the concrete mix in order to promote environmentally friendly, low shrinkage value, low creep value, and fire resistant material. The use of geopolymer to improve the mechanical properties of peat as a road construction subgrade, hence it becomes important to identify the effect of geopolymer addition on the resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil. This study investigated the addition of 0% - 20% geopolymer content on peat soil derived from Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province. Resilient modulus measurement was performed by using cyclic triaxial test to determine the resilience modulus model as a function of deviator stresses and radial stresses. The test results showed that an increase in radial stresses did not necessarily lead to an increase in modulus resilient, and on the contrary, an increase in deviator stresses led to a decrease in modulus resilient. The addition of geopolymer in peat soil provided an insignificant effect on the increase of resilient modulus value.

  10. A simple model for calculating the bulk modulus of the mixed ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermophysical properties, viz., bulk modulus, molecular force constant, reststrahlen fre- quency and Debye temperature using the three-body potential model. The calculated bulk modulus, from the TBPM model, for the pure end members (NH4Cl and NH4Br) are in agreement with the experimental values, as shown in ...

  11. Compensation of shear waves in photoacoustic tomography with layered acoustic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Robert W; Anastasio, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    An image reconstruction formula is presented for photoacoustic computed tomography that accounts for conversion between longitudinal and shear waves in a planar-layered acoustic medium. We assume the optical absorber that produces the photoacoustic wave field is embedded in a single fluid layer and any elastic solid layers present are separated by one or more fluid layers. The measurement aperture is assumed to be planar. Computer simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate and investigate the proposed reconstruction formula.

  12. SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...

  13. Two-dimensional Shear Wave Elastography on Conventional Ultrasound Scanners with Time Aligned Sequential Tracking (TAST) and Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pengfei; Macdonald, Michael C.; Behler, Russell H.; Lanning, Justin D.; Wang, Michael H.; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Zhao, Heng; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography presents 2D quantitative shear elasticity maps of tissue, which are clinically useful for both focal lesion detection and diffuse disease diagnosis. Realization of 2D shear wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners, however, is challenging due to the low tracking pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) of these systems. While some clinical and research platforms support software beamforming and plane wave imaging with high PRF, the majority of current clinical ultrasound systems do not have the software beamforming capability, which presents a critical challenge for translating the 2D shear wave elastography technique from laboratory to clinical scanners. To address this challenge, this paper presents a Time Aligned Sequential Tracking (TAST) method for shear wave tracking on conventional ultrasound scanners. TAST takes advantage of the parallel beamforming capability of conventional systems and realizes high PRF shear wave tracking by sequentially firing tracking vectors and aligning shear wave data in the temporal direction. The Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) technique was used to simultaneously produce multiple shear wave sources within the field-of-view (FOV) to enhance shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and facilitate robust reconstructions of 2D elasticity maps. TAST and CUSE were realized on a conventional ultrasound scanner (the General Electric LOGIQ E9). A phantom study showed that the shear wave speed measurements from the LOGIQ E9 were in good agreement to the values measured from other 2D shear wave imaging technologies. An inclusion phantom study showed that the LOGIQ E9 had comparable performance to the Aixplorer (Supersonic Imagine) in terms of bias and precision in measuring different sized inclusions. Finally, in vivo case analysis of a breast with a malignant mass, and a liver from a healthy subject demonstrated the feasibility of using the LOGIQ E9 for in vivo 2D shear wave

  14. Size effects in shear interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    GARNIER, J

    2001-01-01

    In physical modelling (centrifuge tests, calibration chambers, laboratory tests), the size of the soil particles may not be negligible when compared to the dimensions of the models. Size effects may so disturb the response of the models and the experimental data obtained on these cannot be extended to true scale conditions. Different tests have been performed to study and quantify the size effects that may happen in shear interfaces between soils and structures : modified shear box tests, pul...

  15. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  16. Shear Alfven waves in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieras, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    Shear Alfven waves in an axisymmetric tokamak are examined within the framework of the linearized ideal MHD equations. Properties of the shear Alfven continuous spectrum are studied both analytically and numerically. Implications of these results in regards to low frequency rf heating of toroidally confined plasmas are discussed. The structure of the spatial singularities associated with these waves is determined. A reduced set of ideal MHD equations is derived to describe these waves in a very low beta plasma

  17. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified...... matrix density, and increased microdamage. We could not detect any change in the effective Young's modulus of the calcified matrix in the bisphosphonate treated groups. The observed increase in apparent Young's modulus was due to increased bone mass and altered trabecular architecture rather than changes...... in the calcified matrix modulus. We hypothesize that the expected increase in the Young's modulus of the calcified matrix due to the increased calcified matrix density was counteracted by the accumulation of microdamage. Udgivelsesdato: 2004 May...

  18. E-modulus evolution and its relation to solids formation of pastes from commercial cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Geiker, Mette; Figueiras, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    Models for early age E-modulus evolution of cement pastes are available in the literature, but their validation is limited. This paper provides correlated measurements of early age evolution of E-modulus and hydration of pastes from five commercial cements differing in limestone content. A recently developed methodology allowed continuous monitoring of E-modulus from the time of casting. The methodology is a variant of classic resonant frequency methods, which are based on determination of the first resonant frequency of a composite beam containing the material. The hydration kinetics — and thus the rate of formation of solids — was determined using chemical shrinkage measurements. For the cements studied similar relationships between E-modulus and chemical shrinkage were observed for comparable water-to-binder ratio. For commercial cements it is suggested to model the E-modulus evolution based on the amount of binder reacted, instead of the degree of hydration.

  19. A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0–1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the material's first week of age. To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on random distributions of coarse aggregate, mortar, and air void phases. The model predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements of tensile modulus at early age.

  20. Proposal of Design Formulae for Equivalent Elasticity of Masonry Structures Made with Bricks of Low Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ridwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bricks of low elastic modulus are occasionally used in some developing countries, such as Indonesia and India. Most of the previous research efforts focused on masonry structures built with bricks of considerably high elastic modulus. The objective of this study is to quantify the equivalent elastic modulus of lower-stiffness masonry structures, when the mortar has a higher modulus of elasticity than the bricks, by employing finite element (FE simulations and adopting the homogenization technique. The reported numerical simulations adopted the two-dimensional representative volume elements (RVEs using quadrilateral elements with four nodes. The equivalent elastic moduli of composite elements with various bricks and mortar were quantified. The numerically estimated equivalent elastic moduli from the FE simulations were verified using previously established test data. Hence, a new simplified formula for the calculation of the equivalent modulus of elasticity of such masonry structures is proposed in the present study.

  1. Assessment of Characteristic Function Modulus of Vibroacoustic Signal Given a Limit State Parameter of Diagnosed Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Naumenko, A. P.; Kudryavtseva, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Improvement of distinguishing criteria, determining defects of machinery and mechanisms, by vibroacoustic signals is a recent problem for technical diagnostics. The work objective is assessment of instantaneous values by methods of statistical decision making theory and risk of regulatory values of characteristic function modulus. The modulus of the characteristic function is determined given a fixed parameter of the characteristic function. It is possible to determine the limits of the modulus, which correspond to different machine’s condition. The data of the modulus values are used as diagnostic features in the vibration diagnostics and monitoring systems. Using such static decision-making methods as: minimum number of wrong decisions, maximum likelihood, minimax, Neumann-Pearson characteristic function modulus limits are determined, separating conditions of a diagnosed object.

  2. The study of stiffness modulus values for AC-WC pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, AS; Muis, Z. A.; Iskandar, T. D.

    2018-02-01

    One of the parameters of the asphalt mixture in order for the strength and durability to be achieved as required is the stress-and-strain showing the stiffness of a material. Stiffness modulus is a very necessary factor that will affect the performance of asphalt pavements. If the stiffness modulus value decreases there will be a cause of aging asphalt pavement crack easily when receiving a heavy load. The high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete causes more stiff and resistant to bending. The stiffness modulus value of an asphalt mixture material can be obtained from the theoretical (indirect methods) and laboratory test results (direct methods). For the indirect methods used Brown & Brunton method, and Shell Bitumen method; while for the direct methods used the UMATTA tool. This study aims to determine stiffness modulus values for AC-WC pavement. The tests were conducted in laboratory that used 3 methods, i.e. Brown & Brunton Method, Shell Bitumen Method and Marshall Test as a substitute tool for the UMATTA tool. Hotmix asphalt made from type AC-WC with pen 60/70 using a mixture of optimum bitumen content was 5.84% with a standard temperature variation was 60°C and several variations of temperature that were 30, 40, 50, 70 and 80°C. The stiffness modulus value results obtained from Brown & Brunton Method, Shell Bitumen Method and Marshall Test which were 1374,93 Mpa, 235,45 Mpa dan 254,96 Mpa. The stiffness modulus value decreases with increasing temperature of the concrete asphalt. The stiffness modulus value from the Bitumen Shell method and the Marshall Test has a relatively similar value.The stiffness modulus value from the Brown & Brunton method is greater than the Bitumen Shell method and the Marshall Test, but can not measure the stiffness modulus value at temperature above 80°C.

  3. Oscillatory shear response of moisture barrier coatings containing clay of different shape factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugge, C; Vanderhoek, N; Bousfield, D W

    2011-06-01

    Oscillatory shear rheology of barrier coatings based on dispersed styrene-butadiene latex and clay of various shape factors or aspect ratio has been explored. Barrier performance of these coatings when applied to paperboard has been assessed in terms of water vapour transmission rates and the results related to shape factor, dewatering and critical strain. It has been shown that a system based on clay with high shape factor gives a lower critical strain, dewatering and water vapour transmission rate compared with clays of lower shape factor. The dissipated energy, as calculated from an amplitude sweep, indicated no attractive interaction between clay and latex implying a critical strain that appears to be solely dependent on the shape factor at a constant volume fraction. Particle size distribution was shown to have no effect on the critical strain while coatings of high elasticity exhibited high yield strains as expected. The loss modulus demonstrated strain hardening before the elastic to viscous transition. The loss modulus peak was identified by a maximum strain which was significantly lower for a coating based on clay with a high shape factor. The characteristic elastic time was found to vary between 0.6 and 1.3s. The zero shear viscosity of barrier dispersion coatings were estimated from the characteristic elastic time and the characteristic modulus to be of the order of 25-100 Pa s. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Frequency shift of a crystal quartz resonator in thickness-shear modes induced by an array of hemispherical material units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuantai Hu; Huiliang Hu; Bin Luo; Huan Xue; Jiemin Xie; Ji Wang

    2013-08-01

    A two-dimensional model was established to study the dynamic characteristics of a quartz crystal resonator with the upper surface covered by an array of hemispherical material units. A frequency-dependent equivalent mass ratio was proposed to simulate the effect of the covered units on frequency shift of the resonator system. It was found that the equivalent mass ratio alternately becomes positive or negative with change of shear modulus and radius of each material unit, which indicates that the equivalent mass ratio is strongly related to the vibration mode of the covered loadings. The further numerical results show the cyclical feature in the relationship of frequency shift and shear modulus/radius as expected. The solutions are useful in the analysis of frequency stability of quartz resonators and acoustic wave sensors.

  5. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...

  6. PET reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, F.; Pawitan, Y.; Harrison, R.L.; Lewellen, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    In statistical terms, filtered backprojection can be viewed as smoothed Least Squares (LS). In this paper, the authors report on improvement in LS resolution by: incorporating locally adaptive smoothers, imposing positivity and using statistical methods for optimal selection of the resolution parameter. The resulting algorithm has high computational efficiency relative to more elaborate Maximum Likelihood (ML) type techniques (i.e. EM with sieves). Practical aspects of the procedure are discussed in the context of PET and illustrations with computer simulated and real tomograph data are presented. The relative recovery coefficients for a 9mm sphere in a computer simulated hot-spot phantom range from .3 to .6 when the number of counts ranges from 10,000 to 640,000 respectively. The authors will also present results illustrating the relative efficacy of ML and LS reconstruction techniques

  7. Structure-rheology relationship in a sheared lamellar fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaju, S J; Kumaran, V

    2016-03-01

    The structure-rheology relationship in the shear alignment of a lamellar fluid is studied using a mesoscale model which provides access to the lamellar configurations and the rheology. Based on the equations and free energy functional, the complete set of dimensionless groups that characterize the system are the Reynolds number (ργL(2)/μ), the Schmidt number (μ/ρD), the Ericksen number (μγ/B), the interface sharpness parameter r, the ratio of the viscosities of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts μ(r), and the ratio of the system size and layer spacing (L/λ). Here, ρ and μ are the fluid density and average viscosity, γ is the applied strain rate, D is the coefficient of diffusion, B is the compression modulus, μ(r) is the maximum difference in the viscosity of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts divided by the average viscosity, and L is the system size in the cross-stream direction. The lattice Boltzmann method is used to solve the concentration and momentum equations for a two dimensional system of moderate size (L/λ=32) and for a low Reynolds number, and the other parameters are systematically varied to examine the qualitative features of the structure and viscosity evolution in different regimes. At low Schmidt numbers where mass diffusion is faster than momentum diffusion, there is fast local formation of randomly aligned domains with "grain boundaries," which are rotated by the shear flow to align along the extensional axis as time increases. This configuration offers a high resistance to flow, and the layers do not align in the flow direction even after 1000 strain units, resulting in a viscosity higher than that for an aligned lamellar phase. At high Schmidt numbers where momentum diffusion is fast, the shear flow disrupts layers before they are fully formed by diffusion, and alignment takes place by the breakage and reformation of layers by shear, resulting in defects (edge dislocations) embedded in a background of nearly aligned layers

  8. Shear wave elastography using ultrasound: effects of anisotropy and stretch stress on a tissue phantom and reactive lymph nodes in the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Young Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the anisotropy and the static stretch stress of the cervical musculature influence the measured shear modulus in a tissue-mimicking phantom and in cervical lymph nodes in vivo by using shear wave elastography (SWE. Methods SWE was performed on a phantom using a pig muscle and on the middle jugular cervical lymph nodes in six volunteers. Tissue elasticity was quantified using the shear modulus and a supersonic shear wave imaging technique. For the phantom study, first, the optimal depth for measurement was determined, and then, SWE was performed in parallel and perpendicular to the muscle fiber orientation with and without strain stress. For the in vivo study, SWE was performed on the cervical lymph nodes in parallel and perpendicular to the sternocleidomastoid muscle fiber direction with and without neck stretching. The mean values of the shear modulus (meanSM were then analyzed. Results In the phantom study, the measured depth significantly influenced the meanSM with a sharp decrease at the depth of 1.5 cm (P<0.001. Strain stress increased the meanSM, irrespective of the muscle fiber orientation (P<0.001. In the in vivo study, the meanSM values obtained in parallel to the muscle fiber orientation were greater than those obtained perpendicular to the fiber orientation, irrespective of the stretch stress (P<0.001. However, meanSM was affected significantly by the stretch stress parallel to the muscle fiber orientation (P<0.001. Conclusion The anisotropic nature of the cervical musculature and the applied stretch stress explain the variability of the SWE measurements and should be identified before applying SWE for the interpretation of the measured shear modulus values.

  9. Extension and reconstruction theorems for the Urysohn universal metric space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubiś, Wieslaw; Rubin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2010), s. 1-29 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Urysohn space * bilipschitz homeomorphism * modulus of continuity * reconstruction theorem * extension theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.265, year: 2010 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/140544

  10. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed in uncracked concrete.Proposals have been made on how the derived standard solutions may be applied to more complicated cases, such as continuous beams, beams......The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model...

  11. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  12. Modeling of shear wall buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A K [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1984-05-01

    Many nuclear power plant buildings, for example, the auxiliary building, have reinforced concrete shear walls as the primary lateral load resisting system. Typically, these walls have low height to length ratio, often less than unity. Such walls exhibit marked shear lag phenomenon which would affect their bending stiffness and the overall stress distribution in the building. The deformation and the stress distribution in walls have been studied which is applicable to both the short and the tall buildings. The behavior of the wall is divided into two parts: the symmetric flange action and the antisymmetry web action. The latter has two parts: the web shear and the web bending. Appropriate stiffness equations have been derived for all the three actions. These actions can be synthesized to solve any nonlinear cross-section. Two specific problems, that of lateral and torsional loadings of a rectangular box, have been studied. It is found that in short buildings shear lag plays a very important role. Any beam type formulation which either ignores shear lag or includes it in an idealized form is likely to lead to erroneous results. On the other hand a rigidity type approach with some modifications to the standard procedures would yield nearly accurate answers.

  13. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy On This Page What is breast reconstruction? How do surgeons use implants to reconstruct a woman’s breast? How do surgeons ...

  14. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. Getting breast implants does not take as long as breast reconstruction ...

  15. Reliable measurement of elastic modulus of cells by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhoulong; Ngan, Alfonso H W; Tang, Bin; Wang, Anxun

    2012-01-01

    The elastic modulus of an oral cancer cell line UM1 is investigated by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope with a flat-ended tip. The commonly used Hertzian method gives apparent elastic modulus which increases with the loading rate, indicating strong effects of viscoelasticity. On the contrary, a rate-jump method developed for viscoelastic materials gives elastic modulus values which are independent of the rate-jump magnitude. The results show that the rate-jump method can be used as a standard protocol for measuring elastic stiffness of living cells, since the measured values are intrinsic properties of the cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. On the common modulus attack into the LUC4,6 cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tze Jin; Said, Mohd Rushdan Md; Othman, Mohamed; Koo, Lee Feng

    2015-05-01

    The LUC4,6 cryptosystem is a system analogy with RSA cryptosystem and extended from LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems. The process of encryption and decryption are derived from the fourth order linear recurrence sequence and based on Lucas function. This paper reports an investigation into the common modulus attack on the LUC4,6 cryptosystem. In general, the common modulus attack will be succeeded if the sender sends the plaintext to two users used same RSA-modulus and both of encryption keys of them are relatively prime to each other. However, based on the characteristics of high order Lucas sequence, the LUC4,6 cryptosystem is unattackable

  17. Young's modulus of individual ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Dayong; Tian, Chunguang; Liu, Qingfei; Zhao, Man; Qin, Jieming; Hou, Jianhua; Gao, Shang; Liang, Qingcheng; Zhao, Jianxun

    2014-01-01

    We used a contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the mechanical properties of an individual ZnO nanowire in the open air. It is noteworthy that the Young's modulus can be determined by an AFM tip compressing a single nanowire on a rigid substrate, which can bring more repeatability and accuracy for the measurements. In particular, the calculated radial Young's modulus of ZnO nanowires is consistent with the data of ZnO bulks and thin films. We also present the Young's modulus with different diameters, and all these are discussed deeply

  18. Reliable measurement of elastic modulus of cells by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhoulong

    2012-04-01

    The elastic modulus of an oral cancer cell line UM1 is investigated by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope with a flat-ended tip. The commonly used Hertzian method gives apparent elastic modulus which increases with the loading rate, indicating strong effects of viscoelasticity. On the contrary, a rate-jump method developed for viscoelastic materials gives elastic modulus values which are independent of the rate-jump magnitude. The results show that the rate-jump method can be used as a standard protocol for measuring elastic stiffness of living cells, since the measured values are intrinsic properties of the cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Ultrasound viscoelasticity assessment using an adaptive torsional shear wave propagation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouared, Abderrahmane [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9, Canada and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Kazemirad, Siavash; Montagnon, Emmanuel [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9 (Canada); Cloutier, Guy, E-mail: guy.cloutier@umontreal.ca [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Different approaches have been used in dynamic elastography to assess mechanical properties of biological tissues. Most techniques are based on a simple inversion based on the measurement of the shear wave speed to assess elasticity, whereas some recent strategies use more elaborated analytical or finite element method (FEM) models. In this study, a new method is proposed for the quantification of both shear storage and loss moduli of confined lesions, in the context of breast imaging, using adaptive torsional shear waves (ATSWs) generated remotely with radiation pressure. Methods: A FEM model was developed to solve the inverse wave propagation problem and obtain viscoelastic properties of interrogated media. The inverse problem was formulated and solved in the frequency domain and its robustness to noise and geometric constraints was evaluated. The proposed model was validated in vitro with two independent rheology methods on several homogeneous and heterogeneous breast tissue-mimicking phantoms over a broad range of frequencies (up to 400 Hz). Results: Viscoelastic properties matched benchmark rheology methods with discrepancies of 8%–38% for the shear modulus G′ and 9%–67% for the loss modulus G″. The robustness study indicated good estimations of storage and loss moduli (maximum mean errors of 19% on G′ and 32% on G″) for signal-to-noise ratios between 19.5 and 8.5 dB. Larger errors were noticed in the case of biases in lesion dimension and position. Conclusions: The ATSW method revealed that it is possible to estimate the viscoelasticity of biological tissues with torsional shear waves when small biases in lesion geometry exist.

  20. Rheological Investigation on the Effect of Shear and Time Dependent Behavior of Waxy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japper-Jaafar A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheological measurements are essential in transporting crude oil, especially for waxy crude oil. Several rheological measurements have been conducted to determine various rheological properties of waxy crude oil including the viscosity, yield strength, wax appearance temperature (WAT, wax disappearance temperature (WDT, storage modulus and loss modulus, amongst others, by using controlled stress rheometers. However, a procedure to determine the correct parameters for rheological measurements is still unavailable in the literature. The paper aims to investigate the effect of shear and time dependent behaviours of waxy crude oil during rheological measurements. It is expected that the preliminary work could lead toward a proper rheological measurement guideline for reliable rheological measurement of waxy crude oil.

  1. FEM Simulation of Incremental Shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosochowski, Andrzej; Olejnik, Lech

    2007-01-01

    A popular way of producing ultrafine grained metals on a laboratory scale is severe plastic deformation. This paper introduces a new severe plastic deformation process of incremental shear. A finite element method simulation is carried out for various tool geometries and process kinematics. It has been established that for the successful realisation of the process the inner radius of the channel as well as the feeding increment should be approximately 30% of the billet thickness. The angle at which the reciprocating die works the material can be 30 deg. . When compared to equal channel angular pressing, incremental shear shows basic similarities in the mode of material flow and a few technological advantages which make it an attractive alternative to the known severe plastic deformation processes. The most promising characteristic of incremental shear is the possibility of processing very long billets in a continuous way which makes the process more industrially relevant

  2. SHEAR ACCELERATION IN EXPANDING FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, F. M. [ZAH, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Duffy, P., E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: peter.duffy@ucd.ie [University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2016-12-10

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi–Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge line, and limb-brightening).

  3. Dramatic Enhancement of Graphene Oxide/Silk Nanocomposite Membranes: Increasing Toughness, Strength, and Young's modulus via Annealing of Interfacial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxian; Ma, Ruilong; Hu, Kesong; Kim, Sunghan; Fang, Guangqiang; Shao, Zhengzhong; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2016-09-21

    We demonstrate that stronger and more robust nacre-like laminated GO (graphene oxide)/SF (silk fibroin) nanocomposite membranes can be obtained by selectively tailoring the interfacial interactions between "bricks"-GO sheets and "mortar"-silk interlayers via controlled water vapor annealing. This facial annealing process relaxes the secondary structure of silk backbones confined between flexible GO sheets. The increased mobility leads to a significant increase in ultimate strength (by up to 41%), Young's modulus (up to 75%) and toughness (up to 45%). We suggest that local silk recrystallization is initiated in the proximity to GO surface by the hydrophobic surface regions serving as nucleation sites for β-sheet domains formation and followed by SF assembly into nanofibrils. Strong hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions between GO layers with SF nanofibrils result in enhanced shear strength of layered packing. This work presented here not only gives a better understanding of SF and GO interfacial interactions, but also provides insight on how to enhance the mechanical properties for the nacre-mimic nanocomposites by focusing on adjusting the delicate interactions between heterogeneous "brick" and adaptive "mortar" components with water/temperature annealing routines.

  4. A film-based wall shear stress sensor for wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amili, Omid; Soria, Julio

    2011-07-01

    In wall-bounded turbulent flows, determination of wall shear stress is an important task. The main objective of the present work is to develop a sensor which is capable of measuring surface shear stress over an extended region applicable to wall-bounded turbulent flows. This sensor, as a direct method for measuring wall shear stress, consists of mounting a thin flexible film on the solid surface. The sensor is made of a homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible material. The geometry and mechanical properties of the film are measured, and particles with the nominal size of 11 μm in diameter are embedded on the film's surface to act as markers. An optical technique is used to measure the film deformation caused by the flow. The film has typically deflection of less than 2% of the material thickness under maximum loading. The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted by changing the thickness of the layer or the shear modulus of the film's material. The paper reports the sensor fabrication, static and dynamic calibration procedure, and its application to a fully developed turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers in the range of 90,000-130,000 based on the bulk velocity and channel full height. The results are compared to alternative wall shear stress measurement methods.

  5. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  6. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Denis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE for classification of breast masses.CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results.Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s. Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC.CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  7. Reconstruction formula for a 3-d phaseless inverse scattering problem for the Schrodinger equation

    OpenAIRE

    Klibanov, Michael V.; Romanov, Vladimir G.

    2014-01-01

    The inverse scattering problem of the reconstruction of the unknown potential with compact support in the 3-d Schr\\"odinger equation is considered. Only the modulus of the scattering complex valued wave field is known, whereas the phase is unknown. It is shown that the unknown potential can be reconstructed via the inverse Radon transform. Therefore, a long standing problem posed in 1977 by K. Chadan and P.C. Sabatier in their book "Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory" is solved.

  8. Sacral pressure sore reconstruction – the pedicled superior gluteal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pressure sore reconstruction has always been challenging. Immobile patients are prone to develop pressure sores from unre- lieved pressure on tissue over the sacral area, with shear, friction, moisture and malnutrition as contributing factors. Up to one-third of immobilised patients in long-term care facilities will develop.

  9. Resilient modulus for unbound granular materials and subgrade soils in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic Empirical (ME pavement design methods started to gain attention especially the last couple of years in Egypt and the Middle East. One of the challenges facing the spread of these methods in Egypt is lack of advanced properties of local soil and asphalt, which are needed as input data in ME design. Resilient modulus (Mr for example is an important engineering property that expresses the elastic behavior of soil/unbound granular materials (UGMs under cyclic traffic loading for ME design. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resilient modulus data for soil/UGMs in Egypt, a comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted to measure resilient modulus of typical UGMs and subgrade soils typically used in pavement construction in Egypt. The factors that affect the resilient modulus of soil/UGMs were reviewed, studied and discussed. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the most well-known Mr Prediction models for the locally investigated materials was investigated.

  10. Short cellulosic fiber/starch acetate composites — micromechanical modeling of Young’s modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Joffe, Roberts; Peltola, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    This study is presented to predict the Young’s modulus of injection-molded short cellulosic fiber/plasticized starch acetate composites with variable fiber and plasticizer content. A modified rule of mixtures model is applied where the effect of porosity is included, and where the fiber weight...... (density and Young’s modulus). The measured Young’s modulus of the composites varies in the range 1.1—8.3 GPa, and this is well predicted by the model calculations. A property diagram is presented to be used for the tailor-making of composites with Young’s modulus in the range 0.2—10 GPa....

  11. Failure Modes of a Unidirectional Ultra-High-Modulus Carbon-Fiber/Carbon-Matrix Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaldivar, R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effects of various microstructural features on the in situ, room-temperature tensile fracture behavior of an ultra-high-modulus, unidirectional carbon/carbon (C/C...

  12. Young's modulus of defective graphene sheet from intrinsic thermal vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Siby; Mrudul, M S; Ajith, K M; Valsakumar, M C

    2016-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to establish a relation between thermally excited ripples and Young's modulus of defective graphene sheet within a range of temperatures. The presence of the out-of-plane intrinsic ripples stabilizes the graphene membranes and the mechanical stability is analyzed by means of thermal mean square vibration amplitude in the long wavelength regime. We observed that the presence of vacancy and Stone-Wales (SW) defects reduces the Young's modulus of graphene sheets. Graphene sheet with vacancy defects possess superior Young's modulus to that of a sheet with Stone-Wales defects. The obtained room temperature Young's modulus of pristine and defective graphene sheet is ∼ 1 TPa, which is comparable to the results of earlier experimental and atomistic simulation studies. (paper)

  13. Wind Diffusivity Current, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  14. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  15. Variation of the Young's modulus with plastic strain applying to elastoplastic software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morestin, F.; Boivin, M.

    1993-01-01

    Work hardening of steel involves modifications of the elastic properties of the material, for instance, an increase of its yield stress. It may be also the cause of an appreciable decrease of the Young's modulus. This property decreases as plastic strain increases. Experiments with a microcomputer controlled tensile test machine indicated that diminution could reach more than 10% of the initial value, after only 5% of plastic strain. In spite of this fact, lots of elastoplastic softwares don't combine the decrease of the Young's modulus with plastification though it may involve obvious differences among results. As an application we have developed a software which computes the deformation of steel sheet in press forming, after springback. This software takes into account the decrease of the Young's modulus and its results are very close to experimental values. Quite arbitrarily, we noticed a recovery of the Young's modulus of plastified specimens after few days but not for all steels tested. (author)

  16. Young's Modulus of Wurtzite and Zinc Blende InP Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaevskiy, Mikhail; Geydt, Pavel; Lähderanta, Erkki; Alekseev, Prokhor; Haggrén, Tuomas; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Jiang, Hua; Lipsanen, Harri

    2017-06-14

    The Young's modulus of thin conical InP nanowires with either wurtzite or mixed "zinc blende/wurtzite" structures was measured. It has been shown that the value of Young's modulus obtained for wurtzite InP nanowires (E [0001] = 130 ± 30 GPa) was similar to the theoretically predicted value for the wurtzite InP material (E [0001] = 120 ± 10 GPa). The Young's modulus of mixed "zinc blende/wurtzite" InP nanowires (E [111] = 65 ± 10 GPa) appeared to be 40% less than the theoretically predicted value for the zinc blende InP material (E [111] = 110 GPa). An advanced method for measuring the Young's modulus of thin and flexible nanostructures is proposed. It consists of measuring the flexibility (the inverse of stiffness) profiles 1/k(x) by the scanning probe microscopy with precise control of loading force in nanonewton range followed by simulations.

  17. Design values of resilient modulus of stabilized and non-stabilized base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The primary objective of this research study is to determine design value ranges for typical base materials, as allowed by LADOTD specifications, through laboratory tests with respect to resilient modulus and other parameters used by pavement design ...

  18. The creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to obtain the creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance derived from the concept of mechanical resistance for the constitutive equation of a class of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

  19. Hardness and Elastic Modulus of Titanium Nitride Coatings Prepared by Pirac Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siyuan; Wu, Shoujun; Zhang, Guoyun; Zhang, Weiguo

    In the present work, hardness and elastic modulus of a titanium nitride coatings prepared on Ti6Al4V by powder immersion reaction-assisted coating (PIRAC) are tested and comparatively studied with a physical vapor deposition (PVD) TiN coating. Surface hardness of the PIRAC coatings is about 11GPa, much lower than that of PVD coating of 22GPa. The hardness distribution profile from surface to substrate of the PVD coatings is steeply decreased from ˜22GPa to ˜4.5GPa of the Ti6Al4V substrate. The PIRAC coatings show a gradually decreasing hardness distribution profile. Elastic modulus of the PVD coating is about 426GPa. The PIRAC coatings show adjustable elastic modulus. Elastic modulus of the PIRAC coatings prepared at 750∘C for 24h and that at 800∘C for 8h is about 234 and 293GPa, respectively.

  20. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  1. The dimensional stability and elastic modulus of cemented simulant Winfrith reactor (SGHWR) sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, T.R.; Lee, D.J.

    1985-12-01

    Dimensional changes and elastic modulus have been monitored on cemented simulant sludge stored in various environments. Specimens prepared using a blended cement show no serious detrimental effects during sealed storage, underwater storage or freeze/thaw cycling. (author)

  2. Young's modulus of a copper-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductive wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Moulder, J.C.; Austin, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Young's modulus was determined for a 0.6-mm-dia niobium-titanium superconductive wire. Two methods were used: continuous-wave-resonance and laser-pulse-excitation. Young's moduli were also determined for the components - copper and Nb-Ti - in both wire and bulk forms. Some mechanical-deformation effects on Young's modulus were also measured. From the component' elastic moduli, that of the composite was predicted accurately by a simple rule-of-mixtures relationship

  3. A two-crown finite element technique for the determination of tearing modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, X.Z.; Combescure, A.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of approach to the subject of crack instability for the design of structures containing cracks has increased considerably over the last few years. The tearing modulus theory recently enunciated by Paris and co-workers has emerged as one of the leading criterions for stable crack growth and for instability, and the estimation of T termed Tearing modulus in the theory has since been extensively investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Analytical methods exist for calculating the tearing modulus of various crack configurations in simple-shaped structures under certain loading conditions. However, for arbitrary structures under general loading, more sophisticated calculation techniques are required. Extending the virtual crack extension method introduced independently by Hellen and Parks, a new numerical approach for calculating the tearing modulus is presented hereafter and put in a form suitable for the instability analysis of structures containing one single crack or several interacting cracks. As it is well-known that the calculation of the energy release rate in elasticity by the virtual crack extension method is related to a stiffness derivative to which only a small region around the crack tip has a contribution, the technique described in the paper shows that it would be reasonable to evaluate the tearing modulus, or rather, the second derivative of potential energy with respect to the crack length, by means of two stiffness derivative calculations in two crowns around the crack tip. In particular, when one crown is strictly included in another one, computation is largely curtailed at this point with some saving of computer time, but a very accurate value of tearing modulus is obtained. As an interesting consequence, an another expression of the tearing modulus is carried out. In Section 4: the classical tearing modulus is proved to be precisely equivalent to a line integral which is independent of integration path. Numerical example

  4. Young modulus and internal friction of a fiber-reinforced composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Lei, M.; Austin, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    By a kilohertz-frequency resonance method we determined the Young modulus and internal friction of a uniaxially fiber-reinforced composite. The composite comprised glass fibers in an epoxy-resin matrix. We studied three fiber contents: 0, 41, and 49 vol %. The Young modulus fit a linear rule of mixture. The internal friction fit a classical free-damped-oscillator model where one assumes a linear rule of mixture for three quantities: mass, force constant, and mechanical-resistance constant

  5. Geometrical modulus of a casting and its influence on solidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Havlicek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Object: The work analyses the importance of the known criterion for evaluating the controlled solidification of castings, so called geometrical modulus defined by N. Chvorinov as the first one. Geometrical modulus influences the solidification process. The modulus has such specificity that during the process of casting formation it is not a constant but its initial value decreases with the solidification progress because the remaining melt volume can decrease faster than its cooling surface.Methodology: The modulus is determined by a simple calculation from the ratio of the casting volume after pouring the metal in the mould to the cooled mould surface. The solidified metal volume and the cooled surface too are changed during solidification. That calculation is much more complicated. Results were checked up experimentally by measuring the temperatures in the cross-section of heavy steel castings during cooling them.Results: The given experimental results have completed the original theoretical calculations by Chvorinov and recent researches done with use of numerical calculations. The contribution explains how the geometrical modulus together with the thermal process in the casting causes the higher solidification rate in the axial part of the casting cross-section and shortening of solidification time. Practical implications: Change of the geometrical modulus negatively affects the casting internal quality. Melt feeding by capillary filtration in the dendritic network in the casting central part decreases and in such a way the shrinkage porosity volume increases. State of stress character in the casting is changed too and it increases.

  6. Modular correction method of bending elastic modulus based on sliding behavior of contact point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhichao; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Qixun; Liu, Changyi

    2015-01-01

    During the three-point bending test, the sliding behavior of the contact point between the specimen and supports was observed, the sliding behavior was verified to affect the measurements of both deflection and span length, which directly affect the calculation of the bending elastic modulus. Based on the Hertz formula to calculate the elastic contact deformation and the theoretical calculation of the sliding behavior of the contact point, a theoretical model to precisely describe the deflection and span length as a function of bending load was established. Moreover, a modular correction method of bending elastic modulus was proposed, via the comparison between the corrected elastic modulus of three materials (H63 copper–zinc alloy, AZ31B magnesium alloy and 2026 aluminum alloy) and the standard modulus obtained from standard uniaxial tensile tests, the universal feasibility of the proposed correction method was verified. Also, the ratio of corrected to raw elastic modulus presented a monotonically decreasing tendency as the raw elastic modulus of materials increased. (technical note)

  7. Developing the elastic modulus measurement of asphalt concrete using the compressive strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief; Suparma, Latif Budi; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2017-11-01

    Elastic modulus is a fundamental property of an asphalt mixture. An analytical method of the elastic modulus is needed to determine the thickness of flexible pavement. It has a role as one of the input values on a stress-strain analysis in the finite element method. The aim of this study was to develop the measurement of the elastic modulus by using compressive strength testing. This research used a set of specimen mold tool and Delta Dimensi software to record strain changes occurring in the proving ring of compression machine and the specimens. The elastic modulus of the five types of aggregate gradation and 2 types of asphalt were measured at optimum asphalt content. Asphalt Cement 60/70 and Elastomer Modified Asphalt (EMA) were used as a binder. Manufacturing success indicators of the specimens used void-in-the-mix (VIM) 3-5 % criteria. The success rate of the specimen manufacturing was more than 76%. Thus, the procedure and the compressive strength test equipment could be used for the measurement of the elastic modulus. The aggregate gradation and asphalt types significantly affected the elastic modulus of the asphalt concrete.

  8. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  9. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  10. Centrifuges and inertial shear forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.W.A.; Folgering, H.T.E.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Smit, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    Centrifuges are often used in biological studies for 1xg control samples in space flight microgravity experiments as well as in ground based research. Using centrifugation as a tool to generate an Earth like acceleration introduces unwanted inertial shear forces to the sample. Depending on the

  11. A Monte Carlo-shear lag simulation of tensile fracture behaviour of Bi2223 filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S; Ishida, T; Doko, D; Morishita, K; Okuda, H; Oh, S S; Ha, D W; Hojo, M; Tanaka, M; Sugano, M; Osamura, K

    2005-01-01

    The damage evolution in Bi2223 filaments and its influence on critical current was described by a Monte Carlo-shear lag simulation method. The experimentally observed zigzag crack propagation across aligned Bi2223 grains under tensile strain was effectively modelled by including transverse and longitudinal failure modes for individual grains. From the simulated stress-strain curve, the survival parameter (slope of the stress-strain curve normalized with respect to the original Young's modulus) was estimated with increasing applied strain. With this parameter combined with the strain sensitivity of the critical current, the measured change of critical current of the composite tape with applied strain could be described well

  12. Alterations in cancer cell mechanical properties after fluid shear stress exposure: a micropipette aspiration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivukula VK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venkat Keshav Chivukula,1 Benjamin L Krog,1,2 Jones T Nauseef,2 Michael D Henry,2 Sarah C Vigmostad1 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Over 90% of cancer deaths result not from primary tumor development, but from metastatic tumors that arise after cancer cells circulate to distal sites via the circulatory system. While it is known that metastasis is an inefficient process, the effect of hemodynamic parameters such as fluid shear stress (FSS on the viability and efficacy of metastasis is not well understood. Recent work has shown that select cancer cells may be able to survive and possibly even adapt to FSS in vitro. The current research seeks to characterize the effect of FSS on the mechanical properties of suspended cancer cells in vitro. Nontransformed prostate epithelial cells (PrEC LH and transformed prostate cancer cells (PC-3 were used in this study. The Young's modulus was determined using micropipette aspiration. We examined cells in suspension but not exposed to FSS (unsheared and immediately after exposure to high (6,400 dyn/cm2 and low (510 dyn/cm2 FSS. The PrEC LH cells were ~140% stiffer than the PC-3 cells not exposed to FSS. Post-FSS exposure, there was an increase of ~77% in Young's modulus after exposure to high FSS and a ~47% increase in Young's modulus after exposure to low FSS for the PC-3 cells. There was no significant change in the Young's modulus of PrEC LH cells post-FSS exposure. Our findings indicate that cancer cells adapt to FSS, with an increased Young's modulus being one of the adaptive responses, and that this adaptation is specific only to PC-3 cells and is not seen in PrEC LH cells. Moreover, this adaptation appears to be graded in response to the magnitude of FSS experienced by the cancer cells. This is the first study

  13. Adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wenkai; Yin Fangfang

    2004-01-01

    Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) are iterative procedures for reconstructing objects from their projections. It is proven that ART can be computationally efficient by carefully arranging the order in which the collected data are accessed during the reconstruction procedure and adaptively adjusting the relaxation parameters. In this paper, an adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (AART), which adopts the same projection access scheme in multilevel scheme algebraic reconstruction technique (MLS-ART), is proposed. By introducing adaptive adjustment of the relaxation parameters during the reconstruction procedure, one-iteration AART can produce reconstructions with better quality, in comparison with one-iteration MLS-ART. Furthermore, AART outperforms MLS-ART with improved computational efficiency

  14. Effect of hip and knee position on tensor fasciae latae elongation during stretching: An ultrasonic shear wave elastography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Jun; Ikezoe, Tome; Nishishita, Satoru; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Fujita, Kosuke; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2015-12-01

    Decreased flexibility of the tensor fasciae latae is one factor that causes iliotibial band syndrome. Stretching has been used to improve flexibility or tightness of the muscle. However, no studies have investigated the effective stretching position for the tensor fasciae latae using an index to quantify muscle elongation in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hip rotation and knee angle on tensor fasciae latae elongation during stretching in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Twenty healthy men participated in this study. The shear elastic modulus of the tensor fasciae latae was calculated using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Stretching was performed at maximal hip adduction and maximal hip extension in 12 different positions with three hip rotation conditions (neutral, internal, and external rotations) and four knee angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°). Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant main effect for knee angle, but not for hip rotation. The post-hoc test for knee angle indicated that the shear elastic modulus at 90° and 135° were significantly greater than those at 0° and 45°. Our results suggest that adding hip rotation to the stretching position with hip adduction and extension may have less effect on tensor fasciae latae elongation, and that stretching at >90° of knee flexion may effectively elongate the tensor fasciae latae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shear banding, discontinuous shear thickening, and rheological phase transitions in athermally sheared frictionless disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vâgberg, Daniel; Olsson, Peter; Teitel, S.

    2017-05-01

    We report on numerical simulations of simple models of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, massive disks in two dimensions, as a function of packing fraction ϕ , inelasticity of collisions as measured by a parameter Q , and applied uniform shear strain rate γ ˙. Our particles have contact interactions consisting of normally directed elastic repulsion and viscous dissipation, as well as tangentially directed viscous dissipation, but no interparticle Coulombic friction. Mapping the phase diagram in the (ϕ ,Q ) plane for small γ ˙, we find a sharp first-order rheological phase transition from a region with Bagnoldian rheology to a region with Newtonian rheology, and show that the system is always Newtonian at jamming. We consider the rotational motion of particles and demonstrate the crucial importance that the coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom has on the phase structure at small Q (strongly inelastic collisions). At small Q , we show that, upon increasing γ ˙, the sharp Bagnoldian-to-Newtonian transition becomes a coexistence region of finite width in the (ϕ ,γ ˙) plane, with coexisting Bagnoldian and Newtonian shear bands. Crossing this coexistence region by increasing γ ˙ at fixed ϕ , we find that discontinuous shear thickening can result if γ ˙ is varied too rapidly for the system to relax to the shear-banded steady state corresponding to the instantaneous value of γ ˙.

  16. Coherence holography by achromatic 3-D field correlation of generic thermal light with an imaging Sagnac shearing interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dinesh N; Ezawa, Takahiro; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2012-08-27

    We propose a new technique for achromatic 3-D field correlation that makes use of the characteristics of both axial and lateral magnifications of imaging through a common-path Sagnac shearing interferometer. With this technique, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, 3-D image reconstruction of coherence holography with generic thermal light. By virtue of the achromatic axial shearing implemented by the difference in axial magnifications in imaging, the technique enables coherence holography to reconstruct a 3-D object with an axial depth beyond the short coherence length of the thermal light.

  17. Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Owusu Afrifa, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ► Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ► Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.

  18. Change and anisotropy of elastic modulus in sheet metals due to plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Yuki; Arikawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effect of the plastic deformation on the microscopic structure and the anisotropy of the elastic modulus in the cold-rolled steel sheet (SPCC) is investigated. Various uniaxial plastic strains (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%) are applied to the annealed SPCC plates, then, the specimens for the tensile tests are cut out from them. The elastic moduli in the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction to the direction that are pre-strained are measured by the tensile tests. Cyclic tests are performed to investigate the effects of the internal friction caused by the movable dislocations in the elastic deformation. Also, the movable dislocations are quantified by the boundary tracking for TEM micrographs. In addition, the behaviors of the change of the elastic modulus in the solutionized and thermal aged aluminum alloy (A5052) are measured to investigate the effect on the movable dislocations with the amount of the depositions. As a result in SPCC, the elastic moduli of the 0° and 90° directions decrease more than 10% as 10% prestrain applied. On the other hand, the elastic modulus shows the recovery behavior after the strain aging and the annealing. The movable dislocation and the internal friction show a tendency to increase as the plastic strain increases. The marked anisotropy is not observed in the elastic modulus and the internal friction. The elastic modulus in A5052 with many and few depositions decreases similarly by the plastic deformation. From the above, the movable dislocations affect the elastic modulus strongly without depending on the deposition amount. Moreover, the elastic modulus recovers after the plastic deformation by reducing the effects of them with the strain aging and the heat treatment.

  19. Shear instability of a gyroid diblock copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskimergen, Rüya; Mortensen, Kell; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2005-01-01

    -induced destabilization is discussed in relation to analogous observations on shear-induced order-to-order and disorder-to-order transitions observed in related block copolymer systems and in microemulsions. It is discussed whether these phenomena originate in shear-reduced fluctuations or shear-induced dislocations....

  20. Study on shear properties of coral sand under cyclic simple shear condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wendong; Zhang, Yuting; Jin, Yafei

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, the ocean development in our country urgently needs to be accelerated. The construction of artificial coral reefs has become an important development direction. In this paper, experimental studies of simple shear and cyclic simple shear of coral sand are carried out, and the shear properties and particle breakage of coral sand are analyzed. The results show that the coral sand samples show an overall shear failure in the simple shear test, which is more accurate and effective for studying the particle breakage. The shear displacement corresponding to the peak shear stress of the simple shear test is significantly larger than that corresponding to the peak shear stress of the direct shear test. The degree of particle breakage caused by the simple shear test is significantly related to the normal stress level. The particle breakage of coral sand after the cyclic simple shear test obviously increases compared with that of the simple shear test, and universal particle breakage occurs within the whole particle size range. The increasing of the cycle-index under cyclic simple shear test results in continuous compacting of the sample, so that the envelope curve of peak shearing force increases with the accumulated shear displacement.

  1. Quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography for noncontact mechanical characterization of myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Morikawa, Yuka; Tao, Ge; Li, Jiasong; Larina, Irina V.; Martin, James F.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging low-coherence imaging technique that provides noninvasive assessment of tissue biomechanics with high spatial resolution. Among various OCE methods, the capability of quantitative measurement of tissue elasticity is of great importance for tissue characterization and pathology detection across different samples. Here we report a quantitative OCE technique, termed quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (Q-SWI-OCT), which enables noncontact measurement of tissue Young's modulus based on the ultra-fast imaging of the shear wave propagation inside the sample. A focused air-puff device is used to interrogate the tissue with a low-pressure short-duration air stream that stimulates a localized displacement with the scale at micron level. The propagation of this tissue deformation in the form of shear wave is captured by a phase-sensitive OCT system running with the scan of the M-mode imaging over the path of the wave propagation. The temporal characteristics of the shear wave is quantified based on the cross-correlation of the tissue deformation profiles at all the measurement locations, and linear regression is utilized to fit the data plotted in the domain of time delay versus wave propagation distance. The wave group velocity is thus calculated, which results in the quantitative measurement of the Young's modulus. As the feasibility demonstration, experiments are performed on tissuemimicking phantoms with different agar concentrations and the quantified elasticity values with Q-SWI-OCT agree well with the uniaxial compression tests. For functional characterization of myocardium with this OCE technique, we perform our pilot experiments on ex vivo mouse cardiac muscle tissues with two studies, including 1) elasticity difference of cardiac muscle under relaxation and contract conditions and 2) mechanical heterogeneity of the heart introduced by the muscle fiber orientation. Our results suggest the

  2. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  3. Shear failure of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiuli, Eric; Balmforth, Neil; McElwaine, Jim; Schoof, Christian; Hewitt, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Connecting the macroscopic behavior of granular materials with the microstructure remains a great challenge. Recent work connects these scales with a discrete calculus [1]. In this work we generalize this formalism from monodisperse packings of disks to 2D assemblies of arbitrarily shaped grains. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a symmetric, divergence-free stress tensor. Using these tools, we derive, from first-principles and in a mean-field approximation, the entropy of frictional force configurations in the Force Network Ensemble. As a macroscopic consequence of the Coulomb friction condition at contacts, we predict shear failure at a critical shear stress, in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb failure condition well known in engineering. Results are compared with numerical simulations, and the dependence on the microscopic geometric configuration is discussed. [4pt] [1] E. DeGiuli & J. McElwaine, PRE 2011. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041310

  4. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Marjan; Luk, Timothy W.H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Siegler, Peter; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kolios, Michael C.; Yang, Victor X.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) in an inhomogeneous phantom and carotid artery samples based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs duration, applying acoustic radiation force (ARF) to inhomogeneous phantoms and carotid artery samples, synchronized with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) imaging system. The phantoms were composed of gelatin and titanium dioxide whereas the carotid artery samples were embedded in gel. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, detected the microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms and samples of different stiffness. We present the technique for calculating tissue mechanical properties by propagating shear waves in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and carotid artery samples using the ARF of an ultrasound transducer, and measuring the shear wave speed and its associated properties in the different layers with OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo studies of mechanical property measurements of biological tissues such as vascular tissues, where normal and pathological structures may exhibit significant contrast in the shear modulus. PMID:24688822

  5. Characterization of multilayer nitride coatings by electron microscopy and modulus mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemmasani, Sai Pramod; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.; Ramakrishna, M.; Valleti, Krishna; Gundakaram, Ravi C.; Joshi, Shrikant V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses multi-scale characterization of physical vapour deposited multilayer nitride coatings using a combination of electron microscopy and modulus mapping. Multilayer coatings with a triple layer structure based on TiAlN and nanocomposite nitrides with a nano-multilayered architecture were deposited by Cathodic arc deposition and detailed microstructural studies were carried out employing Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Electron Backscattered Diffraction, Focused Ion Beam and Cross sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy in order to identify the different phases and to study microstructural features of the various layers formed as a result of the deposition process. Modulus mapping was also performed to study the effect of varying composition on the moduli of the nano-multilayers within the triple layer coating by using a Scanning Probe Microscopy based technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on modulus mapping of cathodic arc deposited nitride multilayer coatings. This work demonstrates the application of Scanning Probe Microscopy based modulus mapping and electron microscopy for the study of coating properties and their relation to composition and microstructure. - Highlights: • Microstructure of a triple layer nitride coating studied at multiple length scales. • Phases identified by EDS, EBSD and SAED (TEM). • Nanolayered, nanocomposite structure of the coating studied using FIB and TEM. • Modulus mapping identified moduli variation even in a nani-multilayer architecture

  6. Effect of the Young modulus variability on the mechanical behaviour of a nuclear containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrard, T. de, E-mail: delarrard@lmt.ens-cachan.f [LMT-ENS Cachan, CNRS/UPMC/PRES UniverSud Paris (France); Colliat, J.B.; Benboudjema, F. [LMT-ENS Cachan, CNRS/UPMC/PRES UniverSud Paris (France); Torrenti, J.M. [Universite Paris-Est, LCPC (France); Nahas, G. [IRSN/DSR/SAMS/BAGS, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-12-15

    This study aims at investigating the influence of the Young modulus variability on the mechanical behaviour of a nuclear containment vessel in case of a loss of cooling agent accident and under the assumption of an elastic behaviour. To achieve this investigation, the Monte-Carlo Method is carried out thanks to a middleware which encapsulates the different components (random field generation, FE simulations) and enables calculations parallelisation. The main goal is to quantify the uncertainty propagation by comparing the maximal values of outputs of interest (orthoradial stress and Mazars equivalent strain) for each realisation of the considered random field with the ones obtained from a reference calculation taking into account uniform field (equal to the expected value of the random field). The Young modulus is supposed to be accurately represented by a weakly homogeneous random field and realisations are provided through its truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. This study reveals that the expected value for the maximal equivalent strain in the structure is more important when considering the Young modulus spatial variability than the value obtained from a deterministic approach with a uniform Young modulus field. The influence of the correlation length is investigated too. Finally it is shown that there is no correlation between the maximal values location of equivalent strain and the ones where the Young modulus extreme values are observed for each realisation.

  7. Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method.

  8. Determining the Gaussian Modulus and Edge Properties of 2D Materials: From Graphene to Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelisko, Matthew; Ahmadpoor, Fatemeh; Gao, Huajian; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    The dominant deformation behavior of two-dimensional materials (bending) is primarily governed by just two parameters: bending rigidity and the Gaussian modulus. These properties also set the energy scale for various important physical and biological processes such as pore formation, cell fission and generally, any event accompanied by a topological change. Unlike the bending rigidity, the Gaussian modulus is, however, notoriously difficult to evaluate via either experiments or atomistic simulations. In this Letter, recognizing that the Gaussian modulus and edge tension play a nontrivial role in the fluctuations of a 2D material edge, we derive closed-form expressions for edge fluctuations. Combined with atomistic simulations, we use the developed approach to extract the Gaussian modulus and edge tension at finite temperatures for both graphene and various types of lipid bilayers. Our results possibly provide the first reliable estimate of this elusive property at finite temperatures and appear to suggest that earlier estimates must be revised. In particular, we show that, if previously estimated properties are employed, the graphene-free edge will exhibit unstable behavior at room temperature. Remarkably, in the case of graphene, we show that the Gaussian modulus and edge tension even change sign at finite temperatures.

  9. Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method

  10. The elastic modulus of alumina-zirconia composite using through transmission ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.S.; Hing, P.

    1996-01-01

    The elastic modulus of unstabilized Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 composites is determined from ultrasonic velocities and density measurements. The dynamic elastic modulus and the density of the green unstabilized Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 follow the rule of mixture. However, the elastic modulus and density of the sintered Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 do not follow the rule of mixture. The elastic modulus and diametrical compressive fracture stress of the Al 2 O 3 can be enhanced by (1) a high green (before sintering) compacting pressure and (2) addition of about 3wt% unstabilized ZrO 2 at a sintering time of two hours at 1550 degC. The ZrO 2 is found to improve the bulk density of the composite by a reduction in the porosity. This improves the elastic modulus and the diametrical compressive fracture stress. The thermal expansion on cooling with > 25wt% ZrO 2 in the Al 2 O 3 matrix has also been established. (author)

  11. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals.

  12. CFD simulation of estimating critical shear stress for cleaning flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Kawale

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... Jet impingement; wall shear stress; cleaning of flat plate; turbulence model; critical shear stress; ... On comparing the theoretical predictions with wall shear ... distance and Reynolds number on peak value of local shear stress ...

  13. Continuous shear - a method for studying material elements passing a stationary shear plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Maria; Wiwe, Birgitte; Wanheim, Tarras

    2003-01-01

    circumferential groove. Normally shear in metal forming processes is of another nature, namely where the material elements move through a stationary shear zone, often of small width. In this paper a method enabling the simulation of this situation is presented. A tool for continuous shear has beeen manufactured...... and tested with AlMgSil and copper. The sheared material has thereafter been tested n plane strain compression with different orientation concerning the angle between the shear plane and the compression direction....

  14. Separation of gravitational-wave and cosmic-shear contributions to cosmic microwave background polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesden, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Inflationary gravitational waves (GW) contribute to the curl component in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Cosmic shear--gravitational lensing of the CMB--converts a fraction of the dominant gradient polarization to the curl component. Higher-order correlations can be used to map the cosmic shear and subtract this contribution to the curl. Arcminute resolution will be required to pursue GW amplitudes smaller than those accessible by the Planck surveyor mission. The blurring by lensing of small-scale CMB power leads with this reconstruction technique to a minimum detectable GW amplitude corresponding to an inflation energy near 10(15) GeV.

  15. Study of the Relation between the Resonance Behavior of Thickness Shear Mode (TSM Sensors and the Mechanical Characteristics of Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Castro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes some key aspects of the behavior of sensors based on piezoelectric Thickness Shear Mode (TSM resonators to study and monitor microbial biofilms. The operation of these sensors is based on the analysis of their resonance properties (both resonance frequency and dissipation factor that vary in contact with the analyzed sample. This work shows that different variations during the microorganism growth can be detected by the sensors and highlights which of these changes are indicative of biofilm formation. TSM sensors have been used to monitor in real time the development of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli biofilms, formed on the gold electrode of the quartz crystal resonators, without any coating. Strains with different ability to produce biofilm have been tested. It was shown that, once a first homogeneous adhesion of bacteria was produced on the substrate, the biofilm can be considered as a semi-infinite layer and the quartz sensor reflects only the viscoelastic properties of the region immediately adjacent to the resonator, not being sensitive to upper layers of the biofilm. The experiments allow the microrheological evaluation of the complex shear modulus (G* = G′ + jG″ of the biofilm at 5 MHz and at 15 MHz, showing that the characteristic parameter that indicates the adhesion of a biofilm for the case of S. epidermidis and E. coli, is an increase in the resonance frequency shift of the quartz crystal sensor, which is connected with an increase of the real shear modulus, related to the elasticity or stiffness of the layer. In addition both the real and the imaginary shear modulus are frequency dependent at these high frequencies in biofilms.

  16. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three

  17. Simulations of Granular Particles Under Cyclic Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, John; Chaikin, Paul

    2012-02-01

    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of spherical grains subjected to cyclic, quasi-static shear in a 3D parallelepiped shear cell. This virtual shear cell is constructed out of rough, bumpy walls in order to minimize wall-induced ordering and has an open top surface to allow the packing to readily dilate or compact. Using a standard routine for MD simulations of frictional grains, we simulate over 1000 shear cycles, measuring grain displacements, the local packing density and changes in the contact network. Varying the shear amplitude and the friction coefficient between grains, we map out a phase diagram for the different types of behavior exhibited by these sheared grains. With low friction and high enough shear, the grains can spontaneously order into densely packed crystals. With low shear and increasing friction the packing remains disordered, yet the grains arrange themselves into configurations which exhibit limit cycles where all grains return to the same position after each full shear cycle. At higher shear and friction there is a transition to a diffusive state, where grains continue rearrange and move throughout the shear cell.

  18. Investigation of Rheological Properties of Blended Cement Pastes Using Rotational Viscometer and Dynamic Shear Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Jae Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To successfully process concrete, it is necessary to predict and control its flow behavior. However, the workability of concrete is not completely measured or specified by current standard tests. Furthermore, it is only with a clear picture of cement hydration and setting that full prediction and control of concrete performance can be generalized. In order to investigate the rheological properties of blended cement pastes, a rotational viscometer (RV was used to determine the flow characteristics of ordinary and blended pastes to provide assurance that it can be pumped and handled. Additionally, a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR was used to characterize both the viscous and elastic components of pastes. Ordinary Portland cement paste and blended pastes (slag, fly ash, and silica fume were investigated in this study. The stress and strain of the blended specimens were measured by the DSR, which characterizes both viscous and elastic behaviors by measuring the complex shear modulus (the ratio of total shear stress to total shear strain and phase angle (an indicator of the relative amounts of recoverable and nonrecoverable deformation of materials. Cement pastes generally exhibit different rheological behaviors with respect to age, mineral admixture type, and cement replacement level.

  19. Dynamic deformation and failure characteristic of rock foundation by means of effect of cyclic shear loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Hibino, Satoshi; Kanagawa, Tadashi; Komada, Hiroya; Nakagawa, Kameichiro

    1984-01-01

    The main structures of nuclear power plants are built on hard and soft rocks. The rock-dynamic properties used for investigating the stability of the structures have been determined so far by laboratory tests for soft rocks. In hard rocks, however, joints and cracks exist, and the test including these effects is not able to be performed in laboratories at present. Therefore, a dynamic repeating shearing test equipment to be used under the condition including the joints and cracks of actual ground has been made for a base rock of tuff breccia. In this paper, the test results are reported as follows. The geological features of the testing site and the arrangement of tested rocks, the preparation for tests, test equipment, loading method, measuring method, analysis, and the result and the examination. The results of dynamic deformation and failure characteristics were as follows: (1) the dynamic shear-elasticity-modulus Gd of the base rock showed greater values as the normal stress increased, while Gd decreased and showed the strain dependence as the dynamic shear strain amplitude γ increased; (2) the relationship between Gd and γ was well represented with the equation proposed by Hardin-Drnevich; (3) damping ratio increased as γ increased, and decreased as normal stress increased; (4) When a specimen was about to break, γ suddenly increased, and the dynamic shear strain amplitude at yield point was in the range of approximately (3.4 to 4.1) x 10 -3 . (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Y.W.; Zhou, Y.C.; Bu, X.X.; Qiu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A simple approach named relative method is developed for determining the elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings. Analytical relationship among the moduli of the film, the substrate, and the film/substrate system was derived based on bending model, from which the elastic modulus of the coating can be determined uniquely via the measured moduli of the samples before and after coating. Furthermore, the relationship between the strength of the films and the bending strength of the coated sample is derived, thus both the modulus and the strength of coating can be evaluated via traditional tests on coated samples. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived, respectively for rectangular beam samples with three types of coating configurations: single face coating, sandwich coating and around coating. Experimental results using various brittle coatings demonstrated the validity and convenience of this method

  1. Consequence of reduced necrotic bone elastic modulus in a Perthes' hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmingo, Remel A.; Skytte, Tina Lercke; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    Introduction Perthes is a destructive hip joint disorder characterized as a malformation of the femoral head which affects young children. Several studies have shown the change of mechanical properties of the femoral head in Perthes’ disease. However, the consequence of the changes in bone...... mechanical properties in a Perthes’ hip is not well established. Due to the material differences, changes in bone mechanical properties might lead to localization of stress and deformation. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reduced elastic modulus of necrotic bone...... weight) was applied on the top of the femoral head. The distal part of the femur was fixed. The same Poisson’s ratio 0.3 was set for the femoral and necrotic bone. The elastic modulus (E) of femoral bone was 500 MPa. To investigate the effects of reduced elastic modulus, the necrotic bone E was reduced...

  2. Determination of elastic modulus and residual stress of plasma-sprayed tungsten coating on steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Hoeschen, T.; Lindig, S.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated

  3. Determination of elastic modulus and residual stress of plasma-sprayed tungsten coating on steel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J. H.; Höschen, T.; Lindig, S.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated.

  4. Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Y.W. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China)], E-mail: ywbao@imr.ac.cn; Zhou, Y.C. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Bu, X.X. [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China); Qiu, Y. [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China)

    2007-06-15

    A simple approach named relative method is developed for determining the elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings. Analytical relationship among the moduli of the film, the substrate, and the film/substrate system was derived based on bending model, from which the elastic modulus of the coating can be determined uniquely via the measured moduli of the samples before and after coating. Furthermore, the relationship between the strength of the films and the bending strength of the coated sample is derived, thus both the modulus and the strength of coating can be evaluated via traditional tests on coated samples. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived, respectively for rectangular beam samples with three types of coating configurations: single face coating, sandwich coating and around coating. Experimental results using various brittle coatings demonstrated the validity and convenience of this method.

  5. Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...

  6. The effect of gamma ray irradiation on PAN-based intermediate modulus carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Feng, Yi; Qian, Gang; Zhang, Jingcheng; Zhuang, Zhong; Wang, Xianping

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were conducted on PAN-based intermediate modulus carbon fibers to investigate the structure and surface hydrophilicity of the carbon fibers before and after gamma irradiation. Two methods were used to determine Young’s modulus of the carbon fibers. The results show that gamma ray irradiation improved the degree of graphitization and introduced compressive stress into carbon fiber surface. Gamma ray also improved the carbon fiber surface hydrophilicity through increasing the value of O/C and enhancing the quantity of oxygen functional groups on carbon fibers. No distinct morphology change was observed after gamma ray irradiation. The Young’s modulus of the fibers increased with increasing irradiation dose

  7. Using the ultrasound and instrumented indentation techniques to measure the elastic modulus of engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza, J. M.; Franco, E. E.; Farias, M. C. M.; Buiochi, F.; Souza, R. M.; Cruz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the acoustic and nano indentation techniques are two of the most used techniques for materials elastic modulus measurement. In this article fundamental principles and limitations of both techniques are shown and discussed. Last advances in nano indentation technique are also reviewed. an experimental study in ceramic, metallic, composite and single crystals was also done. Results shown that ultrasonic technique is capable to provide results in agreement with those reported in literature. However, ultrasonic technique does not allow measuring the elastic modulus of some small samples and single crystals. On the other hand, the nano indentation technique estimates the elastic modulus values in reasonable agreement with those measured by acoustic methods, particularly in amorphous materials, while in some policristaline materials some deviation from expected values was obtained. (Author) 29 refs

  8. A Regev-Type Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme Using Modulus Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Song, Xinxia

    2014-01-01

    A critical challenge in a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme is to manage noise. Modulus switching technique is currently the most efficient noise management technique. When using the modulus switching technique to design and implement a FHE scheme, how to choose concrete parameters is an important step, but to our best knowledge, this step has drawn very little attention to the existing FHE researches in the literature. The contributions of this paper are twofold. On one hand, we propose a function of the lower bound of dimension value in the switching techniques depending on the LWE specific security levels. On the other hand, as a case study, we modify the Brakerski FHE scheme (in Crypto 2012) by using the modulus switching technique. We recommend concrete parameter values of our proposed scheme and provide security analysis. Our result shows that the modified FHE scheme is more efficient than the original Brakerski scheme in the same security level. PMID:25093212

  9. Influence of dynamic dislocation drag on amplitude dependences of damping decrement and modulus defect in lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, Y.M.; Golosovskii, M.A.; Kobelev, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the amplitude dependences of the damping decrement and the modulus defect in lead at low temperatures at frequencies of 100 kHz and 5 MHz. It was shown that in pure lead at high frequencies a change in the amplitude dependences of the damping decrement and the modulus defect under the superconducting transition is due mainly to the change in the losses caused by the dynamic drag of dislocations whereas in measurements at low frequencies the influence of the superconducting transition is due to the change in the conditions of dislocation unpinning from point defects. The influence of the dynamic dislocation drag on the amplitude dependences of the damping decrement and the modulus defect is calculated and a method is presented for experimental estimation of the contribution of dynamic effects to the amplitude-dependent internal friction

  10. Chromium effect on the Young modulus and thermoelastic coefficient of elinvars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazykina, A.V.; Khomenko, O.A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect was studied of thermal and thermal-mechanical treatment upon the elastic modules and its temperature coefficient in iron-nickel Elinvars with different chromium contents (from 0 to 6.7%). It has been shown that doping with chromium results in an increase in the modulus of elasticity of Elinvars after hardening. The elastic modulus of alloys containing no chromium increases after a cold plastic deformation (drawing), whereas that of chromous Elinvars decreases upon such a treatment. It has been established that the elastic modulus of hardened and cold drawn after hardening Elinvars increases upon ageing. An increase in chromium content in iron-nickel Elinvars reduces the effect of the temperature of ageing upon the thermoelastic coefficient during the usual heat treatment and the thermalmechanical treatment and lowers its sensitivity to the influence of an external magnetic field [ru

  11. Determination of Shear Properties in the Upper Seafloor Using Seismo-acoustic Interface Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frivik, Svein Arne

    1998-12-31

    This thesis develops methods for recording and analysis of seismo-acoustic interface waves for determination of shear wave velocity as a function of depth and includes this in standard refraction seismic surveying. It investigates different techniques for estimation of dispersion characteristics of the interface waves and demonstrates that multi sensor spectral estimation techniques improve the dispersion estimates. The dispersion estimate of the fundamental interface wave mode is used as input to an object function for a model based linearized inversion. The inversion scheme provides an estimate of the shear wave velocity as a function of depth. Three field surveys were performed. Data were acquired with a standard bottom deployed refraction seismic hydrophone array containing 24 or 48 receivers, with a receiver spacing of 2.5 m. Explosive charges were used as sources. The recording time was increased from 0.5 to 8 s, compared to standard refraction seismic surveys. Shear wave velocity and shear modulus estimates were obtained from all the sites. At one of the sites, geotechnically obtained shear wave parameters were available, and a comparison between the two techniques were performed. the result of the comparison is promising and shows the potential of the technique. Although the result of applying the processing scheme to all three data sets is promising, it appears that survey parameters, like source-array spacing, receiver spacing and type of source might have been optimized for better performance. Based on this limitation, a new processing scheme and a new array configuration is proposed for surveys which integrates the recording and processing of both compressional waves and shear waves. 89 refs., 65 refs., 19 tabs.

  12. Discrete element simulation studies of angles of repose and shear flow of wet, flexible fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Wassgren, C; Ketterhagen, W; Hancock, B; Curtis, J

    2018-04-18

    A discrete element method (DEM) model is developed to simulate the dynamics of wet, flexible fibers. The angles of repose of dry and wet fibers are simulated, and the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results, validating the wet, flexible fiber model. To study wet fiber flow behavior, the model is used to simulate shear flows of wet fibers in a periodic domain under Lees-Edwards boundary conditions. Significant agglomeration is observed in dilute shear flows of wet fibers. The size of the largest agglomerate in the flow is found to depend on a Bond number, which is proportional to liquid surface tension and inversely proportional to the square of the shear strain rate. This Bond number reflects the relative importance of the liquid-bridge force to the particle's inertial force, with a larger Bond number leading to a larger agglomerate. As the fiber aspect ratio (AR) increases, the size of the largest agglomerate increases, while the coordination number in the largest agglomerate initially decreases and then increases when the AR is greater than four. A larger agglomerate with a larger coordination number is more likely to form for more flexible fibers with a smaller bond elastic modulus due to better connectivity between the more flexible fibers. Liquid viscous force resists pulling of liquid bridges and separation of contacting fibers, and therefore it facilitates larger agglomerate formation. The effect of liquid viscous force is more significant at larger shear strain rates. The solid-phase shear stress is increased due to the presence of liquid bridges in moderately dense flows. As the solid volume fraction increases, the effect of fiber-fiber friction coefficient increases sharply. When the solid volume fraction approaches the maximum packing density, the fiber-fiber friction coefficient can be a more dominant factor than the liquid bridge force in determining the solid-phase shear stress.

  13. Effects of shear during the cooling on the rheology and morphology of immiscible polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammani, S; Moulai-Mostefa, N; Benyahia, L; Tassin, J F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the generation of a microfibrillar structure in immiscible polymer blends using a new technique. The blend polymer model is the emulsion formed by a mixture of polypropylene (PP) with polystyrene (PS) in the proportion of PP10/PS90. In the first case the pellets of polystyrene and polypropylene were blended on the twin-screw mini extruder in the classical manner with different shear rates. In the second case, the same blend was prepared in the same way followed by a dynamic cooling at different shear rates. The phase morphologies of PP in the blend were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy on two directions (transversal and longitudinal direction to the flow). In the two cases, the dispersed phase size decreased with the increase of the shear rate in the extruder. An anomaly was registered in the classical method at 200 rpm, where the size of the dispersed phase increases with the increase of the shear rate. The dynamic cooling technique recorded smaller diameters (4 to 5 times) of the dispersed phase compared to the conventional technique. In addition, the reappearance of the microfilaments at 200rpm was observed. The rheological properties were determined by RS100 (Thermo Scientific Haake). Using this new technique, it was noticed that he elastic modulus increases with one decade compared to the classical method and the complex viscosity decreases with the increase of the shear rate. An anomaly was registered in the classical technique, where the dynamic viscosity at 200rpm increases with increasing the shear rate in the extruder

  14. Diagnostic procedure on brake pad assembly based on Young's modulus estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiariotti, P; Santolini, C; Tomasini, E P; Martarelli, M

    2013-01-01

    Quality control of brake pads is an important issue, since the pad is a key component of the braking system. Typical damage of a brake pad assembly is the pad–backing plate detachment that affects and modifies the mechanical properties of the whole system. The most sensitive parameter to the damage is the effective Young's modulus, since the damage induces a decrease of the pad assembly stiffness and therefore of its effective Young's modulus: indeed its variation could be used for diagnostic purposes. The effective Young's modulus can be estimated from the first bending resonance frequency identified from the frequency response function measured on the pad assembly. Two kinds of excitation methods, i.e. conventional impulse excitation and magnetic actuation, will be presented and two different measurement sensors, e.g. laser Doppler vibrometer and microphone, analyzed. The robustness of the effective Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature will be demonstrated in comparison to the first bending resonance frequency, which is more sensitive to geometrical dimensions. Variability in the sample dimension, in fact, will induce a variation of the resonance frequency which could be mistaken for damage. The diagnostic approach has been applied to a set of undamaged and damaged pad assemblies showing good performance in terms of damage identification. The environmental temperature can be an important interfering input for the diagnostic procedure, since it influences the effective Young's modulus of the assembly. For that reason, a test at different temperatures in the range between 15 °C and 30 °C has been performed, evidencing that damage identification technique is efficient at any temperature. The robustness of the Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature with respect to damping is also presented. (paper)

  15. A Research on Low Modulus Distributed Fiber Optical Sensor for Pavement Material Strain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingjian; Wang, Linbing; Hou, Yue; Yan, Guannan

    2017-10-19

    The accumulated irreversible deformation in pavement under repeated vehicle loadings will cause fatigue failure of asphalt concrete. It is necessary to monitor the mechanical response of pavement under load by using sensors. Previous studies have limitations in modulus accommodation between the sensor and asphalt pavement, and it is difficult to achieve the distributed monitoring goal. To solve these problems, a new type of low modulus distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for asphalt pavement strain monitoring is fabricated. Laboratory experiments have proved the applicability and accuracy of the newly-designed sensor. This paper presents the results of the development.

  16. The Near-IR TRGB Magnitude and Distance Modulus to NGC 185

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-J. Sohn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined values of distance modulus to nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 185 from the Tip of Red-Giant Branch (TRGB method. Apparent magnitudes of the TRGB are estimated from the near-infrared JHK luminosity functions (LFs of the resolved giant branch stars. Theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB in near-infrared bands have been extracted from the Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The observed apparent and theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB provide values of distance modulus to NGC 185 as (m - M.

  17. Elastic Modulus Measurement of ORNL ATF FeCrAl Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Zachary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio for a number of wrought FeCrAl alloys, intended for accident tolerant fuel cladding application, are determined via resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy. The results are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature to 850°C. The wrought alloys were in the fully annealed and unirradiated state. The elastic modulus for the wrought FeCrAl alloys is at least twice that of Zr-based alloys over the temperature range of this study. The Poisson’s ratio of the alloys was 0.28 on average and increased very slightly with increasing temperature.

  18. Linear analysis using secants for materials with temperature dependent nonlinear elastic modulus and thermal expansion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, John W.

    2017-08-01

    Thermally induced stress is readily calculated for linear elastic material properties using Hooke's law in which, for situations where expansion is constrained, stress is proportional to the product of the material elastic modulus and its thermal strain. When material behavior is nonlinear, one needs to make use of nonlinear theory. However, we can avoid that complexity in some situations. For situations in which both elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion vary with temperature, solutions can be formulated using secant properties. A theoretical approach is thus presented to calculate stresses for nonlinear, neo-Hookean, materials. This is important for high acuity optical systems undergoing large temperature extremes.

  19. Back-analysing rock mass modulus from monitoring data of two tunnels in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bertuzzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two case studies where the rock mass modulus and in situ stress are estimated from the monitoring data obtained during the construction of underground excavations in Sydney, Australia. The case studies comprise the widening of existing twin road tunnels within Hawkesbury sandstone and the excavation of a large cavern within Ashfield shale. While back-analysis from detailed systematic monitoring has been previously published, this paper presents a relatively simple methodology to derive rock mass modulus and in situ stress from the relatively simple displacement data routinely recorded during tunnelling.

  20. Modelling of the Elasticity Modulus for Rock Using Genetic Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Atici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In rock engineering projects, statically determined parameters are more reflective of actual load conditions than dynamic parameters. This study reports a new and efficient approach to the formulation of the static modulus of elasticity Es applying gene expression programming (GEP with nondestructive testing (NDT methods. The results obtained using GEP are compared with the results of multivariable linear regression analysis (MRA, univariate nonlinear regression analysis (URA, and the dynamic elasticity modulus (Ed. The GEP model was found to produce the most accurate calculation of Es. The proposed approach is a simple, nondestructive, and practical way to determine Es for anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks.

  1. The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Kyle

    Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2

  2. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  3. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchmauss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction, as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue, the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction.

  4. Consideration of shear deformation in the analysis of unsymmetrical bending of moderately thick shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    A shear deformation theory is derived using a variational technique similar to Reissner-Naghdi linear theory neglecting the transverse normal stress. This theory is used to analyze shells of revolution subjected to arbitrary load distribution. The shell material is assumed to have two-dimensional elastic isotropy in directions tangent to its surface. Young's modulus may vary through the thickness and in the meridional direction. Poisson's ratio is assumed to be constant. Arbitrary temperature can be applied to the shell. Change of Young's modulus in the circumferential direction due to high temperature variation is neglected in the theory. All pertinent variables are expanded in Fourier series in the circumferential direction to get 5 ordinary differential equations, decoupled in individual Fourier components of independent displacements. Finite difference numerical technique is used to solve these differential equations. For handling these numerical quantities in orderly fashion, matrix algebra is utilized. Budiansky and Radkowski have applied a similar technique to solve the equations based on the classical shell theory of Sanders. Two independent computer programs are developed, one based on the shear deformation theory derived here and the other on the work of Budiansky and Radkowski. Two different circular cylindrical shells are utilized to explore the subject of this paper. They have the same geometric dimensions but different boundary conditions and one is fixed at both ends while the other has one end free

  5. Final rubbery state characterization using a hollow cylinder dynamic shear sample on DMA7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiporn Luksameevanish

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic properties of raw natural rubber were examined using a hollow cylinder shaped samplesubjected to shear deformation on a laboratory Dynamic Mechanical Analyser. According to Cox-Merz’s study, dynamic complex viscosity obtained by this method showed a good agreement with shear flow viscosity measured by capillary rheometer. A master curve derived from the dynamic properties were then characterized. A crossing point of storage modulus (G’ and loss modulus (G’’ curves in the master curves was used to identify the final rubbery state, which indicated the transition of rubbery state and molten state. The position of this point depends on quantities and types of reinforcing or non-reinforcing fillers. The final rubbery state was shifted to higher frequency or lower temperature. It was found that the final rubbery state of CaCO3-filled rubber compounds was shifted to higher frequency or lower temperature by approximately 4 decades, while the translation of carbon black-filled rubber compounds was lower than unfilled rubber by about 1 decade. This phenomenon can be used to explain rubber elasticity, i.e. a decreasing of die swell of CaCO3 filled compounds at any high processing temperature. On the other hand, high magnitude of die swell for carbon black filled compound was still obtained.

  6. Microstructural Origins of Nonlinear Response in Associating Polymers under Oscillatory Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of associating polymers with oscillatory shear is studied through large-scale simulations. A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD, Monte Carlo (MC algorithm is employed. Polymer chains are modeled as a coarse-grained bead-spring system. Functionalized end groups, at both ends of the polymer chains, can form reversible bonds according to MC rules. Stress-strain curves show nonlinearities indicated by a non-ellipsoidal shape. We consider two types of nonlinearities. Type I occurs at a strain amplitude much larger than one, type II at a frequency at which the elastic storage modulus dominates the viscous loss modulus. In this last case, the network topology resembles that of the system at rest. The reversible bonds are broken and chains stretch when the system moves away from the zero-strain position. For type I, the chains relax and the number of reversible bonds peaks when the system is near an extreme of the motion. During the movement to the other extreme of the cycle, first a stress overshoot occurs, then a yield accompanied by shear-banding. Finally, the network restructures. Interestingly, the system periodically restores bonds between the same associating groups. Even though major restructuring occurs, the system remembers previous network topologies.

  7. Physico-chemical and mechanical characterization of in-situ forming xyloglucan gels incorporating a growth factor to promote cartilage reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Clelia; Todaro, Simona; Bulone, Donatella; Sabatino, Maria Antonietta; Ghersi, Giulio; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Lo Presti, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The development of growth factors is very promising in the field of tissue regeneration but specifically designed formulations have to be developed in order to enable such new biological entities (NBEs). In particular, the range of therapeutic concentrations is usually very low compared to other active proteins and the confinement in the target site can be of crucial importance. In-situ forming scaffolds are very promising solutions for minimally invasive intervention in cartilage reconstruction and targeting of NBEs. In this work injectable, in-situ forming gels of a temperature responsive partially degalactosylated xyloglucan (Deg-XG) incorporating the growth factor FGF-18 are formulated and characterized. In particular, injectability and shear viscosity at room temperature, time-to-gel at body temperature, morphology and mechanical properties of gels are investigated. The highly hydrophobic growth factor is favorably incorporated and retained by the gel. Gels undergo a slow erosion process when immersed in PBS at 37 °C that opens up their porous structure. The prolonged hydrothermal treatment leads to structural rearrangements towards tougher networks with increased dynamic shear modulus. Preliminary biological evaluations confirm absence of cytotoxicity and the ability of these scaffolds to host cells and promote their proliferation. - Highlights: • In-situ forming gels incorporating a growth factor are formulated and characterized. • The gel retains the growth factor and is colonized by chondrocytes. • Mechanical properties and porosity of gels are controlled by polymer concentration. • Incubation at 37 °C increases the gel strength and opens up the porous structure.

  8. Alignments of the galaxies in and around the Virgo cluster with the local velocity shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Rey, Soo Chang; Kim, Suk

    2014-01-01

    Observational evidence is presented for the alignment between the cosmic sheet and the principal axis of the velocity shear field at the position of the Virgo cluster. The galaxies in and around the Virgo cluster from the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog that was recently constructed by Kim et al. are used to determine the direction of the local sheet. The peculiar velocity field reconstructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 is analyzed to estimate the local velocity shear tensor at the Virgo center. Showing first that the minor principal axis of the local velocity shear tensor is almost parallel to the direction of the line of sight, we detect a clear signal of alignment between the positions of the Virgo satellites and the intermediate principal axis of the local velocity shear projected onto the plane of the sky. Furthermore, the dwarf satellites are found to appear more strongly aligned than their normal counterparts, which is interpreted as an indication of the following. (1) The normal satellites and the dwarf satellites fall in the Virgo cluster preferentially along the local filament and the local sheet, respectively. (2) The local filament is aligned with the minor principal axis of the local velocity shear while the local sheet is parallel to the plane spanned by the minor and intermediate principal axes. Our result is consistent with the recent numerical claim that the velocity shear is a good tracer of the cosmic web.

  9. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for episodic slow slip events in oceanic subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Meng, L.

    2016-12-01

    Episodic slow slip events occur widely along oceanic subduction zones at the brittle-ductile transition depths ( 20-50 km). Although efforts have been devoted to unravel their mechanical origins, it remains unclear about the physical controls on the wide range of their recurrence intervals and slip durations. In this study we present a simple mechanical model that attempts to account for the observed temporal evolution of slow slip events. In our model we assume that slow slip events occur in a viscoplastic shear zone (i.e., Bingham material), which has an upper static and a lower dynamic plastic yield strength. We further assume that the hanging wall deformation is approximated as an elastic spring. We envision the shear zone to be initially locked during forward/landward motion but is subsequently unlocked when the elastic and gravity-induced stress exceeds the static yield strength of the shear zone. This leads to backward/trenchward motion damped by viscous shear-zone deformation. As the elastic spring progressively loosens, the hanging wall velocity evolves with time and the viscous shear stress eventually reaches the dynamic yield strength. This is followed by the termination of the trenchward motion when the elastic stress is balanced by the dynamic yield strength of the shear zone and the gravity. In order to account for the zig-saw slip-history pattern of typical repeated slow slip events, we assume that the shear zone progressively strengthens after each slow slip cycle, possibly caused by dilatancy as commonly assumed or by progressive fault healing through solution-transport mechanisms. We quantify our conceptual model by obtaining simple analytical solutions. Our model results suggest that the duration of the landward motion increases with the down-dip length and the static yield strength of the shear zone, but decreases with the ambient loading velocity and the elastic modulus of the hanging wall. The duration of the backward/trenchward motion depends

  10. The dynamics of a shear band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Diana; Capuani, Domenico; Bigoni, Davide

    2018-03-01

    A shear band of finite length, formed inside a ductile material at a certain stage of a continued homogeneous strain, provides a dynamic perturbation to an incident wave field, which strongly influences the dynamics of the material and affects its path to failure. The investigation of this perturbation is presented for a ductile metal, with reference to the incremental mechanics of a material obeying the J2-deformation theory of plasticity (a special form of prestressed, elastic, anisotropic, and incompressible solid). The treatment originates from the derivation of integral representations relating the incremental mechanical fields at every point of the medium to the incremental displacement jump across the shear band faces, generated by an impinging wave. The boundary integral equations (under the plane strain assumption) are numerically approached through a collocation technique, which keeps into account the singularity at the shear band tips and permits the analysis of an incident wave impinging a shear band. It is shown that the presence of the shear band induces a resonance, visible in the incremental displacement field and in the stress intensity factor at the shear band tips, which promotes shear band growth. Moreover, the waves scattered by the shear band are shown to generate a fine texture of vibrations, parallel to the shear band line and propagating at a long distance from it, but leaving a sort of conical shadow zone, which emanates from the tips of the shear band.

  11. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  12. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  13. Comparison of shear wave velocity measurements assessed with two different ultrasound systems in an ex-vivo tendon strain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Andrea B; Bachmann, Elias; Snedeker, Jess G; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Buck, Florian M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the reliability of SW velocity measurements of two different ultrasound systems and their correlation with the tangent traction modulus in a non-static tendon strain model. A bovine tendon was fixed in a custom-made stretching device. Force was applied increasing from 0 up to 18 Newton. During each strain state the tangent traction modulus was determined by the stretcher device, and SW velocity (m/s) measurements using a Siemens S3000 and a Supersonic Aixplorer US machine were done for shear modulus (kPa) calculation. A strong significant positive correlation was found between SW velocity assessed by the two ultrasound systems and the tangent traction modulus (r = 0.827-0.954, p Aixplorer 0.25 ± 0.3 m/s (p = 0.034). Mean difference of SW velocity between the two US-systems was 0.37 ± 0.3 m/s (p = 0.012). In conclusion, SW velocities are highly dependent on mechanical forces in the tendon tissue, but for controlled mechanical loads appear to yield reproducible and comparable measurements using different US systems.

  14. 2 filler on the dielectric permittivity and electrical modulus of PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The real and imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity decreased with the increase in frequency but increased with temperature. The electrical conductivity measurement showed a plateau-like behaviour in the low-frequency region and dispersion in the high-frequency region. The frequency-dependent electrical modulus ...

  15. Size-dependent effective Young’s modulus of silicon nitride cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babaei Gavan, K.; Westra, H.J.R.; Van der Drift, E.W.J.M.; Venstra, W.J.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The effective Young’s modulus of silicon nitride cantilevers is determined for thicknesses in the range of 20–684 nm by measuring resonance frequencies from thermal noise spectra. A significant deviation from the bulk value is observed for cantilevers thinner than 150 nm. To explain the observations

  16. The bulk modulus of cubic spinel selenides: an experimental and theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that mainly the selenium sublattice determines the overall compressibility of the cubic spinel selenides, AB2Se4, and that the bulk modulus for these compounds is about 100GPa. The hypothesis is supported by experiments using high-pressure X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation...

  17. Speed of sound reflects Young's modulus as assessed by microstructural finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, van den J.P.W.; Lenthe, van G.H.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Smals, A.G.H.; Huiskes, H.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the ability of the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameter, speed of sound (SOS), and bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to predict Young's modulus, as assessed by microstructural finite element analysis (muFEA) from microcomputed

  18. Determination of the Young's modulus of pulsed laser deposited epitaxial PZT thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    We determined the Young’s modulus of pulsed laser deposited epitaxially grown PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) thin films on microcantilevers by measuring the difference in cantilever resonance frequency before and after deposition. By carefully optimizing the accuracy of this technique, we were able to show

  19. Investigation of statistical relationship between dynamic modulus and thermal strength of asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Gular, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic modulus is a performance indicator for asphalt concrete and is used to qualify asphalt mixtures based on stress-strain characteristics under repeated loading. Moreover, the low temperature cracking of asphalt concrete mixes are measured in terms of fracture strength and fracture temperature. Dynamic modulus test was selected as one of the simple performance tests in the AASHTO 2002 guidelines to rate mixtures according to permanent deformation performance. However, AASHTO 2002 guidelines is silent in relating dynamic modulus values to low temperature cracking, probably because of weak correlations reported between these two properties. The present study investigates the relation between these two properties under the influence of aggregate type and mix gradation. Mixtures were prepared with two types of aggregate and gradations, while maintaining the binder type and air voids constant. The mixtures were later tested for dynamic modulus and fracture strength using thermal stress restrained specimen test (TSRST). Results indicate that there exists a fair correlation between the thermal fracture strength and stiffness at a selected test temperature and frequency level. These correlations are highly dependent upon the type of aggregate and mix gradation. (author)

  20. A summary of modulus of elasticity and knot size surveys for laminating grades of lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Wolfe; R. C. Moody

    1981-01-01

    A summary of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and knot data is presented for grades of lumber commonly used to manufacture glued-laminated (glulam) timber by the laminating Industry. Tabulated values represent 30 different studies covering a time span of over 16 years. Statistical estimates of average and near-maximum knot sizes as well as mean and coefficient of variation...

  1. Phenomenology of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation in fluxed string compactifications and brane models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Okumura, Ken-ichi

    2005-01-01

    In some string compactifications, for instance the recently proposed KKLT set-up, light moduli are stabilized by nonperturbative effects at supersymmetric AdS vacuum which is lifted to a dS vacuum by supersymmetry breaking uplifting potential. In such models, soft supersymmetry breaking terms are determined by a specific mixed modulus-anomaly mediation in which the two mediations typically give comparable contributions to soft parameters. Similar pattern of soft terms can arise also in brane models to stabilize the radion by nonperturbative effects. We examine some phenomenological consequences of this mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, including the pattern of low energy sparticle spectrum and the possibility of electroweak symmetry breaking. It is noted that adding the anomaly-mediated contributions at M GUT amounts to replacing the messenger scale of the modulus mediation by a mirage messenger scale (m 3/2 /M Pl ) α/2 M GUT where α = m 3/2 /[M 0 ln (M Pl /m 3/2 )] for M 0 denoting the modulus-mediated contribution to the gaugino mass at M GUT . The minimal KKLT set-up predicts α = 1. As a consequence, for α = O(1), the model can lead to a highly distinctive pattern of sparticle masses at TeV scale, particularly when α = 2

  2. High modulus asphalt (EME) technology transfer to South Africa and Australia: shared experiences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experiences with the implementation of French enrobés à module élevé (EME) (high modulus asphalt) technology in South Africa and Australia. Tentative performance specifications for EME mixes were set in the two countries based...

  3. Estimates of the integral modulus of continuity of functions with rarely changing Fourier coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telyakovskii, S A

    2002-01-01

    The functions under consideration are those satisfying the condition Δa i =Δb i =0 for all i≠n j , where {n j } is a lacunary sequence. An asymptotic estimate of the rate of decrease of the modulus of continuity in the L-metric of such functions in terms of their Fourier coefficients is obtained

  4. Young's modulus and residual stress of GeSbTe phase-change thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Bhaskaran, Harish; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of phase change materials alter when the phase is transformed. In this paper, we report on experiments that determine the change in crucial parameters such as Young's modulus and residual stress for two of the most widely employed compositions of phase change films,

  5. Diameter effect on stress-wave evaluation of modulus of elasticity of logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; John Punches; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Roy E. Pellerin

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of logs have shown that a longitudinal stress-wave method can be used to nondestructively evaluate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. A strong relationship has been found between stress-wave MOE and static MOE of logs, but a significant deviation was observed between stress-wave and static values. The objective of...

  6. A decreased subchondral trabecular bone tissue elastic modulus is associated with pre-arthritic cartilage damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, J; Ding, Ming; van der Linden, JC

    2001-01-01

    determined using a combination of finite element models and mechanical testing. The bone tissue modulus was reduced by 60% in the medial condyle of the cases with cartilage damage compared to the control specimens. Neither the presence of cartilage damage nor the anatomic site (medial vs. lateral) affected...

  7. Influence of the cementitious paste composition on the E-modulus and heat of hydration evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Faria, Rui; Figueiras, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    E-modulus and heat of hydration are features of cement-based materials that follow a rapid rate of change at early ages. This paper analyses the influence of the composition of cementitious pastes on these features by using two methods: (i) a novel technique for continuously monitoring the E-modulus of cement-based materials, based on evaluating the first resonant frequency of a composite beam containing the material under testing, and (ii) an isothermal calorimeter to determine the released heat of hydration. Seventeen mixes are tested, encompassing pastes with five w/c ratios, as well as different contents of limestone filler, fly ash, silica fume and metakaolin. The results permit the comparison of the E-modulus and heat of hydration sensitivities to mix composition changes, and to check possible relations between these features. This work also helps to establish the technique (i) as a non-destructive method for monitoring the E-modulus evolution in cement-based materials since casting.

  8. Influence of heat treatment and veneering on the storage modulus and surface of zirconia ceramic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siavikis, G.; Behr, M.; van der Zel, J.M.; Feilzer, A.J.; Rosentritt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Glass-ceramic veneered zirconia is used for the application as fixed partial dentures. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the heat treatment during veneering, the application of glass-ceramic for veneering or long term storage has an influence on the storage modulus of

  9. Modeling of nano-reinforced polymer composites: Microstructure effect on Young’s modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, R.D.; Zhou, H.W.; Wang, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    ” algorithm was developed in the ABAQUS Scripting Interface. In the computational studies, it was observed that the elastic modulus increases with the increasing the aspect ratio of nanoparticles. The thickness and properties of effective interface layers and the shape and degree of particles clustering have...

  10. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND HARDNESS OF COMPRESSION AND OPPOSITE WOOD CELL WALLS OF MASSON PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Huang,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Compression wood is commonly found in Masson pine. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the cell wall of Masson pine compression and opposite wood, nanoindentation was used. The results showed that the average values of hardness and cell wall modulus of elasticity of opposite wood were slightly higher than those of compression wood. With increasing age of the annual ring, the modulus of elasticity showed a negative correlation with microfibril angle, but a weak correlation was observed for hardness. In opposite and compression wood from the same annual ring, the differences in average values of modulus of elasticity and hardness were small. These slight differences were explained by the change of microfibril angle (MFA, the press-in mode of nanoindentation, and the special structure of compression wood. The mechanical properties were almost the same for early, transition, and late wood in a mature annual ring of opposite wood. It can therefore be inferred that the average modulus of elasticity (MOE and hardness of the cell walls in a mature annual ring were not being affected by cell wall thickness.

  11. Characterizing bulk modulus of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available laboratory testing program were used to determine bulk modulus at varying hydrostatic stress states, and moisture states chosen at optimum moisture content, 3% below and 3% above the optimum. The test results are analyzed, and used to develop regression...

  12. Effect of stress level on static young's modulus of certain structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtenko, A.F.; Skripnik, Yu.D.; Solov' eva, N.G.; Nadezhdin, G.N. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti)

    1982-11-01

    Certain steels, titanium and aluminium alloys have been studied for their dynamic and static Young moduli. It is shown that a stress rise in materials to the level of microplastic strain realization results in a significant reduction of the static modulus of elasticity in the materials studied.

  13. Detail of photo 7903109 stack of superconducting cables in the modulus measuring device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The picture shows an assembly of insulated superconducting cables of the type used in the Po dipole magnet inserted in the elastic modulus measuring device (photos 7903547X and 7903169) in order to measures its mechanical properties under azimuthal compression. See also 7903547X, 7903169, 8307552X.

  14. Effect of stress level on static young's modulus of certain structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtenko, A.F.; Skripnik, Yu.D.; Solov'eva, N.G.; Nadezhdin, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    Certain steels, titanium and aluminium alloys have been studied for their dynamic and static Young moduli. It is shown that a stress rise in materials to the level of microplastic strain realization results in a significant reduction of the static modulus of elasticity in the materials studied

  15. Use of an ultrasonic device for the determination of elastic modulus of dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Inage, Hirohiko; Onose, Hideo

    2002-03-01

    The mechanical properties of dentin substrate are one of the important factors in determining bond strength of dentin bonding systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the elastic modulus of dentin substrate with the use of an ultrasonic device. The dentin disks of about 1 mm thickness were obtaining from freshly extracted human third molars, and the dentin disk was shaped in a rectangular form with a line diamond point. The size and weight of each specimen was measured to calculate the density of the specimen. The ultrasonic equipment employed in this study was composed of a Pulser-Receiver (Model 5900PR, Panametrics), transducers (V155, V156, Panametrics) and an oscilloscope. The measured two-way transit time through the dentin disk was divided by two to account for the down-and-back travel path, and then multiplied by the velocity of sound in the test material. Measuring the longitudinal and share wave sound velocity determine elastic modulus. The mean elastic modulus of horizontally sectioned specimens was 21.8 GPa and 18.5 GPa for the vertically sectioned specimens, and a significant difference was found between the two groups. The ultrasonic method used in this study shows considerable promise for determination of the elastic modulus of the tooth substrate.

  16. Estimating Young’s Modulus of Single-Walled Zirconia Nanotubes Using Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Dauda Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-walled zirconia nanotube is structurally modeled and its Young’s modulus is valued by using the finite element approach. The nanotube was assumed to be a frame-like structure with bonds between atoms regarded as beam elements. The properties of the beam required for input into the finite element analysis were computed by connecting energy equivalence between molecular and continuum mechanics. Simulation was conducted by applying axial tensile strain on one end of the nanotube while the other end was fixed and the corresponding reaction force recorded to compute Young’s modulus. It was found out that Young’s modulus of zirconia nanotubes is significantly affected by some geometrical parameters such as chirality, diameter, thickness, and length. The obtained values of Young’s modulus for a certain range of diameters are in agreement with what was obtained in the few experiments that have been conducted so far. This study was conducted on the cubic phase of zirconia having armchair and zigzag configuration. The optimal diameter and thickness were obtained, which will assist in designing and fabricating bulk nanostructured components containing zirconia nanotubes for various applications.

  17. Crystalline cellulose elastic modulus predicted by atomistic models of uniform deformation and nanoscale indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiawa Wu; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini

    2013-01-01

    The elastic modulus of cellulose Iß in the axial and transverse directions was obtained from atomistic simulations using both the standard uniform deformation approach and a complementary approach based on nanoscale indentation. This allowed comparisons between the methods and closer connectivity to experimental measurement techniques. A reactive...

  18. Stiffness modulus and creep properties of the coconut shell in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coconut shell (CS) is an agricultural waste engineered into a road construction material. This study was conducted to evaluate the stiffness modulus and dynamic creep properties of the asphaltic concrete containing CS as an aggregate replacement. A mixture design incorporating the bitumen penetration grade 60/70 was ...

  19. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  20. Finite element determination of tearing modulus for application to industrial cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charras, T.; Combescure, A.

    1984-12-01

    The Tearing modulus, coming from a derivative of J with respect to crack-length is difficult to compute, specially in 3D, where computation costs are important. This paper presents a method to determine this value without doing two complete computations with two cracks lengths

  1. Predicting Shear Transformation Events in Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Falk, Michael L.; Li, J. F.; Kong, L. T.

    2018-03-01

    Shear transformation is the elementary process for plastic deformation of metallic glasses, the prediction of the occurrence of the shear transformation events is therefore of vital importance to understand the mechanical behavior of metallic glasses. In this Letter, from the view of the potential energy landscape, we find that the protocol-dependent behavior of shear transformation is governed by the stress gradient along its minimum energy path and we propose a framework as well as an atomistic approach to predict the triggering strains, locations, and structural transformations of the shear transformation events under different shear protocols in metallic glasses. Verification with a model Cu64 Zr36 metallic glass reveals that the prediction agrees well with athermal quasistatic shear simulations. The proposed framework is believed to provide an important tool for developing a quantitative understanding of the deformation processes that control mechanical behavior of metallic glasses.

  2. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  3. Analysis and mitigation of systematic errors in spectral shearing interferometry of pulses approaching the single-cycle limit [Invited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birge, Jonathan R.; Kaertner, Franz X.

    2008-01-01

    We derive an analytical approximation for the measured pulse width error in spectral shearing methods, such as spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER), caused by an anomalous delay between the two sheared pulse components. This analysis suggests that, as pulses approach the single-cycle limit, the resulting requirements on the calibration and stability of this delay become significant, requiring precision orders of magnitude higher than the scale of a wavelength. This is demonstrated by numerical simulations of SPIDER pulse reconstruction using actual data from a sub-two-cycle laser. We briefly propose methods to minimize the effects of this sensitivity in SPIDER and review variants of spectral shearing that attempt to avoid this difficulty

  4. Rheological Behavior of Tomato Fiber Suspensions Produced by High Shear and High Pressure Homogenization and Their Application in Tomato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Adhikari, Benu P.; Li, Dong

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high shear and high pressure homogenization on the rheological properties (steady shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus, and deformation) and homogeneity in tomato fiber suspensions. The tomato fiber suspensions at different concentrations (0.1%–1%, w/w) were subjected to high shear and high pressure homogenization and the morphology (distribution of fiber particles), rheological properties, and color parameters of the homogenized suspensions were measured. The homogenized suspensions were significantly more uniform compared to unhomogenized suspension. The homogenized suspensions were found to better resist the deformation caused by external stress (creep behavior). The apparent viscosity and storage and loss modulus of homogenized tomato fiber suspension are comparable with those of commercial tomato ketchup even at the fiber concentration as low as 0.5% (w/w), implying the possibility of using tomato fiber as thickener. The model tomato sauce produced using tomato fiber showed desirable consistency and color. These results indicate that the application of tomato fiber in tomato-based food products would be desirable and beneficial. PMID:29743890

  5. Effect of bulk modulus on deformation of the brain under rotational accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, S.; Daphalapurkar, N. P.; Cetingul, M. P.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury such as that developed as a consequence of blast is a complex injury with a broad range of symptoms and disabilities. Computational models of brain biomechanics hold promise for illuminating the mechanics of traumatic brain injury and for developing preventive devices. However, reliable material parameters are needed for models to be predictive. Unfortunately, the properties of human brain tissue are difficult to measure, and the bulk modulus of brain tissue in particular is not well characterized. Thus, a wide range of bulk modulus values are used in computational models of brain biomechanics, spanning up to three orders of magnitude in the differences between values. However, the sensitivity of these variations on computational predictions is not known. In this work, we study the sensitivity of a 3D computational human head model to various bulk modulus values. A subject-specific human head model was constructed from T1-weighted MRI images at 2-mm3 voxel resolution. Diffusion tensor imaging provided data on spatial distribution and orientation of axonal fiber bundles for modeling white matter anisotropy. Non-injurious, full-field brain deformations in a human volunteer were used to assess the simulated predictions. The comparison suggests that a bulk modulus value on the order of GPa gives the best agreement with experimentally measured in vivo deformations in the human brain. Further, simulations of injurious loading suggest that bulk modulus values on the order of GPa provide the closest match with the clinical findings in terms of predicated injured regions and extent of injury.

  6. Effects of Bone Young’s Modulus on Finite Element Analysis in the Lateral Ankle Biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. X. Niu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element analysis (FEA is a powerful tool in biomechanics. The mechanical properties of biological tissue used in FEA modeling are mainly from experimental data, which vary greatly and are sometimes uncertain. The purpose of this study was to research how Young’s modulus affects the computations of a foot-ankle FEA model. A computer simulation and an in-vitro experiment were carried out to investigate the effects of incremental Young’s modulus of bone on the stress and strain outcomes in the computational simulation. A precise 3-dimensional finite element model was constructed based on an in-vitro specimen of human foot and ankle. Young’s moduli were assigned as four levels of 7.3, 14.6, 21.9 and 29.2 GPa respectively. The proximal tibia and fibula were completely limited to six degrees of freedom, and the ankle was loaded to inversion 10° and 20° through the calcaneus. Six cadaveric foot-ankle specimens were loaded as same as the finite element model, and strain was measured at two positions of the distal fibula. The bone stress was less affected by assignment of Young’s modulus. With increasing of Young’s modulus, the bone strain decreased linearly. Young’s modulus of 29.2 GPa was advisable to get the satisfactory surface strain results. In the future study, more ideal model should be constructed to represent the nonlinearity, anisotropy and inhomogeneity, as the same time to provide reasonable outputs of the interested parameters.

  7. Origins of Shear Jamming for Frictional Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Hu; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Granular systems have been shown to be able to behave like solids, under shear, even when their densities are below the critical packing fraction for frictionless isotropic jamming. To understand such a phenomena, called shear jamming, the question we address here is: how does shear bring a system from a unjammed state to a jammed state, where the coordination number, Z, is no less than 3, the isotropic jamming point for frictional grains? Since Z can be used to distinguish jammed states from unjammed ones, it is vital to understand how shear increases Z. We here propose a set of three particles in contact, denoted as a trimer, as the basic unit to characterize the deformation of the system. Trimers, stabilized by inter-grain friction, fail under a certain amount of shear and bend to make extra contacts to regain stability. By defining a projection operator of the opening angle of the trimer to the compression direction in the shear, O, we see a systematically linear decrease of this quantity with respect to shear strain, demonstrating the bending of trimers as expected. In addition, the average change of O from one shear step to the next shows a good collapse when plotted against Z, indicating a universal behavior in the process of shear jamming. We acknowledge support from NSF DMR1206351, NASA NNX15AD38G, the William M. Keck Foundation and a RT-MRSEC Fellowship.

  8. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs

  9. A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido; Giese, Jörg; Berger, Alfons; Gnos, Edwin

    2010-12-01

    The Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar has been considered in previous studies to be a >350-km-long, intracrustal strike-slip shear zone of Precambrian/Cambrian age. Because of its oblique strike to the east and west coast of Madagascar, the Ranotsara shear zone has been correlated with shear zones in southern India and eastern Africa in Gondwana reconstructions. Our assessment using remote sensing data and field-based investigations, however, reveals that what previously has been interpreted as the Ranotsara shear zone is in fact a composite structure with a ductile deflection zone confined to its central segment and prominent NW-SE trending brittle faulting along most of its length. We therefore prefer the more neutral term “Ranotsara Zone”. Lithologies, tectonic foliations, and axial trace trajectories of major folds can be followed from south to north across most of the Ranotsara Zone and show only a marked deflection along its central segment. The ductile deflection zone is interpreted as a result of E-W indentation of the Antananarivo Block into the less rigid, predominantly metasedimentary rocks of the Southwestern Madagascar Block during a late phase of the Neoproterozoic/Cambrian East African Orogeny (c. 550-520 Ma). The Ranotsara Zone shows significant NW-SE striking brittle faulting that reactivates part of the NW-SE striking ductile structures in the flexure zone, but also extends along strike toward the NW and toward the SE. Brittle reactivation of ductile structures along the central segment of the Ranotsara Zone, confirmed by apatite-fission track results, may have led to the formation of a shallow Neogene basin underlying the Ranotsara plain. The present-day drainage pattern suggests on-going normal fault activity along the central segment. The Ranotsara Zone is not a megascale intracrustal strike-slip shear zone that crosscuts the entire basement of southern Madagascar. It can therefore not be used as a piercing point in Gondwana

  10. Shear thinning behaviors in magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetere, F. P.; Cassetta, M.; Perugini, D.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on magma rheology are of fundamental importance to understanding magmatic processes from depth to surface. Since viscosity is one of the most important parameter controlling eruption mechanisms, as well as lava flow emplacement, a comprehensive knowledge on the evolution of magma viscosities during crystallization is required. We present new viscosity data on partly crystalized basalt, andesite and analogue lavas comparable to those erupted on Mercury's northern volcanic plains. High-temperature viscosity measurements were performed using a rotational Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the PVRG labs, in Perugia (Italy) (http://pvrg.unipg.it). The relative proportion of phases in each experimental run were determined by image analysis on BS-SEM images at different magnifications; phases are glasses, clinopyroxene, spinel, plagioclase for the basalt, plagioclase and spinel for the andesite and pure enstatite and clinopyroxenes, for the analogue Mercury's composition. Glass and crystalline fractions determined by image analysis well correlate with compositions of residual melts. In order to constrain the viscosity (η) variations as a function of crystallinity, shear rate (γ) was varied from 0.1 to 5 s-1. Viscosity vs. time at constant temperature shows a typical S-shape curve. In particular, for basaltic composition η vary from 3.1-3.8 Pa s [log η] at 1493 K and crystallinity of 19 area % as γ vary from 1.0 to 0.1 s-1; the andesite viscosity evolution is 3.2 and 3.7 Pa s [log η] as γ varies from 1 to 0.1 at 1493 K and crystal content of 17 area %; finally, Mercury's analogue composition was investigated at different temperature ranging from 1533 to 1502 K (Vetere et al., 2017). Results, for γ = 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 s-1, show viscosity variation between 2.7-4.0, 2.5-3.4 and 2.0-3.0 [log η inPa s] respectively while crystallinity vary from 9 to 27 (area %). As viscosity decreases as shear rate increases, these data points to a shear thinning behaviour

  11. LensEnt2: Maximum-entropy weak lens reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P. J.; Hobson, M. P.; Gull, S. F.; Bridle, S. L.

    2013-08-01

    LensEnt2 is a maximum entropy reconstructor of weak lensing mass maps. The method takes each galaxy shape as an independent estimator of the reduced shear field and incorporates an intrinsic smoothness, determined by Bayesian methods, into the reconstruction. The uncertainties from both the intrinsic distribution of galaxy shapes and galaxy shape estimation are carried through to the final mass reconstruction, and the mass within arbitrarily shaped apertures are calculated with corresponding uncertainties. The input is a galaxy ellipticity catalog with each measured galaxy shape treated as a noisy tracer of the reduced shear field, which is inferred on a fine pixel grid assuming positivity, and smoothness on scales of w arcsec where w is an input parameter. The ICF width w can be chosen by computing the evidence for it.

  12. Signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and their trade-offs with resolution in axial-shear strain elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    In axial-shear strain elastography, the local axial-shear strain resulting from the application of quasi-static axial compression to an inhomogeneous material is imaged. In this paper, we investigated the image quality of the axial-shear strain estimates in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR asse ) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR asse ) using simulations and experiments. Specifically, we investigated the influence of the system parameters (beamwidth, transducer element pitch and bandwidth), signal processing parameters (correlation window length and axial window shift) and mechanical parameters (Young's modulus contrast, applied axial strain) on the SNR asse and CNR asse . The results of the study show that the CNR asse (SNR asse ) is maximum for axial-shear strain values in the range of 0.005-0.03. For the inclusion/background modulus contrast range considered in this study ( asse (SNR asse ) is maximum for applied axial compressive strain values in the range of 0.005%-0.03%. This suggests that the RF data acquired during axial elastography can be used to obtain axial-shear strain elastograms, since this range is typically used in axial elastography as well. The CNR asse (SNR asse ) remains almost constant with an increase in the beamwidth while it increases as the pitch increases. As expected, the axial shift had only a weak influence on the CNR asse (SNR asse ) of the axial-shear strain estimates. We observed that the differential estimates of the axial-shear strain involve a trade-off between the CNR asse (SNR asse ) and the spatial resolution only with respect to pitch and not with respect to signal processing parameters. Simulation studies were performed to confirm such an observation. The results demonstrate a trade-off between CNR asse and the resolution with respect to pitch

  13. Material model for shear of the buffer - evaluation of laboratory test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Dueck, Ann; Johannesson, Lars-Erik

    2010-12-01

    The report describes the material model of bentonite used for analysing a rock shear through a deposition hole. The old model used in SR-Can has been considerably changed. The new reference model that has been developed for SR-Site is described and motivated. The relevant properties of the buffer that affect the response to a rock shear are (in addition to the bentonite type) the density (which yields a swelling pressure), the shear strength, the stiffness before the maximum shear stress is reached and the shear rate, which also affects the shear strength. Since the shear caused by an earthquake is very fast and the hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite is very low there is no possibility for the pore water in the water saturated bentonite to be redistributed. Since the compressibility of water and particles are negligible, the bentonite can be modelled as a solid material that cannot change volume but only exhibit shear deformations. A proper and simple model that behaves accordingly is a model with von Mises' stress modelled as a function of the strain (stress-strain model). The model is elastic-plastic with an E-modulus that determines the behaviour until the material starts yielding whereupon the plastic strain is modelled as a function of von Mises' stress and added to the elastic strain. Included in the model is also a strain rate dependency of the stress-strain relation, which ranges between the strain rates 10 -6 1/s 3 1/s. The reference material model is derived from a large number of laboratory tests made on different bentonites at different strain rates, densities and with different techniques. Since it cannot be excluded that the exchangeable cat-ions in the Na-bentonite MX-80 is exchanged to calcium-ions the Ca-bentonite Deponit CaN is proposed to be used as reference material. The overall conclusion is that a relevant and probably also slightly conservative material model of Ca-converted MX-80 is derived, presented and well motivated

  14. Elastin governs the mechanical response of medial collateral ligament under shear and transverse tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Heath B; Valdez, William R; Scott, Sara A; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-01

    Elastin is a highly extensible structural protein network that provides near-elastic resistance to deformation in biological tissues. In ligament, elastin is localized between and along the collagen fibers and fascicles. When ligament is stretched along the primary collagen axis, elastin supports a relatively high percentage of load. We hypothesized that elastin may also provide significant load support under elongation transverse to the primary collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis. Quasi-static transverse tensile and shear material tests were performed to quantify the mechanical contributions of elastin during deformation of porcine medial collateral ligament. Dose response studies were conducted to determine the level of elastase enzymatic degradation required to produce a maximal change in the mechanical response. Maximal changes in peak stress occurred after 3h of treatment with 2U/ml porcine pancreatic elastase. Elastin degradation resulted in a 60-70% reduction in peak stress and a 2-3× reduction in modulus for both test protocols. These results demonstrate that elastin provides significant resistance to elongation transverse to the collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis while only constituting 4% of the tissue dry weight. The magnitudes of the elastin contribution to peak transverse and shear stress were approximately 0.03 MPa, as compared to 2 MPa for axial tensile tests, suggesting that elastin provides a highly anisotropic contribution to the mechanical response of ligament and is the dominant structural protein resisting transverse and shear deformation of the tissue. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elastic Characterization of Transversely Isotropic Soft Materials by Dynamic Shear and Asymmetric Indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, R.; Feng, Y.; Okamoto, R. J.; Jesuraj, N.; Sakiyama-Elbert, S. E.; Genin, G. M.; Bayly, P. V.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical characterization of soft anisotropic materials is a fundamental challenge because of difficulties in applying mechanical loads to soft matter and the need to combine information from multiple tests. A method to characterize the linear elastic properties of transversely isotropic soft materials is proposed, based on the combination of dynamic shear testing (DST) and asymmetric indentation. The procedure was demonstrated by characterizing a nearly incompressible transversely isotropic soft material. A soft gel with controlled anisotropy was obtained by polymerizing a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin solutions in a high field magnet (B = 11.7 T); fibrils in the resulting gel were predominantly aligned parallel to the magnetic field. Aligned fibrin gels were subject to dynamic (20–40 Hz) shear deformation in two orthogonal directions. The shear storage modulus was 1.08 ± 0. 42 kPa (mean ± std. dev.) for shear in a plane parallel to the dominant fiber direction, and 0.58 ± 0.21 kPa for shear in the plane of isotropy. Gels were indented by a rectangular tip of a large aspect ratio, aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the normal to the plane of transverse isotropy. Aligned fibrin gels appeared stiffer when indented with the long axis of a rectangular tip perpendicular to the dominant fiber direction. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of asymmetric indentation were used to determine the relationship between direction-dependent differences in indentation stiffness and material parameters. This approach enables the estimation of a complete set of parameters for an incompressible, transversely isotropic, linear elastic material. PMID:22757501

  16. Comparison of direct shear and simple shear responses of municipal solid waste in USA

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Although large-size simple shear (SS) testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) may arguably provide a more realistic estimate of the shear strength (τ ) of MSW than the most commonly used direct shear (DS) testing, a systematic comparison between

  17. Turbulence suppression by E x B shear in JET optimized shear pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.A.; Budny, R.V.; Challis, C.D.; Conway, G.

    2000-01-01

    The authors calculate microinstability growth rates in JET optimized shear plasmas with a comprehensive gyrofluid model, including sheared E x B flows, trapped electrons, and all dominant ion species in realistic magnetic geometry. They find good correlation between E x B shear suppression of microinstabilities and both the formation and collapse of the internal transport barrier

  18. Calculation of wear (f.i. wear modulus) in the plastic cup of a hip joint prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    The wear equation is applied to the wear process in a hip joint prosthesis and a wear modulus is defined. The sliding distance, wear modulus, wear volume, wear area, contact angle and the maximum normal stress were calculated and the theoretical calculations applied to test results. During the wear

  19. Particle size dependence of the Young's modulus of filled polymers: 2. Annealing and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenberg, P.H.T.; Haan, de J.W.; Ven, van de L.J.M.; Heikens, D.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results are reported from which it appears that in the case of polymer filled with silane-treated glass beads the Young's modulus is, in accordance with present theory, independent of the particle size of the filler. However, if pure glass beads are used as filler, the Young's modulus

  20. Tensile and shear strength of adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibolt, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    This experiment is conducted in a freshman-level course: Introduction to Engineering Materials. There are no prerequisites for the course although students should have some knowledge of basic algebra. The objectives are to tension and shear test adhesives and to determine the tensile and shear properties of adhesives. Details of equipment of procedure are given.

  1. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  2. Shear stresses around circular cylindrical openings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Van Weelden, C.; Blom, C.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper stress concentrations are studied around circular cylindrical openings or voids in a linear elastic continuum. The loading is such that a uniform shear stress occurs in the continuum, which is disturbed by the opening. The shear stress is in the direction of the centre axis of the

  3. Rating precast prestressed concrete bridges for shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Shear capacity of real-world prestressed concrete girders designed in the 1960s and 1970s is a concern because : AASHTO Standard Specifications (AASHTO-STD) employed the quarter-point rule for shear design, which is less : conservative for shea...

  4. Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, M.; Bastian, S.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    Understanding the short term elastic properties, (i.e. the instantaneous modulus) of Kapton is essential in determining the loss of prestress during storage and operation of SSC dipole magnets. The magnet prestress contributes directly to the coil response to the Lorentz forces during ramping. The instantaneous modulus is important in extrapolating short term stress relaxation data to longer times. Most theoretical fits assume a time independent component and a time dependent component. The former may be represented by the Kapton modulus near zero K where all relaxation processes have been ''frozen'' out. Modulus measurements at 77K and 4.2K may point to a correct value for the near zero K modulus. Three companion papers presented at this conference will be: ''Stress Relaxation in SSC 50 mm Dipole Coils'' ''Temperature Dependence of the Viscoelastic Properties of SSC Coil Insulation (Kapton)'' ''Theoretical Methods for Creep and Stress Relaxation Studies of SSC Coil.''

  5. Fatigue testing of wood composites for aerogenerator blades. Pt. 11: Assessment of fatigue damage accumulation using a fatigue modulus approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, C L; Ansell, M P [Bath Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Stress-strain hysteresis loops have been captured during fatigue tests performed at R=10 (compression-compression) and R=0.1 (tension-tension) on Khaya epoxy wood composites. A fatigue modulus approach, proposed by Hwang and Han in 1989, has been applied to the data and a relationship established between the initial change in fatigue modulus and fatigue life. By following changes in fatigue modulus during the first 100 test cycles it is possible to predict the life of the sample allowing rapid evaluation of the fatigue performance of wood composites. Fatigue modulus values have also been calculated for hysteresis loops captured during complex load - time history tests. Similar trends in change in fatigue modulus suggest that this approach could be used in complex loading conditions to evaluate fatigue damage accumulation and predict fatigue life. (Author)

  6. Elastic-modulus enhancement during room-temperature aging and its suppression in metastable Ti–Nb-Based alloys with low body-centered cubic phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tane, M.; Hagihara, K.; Ueda, M.; Nakano, T.; Okuda, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the elastic properties during room-temperature aging (RT aging) of metastable Ti–Nb-based alloy single crystals with low body-centered cubic (bcc)-phase stability were investigated. The elastic stiffness components of Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr alloys with different Nb concentrations were measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy during RT aging; the results revealed that shear moduli c ′ and c 44 were increased by RT aging. In the alloy with the lowest Nb concentration, i.e., with the lowest bcc phase stability, shear moduli c ′ and c 44 were enhanced by the largest amount. The increase rates were ∼5% for 1.1 × 10 7  s (127 days), whereas the bulk modulus was hardly changed by aging. In Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr–O alloys with different oxygen concentrations, shear moduli c ′ and c 44 of the alloy with the lowest oxygen concentration increased most significantly. Moreover, the electrical resistivity of Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr and Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr–O alloys was increased by RT aging. Importantly, the enhancements of shear moduli and electrical resistivity were suppressed by increases in the bcc-phase stability (i.e., increase in the Nb concentration) and oxygen concentration; these factors are known to suppress ω (hexagonal) phase formation. However, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that only a diffuse ω structure—an ω-like lattice distortion—was formed after RT aging. On the basis of alloying element effects, TEM observations, and analysis of the changes in elastic properties by using a micromechanics model, it was deduced that the enhancements of shear moduli and electrical resistivity were possibly caused by the formation of a diffuse ω structure.

  7. Friction of Shear-Fracture Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikilä, T. I.; Pylväinen, J. I.; Åström, J.

    2017-12-01

    A shear fracture of brittle solids under compression undergoes a substantial evolution from the initial microcracking to a fully formed powder-filled shear zone. Experiments covering the entire process are relatively easy to conduct, but they are very difficult to investigate in detail. Numerically, the large strain limit has remained a challenge. An efficient simulation model and a custom-made experimental device are employed to test to what extent a shear fracture alone is sufficient to drive material to spontaneous self-lubrication. A "weak shear zone" is an important concept in geology, and a large number of explanations, specific for tectonic conditions, have been proposed. We demonstrate here that weak shear zones are far more general, and that their emergence only demands that a microscopic, i.e., fragment-scale, stress relaxation mechanism develops during the fracture process.

  8. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  9. Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Lauren D C; Ku, David N

    2017-06-21

    The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. The prediction of high-shear thrombosis is a major area of biofluid mechanics in which point-of-care testing and computational modeling are promising future directions for clinically relevant research. Further research in this area will enable identification of patients at high risk for arterial thrombosis, improve prevention and treatment based on shear-dependent biological mechanisms, and improve blood-contacting device design to reduce thrombosis risk.

  10. Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affouard, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test [fr

  11. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  12. Rheology of polyaniline-dinonylnaphthalene disulfonic acid (DNNDSA) montmorillonite clay nanocomposites in the sol state: shear thinning versus pseudo-solid behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Ashesh; Nandi, Arun K

    2008-04-01

    The melt rheology of polyaniline (PANI)-dinonylnaphthalenedisulfonic acid (DNNDSA) gel nanocomposites (GNCs) with organically modified (modified with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide)-montmorillonite (om-MMT) clay has been studied for three different clay concentrations at the temperature range 120-160 degrees C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dc-conductivity data (approximately 10(-3) S/cm) indicate that the PANI-DNNDSA melt is in sol state and it is not de-doped at that condition. The WAXS data indicate that in GNC-1 sol clay tactoids are in exfoliated state but in the other sols they are in intercalated state. The zero shear viscosity (eta0), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") increase than that of pure gel in the GNCs. The pure sol and the sols of gel nanocomposites (GNCs) exhibit Newtonian behavior for low shear rate (clay concentration and the power law index (n) decreases with increase in clay concentration in the GNCs indicating increased shear thinning for the clay addition. Thus the sols of om-clay nanocomposites of PANI-DNNDSA system are easily processible. The storage modulus (G') of GNC sols are higher than that of pure PANI-DNNDSA sol, GNC1 sol shows a maximum of 733% increase in storage modulus and the percent increase decreases with increase in temperature. Exfoliated nature of clay tactoids has been attributed for the above dramatic increase of G'. The PANI-DNNDSA sol nanocomposites behave as a pseudo-solid at higher frequency where G' and loss modulus (G") show a crossover point in the frequency sweep experiment at a fixed temperature. The crossover frequency decreases with increase in clay concentration and it increases with increase in temperature for GNC sols. The pseudo-solid behavior has been explained from jamming or network formation of clay tactoids under shear. A probable explanation of the two apparently contradictory phenomena

  13. Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of lipid bilayers in different phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh eJadidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A general computational method is introduced to estimate the Poisson's ratio for membranes with small thickness.In this method, the Poisson's ratio is calculated by utilizing a rescaling of inter-particle distancesin one lateral direction under periodic boundary conditions. As an example for the coarse grained lipid model introduced by Lenz and Schmid, we calculate the Poisson's ratio in the gel, fluid, and interdigitated phases. Having the Poisson's ratio, enable us to obtain the Young's modulus for the membranes in different phases. The approach may be applied to other membranes such as graphene and tethered membranes in orderto predict the temperature dependence of its Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus.

  14. Determining the Young's modulus of a cellular titanium implant by FEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Yu. N.; Golodnov, A. I.; Stepanov, S. I.; Kovalev, E. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The role of additive manufacturing is noted for the construction of titanium medical implants. The purpose of the study is to determine the Young's modulus of cellular titanium implants, which is based on calculations performed by finite element analysis. A honeycomb structure from intersecting cylinder surfaces is offered for the implant made of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Boundary conditions are stated for the loading of the implant structure. It is demonstrated that the Young's modulus can be reduced more than three times comparing to a solid titanium alloy. Zones of strain and stress localization located near the abutment of the cylindrical surfaces. Recommendations for the further improvement of the implant architecture are generated.

  15. Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio of Monolayer Graphyne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rouhi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its numerous potential applications, two-dimensional monolayer graphyne, a novel form of carbon allotropes with sp and sp2 carbon atoms, has received little attention so far, perhaps as a result of its unknown properties. Especially, determination of the exact values of its elastic properties can pave the way for future studies on this nanostructure. Hence, this article describes a density functional theory (DFT investigation into elastic properties of graphyne including surface Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The DFT analyses are performed within the framework of generalized gradient approximation (GGA, and the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE exchange correlation is adopted. This study indicates that the elastic modulus of graphyne is approximately half of that of graphene due to its lower number of bonds.

  16. In situ determination of a rock mass modulus using a high resolution tiltmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, B.; Husein Malkawi, A.I. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Blum, P.A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-04-01

    A very sensitive, compact tiltmeter made of melted silica, developed for the measurement of small deformations of various civil engineering structures, was described. The instrument is capable of giving a continuous record and was used to establish a new approach to directly evaluating the in situ average elastic rock mass modulus. Such information is important in decision making during the design stages of large civil engineering works, such as dams, nuclear plant facilities, and underground structures. Five tiltmeters were installed on the facades of the Louvre in Paris to study the deformation induced by internal structural work and by the impact of the Paris metro traffic movement. The data was used to determine displacement using the Boussinesq equation. Results were consistent with typical elastic rock-mass modulus for the rock found in the museum`s foundations. 13 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  17. Printing Three-Dimensional Heterogeneities in the Elastic Modulus of an Elastomeric Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K

    2016-05-04

    We present a rapid and controllable method to create microscale heterogeneities in the 3D stiffness of a soft material by printing patterns with a ferrofluid ink. An ink droplet moved through a liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) volume using an externally applied magnetic field sheds clusters of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in its wake. By varying the field spatiotemporally, a well-defined three-dimensional curvilinear feature is printed that contains MNP clusters. Subsequent cross-linking of the PDMS preserves the feature in place after the magnetic field is removed. Since the ferrofluid ink interferes with the cross-linking of PDMS, a 3D print containing ink density variations leads to corresponding spatial deviations in the elastic modulus of the matrix. The modulus is mapped in the experiments with atomic force microscopy. This rapid method to print 3D heterogeneities in soft matter promises the ability to mimic mechanical variations that occur in natural biomaterials.

  18. Zipping, entanglement, and the elastic modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yoonjin; Gao, Yuan; Panzer, Matthew A.; Xiang, Rong; Maruyama, Shigeo; Kenny, Thomas W.; Cai, Wei; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Reliably routing heat to and from conversion materials is a daunting challenge for a variety of innovative energy technologies––from thermal solar to automotive waste heat recovery systems––whose efficiencies degrade due to massive thermomechanical stresses at interfaces. This problem may soon be addressed by adhesives based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, which promise the revolutionary combination of high through-plane thermal conductivity and vanishing in-plane mechanical stiffness. Here, we report the data for the in-plane modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films using a microfabricated resonator method. Molecular simulations and electron microscopy identify the nanoscale mechanisms responsible for this property. The zipping and unzipping of adjacent nanotubes and the degree of alignment and entanglement are shown to govern the spatially varying local modulus, thereby providing the route to engineered materials with outstanding combinations of mechanical and thermal properties. PMID:24309375

  19. Evaluation of time-accelerated irradiation method of elastomer by modulus-ultimate elongation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki; Oka, Toshitaka; Hama, Yosimasa

    2009-01-01

    'Generalized modulus-ultimate elongation profile' was induced from the relationship between the modulus and the ultimate elongation of an elastomer that was quantitatively added crosslinking and scission. This profile can be used to evaluate the time-accelerated irradiation methods of ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer. The irradiation under low dose rate (0.33 kGy/h) at room temperature was the reference condition. The short-time irradiation condition was 4.2 kGy/h in 0.5 MPa oxygen at room temperature and 5.0 kGy/h in air at 70 o C. The former tended to bring about the higher ratio of scission than the reference condition; the latter tended to bring about the higher ratio of crosslinking.

  20. Influence of seed layer moduli on finite element method-based modulus backcalculation result

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matsui, K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ) Static backcalculation E1 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 10 50 - 11 00 11 00 - 11 50 11 50 - 12 00 12 00 - 12 50 12 50 - 13 00 13 00 - 13 50 13 50 - 14 00 Layer modulus (MPa) Fr e qu e n c y E2 0 200 400... 600 800 1000 1200 10 0 - 12 0 12 0 - 14 0 14 0 - 16 0 16 0 - 18 0 18 0 - 20 0 20 0 - 22 0 22 0 - 24 0 Layer modulus (MPa) Fr e qu e n c y E3 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 70 - 80 80 - 90 90 - 10 0...

  1. Young's modulus and fracture toughness of silicon nitride ceramics at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouxel, T. [Rennes Univ. (France). Lab. de Recherche en Mecanique Applicee

    2002-07-01

    The temperature dependencies of Young's modulus (E) and fracture toughness (K{sub 1c}) of several silicon nitride-based monolithic and composite materials, are reviewed. A transition range is observed between 1130 and 1180 C on the E(T) curves, which is systematically 150 to 200 C above the T{sub g} of oxynitride glasses of composition close to that of the intergranular glassy pockets. It is thus supposed that this transition reflects the behaviour of the interfacial glassy films. The higher the glassy phase content, the higher is the temperature sensitivity. The presence of SiC particles greatly attenuates the sensitivity. Thus, Young's modulus decreases more slowly with temperature and fracture toughness changes little up to 1300 C. The K{sub 1c} (T) curves exhibit four different stages which are discussed and interpreted on the basis of a theoretical model. (orig.)

  2. The information exchange between moduluses in the system of module programming of the computation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinin, A.I.; Kolesov, V.E.; Nevinitsa, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    The report contains description of the method of construction of computer programs complexes for computation purposes for M-220 computers using the ALGOL-60 code for programming. The complex is organised on the modulus system principle and can include substantial number of modulus programs. The information exchange between separate moduli is done by means of special interpreting program and the information unit exchanged is a specially arranged file of data. For addressing to the interpreting program in the ALGOL-60 frameworks small number of specially created procedure-codes is used. The method proposed gives possibilities to program separate moduli of the complex independently and to expand the complex if necessary. In this case separate moduli or groups of moduli depending on the method of segmentation of the general problem solved by the complex will be of the independent interest and could be used out of the complex as traditional programs. (author)

  3. Size effect of the elastic modulus of rectangular nanobeams: Surface elasticity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hai-Yan; Fan Wen-Liang; Yun Guo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The size-dependent elastic property of rectangular nanobeams (nanowires or nanoplates) induced by the surface elasticity effect is investigated by using a developed modified core-shell model. The effect of surface elasticity on the elastic modulus of nanobeams can be characterized by two surface related parameters, i.e., inhomogeneous degree constant and surface layer thickness. The analytical results show that the elastic modulus of the rectangular nanobeam exhibits a distinct size effect when its characteristic size reduces below 100 nm. It is also found that the theoretical results calculated by a modified core-shell model have more obvious advantages than those by other models (core-shell model and core-surface model) by comparing them with relevant experimental measurements and computational results, especially when the dimensions of nanostructures reduce to a few tens of nanometers. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  4. High modulus rare earth and beryllium containing silicate glass compositions. [for glass reinforcing fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 16 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of approximately, by weight, 20 to 43% SiO2, 8 to 21% Al2O3, 4 to 10% BeO, 27 to 58% of at least one oxide selected from a first group consisting of Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Ce2O3, Ce2O3, and the mixed rare earth oxides, and 3 to 12% of at least one oxide selected from a second group consisting of MgO, ZrO2, ZnO and CaO are described. The molar ratio of BeO to the total content of the first group oxides is from 1.0 to 3.0.

  5. Dielectric and modulus studies of polycrystalline BaZrO3 ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Deepash S.; Singh, Sunder; Kumar, Anil; Bhattacharya, D.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, dielectric and modulus studies of polycrystalline BaZrO3 ceramic, prepared by modified combustion method followed by conventional sintering, are investigated over the frequency range of 100 Hz to 106 Hz at different temperatures from 250 to 500 °C in air. The high value of dielectric constant (ɛ' ˜ 103) of BaZrO3 at high temperature and low frequency can be attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanism as well as to the thermally activated mechanism of charge carriers. Electric modulus reveal two type relaxations in the 250 °C to 800 °C temperature region as studied at different frequencies over 100 Hz to 106 Hz in air.

  6. Correlation between vortices and wall shear stress in a curved artery model under pulsatile flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    One of the most physiologically relevant factors within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. The wall shear stress affects endothelial cells via mechanotransduction and atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the shear stress is both oscillatory and multidirectional. Also, the combined effect of curvature and pulsatility in cardiovascular flows produces unsteady vortices. In this work, our goal is to assess the correlation between multiple vortex pairs and wall shear stress. To accomplish this, we use an in-house high-order flux reconstruction Navier-Stokes solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180° curved artery model. We use a physiologically relevant flow rate and generate results using both fully developed and uniform entrance conditions, the latter motivated by the fact that flow upstream to a curved artery may not be fully developed. Under these two inflow conditions, we characterize the evolution of various vortex pairs and their subsequent effect on several wall shear stress metrics. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  7. Experimental Characteristics of Dry Stack Masonry under Compression and Shear Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of dry stack masonry (DSM is influenced by the interaction of the infill with the frame (especially the joints between bricks, which requires further research. This study investigates the compression and shear behaviors of DSM. First, a series of compression tests were carried out on both masonry prism with mortar (MP_m and DSM prism (MP_ds. The failure mode of each prism was determined. Different from the MP_m, the stress-strain relationship of the MP_ds was characterized by an upward concavity at the initial stage. The compression strength of the MP_ds was slightly reduced by 15%, while the elastic modulus was reduced by over 62%. In addition, 36 shear-compression tests were carried out under cyclic loads to emphasize the influence of various loads on the shear-compression behavior of DSM. The results showed that the Mohr-Coulomb friction law adequately represents the failure of dry joints at moderate stress levels, and the varying friction coefficients under different load amplitudes cannot be neglected. The experimental setup and results are valuable for further research.

  8. Experimental Characteristics of Dry Stack Masonry under Compression and Shear Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun; Totoev, Yuri Zarevich; Liu, Hongjun; Wei, Chunli

    2015-12-12

    The behavior of dry stack masonry (DSM) is influenced by the interaction of the infill with the frame (especially the joints between bricks), which requires further research. This study investigates the compression and shear behaviors of DSM. First, a series of compression tests were carried out on both masonry prism with mortar (MP_m) and DSM prism (MP_ds). The failure mode of each prism was determined. Different from the MP_m, the stress-strain relationship of the MP_ds was characterized by an upward concavity at the initial stage. The compression strength of the MP_ds was slightly reduced by 15%, while the elastic modulus was reduced by over 62%. In addition, 36 shear-compression tests were carried out under cyclic loads to emphasize the influence of various loads on the shear-compression behavior of DSM. The results showed that the Mohr-Coulomb friction law adequately represents the failure of dry joints at moderate stress levels, and the varying friction coefficients under different load amplitudes cannot be neglected. The experimental setup and results are valuable for further research.

  9. Effect of percentage of low plastic fines on the unsaturated shear strength of compacted gravel soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low plastic fines in gravel soils affect its unsaturated shear strength due to the contribution of matric suction that arises in micro and macro pores found within and between aggregates. The shear strength of five different types of prepared gravel soils is measured and is compared with a theoretical model (Fredlund et al., 1978 to predict the unsaturated shear strength. The results are consistent to a great extent except the case of dry clayey gravel soil. It is also found that on inundation of gravel soils containing plastic fines greater than 12% a considerable reduction in both the strength and the stiffness modulus is noticed. This 12% percentage is close to the accepted 15% percentage of fines given by ASTM D4318 (American society for testing material. The angle of internal friction that arises due to matric suction decreases with the increase of degree of saturation of soil. The hysteresis of some tested gravel soils is measured and found that it increases by increasing the percentage of fines.

  10. Large strain deformation behavior of polymeric gels in shear- and cavitation rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Kundu, Santanu

    Polymeric gels are used in many applications including in biomedical and in food industries. Investigation of mechanical responses of swollen polymer gels and linking that to the polymer chain dynamics are of significant interest. Here, large strain deformation behavior of two different gel systems and with different network architecture will be presented. We consider biologically relevant polysaccharide hydrogels, formed through ionic and covalent crosslinking, and physically associating triblock copolymer gels in a midblock selective solvent. Gels with similar low-strain shear modulus display distinctly different non-linear rheological behavior in large strain shear deformation. Both these gels display strain-stiffening behavior in shear-deformation prior to macroscopic fracture of the network, however, only the alginate gels display negative normal stress. The cavitation rheology data show that the critical pressure for cavitation is higher for alginate gels than that observed for triblock gels. These distinctly different large-strain deformation behavior has been related to the gel network structure, as alginate chains are much stiffer than the triblock polymer chains.

  11. Microstructural characteristics of adiabatic shear localization in a metastable beta titanium alloy deformed at high strain rate and elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Hongyi, E-mail: h.zhan@uq.edu.au [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Zeng, Weidong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang, Gui [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Defence Material Technology Centre, Level 2, 24 Wakefield St, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Kent, Damon [School of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland 4575 (Australia); Dargusch, Matthew [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Defence Material Technology Centre, Level 2, 24 Wakefield St, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    The microstructural evolution and grain refinement within adiabatic shear bands in the Ti6554 alloy deformed at high strain rates and elevated temperatures have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve, indicating that the initiation of adiabatic shear bands does not lead to the loss of load capacity for the Ti6554 alloy. The outer region of the shear bands mainly consists of cell structures bounded by dislocation clusters. Equiaxed subgrains in the core area of the shear band can be evolved from the subdivision of cell structures or reconstruction and transverse segmentation of dislocation clusters. It is proposed that dislocation activity dominates the grain refinement process. The rotational recrystallization mechanism may operate as the kinetic requirements for it are fulfilled. The coexistence of different substructures across the shear bands implies that the microstructural evolution inside the shear bands is not homogeneous and different grain refinement mechanisms may operate simultaneously to refine the structure. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure within the adiabatic shear band was characterized by TEM. • No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve. • Dislocation activity dominated the grain refinement process. • The kinetic requirements for rotational recrystallization mechanism were fulfilled. • Different grain refinement mechanisms operated simultaneously to refine the structure.

  12. MASKED AREAS IN SHEAR PEAK STATISTICS: A FORWARD MODELING APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, D.; Kratochvil, J. M.; Dawson, W.

    2016-01-01

    The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance

  13. Temperature, Frequency, and Young’s Modulus of an Aluminum Tuning Fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery L. Greer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency produced by a standard C (523.3 Hz aluminum alloy tuning fork when struck at temperatures ranging from 29 ̊C to 300 ̊C was studied. It was found that frequency decreased with increasing temperature with an inverse exponential relationship. The frequency was used to calculate Young’s Modulus for aluminum, with the results being in close agreement with published values.

  14. Young`s modulus of ceramic matrix composites with polysiloxane based matrix at elevated temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Martin; Glogar, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2004), s. 2239-2242 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0177; GA ČR GP106/02/P025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : composite material * Young `s modulus * high temperature Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.864, year: 2004

  15. Convergence analysis of modulus-based matrix splitting iterative methods for implicit complementarity problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An; Cao, Yang; Shi, Quan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a complete version of the convergence theory of the modulus-based matrix splitting iteration methods for solving a class of implicit complementarity problems proposed by Hong and Li (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 23:629-641, 2016). New convergence conditions are presented when the system matrix is a positive-definite matrix and an [Formula: see text]-matrix, respectively.

  16. An autonomic self-healing organogel with a photo-mediated modulus

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yubing

    2016-11-15

    A new method is described for fabricating autonomic, self-healing, deformable organogels. We combined imidazolium-based poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) and azobenzene-grafted poly(carboxylic acid) (PAA-Azo) in N,N-dimethyl formamide. Further, complexing PIL with unirradiated (trans) or irradiated (cis) PAA-Azo tuned the elastic modulus of the organogel. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Determination of Rock Mass Modulus Using the Plate Loading Method at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Riggins, M.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of plate loading tests has recently been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Fielding of these in situ tests as well as other approaches undertaken for the determination of rock mass modulus are described. The various methodologies are evaluated and their data compared. Calculation by existing empirical methods and numerical modeling are compared to each other as well as to field data

  18. Implicit implementation and consistent tangent modulus of a viscoplastic model for polymers

    OpenAIRE

    ACHOUR, Nadia; CHATZIGEORGIOU, George; MERAGHNI, Fodil; CHEMISKY, Yves; FITOUSSI, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the phenomenological viscoplastic DSGZ model (Duan et al., 2001 [13]), developed for glassy or semi-crystalline polymers, is numerically implemented in a three-dimensional framework, following an implicit formulation. The computational methodology is based on the radial return mapping algorithm. This implicit formulation leads to the definition of the consistent tangent modulus which permits the implementation in incremental micromechanical scale transition analysis. The extende...

  19. An autonomic self-healing organogel with a photo-mediated modulus

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yubing; Chen, Zhijun; Wang, Hong; Ackermann, Lisa Maria; Klapper, Markus; Butt, Hans Jü rgen; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    A new method is described for fabricating autonomic, self-healing, deformable organogels. We combined imidazolium-based poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) and azobenzene-grafted poly(carboxylic acid) (PAA-Azo) in N,N-dimethyl formamide. Further, complexing PIL with unirradiated (trans) or irradiated (cis) PAA-Azo tuned the elastic modulus of the organogel. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Determination of elastic modulus for hollow spherical shells via resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaojun [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Xing; Wang, Zongwei [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen, Qian; Qian, Menglu [Institute of Acoustic, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Meng, Jie [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Yongjian [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao, Dangzhong, E-mail: dgaocn@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The axisymmetric frequency equation of an isotropic hollow two-layer sphere is deduced by three dimension elasticity theory and global matrix method. • The simulated results demonstrate that the natural frequencies of a hollow sphere are more strongly dependent on Young’s modulus than Poisson's ratio. • The Young’s moduli of polymer capsules with an sub-millimeter inner radius are measured accurately with an uncertainty of ∼10%. - Abstract: The elastic property of a capsule is one of the essential parameters both in engineering applications and scientific understanding of material nature in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The axisymmetric frequency equation of an isotropic hollow two-layer sphere is deduced by three dimension elasticity theory and global matrix method, and a combined resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(RUS), which consists of a piezoelectric-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(PZT-RUS) and a laser-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(LRUS), is developed for determining the elastic modulus of capsule. To understand the behavior of natural frequencies varying with elastic properties, the dependence of natural frequencies on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are calculated numerically. Some representative polymer capsules are measured using PZT-RUS and LRUS. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the Young’s moduli of these capsules are measured accurately with an uncertainty of ∼10%.

  1. Indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic thin films by atomic force microscopy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeri, D.; Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Rossi, M.; Alippi, A.; Tamburri, E.; Lucci, M.; Davoli, I.; Berezina, S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a nanoindentation technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) that allows one to deduce both indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic materials from the force versus penetration depth dependence, obtained by recording the AFM cantilever deflection as a function of the sample vertical displacement when the tip is pressed against (loading phase) and then removed from (unloading phase) the surface of the sample. Reliable quantitative measurements of both indentation modulus and hardness of the investigated sample are obtained by calibrating the technique through a set of different polymeric samples, used as reference materials, whose mechanical properties have been previously determined by standard indentation tests. By analyzing the dependence of the cantilever deflection versus time, the proposed technique allows one to evaluate and correct the effect of viscoelastic properties of the investigated materials, by adapting a post-experiment data processing procedure well-established for standard depth sensing indentation tests. The technique is described in the case of the measurement of indentation modulus and hardness of a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate), deposited by chronoamperometry on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate.

  2. Indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic thin films by atomic force microscopy: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passeri, D., E-mail: daniele.passeri@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Rossi, M.; Alippi, A. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Tamburri, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Lucci, M.; Davoli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Berezina, S. [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, 01026, Univerzitna 1 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2009-11-15

    We propose a nanoindentation technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) that allows one to deduce both indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic materials from the force versus penetration depth dependence, obtained by recording the AFM cantilever deflection as a function of the sample vertical displacement when the tip is pressed against (loading phase) and then removed from (unloading phase) the surface of the sample. Reliable quantitative measurements of both indentation modulus and hardness of the investigated sample are obtained by calibrating the technique through a set of different polymeric samples, used as reference materials, whose mechanical properties have been previously determined by standard indentation tests. By analyzing the dependence of the cantilever deflection versus time, the proposed technique allows one to evaluate and correct the effect of viscoelastic properties of the investigated materials, by adapting a post-experiment data processing procedure well-established for standard depth sensing indentation tests. The technique is described in the case of the measurement of indentation modulus and hardness of a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate), deposited by chronoamperometry on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate.

  3. The effect of compressive stress on the Young's modulus of unirradiated and irradiated nuclear graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, T.; Usui, T.; Ero, M.; Fukuda, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The Young's moduli of unirradiated and high temperature (800 to 1000 0 C) irradiated graphites for HTGR were measured by the ultrasonic method in the direction of applied compressive stress during and after stressing. The Young's moduli of all the tested graphites decreased with increasing compressive stress both during and after stressing. In order to investigate the reason for the decrease in Young's modulus by applying compressive stress, the mercury pore diameter distributions of a part of the unirradiated and irradiated specimens were measured. The change in pore distribution is believed to be associated with structural changes produced by irradiation and compressive stressing. The residual strain, after removing the compressive stress, showed a good correlation with the decrease in Young's modulus caused by the compressive stress. The decrease in Young's modulus by applying compressive stress was considered to be due to the increase in the mobile dislocation density and the growth or formation of cracks. The results suggest, however, that the mechanism giving the larger contribution depends on the brand of graphite, and in anisotropic graphite it depends on the direction of applied stress and the irradiation conditions. (author)

  4. A Study on Accelerated Thermal Aging of High Modulus Carbon/Epoxy Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials have been used increasingly for various space applications due to the favorable characteristic of high modulus to density ratio and potential for near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion. In composite system, depending on the orientation of fibers, strength and stiffness can be changed so that the optimum structure can be accomplished. This is because the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of carbon fibers is negative. For spacecraft and orbiting space structure, which are thermally cycled by moving through the earth' shadow for at least 5 years, it is necessary to investigate the change of properties of the material over time. In this study, thermal aging of epoxy matrix/high modulus carbon fiber composite materials are accelerated to predict the long term creep property. Specimens are tested at various temperatures of 100~140°C with dynamic mechanical analysis to obtain creep compliances that are functions of time and temperature. Using Time Temperature Superposition method, creep compliance curves at each temperature are shifted to the reference temperature by shift factor and a master curve is generated at the reference temperature. This information is useful to predict the long term thermal aging of high modulus composite material for spacecraft application.

  5. Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete with Cubed Waste Tire Rubbers as Coarse Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Y.; Hermanto, N. I. S.; Pamudji, G.; Wardana, K. P.

    2017-11-01

    One feasible solution to overcome the issue of tire disposal waste is the use of waste tire rubber to replace aggregate in concrete. We have conducted an experimental investigation on the effect of rubber tire waste aggregate in cuboid form on the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete. The test was performed on 72 cylindrical specimens with the height of 300 mm and diameter of 150 mm. We found that the workability of concrete with waste tire rubber aggregate has increased. The concrete density with waste tire rubber aggregate was decreased, and so was the compressive strength. The decrease of compressive strength is up to 64.34%. If the content of waste tire rubber aggregate is more than 40%, then the resulting concrete cannot be categorized as structural concrete. The modulus of elasticity decreased to 59.77%. The theoretical equation developed to determine the modulus of elasticity of concrete with rubber tire waste aggregate has an accuracy of 84.27%.

  6. Nano-fillers to tune Young’s modulus of silicone matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lijin; Xu Zhonghua; Sun Leming; Caveney, Patrick M.; Zhang Mingjun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated nanoparticles, nanofibers, and nanoclays for their filler effects on tuning the Young’s modulus of silicone matrix, a material with broad in vivo applications. Nano-fillers with different shapes, sizes, and surface properties were added into silicone matrix, and then their filler effects were evaluated through experimental studies. It was found that spherical nanoparticles could clearly improve Young’s modulus of the silicone matrix, while nanoclays and carbon nanofibers had limited effects. Smaller spherical nanoparticles were better in performance compared to larger nanoparticles. In addition, enhanced distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix has been observed to improve the filler effect. In order to minimize toxicity of the nanoparticles for in vivo applications, spherical nanoparticles coated with amine, acid, or hydroxide groups were also investigated, but they were found only to diminish the filler effect of nanoparticles. This study demonstrated that spherical nanoparticles could serve as fillers to tune Young’s modulus of silicone matrix for potential applications in medicine.

  7. Fast, High Resolution, and Wide Modulus Range Nanomechanical Mapping with Bimodal Tapping Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Meinhold, Waiman; Revenko, Irène; Proksch, Roger

    2017-10-24

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), also known as amplitude modulated (AM) or AC mode, is a proven, reliable, and gentle imaging mode with widespread applications. Over the several decades that tapping mode has been in use, quantification of tip-sample mechanical properties such as stiffness has remained elusive. Bimodal tapping mode keeps the advantages of single-frequency tapping mode while extending the technique by driving and measuring an additional resonant mode of the cantilever. The simultaneously measured observables of this additional resonance provide the additional information necessary to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the tip-sample mechanics. Specifically, driving the higher cantilever resonance in a frequency modulated (FM) mode allows direct measurement of the tip-sample interaction stiffness and, with appropriate modeling, the set point-independent local elastic modulus. Here we discuss the advantages of bimodal tapping, coined AM-FM imaging, for modulus mapping. Results are presented for samples over a wide modulus range, from a compliant gel (∼100 MPa) to stiff materials (∼100 GPa), with the same type of cantilever. We also show high-resolution (subnanometer) stiffness mapping of individual molecules in semicrystalline polymers and of DNA in fluid. Combined with the ability to remain quantitative even at line scan rates of nearly 40 Hz, the results demonstrate the versatility of AM-FM imaging for nanomechanical characterization in a wide range of applications.

  8. Sensitive determination of the Young's modulus of thin films by polymeric microcantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombi, Paolo; Bergese, Paolo; Bontempi, Elza

    2013-01-01

    A method for the highly sensitive determination of the Young's modulus of TiO2 thin films exploiting the resonant frequency shift of a SU-8 polymer microcantilever (MC) is presented. Amorphous TiO2 films with different thickness ranging from 10 to 125 nm were grown at low temperature (90 °C......) with subnanometer thickness resolution on SU-8 MC arrays by means of atomic layer deposition. The resonant frequencies of the MCs were measured before and after coating and the elastic moduli of the films were determined by a theoretical model developed for this purpose. The Young's modulus of thicker TiO2 films...... (>75 nm) was estimated to be about 110 GPa, this value being consistent with the value of amorphous TiO2. On the other hand we observed a marked decrease of the Young's modulus for TiO2 films with a thickness below 50 nm. This behavior was found not to be related to a decrease of the film mass density...

  9. Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengaram, U. Johnson; Mahmud, Hilmi; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Micro-pores of size 16-24 μm were found on the outer surface of palm kernel shell. → Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident. → Sand content influenced both modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. → Proposed equation predicts modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm 2 of test results. -- Abstract: This paper presents results of an investigation conducted to enhance and predict the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis on palm kernel shell (PKS) was conducted. Further, the effect of varying sand and PKS contents and mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash) on compressive strength and MOE was investigated. The variables include water-to-binder (w/b) and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratios. Nine concrete mixes were prepared, and tests on static and dynamic moduli of elasticity and compressive strength were conducted. The SEM result showed presence of large number of micro-pores on PKS. The mineral admixtures uniformly filled the micro-pores on the outer surface of PKS. Further, the increase in sand content coupled with reduction in PKS content enhanced the compressive strength and static MOE: The highest MOE recorded in this investigation, 11 kN/mm 2 , was twice that previously published. Moreover, the proposed equation based on CEB/FIP code formula appears to predict the MOE close to the experimental values.

  10. Observations of borehole deformation modulus values before and after extensive heating of a granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Yow, J.L.; Caxelrod, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive campaign of in situ deformation modulus measurements was recently completed using a standard NX borehole jack. These results were obtained in a granite intrusive where spent nuclear-fuel assemblies and electrical heaters had raised the rock temperatures 10 0 C to 40 0 C above ambient. We present an analysis of temperature effects based on 41 preheat and 63 post-heat measurements in three boreholes. Using analysis of covariance statistical techniques, we found that the deformation modulus is affected by heat, loading direction, and position within the borehole. The analysis also uncovered a significant interaction between the effects of heating and loading direction. We used 123 measurements from the same boreholes to evaluate the ''Draft Standard Guide for Estimating the In Situ Modulus of Rock Masses Using the NX-Borehole Jack'' which was recently proposed by Heuze. In particular, we examined the criterion for screening measurements in those cases where contact between the jack platen and the borehole wall was incomplete. We found that the proposed screen appears to operate randomly on the data and is therefore ineffective

  11. Can reliable values of Young's modulus be deduced from Fisher's (1971) spinning lens measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, H J; Wilde, G S; Judge, S J

    2006-04-01

    The current textbook view of the causes of presbyopia rests very largely on a series of experiments reported by R.F. Fisher some three decades ago, and in particular on the values of lens Young's modulus inferred from the deformation caused by spinning excised lenses about their optical axis (Fisher 1971) We studied the extent to which inferred values of Young's modulus are influenced by assumptions inherent in the mathematical procedures used by Fisher to interpret the test and we investigated several alternative interpretation methods. The results suggest that modelling assumptions inherent in Fisher's original method may have led to systematic errors in the determination of the Young's modulus of the cortex and nucleus. Fisher's conclusion that the cortex is stiffer than the nucleus, particularly in middle age, may be an artefact associated with these systematic errors. Moreover, none of the models we explored are able to account for Fisher's claim that the removal of the capsule has only a modest effect on the deformations induced in the spinning lens.

  12. Flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of different types of resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Zanchi, Cesar Henrique; Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella de; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether the filler composition of resin composites influences their flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were obtained through a three-point bending test. Twelve bar shaped specimens of 5 commercially available composites--Supreme (3M/ESPE), a universal nanofilled composite; Esthet-X (Dentsply), Z-250 (3M/ESPE), Charisma (Heraeus Kulzer), universal hybrid composites; and Helio Fill (Vigodent), a microfine composite--were confectioned according to the ISO 4049/2000 specifications. The test was performed after a 7-days storage time using a universal test machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The filler weight content was determined by the ashing technique. The data obtained on the mechanical properties were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test (p elasticity results were observed among the universal hybrid composites. The nanofilled composite presented intermediary results. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it could be concluded that the filler content significantly interfered in the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of the composites tested.

  13. Evaluation of linear polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of dental composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Queiroz de Melo Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polymerization shrinkage (LPS, flexural strength (FS and modulus of elasticity (ME of 7 dental composites (Filtek Z350™, Filtek Z250™/3M ESPE; Grandio™, Polofil Supra™/VOCO; TPH Spectrum™, TPH3™, Esthet-X™/Denstply were measured. For the measurement of LPS, composites were applied to a cylindrical metallic mold and polymerized (n = 8. The gap formed at the resin/mold interface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (1500×. For FS and ME, specimens were prepared according to the ISO 4049 specifications (n = 10. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test. TPH Spectrum presented significantly higher LPS values (29.45 µm. Grandio had significantly higher mean values for FS (141.07 MPa and ME (13.91 GPa. The relationship between modulus of elasticity and polymerization shrinkage is the main challenge for maintenance of the adhesive interface, thus composites presenting high shrinkage values, associated with a high modulus of elasticity tend to disrupt the adhesive interface under polymerization.

  14. The Relationship between Trabecular Bone Structure Modeling Methods and the Elastic Modulus as Calculated by FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Topoliński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trabecular bone cores were collected from the femoral head at the time of surgery (hip arthroplasty. Investigated were 42 specimens, from patients with osteoporosis and coxarthrosis. The cores were scanned used computer microtomography (microCT system at an isotropic spatial resolution of 36 microns. Image stacks were converted to finite element models via a bone voxel-to-element algorithm. The apparent modulus was calculated based on the assumptions that for the elastic properties, E=10 MPa and ν=0.3. The compressive deformation as calculated by finite elements (FE analysis was 0.8%. The models were coarsened to effectively change the resolution or voxel size (from 72 microns to 288 microns or from 72 microns to 1080 microns. The aim of our study is to determine how an increase in the distance between scans changes the elastic properties as calculated by FE models. We tried to find a border value voxel size at which the module values were possible to calculate. As the voxel size increased, the mean voxel volume increased and the FEA-derived apparent modulus decreased. The slope of voxel size versus modulus relationship correlated with several architectural indices of trabecular bone.

  15. Numerical analyses of the effect of SG-interlayer shear stiffness on the structural performance of reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louter, C.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the numerical modelling of SentryGlas-laminated reinforced glass beams. In these beams, which have been experimentally investigated in preceding research, a stainless steel reinforcement section is laminated at the inner recessed edge of a triple-layer glass beam by means...... of SentryGlas (SG) interlayer sheets. The current contribution numerically investigates the effect of the SG-interlayer shear stiffness on the overall structural response of the beams. This is done by means of a 3D finite element model in which the individual glass layers, the SG......-interlayers and the reinforcement are incorporated. In the model, the glass parts are allowed to crack, but all other parts are assumed linear elastic throughout the analyses. By changing the shear modulus of the SG-interlayer in multiple analyses, its contribution to the overall structural performance of the beams - especially...

  16. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  17. Update on orbital reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-08-01

    Orbital trauma is common and frequently complicated by ocular injuries. The recent literature on orbital fracture is analyzed with emphasis on epidemiological data assessment, surgical timing, method of approach and reconstruction materials. Computed tomographic (CT) scan has become a routine evaluation tool for orbital trauma, and mobile CT can be applied intraoperatively if necessary. Concomitant serious ocular injury should be carefully evaluated preoperatively. Patients presenting with nonresolving oculocardiac reflex, 'white-eyed' blowout fracture, or diplopia with a positive forced duction test and CT evidence of orbital tissue entrapment require early surgical repair. Otherwise, enophthalmos can be corrected by late surgery with a similar outcome to early surgery. The use of an endoscope-assisted approach for orbital reconstruction continues to grow, offering an alternative method. Advances in alloplastic materials have improved surgical outcome and shortened operating time. In this review of modern orbital reconstruction, several controversial issues such as surgical indication, surgical timing, method of approach and choice of reconstruction material are discussed. Preoperative fine-cut CT image and thorough ophthalmologic examination are key elements to determine surgical indications. The choice of surgical approach and reconstruction materials much depends on the surgeon's experience and the reconstruction area. Prefabricated alloplastic implants together with image software and stereolithographic models are significant advances that help to more accurately reconstruct the traumatized orbit. The recent evolution of orbit reconstruction improves functional and aesthetic results and minimizes surgical complications.

  18. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...

  19. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  20. Muscle Shear Moduli Changes and Frequency of Alternate Muscle Activity of Plantar Flexor Synergists Induced by Prolonged Low-Level Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Akagi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During prolonged low-level contractions, synergist muscles are activated in an alternating pattern of activity and silence called as alternate muscle activity. Resting muscle stiffness is considered to increase due to muscle fatigue. Thus, we investigated whether the difference in the extent of fatigue of each plantar flexor synergist corresponded to the difference in the frequency of alternate muscle activity between the synergists using muscle shear modulus as an index of muscle stiffness. Nineteen young men voluntarily participated in this study. The shear moduli of the resting medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles (MG and LG and soleus muscle (SOL were measured using shear wave ultrasound elastography before and after a 1-h sustained contraction at 10% peak torque during maximal voluntary contraction of isometric plantar flexion. One subject did not accomplish the task and the alternate muscle activity for MG was not found in 2 subjects; therefore, data for 16 subjects were used for further analyses. The magnitude of muscle activation during the fatiguing task was similar in MG and SOL. The percent change in shear modulus before and after the fatiguing task (MG: 16.7 ± 12.0%, SOL: −4.1 ± 13.9%; mean ± standard deviation and the alternate muscle activity during the fatiguing task (MG: 33 [20–51] times, SOL: 30 [17–36] times; median [25th–75th percentile] were significantly higher in MG than in SOL. The contraction-induced change in shear modulus (7.4 ± 20.3% and the alternate muscle activity (37 [20–45] times of LG with the lowest magnitude of muscle activation during the fatiguing task among the plantar flexors were not significantly different from those of the other muscles. These results suggest that the degree of increase in muscle shear modulus induced by prolonged contraction corresponds to the frequency of alternate muscle activity between MG and SOL during prolonged contraction. Thus, it is likely that, compared with

  1. Compression and shear properties of elastomeric bearing using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2Faculty of Science and Technology, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Muang, Chiang Mai, 50300 Thailand.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Standard size samples of four natural rubber compounds, varying the amount of carbon black from 10 to 70 phr, were characterised under uniaxial compression and simple shear tests in order to obtain the strain energy function constants. These constants were then used as hyperelastic material constants for the Windows-based finite element package (COSMOS/M version 1.75. The investigated bearings, made with those NR compounds, had the approximate area and thickness of 50x106 mm2 and 50 mm respectively. Each compound of bearing consisted of four different values of shape factor ranging from about 0.33 to 1.70, according to the number of reinforcing plates in the bearing. Three deformation modes of compression, shear and compression-shear were predicted. Good agreement was found between twelve compression model predictions and the corresponding experimental values of bearings, containing 10, 20 and 40 phr of carbon black and each of which consisted of four different layers of reinforcing metal plates (0, 1, 2 and 3 layers. On the other hand, deviation from the predicted valve was clearly seen in the 70 phr black bearing case. The percentage difference increased with respect to the increasing number of reinforcing plates or the rising shape factor. Therefore, the improved FEA model was supplemented with an imaginary elastic glue layer between the rubber block and metal plate as glue failure compensation. The optimum value of the elastic layers modulus is 8 MPa while the thickness of the layer depends on the total thickness or total volume of rubber block. This model can predict the 70 phr carbon black bearings, having shape factor ranging from 0.5 to 2.35 for 11 cases. The FEA prediction of shear behaviour agrees well with the experimental data for all four bearing compounds and there is no effect of shape factor on shear stress. Moreover, shear stress does not depend on the compressive force applied to like bearing before shear and the FEA results

  2. Problems pilots face involving wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  3. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.

    2002-06-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  4. Shear Melting of a Colloidal Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Christoph; Kim, Chanjoong; Mattsson, Johan; Weitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We use confocal microscopy to explore shear melting of colloidal glasses, which occurs at strains of ˜0.08, coinciding with a strongly non-Gaussian step size distribution. For larger strains, the particle mean square displacement increases linearly with strain and the step size distribution becomes Gaussian. The effective diffusion coefficient varies approximately linearly with shear rate, consistent with a modified Stokes-Einstein relationship in which thermal energy is replaced by shear energy and the length scale is set by the size of cooperatively moving regions consisting of ˜3 particles.

  5. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  6. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  7. Influence of Selected Factors on the Relationship between the Dynamic Elastic Modulus and Compressive Strength of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurowski, Krystian; Grzeszczyk, Stefania

    2018-03-22

    In this paper, the relationship between the static and dynamic elastic modulus of concrete and the relationship between the static elastic modulus and compressive strength of concrete have been formulated. These relationships are based on investigations of different types of concrete and take into account the type and amount of aggregate and binder used. The dynamic elastic modulus of concrete was tested using impulse excitation of vibration and the modal analysis method. This method could be used as a non-destructive way of estimating the compressive strength of concrete.

  8. Design of the Elastic Modulus of Nanoparticles-Containing PVA/PVAc Films by the Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinska, N.; Kalnins, M.; Kovalovs, A.; Chate, A.

    2015-11-01

    By the surface response method, a regression equation is constructed, and the tensile elastic modulus of films made from polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl acetate (PVA/PVAc) blends filled with montmorillonite clay and microcrystalline cellulose nanoparticles is investigated. It is established that the introduction of the nanoparticles improves the mechanical properties of the blends in tension considerably: their strength and elastic modulus increase with content of the particles. Using the regression equation, the optimum composition of nanoparticlefilled PVA/PVAc blends with the highest value of elastic modulus is found.

  9. Influence of Selected Factors on the Relationship between the Dynamic Elastic Modulus and Compressive Strength of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurowski, Krystian; Grzeszczyk, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between the static and dynamic elastic modulus of concrete and the relationship between the static elastic modulus and compressive strength of concrete have been formulated. These relationships are based on investigations of different types of concrete and take into account the type and amount of aggregate and binder used. The dynamic elastic modulus of concrete was tested using impulse excitation of vibration and the modal analysis method. This method could be used as a non-destructive way of estimating the compressive strength of concrete. PMID:29565830

  10. Neoproterozoic structural evolution of the NE-trending Ad-Damm Shear Zone, Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Sawy, El-Sawy K.; El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Matsah, Mohamed; Shujoon, Abdulrahman; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.

    2014-11-01

    The Ad-Damm Shear Zone (AdSZ) is a major NE- (to NNE-) trending fault zone separating Jiddah and Asir tectonic terranes in the Neoproterozoic Juvenile Arabian Shield (AS). AdSZ is characterized by the development of dextral transcurrent shear-sense indicators and moderately to steeply NW plunging stretching lineations. It is mainly developed under high amphibolite-to greenschist-facies conditions and extends ∼380 km, with an average width ∼2-4 km, from the conspicuous Ruwah Fault Zone in the eastern shield to the Red Sea Coastal plain. It was believed to be one of the conjugate shears of the NW- to NNW-trending sinistral Najd Shear System. This assumption is, based on the noteworthy dextral shear criteria recorded within the 620 Ma mylonitic granite of No'man Complex. A total shear-zone strike length exceeding 117 km is carefully investigated during this study to reconstruct its structural evolution. Shear-sense indicators and other field observations including overprinting relations clearly demonstrate a complicated Neoproterozoic history of AdSZ, involving at least three phases of deformations (D1-D3). Both D1 and D2 phases were of contractional regime. During D1 phase a NW-SE compression led to the formation of NE-oriented low-angle thrusts and tight-overturned folds. D2 is represented by a NE-SW stress oriented that led to the development of an open folding. D3 is expressed by the NE-SW intensive dextral transcurrent brittle-ductile shearing. It is overprinting the early formed fabrics and played a significant role in the creation of AdSZ and the mega-scale related folds. Such deformation history reflects the same Neoproterozoic deformation regime recognized in the NE-trending shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS).

  11. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  12. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  13. C-plane Reconstructions from Sheaf Acquisition for Ultrasound Electrode Vibration Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-09-03

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for reconstructing and visualizing ablated volumes using radiofrequency ultrasound echo data acquired with the electrode vibration elastography approach. The ablation needle is vibrated using an actuator to generate shear wave pulses that are tracked in the ultrasound image plane at different locations away from the needle. This data is used for reconstructing shear wave velocity maps for each imaging plane. A C-plane reconstruction algorithm is proposed which estimates shear wave velocity values on a collection of transverse planes that are perpendicular to the imaging planes. The algorithm utilizes shear wave velocity maps from different imaging planes that share a common axis of intersection. These C-planes can be used to generate a 3D visualization of the ablated region. Experimental validation of this approach was carried out using data from a tissue mimicking phantom. The shear wave velocity estimates were within 20% of those obtained from a clinical scanner, and a contrast of over 4 dB was obtained between the stiff and soft regions of the phantom.

  14. Three-dimensional Reconstruction and Homogenization of Heterogeneous Materials Using Statistical Correlation Functions and FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baniassadi, Majid; Mortazavi, Behzad; Hamedani, Amani; Garmestani, Hamid; Ahzi, Said; Fathi-Torbaghan, Madjid; Ruch, David; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-31

    In this study, a previously developed reconstruction methodology is extended to three-dimensional reconstruction of a three-phase microstructure, based on two-point correlation functions and two-point cluster functions. The reconstruction process has been implemented based on hybrid stochastic methodology for simulating the virtual microstructure. While different phases of the heterogeneous medium are represented by different cells, growth of these cells is controlled by optimizing parameters such as rotation, shrinkage, translation, distribution and growth rates of the cells. Based on the reconstructed microstructure, finite element method (FEM) was used to compute the effective elastic modulus and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical approach, based on two-point correlation functions, was also used to directly estimate the effective properties of the developed microstructures. Good agreement between the predicted results from FEM analysis and statistical methods was found confirming the efficiency of the statistical methods for prediction of thermo-mechanical properties of three-phase composites.

  15. Comparison of Witczak NCHRP 1-40D & Hirsh dynamic modulus models based on different binder characterization methods: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattab Ahmed M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pavement ME Design method considers the hot mix asphalt (HMA dynamic modulus (E* as the main mechanistic property that affects pavement performance. For the HMA, E* can be determined directly by laboratory testing (level 1 or it can be estimated using predictive equations (levels 2 and 3. Pavement-ME Design introduced the NCHRP1-40D model as the latest model for predicting E* when levels 2 or 3 HMA inputs are used. This study focused on utilizing laboratory measured E* data to compare NCHRP1-40D model with Hirsh model. This comparison included the evaluation of the binder characterization level as per Pavement ME Design and its influence on the performance of these models. E*tests were conducted in the laboratory on 25 local mixes representing different road construction projects in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The main tests for the mix binders were dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR and Brookfield Rotational Viscometer (RV. Results showed that both models with level 3 binder data produced very similar accuracy. The highest accuracy and lowest bias for both models occurred with level 3 binder data. Finally, the accuracy of prediction and level of bias for both models were found to be a function of the binder input level.

  16. Shear strength of clay and silt embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Highway embankment is one of the most common large-scale geotechnical facilities constructed in Ohio. In the past, the design of these embankments was largely based on soil shear strength properties that had been estimated from previously published e...

  17. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2016-09-18

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Recent progress in shear punch testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Toloczko, M.B.; Lucas, G.E.

    1994-09-01

    The shear punch test was developed in response to the needs of the materials development community for small-scale mechanical properties tests. Such tests will be of great importance when a fusion neutron simulation device is built, since such a device is expected to have a limited irradiation volume. The shear punch test blanks a circular disk from a fixed sheet metal specimen, specifically a TEM disk. Load-displacement data generated during the test can be related to uniaxial tensile properties such as yield and ultimate strength. Shear punch and tensile tests were performed at room temperature on a number of unirradiated aluminum, copper, vanadium, and stainless steel alloys and on several irradiated aluminum alloys. Recent results discussed here suggest that the relationship between shear punch strength and tensile strength varies with alloy class, although the relationship determined for the unirradiated condition remains valid for the irradiated aluminum alloys

  19. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    KAUST Repository

    Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced

  20. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  1. Shear-induced phase changes in mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romig, K.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory to account for the behavior of liquid mixtures exposed to a shear is developed. One consequence of the theory is that shear-induced phase changes are predicted. The theory is based on a thermodynamics that includes specifically the shear rate in the formalism and is applied to mixtures by a straightforward modification of the corresponding states, conformalsolution approach. The approach is general but is used here for a mixture of Lennard-Jones particles with a Lennard-Jones equation of state as a reference fluid. The results are discussed in the context of the Scott and Van Konynenberg phase classification. It is shown that the influence of a shear does affect substantially the type of the phase behavior. Results from the model mixture are equated loosely with those from real polymeric liquids

  2. Evaluating interfacial shear stresses in composite hollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiham Adawi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical evaluation of the interfacial shear stresses for composite hollowcore slabs with concrete topping is rare in the literature. Adawi et al. (2014 estimated the interfacial shear stiffness coefficient (ks that governs the behavior of the interface between hollowcore slabs and the concrete topping using push-off tests. This parameter is utilized in this paper to provide closed form solutions for the differential equations governing the behavior of simply supported composite hollowcore slabs. An analytical solution based on the deformation compatibility of the composite section and elastic beam theory, is developed to evaluate the shear stresses along the interface. Linear finite element modeling of the full-scale tests presented in Adawi et al. (2015 is also conducted to validate the developed analytical solution. The proposed analytical solution was found to be adequate in estimating the magnitude of horizontal shear stress in the studied composite hollowcore slabs.

  3. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros; Lee, Min-Gi; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Acoustic waves in unbounded shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.; Rogava, A.D.

    1996-05-01

    The linear evolution of acoustic waves in fluid flow with constant density and uniform shear of velocity is investigated. The process of the mean flow energy extraction by the three-dimensional acoustic waves which is due to the non-normality of linear dynamics in shear flows is analyzed. The thorough examination of the dynamics of different physical quantities, specifying the wave evolution, is outlined. The revealing of the behaviour becomes possible owing to the nonmodal approach that has been extensively used in the study of the perturbations evolution in shear flows since the beginning of the nineties. In addition, a detailed analyses of the physics of shear energy gain by vortex and acoustic perturbations is presented. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  5. Stress analysis of shear/compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Ueno, S.

    1997-01-01

    Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed

  6. Modeling and implementation of wind shear data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Walter

    1987-01-01

    The problems of implementing the JAWS wind shear data are discussed. The data sets are described from the view of utilizing them in an aircraft performance computer program. Then, some of the problems of nonstandard procedures are described in terms of programming the equations of aircraft motion when the effects of temporal and spatially variable winds are included. Finally, some of the computed effects of the various wind shear terms are shown.

  7. Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic

  8. Line Crack Subject to Antiplane Shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    shear is obtained for the initiation of fracture. If the concept of the surface tension is usedone is able to calculate the cohesive stress for brittle ...Expression of the Griffith -racture criterion for brittle fracture. We have arrived at this result via the maximum shear-stress hypothesis, rather than...Crescent Beach Road, Glen Cove Prof. G.S. Heller Long Island, New York 11542 Division of Engineering Brown University Prof. Daniel

  9. Experimental study of shear rate dependence in perpetually sheared granular matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sophie Yang; Guillard, François; Marks, Benjy; Rognon, Pierre; Einav, Itai

    2017-06-01

    We study the shear behaviour of various granular materials by conducting novel perpetual simple shear experiments over four orders of magnitude of relatively low shear rates. The newly developed experimental apparatus employed is called "3D Stadium Shear Device" which is an extended version of the 2D Stadium Shear Device [1]. This device is able to provide a non-radial dependent perpetual shear flow and a nearly linear velocity profile between two oppositely moving shear walls. Using this device, we are able to test a large variety of granular materials. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the device on glass beads (diameter 1 mm, 3 mm, and 14 mm) and rice. We particularly focus on studying these materials at very low inertial number I ranging from 10-6 to 10-2. We find that, within this range of I, the friction coefficient μ of glass beads has no shear rate dependence. A particularly appealing observation comes from testing rice, where the attainment of critical state develops under much longer duration than in other materials. Initially during shear we find a value of μ similar to that found for glass beads, but with time this value decreases gradually towards the asymptotic critical state value. The reason, we believe, lies in the fact that rice grains are strongly elongated; hence the time to achieve the stable μ is primarily controlled by the time for particles to align themselves with respect to the shear walls. Furthermore, the initial packing conditions of samples also plays a role in the evolution of μ when the shear strain is small, but that impact will eventually be erased after sufficient shear strain.

  10. Shear Strains, Strain Rates and Temperature Changes in Adiabatic Shear Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    X14A. It has been found that when bainitic and martensitic steels are sheared adiabatically, a layer of material within ths shear zone is altezed and...Sooiety for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1978, pp. 148-0. 21 TABLE II SOLID-STATE TRANSFORMATIONS IN BAINITIC STEEL TRANSFORMATION TRANSFORMATION...shear, thermoplastic, plasticity, plastic deformation, armor, steel IL AnSRACT ( -=nba asoa.tm a naeoesM iN faity by bleak n bet/2972 Experiments

  11. Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of velocity shear on ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven vortices in a nonuniform plasma in a curved, sheared magnetic field is investigated. In absence of parallel ion dynamics, vortex solutions for the ITG mode are studied analytically. It is shown that under certain conditions...... and ultimately lead to a dominating monopolar form. The effects of magnetic shear indicate it may destroy these structures. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics....

  12. Experimental study of shear rate dependence in perpetually sheared granular matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sophie Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the shear behaviour of various granular materials by conducting novel perpetual simple shear experiments over four orders of magnitude of relatively low shear rates. The newly developed experimental apparatus employed is called “3D Stadium Shear Device” which is an extended version of the 2D Stadium Shear Device [1]. This device is able to provide a non-radial dependent perpetual shear flow and a nearly linear velocity profile between two oppositely moving shear walls. Using this device, we are able to test a large variety of granular materials. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the device on glass beads (diameter 1 mm, 3 mm, and 14 mm and rice. We particularly focus on studying these materials at very low inertial number I ranging from 10−6 to 10−2. We find that, within this range of I, the friction coefficient μ of glass beads has no shear rate dependence. A particularly appealing observation comes from testing rice, where the attainment of critical state develops under much longer duration than in other materials. Initially during shear we find a value of μ similar to that found for glass beads, but with time this value decreases gradually towards the asymptotic critical state value. The reason, we believe, lies in the fact that rice grains are strongly elongated; hence the time to achieve the stable μ is primarily controlled by the time for particles to align themselves with respect to the shear walls. Furthermore, the initial packing conditions of samples also plays a role in the evolution of μ when the shear strain is small, but that impact will eventually be erased after sufficient shear strain.

  13. Shear strain determination of the polymer polydimethysiloxane (PMDS) using digital image correlation in different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Brazil, Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Nunes, L C S [Laboratorio de Mecanica Teorica e Aplicada, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Brazil, Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Brazil, Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a digital image correlation (DIC) method is used in order to analyze the adhesive shear modulus of poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) submitted to different loads and temperatures. This is an optical-numerical full-field surface displacement measurement method. It is based on a comparison between two images of a specimen coated by a random speckled pattern in the undeformed and in the deformed states. A single lap joint testing is performed. This is a standard test specimen for characterizing adhesive properties and it is considered the simplest form of adhesive joints. For the single lap joint specimen, steel adherends are bonded using a flexible rubber elastic polymer (PDMS), which is a commercially available silicone elastic rubber.

  14. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Perepelyuk

    Full Text Available Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G' and G" and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver.

  15. The Young's Modulus, Fracture Stress, and Fracture Strain of Gellan Hydrogels Filled with Whey Protein Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cherry Wing Yu; Ikeda, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Texture modifying abilities of whey protein microparticles are expected to be dependent on pH during heat-induced aggregation of whey protein in the microparticulation process. Therefore, whey protein microparticles were prepared at either pH 5.5 or 6.8 and their effects on small and large deformation properties of gellan gels containing whey protein microparticles as fillers were investigated. The majority of whey protein microparticles had diameters around 2 μm. Atomic force microscopy images showed that whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 6.8 partially collapsed and flatted by air-drying, while those prepared at pH 5.5 did not. The Young's modulus of filled gels adjusted to pH 5.5 decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles, while those of filled gels adjusted to pH 6.8 increased with increasing volume fraction of filler particles. These results suggest that filler particles were weakly bonded to gel matrices at pH 5.5 but strongly at pH 6.8. Whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 showed more enhanced increases in the Young's modulus than those prepared at pH 6.8 at volume fractions between 0.2 and 0.4, indicating that microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 were mechanically stronger. The fracture stress of filled gels showed trends somewhat similar to those of the Young's modulus, while their fracture strains decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles in all examined conditions, indicating that the primary effect of these filler particles was to enhance the brittleness of filled gels. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Simultaneous estimation of Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus using a single indentation: a finite element study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y P; Choi, A P C; Ling, H Y; Huang, Y P

    2009-01-01

    Indentation is commonly used to determine the mechanical properties of different kinds of biological tissues and engineering materials. With the force–deformation data obtained from an indentation test, Young's modulus of the tissue can be calculated using a linear elastic indentation model with a known Poisson's ratio. A novel method for simultaneous estimation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the tissue using a single indentation was proposed in this study. Finite element (FE) analysis using 3D models was first used to establish the relationship between Poisson's ratio and the deformation-dependent indentation stiffness for different aspect ratios (indentor radius/tissue original thickness) in the indentation test. From the FE results, it was found that the deformation-dependent indentation stiffness linearly increased with the deformation. Poisson's ratio could be extracted based on the deformation-dependent indentation stiffness obtained from the force–deformation data. Young's modulus was then further calculated with the estimated Poisson's ratio. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in virtue of using the indentation models with different material properties in the FE analysis. The numerical results showed that the percentage errors of the estimated Poisson's ratios and the corresponding Young's moduli ranged from −1.7% to −3.2% and 3.0% to 7.2%, respectively, with the aspect ratio (indentor radius/tissue thickness) larger than 1. It is expected that this novel method can be potentially used for quantitative assessment of various kinds of engineering materials and biological tissues, such as articular cartilage

  17. Effects of confinement on rock mass modulus: A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vazaios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the influence of the applied confining stress on the rock mass modulus of moderately jointed rocks (well interlocked undisturbed rock mass with blocks formed by three or less intersecting joints. A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM approach is employed to determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass. In this approach, the intact body of rock is represented by the discrete element method (DEM-Voronoi grains with the ability of simulating the initiation and propagation of microcracks within the intact part of the model. The geometry of the pre-existing joints is generated by employing discrete fracture network (DFN modelling based on field joint data collected from the Brockville Tunnel using LiDAR scanning. The geometrical characteristics of the simulated joints at a representative sample size are first validated against the field data, and then used to measure the rock quality designation (RQD, joint spacing, areal fracture intensity (P21, and block volumes. These geometrical quantities are used to quantitatively determine a representative range of the geological strength index (GSI. The results show that estimating the GSI using the RQD tends to make a closer estimate of the degree of blockiness that leads to GSI values corresponding to those obtained from direct visual observations of the rock mass conditions in the field. The use of joint spacing and block volume in order to quantify the GSI value range for the studied rock mass suggests a lower range compared to that evaluated in situ. Based on numerical modelling results and laboratory data of rock testing reported in the literature, a semi-empirical equation is proposed that relates the rock mass modulus to confinement as a function of the areal fracture intensity and joint stiffness. Keywords: Synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM, Discrete fracture network (DFN, Rock mass modulus, Geological strength index (GSI, Confinement

  18. Resolution of axial shear strain elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 45 0 to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45 0 orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift

  19. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys

  20. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramian, Koosha; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2015-01-01

    According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type. PMID:26642193