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Sample records for shear force ssf

  1. Bolt Shear Force Sensor

    2015-03-12

    0030] FIG. 7 is an isometric view of a deformable ring of the bolt shear force sensor of the present invention with an optical Attorney Docket No...102587 9 of 19 fiber having Bragg gratings wound around the ring; [0031] FIG. 8 is an isometric view of the deformable ring with wire strain... strength . [0047] Once the joint is subjected to an external load (see force arrows “F” and “F/2”); any frictional resistance to slip is overcome and

  2. Centrifuges and inertial shear forces

    Loon, van J.J.W.A.; Folgering, H.T.E.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Smit, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    Centrifuges are often used in biological studies for 1xg control samples in space flight microgravity experiments as well as in ground based research. Using centrifugation as a tool to generate an Earth like acceleration introduces unwanted inertial shear forces to the sample. Depending on the

  3. Technical note: use of belt grill cookery and slice shear force for assessment of pork longissimus tenderness.

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2004-01-01

    The present experiments were conducted to determine whether improved beef longissimus shear force methodology could be used to assess pork longissimus tenderness. Specifically, three experiments were conducted to: 1) determine the effect of belt grill (BG) cookery on repeatability of pork longissimus Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) compare the correlation of WBSF and slice shear force (SSF) with trained sensory panel tenderness ratings, and 3) estimate the repeatability of pork longissimus SSF for chops cooked with a BG. In Exp. 1 and 2, the longissimus was removed from the left side of each carcass (Exp. 1, n = 25; Exp. 2, n = 23) at 1 d postmortem and immediately frozen to maximize variation in tenderness. In Exp. 1, chops were cooked with either open-hearth electric broilers (OH) or BG, and WBSF was measured. Percentage of cooking loss was lower (P cooked with a BG (23.2%; SD = 1.7%) vs. OH (27.6%; SD = 3.0%). Estimates of the repeatability of WBSF were similar for chops cooked with OH (0.61) and BG (0.59). Although significant (P cooking methods accounted for less than 5% of the total variation in WBSF. In Exp. 2, the correlation of SSF (r = -0.72; P cooked with BG, and SSF was determined. The repeatability of SSF was 0.90, which is comparable to repeatability estimates for beef and lamb. Use of BG cookery and SSF could facilitate the collection of accurate pork longissimus tenderness data. Time and labor savings associated with BG cookery and the SSF technique should help to decrease research costs.

  4. Evaluation of sampling, cookery, and shear force protocols for objective evaluation of lamb longissimus tenderness.

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2004-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of two cookery methods, two shear force procedures, and sampling location within non-callipyge and callipyge lamb LM on the magnitude, variance, and repeatability of LM shear force data. In Exp. 1, 15 non-callipyge and 15 callipyge carcasses were sampled, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was determined for both sides of each carcass at three locations along the length (anterior to posterior) of the LM, whereas slice shear force (SSF) was determined for both sides of each carcass at only one location. For approximately half the carcasses within each genotype, LM chops were cooked for a constant amount of time using a belt grill, and chops of the remaining carcasses were cooked to a constant endpoint temperature using open-hearth electric broilers. Regardless of cooking method and sampling location, repeatability estimates were at least 0.8 for LM WBSF and SSF. For WBSF, repeatability estimates were slightly higher at the anterior location (0.93 to 0.98) than the posterior location (0.88 to 0.90). The difference in repeatability between locations was probably a function of a greater level of variation in shear force at the anterior location. For callipyge LM, WBSF was higher (P lamb LM chops cooked with the belt grill using a larger number of animals (n = 87). In Exp. 2, LM chops were obtained from matching locations of both sides of 44 non-callipyge and 43 callipyge carcasses. Chops were cooked with a belt grill and SSF was measured, and repeatability was estimated to be 0.95. Repeatable estimates of lamb LM tenderness can be achieved either by cooking to a constant endpoint temperature with electric broilers or cooking for a constant amount of time with a belt grill. Likewise, repeatable estimates of lamb LM tenderness can be achieved with WBSF or SSF. However, use of belt grill cookery and the SSF technique could decrease time requirements which would decrease research costs.

  5. Large Scale Scanning Probe Microscope "Making Shear Force Scanning visible."

    Bosma, E.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; van der Veen, Jan T.; van der Veen, J.T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Wessel, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a demonstration of a scanning probe microscope with shear-force tuning fork feedback. The tuning fork is several centimeters long, and the rigid fiber is replaced by a toothpick. By scaling this demonstration to visible dimensions the accessibility of shear-force scanning and tuning fork

  6. Chirality-specific lift forces of helix under shear flows: Helix perpendicular to shear plane.

    Zhang, Qi-Yi

    2017-02-01

    Chiral objects in shear flow experience a chirality-specific lift force. Shear flows past helices in a low Reynolds number regime were studied using slender-body theory. The chirality-specific lift forces in the vorticity direction experienced by helices are dominated by a set of helix geometry parameters: helix radius, pitch length, number of turns, and helix phase angle. Its analytical formula is given. The chirality-specific forces are the physical reasons for the chiral separation of helices in shear flow. Our results are well supported by the latest experimental observations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. DOUBLE SHEAR DESIGN TO REDUCED STAMPING FORCE

    Rudi Kurniawan Arief

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideally processing of part using stamping machine using only 70-80 % of available force to keep machine in good shape for a long periods. But in some certain case the force may equal to or exceed the available maximum force so the company must sent the process to another outsource company. A case found in a metal stamping company where a final product consist of 3 parts to assembly with one part exceeded the force of available machine. This part can only process in a 1000 tons machine while this company only have 2 of this machine with full workload. Sending this parts outsource will induce delivery problems because other parts are processed, assembled and paint inhouse, this also need additional transportation cost and extra supervision to ensure the quality and delivery schedule. The only exit action of this problem is by reducing the force tonnage. This paper using punch inclining method to reduce the force. The incline punch will distributed the force along the inclined surface that reduce stamping force as well. Inclined surface of punch also cause another major problems that the product becoming curved after process. This problems solved with additional flattening process that add more process cost but better than to outsource the process. Chisel type of inclining punch tip was choosen to avoid worst deformation of product. This paper will give the scientific recomendation to the company.

  8. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Seong Guk Kim

    Full Text Available Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%. The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826 and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  9. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Kim, Seong Guk; Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Song, Ye Eun; Kang, Tae Uk; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Dohyung; Kim, Han Sung

    2017-01-01

    Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%). The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826) and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  10. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  11. Driving reconnection in sheared magnetic configurations with forced fluctuations

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Makwana, Kirit D.; Ruffolo, David

    2018-02-01

    We investigate reconnection of magnetic field lines in sheared magnetic field configurations due to fluctuations driven by random forcing by means of numerical simulations. The simulations are performed with an incompressible, pseudo-spectral magnetohydrodynamics code in 2D where we take thick, resistively decaying, current-sheet like sheared magnetic configurations which do not reconnect spontaneously. We describe and test the forcing that is introduced in the momentum equation to drive fluctuations. It is found that the forcing does not change the rate of decay; however, it adds and removes energy faster in the presence of the magnetic shear structure compared to when it has decayed away. We observe that such a forcing can induce magnetic reconnection due to field line wandering leading to the formation of magnetic islands and O-points. These reconnecting field lines spread out as the current sheet decays with time. A semi-empirical formula is derived which reasonably explains the formation and spread of O-points. We find that reconnection spreads faster with stronger forcing and longer correlation time of forcing, while the wavenumber of forcing does not have a significant effect. When the field line wandering becomes large enough, the neighboring current sheets with opposite polarity start interacting, and then the magnetic field is rapidly annihilated. This work is useful to understand how forced fluctuations can drive reconnection in large scale current structures in space and astrophysical plasmas that are not susceptible to reconnection.

  12. Quantitative measurements of shear displacement using atomic force microscopy

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Weida; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    We report a method to quantitatively measure local shear deformation with high sensitivity using atomic force microscopy. The key point is to simultaneously detect both torsional and buckling motions of atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers induced by the lateral piezoelectric response of the sample. This requires the quantitative calibration of torsional and buckling response of AFM. This method is validated by measuring the angular dependence of the in-plane piezoelectric response of a piece of piezoelectric α-quartz. The accurate determination of the amplitude and orientation of the in-plane piezoelectric response, without rotation, would greatly enhance the efficiency of lateral piezoelectric force microscopy.

  13. Energy buildup in sheared force-free magnetic fields

    Wolfson, Richard; Low, Boon C.

    1992-01-01

    Photospheric displacement of the footpoints of solar magnetic field lines results in shearing and twisting of the field, and consequently in the buildup of electric currents and magnetic free energy in the corona. The sudden release of this free energy may be the origin of eruptive events like coronal mass ejections, prominence eruptions, and flares. An important question is whether such an energy release may be accompanied by the opening of magnetic field lines that were previously closed, for such open field lines can provide a route for matter frozen into the field to escape the sun altogether. This paper presents the results of numerical calculations showing that opening of the magnetic field is permitted energetically, in that it is possible to build up more free energy in a sheared, closed, force-free magnetic field than is in a related magnetic configuration having both closed and open field lines. Whether or not the closed force-free field attains enough energy to become partially open depends on the form of the shear profile; the results presented compare the energy buildup for different shear profiles. Implications for solar activity are discussed briefly.

  14. Contact force structure and force chains in 3D sheared granular systems

    Mair, Karen; Jettestuen, Espen; Abe, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Faults often exhibit accumulations of granular debris, ground up to create a layer of rock flour or fault gouge separating the rigid fault walls. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments of sheared granular materials, suggest that applied loads are preferentially transmitted across such systems by transient force networks that carry enhanced forces. The characterisation of such features is important since their nature and persistence almost certainly influence the macroscopic mechanical stability of these systems and potentially that of natural faults. 3D numerical simulations of granular shear are a valuable investigation tool since they allow us to track individual particle motions, contact forces and their evolution during applied shear, that are difficult to view directly in laboratory experiments or natural fault zones. In characterising contact force distributions, it is important to use global structure measures that allow meaningful comparisons of granular systems having e.g. different grain size distributions, as may be expected at different stages of a fault's evolution. We therefore use a series of simple measures to characterise the structure, such as distributions and correlations of contact forces that can be mapped onto a force network percolation problem as recently proposed by Ostojic and coworkers for 2D granular systems. This allows the use of measures from percolation theory to both define and characterise the force networks. We demonstrate the application of this method to 3D simulations of a sheared granular material. Importantly, we then compare our measure of the contact force structure with macroscopic frictional behaviour measured at the boundaries of our model to determine the influence of the force networks on macroscopic mechanical stability.

  15. Normal force of magnetorheological fluids with foam metal under oscillatory shear modes

    Yao, Xingyan, E-mail: yaoxingyan-jsj@163.com [Research Center of System Health Maintenance, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067 (China); Chongqing Engineering Laboratory for Detection Control and Integrated System, Chongqing 400067 (China); Liu, Chuanwen; Liang, Huang; Qin, Huafeng [Chongqing Engineering Laboratory for Detection Control and Integrated System, Chongqing 400067 (China); Yu, Qibing; Li, Chuan [Research Center of System Health Maintenance, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067 (China); Chongqing Engineering Laboratory for Detection Control and Integrated System, Chongqing 400067 (China)

    2016-04-01

    The normal force of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in porous foam metal was investigated in this paper. The dynamic repulsive normal force was studied using an advanced commercial rheometer under oscillatory shear modes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the influences of time, strain amplitude, frequency and shear rate on the normal force of MR fluids drawn from the porous foam metal were systematically analysed. The experimental results indicated that the magnetic field had the greatest effect on the normal force, and the effect increased incrementally with the magnetic field. Increasing the magnetic field produced a step-wise increase in the shear gap. However, other factors in the presence of a constant magnetic field only had weak effects on the normal force. This behaviour can be regarded as a magnetic field-enhanced normal force, as increases in the magnetic field resulted in more MR fluids being released from the porous foam metal, and the chain-like magnetic particles in the MR fluids becoming more elongated with aggregates spanning the gap between the shear plates. - Highlights: • Normal force of MR fluids with metal foam under oscillatory shear modes was studied. • The shear gap was step-wise increased with magnetic fields. • The magnetic field has a greater impact on the normal force.

  16. Normal force of magnetorheological fluids with foam metal under oscillatory shear modes

    Yao, Xingyan; Liu, Chuanwen; Liang, Huang; Qin, Huafeng; Yu, Qibing; Li, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The normal force of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in porous foam metal was investigated in this paper. The dynamic repulsive normal force was studied using an advanced commercial rheometer under oscillatory shear modes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the influences of time, strain amplitude, frequency and shear rate on the normal force of MR fluids drawn from the porous foam metal were systematically analysed. The experimental results indicated that the magnetic field had the greatest effect on the normal force, and the effect increased incrementally with the magnetic field. Increasing the magnetic field produced a step-wise increase in the shear gap. However, other factors in the presence of a constant magnetic field only had weak effects on the normal force. This behaviour can be regarded as a magnetic field-enhanced normal force, as increases in the magnetic field resulted in more MR fluids being released from the porous foam metal, and the chain-like magnetic particles in the MR fluids becoming more elongated with aggregates spanning the gap between the shear plates. - Highlights: • Normal force of MR fluids with metal foam under oscillatory shear modes was studied. • The shear gap was step-wise increased with magnetic fields. • The magnetic field has a greater impact on the normal force.

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSF460 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSF460 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U03803-1 SSF460Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSF460Z 453 - - - - Show SSF460 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSF460 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSF4-C/SSF460Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSF46...0Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSF460 (SSF460Q) /CSM/SS/SSF4-C/SSF460Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...s) Value SSM309 (SSM309Q) /CSM/SS/SSM3-A/SSM309Q.Seq.d/ 424 e-118 SSH196 (SSH196Q) /CSM/SS/SSH1-D/SSH196Q.Seq.d/ 424 e-118 SSF4

  18. Phase Aberration and Attenuation Effects on Acoustic Radiation Force-Based Shear Wave Generation.

    Carrascal, Carolina Amador; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F; Urban, Matthew W

    2016-02-01

    Elasticity is measured by shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) methods using acoustic radiation force to create the shear waves. Phase aberration and tissue attenuation can hamper the generation of shear waves for in vivo applications. In this study, the effects of phase aberration and attenuation in ultrasound focusing for creating shear waves were explored. This includes the effects of phase shifts and amplitude attenuation on shear wave characteristics such as shear wave amplitude, shear wave speed, shear wave center frequency, and bandwidth. Two samples of swine belly tissue were used to create phase aberration and attenuation experimentally. To explore the phase aberration and attenuation effects individually, tissue experiments were complemented with ultrasound beam simulations using fast object-oriented C++ ultrasound simulator (FOCUS) and shear wave simulations using finite-element-model (FEM) analysis. The ultrasound frequency used to generate shear waves was varied from 3.0 to 4.5 MHz. Results: The measured acoustic pressure and resulting shear wave amplitude decreased approximately 40%-90% with the introduction of the tissue samples. Acoustic intensity and shear wave displacement were correlated for both tissue samples, and the resulting Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.97. Analysis of shear wave generation with tissue samples (phase aberration and attenuation case), measured phase screen, (only phase aberration case), and FOCUS/FEM model (only attenuation case) showed that tissue attenuation affected the shear wave generation more than tissue aberration. Decreasing the ultrasound frequency helped maintain a focused beam for creation of shear waves in the presence of both phase aberration and attenuation.

  19. Force and work to shear green southern pine logs at slow speed

    Peter Koch

    1971-01-01

    When logs of three diameter classes and two specific gravity classes were sheared with a 3/8-inch-thick knife travelling at 2 inches per minute, shearing force and work averaged greatest for dense 13.6-inch logs cut with a knife having a 45o sharpness angle (73,517 pounds; 49,838 foot-pounds). Force and work averaged at least 5.1-inch bolts of...

  20. Lateral shearing optical gradient force in coupled nanobeam photonic crystal cavities

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya, E-mail: mpezgy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117575 (Singapore); Deng, Jie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Zhao, Yunshan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-04-25

    We report the experimental observation of lateral shearing optical gradient forces in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) controlled dual-coupled photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. With an on-chip integrated NEMS actuator, the coupled cavities can be mechanically reconfigured in the lateral direction while maintaining a constant coupling gap. Shearing optical gradient forces are generated when the two cavity centers are laterally displaced. In our experiments, positive and negative lateral shearing optical forces of 0.42 nN and 0.29 nN are observed with different pumping modes. This study may broaden the potential applications of the optical gradient force in nanophotonic devices and benefit the future nanooptoelectromechanical systems.

  1. Shear forces in the contact patch of a braked-racing tyre

    Gruber, Patrick; Sharp, Robin S.

    2012-12-01

    This article identifies tyre modelling features that are fundamental to the accurate simulation of the shear forces in the contact patch of a steady-rolling, slipping and cambered racing tyre. The features investigated include contact patch shape, contact pressure distribution, carcass flexibility, rolling radius (RR) variations and friction coefficient. Using a previously described physical tyre model of modular nature, validated for static conditions, the influence of each feature on the shear forces generated is examined under different running conditions, including normal loads of 1500, 3000 and 4500 N, camber angles of 0° and-3°, and longitudinal slip ratios from 0 to-20%. Special attention is paid to heavy braking, in which context the aligning moment is of great interest in terms of its connection with the limit-handling feel. The results of the simulations reveal that true representations of the contact patch shape, carcass flexibility and lateral RR variation are essential for an accurate prediction of the distribution and the magnitude of the shear forces generated at the tread-road interface of the cambered tyre. Independent of the camber angle, the contact pressure distribution primarily influences the shear force distribution and the slip characteristics around the peak longitudinal force. At low brake-slip ratios, the friction coefficient affects the shear forces in terms of their distribution, while, at medium to high-slip ratios, the force magnitude is significantly affected. On the one hand, these findings help in the creation of efficient yet accurate tyre models. On the other hand, the research results allow improved understanding of how individual tyre components affect the generation of shear forces in the contact patch of a rolling and slipping tyre.

  2. The effect of shear force on ink transfer in gravure offset printing

    Lee, Taik-Min; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Noh, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Chun, Sangki

    2010-01-01

    This paper asserts that shear force plays an important role in the printing mechanism of gravure offset line printing. To that end, a theoretical printing model showing shear force dependence on the printing angle is proposed. The decrement of the internal angle between the printing direction and the pattern-line direction increases shear force, thereby enhancing the amount of transferred ink in the off stage. A printing experiment using pattern-line widths of 80 µm and 20 µm shows the angle dependence of the line width, thickness and amount of transferred ink, reflecting the effect of shear force. The effect of the internal angle on cross-sectional differences in lines with a width of 20 µm and with angle variation is greater than that in lines with a width of 80 µm, which corresponds with the theoretical prediction that shear force has greater influence on a narrower line. The strong correlation between the experimental data and the theoretical model supports the validation of the theoretical model

  3. Electromotive force and large-scale magnetic dynamo in a turbulent flow with a mean shear.

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan

    2003-09-01

    An effect of sheared large-scale motions on a mean electromotive force in a nonrotating turbulent flow of a conducting fluid is studied. It is demonstrated that in a homogeneous divergence-free turbulent flow the alpha effect does not exist, however a mean magnetic field can be generated even in a nonrotating turbulence with an imposed mean velocity shear due to a "shear-current" effect. A mean velocity shear results in an anisotropy of turbulent magnetic diffusion. A contribution to the electromotive force related to the symmetric parts of the gradient tensor of the mean magnetic field (the kappa effect) is found in nonrotating turbulent flows with a mean shear. The kappa effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion reduce the growth rate of the mean magnetic field. It is shown that a mean magnetic field can be generated when the exponent of the energy spectrum of the background turbulence (without the mean velocity shear) is less than 2. The shear-current effect was studied using two different methods: the tau approximation (the Orszag third-order closure procedure) and the stochastic calculus (the path integral representation of the solution of the induction equation, Feynman-Kac formula, and Cameron-Martin-Girsanov theorem). Astrophysical applications of the obtained results are discussed.

  4. Raman spectroscopy compared against traditional predictors of shear force in lamb m. longissimus lumborum.

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2014-12-01

    A Raman spectroscopic hand held device was used to predict shear force (SF) of 80 fresh lamb m. longissimus lumborum (LL) at 1 and 5days post mortem (PM). Traditional predictors of SF including sarcomere length (SL), particle size (PS), cooking loss (CL), percentage myofibrillar breaks and pH were also measured. SF values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against the traditional predictors using linear regression. The best prediction of shear force values used spectra at 1day PM to predict shear force at 1day which gave a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 13.6 (Null=14.0) and the R(2) between observed and cross validated predicted values was 0.06 (R(2)cv). Overall, for fresh LL, the predictability SF, by either the Raman hand held probe or traditional predictors was low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New implementation of a shear-force microscope suitable to study topographical features over wide areas

    Ustione, A.; Cricenti, A.; Piacentini, M.; Felici, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    A new implementation of a shear-force microscope is described that uses a shear-force detection system to perform topographical imaging of large areas (∼1x1 mm 2 ). This implementation finds very interesting application in the study of archeological or artistic samples. Three dc motors are used to move a sample during a scan, allowing the probe tip to follow the surface and to face height differences of several tens of micrometers. This large-area topographical imaging mode exploits new subroutines that were added to the existing homemade software; these subroutines were created in Microsoft VISUAL BASIC 6.0 programming language. With this new feature our shear-force microscope can be used to study topographical details over large areas of archaeological samples in a nondestructive way. We show results detecting worn reliefs over a coin

  6. Shear force bond analysis between acrylic resin bases and retention framework (open- and mesh-type)

    Royhan, A.; Indrasari, M.; Masulili, C.

    2017-08-01

    Occlusions between teeth and the activity of the muscles around an artificial tooth during mastication create a force on dentures. This force causes friction between acrylic resin bases and retention frameworks that can lead to the complete loss of the acrylic resin base from the framework. The purpose of this study was to analyze the design of retention frameworks and determine which ones have a better resistance to shear forces in order to prevent the loss of heat cured acrylic resin base (HCARB). Six samples each of open-and mesh-type retention frameworks, both types made of Co-Cr material, and HCARB, were shear tested by means of a universal testing machine. The average shear force required to release the HCARB for mesh-type retention frameworks was 28.84 kgf, and the average for the open-type was 26.52 kgf. There was no significant difference between the shear forces required to remove HCARB from open- and mesh-type retention frameworks.

  7. Heterogeneous Cytoskeletal Force Distribution Delineates the Onset Ca2+ Influx Under Fluid Shear Stress in Astrocytes

    Mohammad M. Maneshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical perturbations increase intracellular Ca2+ in cells, but the coupling of mechanical forces to the Ca2+ influx is not well understood. We used a microfluidic chamber driven with a high-speed pressure servo to generate defined fluid shear stress to cultured astrocytes, and simultaneously measured cytoskeletal forces using a force sensitive actinin optical sensor and intracellular Ca2+. Fluid shear generated non-uniform forces in actinin that critically depended on the stimulus rise time emphasizing the presence of viscoelasticity in the activating sequence. A short (ms shear pulse with fast rise time (2 ms produced an immediate increase in actinin tension at the upstream end of the cell with minimal changes at the downstream end. The onset of Ca2+ rise began at highly strained areas. In contrast to stimulus steps, slow ramp stimuli produced uniform forces throughout the cells and only a small Ca2+ response. The heterogeneity of force distribution is exaggerated in cells having fewer stress fibers and lower pre-tension in actinin. Disruption of cytoskeleton with cytochalasin-D (Cyt-D eliminated force gradients, and in those cells Ca2+ elevation started from the soma. Thus, Ca2+ influx with a mechanical stimulus depends on local stress within the cell and that is time dependent due to viscoelastic mechanics.

  8. Loss tangent and complex modulus estimated by acoustic radiation force creep and shear wave dispersion.

    Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F

    2012-03-07

    Elasticity imaging methods have been used to study tissue mechanical properties and have demonstrated that tissue elasticity changes with disease state. In current shear wave elasticity imaging methods typically only shear wave speed is measured and rheological models, e.g. Kelvin-Voigt, Maxwell and Standard Linear Solid, are used to solve for tissue mechanical properties such as the shear viscoelastic complex modulus. This paper presents a method to quantify viscoelastic material properties in a model-independent way by estimating the complex shear elastic modulus over a wide frequency range using time-dependent creep response induced by acoustic radiation force. This radiation force induced creep method uses a conversion formula that is the analytic solution of a constitutive equation. The proposed method in combination with shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry is used to measure the complex modulus so that knowledge of the applied radiation force magnitude is not necessary. The conversion formula is shown to be sensitive to sampling frequency and the first reliable measure in time according to numerical simulations using the Kelvin-Voigt model creep strain and compliance. Representative model-free shear complex moduli from homogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms and one excised swine kidney were obtained. This work proposes a novel model-free ultrasound-based elasticity method that does not require a rheological model with associated fitting requirements.

  9. Mechanism of interaction between cellulase action and applied shear force, an hypothesis

    Lenting, H.B.M.; Lenting, H.B.M.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2001-01-01

    An overview is given of what is known in literature concerning the structure of both cellulose and cellulase enzymes and the enzymatic degradation of cellulose. Based on this knowledge, a hypothesis is formulated about the relation between cellulase performance and required applied shear force on

  10. Inertial shear forces and the use of centrifuges in gravity research. What is the proper control?

    Loon, van J.J.W.A.; Folgering, H.T.E.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Veldhuijzen, J.P.; Smit, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    Centrifuges are used for 1×g controls in space flight microgravity experiments and in ground based research. Using centrifugation as a tool to generate an Earth like acceleration introduces unwanted inertial shear forces to the sample. Depending on the centrifuge and the geometry of the experiment

  11. Modeling Force Transfer around Openings in Wood-Frame Shear Walls

    Minghao Li; Frank Lam; Borjen Yeh; Tom Skaggs; Doug Rammer; James Wacker

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented a modeling study on force transfer around openings (FTAO) in wood-frame shear walls detailed for FTAO. To understand the load transfer in the walls, this study used a finite-element model WALL2D, which is able to model individual wall components, including framing members, sheathing panels, oriented panel-frame nailed connections, framing...

  12. Renal shear wave velocity by acoustic radiation force impulse did not reflect advanced renal impairment.

    Takata, Tomoaki; Koda, Masahiko; Sugihara, Takaaki; Sugihara, Shinobu; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Kenichi; Matono, Tomomitsu; Hosho, Keiko; Mae, Yukari; Iyama, Takuji; Fukui, Takeaki; Fukuda, Satoko; Munemura, Chishio; Isomoto, Hajime

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse is a noninvasive method for evaluating tissue elasticity on ultrasound. Renal shear wave velocity measured by this technique has not been fully investigated in patients with renal disease. The aim of the present study was to compare renal shear wave velocity in end-stage renal disease patients and that in patients without chronic kidney disease and to investigate influencing factors. Renal shear wave velocities were measured in 59 healthy young subjects (control group), 31 subjects without chronic kidney disease (non-CKD group), and 39 end-stage renal disease patients (ESRD group). Each measurement was performed 10 times at both kidneys, and the mean value of eight of 10 measurements, excluding the maximum and minimum values, was compared. Renal shear wave velocity could be measured in all subjects. Renal shear wave velocity in the control group was higher than in the non-CKD group and in the ESRD group, and no difference was found between the non-CKD group and the ESRD group. Age and depth were negatively correlated to the renal shear wave velocity. In multiple regression analysis, age and depth were independent factors for renal shear wave velocity, while renal impairment was not. There was no difference between the non-CKD group and the ESRD group, even when ages were matched and depth was adjusted. Renal shear wave velocity was not associated with advanced renal impairment. However, it reflected alteration of renal aging, and this technique may be useful to detect renal impairment in the earlier stages. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. Pressure-induced forces and shear stresses on rubble mound breakwater armour layers in regular waves

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of the pressure-induced forces in the core material below the main armour layer and shear stresses on the armour layer for a porous breakwater structure. Two parallel experiments were performed which both involved pore pressure...... structure i.e. no additional filter layers were applied. For both experiments, high-speed video recordings were synchronised with the pressure measurements for a detailed investigation of the coupling between the run-up and run-down flow processes and the measured pressure variations. Outward directed...... and turbulence measurements showed that the large outward directed pressure gradients in general coincide, both in time and space, with the maximum bed-shear stresses on the armour layer based on the Reynolds-stresses. The bed-shear stresses were found to result in a Shields parameter in the same order...

  14. Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and dry matter digestibility of stylo ( stem

    Xuejuan Zi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of stylo. Methods The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. Results The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Conclusion Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.

  15. The relationship between shear force, compression, collagen characteristics, desmin degradation and sarcomere length in lamb biceps femoris.

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; van de Ven, Remy; Hopkins, David L

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to identity the relationships between known variants of tenderness (collagen content (total and soluble), desmin degradation and sarcomere length) and shear force and compression in the biceps femoris aged for 14days from 112 mixed sex lambs. Desmin degradation was related to compression (Pcompression decreased. Sarcomere length (SL) was related to shear force (Pcompression (Pcompression, sarcomere length and soluble collagen. The findings from this experiment indicate that the known variants (soluble collagen, sarcomere length and desmin degradation) are related to shear force and compression in ovine biceps femoris. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSF689 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSF689 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16581-1 SSF689F (Link... to Original site) SSF689F 443 - - - - - - Show SSF689 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSF689 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16581-1 Original site URL http://dict...core E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N D16417 |D16417.1 Dictyostelium discoideum ...A sequence. 50 0.027 1 BM028890 |BM028890.1 IpSkn01670 Skin cDNA library Ictaluru

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSF210 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSF210 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16581-1 SSF210P (Link... to Original site) SSF210F 183 SSF210Z 197 SSF210P 380 - - Show SSF210 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSF210 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16581-1 Original site URL http://dict...nt alignments: (bits) Value N D16417 |D16417.1 Dictyostelium discoideum mRNA. 339...01670 Skin cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to Ictacalcin, mRNA s

  18. Squatting-Related Tibiofemoral Shear Reaction Forces and a Biomechanical Rationale for Femoral Component Loosening

    Ashvin Thambyah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous gait studies on squatting have described a rapid reversal in the direction of the tibiofemoral joint shear reaction force when going into a full weight-bearing deep knee flexion squat. The effects of such a shear reversal have not been considered with regard to the loading demand on knee implants in patients whose activities of daily living require frequent squatting. In this paper, the shear reversal effect is discussed and simulated in a finite element knee implant-bone model, to evaluate the possible biomechanical significance of this effect on femoral component loosening of high flexion implants as reported in the literature. The analysis shows that one of the effects of the shear reversal was a switch between large compressive and large tensile principal strains, from knee extension to flexion, respectively, in the region of the anterior flange of the femoral component. Together with the known material limits of cement and bone, this large mismatch in strains as a function of knee position provides new insight into how and why knee implants may fail in patients who perform frequent squatting.

  19. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor

    Goertz, Ruediger S., E-mail: ruediger.goertz@uk-erlangen.de; Schuderer, Johanna, E-mail: Johanna@schuderer-floss.de; Strobel, Deike, E-mail: deike.strobel@uk-erlangen.de; Pfeifer, Lukas, E-mail: Lukas.Pfeifer@uk-erlangen.de; Neurath, Markus F., E-mail: Markus.Neurath@uk-erlangen.de; Wildner, Dane, E-mail: Dane.Wildner@uk-erlangen.de

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • ARFI elastography of the pancreas is feasible. • Shear wave velocities in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis or carcinoma are higher than those occurring in normal tissue. • ARFI values considerable overlap between different pathologies. - Abstract: Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. Material and methods: In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. Results: A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n = 21) and lipomatosis (n = 30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3 m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n = 35), chronic pancreatitis (n = 53) and adenocarcinoma (n = 52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n = 4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62 m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74 m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. Conclusion: ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities.

  20. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor

    Goertz, Ruediger S.; Schuderer, Johanna; Strobel, Deike; Pfeifer, Lukas; Neurath, Markus F.; Wildner, Dane

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ARFI elastography of the pancreas is feasible. • Shear wave velocities in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis or carcinoma are higher than those occurring in normal tissue. • ARFI values considerable overlap between different pathologies. - Abstract: Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. Material and methods: In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. Results: A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n = 21) and lipomatosis (n = 30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3 m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n = 35), chronic pancreatitis (n = 53) and adenocarcinoma (n = 52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n = 4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62 m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74 m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. Conclusion: ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities.

  1. Magnetoelectric versus thermal actuation characteristics of shear force AFM probes with piezoresistive detection

    Sierakowski, Andrzej; Janus, Paweł; Dobrowolski, Rafał; Grabiec, Piotr; Kopiec, Daniel; Majstrzyk, Wojciech; Kunicki, Piotr; Gotszalk, Teodor; Rangelow, Ivo W

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare methods used for piezoresistive microcantilevers actuation for the atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in the dynamic shear force mode. The piezoresistive detection is an attractive technique comparing the optical beam detection of deflection. The principal advantage is that no external alignment of optical source and detector are needed. When the microcantilever is deflected, the stress is transferred into a change of resistivity of piezoresistors. The integration of piezoresistive read-out provides a promising solution in realizing a compact non-contact AFM. Resolution of piezoresistive read-out is limited by three main noise sources: Johnson, 1/ f and thermomechanical noise. In the dynamic shear force mode measurement the method used for cantilever actuation will also affect the recorded noise in the piezoresistive detection circuit. This is the result of a crosstalk between an aluminium path (current loop used for actuation) and piezoresistors located near the base of the beam. In this paper authors described an elaborated in ITE (Institute of Electron Technology) technology of fabrication cantilevers with piezoresistive detection of deflection and compared efficiency of two methods used for cantilever actuation. (paper)

  2. Self-oscillations of a two-dimensional shear flow with forcing and dissipation

    López Zazueta, A.; Zavala Sansón, L.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional shear flows continuously forced in the presence of dissipative effects are studied by means of numerical simulations. In contrast with most previous studies, the forcing is confined in a finite region, so the behavior of the system is characterized by the long-term evolution of the global kinetic energy. We consider regimes with 1 limited to develop only one vortical instability by choosing an appropriate width of the forcing band. The most relevant regime is found for Reλ > 36, in which the energy maintains a regular oscillation around a reference value. The flow configuration is an elliptical vortex tilted with respect to the forcing axis, which oscillates steadily also. Second, the flow is allowed to develop two Kelvin-Helmholtz billows and eventually more complicated structures. The regimes of the one-vortex case are observed again, except for Reλ > 135. At these values, the energy oscillates chaotically as the two vortices merge, form dipolar structures, and split again, with irregular periodicity. The self-oscillations are explained as a result of the alternate competition between forcing and dissipation, which is verified by calculating the budget terms in the energy equation. The relevance of the forcing-vs.-dissipation competition is discussed for more general flow systems.

  3. General stability of memory-type thermoelastic Timoshenko beam acting on shear force

    Apalara, Tijani A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a linear thermoelastic Timoshenko system with memory effects where the thermoelastic coupling is acting on shear force under Neumann-Dirichlet-Dirichlet boundary conditions. The same system with fully Dirichlet boundary conditions was considered by Messaoudi and Fareh (Nonlinear Anal TMA 74(18):6895-6906, 2011, Acta Math Sci 33(1):23-40, 2013), but they obtained a general stability result which depends on the speeds of wave propagation. In our case, we obtained a general stability result irrespective of the wave speeds of the system.

  4. Disentangling the role of hydrodynamic and frictional forces in a shear-thickening suspension

    Cohen, Itai

    2015-03-01

    Who among us has not spent countless hours squeezing, rubbing, and smushing gooey substances like, tooth paste, silly putty, corn starch, and even bodily fluids between our fingers? If we could magnify our view and look deep within the substances we are handling what structures would we find? How, do these structures lead to the fascinating mechanical properties that we experience on the scale of our fingers. In this talk I will address the phenomenon of shear thickening in which the viscosity of a suspension increases with increasing shear rate. I will describe recent measurements we have made using a newly developed confocal rheoscope that, for the first time, experimentally visualize the hydrodynamically induced particle clusters. Such clusters have been implicated in continuous shear thickening. It remains controversial as to whether thickening in such suspensions also arises from frictional interactions between particles. The distinct contributions of frictional and hydrodynamic forces are typically difficult to measure independently using conventional techniques. Here, I will describe our approach for using both bulk rheometry techniques and our confocal rheoscope to disentangle their contributions to the total stress response.

  5. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  6. Empirical resistive-force theory for slender biological filaments in shear-thinning fluids

    Riley, Emily E.; Lauga, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Many cells exploit the bending or rotation of flagellar filaments in order to self-propel in viscous fluids. While appropriate theoretical modeling is available to capture flagella locomotion in simple, Newtonian fluids, formidable computations are required to address theoretically their locomotion in complex, nonlinear fluids, e.g., mucus. Based on experimental measurements for the motion of rigid rods in non-Newtonian fluids and on the classical Carreau fluid model, we propose empirical extensions of the classical Newtonian resistive-force theory to model the waving of slender filaments in non-Newtonian fluids. By assuming the flow near the flagellum to be locally Newtonian, we propose a self-consistent way to estimate the typical shear rate in the fluid, which we then use to construct correction factors to the Newtonian local drag coefficients. The resulting non-Newtonian resistive-force theory, while empirical, is consistent with the Newtonian limit, and with the experiments. We then use our models to address waving locomotion in non-Newtonian fluids and show that the resulting swimming speeds are systematically lowered, a result which we are able to capture asymptotically and to interpret physically. An application of the models to recent experimental results on the locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans in polymeric solutions shows reasonable agreement and thus captures the main physics of swimming in shear-thinning fluids.

  7. Visualized Multiprobe Electrical Impedance Measurements with STM Tips Using Shear Force Feedback Control

    Luis Botaya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we devise a multiprobe electrical measurement system based on quartz tuning forks (QTFs and metallic tips capable of having full 3D control over the position of the probes. The system is based on the use of bent tungsten tips that are placed in mechanical contact (glue-free solution with a QTF sensor. Shear forces acting in the probe are measured to control the tip-sample distance in the Z direction. Moreover, the tilting of the tip allows the visualization of the experiment under the optical microscope, allowing the coordination of the probes in X and Y directions. Meanwhile, the metallic tips are connected to a current–voltage amplifier circuit to measure the currents and thus the impedance of the studied samples. We discuss here the different aspects that must be addressed when conducting these multiprobe experiments, such as the amplitude of oscillation, shear force distance control, and wire tilting. Different results obtained in the measurement of calibration samples and microparticles are presented. They demonstrate the feasibility of the system to measure the impedance of the samples with a full 3D control on the position of the nanotips.

  8. Trunk muscle activation and associated lumbar spine joint shear forces under different levels of external forward force applied to the trunk

    Kingma, I.; Staudenmann, D.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    High anterior intervertebral shear loads could cause low back injuries and therefore the neuromuscular system may actively counteract these forces. This study investigated whether, under constant moment loading relative to L3L4, an increased externally applied forward force on the trunk results in a

  9. Genome-wide Association Study for Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Sensory Traits in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    C. G. Dang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant SNPs associated with Warner-Bratzler (WB shear force and sensory traits were confirmed for Hanwoo beef (Korean cattle. A Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significant association (p<1.3×10−6 was detected with only one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on chromosome 5 for WB shear force. A slightly higher number of SNPs was significantly (p<0.001 associated with WB shear force than with other sensory traits. Further, 50, 25, 29, and 34 SNPs were significantly associated with WB shear force, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor likeness, respectively. The SNPs between p = 0.001 and p = 0.0001 thresholds explained 3% to 9% of the phenotypic variance, while the most significant SNPs accounted for 7% to 12% of the phenotypic variance. In conclusion, because WB shear force and sensory evaluation were moderately affected by a few loci and minimally affected by other loci, further studies are required by using a large sample size and high marker density.

  10. Dynamic behavior of tuning fork shear-force structures in a SNOM system

    Gao, Fengli [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Xide, E-mail: lixide@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fu, Yu [Temasek Laboratories, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-07-01

    Piezoelectric tuning fork shear-force structures are widely used as a distance control unit in a scanning near-field optical microscopy. However, the complex dynamic behavior among the micro-tuning forks (TFs), optical fiber probes, and the probe–surface interactions is still a crucial issue to achieve high-resolution imaging or near-field interaction inspections. Based on nonlinear beam tension-bending vibration theory, vibration equations in both longitudinal and lateral directions have been established when the TF structure and the optical fiber are treated as deformable structures. The relationship of the probe–surface interaction induced by Van der Waals force has been analyzed and the corresponding numerical results used to describe the vibrational behavior of the probe approaching the sample surface are obtained. Meanwhile, the viscous resistance of the liquid film on the sample surface has also been investigated using linear beam-bending vibration theory. Experiments testing the interaction between the probe and the water film on a single crystal silicon wafer have been carried out and the viscous resistance of the water film was estimated using the established equations. Finally, to use the TF-probe structure as a force sensor, the relation between the dynamic response of the TF-probe system and an external force on the probe tip was obtained. - Highlights: • Nonlinear vibration equation is established for a deformable tuning fork probe assembly. • Probe–sample interactions induced by Van der Waals force and viscous resistance are investigated. • The viscous resistance between the probe and the water film is estimated using testing results.

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSF105 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSF105 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16581-1 SSF105F (Link... to Original site) SSF105F 432 - - - - - - Show SSF105 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSF105 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16581-1 Original site URL http://dict...g significant alignments: (bits) Value N D16417 |D16417.1 Dictyostelium discoideum mRNA. 387 e-126 3 BZ46365...028890 |BM028890.1 IpSkn01670 Skin cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to Ict

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSF865 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSF865 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16581-1 SSF865Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSF865Z 436 - - - - Show SSF865 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSF865 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16581-1 Original site URL http://dict...s producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N D16417 |D16417.1 Dictyostelium discoideum mRNA. 387 e-115...0.027 1 BM028890 |BM028890.1 IpSkn01670 Skin cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to Ict

  13. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  15. Development of Wearable Sheet-Type Shear Force Sensor and Measurement System that is Insusceptible to Temperature and Pressure.

    Toyama, Shigeru; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shirogane, Satoshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Umino, Tokio; Uehara, Ryo; Okamoto, Takuma; Igarashi, Hiroshi

    2017-07-31

    A sheet-type shear force sensor and a measurement system for the sensor were developed. The sensor has an original structure where a liquid electrolyte is filled in a space composed of two electrode-patterned polymer films and an elastic rubber ring. When a shear force is applied on the surface of the sensor, the two electrode-patterned films mutually move so that the distance between the internal electrodes of the sensor changes, resulting in current increase or decrease between the electrodes. Therefore, the shear force can be calculated by monitoring the current between the electrodes. Moreover, it is possible to measure two-dimensional shear force given that the sensor has multiple electrodes. The diameter and thickness of the sensor head were 10 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. Additionally, we also developed a measurement system that drives the sensor, corrects the baseline of the raw sensor output, displays data, and stores data as a computer file. Though the raw sensor output was considerably affected by the surrounding temperature, the influence of temperature was drastically decreased by introducing a simple arithmetical calculation. Moreover, the influence of pressure simultaneously decreased after the same calculation process. A demonstrative measurement using the sensor revealed the practical usefulness for on-site monitoring.

  16. Derivation of energy-based base shear force coefficient considering hysteretic behavior and P-delta effects

    Ucar, Taner; Merter, Onur

    2018-01-01

    A modified energy-balance equation accounting for P-delta effects and hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete members is derived. Reduced hysteretic properties of structural components due to combined stiffness and strength degradation and pinching effects, and hysteretic damping are taken into account in a simple manner by utilizing plastic energy and seismic input energy modification factors. Having a pre-selected yield mechanism, energy balance of structure in inelastic range is considered. P-delta effects are included in derived equation by adding the external work of gravity loads to the work of equivalent inertia forces and equating the total external work to the modified plastic energy. Earthquake energy input to multi degree of freedom (MDOF) system is approximated by using the modal energy-decomposition. Energy-based base shear coefficients are verified by means of both pushover analysis and nonlinear time history (NLTH) analysis of several RC frames having different number of stories. NLTH analyses of frames are performed by using the time histories of ten scaled ground motions compatible with elastic design acceleration spectrum and fulfilling duration/amplitude related requirements of Turkish Seismic Design Code. The observed correlation between energy-based base shear force coefficients and the average base shear force coefficients of NLTH analyses provides a reasonable confidence in estimation of nonlinear base shear force capacity of frames by using the derived equation.

  17. Effects of Allzyme SSF ® supplementation of differently processed ...

    Effects of Allzyme SSF ® supplementation of differently processed pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) seeds on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Science ... Keywords: Pigeon pea seed meal, Allzyme SSF®, supplementation, performance, broiler chicks, carcass characteristics.

  18. Evaluation of the shear force of single cancer cells by vertically aligned carbon nanotubes suitable for metastasis diagnosis.

    Abdolahad, M; Mohajerzadeh, S; Janmaleki, M; Taghinejad, H; Taghinejad, M

    2013-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have been demonstrated as probes for rapid quantifying of cancer cell deformability with high resolution. Through entrapment of various cancer cells on CNT arrays, the deflections of the nanotubes during cell deformation were used to derive the lateral cell shear force using a large deflection mode method. It is observed that VACNT beams act as sensitive and flexible agents, which transfer the shear force of cells trapped on them by an observable deflection. The metastatic cancer cells have significant deformable structures leading to a further cell traction force (CTF) than primary cancerous one on CNT arrays. The elasticity of different cells could be compared by their CTF measurement on CNT arrays. This study presents a nanotube-based methodology for quantifying the single cell mechanical behavior, which could be useful for understanding the metastatic behavior of cells.

  19. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Edition1B)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  20. CERES Single Satellite Footprint, TOA and Surface Fluxes, Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Ed2A-NoSW)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  1. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF)- Test data in HDF (CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset-Edition1)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  2. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  3. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  4. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  5. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  6. CERES Single Satellite Footprint, TOA and Surface Fluxes, Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  7. The Sheer Stress of Shear Stress: Responses of the Vascular Wall to a Haemodynamic Force

    C. Cheng (Caroline (Ka Lai))

    2006-01-01

    textabstractStudies in the hemodynamic field point to a strong relation between shear stress and the onset to vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Data from in vitro studies using sheared endothelial cells have provided insight into the possible mechanisms involved. However, the lack of an

  8. Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) stem.

    Zi, Xuejuan; Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Tang, Jun; Cai, Yimin

    2017-12-01

    The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stylo. The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP) content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.

  9. Ultra-short laser pulse ablation using shear-force feedback: Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy feasibility study

    Samek, Ota; Kurowski, Andre; Kittel, Silke; Kukhlevsky, Sergei; Hergenroeder, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This work reports on a feasibility study of proximity ablation using femtosecond pulses. Ultra-short pulses were launched to a bare tapered optical fiber and delivered to the sample. The tip-sample distance was controlled by means of shear-force feedback. Consequently, ablation craters with submicrometer dimensions were obtained. Potential analytical applications for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, such as e.g. inclusions in steel or bio cells, are suggested

  10. Rubber friction and force transmission during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers on rough surfaces

    Kern, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, vacuum grippers come in many different shapes and sizes. Their stability is guaranteed through specially manufactured metal fittings. These fittings are non-positively and positively connected to the elastic part of the vacuum gripper. The design of the elastic part may vary, though. Elastomer components are used to ensure tightness for the negative pressure in the active cave chamber of the vacuum gripper, as well as for the transfer of shearing forces, which acting parallel to the surface. Some vacuum grippers feature one elastomer for both the sealing function and the transfer of shear forces; other gripper types are equipped with various elastomers for those applications. The vacuum grippers described in this work are equipped with structured rubber friction pads, their tightness being ensured by sealing lips made of a flexible foam rubber. A restraint system consisting of one or several vacuum grippers must be sized prior to its actual practical use. For the transmission of shearing forces, which acting parallel to the surface, it is necessary to take the tribological system, consisting of the suction element's elastomer and the base material, into account since these loads put shearing stress on the vacuum gripper. In practice, however, a standardized value is given for the coefficient of friction μ; i.e. the ratio of transmissible frictional force to the normal force. This does neither include a detailed description of the elastomer used nor of the roughness of the base material. The standardized friction coefficients cannot be applied to the practical design of restraint systems. The present work includes the analysis of the load transmission and the modeling of the friction coefficients μ on rough surfaces during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers. Based on current theories, the phenomenon of elastomeric friction can be attributed to the two main components of hysteresis and adhesion friction. Both components are presented

  11. A combined experimental and theoretical approach to establish the relationship between shear force and clay platelet delamination in melt-processed polypropylene nanocomposites

    Bandyopadhyay, J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a combined experimental and theoretical approach has been proposed to establish a relationship between the required shear force and the degree of delamination of clay tactoids during the melt-processing of polymer nanocomposites...

  12. Modelling Force Transfer Around Openings of Full-Scale Shear Walls

    Tom Skaggs; Borjen Yeh; Frank Lam; Minghao Li; Doug Rammer; James Wacker

    2011-01-01

    Wood structural panel (WSP) sheathed shear walls and diaphragms are the primary lateralload-resisting elements in wood-frame construction. The historical performance of lightframe structures in North America has been very good due, in part, to model building codes that are designed to preserve life safety. These model building codes have spawned continual improvement...

  13. Full-scale shear wall tests for force transfer around openings

    Tom Skaggs; Borjen Yeh; Frank Lam; Douglas Rammer; James Wacker

    2010-01-01

    Wood structural panel sheathed shear walls and diaphragms are the primary lateral-load resisting elements in wood-frame construction. The historical performance of light-frame structures in North America are very good due, in part, to model building codes that are designed to preserve life safety, as well as the inherent redundancy of wood-frame construction using wood...

  14. Preliminary investigation on the relationship of Raman spectra of sheep meat with shear force and cooking loss.

    Schmidt, Heinar; Scheier, Rico; Hopkins, David L

    2013-01-01

    A prototype handheld Raman system was used as a rapid non-invasive optical device to measure raw sheep meat to estimate cooked meat tenderness and cooking loss. Raman measurements were conducted on m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum samples from two sheep flocks from two different origins which had been aged for five days at 3-4°C before deep freezing and further analysis. The Raman data of 140 samples were correlated with shear force and cooking loss data using PLS regression. Both sample origins could be discriminated and separate correlation models yielded better correlations than the joint correlation model. For shear force, R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.86 were obtained for the two sites. Results for cooking loss were comparable: separate models yielded R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.83 for the two sites. The results show the potential usefulness of Raman spectra which can be recorded during meat processing for the prediction of quality traits such as tenderness and cooking loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GPU-based Green's function simulations of shear waves generated by an applied acoustic radiation force in elastic and viscoelastic models.

    Yang, Yiqun; Urban, Matthew W; McGough, Robert J

    2018-05-15

    Shear wave calculations induced by an acoustic radiation force are very time-consuming on desktop computers, and high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) achieve dramatic reductions in the computation time for these simulations. The acoustic radiation force is calculated using the fast near field method and the angular spectrum approach, and then the shear waves are calculated in parallel with Green's functions on a GPU. This combination enables rapid evaluation of shear waves for push beams with different spatial samplings and for apertures with different f/#. Relative to shear wave simulations that evaluate the same algorithm on an Intel i7 desktop computer, a high performance nVidia GPU reduces the time required for these calculations by a factor of 45 and 700 when applied to elastic and viscoelastic shear wave simulation models, respectively. These GPU-accelerated simulations also compared to measurements in different viscoelastic phantoms, and the results are similar. For parametric evaluations and for comparisons with measured shear wave data, shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs.

  16. GPU-based Green’s function simulations of shear waves generated by an applied acoustic radiation force in elastic and viscoelastic models

    Yang, Yiqun; Urban, Matthew W.; McGough, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    Shear wave calculations induced by an acoustic radiation force are very time-consuming on desktop computers, and high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) achieve dramatic reductions in the computation time for these simulations. The acoustic radiation force is calculated using the fast near field method and the angular spectrum approach, and then the shear waves are calculated in parallel with Green’s functions on a GPU. This combination enables rapid evaluation of shear waves for push beams with different spatial samplings and for apertures with different f/#. Relative to shear wave simulations that evaluate the same algorithm on an Intel i7 desktop computer, a high performance nVidia GPU reduces the time required for these calculations by a factor of 45 and 700 when applied to elastic and viscoelastic shear wave simulation models, respectively. These GPU-accelerated simulations also compared to measurements in different viscoelastic phantoms, and the results are similar. For parametric evaluations and for comparisons with measured shear wave data, shear wave simulations with the Green’s function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs.

  17. Effects of acoustic radiation force and shear waves for absorption and stiffness sensing in ultrasound modulated optical tomography.

    Li, Rui; Elson, Daniel S; Dunsby, Chris; Eckersley, Robert; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2011-04-11

    Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) combines optical contrast with ultrasound spatial resolution and has great potential for soft tissue functional imaging. One current problem with this technique is the weak optical modulation signal, primarily due to strong optical scattering in diffuse media and minimal acoustically induced modulation. The acoustic radiation force (ARF) can create large particle displacements in tissue and has been shown to be able to improve optical modulation signals. However, shear wave propagation induced by the ARF can be a significant source of nonlocal optical modulation which may reduce UOT spatial resolution and contrast. In this paper, the time evolution of shear waves was examined on tissue mimicking-phantoms exposed to 5 MHz ultrasound and 532 nm optical radiation and measured with a CCD camera. It has been demonstrated that by generating an ARF with an acoustic burst and adjusting both the timing and the exposure time of the CCD measurement, optical contrast and spatial resolution can be improved by ~110% and ~40% respectively when using the ARF rather than 5 MHz ultrasound alone. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that this technique simultaneously detects both optical and mechanical contrast in the medium and the optical and mechanical contrast can be distinguished by adjusting the CCD exposure time. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Increasing hip and knee flexion during a drop-jump task reduces tibiofemoral shear and compressive forces: implications for ACL injury prevention training.

    Tsai, Liang-Ching; Ko, Yi-An; Hammond, Kyle E; Xerogeanes, John W; Warren, Gordon L; Powers, Christopher M

    2017-12-01

    Although most ACL injury prevention programmes encourage greater hip and knee flexion during landing, it remains unknown how this technique influences tibiofemoral joint forces. We examined whether a landing strategy utilising greater hip and knee flexion decreases tibiofemoral anterior shear and compression. Twelve healthy women (25.9 ± 3.5 years) performed a drop-jump task before and after a training session (10-15 min) that emphasised greater hip and knee flexion. Peak tibiofemoral anterior shear and compressive forces were calculated using an electromyography (EMG)-driven knee model that incorporated joint kinematics, EMG and participant-specific muscle volumes and patella tendon orientation measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants demonstrated a decrease in peak anterior tibial shear forces (11.1 ± 3.3 vs. 9.6 ± 2.7 N · kg -1 ; P = 0.008) and peak tibiofemoral compressive forces (68.4 ± 7.6 vs. 62.0 ± 5.5 N · kg -1 ; P = 0.015) post-training. The decreased peak anterior tibial shear was accompanied by a decrease in the quadriceps anterior shear force, while the decreased peak compressive force was accompanied by decreased ground reaction force and hamstring forces. Our data provide justification for injury prevention programmes that encourage greater hip and knee flexion during landing to reduce tibiofemoral joint loading.

  19. Effect of prolonged heat treatments at low temperature on shear force and cooking loss in cows and young bulls

    Christensen, L.; Andersen, L.; Løje, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    and cooking loss in semitendinosus from cows (4-6 years) and young bulls (12-14 months), representing 2 categories of beef with varying thermal strength of connective tissue. Vacuum packed muscle samples were heat treated at 53°C, 55°C, 58°C and 63°C in water baths for 2½, 7½ and 19½ h. Cooking loss...... 53°C to 55°C, or when increasing heating time from 2½ to 7½ h at 53°C. In semitendinosus from cows shear force decreased significantly with increasing temperature, and with increasing heating time from 2½ to 19½ h at 55°C and 63°C. Cooking loss increased with increasing heating temperature in both...

  20. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the kidneys: is shear wave velocity affected by tissue fibrosis or renal blood flow?

    Asano, Kenichiro; Ogata, Ai; Tanaka, Keiko; Ide, Yoko; Sankoda, Akiko; Kawakita, Chieko; Nishikawa, Mana; Ohmori, Kazuyoshi; Kinomura, Masaru; Shimada, Noriaki; Fukushima, Masaki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main influencing factor of the shear wave velocity (SWV) of the kidneys measured by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. The SWV was measured in the kidneys of 14 healthy volunteers and 319 patients with chronic kidney disease. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated by the serum creatinine concentration and age. As an indicator of arteriosclerosis of large vessels, the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured in 183 patients. Compared to the degree of interobserver and intraobserver deviation, a large variance of SWV values was observed in the kidneys of the patients with chronic kidney disease. Shear wave velocity values in the right and left kidneys of each patient correlated well, with high correlation coefficients (r = 0.580-0.732). The SWV decreased concurrently with a decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. A low SWV was obtained in patients with a high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Despite progression of renal fibrosis in the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, these results were in contrast to findings for chronic liver disease, in which progression of hepatic fibrosis results in an increase in the SWV. Considering that a high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity represents the progression of arteriosclerosis in the large vessels, the reduction of elasticity succeeding diminution of blood flow was suspected to be the main influencing factor of the SWV in the kidneys. This study indicates that diminution of blood flow may affect SWV values in the kidneys more than the progression of tissue fibrosis. Future studies for reducing data variance are needed for effective use of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  1. Effect of electrical stimulation and cooking temperature on the within-sample variation of cooking loss and shear force of lamb.

    Lewis, P K; Babiker, S A

    1983-01-01

    Electrical stimulation decreased the shear force and increased the cooking loss in seven paired lamb Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. This treatment did not have any effect on the within-sample variation. Cooking in 55°, 65° and 75°C water baths for 90 min caused a linear increase in the cooking loss and shear force. There was no stimulation-cooking temperature interaction observed. Cooking temperature also had no effect on the within-sample variation. A possible explanation as to why electrical stimulation did not affect the within-sample variation is given. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Influence of shear forces on the aggregation and sedimentation behavior of cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles under different hydrochemical conditions

    Lv, Bowen; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun, E-mail: hhuhjyhj@126.com; Wang, Peifang, E-mail: pfwang2005@hhu.edu.cn; Miao, Lingzhan; Li, Yi; Ao, Yanhui; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi [Hohai University, Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education (China)

    2016-07-15

    This study contributed to a better understanding of the behavior of nanoparticles (NPs) in dynamic water. First, the aggregation behavior of CeO{sub 2} NPs at different pH values in various salt solutions was examined to determine the appropriate hydrochemical conditions for hydrodynamics study. Second, the aggregation behavior of CeO{sub 2} NPs under different shear forces was investigated at pH 4 and ionic strength 0 in various salt solutions to find out whether shear forces could influence the stability of the nanoparticles and if yes, how. Also, five-stage sedimentation tests were conducted to understand the influence of shear stress on the vertical distribution of CeO{sub 2} NPs in natural waters. The aggregation test showed that the shear force could increase the collision efficiency between NPs during aggregation and cause a relatively large mass of NPs to remain in suspension. Consequently, the nanoparticles had a greater possibility of continued aggregation. The sedimentation test under static conditions indicated that a large mass of NPs (>1000 nm) sink to the bottom layer, leaving only small aggregates dispersed in the upper or middle layer of the solution. However, later sedimentation studies under stirring conditions demonstrated that shear forces can disrupt this stratification phenomenon. These results suggest that shear forces can influence the spatial distribution of NPs in natural waters, which might lead to different toxicities of CeO{sub 2} NPs to aquatic organisms distributed in the different water layers. This study contributes to a better understanding of nanomaterial toxicology and provides a way for further research.Graphical Abstract.

  3. Salt bridge interactions within the β2 integrin α7 helix mediate force-induced binding and shear resistance ability.

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Linda; Li, Ning; Shu, Xinyu; Zhou, Lüwen; Lü, Shouqin; Chen, Shenbao; Mao, Debin; Long, Mian

    2018-01-01

    The functional performance of the αI domain α 7 helix in β 2 integrin activation depends on the allostery of the α 7 helix, which axially slides down; therefore, it is critical to elucidate what factors regulate the allostery. In this study, we determined that there were two conservative salt bridge interaction pairs that constrain both the upper and bottom ends of the α 7 helix. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for three β 2 integrin members, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; α L β 2 ), macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1; α M β 2 ) and α x β 2 , indicated that the magnitude of the salt bridge interaction is related to the stability of the αI domain and the strength of the corresponding force-induced allostery. The disruption of the salt bridge interaction, especially with double mutations in both salt bridges, significantly reduced the force-induced allostery time for all three members. The effects of salt bridge interactions of the αI domain α 7 helix on β 2 integrin conformational stability and allostery were experimentally validated using Mac-1 constructs. The results demonstrated that salt bridge mutations did not alter the conformational state of Mac-1, but they did increase the force-induced ligand binding and shear resistance ability, which was consistent with MD simulations. This study offers new insight into the importance of salt bridge interaction constraints of the αI domain α 7 helix and external force for β 2 integrin function. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Quasi-static and dynamic forced shear deformation behaviors of Ti-5Mo-5V-8Cr-3Al alloy

    Wang, Zhiming; Chen, Zhiyong, E-mail: czysh@netease.com; Zhan, Congkun; Kuang, Lianjun; Shao, Jianbo; Wang, Renke; Liu, Chuming

    2017-04-13

    The mechanical behavior and microstructure characteristics of Ti-5Mo-5V-8Cr-3Al alloy were investigated with hat-shaped samples compressed under quasi-static and dynamic loading. Compared with the quasi-static loading, a higher shear stress peak and a shear instability stage were observed during the dynamic shear response. The results showed that an adiabatic shear band consisting of ultrafine equiaxed grains was only developed in the dynamic specimen, while a wider shear region was formed in the quasi-static specimen. The microhardness measurements revealed that shear region in the quasi-static specimen and adiabatic shear band in the dynamic specimen exhibited higher hardness than that of adjacent regions due to the strain hardening and grain refining, respectively. A stable orientation, in which the crystallographic {110} planes and <111> directions were respectively parallel to the shear plane and shear direction, developed in both specimens. And the microtexture of the adiabatic shear band was more well-defined than that of the shear region in the quasi-static specimen. Rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism was suggested to explain the formation of ultrafine equiaxed grains within the adiabatic shear band by thermodynamic and kinetic calculations.

  5. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and shear force in Texel lamb loins using combinations of different X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning techniques.

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Knott, S; Matthews, K R; Lambe, N R

    2018-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) parameters, including spiral computed tomography scanning (SCTS) parameters, intramuscular fat (IMF) and mechanically measured shear force were derived from two previously published studies. Purebred Texel (n = 377) of both sexes, females (n = 206) and intact males (n = 171) were used to investigate the prediction of IMF and shear force in the loin. Two and three dimensional CT density information was available. Accuracies in the prediction of shear force and IMF ranged from R 2 0.02 to R 2 0.13 and R 2 0.51 to R 2 0.71 respectively, using combinations of SCTS and CT scan information. The prediction of mechanical shear force could not be achieved at an acceptable level of accuracy employing SCTS information. However, the prediction of IMF in the loin employing information from SCTS and additional information from standard CT scans was successful, providing evidence that the prediction of IMF and related meat eating quality (MEQ) traits for Texel lambs in vivo can be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical investigation on lateral migration and lift force of single bubble in simple shear flow in low viscosity fluid using volume of fluid method

    Zhongchun, Li; Xiaoming, Song; Shengyao, Jiang; Jiyang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A VOF simulation of bubble in low viscosity fluid was conducted. • Lift force in different viscosity fluid had different lateral migration characteristics. • Bubble with different size migrated to different direction. • Shear stress triggered the bubble deformation process and the bubble deformation came along with the oscillation behaviors. - Abstract: Two phase flow systems have been widely used in industrial engineering. Phase distribution characteristics are vital to the safety operation and optimization design of two phase flow systems. Lift force has been known as perpendicular to the bubbles’ moving direction, which is one of the mechanisms of interfacial momentum transfer. While most widely used lift force correlations, such as the correlation of Tomiyama et al. (2002), were obtained by experimentally tracking single bubble trajectories in high viscosity glycerol–water mixture, the applicability of these models into low viscosity fluid, such as water in nuclear engineering system, needs to be further evaluated. In the present paper, bubble in low viscosity fluid in shear flow was investigated in a full 3D numerical simulation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to capture the interface. The fluid parameter: fluid viscosity, bubble parameter: diameter and external flow parameters: shear stress magnitude and liquid velocity were examined. Comparing with bubble in high viscosity shear flow and bubble in low viscosity still flow, relative large bubble in low viscosity shear flow keep an oscillation way towards the moving wall and experienced a shape deformation process. The oscillation amplitude increased as the viscosity of fluid decreased. Small bubble migrated to the static wall in a line with larger migration velocity than that in high viscosity fluid and no deformation occurred. The shear stress triggered the oscillation behaviors while it had no direct influence with the behavior. The liquid velocity had no effect on

  7. Modelling lamb carcase pH and temperature decline parameters: relationship to shear force and abattoir variation.

    Hopkins, David L; Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J

    2015-02-01

    Carcase pH and temperature decline rates influence lamb tenderness; therefore pH decline parameters are beneficial when modelling tenderness. These include pH at temperature 18 °C (pH@Temp18), temperature when pH is 6 (Temp@pH6), and pH at 24 h post-mortem (pH24). This study aimed to establish a relationship between shear force (SF) as a proxy for tenderness and carcase pH decline parameters estimated using both linear and spline estimation models for the m. longissimus lumborum (LL). The study also compared abattoirs regarding their achievement of ideal pH decline, indicative of optimal tenderness. Based on SF measurements of LL and m. semimembranosus collected as part of the Information Nucleus slaughter programme (CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation) this study found significant relationships between tenderness and pH24LL, consistent across the meat cuts and ageing periods examined. Achievement of ideal pH decline was shown not to have significantly differed across abattoirs, although rates of pH decline varied significantly across years within abattoirs.

  8. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

  9. NON-NEUTRALIZED ELECTRIC CURRENT PATTERNS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: ORIGIN OF THE SHEAR-GENERATING LORENTZ FORCE

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Mikić, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Using solar vector magnetograms of the highest available spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, we perform a detailed study of electric current patterns in two solar active regions (ARs): a flaring/eruptive and a flare-quiet one. We aim to determine whether ARs inject non-neutralized (net) electric currents in the solar atmosphere, responding to a debate initiated nearly two decades ago that remains inconclusive. We find that well-formed, intense magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) within ARs are the only photospheric magnetic structures that support significant net current. More intense PILs seem to imply stronger non-neutralized current patterns per polarity. This finding revises previous works that claim frequent injections of intense non-neutralized currents by most ARs appearing in the solar disk but also works that altogether rule out injection of non-neutralized currents. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that magnetically isolated ARs remain globally current-balanced. In addition, we confirm and quantify the preference of a given magnetic polarity to follow a given sense of electric currents, indicating a dominant sense of twist in ARs. This coherence effect is more pronounced in more compact ARs with stronger PILs and must be of sub-photospheric origin. Our results yield a natural explanation of the Lorentz force, invariably generating velocity and magnetic shear along strong PILs, thus setting a physical context for the observed pre-eruption evolution in solar ARs.

  10. HapTip: Displaying Haptic Shear Forces at the Fingertips for Multi-Finger Interaction in Virtual Environments

    Adrien eGirard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fingertips are one of the most important and sensitive parts of our body.They are the first stimulated areas of the hand when we interact with our environment.Providing haptic feedback to the fingertips in virtual reality could thus drastically improve perception and interaction with virtual environments.In this paper, we present a modular approach called HapTip to display such haptic sensations at the level of the fingertips.This approach relies on a wearable and compact haptic device able to simulate 2 Degree of Freedom (DoF shear forces on the fingertip with a displacement range of +/- 2 mm. Several modules can be added and used jointly in order to address multi-finger and/or bimanual scenarios in virtual environments.For that purpose, we introduce several haptic rendering techniques to cover different cases of 3D interaction such as touching a rough virtual surface, or feeling the inertia or weight of a virtual object.In order to illustrate the possibilities offered by HapTip, we provide four use cases focused on touching or grasping virtual objects.To validate the efficiency of our approach, we also conducted experiments to assess the tactile perception obtained with HapTip.Our results show that participants can successfully discriminate the directions of the 2 DoF stimulation of our haptic device.We found also that participants could well perceive different weights of virtual objects simulated using two HapTip devices. We believe that HapTip could be used in numerous applications in virtual reality for which 3D manipulation and tactile sensations are often crucial, such as in virtual prototyping or virtual training.

  11. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Shon, Beom Seok; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Sang Won; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To measure shear wave velocities (SWVs) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in normal kidneys and in hydronephrotic kidneys in young children and to compare SWVs between the hydronephrosis grades. This study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the children included. Children under the age of 24 months were prospectively enrolled. Hydronephrosis grade was evaluated on ultrasonography, and three valid ARFI measurements were attempted using a high-frequency transducer for both kidneys. Hydronephrosis was graded from 0 to 4, and high-grade hydronephrosis was defined as grades 3 and 4. Fifty-one children underwent ARFI measurements, and three valid measurements for both kidneys were obtained in 96% (49/51) of the patients. Nineteen children (38.8%) had no hydronephrosis. Twenty-three children (46.9%) had unilateral hydronephrosis, and seven children (14.3%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. Seven children had ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Median SWVs in kidneys with high-grade hydronephrosis (2.02 m/sec) were higher than those in normal kidneys (1.75 m/sec; P=0.027). However, the presence of UPJO did not influence the median SWVs in hydronephrotic kidneys (P=0.362). Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  12. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Shon, Beom Seok; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Sang Won; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi Jung

    2014-01-01

    To measure shear wave velocities (SWVs) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in normal kidneys and in hydronephrotic kidneys in young children and to compare SWVs between the hydronephrosis grades. This study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the children included. Children under the age of 24 months were prospectively enrolled. Hydronephrosis grade was evaluated on ultrasonography, and three valid ARFI measurements were attempted using a high-frequency transducer for both kidneys. Hydronephrosis was graded from 0 to 4, and high-grade hydronephrosis was defined as grades 3 and 4. Fifty-one children underwent ARFI measurements, and three valid measurements for both kidneys were obtained in 96% (49/51) of the patients. Nineteen children (38.8%) had no hydronephrosis. Twenty-three children (46.9%) had unilateral hydronephrosis, and seven children (14.3%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. Seven children had ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Median SWVs in kidneys with high-grade hydronephrosis (2.02 m/sec) were higher than those in normal kidneys (1.75 m/sec; P=0.027). However, the presence of UPJO did not influence the median SWVs in hydronephrotic kidneys (P=0.362). Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  13. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging with Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification: mean shear wave velocity of malignant and benign breast masses.

    Wojcinski, Sebastian; Brandhorst, Kathrin; Sadigh, Gelareh; Hillemanns, Peter; Degenhardt, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) with Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTTQ) enables the determination of shear wave velocity (SWV) in meters per second (m/s). The aim of our study was to describe the mean SWV in normal breast tissue and various breast masses. We performed measurements of SWV with ARFI VTTQ in 145 breast masses (57 malignant, 88 benign) and in the adjacent breast parenchyma and adipose tissue. The mean SWV as well as the rate of successful measurements were analyzed. The difference between adipose tissue and parenchyma was statistically significant (3.05 versus 3.65 m/s) (P breast masses, numerous measurements exceeded the upper limit of possible measurement (≥9.10 m/s, indicated as "X.XX m/s"). Nevertheless, the difference between the malignant and benign masses was statistically significant (8.38 ± 1.99 m/s versus 5.39 ± 2.95 m/s) (P < 0.001). The best diagnostic accuracy (75.9%) was achieved when the cutoff point for malignancy was set to 9.10 m/s in ARFI VTTQ. This implies that the SWV was regarded as suspicious when the upper limit of possible measurement was exceeded and the machine returned the value X.XX m/s. In conclusion, ARFI VTTQ is a feasible method for measurement of SWV in a region of interest. Furthermore, we propose the event of a highly elevated SWV as a significant criterion for malignancy. However, the method is technically not yet fully developed, and the problem of unsuccessful measurements must still be solved.

  14. Explaining the variation in the shear force of lamb meat using sarcomere length, the rate of rigor onset and pH.

    Hopkins, D L; Toohey, E S; Lamb, T A; Kerr, M J; van de Ven, R; Refshauge, G

    2011-08-01

    The temperature when the pH=6.0 (temp@pH6) impacts on the tenderness and eating quality of sheep meat. Due to the expense, sarcomere length is not routinely measured as a variable to explain variation in shear force, but whether measures such as temp@pH6 are as useful a parameter needs to be established. Measures of rigor onset in 261 carcases, including the temp@pH6, were evaluated in this study for their ability to explain some of the variation in shear force. The results show that for 1 day aged product combinations of the temp@pH6, the pH at 18 °C and the pH at 24 h provided a larger reduction (almost double) in total shear force variation than sarcomere length alone, with pH at 24 h being the single best measure. For 5 day aged product, pH at 18 °C was the single best measure. Inclusion of sarcomere length did represent some improvement, but the marginal increase would not be cost effective. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of a soft computing technique in predicting the percentage of shear force carried by walls in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness.

    Khozani, Zohreh Sheikh; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zaji, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Two new soft computing models, namely genetic programming (GP) and genetic artificial algorithm (GAA) neural network (a combination of modified genetic algorithm and artificial neural network methods) were developed in order to predict the percentage of shear force in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness. The ability of these methods to estimate the percentage of shear force was investigated. Moreover, the independent parameters' effectiveness in predicting the percentage of shear force was determined using sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the GP model demonstrated superior performance to the GAA model. A comparison was also made between the GP program determined as the best model and five equations obtained in prior research. The GP model with the lowest error values (root mean square error ((RMSE) of 0.0515) had the best function compared with the other equations presented for rough and smooth channels as well as smooth ducts. The equation proposed for rectangular channels with rough boundaries (RMSE of 0.0642) outperformed the prior equations for smooth boundaries.

  16. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging with Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification: mean shear wave velocity of malignant and benign breast masses

    Wojcinski S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Wojcinski,1 Kathrin Brandhorst,2 Gelareh Sadigh,3 Peter Hillemanns,1 Friedrich Degenhardt2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld, Germany; 3Department of Radiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI with Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTTQ enables the determination of shear wave velocity (SWV in meters per second (m/s. The aim of our study was to describe the mean SWV in normal breast tissue and various breast masses. We performed measurements of SWV with ARFI VTTQ in 145 breast masses (57 malignant, 88 benign and in the adjacent breast parenchyma and adipose tissue. The mean SWV as well as the rate of successful measurements were analyzed. The difference between adipose tissue and parenchyma was statistically significant (3.05 versus 3.65 m/s (P < 0.001. Focusing on breast masses, numerous measurements exceeded the upper limit of possible measurement (≥9.10 m/s, indicated as "X.XX m/s". Nevertheless, the difference between the malignant and benign masses was statistically significant (8.38 ± 1.99 m/s versus 5.39 ± 2.95 m/s (P < 0.001. The best diagnostic accuracy (75.9% was achieved when the cutoff point for malignancy was set to 9.10 m/s in ARFI VTTQ. This implies that the SWV was regarded as suspicious when the upper limit of possible measurement was exceeded and the machine returned the value X.XX m/s. In conclusion, ARFI VTTQ is a feasible method for measurement of SWV in a region of interest. Furthermore, we propose the event of a highly elevated SWV as a significant criterion for malignancy. However, the method is technically not yet fully developed, and the problem of unsuccessful measurements must still be solved. Keywords: ARFI VTTQ, elastography, ultrasound, breast imaging

  17. Shear force distance control in a scanning near-field optical microscope: in resonance excitation of the fiber probe versus out of resonance excitation

    Lapshin, D.A.; Letokhov, V.S.; Shubeita, G.T.; Sekatskii, S.K.; Dietler, G.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental results of the direct measurement of the absolute value of interaction force between the fiber probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) operated in shear force mode and a sample, which were performed using combined SNOM-atomic force microscope setup, are discussed for the out-of-resonance fiber probe excitation mode. We demonstrate that the value of the tapping component of the total force for this mode at typical dither amplitudes is of the order of 10 nN and thus is quite comparable with the value of this force for in resonance fiber probe excitation mode. It is also shown that for all modes this force component is essentially smaller than the usually neglected static attraction force, which is of the order of 200 nN. The true contact nature of the tip-sample interaction during the out of resonance mode is proven. From this, we conclude that such a detection mode is very promising for operation in liquids, where other modes encounter great difficulties

  18. Magnetic structure of deformation-induced shear bands in amorphous Fe{sub 80}B{sub 16}Si{sub 4} observed by magnetic force microscopy

    Brown, G.W. [Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Hawley, M.E. [Materials Science and Technology Division, (MST-8), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Markiewicz, D.J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Spaepen, F.; Barth, E.P. [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Processing-induced magnetic structures in amorphous metallic alloys are of interest because of their impact on the performance of materials used in electric device applications. Plastic deformation associated with cutting or bending the material to the desired shape occurs through the formation of shear bands. The stress associated with these shear bands induces magnetic domains that can lead to power losses through interaction with the fields and currents involved in normal device operation. These domains have been studied previously using a variety of techniques capable of imaging magnetic domain structures. In an effort to better characterize and understand these issues, we have applied atomic and magnetic force microscopy to these materials to provide three-dimensional nanometer-scale topographic resolution and micrometer-scale magnetic resolution. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Stress in closed thin-walled tubes of single box subjected by shear forces and application to airfoils

    Zebbiche Toufik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is to develop a numerical computation program to determine the distribution of the shear stress to shear in closed tubes with asymmetric single thin wall section with a constant thickness and applications to airfoils and therefore determining the position and value of the maximum stress. In the literature, there are exact analytical solutions only for some sections of simple geometries such as circular section. Hence our interest is focused on the search of approximate numerical solutions for more complex sections used in aeronautics. In the second stage the position of the shear center is determined so that the section does not undergo torsion. The analytic function of the boundary of the airfoil is obtained by using the cubic spline interpolation since it is given in the form of tabulated points.

  20. L4-L5 compression and anterior/posterior joint shear forces in cabin attendants during the initial push/pull actions of airplane meal carts

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Rosgaard, Christian; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acute low back load of cabin attendants during cart handling and to identify working situations which present the highest strain on the worker. In a setup, 17 cabin attendants (ten females and seven males) pushed, pulled and turned a 20kg standard meal...... was used to calculate the acute L4-L5 load. No working situations created loads greater than the accepted values for single exertions, however compression and anterior/posterior shear forces during pulling and turning were much higher when compared with pushing. There were significant effects of handling...... the cart on different floor types, at the varying inclinations and with different cart weights. Additionally, when external forces were reduced, the cabin attendants did not decrease push/pull force proportionally and thus the L4-L5 load did not decrease as much as expected....

  1. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  2. Shear Forces during Blast, Not Abrupt Changes in Pressure Alone, Generate Calcium Activity in Human Brain Cells

    2012-06-29

    8217[-·:’ 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (sec) Mean Peak Shear Stress (Pa) 0.6 ɘ.0001 200 250 300 350 400 Fluid Volume (I- LL ) lack of correlation to...Blood Flow Metab 30: 255–266. 5. Nakagawa A, Manley GT, Gean AD, Ohtani K, Armonda R, et al. (2011) Mechanisms of primary blast-induced traumatic brain

  3. Disturbed flow mediated modulation of shear forces on endothelial plane: A proposed model for studying endothelium around atherosclerotic plaques

    Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Majunathan, Reji; Mani, Krishnapriya; Swaminathan, Akila; Venkatesan, Saravanakumar; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-06-01

    Disturbed fluid flow or modulated shear stress is associated with vascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. In vitro simulation of the fluid flow around the plaque micro-environment remains a challenging approach. Currently available models have limitations such as complications in protocols, high cost, incompetence of co-culture and not being suitable for massive expression studies. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a simple, versatile model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Current observations of CFD have shown the regions of modulated shear stress by the disturbed fluid flow. To execute and validate the model in real sense, cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) profile, nitric oxide production and disturbed flow markers under the above condition were assessed. Endothelium at disturbed flow region which had been exposed to low shear stress and swirling flow pattern showed morphological and expression similarities with the pathological disturbed flow environment reported previously. Altogether, the proposed model can serve as a platform to simulate the real time micro-environment of disturbed flow associated with eccentric plaque shapes and the possibilities of studying its downstream events.

  4. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Yang, Yiqun

    In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all

  5. L4-L5 compression and anterior/posterior joint shear forces in cabin attendants during the initial push/pull actions of airplane meal carts.

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Rosgaard, Christian; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acute low back load of cabin attendants during cart handling and to identify working situations which present the highest strain on the worker. In a setup, 17 cabin attendants (ten females and seven males) pushed, pulled and turned a 20 kg standard meal cart (L: 0.5m × W: 0.3 m × H: 0.92 m) loaded with extra 20 kg and 40 kg, respectively on two different surfaces (carpet and linoleum) and at three floor inclinations (-2°, 0° and +2°). Two force transducers were mounted as handles. Two-dimensional movement analysis was performed and a 4D WATBAK modelling tool was used to calculate the acute L4-L5 load. No working situations created loads greater than the accepted values for single exertions, however compression and anterior/posterior shear forces during pulling and turning were much higher when compared with pushing. There were significant effects of handling the cart on different floor types, at the varying inclinations and with different cart weights. Additionally, when external forces were reduced, the cabin attendants did not decrease push/pull force proportionally and thus the L4-L5 load did not decrease as much as expected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Shear machines

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  7. Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS Identify QTL on SSC2 and SSC17 Affecting Loin Peak Shear Force in Crossbred Commercial Pigs.

    Chunyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Of all the meat quality traits, tenderness is considered the most important with regard to eating quality and market value. In this study we have utilised genome wide association studies (GWAS for peak shear force (PSF of loin muscle as a measure of tenderness for 1,976 crossbred commercial pigs, genotyped for 42,721 informative SNPs using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip. Four 1 Mb genomic regions, three on SSC2 (at 4 Mb, 5 Mb and 109 Mb and one on SSC17 (at 20 Mb, were detected which collectively explained about 15.30% and 3.07% of the total genetic and phenotypic variance for PSF respectively. Markers ASGA0008566, ASGA0008695, DRGA0003285 and ASGA0075615 in the four regions were strongly associated with the effects. Analysis of the reference genome sequence in the region with the most important SNPs for SSC2_5 identified FRMD8, SLC25A45 and LTBP3 as potential candidate genes for meat tenderness on the basis of functional annotation of these genes. The region SSC2_109 was close to a previously reported candidate gene CAST; however, the very weak LD between DRGA0003285 (the best marker representing region SSC2_109 and CAST indicated the potential for additional genes which are distinct from, or interact with, CAST to affect meat tenderness. Limited information of known genes in regions SSC2_109 and SSC17_20 restricts further analysis. Re-sequencing of these regions for informative animals may help to resolve the molecular architecture and identify new candidate genes and causative mutations affecting this trait. These findings contribute significantly to our knowledge of the genomic regions affecting pork shear force and will potentially lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating meat tenderness.

  8. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...

  9. Consistency of two global MODIS aerosol products over ocean on Terra and Aqua CERES SSF datasets

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce; Loeb, Norman G.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Miller, Walter F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika B.

    2004-12-01

    MODIS aerosol retrievals over ocean from Terra and Aqua platforms are available from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets generated at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two aerosol products are reported side by side. The primary M product is generated by subsetting and remapping the multi-spectral (0.44 - 2.1 μm) MOD04 aerosols onto CERES footprints. MOD04 processing uses cloud screening and aerosol algorithms developed by the MODIS science team. The secondary (AVHRR-like) A product is generated in only two MODIS bands: 1 and 6 on Terra, and ` and 7 on Aqua. The A processing uses NASA/LaRC cloud-screening and NOAA/NESDIS single channel aerosol algorthm. The M and A products have been documented elsewhere and preliminarily compared using two weeks of global Terra CERES SSF (Edition 1A) data in December 2000 and June 2001. In this study, the M and A aerosol optical depths (AOD) in MODIS band 1 and (0.64 μm), τ1M and τ1A, are further checked for cross-platform consistency using 9 days of global Terra CERES SSF (Edition 2A) and Aqua CERES SSF (Edition 1A) data from 13 - 21 October 2002.

  10. A short review on SSF – an interesting process option for ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Bertilsson Magnus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF is one process option for production of ethanol from lignocellulose. The principal benefits of performing the enzymatic hydrolysis together with the fermentation, instead of in a separate step after the hydrolysis, are the reduced end-product inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis, and the reduced investment costs. The principal drawbacks, on the other hand, are the need to find favorable conditions (e.g. temperature and pH for both the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation and the difficulty to recycle the fermenting organism and the enzymes. To satisfy the first requirement, the temperature is normally kept below 37°C, whereas the difficulty to recycle the yeast makes it beneficial to operate with a low yeast concentration and at a high solid loading. In this review, we make a brief overview of recent experimental work and development of SSF using lignocellulosic feedstocks. Significant progress has been made with respect to increasing the substrate loading, decreasing the yeast concentration and co-fermentation of both hexoses and pentoses during SSF. Presently, an SSF process for e.g. wheat straw hydrolyzate can be expected to give final ethanol concentrations close to 40 g L-1 with a yield based on total hexoses and pentoses higher than 70%.

  11. PRODUKSI BIOETANOL DARI ALKALI-PRETREATMENT JERAMI PADI DENGAN PROSES SIMULTANEOUS SACHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION (SSF

    Iryanti Fatyasari Nata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is an agricultural waste which contains 39% cellulose and 27.5% hemicelluloses. Rice straw can be converted into bio ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF process. The aims of this research are to investigate the influence of rice straw pretreatment and operation condition (number of cellulose enzyme and Saccharomyces cereviseae for bioethanol production. The bioethanol conversion was devided by 2 steps, there were delignification and SSF. Delignification process was done by soak rice straw in NaOH 2% heated at temperature 85 oC for 1 hour then washed with water. The pretreatment rice straw was used as substrate in SSF. SSF was conducted in the presence of cellulase enzyme (20, 30, and 40 FPU and Sacharomyces Cerevisiae (2,4 and 6 ose for 3 days. The bioethanol concentration produced for 20 FPU, 30 FPU, and 40 FPU in 2 ose S.careviseae are 0,45%, 0,44%, and 0,43% respectively. The addition number of Saccharomyces cereviseae was gave high concentration of bioethanol. The result shown that bioethanol concentration of 2 ose, 4 ose and 6 ose are 0,45%, 0,46% and 1,07%, respectively. In the same concentration of enzyme (20 FPU which pretreatment and non pretretament substrate was increased of bioethanol concentration up to 82,2%. The pretretment process was broken the structure of lignin and made enzyme easy to attached cellulose and converted to glucose.

  12. Development of a shear-force scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for characterization of nanostructures' optical properties.

    Bercu, N B; Troyon, M; Molinari, M

    2016-09-01

    An original scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for nanostructure characterization has been developed and successfully tested. By using a bimorph piezoelectric stack both as actuator and detector, the developed setup constitutes a real improvement compared to previously reported SEM-based solutions. The technique combines a scanning probe and a scanning electron microscope in order to simultaneously offer near-field cathodoluminescence and topographic images of the sample. Share-force topography and cathodoluminescence measurements on GaN, SiC and ZnO nanostructures using the developed setup are presented showing a nanometric resolution in both topography and cathodoluminescence images with increased sensitivity compared to classical luminescence techniques. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. OCT and shear-force evaluations of zirconia Fixed Partial Prosthesis processed with a conventional CAD/CAM technology

    Zaharia, C.; Gabor, A.; Sinescu, C.; Topala, F. I.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Levai, C. M.; Duma, V. F.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction. Dental ceramics show better biocompatibility and aesthetic properties in dental constructs with regard to metals. However, they also have an insufficient mechanical stability, as well as low resistance limits due to their fragility. Taking into account these aspects, glass infiltrated with ceramic materials such as alumina (i.e., zirconiareinforced ceramics) is being nowadays considered a better material for full fixed partial prostheses (FPPs) than ceramics: the former has a higher mechanical resistance, which makes it more appropriate for restoration areas, where there is an increased mechanical stress. The interest for zirconia is growing due both to its resistance and to the possibility to develop such prostheses using the CAD/CAM technology. Materials and methods. 24 all ceramic FPPs created with CAD/CAM technology were used. The models were scanned with Zeno Wieland Scanner, a one touch scanning machine which requires between 45-60 s for a full model scan. The scanner provides 3 axis-architecture and automatic data processing. The zirconia infrastructures resulted from milling zirconia green disks in Wieland units, followed by the deposition of ceramic masses and then by burning procedures. All the samples were assessed with a Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD-OCT) system working at a wavelenght of 1300 nm. Using OCT investigations, material defects were detected in the areas of maximal tension, i.e. the connectors, the oclusal, and the cervical areas. These samples with defects in the above areas have not been considered for the study further on. Finally, the samples were loaded in a MultiTest 5 i Mecmesin system and tested until fracture occurred. The MultiTest 5-i creates tensile and compression forces of up to 5 kN. Results and discussions. All the test samples survived a dynamic load of 1.2 x 107 cycles and a thermal cycle mixer simulator version; signs of failure in terms of fracture lines were observed in all samples. The

  14. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  15. Effect of dietary vitamin E on broiler meat qualities, color, water-holding capacity and shear force value, under heat stress conditions.

    Hashizawa, Yoshinori; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E (VE) on broiler meat quality, especially focused on PSE (pale color, soft and exudative), under chronic heat stress (HS) conditions. Twenty-eight-day-old female Ross broilers were kept in independent cages with a controlled temperature of 24°C (normal temperature: NT) or 30°C (high temperature: HT). The NT chickens were fed basal feed. The HT chickens were fed basal feed (HT) or VE (200 mg/kg) added feed (HT + E). Broilers were weighed and slaughtered at 38 days old. The breast muscle was removed immediately and then the samples were used for determination of meat color, pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force value (SFV). Body weight gain and feed intake were significantly decreased in the HT and HT + E groups compared to the NT group. VE supplementation did not affect the growth performance. Chronic HS at 30°C for 10 days may cause deterioration of meat quality such as PSE. The effects of chronic HS on meat quality were most significant in the toughness of broiler breast meat. Supplementation of VE in broiler feed would be effective to prevent the extent of PSE on broiler meat by chronic HS. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Bioethanol Production From Banana Stem By Using Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF)

    Kusmiyati; Mustofa, A.; Jumarmi

    2018-05-01

    The rapid growth and development of industries in the world result in a greater energy needs. Some studies show that ethanol can be used as an alternative energy. However, bioethanol production from food raw materials such as sugar and starch has drawback that cause the food crisis. This aim of this study was to convert banana stem into bioethanol. Banana stem contained of 44.6% cellulose, 36.0% hemicellulose and 19.4% lignin. After banana stems were pretreated with acid (H2SO4) and alkaline (NaOH) at a concentration of 2% w/v at 121 °C for 30 minutes, then subsequently the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were carried out by using mixed cultures of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei and Zymomonas mobilis at various enzymes ratios of (1:1:1), (1:2:1), (1:2:2), (1:1:2) and various pH (4, 5 and 6) with SSF time for 144 hours and temperature of 30°C. The results show that acid pretreatment showed better results than the alkali pretreatment. After acid pretreatment and alkali pretreatment, lignin content of pretreted banana stem reduced to 15.92% and 16.34%, respectively, cellulose increased to 52.11% and 50.6% respectively, hemicellulose reduced to 28.45% and 28.83%, respectively The SSF showed that pH 5 gave the highest bioethanol. The highest concentration of bioethanol (8.51 g/L) was achieved at the SSF process at pH 5 with a ratio Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei and Zymomonas mobilis enzymes of (1:1:2).

  17. Effects of enzyme complex SSF (solid state fermentation in pellet diets for Nile tilapia

    Guilherme de Souza Moura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of enzyme complex SSF (solid state fermentation on growth performance and the availability of sucrose and monosaccharides in the chyme of Nile were involved. The study included 360 fish (70g±4.43 in a completely randomized design with six dietary treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm of SSF arranged in six replicates, with 10 fish per replicate. Every 15 days, one tilapia of each experimental unit was sacrificed for analyses of carbohydrate in the chyme. On day 60 of the experiment, the performance parameters were measured. There was a linear effect according to treatment for final weight and weight gain. For the other performance parameters, there were no differences. There was quadratic effect for sucrose and glucose in function of the treatment, whereas the fructose levels increased linearly. The addition of 150 ppm of the enzyme complex SSF in the feed improves the performance of Nile tilapia and increases the availability of sucrose and monosaccharides in the chyme.

  18. Quantitative Shear Wave Velocity Measurement on Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for Differential Diagnosis between Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-analysis.

    Liu, Bo-Ji; Li, Dan-Dan; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Guo, Le-Hang; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Xu, Jun-Mei; Liu, Chang; Liu, Lin-Na; Li, Xiao-Long; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Qu, Shen; Xing, Mingzhao

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave velocity (SWV) measurement on acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules using meta-analysis. The databases of PubMed and the Web of Science were searched. Studies published in English on assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of ARFI elastography for the differentiation of thyroid nodules were collected. The quantitative measurement of ARFI elastography was evaluated by SWV (m/s). Meta-Disc Version 1.4 software was used to describe and calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and summary receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed a total of 13 studies, which included 1,854 thyroid nodules (including 1,339 benign nodules and 515 malignant nodules) from 1,641 patients. The summary sensitivity and specificity for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules by SWV were 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.84) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.81-0.86), respectively. The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.21 (95% CI: 3.56-7.62) and 0.23 (95% CI: 0.17-0.32), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 27.53 (95% CI: 14.58-52.01), and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.91 (Q* = 0.84). In conclusion, SWV measurement on ARFI elastography has high sensitivity and specificity for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules and can be used in combination with conventional ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ATP sensitive potassium channels in the skeletal muscle functions : involvement of the KCNJ11(Kir6.2 gene in the determination of Warner Bratzer shear force

    Domenico eTricarico

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-sensitive K+-channels (KATP are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K+ ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1, KCNJ11 (Kir6.2, ABCC8 (SUR1 and ABCC9 (SUR2 genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty. Down-regulation of the KATP subunits of fast-twitch fibres is found in conditions characterized by weakness and frailty. KCNJ11 gene knockout mice have reduced glycogen, lean phenotype, lower body fat, and weakness. KATP channel is also a sensor of muscle atrophy. The KCNJ11 gene is located on BTA15, close to a QTL for meat tenderness, it has also a role in glycogen storage, a key mechanism of the postmortem transformation of muscle into meat. The role of KCNJ11 gene in muscle function may underlie an effect of KCNJ11 genotypes on meat tenderness, as recently reported. The fiber phenotype and genotype are important in livestock production science. Quantitative traits including meat production and quality are influenced both by environment and genes. Molecular markers can play an important role in the genetic improvement of animals through breeding strategies. Many factors influence the muscle Warner-Bratzler shear force including breed, age, feeding, the biochemical and functional parameters. The role of KCNJ11gene and related genes on muscle tenderness will be discussed in the present review.

  20. TRAC-PF1/MOD 1 independent assessment: Semiscale MOD-2A feedwater-line break (S-SF-3) and steam-line break (S-SF-5) tests

    Dobranich, D.

    1985-11-01

    The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 independent assessment project at Sandia is part of an overall effort funded by the NRC to determine the ability of various systems codes to predict the detailed thermal/hydraulic response of LWRs during accident and off-normal conditions. As part of this effort, calculations for Semiscale Mod-2A test S-SF-3, a feedwater-line break test, and S-SF-5, a steam-line break test, were performed with TRAC-PF1/MOD1. Most aspects of both the S-SF-3 and S-SF-5 steady-state calculations were found to be in good agreement with data. However, the need for a better steam separator model was identified from the S-SF-3 calculation. Overall, the qualitative behavior of both transients was calculated reasonably well; however, there were some discrepancies in the prediction of the quantitative behavior. The results for the S-SF-3 transient calculation indicate that the primary-to-secondary heat transfer degradation began too early. This was possibly due to overprediction of entrainment in the steam generator boiler, leading to an incorrect calculation of the secondary-side fluid distribution during the steady state. However, there was insufficient data to verify this. Results for the S-SF-5 transient calculation indicate that the primary-side fluid temperature response to a steam-line break was in reasonable agreement with data but the pressure response did not coincide with the data. Uncertainties in the data are sufficient to prevent us from determining the exact cause of this discrepancy, but there is indirect evidence that the calculated rate of phase change in the pressurizer was incorrect. 16 refs., 73 figs., 13 tabs

  1. SUV rollover in single vehicle crashes and the influence of ESC and SSF.

    Kallan, Michael J; Jermakian, Jessica Steps

    2008-10-01

    The modern Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) fleet continues to go through a transformation in response to the concern that they are at an increased risk of rollover. Our research objective was to look at changes in rollover rates for single vehicle crashes in the modern SUV fleet (corresponding to NCAP rollover testing model years) and the impact of electronic stability control (ESC) and lowered center of gravity. We looked at 2001-2006 NASS-GES data on a probability sample of 3,331 SUVs involved in single vehicle crashes, weighted to represent 324,149 crashes in the study population. Static Stability Factor (SSF) information from NCAP testing and ESC presence (from IIHS) were also incorporated. 20.2% of these SUVs were involved a rollover, which decreased by more than half from model year 2001 (25.3%) through 2006 (11.5%). Nearly 9% had ESC as a standard feature, including 47% in model year 2006. The majority of the late model year decline in rollover rates can be attributed to ESC presence and higher SSF. Rollover was two-thirds less likely (adjusted OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.20-0.55) in SUVs with ESC as a standard feature versus those known not to have ESC. Those SUVs with SSF > or = 1.20 were significantly less likely to rollover (adjusted OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.20-0.48). Additional significant predictors of rollover included SUV size, driver age and alcohol use. Our study builds on the previous work of NHTSA, IIHS, and others with regard to rollover risk by looking at an even wider array of late model year SUVs.

  2. A Two-Stage Method for Structural Damage Prognosis in Shear Frames Based on Story Displacement Index and Modal Residual Force

    Asghar Rasouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage method is proposed to properly identify the location and the extent of damage in shear frames. In the first stage, a story displacement index (SDI is presented to precisely locate the damage in the shear frame which is calculated using the modal analysis information of the damaged structure. In the second stage, by defining a new objective function, the extent of the actual damage is determined via an imperialist competitive algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by implementing the technique to three examples containing five-, ten-, and twenty-five-story shear frames with noises and without them in modal data. Moreover, the performance of the proposed method has been verified through using a benchmark problem. Numerical results show the high efficiency of the proposed method for accurately identifying the location and the extent of structural damage in shear frames.

  3. Rubber friction and force transmission during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers on rough surfaces; Elastomerreibung und Kraftuebertragung beim Abscheren von aktiv betriebenen Vakuumgreifern auf rauen Oberflaechen

    Kern, Patrick

    2016-12-21

    Nowadays, vacuum grippers come in many different shapes and sizes. Their stability is guaranteed through specially manufactured metal fittings. These fittings are non-positively and positively connected to the elastic part of the vacuum gripper. The design of the elastic part may vary, though. Elastomer components are used to ensure tightness for the negative pressure in the active cave chamber of the vacuum gripper, as well as for the transfer of shearing forces, which acting parallel to the surface. Some vacuum grippers feature one elastomer for both the sealing function and the transfer of shear forces; other gripper types are equipped with various elastomers for those applications. The vacuum grippers described in this work are equipped with structured rubber friction pads, their tightness being ensured by sealing lips made of a flexible foam rubber. A restraint system consisting of one or several vacuum grippers must be sized prior to its actual practical use. For the transmission of shearing forces, which acting parallel to the surface, it is necessary to take the tribological system, consisting of the suction element's elastomer and the base material, into account since these loads put shearing stress on the vacuum gripper. In practice, however, a standardized value is given for the coefficient of friction μ; i.e. the ratio of transmissible frictional force to the normal force. This does neither include a detailed description of the elastomer used nor of the roughness of the base material. The standardized friction coefficients cannot be applied to the practical design of restraint systems. The present work includes the analysis of the load transmission and the modeling of the friction coefficients μ on rough surfaces during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers. Based on current theories, the phenomenon of elastomeric friction can be attributed to the two main components of hysteresis and adhesion friction. Both components are

  4. Particle size analysis of lamb meat: Effect of homogenization speed, comparison with myofibrillar fragmentation index and its relationship with shear force.

    Karumendu, L U; Ven, R van de; Kerr, M J; Lanza, M; Hopkins, D L

    2009-08-01

    The impact of homogenization speed on Particle Size (PS) results was examined using samples from the M.longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) of 40 lambs. One gram duplicate samples from meat aged for 1 and 5days were homogenized at five different speeds; 11,000, 13,000, 16,000, 19,000 and 22,000rpm. In addition to this LL samples from 30 different lamb carcases also aged for 1 and 5days were used to study the comparison between PS and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) values. In this case, 1g duplicate samples (n=30) were homogenized at 16,000rpm and the other half (0.5g samples) at 11,000rpm (n=30). The homogenates were then subjected to respective combinations of treatments which included either PS analysis or the determination of MFI, both with or without three cycles of centrifugation. All 140 samples of LL included 65g blocks for subsequent shear force (SF) testing. Homogenization at 16,000rpm provided the greatest ability to detect ageing differences for particle size between samples aged for 1 and 5days. Particle size at the 25% quantile provided the best result for detecting differences due to ageing. It was observed that as ageing increased the mean PS decreased and was significantly (P<0.001) less for 5days aged samples compared to 1day aged samples, while MFI values significantly increased (P<0.001) as ageing period increased. When comparing the PS and MFI methods it became apparent that, as opposed to the MFI method, there was a greater coefficient of variation for the PS method which warranted a quality assurance system. Given this requirement and examination of the mean, standard deviation and the 25% quantile for PS data it was concluded that three cycles of centrifugation were not necessary and this also applied to the MFI method. There were significant correlations (P<0.001) within the same lamb loin sample aged for a given period between mean MFI and mean PS (-0.53), mean MFI and mean SF (-0.38) and mean PS and mean SF (0.23). It was

  5. Process Analytical Technology for High Shear Wet Granulation: Wet Mass Consistency Reported by In-Line Drag Flow Force Sensor Is Consistent With Powder Rheology Measured by At-Line FT4 Powder Rheometer.

    Narang, Ajit S; Sheverev, Valery; Freeman, Tim; Both, Douglas; Stepaniuk, Vadim; Delancy, Michael; Millington-Smith, Doug; Macias, Kevin; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Drag flow force (DFF) sensor that measures the force exerted by wet mass in a granulator on a thin cylindrical probe was shown as a promising process analytical technology for real-time in-line high-resolution monitoring of wet mass consistency during high shear wet granulation. Our previous studies indicated that this process analytical technology tool could be correlated to granulation end point established independently through drug product critical quality attributes. In this study, the measurements of flow force by a DFF sensor, taken during wet granulation of 3 placebo formulations with different binder content, are compared with concurrent at line FT4 Powder Rheometer characterization of wet granules collected at different time points of the processing. The wet mass consistency measured by the DFF sensor correlated well with the granulation's resistance to flow and interparticulate interactions as measured by FT4 Powder Rheometer. This indicated that the force pulse magnitude measured by the DFF sensor was indicative of fundamental material properties (e.g., shear viscosity and granule size/density), as they were changing during the granulation process. These studies indicate that DFF sensor can be a valuable tool for wet granulation formulation and process development and scale up, as well as for routine monitoring and control during manufacturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Numerical predictions of particle dispersed two-phase flows, using the LSD and SSF models

    Avila, R.; Cervantes de Gortari, J.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Facultad de Ingenieria)

    1988-01-01

    A modified version of a numerical scheme which is suitable to predict parabolic dispersed two-phase flow, is presented. The original version of this scheme was used to predict the test cases discussed during the 3rd workshop on TPF predictions in Belgrade, 1986. In this paper, two particle dispersion models are included which use the Lagrangian approach predicting test case 1 and 3 of the 4th workshop. For the prediction of test case 1 the Lagrangian Stochastic Deterministic model (LSD) is used providing acceptable good results of mean and turbulent quantities for both solid and gas phases; however, the computed void fraction distribution is not in agreement with the measurements at locations away from the inlet, especially near the walls. Test case 3 is predicted using both the LSD and the Stochastic Separated Flow (SSF) models. It was found that the effects of turbulence modulation are large when the LSD model is used, whereas the particles have a negligible influence on the continuous phase if the SSF model is utilized for the computations. Predictions of gas phase properties based on both models agree well with measurements; however, the agreement between calculated and measured solid phase properties is less satisfactory. (orig.)

  7. Beta cloth durability assessment for Space Station Freedom (SSF) Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket covers

    Koontz, S.L.; Jacobs, S.; Le, J.

    1993-03-01

    MLI blankets for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) must comply with general program requirements and recommendations for long life and durability in the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet are the most important factors in the SSF natural environment which affect materials life. Two types of Beta cloth (Teflon coated woven glass fabric), which had been proposed as MLI blanket covers, were tested for long-term durability in the LEO environment. General resistance to atomic oxygen attack and permeation were evaluated in the high velocity atomic oxygen beam system at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Long-term exposure to the LEO environment was simulated in the laboratory using a radio frequency oxygen plasma asher. The plasma asher treated Beta cloth specimens were tested for thermo-optical properties and mechanical durability. Space exposure data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the Intelsat Solar Array Coupon were also used in the durability assessment. Beta cloth fabricated to Rockwell specification MBO 135-027 (Chemglas 250) was shown to have acceptable durability for general use as an MLI blanket cover material in the LEO environment while Sheldahl G414500 should be used only in locations which are protected from direct Ram atomic oxygen

  8. Bioconversion of Agricultural Waste to Ethanol by SSF Using Recombinant Cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum

    Ruchi Mutreja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different pretreatment methods, temperature, and enzyme concentration on ethanol production from 8 lignocellulosic agrowaste by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF using recombinant cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Recombinant cellulase was isolated from E. coli BL21 cells transformed with CtLic26A-Cel5-CBM11 full-length gene from Clostridium thermocellum and produced in both batch and fed-batch processes. The maximum cell OD and specific activity in batch mode were 1.6 and 1.91 U/mg, respectively, whereas in the fed-batch mode, maximum cell OD and specific activity were 3.8 and 3.5 U/mg, respectively, displaying a 2-fold increase. Eight substrates, Syzygium cumini (jamun, Azadirachta indica (neem, Saracens indica (asoka, bambusa dendrocalmus (bamboo, Populas nigra (poplar, Achnatherum hymenoides (wild grass, Eucalyptus marginata (eucalyptus, and Mangifera indica (mango, were subjected to SSF. Of three pretreatments, acid, alkali, and steam explosion, acid pretreatment Syzygium cumini (Jamun at 30°C gave maximum ethanol yield of 1.42 g/L.

  9. Bioconversion of Agricultural Waste to Ethanol by SSF Using Recombinant Cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum.

    Mutreja, Ruchi; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Dinesh; Goyal, Arun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of different pretreatment methods, temperature, and enzyme concentration on ethanol production from 8 lignocellulosic agrowaste by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using recombinant cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Recombinant cellulase was isolated from E. coli BL21 cells transformed with CtLic26A-Cel5-CBM11 full-length gene from Clostridium thermocellum and produced in both batch and fed-batch processes. The maximum cell OD and specific activity in batch mode were 1.6 and 1.91 U/mg, respectively, whereas in the fed-batch mode, maximum cell OD and specific activity were 3.8 and 3.5 U/mg, respectively, displaying a 2-fold increase. Eight substrates, Syzygium cumini (jamun), Azadirachta indica (neem), Saracens indica (asoka), bambusa dendrocalmus (bamboo), Populas nigra (poplar), Achnatherum hymenoides (wild grass), Eucalyptus marginata (eucalyptus), and Mangifera indica (mango), were subjected to SSF. Of three pretreatments, acid, alkali, and steam explosion, acid pretreatment Syzygium cumini (Jamun) at 30°C gave maximum ethanol yield of 1.42 g/L.

  10. Studies and research concerning BNFP: shearing tests conducted at Allied-General Nuclear Services for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    Weil, B.; Townes, G.

    1979-09-01

    An experiment conducted to shear two dummy PWR subassemblies is described. Results pertain to the removal of end hardware by shearing, spacer grid fragmentation, the character of sheared product, product leachability, shearing force requirements, and the effects of compaction

  11. Study of shear thickening behavior in colloidal suspensions

    N Maleki Jirsaraee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the shear thickening behavior of the nano silica suspension (silica nanoparticles 12 nm in size suspended in ethylene glycol under steady shear. The critical shear rate for transition into shear thickening phase was determined at different concentrations and temperatures. The effect of temperature and concentration was studied on the shear thickening behavior. In silica suspension, it was observed that all the samples had a transition into shear thickening phase and also by increasing the temperature, critical shear rate increased and viscosity decreased. Our observations showed that movement in silica suspension was Brownian and temperature could cause a delay in transition into shear thickening phase. Yet, we observed that increasing the concentration would decrease critical shear rate and increase viscosity. Increasing temperature increased Brownian forces and increasing concentration increased hydrodynamic forces, confirming the contrast between these two forces for transition into shear thickening phase for the suspensions containing nano particles

  12. Ethanol from softwood. Process development based on steam pretreatment and SSF

    Stenberg, Kerstin

    1999-05-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosics by the enzymatic hydrolysis process, which consists of a pretreatment step prior to hydrolysis, followed by fermentation and finally refining. This thesis deals with the development of the enzymatic process using softwood as raw material. The focus has not only been on how to obtain high yields, but also on how to solve problems, which can arise in an industrial process, such as inhibition and contamination. The pretreatment step was evaluated using steam-pretreatment and impregnation with an acid catalyst, either SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both impregnation methods resulted in approximately the same yield, 65% of the theoretical of fermentable sugars, i.e. glucose and mannose, after enzymatic hydrolysis. However, impregnation with SO{sub 2}, resulted in higher ethanol productivity and yield in the fermentation. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was investigated using various substrate and cellulase concentrations. An overall ethanol yield of 70% of the theoretical was obtained using the whole slurry from the pretreatment step at an insoluble dry weight content of 5%, which was shown to be optimal. SSF resulted in both higher productivity and higher ethanol yield than in separate hydrolysis and fermentation, but proved to be more sensitive to infection by lactic aid bacteria. More complex process integration, in the form of recirculation of process streams, which is desirable in an industrial process, was investigated using bench-scale equipment. A reduction in the fresh-water demand of 50%, from 3 kg/kg dry raw material to 1.5 kg/kg dry raw material, was found to be possible without any negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation. A techno-economic evaluation of different process configurations in a process applying SSF was also performed. It was found that the ethanol production cost could be reduced by 20% by internal energy integration and by another 15% by recirculation to the

  13. Shear-induced chaos

    Lin, Kevin K; Young, Lai-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a geometric understanding developed in earlier works of Wang and Young, we carry out numerical studies of shear-induced chaos in several parallel but different situations. The settings considered include periodic kicking of limit cycles, random kicks at Poisson times and continuous-time driving by white noise. The forcing of a quasi-periodic model describing two coupled oscillators is also investigated. In all cases, positive Lyapunov exponents are found in suitable parameter ranges when the forcing is suitably directed

  14. Shear-induced chaos

    Lin, Kevin K.; Young, Lai-Sang

    2008-05-01

    Guided by a geometric understanding developed in earlier works of Wang and Young, we carry out numerical studies of shear-induced chaos in several parallel but different situations. The settings considered include periodic kicking of limit cycles, random kicks at Poisson times and continuous-time driving by white noise. The forcing of a quasi-periodic model describing two coupled oscillators is also investigated. In all cases, positive Lyapunov exponents are found in suitable parameter ranges when the forcing is suitably directed.

  15. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  16. Study on shear properties of coral sand under cyclic simple shear condition

    Ji, Wendong; Zhang, Yuting; Jin, Yafei

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, the ocean development in our country urgently needs to be accelerated. The construction of artificial coral reefs has become an important development direction. In this paper, experimental studies of simple shear and cyclic simple shear of coral sand are carried out, and the shear properties and particle breakage of coral sand are analyzed. The results show that the coral sand samples show an overall shear failure in the simple shear test, which is more accurate and effective for studying the particle breakage. The shear displacement corresponding to the peak shear stress of the simple shear test is significantly larger than that corresponding to the peak shear stress of the direct shear test. The degree of particle breakage caused by the simple shear test is significantly related to the normal stress level. The particle breakage of coral sand after the cyclic simple shear test obviously increases compared with that of the simple shear test, and universal particle breakage occurs within the whole particle size range. The increasing of the cycle-index under cyclic simple shear test results in continuous compacting of the sample, so that the envelope curve of peak shearing force increases with the accumulated shear displacement.

  17. Enhanced polyunsaturated fatty acids production in Mortierella alpina by SSF and the enrichment in chicken breasts

    Shengli Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS and soybean meal were used as the substrates for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in solid-state fermentation (SSF by Mortierella alpine. These fermented products were fed to laying hens. PUFA enrichment from chicken breasts was studied. Methods: The maximum productivity of PUFA was achieved under optimized process condition, including 1% w/w yeast extract as additive, an incubation period of 5 days at 12°C, 10% v/w inoculum level, 75% moisture content, and pH 6.0. The hens were then fed with ration containing soybean DDGS, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The control group was fed with basal ration. Results: Under the optimal condition, M. alpine produced total fatty acids (TFA of 182.34 mg/g dry substrate. It has better mycelial growth when soybean meal was added to DDGS (SDDGS. PUFA in fermentation product increased with higher soybean meal content. The addition of 70% soybean meal to DDGS substrate yielded 175.16 mg of TFA, including 2.49 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 5.26 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The ratios of ω-6/ω-3 found in chicken breasts fat were all lower than that found in control by 36.98, 31.51, 18.15, and 12.63% for SDDGS, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil, respectively. Conclusions: This study identified an optimized SSF process to maximize PUFA productivity by M. alpine as the strain. This PUFA-enriched feed increased the PUFA contents as well as the proportions of ω-6 and ω-3 in chicken breasts and liver.

  18. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of Jatropha curcas shells: utilization of co-products from the biodiesel production process.

    Visser, Evan Michael; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Martins, Marcio Arêdes; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze

    2012-06-01

    Jatropha curcas has great potential as an oil crop for use in biodiesel applications, and the outer shell is rich in lignocellulose that may be converted to ethanol, giving rise to the concept of a biorefinery. In this study, two dilute pretreatments of 0.5% H(2)SO(4) and 1.0% NaOH were performed on Jatropha shells with subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated water-insoluble solids (WIS) to evaluate the effect of inhibitors in the pretreatment slurry. A cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g WIS, complimented with an excess of cellobiase (19.25 U/g), was used for SSF of either the washed WIS or the original slurry to determine the effect of inhibitors. Ethanol and glucose were monitored during SSF of 20 g of pretreated biomass. The unwashed slurry showed to have a positive effect on SSF efficiency for the NaOH-pretreated biomass. Maximum efficiencies of glucan conversion to ethanol in the WIS were 40.43% and 41.03% for the H(2)SO(4)- and NaOH-pretreated biomasses, respectively.

  19. Sheared Electroconvective Instability

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.

  20. Two MODIS Aerosol Products over Ocean on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets.

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Wielicki, Bruce; Miller, Walter; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Tanré, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika

    2005-04-01

    Understanding the impact of aerosols on the earth's radiation budget and the long-term climate record requires consistent measurements of aerosol properties and radiative fluxes. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Science Team combines satellite-based retrievals of aerosols, clouds, and radiative fluxes into Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets from the Terra and Aqua satellites. Over ocean, two aerosol products are derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) using different sampling and aerosol algorithms. The primary, or M, product is taken from the standard multispectral aerosol product developed by the MODIS aerosol group while a simpler, secondary [Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) like], or A, product is derived by the CERES Science Team using a different cloud clearing method and a single-channel aerosol algorithm. Two aerosol optical depths (AOD), τA1 and τA2, are derived from MODIS bands 1 (0.644 μm) and 6 (1.632 μm) resembling the AVHRR/3 channels 1 and 3A, respectively. On Aqua the retrievals are made in band 7 (2.119 μm) because of poor quality data from band 6. The respective Ångström exponents can be derived from the values of τ. The A product serves as a backup for the M product. More importantly, the overlap of these aerosol products is essential for placing the 20+ year heritage AVHRR aerosol record in the context of more advanced aerosol sensors and algorithms such as that used for the M product.This study documents the M and A products, highlighting their CERES SSF specifics. Based on 2 weeks of global Terra data, coincident M and A AODs are found to be strongly correlated in both bands. However, both domains in which the M and A aerosols are available, and the respective τ/α statistics significantly differ because of discrepancies in sampling due to differences in cloud and sun-glint screening. In both aerosol products, correlation is observed between the retrieved

  1. VCC-SSF: Service-Oriented Security Framework for Vehicular Cloud Computing

    Won Min Kang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as vehicle computing technology has advanced, the paradigm of the vehicle has changed from a simple means of transportation to a smart vehicle for safety and convenience. In addition, the previous functions of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS such as traffic accident prevention and providing traffic volume information have been combined with cloud computing. ITS services provide user-oriented broad services in the Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC environment through efficient traffic management, traffic accident prevention, and convenience services. However, existing vehicle services focus on providing services using sensing information inside the vehicle and the system to provide the service through an interface with the external infrastructure is insufficient. In addition, because wireless networks are used in VCC environments, there is a risk of important information leakage from sensors inside the vehicle, such as driver personal identification and payment information at the time of goods purchase. We propose the VCC Service-oriented Security Framework (VCC-SSF to address the limitations and security threats of VCC-based services. The proposed framework considers security for convenient and efficient services of VCC and includes new user-oriented payment management and active accident management services. Furthermore, it provides authentication, encryption, access control, confidentiality, integrity, and privacy protection for user personal information and information inside the vehicle.

  2. Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) performance model data base

    Stovall, John R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document was originally to be a working document summarizing Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) hardware and software design, configuration, performance and estimated loading data from a myriad of source documents such that the parameters provided could be used to build a dynamic performance model of the DMS. The document is published at this time as a close-out of the DMS performance modeling effort resulting from the Clinton Administration mandated Space Station Redesign. The DMS as documented in this report is no longer a part of the redesigned Space Station. The performance modeling effort was a joint undertaking between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) and the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Spacecraft Data Systems Research Branch. The scope of this document is limited to the DMS core network through the Man Tended Configuration (MTC) as it existed prior to the 1993 Clinton Administration mandated Space Station Redesign. Data is provided for the Standard Data Processors (SDP's), Multiplexer/Demultiplexers (MDM's) and Mass Storage Units (MSU's). Planned future releases would have added the additional hardware and software descriptions needed to describe the complete DMS. Performance and loading data through the Permanent Manned Configuration (PMC) was to have been included as it became available. No future releases of this document are presently planned pending completion of the present Space Station Redesign activities and task reassessment.

  3. Bioprocessing of Proximally Analyzed Wheat Straw for Enhanced Cellulase Production through Process Optimization with Trichodermaviride under SSF

    Ishtiaq Ahmed; Muhammad Anjum Zia; Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the production and process parameters optimization for the synthesis of cellulase from Trichoderma viride in solid state fermentation (SSF) using an agricultural wheat straw as substrates; as fungal conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for cellulase production is one among the major increasing demand for various biotechnological applications. An optimization of process parameters is a necessary step to get higher yield of prod...

  4. Remediation of textile dye waste water using a white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta through solid-state fermentation (SSF).

    Robinson, Tim; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2008-12-01

    A strict screening strategy for microorganism selection was followed employing a number of white-rot fungi for the bioremediation of textile effluent, which was generated from one Ireland-based American textile industry. Finally, one fungus Bjerkandera adusta has been investigated in depth for its ability to simultaneously degrade and enrich the nutritional quality of highly coloured textile effluent-adsorbed barley husks through solid-state fermentation (SSF). Certain important parameters such as media requirements, moisture content, protein/biomass production and enzyme activities were examined in detail. A previously optimised method of dye desorption was employed to measure the extent of dye remediation through effluent decolorisation achieved as a result of fungal activity in SSF. B. adusta was capable of decolourising a considerable concentration of the synthetic dye effluent (up to 53%) with a moisture content of 80-85%. Protein enrichment of the fermented mass was achieved to the extent of 229 g/kg dry weight initial substrate used. Lignin peroxidase and laccase were found to be the two main enzymes produced during SSF of the dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic waste residue.

  5. National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.

    Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2013-02-01

    The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P food service steaks were greater (P Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred.

  6. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  7. Shear and foundation effects on crack root rotation and mode-mixity in moment- and force-loaded single cantilever beam sandwich specimen

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Carlsson, Leif A.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Foundation effects play a crucial role in sandwich fracture specimens with a soft core. Accurate estimation of deformationcharacteristics at the crack front is vital in understanding compliance, energy release rate and mode-mixity infracture test specimens. Beam on elastic foundation analysis...... modulus is proposed that closely agrees with the numerical compliance and energy release rate results forall cases considered. An analytical expression for crack root rotation of the loaded upper face sheet provides consistentresults for both loading configurations. For the force-loaded single cantilever...

  8. Effect of a novel motion correction algorithm (SSF) on the image quality of coronary CTA with intermediate heart rates: Segment-based and vessel-based analyses

    Li, Qianwen, E-mail: qianwen18@126.com; Li, Pengyu, E-mail: lipyu818@gmail.com; Su, Zhuangzhi, E-mail: suzhuangzhi@xwh.ccmu.edu.cn; Yao, Xinyu, E-mail: 314985151@qq.com; Wang, Yan, E-mail: wy19851121@126.com; Wang, Chen, E-mail: fskwangchen@gmail.com; Du, Xiangying, E-mail: duxying_xw@163.com; Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kuncheng.li@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • SSF provided better image quality than single-sector and bi-sector reconstruction among the intermediate heart rates (65–75 bpm). • Evidence for the application of prospective ECG-triggered coronary CTA with SSF onto an expanded heart rate range. • Information about the inconsistent effectiveness of SSF among the segments of coronary artery. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of SnapShot Freeze (SSF) reconstruction at an intermediate heart-rate (HR) range (65–75 bpm) and compare this method with single-sector reconstruction and bi-sector reconstruction on segmental and vessel bases in retrospective coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Materials and methods: Retrospective electrocardiogram-gated CCTA was performed on 37 consecutive patients with HR between 65 and 75 bpm using a 64-row CT scanner. Retrospective single-sector reconstruction, bi-sector reconstruction, and SSF were performed for each patient. Multi-phase single-sector reconstruction was performed to select the optimal phase. SSF and bi-sector images were also reconstructed at the optimal phase. The images were interpreted in an intent-to-diagnose fashion by two experienced readers using a 5-point scale, with 3 points as diagnostically acceptable. Image quality among the three reconstruction groups were compared on per-patient, per-vessel, and per-segment bases. Results: The average HR of the enrolled patients was 69.4 ± 2.7 bpm. A total of 111 vessels and 481 coronary segments were assessed. SSF provided significantly higher interpretability of the coronary segments than bi-sector reconstructions. The qualified and excellent rates of SSF (97.9% and 82.3%) were significantly higher than those of single-sector (92.9% and 66.3%) and bi-sector (90.9% and 64.7%) reconstructions. The image quality score (IQS) using SSF was also significantly higher than those of single-sector and bi-sector reconstructions both on per-patient and per-vessel bases. On per

  9. Ethanol and anaerobic conditions reversibly inhibit commercial cellulase activity in thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (tSSF

    Podkaminer Kara K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previously developed mathematical model of low solids thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (tSSF with Avicel was unable to predict performance at high solids using a commercial cellulase preparation (Spezyme CP and the high ethanol yield Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain ALK2. The observed hydrolysis proceeded more slowly than predicted at solids concentrations greater than 50 g/L Avicel. Factors responsible for this inaccuracy were investigated in this study. Results Ethanol dramatically reduced cellulase activity in tSSF. At an Avicel concentration of 20 g/L, the addition of ethanol decreased conversion at 96 hours, from 75% in the absence of added ethanol down to 32% with the addition of 34 g/L initial ethanol. This decrease is much greater than expected based on hydrolysis inhibition results in the absence of a fermenting organism. The enhanced effects of ethanol were attributed to the reduced, anaerobic conditions of tSSF, which were shown to inhibit cellulase activity relative to hydrolysis under aerobic conditions. Cellulose hydrolysis in anaerobic conditions was roughly 30% slower than in the presence of air. However, this anaerobic inhibition was reversed by exposing the cellulase enzymes to air. Conclusion This work demonstrates a previously unrecognized incompatibility of enzymes secreted by an aerobic fungus with the fermentation conditions of an anaerobic bacterium and suggests that enzymes better suited to industrially relevant fermentation conditions would be valuable. The effects observed may be due to inactivation or starvation of oxygen dependent GH61 activity, and manipulation or replacement of this activity may provide an opportunity to improve biomass to fuel process efficiency.

  10. Atributos de qualidade da carne de paca (Agouti paca: perfil sensorial e força de cisalhamento Quality attributes of paca meat (Agouti paca: sensory profile and shear force

    C. Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais e determinou-se a força de cisalhamento de cortes de carne de paca (Agouti paca. As análises foram realizadas nos cortes desossados de paleta, lombo e pernil de nove pacas, preparados por cocção até a temperatura interna de 70ºC. A avaliação de aspecto, cor, sabor, odor e maciez foi realizada pela aplicação de teste afetivo a 146 provadores, utilizando-se escala hedônica, e a força de cisalhamento foi determinada pela técnica Warner Bratzler. Na avaliação sensorial, os cortes de paleta, lombo e pernil de paca mostraram diferença significativa (p0,05 entre os cortes, que se mostraram igualmente macios. A carne de paca apresentou-se sensorialmente semelhante à carne suína e com boa aceitação pelos consumidores. O estudo evidenciou o potencial da paca como uma espécie silvestre para a produção comercial de carne para o mercado de carnes vermelhas ou exóticas.Sensory characteristics and shear force of paca meat (Agouti paca were assessed in this study. Analyses were performed in the bonelessshoulder,loin andhamobtained from nine paca carcassesprepared by cookinguntil reaching the internal temperatureof 70°C. The evaluation of flavor, aroma, color, appearance and tenderness was carried out by the application of an affective test using the hedonic scaleand a 146 consumer panel. Shear force was determined by the Warner-Bratzler technique. Shoulder, loin and ham had significant differences (p 0.05 among the cuts, which were similarly tender. Paca meat was found to resemble pork meat in sensory evaluation and had good acceptance by consumers. This study showed the potential of paca (Agouti paca asa wild species for meat production in the red or exotic meat market.

  11. Utilisation of cassava products-copra meal based diets supplemented with or without Allzyme SSF by growing pullets

    Diarra, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of cassava root-leaf meal (CRLM) and copra meal with or without enzyme by growing pullets was investigated. A total of 180 six week-old Shaver 579 pullets (549.79 ? 0.39 g/bird) were allotted to 12 floor pens containing 15 birds each. A commercial grower diet (control) and 2 diets based on CRLM and copra meal with or without added Allzyme? SSF (test diets) were fed each to 4 replicate pens in a completely randomized design. Growth performance, age at first egg, feed cost of re...

  12. Shear failure of granular materials

    Degiuli, Eric; Balmforth, Neil; McElwaine, Jim; Schoof, Christian; Hewitt, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Connecting the macroscopic behavior of granular materials with the microstructure remains a great challenge. Recent work connects these scales with a discrete calculus [1]. In this work we generalize this formalism from monodisperse packings of disks to 2D assemblies of arbitrarily shaped grains. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a symmetric, divergence-free stress tensor. Using these tools, we derive, from first-principles and in a mean-field approximation, the entropy of frictional force configurations in the Force Network Ensemble. As a macroscopic consequence of the Coulomb friction condition at contacts, we predict shear failure at a critical shear stress, in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb failure condition well known in engineering. Results are compared with numerical simulations, and the dependence on the microscopic geometric configuration is discussed. [4pt] [1] E. DeGiuli & J. McElwaine, PRE 2011. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041310

  13. Simulation of shear thickening in attractive colloidal suspensions.

    Pednekar, Sidhant; Chun, Jaehun; Morris, Jeffrey F

    2017-03-01

    The influence of attractive forces between particles under conditions of large particle volume fraction, ϕ, is addressed using numerical simulations which account for hydrodynamic, Brownian, conservative and frictional contact forces. The focus is on conditions for which a significant increase in the apparent viscosity at small shear rates, and possibly the development of a yield stress, is observed. The high shear rate behavior for Brownian suspensions has been shown in recent work [R. Mari, R. Seto, J. F. Morris and M. M. Denn PNAS, 2015, 112, 15326-15330] to be captured by the inclusion of pairwise forces of two forms, one a contact frictional interaction and the second a repulsive force often found in stabilized colloidal dispersions. Under such conditions, shear thickening is observed when shear stress is comparable to the sum of the Brownian stress, kT/a 3 , and a characteristic stress based on the combination of interparticle force, i.e. σ ∼ F 0 /a 2 with kT the thermal energy, F 0 the repulsive force scale and a the particle radius. At sufficiently large ϕ, this shear thickening can be very abrupt. Here it is shown that when attractive interactions are present with the noted forces, the shear thickening is obscured, as the viscosity shear thins with increasing shear rate, eventually descending from an infinite value (yield stress conditions) to a plateau at large stress; this plateau is at the same level as the large-shear rate viscosity found in the shear thickened state without attractive forces. It is shown that this behavior is consistent with prior observations in shear thickening suspensions modified to be attractive through depletion flocculation [V. Gopalakrishnan and C. F. Zukoski J. Rheol., 2004, 48, 1321-1344]. The contributions of the contact, attractive, and hydrodynamics forces to the bulk stress are presented, as are the contact networks found at different attractive strengths.

  14. Spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing from fire-induced albedo change in interior Alaska

    Huang, Shengli; Dahal, Devendra; Liu, Heping; Jin, Suming; Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The albedo change caused by both fires and subsequent succession is spatially heterogeneous, leading to the need to assess the spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing (SSF) as a component to quantify the climate impacts of high-latitude fires. We used an image reconstruction approach to compare postfire albedo with the albedo assuming fires had not occurred. Combining the fire-caused albedo change from the 2001-2010 fires in interior Alaska and the monthly surface incoming solar radiation, we examined the spatiotemporal variation of SSF in the early successional stage of around 10 years. Our results showed that while postfire albedo generally increased in fall, winter, and spring, some burned areas could show an albedo decrease during these seasons. In summer, the albedo increased for several years and then declined again. The spring SSF distribution did not show a latitudinal decrease from south to north as previously reported. The results also indicated that although the SSF is usually largely negative in the early successional years, it may not be significant during the first postfire year. The annual 2005-2010 SSF for the 2004 fire scars was -1.30, -4.40, -3.31, -4.00, -3.42, and -2.47 Wm-2. The integrated annual SSF map showed significant spatial variation with a mean of -3.15 Wm-2 and a standard deviation of 3.26 Wm-2, 16% of burned areas having positive SSF. Our results suggest that boreal deciduous fires would be less positive for climate change than boreal evergreen fires. Future research is needed to comprehensively investigate the spatiotemporal radiative and non-radiative forcings to determine the effect of boreal fires on climate.

  15. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    Hui Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  16. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) potato mash for the production of ethanol

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Fujiwara, Maki; Wang, Xiaohui; Seyama, Tomoko; Shiroma, Riki; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Tokuyasu, Ken [National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Mukojima, Nobuhiro [National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, NARO, 9-4 Shinsei-minami, Memuro-cho, Kasai-gun, Hokkaido 082-0071 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) potato mash, containing 304 g L{sup -1} of dissolved carbohydrates, was carried out for ethanol production. Potato tubers were ground into a mash, which was highly viscous. Mash viscosity was reduced by the pretreatment with mixed enzyme preparations of pectinase, cellulase and hemicellulase. The enzymatic pretreatment established the use of VHG mash with a suitable viscosity. Starch in the pretreated mash was liquefied to maltodextrins by the action of thermo-stable {alpha}-amylase at 85 C. SSF of liquefied mash was performed at 30 C with the simultaneous addition of glucoamylase, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source for the yeast. The optimal glucoamylase loading, ammonium sulfate concentration and fermentation time were 1.65 AGU g{sup -1}, 30.2 mM and 61.5 h, respectively, obtained using the response surface methodology (RSM). Ammonium sulfate supplementation was necessary to avoid stuck fermentation under VHG condition. Using the optimized condition, ethanol yield of 16.61% (v/v) was achieved, which was equivalent to 89.7% of the theoretical yield. (author)

  17. Ethanol production from sunflower meal biomass by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907.

    Camargo, Danielle; Gomes, Simone D; Sene, Luciane

    2014-11-01

    The lignocellulosic materials are considered promising renewable resources for ethanol production, but improvements in the processes should be studied to reduce operating costs. Thus, the appropriate enzyme loading for cellulose saccharification is critical for process economics. This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of cellulase and β-glucosidase in the production of bioethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sunflower meal biomass. The sunflower biomass was pretreated with 6% H2SO4 (w/v), at 121 °C, for 20 min, for hemicellulose removal and delignificated with 1% NaOH. SSF was performed with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907, at 38 °C, 150 rpm, for 72 h, with different enzyme concentrations (Cellulase Complex NS22086-10, 15 and 20 FPU/gsubstrate and β-Glucosidase NS22118, with a cellulase to β-glucosidase ratio of 1.5:1; 2:1 and 3:1). The best condition for ethanol production was cellulase 20 FPU/gsubstrate and β-glucosidase 13.3 CBU/gsubstrate, resulting in 27.88 g/L ethanol, yield of 0.47 g/g and productivity of 0.38 g/L h. Under this condition the highest enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose was attained (87.06%).

  18. H2O2 can Increase Lignin Disintegration and Decrease Cellulose Decomposition in the Process of Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus oryzae Using Corn Stalk as Raw Materials

    Zhicai Zhang; Jun Jia; Ming Li; Qiaoxia Pang

    2014-01-01

    H2O2 is both bactericidal and the main oxidant responsible for lignin degradation reaction catalyzed by manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Thus, H2O2 treatment of corn stalk and the implementation of solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) is possible to increase the removal rate of lignin from stalk in the process of SSF and after SSF, while avoiding the need to sterilize the raw materials. To demonstrate this approach, SSF was initially carried out using corn stalk pretreate...

  19. Analysis of the Shear Behavior of Stubby Y-Type Perfobond Rib Shear Connectors for a Composite Frame Structure.

    Kim, Sang-Hyo; Kim, Kun-Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seung; Han, Oneil

    2017-11-22

    Shear connectors are used in steel beam-concrete slabs of composite frame and bridge structures to transfer shear force according to design loads. The existing Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors are designed for girder slabs of composite bridges. Therefore, the rib and transverse rebars of the conventional Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors are extremely large for the composite frames of building structures. Thus, this paper proposes stubby Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors, redefining the existing connectors, for composite frames of building structures; these were used to perform push-out tests. These shear connectors have relatively small ribs compared to the conventional Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors. To confirm the shear resistance of these stubby shear connectors, we performed an experiment by using transverse rebars D13 and D16. The results indicate that these shear connectors have suitable shear strength and ductility for application in composite frame structures. The shear strengths obtained using D13 and D16 were not significantly different. However, the ductility of the shear connectors with D16 was 45.1% higher than that of the shear connectors with D13.

  20. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  1. Shear induced orientation of edible fat and chocolate crystals

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    Shear-induced orientation of fat crystallites was observed during crystallization of cocoa butter, milk fat, stripped milk fat and palm oil. This universal effect was observed in systems crystallized under high shear. The minor polar components naturally present in milk fat were found to decrease the shear-induced orientation effect in this system. The competition between Brownian and shear forces, described by the Peclet number, determines the crystallite orientation. The critical radius size, from the Gibbs-Thomson equation, provides a tool to understand the effect of shear at the onset stages of crystallization.

  2. Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls

    Wang, F.; Gantenbein, F.

    1989-01-01

    Reinforced concrete shear walls have an important contribution to building stiffness. So, it is necessary to know their behavior under seismic loads. The ultimate behavior study of shear walls subjected to dynamic loadings includes: - a description of the nonlinear global model based on cyclic static tests, - nonlinear time history calculations for various forcing functions. The comparison of linear and nonlinear results shows important margins related to the ductility when the bandwidth of the forcing function is narrow and centred on the wall natural frequency

  3. Adiabatic shear localization in ultrafine grained 6061 aluminum alloy

    Wang, Bingfeng, E-mail: biw009@ucsd.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States); State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Key Lab of Nonferrous Materials, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Rui; Zhou, Jindian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Zezhou; Zhao, Shiteng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States); Huang, Xiaoxia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Localized shear is an important mode of deformation; it leads to catastrophic failure with low ductility, and occurs frequently during high strain-rate deformation. The hat-shaped specimen has been successfully used to generate shear bands under controlled shock-loading tests. The microstructure in the forced shear band was characterized by optical microscopy, microhardness, and transmission electron microscopy. The true flow stress in the shear region can reach 800 MPa where the strain is about 2.2. The whole shear localization process lasts for about 100 μs. The shear band is a long and straight band distinguished from the matrix by boundaries. It can be seen that the grains in the boundary of the shear band are highly elongated along the shear direction and form the elongated cell structures (0.2 µm in width), and the core of the shear band consists of a number of recrystallized equiaxed grains with 0.2−0.3 µm in diameters, and the second phase particles distribute in the boundary of the ultrafine equiaxed new grains. The calculated temperature in the shear band can reach about 667 K. Finally, the formation of the shear band in the ultrafine grained 6061 aluminum alloy and its microstructural evolution are proposed.

  4. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors

    Khorramian, Koosha; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2015-01-01

    According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type. PMID:26642193

  5. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors.

    Koosha Khorramian

    Full Text Available According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.

  6. Utilisation of cassava products-copra meal based diets supplemented with or without Allzyme SSF by growing pullets

    Diarra, S. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of cassava root-leaf meal (CRLM and copra meal with or without enzyme by growing pullets was investigated. A total of 180 six week-old Shaver 579 pullets (549.79 ? 0.39 g/bird were allotted to 12 floor pens containing 15 birds each. A commercial grower diet (control and 2 diets based on CRLM and copra meal with or without added Allzyme? SSF (test diets were fed each to 4 replicate pens in a completely randomized design. Growth performance, age at first egg, feed cost of rearing and the count of floor primary feathers formed the major response criteria. Birds fed the control commercial diet consumed more feed and gained more weight (P0.05 between the control and enzyme supplemented CRLM groups. There was no dietary effect (P>0.05 on the weight of the first egg among the 3 groups. Feed cost of rearing was reduced (P0.05 between the two test diets as well as between the enzyme supplemented and the control diets. It was concluded that CRLM and copra meal can be used as major energy and protein sources respectively in growing pullets? diets. Enzyme supplementation may however, be needed to maintain performance of the birds.

  7. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization.

    Selwal, Manjit K; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K; Aggarwal, N K; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S K

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C.

  8. Tannase production by Penicillium atramentosum KM under SSF and its applications in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization

    Manjit K Selwal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica, ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana, jamun (Syzygium cumini, Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate and keekar (Acacia nilotica leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3 as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35ºC.

  9. Shear wave elastography with a new reliability indicator

    Christoph F. Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive methods for liver stiffness assessment have been introduced over recent years. Of these, two main methods for estimating liver fibrosis using ultrasound elastography have become established in clinical practice: shear wave elastography and quasi-static or strain elastography. Shear waves are waves with a motion perpendicular (lateral to the direction of the generating force. Shear waves travel relatively slowly (between 1 and 10 m/s. The stiffness of the liver tissue can be assessed based on shear wave velocity (the stiffness increases with the speed. The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology has published Guidelines and Recommendations that describe these technologies and provide recommendations for their clinical use. Most of the data available to date has been published using the Fibroscan (Echosens, France, point shear wave speed measurement using an acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens, Germany and 2D shear wave elastography using the Aixplorer (SuperSonic Imagine, France. More recently, also other manufacturers have introduced shear wave elastography technology into the market. A comparison of data obtained using different techniques for shear wave propagation and velocity measurement is of key interest for future studies, recommendations and guidelines. Here, we present a recently introduced shear wave elastography technology from Hitachi and discuss its reproducibility and comparability to the already established technologies.

  10. Shear wave elastography with a new reliability indicator.

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Dong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive methods for liver stiffness assessment have been introduced over recent years. Of these, two main methods for estimating liver fibrosis using ultrasound elastography have become established in clinical practice: shear wave elastography and quasi-static or strain elastography. Shear waves are waves with a motion perpendicular (lateral) to the direction of the generating force. Shear waves travel relatively slowly (between 1 and 10 m/s). The stiffness of the liver tissue can be assessed based on shear wave velocity (the stiffness increases with the speed). The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology has published Guidelines and Recommendations that describe these technologies and provide recommendations for their clinical use. Most of the data available to date has been published using the Fibroscan (Echosens, France), point shear wave speed measurement using an acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens, Germany) and 2D shear wave elastography using the Aixplorer (SuperSonic Imagine, France). More recently, also other manufacturers have introduced shear wave elastography technology into the market. A comparison of data obtained using different techniques for shear wave propagation and velocity measurement is of key interest for future studies, recommendations and guidelines. Here, we present a recently introduced shear wave elastography technology from Hitachi and discuss its reproducibility and comparability to the already established technologies.

  11. Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows

    Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic

  12. PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH CONDITIONS FOR INVERTASE ENZYME BY ASPERGILLUS SP., IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF USING PAPAYA PEEL AS SUBSTRATE

    Brindha Chelliappan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invertase enzymes are produced mainly by plants, some filamentous fungi, yeast and many other microorganisms which finds applications in food industries, confectionaries, pharmaceuticals, etc., The present work deals with the production of Invertase by Aspergillus sp., isolated from various soil samples in solid state fermentation using papaya peel waste as substrate. Enzyme activity was checked using Fehling’s reagent and assay was carried out by DNSA method. The results of optimized conditions showed that the invertase activity was high in the SSF using papaya peel as substrate, incubated for 6 days at temperature of 35°C, pH 7, with 2.25gms/100ml of Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source and 10gms/100ml of sucrose as carbon source. Hence the agro wastes from industries can be recycled by using it as substrate in SSF for high invertase enzyme production which finds applications in many fields.

  13. Shear-induced inflation of coronal magnetic fields

    Klimchuk, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Using numerical models of force-free magnetic fields, the shearing of footprints in arcade geometries leading to an inflation of the coronal magnetic field was examined. For each of the shear profiles considered, all of the field lines become elevated compared with the potential field. This includes cases where the shear is concentrated well away from the arcade axis, such that B(sub z), the component of field parallel to the axis, increases outward to produce an inward B(sub z) squared/8 pi magnetic pressure gradient force. These results contrast with an earlier claim, shown to be incorrect, that field lines can sometimes become depressed as a result of shear. It is conjectured that an inflation of the entire field will always result from the shearing of simple arcade configurations. These results have implications for prominence formation, the interplanetary magnetic flux, and possibly also coronal holes. 38 refs

  14. In vivo wall shear measurements within the developing zebrafish heart.

    R Aidan Jamison

    Full Text Available Physical forces can influence the embryonic development of many tissues. Within the cardiovascular system shear forces resulting from blood flow are known to be one of the regulatory signals that shape the developing heart. A key challenge in investigating the role of shear forces in cardiac development is the ability to obtain shear force measurements in vivo. Utilising the zebrafish model system we have developed a methodology that allows the shear force within the developing embryonic heart to be determined. Accurate wall shear measurement requires two essential pieces of information; high-resolution velocity measurements near the heart wall and the location and orientation of the heart wall itself. We have applied high-speed brightfield imaging to capture time-lapse series of blood flow within the beating heart between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization. Cardiac-phase filtering is applied to these time-lapse images to remove the heart wall and other slow moving structures leaving only the red blood cell movement. Using particle image velocimetry to calculate the velocity of red blood cells in different regions within the heart, and using the signal-to-noise ratio of the cardiac-phase filtered images to determine the boundary of blood flow, and therefore the position of the heart wall, we have been able to generate the necessary information to measure wall shear in vivo. We describe the methodology required to measure shear in vivo and the application of this technique to the developing zebrafish heart. We identify a reduction in shear at the ventricular-bulbar valve between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization and demonstrate that the shear environment of the ventricle during systole is constantly developing towards a more uniform level.

  15. In vivo wall shear measurements within the developing zebrafish heart.

    Jamison, R Aidan; Samarage, Chaminda R; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J; Fouras, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Physical forces can influence the embryonic development of many tissues. Within the cardiovascular system shear forces resulting from blood flow are known to be one of the regulatory signals that shape the developing heart. A key challenge in investigating the role of shear forces in cardiac development is the ability to obtain shear force measurements in vivo. Utilising the zebrafish model system we have developed a methodology that allows the shear force within the developing embryonic heart to be determined. Accurate wall shear measurement requires two essential pieces of information; high-resolution velocity measurements near the heart wall and the location and orientation of the heart wall itself. We have applied high-speed brightfield imaging to capture time-lapse series of blood flow within the beating heart between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization. Cardiac-phase filtering is applied to these time-lapse images to remove the heart wall and other slow moving structures leaving only the red blood cell movement. Using particle image velocimetry to calculate the velocity of red blood cells in different regions within the heart, and using the signal-to-noise ratio of the cardiac-phase filtered images to determine the boundary of blood flow, and therefore the position of the heart wall, we have been able to generate the necessary information to measure wall shear in vivo. We describe the methodology required to measure shear in vivo and the application of this technique to the developing zebrafish heart. We identify a reduction in shear at the ventricular-bulbar valve between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization and demonstrate that the shear environment of the ventricle during systole is constantly developing towards a more uniform level.

  16. The response of dense dry granular material to the shear reversal

    Zhang, Jie; Ren, Jie; Farhadi, Somayeh; Behringer, Robert

    2008-11-01

    We have performed two dimensional granular experiments under pure shear using bidisperse photo-elastic disks. Starting from a stress free state, a square box filled with granular particles is subject to shear. The forward shears involved various number of steps, leading to maximum strains between 0.1 and 0.3. The area is kept constant during the shear. The network of force chains gradually built up as the strain increased, leading to increased pressure and shear stress. Reverse shear was then applied to the system. Depending on the initial packing fraction and the strain at which the shear is reversed, the force chain network built prior to the shear reversal may be destroyed completely or partially destroyed. Following the force chain weakening, when the reserve shear is continuously applied to the system, there is a force chain strengthening. Following each change of the system, contact forces of individual disks were measured by applying an inverse algorithm. We also kept track of the displacement and angle of rotation of every particle from frame to frame. We present the results for the structure failure and reconstruction during shear reversals. We also present data for stresses, contact force distributions and other statistical measures.

  17. Bed Agglomeration During the Steam Gasification of a High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Digester Residue

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Saraf, Laxmikant; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2015-11-13

    This research investigates the bed agglomeration phenomena during the steam gasification of a high lignin residue produced from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn stover in a bubbling fluidized bed. The studies were conducted at 895°C using alumina as bed material. Biomass was fed at 1.5 kg/hr, while steam was fed to give a velocity equal to 2.5 times the minimum fluidization velocity, with a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. The pelletized feedstock was co-fed with a cooling nitrogen stream to mitigate feed line plugging issues. Tar production was high at 50.3 g/Nm3, and the fraction of C10+ compounds was greater than that seen in the gasification of traditional lignocellulosic feedstocks. Carbon closures over 94 % were achieved for all experiments. Bed agglomeration was found to be problematic, indicated by pressure drop increases observed below the bed and upstream of the feed line. Two size categories of solids were recovered from the reactor, +60 mesh and -60 mesh. After a 2.75-hour experiment, 61.7 wt % was recovered as -60 mesh particles and 38.2 wt% of the recovered reactor solids were +60 mesh. A sizeable percentage, 31.8 wt%, was +20 mesh. The -60 mesh particles were mainly formed by the initial bed material (Al2O3). Almost 50 wt. % of the + 20 mesh particles was found to be formed by organics. The unreacted carbon remaining in the reactor resulted in a low conversion rate to product gas. ICP-AES, SEM, SEM-EDS, and XRD confirmed that the large agglomerates (+ 20 mesh) were not encapsulated bed material but rather un-gasified feedstock pellets with sand particles attached to it.

  18. Mechanical properties of jammed packings of frictionless spheres under an applied shear stress

    Liu Hao; Tong Hua; Xu Ning

    2014-01-01

    By minimizing a thermodynamic-like potential, we unbiasedly sample the potential energy landscape of soft and frictionless spheres under a constant shear stress. We obtain zero-temperature jammed states under desired shear stresses and investigate their mechanical properties as a function of the shear stress. As a comparison, we also obtain the jammed states from the quasistatic-shear sampling in which the shear stress is not well-controlled. Although the yield stresses determined by both samplings show the same power-law scaling with the compression from the jamming transition point J at zero temperature and shear stress, for finite size systems the quasistatic-shear sampling leads to a lower yield stress and a higher critical volume fraction at point J. The shear modulus of the jammed solids decreases with increasing shear stress. However, the shear modulus does not decay to zero at yielding. This discontinuous change of the shear modulus implies the discontinuous nature of the unjamming transition under nonzero shear stress, which is further verified by the observation of a discontinuous jump in the pressure from the jammed solids to the shear flows. The pressure jump decreases upon decompression and approaches zero at the critical-like point J, in analogy with the well-known phase transitions under an external field. The analysis of the force networks in the jammed solids reveals that the force distribution is more sensitive to the increase of the shear stress near point J. The force network anisotropy increases with increasing shear stress. The weak particle contacts near the average force and under large shear stresses it exhibit an asymmetric angle distribution. (special topic — non-equilibrium phenomena in soft matters)

  19. Thermal creep force: analysis and application

    Wolfe, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The existence of two motive forces on a Crookes radiometer has complicated the investigation of either force independently. The thermal creep shear force, in particular, has been subject to differing interpretations of the direction in which it acts and its order of magnitude. A horizontal vane radiometer design is provided, which isolates the thermal creep shear force. The horizontal vane radiometer is explored through experiment, kin...

  20. H2O2 can Increase Lignin Disintegration and Decrease Cellulose Decomposition in the Process of Solid-State Fermentation (SSF by Aspergillus oryzae Using Corn Stalk as Raw Materials

    Zhicai Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available H2O2 is both bactericidal and the main oxidant responsible for lignin degradation reaction catalyzed by manganese peroxidase (MnP and lignin peroxidase (LiP. Thus, H2O2 treatment of corn stalk and the implementation of solid-substrate fermentation (SSF is possible to increase the removal rate of lignin from stalk in the process of SSF and after SSF, while avoiding the need to sterilize the raw materials. To demonstrate this approach, SSF was initially carried out using corn stalk pretreated with different concentrations of H2O2 as a substrate. A. oryzae was found to grow well in the 3% H2O2-pretreated corn stalk. H2O2-pretreated corn stalk showed increased MnP and LiP synthesis and disintegration of lignin, but inhibited cellulase synthesis and cellulose degradation. Production of the SSF (200 g on the 10th day was hydrolyzed in the presence of additional 600 mL different concentration of H2O2 aqueous solution. The total removal of lignin (73.15% of hydrolysis for 10 h at 3% H2O2 solution was highest and far higher than that at the 12th day, as achieved by conventional SSF. Applying this strategy in practice may shorten the time of lignin degradation, increase the removal of lignin, and decrease the loss of cellulose. Thus, this study has provided a foundation for further study saccharification of corn stalk.

  1. Interfacial shear behavior of composite flanged concrete beams

    Moataz Awry Mahmoud

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite concrete decks are commonly used in the construction of highway bridges due to their rapid constructability. The interfacial shear transfer between the top slab and the supporting beams is of great significance to the overall deck load carrying capacity and performance. Interfacial shear capacity is directly influenced by the distribution and the percentage of shear connectors. Research and design guidelines suggest the use of two different approaches to quantify the required interfacial shear strength, namely based on the maximum compressive forces in the flange at mid span or the maximum shear flow at the supports. This paper investigates the performance of flanged reinforced concrete composite beams with different shear connector’s distribution and reinforcing ratios. The study incorporated both experimental and analytical programs for beams. Key experimental findings suggest that concentrating the connectors at the vicinity of the supports enhances the ductility of the beam. The paper proposes a simple and straight forward approach to estimate the interfacial shear capacity that was proven to give good correlation with the experimental results and selected code provisions. The paper presents a method to predict the horizontal shear force between precast beams and cast in-situ slabs.

  2. Structural behavior of human lumbar intervertebral disc under direct shear.

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Häussler, Kim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Wolfram, Uwe

    2015-03-18

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a complex, flexible joint between adjacent vertebral bodies that provides load transmission while permitting movements of the spinal column. Finite element models can be used to help clarify why and how IVDs fail or degenerate. To do so, it is of importance to validate those models against controllable experiments. Due to missing experimental data, shear properties are not used thus far in validating finite element models. This study aimed to investigate the structural shear properties of human lumbar IVDs in posteroanterior (PA) and laterolateral (LL) loading directions. Fourteen lumbar IVDs (median age: 49 years) underwent direct shear in PA and LL loading directions. A custom-build shear device was used in combination with a materials testing machine to load the specimens until failure. Shear stiffness, ultimate shear force and displacement, and work to failure were determined. Each specimen was tested until complete or partial disruption. Median stiffness in PA direction was 490 N/mm and in LL direction 568 N/mm. Median ultimate shear force in the PA direction was 2,877 N and in the LL direction 3,199 N. Work to failure was 12 Nm in the PA and 9 Nm in the LL direction. This study was an experiment to subject IVDs to direct shear. The results could help us to understand the structure and function of IVDs with regard to mechanical spinal stability, and they can be used to validate finite element models of the IVD.

  3. Shear behavior of concrete beams externally prestressed with Parafil ropes

    A.H. Ghallab

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although extensive work has been carried out investigating the use of external prestressing system for flexural strengthening, a few studies regarding the shear behavior of externally prestressed beams can be found. Five beams, four of them were externally strengthened using Parafil rope, were loaded up to failure to investigate the effect of shear span/depth ratio, external prestressing force and concrete strength on their shear behavior. Test results showed that the shear span to depth ratio has a significant effect on both the shear strength and failure mode of the strengthened beams and the presence of external prestressing force increased the ultimate load of the tested beams by about 75%. Equations proposed by different codes for both the conventional reinforced concrete beams and for ordinary prestressed beams were used to evaluate the obtained experimental results. In general, codes equations showed a high level of conservatism in predicting the shear strength of the beams. Also, using the full strength rather than half of the concrete shear strength in the Egyptian code PC-method improves the accuracy of the calculated ultimate shear strength.

  4. Shear modulation experiments with ECCD on TCV

    Cirant, S.; Alberti, S.; Gandini, F.; Behn, R.; Goodman, T.P.; Nikkola, P.

    2006-01-01

    Anomalous electron transport is determined by turbulence, which in turn is affected by magnetic shear. A novel application of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), aiming at localized shear modulation, has been applied on the TCV tokamak for experiments on shear-dependent electron transport. Pairs of EC beams, absorbed at the same radius, with one oriented for co- and the other for counter-injection, are modulated out of phase in order to force a local modulation of current-density at constant input power. Off-axis deposition (ρ dep = 0.24) is performed to avoid the central region, where the low heat flux would make transport analysis difficult. In addition some sawteeth control is achieved in this way. A significant impact on local shear is achieved with I ECCD ∼ 0.1I OH , even when the modulation period is much shorter than the current diffusion time across the whole plasma radius. The main result is that although source (heat and particle) terms are constant, both electron density and temperature are modulated during alternated ECCD. Once equilibrium effects are taken into account for appropriate mapping of Thomson scattering measurements onto flux coordinates, modulation of T e and electron pressure, peaked on-axis, is confirmed at all radii internal to EC deposition. The best confinement occurs for co-injection, in which case a local decrease (∼55%) in the magnetic shear causes a decrease in the electron thermal diffusivity of a similar amount (∼65%)

  5. Strain gradient drives shear banding in metallic glasses

    Tian, Zhi-Li; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Chen, Yan; Dai, Lan-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Shear banding is a nucleation-controlled process in metallic glasses (MGs) involving multiple temporal-spatial scales, which hinders a concrete understanding of its structural origin down to the atomic scale. Here, inspired by the morphology of composite materials, we propose a different perspective of MGs as a hard particle-reinforced material based on atomic-scale structural heterogeneity. The local stable structures indicated by a high level of local fivefold symmetry (L5FS) act as hard "particles" which are embedded in the relatively soft matrix. We demonstrate this concept by performing atomistic simulations of shear banding in CuZr MG. A shear band is prone to form in a sample with a high degree of L5FS which is slowly quenched from the liquid. An atomic-scale analysis on strain and the structural evolution reveals that it is the strain gradient effect that has originated from structural heterogeneity that facilitates shear transformation zones (STZs) to mature shear bands. An artificial composite model with a high degree of strain gradient, generated by inserting hard MG strips into a soft MG matrix, demonstrates a great propensity for shear banding. It therefore confirms the critical role strain gradient plays in shear banding. The strain gradient effect on shear banding is further quantified with a continuum model and a mechanical instability analysis. These physical insights might highlight the strain gradient as the hidden driving force in transforming STZs into shear bands in MGs.

  6. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  7. Self-organization in circular shear layers

    Bergeron, K.; Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    1996-01-01

    Experiments on forced circular shear layers performed in both magnetized plasmas and in rotating fluids reveal qualitatively similar self-organization processes leading to the formation of patterns of coherent vortical structures with varying complexity. In this paper results are presented from...... both weakly nonlinear analysis and full numerical simulations that closely reproduce the experimental observations. Varying the Reynolds number leads to bifurcation sequences accompanied by topological changes in the distribution of the coherent structures as well as clear transitions in the total...

  8. Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.

  9. Interaction of equal-size bubbles in shear flow.

    Prakash, Jai; Lavrenteva, Olga M; Byk, Leonid; Nir, Avinoam

    2013-04-01

    The inertia-induced forces on two identical spherical bubbles in a simple shear flow at small but finite Reynolds number, for the case when the bubbles are within each other's inner viscous region, are calculated making use of the reciprocal theorem. This interaction force is further employed to model the dynamics of air bubbles injected to a viscous fluid sheared in a Couette device at the first shear flow instability where the bubbles are trapped inside the stable Taylor vortex. It was shown that, during a long time scale, the inertial interaction between the bubbles in the primary shear flow drives them away from each other and, as a result, equal-size bubbles eventually assume an ordered string with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We report on experiments showing the dynamic evolution of various numbers of bubbles. The results of the theory are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  10. Keyed shear joints

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  11. An underwater shear compactor

    Biver, E.; Sims, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper, originally presented at the WM'96 Conference in Tucson Arizona, describes a concept of a specialised decommissioning tool designed to operate underwater and to reduce the volume of radioactive components by shearing and compacting. The shear compactor was originally conceived to manage the size reduction of a variety of decommissioned stainless steel tubes stored within a reactor fuel cooling pond and which were consuming a substantial volume of the pond. The main objective of this tool was to cut the long tubes into shorter lengths and to compact them into a flat rectangular form which could be stacked on the pond floor, thus saving valuable space. The development programme, undertaken on this project, investigated a wide range of factors which could contribute to an extended cutting blade performance, ie: materials of construction, cutting blade shape and cutting loads required, shock effects, etc. The second phase was to review other aspects of the design, such as radiological protection, cutting blade replacement, maintenance, pond installation and resultant wall loads, water hydraulics, collection of products of shearing/compacting operations, corrosion of the equipment, control system, operational safety and the ability of the equipment to operate in dry environments. The paper summarises the extended work programme involved with this shear compactor tool. (author)

  12. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  13. On the self-organizing process of large scale shear flows

    Newton, Andrew P. L. [Department of Applied Maths, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Kim, Eun-jin [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Liu, Han-Li [High Altitude Observatory, National Centre for Atmospheric Research, P. O. BOX 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80303-3000 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Self organization is invoked as a paradigm to explore the processes governing the evolution of shear flows. By examining the probability density function (PDF) of the local flow gradient (shear), we show that shear flows reach a quasi-equilibrium state as its growth of shear is balanced by shear relaxation. Specifically, the PDFs of the local shear are calculated numerically and analytically in reduced 1D and 0D models, where the PDFs are shown to converge to a bimodal distribution in the case of finite correlated temporal forcing. This bimodal PDF is then shown to be reproduced in nonlinear simulation of 2D hydrodynamic turbulence. Furthermore, the bimodal PDF is demonstrated to result from a self-organizing shear flow with linear profile. Similar bimodal structure and linear profile of the shear flow are observed in gulf stream, suggesting self-organization.

  14. Shear and loading in channels: Oscillatory shearing and edge currents of superconducting vortices

    Wambaugh, J. F.; Marchesoni, F.; Nori, Franco

    2003-04-01

    Via computer simulations we study the motion of quantized magnetic flux-lines, or vortices, confined to a straight pin-free channel in a strong-pinning superconducting sample. We find that, when a constant current is applied across this system, a very unusual oscillatory shearing appears, in which the vortices moving at the edges of the channel periodically trail behind and then suddenly leapfrog past the vortices moving in the inner rows. For small enough driving forces, this oscillatory shearing dynamic phase is replaced by a continuous shearing phase in which the distance between initially-nearby vortices grows in time, quickly destroying the order of the lattice. An animation of this novel “oscillatory leapfrogging shear” effect of the vortex edge currents appears in http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/˜nori/channel/

  15. Research Concerning the Shearing Strength of Black Locust Wood

    Mihaela POROJAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental resultsobtained for the shearing strength of black locustwood (Robinia pseudacacia L. harvested from twogeographical areas (North and South of Romania.Wood is subjected to shearing stress when usedwithin different fields, and especially inconstructions. Tangential stresses are produced inthe shearing sections and they are influenced by thestructure of wood through the position of theshearing plane and of the force direction towards thegrain. Accordingly, several shearing types arepossible. The shearing strengths for the three mainshearing types, both on radial and tangentialdirection were determined within the present study.The evaluation of data was achieved by using theANOVA analysis, in order to test the level ofsignificance depending on the shearing planeorientation and the harvesting area. The obtainedresults were compared to the values mentionedwithin reference literature for this wood species andtwo other hardwood species with similar density. It isworth to be mentioned that the shearing strengths ofblack locust wood from Romania (both from Northand South are generally higher than those indicatedby reference literature for oak and beech. Thisrecommends black locust wood as constructionwood and for other applications where wood issubjected to shearing stress.

  16. Shear of ordinary and elongated granular mixtures

    Hensley, Alexander; Kern, Matthew; Marschall, Theodore; Teitel, Stephen; Franklin, Scott

    2015-03-01

    We present an experimental and computational study of a mixture of discs and moderate aspect-ratio ellipses under two-dimensional annular planar Couette shear. Experimental particles are cut from acrylic sheet, are essentially incompressible, and constrained in the thin gap between two concentric cylinders. The annular radius of curvature is much larger than the particles, and so the experiment is quasi-2d and allows for arbitrarily large pure-shear strains. Synchronized video cameras and software identify all particles and track them as they move from the field of view of one camera to another. We are particularly interested in the global and local properties as the mixture ratio of discs to ellipses varies. Global quantities include average shear rate and distribution of particle species as functions of height, while locally we investigate the orientation of the ellipses and non-affine events that can be characterized as shear transformational zones or possess a quadrupole signature observed previously in systems of purely circular particles. Discrete Element Method simulations on mixtures of circles and spherocylinders extend the study to the dynamics of the force network and energy dissipated as the system evolves. Supported by NSF CBET #1243571 and PRF #51438-UR10.

  17. CAT LIDAR wind shear studies

    Goff, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The studies considered the major meteorological factors producing wind shear, methods to define and classify wind shear in terms significant from an aircraft perturbation standpoint, the significance of sensor location and scan geometry on the detection and measurement of wind shear, and the tradeoffs involved in sensor performance such as range/velocity resolution, update frequency and data averaging interval.

  18. Ballooning instabilities in tokamaks with sheared toroidal flows

    Waelbroeck, F.L.; Chen, L.

    1990-11-01

    The stability of ballooning modes in the presence of sheared toroidal flows is investigated. The eigenmodes are shown to be related by a Fourier transformation to the non-exponentially growing Floquet solutions found by Cooper. It is further shown that the problem cannot be reduced further than to a two dimensional partial differential equation. Next, the generalized ballooning equation is solved analytically for a circular tokamak equilibrium with sonic flows, but with a small rotation shear compared to the sound speed. With this ordering, the centrifugal forces are comparable to the pressure gradient forces driving the instability, but coupling of the mode with the sound wave is avoided. A new stability criterion is derived which explicitly demonstrates that flow shear is stabilizing at constant centrifugal force gradient. 34 refs

  19. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels.

    Rehman, Shazia; Aslam, Hina; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Sohail, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP) for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  20. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  1. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.

    Juliana Silva de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  2. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m. PMID:25506607

  3. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    Shazia Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE, in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  4. Production, characterization of tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF using agroindustrial wastes, and application in the clarification of grape juice (Vitis vinifera L.).

    de Lima, Juliana Silva; Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  5. Gelation under shear

    Butler, B.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Straty, G.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States); Muzny, C.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An experimental small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of dense silica gels, prepared from suspensions of 24 nm colloidal silica particles at several volume fractions {theta} is discussed. Provided that {theta}{approx_lt}0.18, the scattered intensity at small wave vectors q increases as the gelation proceeds, and the structure factor S(q, t {yields} {infinity}) of the gel exhibits apparent power law behavior. Power law behavior is also observed, even for samples with {theta}>0.18, when the gel is formed under an applied shear. Shear also enhances the diffraction maximum corresponding to the inter-particle contact distance of the gel. Difficulties encountered when trying to interpret SANS data from these dense systems are outlined. Results of computer simulations intended to mimic gel formation, including computations of S(q, t), are discussed. Comments on a method to extract a fractal dimension characterizing the gel are included.

  6. Forflytning: shear og friktion

    2005-01-01

    friktion). Formålet med filmprojektet er: At give personalet i Apopleksiafsnittet viden om shear og friktion, så det motiveres til forebyggelse. Mål At udarbejde et enkelt undervisningsmateriale til bed-side-brug Projektbeskrivelse (resume) Patienter med apopleksi er særligt udsatte for tryksår, fordi de...... ofte er immobile, har svært ved at opretholde en god siddestilling eller ligger tungt i sengen som følger efter apopleksien Hvis personalet bruger forkert lejrings-og forflytningsteknik, udsættes patienterne for shear og friktion. Målgruppen i projektet er de personer, der omgås patienterne, dvs...

  7. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  8. A Novel Geometry for Shear Test Using Axial Tensile Setup

    Sibo Yuan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a novel geometry for the in-plane shear test performed with an axial electromechanical testing machine. In order to investigate the influence of the triaxiality rate on the mechanical behavior, different tests will be performed on the studied material: simple tensile tests, large tensile tests and shear tests. For the whole campaign, a common equipment should be employed to minimize the impact of the testing device. As a consequence, for the shear tests, the geometry of the specimen must be carefully designed in order to adapt the force value and make it comparable to the one obtained for the tensile tests. Like most of the existing shear-included tensile test specimens, the axial loading is converted to shear loading at a particular region through the effect of geometry. A symmetric shape is generally preferred, since it can restrict the in-plane rotation of the shear section, keep shear increasing in a more monotonic path and double the force level thanks to the two shear zones. Due to the specific experimental conditions, such as dimensions of the furnace and the clamping system, the position of the extensometer or the restriction of sheet thickness (related to the further studies of size effect at mesoscale and hot temperature, several geometries were brought up and evaluated in an iterative procedure via finite element simulations. Both the numerical and experimental results reveal that the final geometry ensures some advantages. For instance, a relatively low triaxiality in the shear zone, limited in-plane rotation and no necking are observed. Moreover, it also prevents any out-of-plane displacement of the specimen which seems to be highly sensitive to the geometry, and presents a very limited influence of the material and the thickness.

  9. Viscosity, granular-temperature, and stress calculations for shearing assemblies of inelastic, frictional disks

    Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Employing nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics methods the effects of two energy loss mechanisms on viscosity, stress, and granular-temperature in assemblies of nearly rigid, inelastic frictional disks undergoing steady-state shearing are calculated. Energy introduced into the system through forced shearing is dissipated by inelastic normal forces or through frictional sliding during collisions resulting in a natural steady-state kinetic energy density (granular-temperature) that depends on the density and shear rate of the assembly and on the friction and inelasticity properties of the disks. The calculations show that both the mean deviatoric particle velocity and the effective viscosity of a system of particles with fixed friction and restitution coefficients increase almost linearly with strain rate. Particles with a velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution show a less rapid increase in both deviatoric velocity and viscosity as strain rate increases. Particles with highly dissipative interactions result in anisotropic pressure and velocity distributions in the assembly, particularly at low densities. At very high densities the pressure also becomes anisotropic due to high contact forces perpendicular to the shearing direction. The mean rotational velocity of the frictional disks is nearly equal to one-half the shear rate. The calculated ratio of shear stress to normal stress varies significantly with density while the ratio of shear stress to total pressure shows much less variation. The inclusion of surface friction (and thus particle rotation) decreases shear stress at low density but increases shear stress under steady shearing at higher densities

  10. Plasticity Approach to Shear Design

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in non......-shear reinforced beams as well as in lightly shear reinforced beams. For such beams the shear strength is determined by the recently developed crack sliding model. This model is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed...... in uncracked concrete. Good agree between theory and tests has been found.Keywords: dsign, plasticity, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, shear, web crushing....

  11. Significance of Shear Wall in Multi-Storey Structure With Seismic Analysis

    Bongilwar, Rajat; Harne, V. R.; Chopade, Aditya

    2018-03-01

    In past decades, shear walls are one of the most appropriate and important structural component in multi-storied building. Therefore, it would be very interesting to study the structural response and their systems in multi-storied structure. Shear walls contribute the stiffness and strength during earthquakes which are often neglected during design of structure and construction. This study shows the effect of shear walls which significantly affect the vulnerability of structures. In order to test this hypothesis, G+8 storey building was considered with and without shear walls and analyzed for various parameters like base shear, storey drift ratio, lateral displacement, bending moment and shear force. Significance of shear wall has been studied with the help of two models. First model is without shear wall i.e. bare frame and other another model is with shear wall considering opening also in it. For modeling and analysis of both the models, FEM based software ETABS 2016 were used. The analysis of all models was done using Equivalent static method. The comparison of results has been done based on same parameters like base shear, storey drift ratio, lateral displacement, bending moment and shear force.

  12. Kansas Department of Transportation column expert : ultimate shear capacity of circular columns using the simplified modified compression field theory : [technical summary].

    2015-09-01

    Even though the behavior of concrete elements subjected to shear force has been : studied for many years, researchers do not have a full agreement on concrete : shear resistance. This is mainly because of the many different mechanisms : that affect t...

  13. Shear Resistance Variations in Experimentally Sheared Mudstone Granules: A Possible Shear-Thinning and Thixotropic Mechanism

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Gonghui; Scaringi, Gianvito; Mcsaveney, Mauri; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    We present results of ring shear frictional resistance for mudstone granules of different size obtained from a landslide shear zone. Little rate dependency of shear resistance was observed in sand-sized granules in any wet or dry test, while saturated gravel-sized granules exhibited significant and abrupt reversible rate-weakening (from μ = 0.6 to 0.05) at about 2 mm/s. Repeating resistance variations occurred also under constant shear displacement rate. Mudstone granules generate mud as they are crushed and softened. Shear-thinning and thixotropic behavior of the mud can explain the observed behavior: with the viscosity decreasing, the mud can flow through the coarser soil pores and migrate out from the shear zone. This brings new granules into contact which produces new mud. Thus, the process can start over. Similarities between experimental shear zones and those of some landslides in mudstone suggest that the observed behavior may play a role in some landslide kinematics.

  14. High-mode-number ballooning modes in a heliotron/torsatron system: 1, Local magnetic shear

    Nakajima, N.

    1996-05-01

    The characteristics of the local magnetic shear, a quantity associated with high-mode-number ballooning mode stability, are considered in heliotron/torsatron devices that have a large Shafranov shift. The local magnetic shear is shown to vanish even in the stellarator-like region in which the global magnetic shear is positive. The reason for this is that the degree of the local compression of the poloidal magnetic field on the outer side of the torus, which maintains the toroidal force balance, is reduced in the stellarator-like region of global magnetic shear because the global rotational transform in heliotron/torsatron systems is a radially increasing function. This vanishing of the local magnetic shear is a universal property in heliotron/torsatron systems with a large Shafranov shift since it results from toroidal force balance in the stellarator-like global shear regime that is inherent to such systems

  15. Estimated strength of shear keys in concrete dams

    Curtis, D.D. [Hatch Energy, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Lum, K.K.Y. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC Hydro requested that Hatch Energy review the seismic stability of Ruskin Dam which was constructed in 1930 at Hayward Lake in British Columbia. The concrete gravity dam is founded nearly entirely on rock in a narrow valley. The vertical joints between blocks are keyed and grouted. The strength of the shear keys was assessed when a non-linear finite element model found that significant forces were being transferred laterally to the abutments during an earthquake. The lateral transfer of loads to the abutment relies on the strength of the shear keys. The dynamic finite element analysis was used to determine the stability of the dam. A review of the shear strength measurements reported in literature showed that the measurements compared well to those obtained by BC Hydro from cores taken from Ruskin Dam. The cohesive strength obtained using the Griffith failure criteria was also in good agreement with both sets of measurements. A simple ultimate shear strength equation was developed using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria to determine combined cohesive and frictional strength of shear keys. Safety factors of 2.0 for static loads and 1.5 for seismic loads were proposed to reduce the ultimate strength to allowable values. It was concluded that given the relatively high shear strength established for the shear keys, the abutment rock or dam/abutment contact will control the amount of load which can arch to the abutments. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Interfacial Shear Strength and Adhesive Behavior of Silk Ionomer Surfaces.

    Kim, Sunghan; Geryak, Ren D; Zhang, Shuaidi; Ma, Ruilong; Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2017-09-11

    The interfacial shear strength between different layers in multilayered structures of layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules is a crucial mechanical property to ensure their robustness. In this work, we investigated the interfacial shear strength of modified silk fibroin ionomers utilized in LbL shells, an ionic-cationic pair with complementary ionic pairing, (SF)-poly-l-glutamic acid (Glu) and SF-poly-l-lysine (Lys), and a complementary pair with partially screened Coulombic interactions due to the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments and SF-Glu/SF-Lys[PEG] pair. Shearing and adhesive behavior between these silk ionomer surfaces in the swollen state were probed at different spatial scales and pressure ranges by using functionalized atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips as well as functionalized colloidal probes. The results show that both approaches were consistent in analyzing the interfacial shear strength of LbL silk ionomers at different spatial scales from a nanoscale to a fraction of a micron. Surprisingly, the interfacial shear strength between SF-Glu and SF-Lys[PEG] pair with partially screened ionic pairing was greater than the interfacial shear strength of the SF-Glu and SF-Lys pair with a high density of complementary ionic groups. The difference in interfacial shear strength and adhesive strength is suggested to be predominantly facilitated by the interlayer hydrogen bonding of complementary amino acids and overlap of highly swollen PEG segments.

  17. Tensile and shear methods for measuring strength of bilayer tablets.

    Chang, Shao-Yu; Li, Jian-Xin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-15

    Both shear and tensile measurement methods have been used to quantify interfacial bonding strength of bilayer tablets. The shear method is more convenient to perform, but reproducible strength data requires careful control of the placement of tablet and contact point for shear force application. Moreover, data obtained from the shear method depend on the orientation of the bilayer tablet. Although more time-consuming to perform, the tensile method yields data that are straightforward to interpret. Thus, the tensile method is preferred in fundamental bilayer tableting research to minimize ambiguity in data interpretation. Using both shear and tensile methods, we measured the mechanical strength of bilayer tablets made of several different layer combinations of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose. We observed a good correlation between strength obtained by the tensile method and carefully conducted shear method. This suggests that the shear method may be used for routine quality test of bilayer tablets during manufacturing because of its speed and convenience, provided a protocol for careful control of the placement of the tablet interface, tablet orientation, and blade is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Shear-Induced Membrane Fusion in Viscous Solutions

    Kogan, Maxim

    2014-05-06

    Large unilamellar lipid vesicles do not normally fuse under fluid shear stress. They might deform and open pores to relax the tension to which they are exposed, but membrane fusion occurring solely due to shear stress has not yet been reported. We present evidence that shear forces in a viscous solution can induce lipid bilayer fusion. The fusion of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DOPC) liposomes is observed in Couette flow with shear rates above 3000 s-1 provided that the medium is viscous enough. Liposome samples, prepared at different viscosities using a 0-50 wt % range of sucrose concentration, were studied by dynamic light scattering, lipid fusion assays using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), and linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. Liposomes in solutions with 40 wt % (or more) sucrose showed lipid fusion under shear forces. These results support the hypothesis that under suitable conditions lipid membranes may fuse in response to mechanical-force- induced stress. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Shear thinning behavior of monolayer liquid lubricant films measured by fiber wobbling method

    Hamamoto, Y; Itoh, S; Fukuzawa, K; Zhang, H

    2010-01-01

    It is essential to clarify mechanical properties of monolayer lubricant films coated on magnetic disks under shearing motion for designing future hard disk drives with ultra-low flying height. Many of previous researchers reported that strong shear rate dependence of viscoelasticity was one of the typical phenomena observed with molecularly thin liquid films. However, it has not been clarified whether or not perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant films, which are used for the head-disk interface (HDI) lubrication, show shear thinning behavior under actual HDI conditions. In this study, we used the fiber wobbling method that can achieve both highly-sensitive shear force measurement and precise gap control and measured shear rate dependence of viscoelastic properties of monolayer PFPE films coated on the magnetic disk. Our experimental results showed that shear thinning does occur at high shear rate ranged from 10 2 to 10 6 s -1 .

  20. Electro—magnetic control of shear flow over a cylinder for drag reduction and lift enhancement

    Zhang Hui; Fan Bao-Chun; Chen Zhi-Hua; Chen Shuai; Li Hong-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the electro—magnetic control of a cylinder wake in shear flow is investigated numerically. The effects of the shear rate and Lorentz force on the cylinder wake, the distribution of hydrodynamic force, and the drag/lift phase diagram are discussed in detail. It is revealed that Lorentz force can be classified into the field Lorentz force and the wall Lorentz force and they affect the drag and lift forces independently. The drag/lift phase diagram with a shape of ''8'' consists of two closed curves, which correspond to the halves of the shedding cycle dominated by the upper and lower vortices respectively. The free stream shear (K > 0) induces the diagram to move downward and leftward, so that the average lift force directs toward the downside. With the upper Lorentz force, the diagram moves downwards and to the right by the field Lorentz force, thus resulting in the drag increase and the lift reduction, whereas it moves upward and to the left by the wall Lorentz force, leading to the drag reduction and the lift increase. Finally the diagram is dominated by the wall Lorentz force, thus moving upward and leftward. Therefore the upper Lorentz force, which enhances the lift force, can be used to overcome the lift loss due to the free stream shear, which is also obtained in the experiment. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  1. Excited waves in shear layers

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  2. Designing shear-thinning

    Nelson, Arif Z.; Ewoldt, Randy H.

    2017-11-01

    Design in fluid mechanics often focuses on optimizing geometry (airfoils, surface textures, microfluid channels), but here we focus on designing fluids themselves. The dramatically shear-thinning ``yield-stress fluid'' is currently the most utilized non-Newtonian fluid phenomenon. These rheologically complex materials, which undergo a reversible transition from solid-like to liquid-like fluid flow, are utilized in pedestrian products such as paint and toothpaste, but also in emerging applications like direct-write 3D printing. We present a paradigm for yield-stress fluid design that considers constitutive model representation, material property databases, available predictive scaling laws, and the many ways to achieve a yield stress fluid, flipping the typical structure-to-rheology analysis to become the inverse: rheology-to-structure with multiple possible materials as solutions. We describe case studies of 3D printing inks and other flow scenarios where designed shear-thinning enables performance remarkably beyond that of Newtonian fluids. This work was supported by Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1463203.

  3. Adaptation of the xylose fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12 for improving ethanol production in different fed-batch SSF processes.

    Tomás-Pejó, E; Ballesteros, M; Oliva, J M; Olsson, L

    2010-11-01

    An efficient fermenting microorganism for bioethanol production from lignocellulose is highly tolerant to the inhibitors released during pretreatment and is able to ferment efficiently both glucose and xylose. In this study, directed evolution was employed to improve the xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12 strain for bioethanol production at high substrate loading. Adapted and parental strains were compared with respect to xylose consumption and ethanol production. Adaptation led to an evolved strain more tolerant to the toxic compounds present in the medium. When using concentrated prehydrolysate from steam-pretreated wheat straw with high inhibitor concentration, an improvement of 65 and 20% in xylose consumption and final ethanol concentration, respectively, were achieved using the adapted strain. To address the need of high substrate loadings, fed-batch SSF experiments were performed and an ethanol concentration as high as 27.4 g/l (61% of the theoretical) was obtained with 11.25% (w/w) of water insoluble solids (WIS).

  4. Inductive shearing of drilling pipe

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Wilgen, John; Kisner, Roger; Mcintyre, Timothy

    2016-04-19

    Induction shearing may be used to cut a drillpipe at an undersea well. Electromagnetic rings may be built into a blow-out preventer (BOP) at the seafloor. The electromagnetic rings create a magnetic field through the drillpipe and may transfer sufficient energy to change the state of the metal drillpipe to shear the drillpipe. After shearing the drillpipe, the drillpipe may be sealed to prevent further leakage of well contents.

  5. Particle transport across a circular shear layer with coherent structures

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lynov, J.P.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics of coherent structures, forced circular shear flows offer many desirable features. The inherent quantisation of circular geometries due to the periodic boundary conditions makes it possible to design experiments in which the spatial and temporal complexity of the coherent structures can be accurately controlled. Experiments on circular shear flows demonstrating the formation of coherent structures have been performed in different physical systems, including quasi-neutral plasmas, non-neutral plasmas and rotating fluids. In this paper we investigate the evolution of such coherent structures by solving the forced incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically using a spectral code. The model is formulated in the context of a rotating fluid but apply equally well to low frequency electrostatic oscillations in a homogeneous magnetized plasma. In order to reveal the Lagrangian properties of the flow and in particular to investigate the transport capacity in the shear layer, passive particles are traced by the velocity field. (orig.)

  6. Magnetorheological dampers in shear mode

    Wereley, N M; Cho, J U; Choi, Y T; Choi, S B

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three types of shear mode damper using magnetorheological (MR) fluids are theoretically analyzed: linear, rotary drum, and rotary disk dampers. The damping performance of these shear mode MR dampers is characterized in terms of the damping coefficient, which is the ratio of the equivalent viscous damping at field-on status to the damping at field-off status. For these three types of shear mode MR damper, the damping coefficient or dynamic range is derived using three different constitutive models: the Bingham–plastic, biviscous, and Herschel–Bulkley models. The impact of constitutive behavior on shear mode MR dampers is theoretically presented and compared

  7. Local and Modal Damage Indicators for Reinforced Concrete Shear Frames Subject to Earthquakes

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Abbott, J.

    Local, modal and overall damage indicators for reinforced concrete shear frames subject to seismic excitation are defined and studied. Each storey of the shear frame is represented by a Clough and Johnston hysteretic oscillator with degrading elastic fraction of the restoring force. The local max...

  8. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions.In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding...

  9. Computer simulations of shear thickening of concentrated dispersions

    Boersma, W.H.; Laven, J.; Stein, H.N.

    1995-01-01

    Stokesian dynamics computer simulations were performed on monolayers of equally sized spheres. The influence of repulsive and attractive forces on the rheological behavior and on the microstructure were studied. Under specific conditions shear thickening could be observed in the simulations, usually

  10. Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.

    2015-01-01

    of delicate micro-electromechanical devices impede the use of most direct shear sensors. Similarly, the cavity required for sensing element displacement is sensitive to particulate obstruction. This work was focused on developing a shear stress sensor for use in subsonic wind tunnel test facilities applicable to an array of test configurations. The non-displacement shear sensors described here have minimal packaging requirements resulting in minimal or no disturbance of boundary layer flow. Compared to previous concepts, device installation could be simple with reduced cost and down-time. The novelty lies in the creation of low profile (nanoscale to 100 µm) micropost arrays that stay within the viscous sub-layer of the airflow. Aerodynamic forces, which are related to the surface shear stress, cause post deflection and optical property changes. Ultimately, a reliable, accurate shear stress sensor that does not disrupt the airflow has the potential to provide high value data for flow physics researchers, aerodynamicists, and aircraft manufacturers leading to greater flight efficiency arising from more in-depth knowledge on how aircraft design impacts near surface properties.

  11. Modeling Shear Induced Von Willebrand Factor Binding to Collagen

    Dong, Chuqiao; Wei, Wei; Morabito, Michael; Webb, Edmund; Oztekin, Alparslan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2017-11-01

    Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a blood glycoprotein that binds with platelets and collagen on injured vessel surfaces to form clots. VWF bioactivity is shear flow induced: at low shear, binding between VWF and other biological entities is suppressed; for high shear rate conditions - as are found near arterial injury sites - VWF elongates, activating its binding with platelets and collagen. Based on parameters derived from single molecule force spectroscopy experiments, we developed a coarse-grain molecular model to simulate bond formation probability as a function of shear rate. By introducing a binding criterion that depends on the conformation of a sub-monomer molecular feature of our model, the model predicts shear-induced binding, even for conditions where binding is highly energetically favorable. We further investigate the influence of various model parameters on the ability to predict shear-induced binding (vWF length, collagen site density and distribution, binding energy landscape, and slip/catch bond length) and demonstrate parameter ranges where the model provides good agreement with existing experimental data. Our results may be important for understanding vWF activity and also for achieving targeted drug therapy via biomimetic synthetic molecules. National Science Foundation (NSF),Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS).

  12. Effects of opening in shear walls of 30- storey building

    Ruchi Sharma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tall towers and multi-storey buildings have fascinated mankind from the beginning of civilization, their construction being initially for defense and subsequently for ecclesiastical purposes. These tall buildings because of its height, is affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake actions tends to snap the building in shear and push it over in bending. In general, the rigidity (i.e. Resistance to lateral deflection and stability (i.e. Resistance to overturning moments requirement become more important. Shear walls (Structural walls contribute significant lateral stiffness, strength, and overall ductility and energy dissipation capacity. In many structural walls a regular pattern of openings has to be provided due to various functional requirements such as to accommodate doors, windows and service ducts. Such type of openings reduces the stiffness of the shear wall to some extent depending on the shape and size of the opening. In the present parametric study, efforts are made to investigate and critically assess the effects of various size of openings in shear walls on the responses and behaviors of multi-storey buildings. The 30 storey Prototype buildings with different types of openings in shear wall with and without incorporating the volume of shear wall reduced in the boundary elements are analyzed using software E-TABS using Response spectrum method (1893(Part-1-2002 and Time history method.

  13. Discontinuous Shear Thickening and Dilatancy: Frictional Effects in Viscous Suspensions

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions has been well-known for quite a long time, yet a firm consensus on the basis for very abrupt or ``discontinuous'' shear thickening (DST) seen in suspensions of large solid fraction, ϕ, has not been reached. This work addresses the DST phenomenon, and proposes a simulation method based in the Stokesian Dynamics algorithm to explore the role of various forces between the particles, including hydrodynamic, conservative potential, and frictional interactions. This work shows that allowance for friction between spherical particles suspended in a viscous liquid causes a significant reduction in the jamming solid fraction of the mixture, ϕmax, taken as the maximum fraction at which the suspension will flow. A consequence of this is a shifting of the singularity in the effective viscosity, η, to smaller ϕmax, and the frictional suspension has a larger viscosity than does the frictionless suspension of the same solid fraction, as is clear from the standard empirical modeling of η (ϕ) =(1 - ϕ /ϕmax) - α , α ~ 2 . When a counterbalancing repulsive force between the particles, representative for example of charge-induced repulsion, is incorporated in the dynamics, the mixture undergoes a transition from frictionless to frictional interactions, and from low to high effective viscosity, at a critical shear rate. Comparison with experimental data shows remarkable agreement in the features of DST captured by the method. The basic algorithm and results of both rate-controlled and stress-controlled simulations will be presented. Like the shear stress, the magnitude of the normal stress exerted by the suspended particles also increases abruptly at the critical shear rate, consistent with the long-standing notion that dilatancy and shear-thickening are synonymous. We will show that considering all shear thickening materials as dilatant is a misconception, but demonstrate the validity of the connection of dilatancy with DST in

  14. Shear-induced partial translational ordering of a colloidal solid

    Ackerson, B. J.; Clark, N. A.

    1984-08-01

    Highly charged submicrometer plastic spheres suspended in water at low ionic strength will order spontaneously into bcc crystals or polycrystals. A simple linear shear orients and disorders these crystals by forcing (110) planes to stack normal to the shear gradient and to slide relative to each other with a direction parallel to the solvent flow. In this paper we analyze in detail the disordering and flow processes occurring beyond the intrinsic elastic limit of the bcc crystal. We are led to a model in which the flow of a colloidal crystal is interpreted as a fundamentally different process from that found in atomic crystals. In the colloidal crystal the coupling of particle motion to the background fluid forces a homogeneous flow, where every layer is in motion relative to its neighboring layers. In contrast, the plastic flow in an atomic solid is defect mediated flow. At the lowest applied stress, the local bcc order in the colloidal crystal exhibits shear strains both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the applied stress. The magnitude of these deformations is estimated using the configurational energy for bcc and distorted bcc crystals, assuming a screened Coulomb pair interaction between colloidal particles. As the applied stress is increased, the intrinsic elastic limit of the crystal is exceeded and the crystal begins to flow with adjacent layers executing an oscillatory path governed by the balance of viscous and screened Coulomb forces. The path takes the structure from the bcc1 and bcc2 twins observed at zero shear to a distorted two-dimensional hcp structure at moderate shear rates, with a loss of interlayer registration as the shear is increased. This theoretical model is consistent with other experimental observations, as well.

  15. Hydrodynamic of a deformed bubble in linear shear flow

    Adoua, S.R.

    2007-07-01

    This work is devoted to the study of an oblate spheroidal bubble of prescribed shape set fixed in a linear shear flow using direct numerical simulation. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates using a finite volume method. The bubble response is studied over a wide range of the aspect ratio (1-2.7), the bubble Reynolds number (50-2000) and the non-dimensional shear rate (0.-1.2). The numerical simulations shows that the shear flow imposes a plane symmetry of the wake whatever the parameters of the flow. The trailing vorticity is organized into two anti-symmetrical counter rotating tubes with a sign imposed by the competition of two mechanisms (the Lighthill mechanism and the instability of the wake). Whatever the Reynolds number, the lift coefficient reaches the analytical value obtained in an inviscid, weakly sheared flow corresponding to a lift force oriented in the same direction as that of a spherical bubble. For moderate Reynolds numbers, the direction of the lift force reverses when the bubble aspect ratio is large enough as observed in experiments. This reversal occurs for aspect ratios larger than 2.225 and is found to be directly linked to the sign of the trailing vorticity which is concentrated within two counter-rotating threads which propel the bubble in a direction depending of their sign of rotation. The behavior of the drag does not revel any significant effect induced by the wake structure and follows a quadratic increase with the shear rate. Finally, the torque experienced by the bubble also reverses for the same conditions inducing the reversal of the lift force. By varying the orientation of the bubble in the shear flow, a stable equilibrium position is found corresponding to a weak angle between the small axis of the bubble and the flow direction. (author)

  16. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  17. Shear-induced aggregation or disaggregation in edible oils: Models, computer simulation, and USAXS measurements

    Townsend, B.; Peyronel, F.; Callaghan-Patrachar, N.; Quinn, B.; Marangoni, A. G.; Pink, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of shear upon the aggregation of solid objects formed from solid triacylglycerols (TAGs) immersed in liquid TAG oils were modeled using Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) and the predictions compared to experimental data using Ultra-Small Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The solid components were represented by spheres interacting via attractive van der Waals forces and short range repulsive forces. A velocity was applied to the liquid particles nearest to the boundary, and Lees-Edwards boundary conditions were used to transmit this motion to non-boundary layers via dissipative interactions. The shear was created through the dissipative forces acting between liquid particles. Translational diffusion was simulated, and the Stokes-Einstein equation was used to relate DPD length and time scales to SI units for comparison with USAXS results. The SI values depended on how large the spherical particles were (250 nm vs. 25 nm). Aggregation was studied by (a) computing the Structure Function and (b) quantifying the number of pairs of solid spheres formed. Solid aggregation was found to be enhanced by low shear rates. As the shear rate was increased, a transition shear region was manifested in which aggregation was inhibited and shear banding was observed. Aggregation was inhibited, and eventually eliminated, by further increases in the shear rate. The magnitude of the transition region shear, γ˙ t, depended on the size of the solid particles, which was confirmed experimentally.

  18. Laboratory Studies on the Effects of Shear on Fish

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Guensch, Greg R.

    2000-09-20

    The overall objective of our studies was to specify an index describing the hydraulic force that fish experience when subjected to a shear environment. Fluid shear is a phenomenon that is important to fish. However, elevated levels of shear may result in strain rates that injure or kill fish. At hydroelectric generating facilities, concerns have been expressed that strain rates associated with passage through turbines, spillways, and fish bypass systems may adversely affect migrating fish. Development of fish friendly hydroelectric turbines requires knowledge of the physical forces (injury mechanisms) that impact entrained fish and the fish's tolerance to these forces. It requires up-front, pre-design specifications for the environmental conditions that occur within the turbine system, in other words, determining or assuming that those conditions known to injure fish will provide the descriptions of conditions that engineers must consider in the design of a turbine system. These biological specifications must be carefully and thoroughly documented throughout the design of a fish friendly turbine. To address the development of biological specifications, we designed and built a test facility where juvenile fish could be subjected to a range of shear environments and quantified their biological response.

  19. Estimation of viscoelastic parameters in Prony series from shear wave propagation

    Jung, Jae-Wook; Hong, Jung-Wuk, E-mail: j.hong@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: jwhong@alum.mit.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 291 Deahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Choi, Kiwan [Health and Medical Equipment, Samsung Electronics, 1003 Daechi-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-280 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-21

    When acquiring accurate ultrasonic images, we must precisely estimate the mechanical properties of the soft tissue. This study investigates and estimates the viscoelastic properties of the tissue by analyzing shear waves generated through an acoustic radiation force. The shear waves are sourced from a localized pushing force acting for a certain duration, and the generated waves travel horizontally. The wave velocities depend on the mechanical properties of the tissue such as the shear modulus and viscoelastic properties; therefore, we can inversely calculate the properties of the tissue through parametric studies.

  20. Fifty years of shear zones

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  1. A study on plate anchor detailing systems of shear re-bar

    Tsurumaki, S.; Ujiie, K.; Nishikawa, T.; Kitayama, K.

    1995-01-01

    For shell walls and base slabs in reactor buildings, besides a large amount of main bars, numerous shear re-bars have been employed to resist to out-of-plane force. As a result , detailing work involving shear re-bar is extremely involved. For example, the employed re-bar anchor method differs from the ordinary methods in which, a end of shear re-bar with 135-degrees hook or with anchor plate type and another re-bar end with 90-degrees hook are used. However the structural characteristics in members using shear re-bar of the bolt-mounted anchor plate have not yet been examined. A test was performed to confirm the effects of anchor methods for shear re-bars on shearing behavior of members. This paper describes the test plan, method and results. (author). 12 figs., 7 tabs

  2. SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...

  3. Size effects in shear interfaces

    GARNIER, J

    2001-01-01

    In physical modelling (centrifuge tests, calibration chambers, laboratory tests), the size of the soil particles may not be negligible when compared to the dimensions of the models. Size effects may so disturb the response of the models and the experimental data obtained on these cannot be extended to true scale conditions. Different tests have been performed to study and quantify the size effects that may happen in shear interfaces between soils and structures : modified shear box tests, pul...

  4. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  5. Shear Alfven waves in tokamaks

    Kieras, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    Shear Alfven waves in an axisymmetric tokamak are examined within the framework of the linearized ideal MHD equations. Properties of the shear Alfven continuous spectrum are studied both analytically and numerically. Implications of these results in regards to low frequency rf heating of toroidally confined plasmas are discussed. The structure of the spatial singularities associated with these waves is determined. A reduced set of ideal MHD equations is derived to describe these waves in a very low beta plasma

  6. Dynamic Shear Deformation and Failure of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe Alloys.

    Ran, Chun; Chen, Pengwan

    2018-01-05

    To study the dynamic shear deformation and failure properties of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe (Ti-55511) alloy, a series of forced shear tests on flat hat shaped (FHS) specimens for the two investigated materials was performed using a split Hopkinson pressure bar setup. The evolution of shear deformation was monitored by an ultra-high-speed camera (Kirana-05M). Localized shear band is induced in the two investigated materials under forced shear tests. Our results indicate that severe strain localization (adiabatic shear) is accompanied by a loss in the load carrying capacity, i.e., by a sudden drop in loading. Three distinct stages can be identified using a digital image correlation technique for accurate shear strain measurement. The microstructural analysis reveals that the dynamic failure mechanisms for Ti-64 and Ti-55511 alloys within the shear band are of a cohesive and adhesive nature, respectively.

  7. Shear Resistance Capacity of Interface of Plate-Studs Connection between CFST Column and RC Beam

    Qianqian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of a concrete-filled steel tube (CFST column and reinforced concrete (RC beam produces a composite structural system that affords good structural performance, functionality, and workability. The effective transmission of moments and shear forces from the beam to the column is key to the full exploitation of the structural performance. The studs of the composite beam transfer the interfacial shear force between the steel beam and the concrete slab, with the web bearing most of the vertical shear force of the steel beam. In this study, the studs and vertical steel plate were welded to facilitate the transfer of the interfacial shear force between the RC beam and CFST column. Six groups of a total of 18 specimens were used to investigate the shear transfer mechanism and failure mode of the plate-studs connection, which was confirmed to effectively transmit the shear forces between the beam and column. The results of theoretical calculations were also observed to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  8. Shear Tests and Calculation of Shear Resistance with the PC Program RFEM from Thin Partition Walls of Brick in Old Buildings

    Korjenic Sinan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the shear capacity of partition walls in old buildings based on shear tests which were carried out under real conditions in an existing building. There were experiments conducted on different floors and in each case, the maximum recordable horizontal force and the horizontal displacement of the respective mortar were measured. At the same time material studies and material investigations were carried out in the laboratory. The material parameters were used for the calculation of the precise shear capacity of each joint. In the shear tests, the maximum displacement of a mortar joint was determined at a maximum of two to four millimetres. Furthermore, no direct linear relationship between the theoretical load (wall above it and the shear stress occurred could be detected in the analysis of the experiment, as it was previously assumed.

  9. Shear Tests and Calculation of Shear Resistance with the PC Program RFEM from Thin Partition Walls of Brick in Old Buildings

    Korjenic, Sinan; Nowak, Bernhard; Löffler, Philipp; Vašková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    This paper is about the shear capacity of partition walls in old buildings based on shear tests which were carried out under real conditions in an existing building. There were experiments conducted on different floors and in each case, the maximum recordable horizontal force and the horizontal displacement of the respective mortar were measured. At the same time material studies and material investigations were carried out in the laboratory. The material parameters were used for the calculation of the precise shear capacity of each joint. In the shear tests, the maximum displacement of a mortar joint was determined at a maximum of two to four millimetres. Furthermore, no direct linear relationship between the theoretical load (wall above it) and the shear stress occurred could be detected in the analysis of the experiment, as it was previously assumed.

  10. The Production of Benzaldehyde by Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 in a Solid State Fermentation (SSF System of Soy Bean Meal: Rice Husks

    Norliza, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 for the production of benzaldehyde, a bitter cherry almond flavour was performed using soya bean meal and rice husks as the substrates. The identification of R. oligosporus USM R1 was performed based on the observation made under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimum conditions for the SSF in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask system were 40% (v/w water content, substrate particle size of 0.7 mm; inoculum size of 1 x 10^5 spores/g substrate; incubation temperature of 30C; substrate amount of 7 g and the ratio of soy bean meal: rice husks of 50:50%. A maximum benzaldehyde production was obtained when the substrate was agitated after 48 hour for a 96 hour fermentation time. The highest benzaldehyde production obtained after 96 hour cultivation was 5.47 mg g-1 substrate. The supplementation of carbon and nitrogen sources in the substrate mixture revealed an enhancement in the growth and benzyldehyde production. A maximum production of benzaldehyde was obtained with the supplementation of L-phenylalanine, a precursor for benzaldehyde biosynthesis which gave 38.69 mg benzaldehyde/g substrate. This is approximately 6-folds higher compared to the substrates without the supplementation of L-phenylalanine.

  11. Injectable shear-thinning nanoengineered hydrogels for stem cell delivery

    Thakur, Ashish; Jaiswal, Manish K.; Peak, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    -thinning characteristics, and enhanced mechanical stiffness, elastomeric properties, and physiological stability. The shear-thinning characteristics of nanocomposite hydrogels are investigated for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) delivery. The hMSCs showed high cell viability after injection and encapsulated cells......Injectable hydrogels are investigated for cell encapsulation and delivery as they can shield cells from high shear forces. One of the approaches to obtain injectable hydrogels is to reinforce polymeric networks with high aspect ratio nanoparticles such as two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. 2D...... showed a circular morphology. The proposed shear-thinning nanoengineered hydrogels can be used for cell delivery for cartilage tissue regeneration and 3D bioprinting....

  12. Effect of sheared flows on neoclassical tearing modes

    Sen, A [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Chandra, D; Kaw, P [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Bora, M P [Physics Dept., Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Kruger, S [Tech-X, Boulder, CO (United States); Ramos, J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The influence of toroidal sheared equilibrium flows on the nonlinear evolution of classical and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) is studied through numerical solutions of a set of reduced generalized MHD equations that include viscous force effects based on neoclassical closures. In general, differential flow is found to have a strong stabilizing influence leading to lower saturated island widths for the classical (m/n = 2/1) mode and reduced growth rates for the (m/n = 3/1) neoclassical mode. Velocity shear on the other hand is seen to make a destabilizing contribution. An analytic model calculation, consisting of a generalized Rutherford island evolution equation that includes shear flow effects is also presented and the numerical results are discussed in the context of this model. (author)

  13. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...

  14. A new confined high pressure rotary shear apparatus: preliminary results

    Faulkner, D.; Coughlan, G.; Bedford, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The frictional properties of fault zone materials, and their evolution during slip, are of paramount importance for determining the earthquake mechanics of large tectonic faults. Friction is a parameter that is difficult to determine from seismological methods so much of our understanding comes from experiment. Rotary shear apparatuses have been widely used in experimental studies to elucidate the frictional properties of faults under realistic earthquake slip velocities (0.1-10 m/s) and displacements (>20 m). However one technical limitation of rotary shear experiments at seismic slip rates has been the lack of confinement. This has led to a limit on the normal stress (due to the strength of the forcing blocks) and also a lack of control of measurements of the pore fluid pressure. Here we present the first preliminary results from a rotary shear apparatus that has been developed to attempt to address this issue. The new fully confined ring shear apparatus has a fast-acting servo-hydraulic confining pressure system of up to 200 MPa and a servo-controlled upstream and downstream pore pressure system of up to 200 MPa. Displacement rates of 0.01μ/s to 2 m/s can be achieved. Fault gouge samples can therefore be sheared at earthquake speed whilst being subject to pressures typically associated with the depth of earthquake nucleation.

  15. Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.

  16. Comparison of shear force tenderness, drip and cooking loss, and ...

    Kahl, CEI, Mej

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... the 9th–10th thoracic vertebrae, were included in this study. .... loss expressed as a percentage of the original sample weight as .... a,b,c Column means for breed crosses within different days of ..... Genetic effects on beef.

  17. Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, Elmer; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal component for S waves. More importantly, Earth's rotation leads to a slow rotation of the transverse polarization of S waves; during the propagation of S waves the particle motion behaves just like a Foucault pendulum. The polarization plane of shear waves counteracts Earth's rotation and rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The rotation rate is independent of the wave frequency and is purely geometric, like the Berry phase. Using the polarization of ScS and ScS2 waves, we show that the Foucault-like rotation of the S wave polarization can be observed. This can affect the determination of source mechanisms and the interpretation of observed SKS splitting.

  18. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed in uncracked concrete.Proposals have been made on how the derived standard solutions may be applied to more complicated cases, such as continuous beams, beams......The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model...

  19. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  20. Modeling of shear wall buildings

    Gupta, A K [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1984-05-01

    Many nuclear power plant buildings, for example, the auxiliary building, have reinforced concrete shear walls as the primary lateral load resisting system. Typically, these walls have low height to length ratio, often less than unity. Such walls exhibit marked shear lag phenomenon which would affect their bending stiffness and the overall stress distribution in the building. The deformation and the stress distribution in walls have been studied which is applicable to both the short and the tall buildings. The behavior of the wall is divided into two parts: the symmetric flange action and the antisymmetry web action. The latter has two parts: the web shear and the web bending. Appropriate stiffness equations have been derived for all the three actions. These actions can be synthesized to solve any nonlinear cross-section. Two specific problems, that of lateral and torsional loadings of a rectangular box, have been studied. It is found that in short buildings shear lag plays a very important role. Any beam type formulation which either ignores shear lag or includes it in an idealized form is likely to lead to erroneous results. On the other hand a rigidity type approach with some modifications to the standard procedures would yield nearly accurate answers.

  1. Mean wall-shear stress measurements using the micro-pillar shear-stress sensor MPS3

    Große, S; Schröder, W

    2008-01-01

    A new sensor to measure the mean turbulent wall-shear stress in turbulent flows is described. The wall-shear stress sensor MPS 3 has been tested in a well-defined fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers Re b based on the bulk velocity U b and the pipe diameter D in the range of Re b = 10 000–20 000. The results demonstrate a convincing agreement of the mean wall-shear stress obtained with the new sensor technique with analytical and experimental results from the literature. The sensor device consists of a flexible micro-pillar that extends from the wall into the viscous sublayer. Bending due to the exerting fluid forces, the pillar-tip deflection serves as a measure for the local wall-shear stress. The sensor concept, calibration techniques, the achievable accuracy and error estimates, the fields of application and the sensor limits will be discussed. Furthermore, a first estimate of the pillar dynamic response will be derived showing the potential of the sensor to also measure the turbulent fluctuating wall-shear stress

  2. Experimental investigation of single small bubble motion in linear shear flow in water

    Li, Zhongchun; Zhao, Yang; Song, Xiaoming; Yu, Hongxing; Jiang, Shengyao; Ishii, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The bubble motion in simple linear shear flow was experimentally investigated. • The bubble trajectories, bubble velocity and drag and lift force were obtained using image process routine. • The bubble trajectory was coupled with a zigzag motion and incline path. • The lift force was kept negative and it decreased when bubble diameter and shear flow magnitude increased. - Abstract: The motion of small bubble in a simple shear flow in water was experimental studied. Stable shear flow with low turbulence level was achieved with curved screen and measured using LDV. The bubbles were captured by high speed camera and the captured images were processed with digital image routine. The bubble was released from a capillary tube. The instantaneous bubble position, bubble velocity and forces were obtained based on the captured parameters. The quasi-steady lift coefficient was determined by the linear fitting of the bubble trajectory of several cycles. The results indicated that the lateral migration was coupled with the zigzag motion of bubble in the present experiment. The bubble migrated to the left side and its quasi-steady lift coefficient was negative. Good repeatable results were observed by measurements of 18 bubbles. The bubble motion in shear flow in water was first experimental studied and negative lift force was observed in the present study condition. The lift coefficient decreased when shear stress magnitude or bubble diameter increased in the present experiment condition.

  3. Influence of enamel conditioning on the shear bond strength of different adhesives.

    Brauchli, Lorenz; Muscillo, Teodoro; Steineck, Markus; Wichelhaus, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    Phosphoric acid etching is the gold standard for enamel conditioning. However, it is possible that air abrasion or a combination of air abrasion and etching might result in enhanced adhesion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different enamel conditioning methods on the bond strength of six adhesives. Three different enamel conditioning procedures (phosphoric acid etching, air abrasion, air abrasion + phosphoric acid etching) were evaluated for their influence on the shear bond strength of six different adhesives (Transbond™ XT, Cool-Bond™, Fuji Ortho LC, Ultra Band-Lok, Tetric(®) Flow, Light-Bond™). Each group consisted of 15 specimens. Shear forces were measured with a universal testing machine. The scores of the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) were also analyzed. There were no significant differences between phosphoric acid etching and air abrasion + phosphoric acid etching. Air abrasion as a single conditioning technique led to significantly lower shear forces. The ARI scores did not correlate with the shear strengths measured. There were greater variations in shear forces for the different adhesives than for the conditioning techniques. The highest shear forces were found for the conventional composites Transbond™ XT and Cool- Bond™ in combination with conventional etching. Air abrasion alone and in combination with phosphoric acid etching showed no advantages compared with phosphoric acid etching alone and, therefore, cannot be recommended.

  4. High fluid shear strain causes injury in silver shark: Preliminary implications for Mekong hydropower turbine design

    Baumgartner, L. J. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Narrandera Fisheries Centre, Narrandera NSW Australia; Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Thorncraft, G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Phonekhampheng, O. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Boys, C. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Nelson Bay NSW Australia; Navarro, A. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Robinson, W. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Brown, R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-09

    Fluid shear arises when two bodies of water, travelling at different velocities, intersect. Fish entrained at the interface of these two water masses will experience shear stress; which can be harmful. The stress magnitude is dependent on waterbody mass and velocity; with the fish impact largely related to body size. Elevated shear stress occurs where rapidly flowing water passes near spillways, across screens, within turbine draft tubes or other passage routes. A flume was used to determine critical tolerances of silver shark (Balantiocheilos melanopterus) to different shear stress rates generated by a high velocity jet. Fish experienced higher levels of injury and mortality as shear stress was increased. Excessive shear forces had damaging impacts on fish. Mortality occurred at shear levels higher that 600/s. It is important that developers should attempt to model potential shear profiles expected during turbine passage in selected designs. These data will be critical to determine potential impacts on fish. If the likelihood of adverse impact is high, then alternative designs which have lower shear stress could be explored.

  5. FEM Simulation of Incremental Shear

    Rosochowski, Andrzej; Olejnik, Lech

    2007-01-01

    A popular way of producing ultrafine grained metals on a laboratory scale is severe plastic deformation. This paper introduces a new severe plastic deformation process of incremental shear. A finite element method simulation is carried out for various tool geometries and process kinematics. It has been established that for the successful realisation of the process the inner radius of the channel as well as the feeding increment should be approximately 30% of the billet thickness. The angle at which the reciprocating die works the material can be 30 deg. . When compared to equal channel angular pressing, incremental shear shows basic similarities in the mode of material flow and a few technological advantages which make it an attractive alternative to the known severe plastic deformation processes. The most promising characteristic of incremental shear is the possibility of processing very long billets in a continuous way which makes the process more industrially relevant

  6. SHEAR ACCELERATION IN EXPANDING FLOWS

    Rieger, F. M. [ZAH, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Duffy, P., E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: peter.duffy@ucd.ie [University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2016-12-10

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi–Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge line, and limb-brightening).

  7. Effects of opening in shear walls of 30- storey building

    Ruchi Sharma; Jignesh A Amin

    2015-01-01

    Tall towers and multi-storey buildings have fascinated mankind from the beginning of civilization, their construction being initially for defense and subsequently for ecclesiastical purposes. These tall buildings because of its height, is affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake actions tends to snap the building in shear and push it over in bending. In general, the rigidity (i.e. Resistance to lateral deflection) and stability (i.e. Resistance to overturning moments) requirement ...

  8. Computerized lateral-shear interferometer

    Hasegan, Sorin A.; Jianu, Angela; Vlad, Valentin I.

    1998-07-01

    A lateral-shear interferometer, coupled with a computer for laser wavefront analysis, is described. A CCD camera is used to transfer the fringe images through a frame-grabber into a PC. 3D phase maps are obtained by fringe pattern processing using a new algorithm for direct spatial reconstruction of the optical phase. The program describes phase maps by Zernike polynomials yielding an analytical description of the wavefront aberration. A compact lateral-shear interferometer has been built using a laser diode as light source, a CCD camera and a rechargeable battery supply, which allows measurements in-situ, if necessary.

  9. Dynamic behavior and functional integrity tests on RC shear walls

    Akino, Kinji; Nasuda, Toshiaki; Shibata, Akenori.

    1991-01-01

    A project consisting of seven subprojects has been conducted to study the dynamic behavior and functional integrity of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls in reactor buildings. The objective of this project is to obtain the data to improve and prepare the seismic analysis code regarding the nonlinear structural behavior and integrity of reactor buildings during and after earthquakes. The project started in April, 1986, and will end in March, 1994. Seven subprojects are strain rate test, damping characteristic test, ultimate state response test and the verification test for the test of restoring force characteristics regarding dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance; the restoring force characteristic test on the shear walls with openings; and pull-out strength test and the test on air leakage through concrete cracks regarding the functional integrity. The objectives of respective subprojects, the test models and the interim results are reported. Three subprojects have been completed by March, 1990. The results of these projects will be used for the overall evaluation. The strain rate test showed that the ultimate strength of shear walls increased with strain rate. A formula for estimating air flow through the cracks in walls was given by the leakage test. (K.I.)

  10. Model tests on dynamic performance of RC shear walls

    Nagashima, Toshio; Shibata, Akenori; Inoue, Norio; Muroi, Kazuo.

    1991-01-01

    For the inelastic dynamic response analysis of a reactor building subjected to earthquakes, it is essentially important to properly evaluate its restoring force characteristics under dynamic loading condition and its damping performance. Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main structural members of a reactor building, and dominate its seismic behavior. In order to obtain the basic information on the dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance of shear walls, the dynamic test using a large shaking table, static displacement control test and the pseudo-dynamic test on the models of a shear wall were conducted. In the dynamic test, four specimens were tested on a large shaking table. In the static test, four specimens were tested, and in the pseudo-dynamic test, three specimens were tested. These tests are outlined. The results of these tests were compared, placing emphasis on the restoring force characteristics and damping performance of the RC wall models. The strength was higher in the dynamic test models than in the static test models mainly due to the effect of loading rate. (K.I.)

  11. Modelling Inter-Particle Forces and Resulting Agglomerate Sizes in Cement-Based Materials

    Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    The theory of inter-particle forces versus external shear in cement-based materials is reviewed. On this basis, calculations on maximum agglomerate size present after the combined action of superplasticizers and shear are carried out. Qualitative experimental results indicate that external shear ...

  12. Subatomic forces

    Sutton, C.

    1989-01-01

    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  13. Atomistic simulation study of the shear-band deformation mechanism in Mg-Cu metallic glasses

    Bailey, Nicholas; Schiøtz, Jakob; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2006-01-01

    We have simulated plastic deformation of a model Mg-Cu metallic glass in order to study shear banding. In uniaxial tension, we find a necking instability occurs rather than shear banding. We can force the latter to occur by deforming in plane strain, forbidding the change of length in one...... of the transverse directions. Furthermore, in most of the simulations a notch is used to initiate shear bands, which lie at a 45 degrees angle to the tensile loading direction. The shear bands are characterized by the Falk and Langer local measure of plastic deformation D-min(2), averaged here over volumes...... observe a slight decrease in density, up to 1%, within the shear band, which is consistent with notions of increased free volume or disorder within a plastically deforming amorphous material....

  14. Study of low-velocity impact response of sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores

    Wang, Yunpeng; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu

    2018-06-01

    The low-velocity impact response of sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores was studied. The impact tests indicated that the sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores showed excellent properties of energy dissipation and stress distribution. In comparison to the similar sandwich panels with chloroprene rubber cores and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer cores, the shear-thickening gel cores led to the obviously smaller contact forces and the larger energy absorptions. Numerical modelling with finite element analysis was used to investigate the stress distribution of the sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores and the results agreed well with the experimental results. Because of the unique mechanical property of the shear-thickening gel, the concentrated stress on the front facesheets were distributed to larger areas on the back facesheets and the peak stresses were reduced greatly.

  15. Research status and needs for shear tests on large-scale reinforced concrete containment elements

    Oesterle, R.G.; Russell, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reinforced concrete containments at nuclear power plants are designed to resist forces caused by internal pressure, gravity, and severe earthquakes. The size, shape, and possible stress states in containments produce unique problems for design and construction. A lack of experimental data on the capacity of reinforced concrete to transfer shear stresses while subjected to biaxial tension has led to cumbersome if not impractical design criteria. Research programs recently conducted at the Construction Technology Laboratories and at Cornell University indicate that design criteria for tangential, peripheral, and radial shear are conservative. This paper discusses results from recent research and presents tentative changes for shear design provisions of the current United States code for containment structures. Areas where information is still lacking to fully verify new design provisions are discussed. Needs for further experimental research on large-scale specimens to develop economical, practical, and reliable design criteria for resisting shear forces in containment are identified. (orig.)

  16. Kansas Department of Transportation column expert : ultimate shear capacity of circular columns using the simplified modified compression field theory.

    2015-09-01

    The importance of the analysis of circular columns to accurately predict their ultimate confined : capacity under shear-flexure-axial force interaction domain is recognized in light of the extreme load event : imposed by the current American Associat...

  17. Seismic Behaviour of Composite Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls

    Boita, Ioana-Emanuela; Dan, Daniel; Stoian, Valeriu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper is presented an experimental study conducted at the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania. This study provides results from a comprehensive experimental investigation on the behaviour of composite steel fibre reinforced concrete shear walls (CSFRCW) with partially or totally encased profiles. Two experimental composite steel fibre reinforced concrete walls (CSFRCW) and, as a reference specimen, a typical reinforced concrete shear wall (RCW), (without structural reinforcement), were fabricated and tested under constant vertical load and quasi-static reversed cyclic lateral loads, in displacement control. The tests were performed until failure. The tested specimens were designed as 1:3 scale steel-concrete composite elements, representing a three storeys and one bay element from the base of a lateral resisting system made by shear walls. Configuration/arrangement of steel profiles in cross section were varied within the specimens. The main objective of this research consisted in identifying innovative solutions for composite steel-concrete shear walls with enhanced performance, as steel fibre reinforced concrete which was used in order to replace traditional reinforced concrete. A first conclusion was that replacing traditional reinforcement with steel fibre changes the failure mode of the elements, as from a flexural mode, in case of element RCW, to a shear failure mode for CSFRCW. The maximum lateral force had almost similar values but test results indicated an improvement in cracking response, and a decrease in ductility. The addition of steel fibres in the concrete mixture can lead to an increase of the initial cracking force, and can change the sudden opening of a crack in a more stable process.

  18. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  19. In-plane Shear Joint Capacity of Pracast Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Elements

    Larsen, Henning; Goltermann, Per; Scherfig, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The paper establishes and documents formulas for the in-plane shear capacity between precast elements of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The joints investigated are rough or toothed and have all been precracked prior to the testing in order to obtain realistic test results....... The paper documents the shear force capacity for the joint strength between the most common joint types between precast LAC roof and floor elements used in Scandinavia....

  20. Laser reflection method for determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows

    Sathian, Sarith P.; Kurian, Job

    2006-03-01

    The details of laser reflection method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows are presented. The method is employed to determine the shear stress due to impingement of a low density supersonic free jet issuing out from a convergent divergent nozzle on a flat plate. The plate is smeared with a thin oil film and kept parallel to the nozzle axis. For a thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer, the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope generated by the shear force is done using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of the oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM. From the oil film slope history, calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. The range of Knudsen numbers investigated is from 0.028 to 0.516. Pressure ratio across the nozzle varied from 3,500 to 8,500 giving highly under expanded free jets. The measured values of shear, in the overlapping region of experimental parameters, show fair agreement with those obtained by force balance method and laser interferometric method.

  1. High glucose attenuates shear-induced changes in endothelial hydraulic conductivity by degrading the glycocalyx.

    Sandra V Lopez-Quintero

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanisms through which diabetes impairs homeostasis of the vasculature have not been completely elucidated. The endothelium interacts with circulating blood through the surface glycocalyx layer, which serves as a mechanosensor/transducer of fluid shear forces leading to biomolecular responses. Atherosclerosis localizes typically in regions of low or disturbed shear stress, but in diabetics, the distribution is more diffuse, suggesting that there is a fundamental difference in the way cells sense shear forces. In the present study, we examined the effect of hyperglycemia on mechanotranduction in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC. After six days in high glucose media, we observed a decrease in heparan sulfate content coincident with a significant attenuation of the shear-induced hydraulic conductivity response, lower activation of eNOS after exposure to shear, and reduced cell alignment with shear stress. These studies are consistent with a diabetes-induced change to the glycocalyx altering endothelial response to shear stress that could affect the distribution of atherosclerotic plaques.

  2. Cyclic Behavior of Low Rise Concrete Shear Walls Containing Recycled Coarse and Fine Aggregates.

    Qiao, Qiyun; Cao, Wanlin; Qian, Zhiwei; Li, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wenwen; Liu, Wenchao

    2017-12-07

    In this study, the cyclic behaviors of low rise concrete shear walls using recycled coarse or fine aggregates were investigated. Eight low rise Recycled Aggregates Concrete (RAC) shear wall specimens were designed and tested under a cyclic loading. The following parameters were varied: replacement percentages of recycled coarse or fine aggregates, reinforcement ratio, axial force ratio and X-shaped rebars brace. The failure characteristics, hysteretic behavior, strength and deformation capacity, strain characteristics and stiffness were studied. Test results showed that the using of the Recycled Coarse Aggregates (RCA) and its replacement ratio had almost no influence on the mechanical behavior of the shear wall; however, the using of Recycled Fine Aggregates (RFA) had a certain influence on the ductility of the shear wall. When the reinforcement ratio increased, the strength and ductility also increased. By increasing the axial force ratio, the strength increased but the ductility decreased significantly. The encased brace had a significant effect on enhancing the RAC shear walls. The experimental maximum strengths were evaluated with existing design codes, it was indicated that the strength evaluation of the low rise RAC shear walls can follow the existing design codes of the conventional concrete shear walls.

  3. Cyclic Behavior of Low Rise Concrete Shear Walls Containing Recycled Coarse and Fine Aggregates

    Qiyun Qiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cyclic behaviors of low rise concrete shear walls using recycled coarse or fine aggregates were investigated. Eight low rise Recycled Aggregates Concrete (RAC shear wall specimens were designed and tested under a cyclic loading. The following parameters were varied: replacement percentages of recycled coarse or fine aggregates, reinforcement ratio, axial force ratio and X-shaped rebars brace. The failure characteristics, hysteretic behavior, strength and deformation capacity, strain characteristics and stiffness were studied. Test results showed that the using of the Recycled Coarse Aggregates (RCA and its replacement ratio had almost no influence on the mechanical behavior of the shear wall; however, the using of Recycled Fine Aggregates (RFA had a certain influence on the ductility of the shear wall. When the reinforcement ratio increased, the strength and ductility also increased. By increasing the axial force ratio, the strength increased but the ductility decreased significantly. The encased brace had a significant effect on enhancing the RAC shear walls. The experimental maximum strengths were evaluated with existing design codes, it was indicated that the strength evaluation of the low rise RAC shear walls can follow the existing design codes of the conventional concrete shear walls.

  4. Flow shear suppression of turbulence using externally driven ion Bernstein and Alfven waves

    Biglari, H.; Ono, M.

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of externally-launched radio-frequency waves as a means of active confinement control through the generation of sheared poloidal flows is explored. For low-frequency waves, kinetic Alfven waves are proposed, and are shown to drive sheared E x B flows as a result of the radial variation in the electromagnetic Reynolds stress. In the high frequency regime, ion Bernstein waves are considered, and shown to generate sheared poloidal rotation through the pondermotive force. In either case, it is shown that modest amounts of absorbed power (∼ few 100 kW) are required to suppress turbulence in a region of several cm radial width

  5. Test on the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls

    Caprolu, Giuseppe; Girhammar, Ulf Arne; Källsner, Bo; Johnsson, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed a new plastic design method for wood-frame shear walls at ultimate limit state. The method is capable of calculating the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where the leading stud is not necessarily anchored against uplift. In fully anchored shear walls, the leading stud needs to be anchored using some kind of hold-downs to resist uplift and the bottom rail needs to be fixed by anchor bolts to resist horizontal shear forces. In parti...

  6. Self-diffusion in dense granular shear flows.

    Utter, Brian; Behringer, R P

    2004-03-01

    Diffusivity is a key quantity in describing velocity fluctuations in granular materials. These fluctuations are the basis of many thermodynamic and hydrodynamic models which aim to provide a statistical description of granular systems. We present experimental results on diffusivity in dense, granular shear flows in a two-dimensional Couette geometry. We find that self-diffusivities D are proportional to the local shear rate gamma; with diffusivities along the direction of the mean flow approximately twice as large as those in the perpendicular direction. The magnitude of the diffusivity is D approximately gamma;a(2), where a is the particle radius. However, the gradient in shear rate, coupling to the mean flow, and strong drag at the moving boundary lead to particle displacements that can appear subdiffusive or superdiffusive. In particular, diffusion appears to be superdiffusive along the mean flow direction due to Taylor dispersion effects and subdiffusive along the perpendicular direction due to the gradient in shear rate. The anisotropic force network leads to an additional anisotropy in the diffusivity that is a property of dense systems and has no obvious analog in rapid flows. Specifically, the diffusivity is suppressed along the direction of the strong force network. A simple random walk simulation reproduces the key features of the data, such as the apparent superdiffusive and subdiffusive behavior arising from the mean velocity field, confirming the underlying diffusive motion. The additional anisotropy is not observed in the simulation since the strong force network is not included. Examples of correlated motion, such as transient vortices, and Lévy flights are also observed. Although correlated motion creates velocity fields which are qualitatively different from collisional Brownian motion and can introduce nondiffusive effects, on average the system appears simply diffusive.

  7. Experimental study and FEM simulation of the simple shear test of cylindrical rods

    Wirti, Pedro H. B.; Costa, André L. M.; Misiolek, Wojciech Z.; Valberg, Henry S.

    2018-05-01

    In the presented work an experimental simple shear device for cutting cylindrical rods was used to obtain force-displacement data for a low-carbon steel. In addition, and FEM 3D-simulation was applied to obtain internal shear stress and strain maps for this material. The experimental longitudinal grid patterns and force-displacement curve were compared with numerical simulation results. Many aspects of the elastic and plastic deformations were described. It was found that bending reduces the shear yield stress of the rod material. Shearing starts on top and bottom die-workpiece contact lines evolving in an arc-shaped area. Due to this geometry, stress concentrates on the surface of the rod until the level of damage reaches the critical value and the fracture starts here. The volume of material in the plastic zone subjected to shearing stress has a very complex shape and is function of a dimensionless geometrical parameter. Expressions to calculate the true shear stress τ and strain γ from the experimental force-displacement data were proposed. The equations' constants are determined by fitting the experimental curve with the stress τ and strain γ simulation point tracked data.

  8. Shake-table testing of a self-centering precast reinforced concrete frame with shear walls

    Lu, Xilin; Yang, Boya; Zhao, Bin

    2018-04-01

    The seismic performance of a self-centering precast reinforced concrete (RC) frame with shear walls was investigated in this paper. The lateral force resistance was provided by self-centering precast RC shear walls (SPCW), which utilize a combination of unbonded prestressed post-tensioned (PT) tendons and mild steel reinforcing bars for flexural resistance across base joints. The structures concentrated deformations at the bottom joints and the unbonded PT tendons provided the self-centering restoring force. A 1/3-scale model of a five-story self-centering RC frame with shear walls was designed and tested on a shake-table under a series of bi-directional earthquake excitations with increasing intensity. The acceleration response, roof displacement, inter-story drifts, residual drifts, shear force ratios, hysteresis curves, and local behaviour of the test specimen were analysed and evaluated. The results demonstrated that seismic performance of the test specimen was satisfactory in the plane of the shear wall; however, the structure sustained inter-story drift levels up to 2.45%. Negligible residual drifts were recorded after all applied earthquake excitations. Based on the shake-table test results, it is feasible to apply and popularize a self-centering precast RC frame with shear walls as a structural system in seismic regions.

  9. Platelet-free shear flow assay facilitates analysis of shear-dependent functions of VWF and ADAMTS13.

    Kraus, Emma; Kraus, Kristina; Obser, Tobias; Oyen, Florian; Klemm, Ulrike; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Brehm, Maria A

    2014-12-01

    The multimeric form of von Willebrand factor (VWF), is the largest soluble protein in mammals and exhibits a multidomain structure resulting in multiple functions. Upon agonist stimulation endothelial cells secrete VWF multimers from Weibel-Palade bodies into the blood stream where VWF plays an essential role in platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Elongation of VWF strings on the cells' surface leads to accessibility of VWF binding sites for proteins, such as platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib. The prothrombotic strings are size-regulated by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 by shear force-activated proteolytic cleavage. VWF string formation was induced by histamine stimulation of HUVEC cells under unidirectional shear flow and VWF strings were detected employing the VWF binding peptide of platelet glycoprotein Ib coupled to latex beads. VWF strings were then used as substrate for kinetic studies of recombinant and plasma ADAMTS13. To investigate specific aspects of the shear-dependent functions of VWF and ADAMTS13, we developed a shear flow assay that allows observation of VWF string formation and their degradation by ADAMTS13 without the need for isolated platelets. Our assay specifically detects VWF strings, can be coupled with fluorescent applications and allows semi-automated, quantitative assessment of recombinant and plasma ADAMTS13 activity. Our assay may serve as a valuable research tool to investigate the biochemical characteristics of VWF and ADAMTS13 under shear flow and could complement diagnostics of von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura as it allows detection of shear flow-dependent dysfunction of VWD-associated VWF mutants as well as TTP-associated ADAMTS13 mutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparisons of physical experiment and discrete element simulations of sheared granular materials in an annular shear cell

    Ji, S.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report a direct comparison between a physical test and a computer simulation of rapidly sheared granular materials. An annular shear cell experiment was conducted. All parameters were kept the same between the physical and the computational systems to the extent possible. Artificially softened particles were used in the simulation to reduce the computational time to a manageable level. Sensitivity study on the particle stiffness ensured such artificial modification was acceptable. In the experiment, a range of normal stress was applied to a given amount of particles sheared in an annular trough with a range of controlled shear speed. Two types of particles, glass and Delrin, were used in the experiment. Qualitatively, the required torque to shear the materials under different rotational speed compared well with those in the physical experiments for both the glass and the Delrin particles. However, the quantitative discrepancies between the measured and simulated shear stresses were nearly a factor of two. Boundary conditions, particle size distribution, particle damping and friction, including a sliding and rolling, contact force model, were examined to determine their effects on the computational results. It was found that of the above, the rolling friction between particles had the most significant effect on the macro stress level. This study shows that discrete element simulation is a viable method for engineering design for granular material systems. Particle level information is needed to properly conduct these simulations. However, not all particle level information is equally important in the study regime. Rolling friction, which is not commonly considered in many discrete element models, appears to play an important role. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Shear banding, discontinuous shear thickening, and rheological phase transitions in athermally sheared frictionless disks

    Vâgberg, Daniel; Olsson, Peter; Teitel, S.

    2017-05-01

    We report on numerical simulations of simple models of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, massive disks in two dimensions, as a function of packing fraction ϕ , inelasticity of collisions as measured by a parameter Q , and applied uniform shear strain rate γ ˙. Our particles have contact interactions consisting of normally directed elastic repulsion and viscous dissipation, as well as tangentially directed viscous dissipation, but no interparticle Coulombic friction. Mapping the phase diagram in the (ϕ ,Q ) plane for small γ ˙, we find a sharp first-order rheological phase transition from a region with Bagnoldian rheology to a region with Newtonian rheology, and show that the system is always Newtonian at jamming. We consider the rotational motion of particles and demonstrate the crucial importance that the coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom has on the phase structure at small Q (strongly inelastic collisions). At small Q , we show that, upon increasing γ ˙, the sharp Bagnoldian-to-Newtonian transition becomes a coexistence region of finite width in the (ϕ ,γ ˙) plane, with coexisting Bagnoldian and Newtonian shear bands. Crossing this coexistence region by increasing γ ˙ at fixed ϕ , we find that discontinuous shear thickening can result if γ ˙ is varied too rapidly for the system to relax to the shear-banded steady state corresponding to the instantaneous value of γ ˙.

  12. Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Owusu Afrifa, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ► Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ► Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.

  13. Role of Wall Shear Stress in Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Attachment to Environmental Biofilms.

    Luo, Xia; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Jellison, Kristen L

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst deposition onto biofilms as a function of shear stress under laminar or turbulent flow. Annular rotating bioreactors were used to grow stabilized stream biofilms at shear stresses ranging from 0.038 to 0.46 Pa. These steady-state biofilms were then used to assess the impact of hydrodynamic conditions on C. parvum oocyst attachment. C. parvum deposition onto biofilms followed a pseudo-second-order model under both laminar (after a lag phase) and turbulent flows. The total number of oocysts attached to the biofilm at steady state decreased as the hydrodynamic wall shear stress increased. The oocyst deposition rate constant increased with shear stress but decreased at high shear, suggesting that increasing wall shear stress results in faster attachment of Cryptosporidium due to higher mass transport until the shear forces exceed a critical limit that prevents oocyst attachment. These data show that oocyst attachment in the short and long term are impacted differently by shear: higher shear (to a certain limit) may be associated with faster initial oocyst attachment, but lower shear is associated with greater numbers of oocysts attached at equilibrium. IMPORTANCE This research provides experimental evidence to demonstrate that shear stress plays a critical role in protozoan-pathogen transport and deposition in environmental waters. The data presented in this work expand scientific understanding of Cryptosporidium attachment and fate, which will further influence the development of timely and accurate sampling strategies, as well as advanced water treatment technologies, to target protozoan pathogens in surface waters that serve as municipal drinking water sources. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Experimental report of precast prestressed concrete shear wall. Precast prestressed concrete taishinheki no jikken hokoku

    Takada, K.; Komura, M.; Sakata, H.; Senoo, M. (Fudo Building Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-30

    The present report outlines the multi-story precast prestressed concrete earthquake-proof wall (PC shear wall system). The PC shear wall is a precast wall which internally contains the columns and beams as a unit. Therefore, the present system integrates the walls, columns and beams without beam-framing installation for the intermediate stories. It can simplify the concreting in site and ease the construction of building. For the system development, experiment was made on the deformation, sliding, yield strength and destruction state of the shear wall. Used were four types of test unit which are different in both reinforcement and connection methods. The test force was given by a hydraulically drawing jack. In the experiment, the four types were compared in destruction state, relation between load and deformation, yield strength, and strain of main column reinforcing bars and wall connection reinforcing bars. PC shear wall system-based design was studied from the experimental result. The shear wall in which there occurred both bending and shearing deformations was modeled by changing to a brace unit. Divided into bending deformation and shearing deformation, the deformation was calculated, which concluded that the shearing deformation dominates in the present system. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Modeling of Mesoscale Variability in Biofilm Shear Behavior.

    Pallab Barai

    Full Text Available Formation of bacterial colonies as biofilm on the surface/interface of various objects has the potential to impact not only human health and disease but also energy and environmental considerations. Biofilms can be regarded as soft materials, and comprehension of their shear response to external forces is a key element to the fundamental understanding. A mesoscale model has been presented in this article based on digitization of a biofilm microstructure. Its response under externally applied shear load is analyzed. Strain stiffening type behavior is readily observed under high strain loads due to the unfolding of chains within soft polymeric substrate. Sustained shear loading of the biofilm network results in strain localization along the diagonal direction. Rupture of the soft polymeric matrix can potentially reduce the intercellular interaction between the bacterial cells. Evolution of stiffness within the biofilm network under shear reveals two regimes: a initial increase in stiffness due to strain stiffening of polymer matrix, and b eventual reduction in stiffness because of tear in polymeric substrate.

  16. Shear instability of a gyroid diblock copolymer

    Eskimergen, Rüya; Mortensen, Kell; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2005-01-01

    -induced destabilization is discussed in relation to analogous observations on shear-induced order-to-order and disorder-to-order transitions observed in related block copolymer systems and in microemulsions. It is discussed whether these phenomena originate in shear-reduced fluctuations or shear-induced dislocations....

  17. Imaging the Microscopic Structure of Shear Thinning and Thickening Colloidal Suspensions

    Cheng, X.

    2011-09-01

    The viscosity of colloidal suspensions varies with shear rate, an important effect encountered in many natural and industrial processes. Although this non-Newtonian behavior is believed to arise from the arrangement of suspended particles and their mutual interactions, microscopic particle dynamics are difficult to measure. By combining fast confocal microscopy with simultaneous force measurements, we systematically investigate a suspension\\'s structure as it transitions through regimes of different flow signatures. Our measurements of the microscopic single-particle dynamics show that shear thinning results from the decreased relative contribution of entropic forces and that shear thickening arises from particle clustering induced by hydrodynamic lubrication forces. This combination of techniques illustrates an approach that complements current methods for determining the microscopic origins of non-Newtonian flow behavior in complex fluids.

  18. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  19. Interlayer shear of nanomaterials: Graphene-graphene, boron nitride-boron nitride and graphene-boron nitride

    Yinfeng Li; Weiwei Zhang; Bill Guo; Dibakar Datta

    2017-01-01

    In this paper,the interlayer sliding between graphene and boron nitride (h-BN) is studied by molecular dynamics simulations.The interlayer shear force between h-BN/h-BN is found to be six times higher than that of graphene/graphene,while the interlayer shear between graphene/h-BN is approximate to that of graphene/graphene.The graphene/h-BN heterostructure shows several anomalous interlayer shear characteristics compared to its bilayer counterparts.For graphene/graphene and h-BN/h-BN,interlayer shears only exit along the sliding direction while interlayer shear for graphene/h-BN is observed along both the translocation and perpendicular directions.Our results provide significant insight into the interlayer shear characteristics of 2D nanomaterials.

  20. Laboratory studies on the effects of shear on fish: Final report

    Neitzel, Duane A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mueller, R. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guensch, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2000-09-01

    The overall objective of these studies was to specify an index describing the hydraulic force that fish experience when subjected to a shear environment. Fluid shear is a phenomenon that is important to fish. However, elevated levels of shear may result in strain rates that injure or kill fish. At hydroelectric generating facilities, concerns have been expressed that strain rates associated with passage through turbines, spillways, and fish bypass systems may adversely affect migrating fish. Development of fish-friendly hydroelectric turbines requires knowledge of the physical forces (injury mechanisms) that impact entrained fish and the fish’s tolerance to these forces. It requires up-front, pre-design specifications for the environmental conditions that occur within the turbine system; in other words, determining or assuming conditions known to injure fish will assist engineers in the design of a fish-friendly turbine system. To address the development of biological specifications, this experiment designed and built a test facility where juvenile fish could be subjected to a range of shear environments and quantified their biological response. The test data reported here provide quantified strain rates and the relationship of these forces to direct and indirect biological effects on fish. The study concludes that juvenile salmonids and American shad should survive shear environments where strain rates do not exceed 500 cm/s/cm at a Dy of 1.8 cm. Additional studies are planned with a sensor fish to better link hydraulic conditions found within the laboratory and field environments.

  1. Interfacial Shear Strength of Multilayer Graphene Oxide Films.

    Daly, Matthew; Cao, Changhong; Sun, Hao; Sun, Yu; Filleter, Tobin; Singh, Chandra Veer

    2016-02-23

    Graphene oxide (GO) is considered as one of the most promising layered materials with tunable physical properties and applicability in many important engineering applications. In this work, the interfacial behavior of multilayer GO films was directly investigated via GO-to-GO friction force microscopy, and the interfacial shear strength (ISS) was measured to be 5.3 ± 3.2 MPa. Based on high resolution atomic force microscopy images and the available chemical data, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the influence of functional structure, topological defects, and interlayer registry on the shear response of the GO films. Theoretical values for shear strength ranging from 17 to 132 MPa were predicted for the different structures studied, providing upper bounds for the ISS. Computational results also revealed the atomic origins of the stochastic nature of friction measurements. Specifically, the wide scatter in experimental measurements was attributed to variations in functional structure and topological defects within the sliding volume. The findings of this study provide important insight for understanding the significant differences in strength between monolayer and bulk graphene oxide materials and can be useful for engineering topological structures with tunable mechanical properties.

  2. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals.

  3. CFD simulation of estimating critical shear stress for cleaning flat ...

    Sumit Kawale

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... Jet impingement; wall shear stress; cleaning of flat plate; turbulence model; critical shear stress; ... On comparing the theoretical predictions with wall shear ... distance and Reynolds number on peak value of local shear stress ...

  4. Continuous shear - a method for studying material elements passing a stationary shear plane

    Lindegren, Maria; Wiwe, Birgitte; Wanheim, Tarras

    2003-01-01

    circumferential groove. Normally shear in metal forming processes is of another nature, namely where the material elements move through a stationary shear zone, often of small width. In this paper a method enabling the simulation of this situation is presented. A tool for continuous shear has beeen manufactured...... and tested with AlMgSil and copper. The sheared material has thereafter been tested n plane strain compression with different orientation concerning the angle between the shear plane and the compression direction....

  5. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  6. Impact of Age and Aerobic Exercise Training on Conduit Artery Wall Thickness: Role of the Shear Pattern.

    Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kosaki, Keisei; Sawano, Yuriko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tagawa, Kaname; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamic shear stress is the frictional force of blood on the arterial wall. The shear pattern in the conduit artery affects the endothelium and may participate in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the role of the shear pattern in age- and aerobic exercise-induced changes in conduit artery wall thickness via cross-sectional and interventional studies. In a cross-sectional study, we found that brachial shear rate patterns and brachial artery intima-media thickness (IMT) correlated with age. Additionally, brachial artery shear rate patterns were associated with brachial artery IMT in 102 middle-aged and older individuals. In an interventional study, 39 middle-aged and older subjects were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Aerobic exercise training significantly increased the antegrade shear rate and decreased the retrograde shear rate and brachial artery IMT. Moreover, changes in the brachial artery antegrade shear rate and the retrograde shear rate correlated with the change in brachial artery IMT. The results of the present study indicate that changes in brachial artery shear rate patterns may contribute to age- and aerobic exercise training-induced changes in brachial artery wall thickness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Simulations of Granular Particles Under Cyclic Shear

    Royer, John; Chaikin, Paul

    2012-02-01

    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of spherical grains subjected to cyclic, quasi-static shear in a 3D parallelepiped shear cell. This virtual shear cell is constructed out of rough, bumpy walls in order to minimize wall-induced ordering and has an open top surface to allow the packing to readily dilate or compact. Using a standard routine for MD simulations of frictional grains, we simulate over 1000 shear cycles, measuring grain displacements, the local packing density and changes in the contact network. Varying the shear amplitude and the friction coefficient between grains, we map out a phase diagram for the different types of behavior exhibited by these sheared grains. With low friction and high enough shear, the grains can spontaneously order into densely packed crystals. With low shear and increasing friction the packing remains disordered, yet the grains arrange themselves into configurations which exhibit limit cycles where all grains return to the same position after each full shear cycle. At higher shear and friction there is a transition to a diffusive state, where grains continue rearrange and move throughout the shear cell.

  8. Biomechanical forces promote embryonic haematopoiesis

    Adamo, Luigi; Naveiras, Olaia; Wenzel, Pamela L.; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon; Mack, Peter J.; Gracia-Sancho, Jorge; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Lensch, M. William; Yoder, Mervin C.; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of embryogenesis, particularly in the developing cardiovascular system1,2. After initiation of the heartbeat in vertebrates, cells lining the ventral aspect of the dorsal aorta, the placental vessels, and the umbilical and vitelline arteries initiate expression of the transcription factor Runx1 (refs 3–5), a master regulator of haematopoiesis, and give rise to haematopoietic cells4. It remains unknown whether the biomechanical forces imposed on the vascular wall at this developmental stage act as a determinant of haematopoietic potential6. Here, using mouse embryonic stem cells differentiated in vitro, we show that fluid shear stress increases the expression of Runx1 in CD41+c-Kit+ haematopoietic progenitor cells7,concomitantly augmenting their haematopoietic colony-forming potential. Moreover, we find that shear stress increases haematopoietic colony-forming potential and expression of haematopoietic markers in the paraaortic splanchnopleura/aorta–gonads–mesonephros of mouse embryos and that abrogation of nitric oxide, a mediator of shear-stress-induced signalling8, compromises haematopoietic potential in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data reveal a critical role for biomechanical forces in haematopoietic development. PMID:19440194

  9. Structure-rheology relationship in a sheared lamellar fluid.

    Jaju, S J; Kumaran, V

    2016-03-01

    . At high Ericksen number where the viscous forces are large compared to the restoring forces due to layer compression and bending, shear tends to homogenize the concentration field, and the viscosity decreases significantly. At very high Ericksen number, shear even disrupts the layering of the lamellar phase. At low Ericksen number, shear results in the formation of well aligned layers with edge dislocations. However, these edge dislocations take a long time to anneal; the relatively small misalignment due to the defects results in a large increase in viscosity due to high layer stiffness and due to shear localization, because the layers between defects get pinned and move as a plug with no shear. An increase in the viscosity contrast between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts does not alter the structural characteristics during alignment. However, there is a significant increase in the viscosity, due to pinning of the layers between defects, which results in a plug flow between defects and a localization of the shear to a part of the domain.

  10. An Innovative Adaptive Pushover Procedure Based on Storey Shear

    Shakeri, Kazem; Shayanfar, Mohsen A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the conventional pushover analyses are unable to consider the effect of the higher modes and progressive variation in dynamic properties, recent years have witnessed the development of some advanced adaptive pushover methods. However in these methods, using the quadratic combination rules to combine the modal forces result in a positive value in load pattern at all storeys and the reversal sign of the modes is removed; consequently these methods do not have a major advantage over their non-adaptive counterparts. Herein an innovative adaptive pushover method based on storey shear is proposed which can take into account the reversal signs in higher modes. In each storey the applied load pattern is derived from the storey shear profile; consequently, the sign of the applied loads in consecutive steps could be changed. Accuracy of the proposed procedure is examined by applying it to a 20-storey steel building. It illustrates a good estimation of the peak response in inelastic phase

  11. The Effects of Shear Strain, Fabric, and Porosity Evolution on Elastic and Mechanical Properties of Clay-Rich Fault Gouge

    Kenigsberg, A.; Saffer, D. M.; Riviere, J.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonic/seismic waves are widely used for probing fault zone elastic and mechanical properties (gouge composition, frictional strength, density) and elastic properties (Vp, Vs, bulk and shear moduli), as it can provide insight into key processes and fault properties during shearing. These include fabric and force chain formation, porosity evolution, and fault zone stiffness, which are in turn factors in fault slip, damage, and healing. We report on a suite of direct shear experiments on synthetic fault gouge composed of 50% smectite /50% quartz at a normal stress of 25 MPa, in which we use ultrasonic wave transmission to continuously monitor compressional and shear wave velocities (Vp, Vs) up to shear strains of 25, while simultaneously measuring friction and monitoring the evolution of density and porosity. We find that wavespeeds vary with shear strain, due to fabric development and the evolution of density and porosity. The coefficient of friction peaks at μ .47 at a shear strain of .5 - 1, decreases to a steady state value of μ .43 by shear strains of 4.5- 6 and then remains rather constant to shear strains of 6 - 25, consistent with previous work. Density increases rapidly from 1.78 g/cm3 to 1.83 g/cm3 at shear strains from 0-2 (porosity decreases from 33% to 25% over that range), and then more gradually increases to a density of 2.08 g/cm3 (porosity of 21%) at a shear strain of 25. Vp increases from 2400 m/s to 2900 m/s during the onset of shear until a shear strain of 3, and then decreases to 2400-2500 by shear strain of 7-9. At shear strains above 9, Vp slowly increases as the layer becomes denser and less porous. We interpret the co-evolving changes in friction, porosity, and elastic moduli/wavespeed to reflect fabric development and alignment of clay particles as a function of shearing. More specifically, the decrease in Vp at a shear strain of 3 reflects the clay particles gradually aligning. Once the particles are aligned, the gradual increase of

  12. Miniature large range multi-axis force-torque sensor for biomechanical applications

    Brookhuis, R A; Sanders, R G P; Ma, K; Lammerink, T S J; De Boer, M J; Krijnen, G J M; Wiegerink, R J

    2015-01-01

    A miniature force sensor for the measurement of forces and moments at a human fingertip is designed and realized. Thin silicon pillars inside the sensor provide in-plane guidance for shear force measurement and provide the spring constant in normal direction. A corrugated silicon ring around the force sensitive area provides the spring constant in shear direction and seals the interior of the sensor. To detect all load components, capacitive read-out is used. A novel electrode pattern results in a large shear force sensitivity. The fingertip force sensor has a wide force range of up to 60 N in normal direction, ± 30 N in shear direction and a torque range of ± 25 N mm. (paper)

  13. Model shear tests of canisters with smectite clay envelopes in deposition holes

    Boergesson, L.

    1986-01-01

    The consequences of rock displacement across a deposition hole has been investigated by some model tests. The model was scaled 1:10 to a real deposition hole. It was filled with a canister made of solid copper surrounded by highly compacted water saturated MX-80 bentonite. Before shear the swelling pressure was measured by six transducers in order to follow the water uptake process. During shear, pressure, strain, force and deformation were measured in altogether 18 points. The shearing was made at different rates in the various tests. An extensive sampling after shear was made through which the density, water content, degree of saturation, homogenization and the effect of shear on the bentonite and canister could be studied. One important conlusion from these tests was that the rate dependence is about 10% increased shear resistance per decade increased rate of shear. This resulted also in a very clear increase in strain in the canister with increased rate. The results also showed that the saturated bentonite has excellent stress distributing properties and that there is no risk of destroying the canister if the rock displacement is smaller than the thickness of the bentonite cover. The high density of the clay makes the bentonite produce such a high swelling pressure that the material will be very stiff. In the case of a larger shear deformation corresponding to ≅ 50% of the bentonite thickness the result will be a rather large deformation of the canister. A lower density would be preferable if it can be accepted with respect to other required isolating properties. The results also showed that three-dimensional FEM calculation using non-linear material properties is necessary to simulate the shear process. The rate dependence may be taken into account by adapting the properties to the actual rate of shear but might in a later stage be included in the model by giving the material viscous properties. (orig./HP)

  14. Effects of flow shear and Alfven waves on two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Douglas, Jamie; Kim, Eun-jin; Thyagaraja, A.

    2008-01-01

    The suppression of turbulent transport by large scale mean shear flows and uniform magnetic fields is investigated in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by a small-scale forcing with finite correlation time. By numerical integration the turbulent magnetic diffusivity D T is shown to be significantly quenched, with a scaling D T ∝B -2 Ω 0 -5/4 , which is much more severe than in the case of a short or delta correlated forcing typified by white noise, studied in E. Kim and B. Dubrulle [Phys. Plasmas 8, 813 (2001)]. Here B and Ω 0 are magnetic field strength and flow shear rate, respectively. The forcing with finite correlation time also leads to much stronger suppression of momentum transport through the cancellation of the Reynolds stress by the Maxwell stress with a positive small value of turbulent viscosity, ν T >0. While fluctuating kinetic and magnetic energies are unaffected by the magnetic field just as in the case of a delta correlated forcing, they are much more severely quenched by flow shear than in that of a delta correlated forcing. Underlying physical mechanisms for the reduction of turbulent transport and turbulence level by flow shear and magnetic field are discussed

  15. Discrete element simulation studies of angles of repose and shear flow of wet, flexible fibers.

    Guo, Y; Wassgren, C; Ketterhagen, W; Hancock, B; Curtis, J

    2018-04-18

    A discrete element method (DEM) model is developed to simulate the dynamics of wet, flexible fibers. The angles of repose of dry and wet fibers are simulated, and the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results, validating the wet, flexible fiber model. To study wet fiber flow behavior, the model is used to simulate shear flows of wet fibers in a periodic domain under Lees-Edwards boundary conditions. Significant agglomeration is observed in dilute shear flows of wet fibers. The size of the largest agglomerate in the flow is found to depend on a Bond number, which is proportional to liquid surface tension and inversely proportional to the square of the shear strain rate. This Bond number reflects the relative importance of the liquid-bridge force to the particle's inertial force, with a larger Bond number leading to a larger agglomerate. As the fiber aspect ratio (AR) increases, the size of the largest agglomerate increases, while the coordination number in the largest agglomerate initially decreases and then increases when the AR is greater than four. A larger agglomerate with a larger coordination number is more likely to form for more flexible fibers with a smaller bond elastic modulus due to better connectivity between the more flexible fibers. Liquid viscous force resists pulling of liquid bridges and separation of contacting fibers, and therefore it facilitates larger agglomerate formation. The effect of liquid viscous force is more significant at larger shear strain rates. The solid-phase shear stress is increased due to the presence of liquid bridges in moderately dense flows. As the solid volume fraction increases, the effect of fiber-fiber friction coefficient increases sharply. When the solid volume fraction approaches the maximum packing density, the fiber-fiber friction coefficient can be a more dominant factor than the liquid bridge force in determining the solid-phase shear stress.

  16. The dynamics of a shear band

    Giarola, Diana; Capuani, Domenico; Bigoni, Davide

    2018-03-01

    A shear band of finite length, formed inside a ductile material at a certain stage of a continued homogeneous strain, provides a dynamic perturbation to an incident wave field, which strongly influences the dynamics of the material and affects its path to failure. The investigation of this perturbation is presented for a ductile metal, with reference to the incremental mechanics of a material obeying the J2-deformation theory of plasticity (a special form of prestressed, elastic, anisotropic, and incompressible solid). The treatment originates from the derivation of integral representations relating the incremental mechanical fields at every point of the medium to the incremental displacement jump across the shear band faces, generated by an impinging wave. The boundary integral equations (under the plane strain assumption) are numerically approached through a collocation technique, which keeps into account the singularity at the shear band tips and permits the analysis of an incident wave impinging a shear band. It is shown that the presence of the shear band induces a resonance, visible in the incremental displacement field and in the stress intensity factor at the shear band tips, which promotes shear band growth. Moreover, the waves scattered by the shear band are shown to generate a fine texture of vibrations, parallel to the shear band line and propagating at a long distance from it, but leaving a sort of conical shadow zone, which emanates from the tips of the shear band.

  17. Labor Force

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  18. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  19. Development of a Skewed Pipe Shear Connector for Precast Concrete Structures.

    Kim, Sang-Hyo; Choi, Jae-Gu; Park, Sejun; Lee, Hyunmin; Heo, And Won-Ho

    2017-05-13

    Joint connection methods, such as shear key and loop bar, improve the structural performance of precast concrete structures; consequently, there is usually decreased workability or constructional efficiency. This paper proposes a high-efficiency skewed pipe shear connector. To resist shear and pull-out forces, the proposed connectors are placed diagonally between precast concrete segments and a cast-in-place concrete joint part on a girder. Design variables (such as the pipe diameter, length, and insertion angle) have been examined to investigate the connection performance of the proposed connector. The results of our testing indicate that the skewed pipe shear connectors have 50% higher ductility and a 15% higher ratio of maximum load to yield strength as compared to the corresponding parameters of the loop bar. Finite element analysis was used for validation. The resulting validation indicates that, compared to the loop bar, the skewed pipe shear connector has a higher ultimate shear and pull-out resistance. These results indicate that the skewed pipe shear connector demonstrates more idealized behavior than the loop bar in precast concrete structures.

  20. Vibration Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Box Beams considering Shear Lag and Slip

    Zhou Wangbao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate dynamic characteristics of steel-concrete composite box beams, a longitudinal warping function of beam section considering self-balancing of axial forces is established. On the basis of Hamilton principle, governing differential equations of vibration and displacement boundary conditions are deduced by taking into account coupled influencing of shear lag, interface slip, and shear deformation. The proposed method shows an improvement over previous calculations. The central difference method is applied to solve the differential equations to obtain dynamic responses of composite beams subjected to arbitrarily distributed loads. The results from the proposed method are found to be in good agreement with those from ANSYS through numerical studies. Its validity is thus verified and meaningful conclusions for engineering design can be drawn as follows. There are obvious shear lag effects in the top concrete slab and bottom plate of steel beams under dynamic excitation. This shear lag increases with the increasing degree of shear connections. However, it has little impact on the period and deflection amplitude of vibration of composite box beams. The amplitude of deflection and strains in concrete slab reduce as the degree of shear connections increases. Nevertheless, the influence of shear connections on the period of vibration is not distinct.

  1. Deformation and Stress Response of Carbon Nanotubes/UHMWPE Composites under Extensional-Shear Coupling Flow

    Wang, Junxia; Cao, Changlin; Yu, Dingshan; Chen, Xudong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of varying extensional-shear couple loading on deformation and stress response of Carbon Nanotubes/ ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (CNTs/UHMWPE) composites was investigated using finite element numerical simulation, with expect to improve the manufacturing process of UHMWPE-based composites with reduced stress and lower distortion. When applying pure extensional loading and pure X-Y shear loading, it was found that the risk of a structural breakage greatly rises. For identifying the coupling between extensional and shear loading, distinct generations of force loading were defined by adjusting the magnitude of extensional loading and X-Y shear loading. It was shown that with the decrement of X-Y shear loading the deformation decreases obviously where the maximal Mises stress in Z-direction at 0.45 m distance is in the range from 24 to 10 MPa and the maximal shear stress at 0.61 m distance is within the range from 0.9 to 0.3 MPa. In addition, all the stresses determined were clearly below the yield strength of CNTs/UHMWPE composites under extensional-shear couple loading.

  2. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  3. Origins of the anomalous stress behavior in charged colloidal suspensions under shear.

    Kumar, Amit; Higdon, Jonathan J L

    2010-11-01

    Numerical simulations are conducted to determine microstructure and rheology of sheared suspensions of charged colloidal particles at a volume fraction of ϕ=0.33. Over broad ranges of repulsive force strength F0 and Péclet number Pe, dynamic simulations show coexistence of ordered and disordered stable states with the state dependent on the initial condition. In contrast to the common view, at low shear rates, the disordered phase exhibits a lower viscosity (μ(r)) than the ordered phase, while this behavior is reversed at higher shear rates. Analysis shows the stress reversal is associated with different shear induced microstructural distortions in the ordered and disordered systems. Viscosity vs shear rate data over a wide range of F0 and Pe collapses well upon rescaling with the long-time self-diffusivity. Shear thinning viscosity in the ordered phase scaled as μ(r)∼Pe(-0.81) at low shear rates. The microstructural dynamics revealed in these studies explains the anomalous behavior and hysteresis loops in stress data reported in the literature.

  4. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  5. Modeling cell-substrate de-adhesion dynamics under fluid shear

    Maan, Renu; Rani, Garima; Menon, Gautam I.; Pullarkat, Pramod A.

    2018-07-01

    Changes in cell-substrate adhesion are believed to signal the onset of cancer metastasis, but such changes must be quantified against background levels of intrinsic heterogeneity between cells. Variations in cell-substrate adhesion strengths can be probed through biophysical measurements of cell detachment from substrates upon the application of an external force. Here, we investigate, theoretically and experimentally, the detachment of cells adhered to substrates when these cells are subjected to fluid shear. We present a theoretical framework within which we calculate the fraction of detached cells as a function of shear stress for fast ramps as well as the decay in this fraction at fixed shear stress as a function of time. Using HEK and 3T3 fibroblast cells as experimental model systems, we extract characteristic force scales for cell adhesion as well as characteristic detachment times. We estimate force-scales of  ∼500 pN associated to a single focal contact, and characteristic time-scales of s representing cell-spread-area dependent mean first passage times to the detached state at intermediate values of the shear stress. Variations in adhesion across cell types are especially prominent when cell detachment is probed by applying a time-varying shear stress. These methods can be applied to characterizing changes in cell adhesion in a variety of contexts, including metastasis.

  6. Time-frequency analyses of fluid-solid interaction under sinusoidal translational shear deformation of the viscoelastic rat cerebrum

    Leahy, Lauren N.; Haslach, Henry W.

    2018-02-01

    During normal extracellular fluid (ECF) flow in the brain glymphatic system or during pathological flow induced by trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, ECF-solid matter interactions result from sinusoidal shear waves in the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both heterogeneous biological tissues with high fluid content. The flow in the glymphatic system is known to be forced by pulsations of the cranial arteries at about 1 Hz. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat cerebrum and bovine aortic tissue. Time-frequency analyses aim to correlate the shear stress signal frequency components over time with the behavior of brain tissue constituents to identify the physical source of the shear nonlinear viscoelastic response. Discrete fast Fourier transformation analysis and the novel application to the shear stress signal of harmonic wavelet decomposition both show significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component in brain tissue, whose magnitude is much larger than in aortic tissue, may result from interstitial fluid induced drag forces. The harmonic wavelet decomposition locates 3 Hz harmonics whose magnitudes decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of bond breaking that results in easier fluid movement. Both tissues exhibit transient shear stress softening similar to the Mullins effect in rubber. The form of a new mathematical model for the drag force produced by ECF-solid matter interactions captures the third harmonic seen experimentally.

  7. High shear stress relates to intraplaque haemorrhage in asymptomatic carotid plaques

    Tuenter, A.; Selwaness, M.; Arias Lorza, A.

    2016-01-01

    estimating equations analysis, adjusting for age, sex and carotid wall thickness. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 93 atherosclerotic carotid arteries of 74 participants. In plaques with higher maximum shear stresses, IPH was more often present (OR per unit increase in maximum shear stress (log......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaques with vulnerable plaque components are related to a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. It is unknown which factors drive vulnerable plaque development. Shear stress, the frictional force of blood at the vessel wall, is known to influence plaque...... formation. We evaluated the association between shear stress and plaque components (intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) and/or calcifications) in relatively small carotid artery plaques in asymptomatic persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 74) from the population-based Rotterdam...

  8. Dispersion Forces

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  9. Predicting Shear Transformation Events in Metallic Glasses

    Xu, Bin; Falk, Michael L.; Li, J. F.; Kong, L. T.

    2018-03-01

    Shear transformation is the elementary process for plastic deformation of metallic glasses, the prediction of the occurrence of the shear transformation events is therefore of vital importance to understand the mechanical behavior of metallic glasses. In this Letter, from the view of the potential energy landscape, we find that the protocol-dependent behavior of shear transformation is governed by the stress gradient along its minimum energy path and we propose a framework as well as an atomistic approach to predict the triggering strains, locations, and structural transformations of the shear transformation events under different shear protocols in metallic glasses. Verification with a model Cu64 Zr36 metallic glass reveals that the prediction agrees well with athermal quasistatic shear simulations. The proposed framework is believed to provide an important tool for developing a quantitative understanding of the deformation processes that control mechanical behavior of metallic glasses.

  10. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  11. Effects of muscle activation on shear between human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles.

    Finni, T; Cronin, N J; Mayfield, D; Lichtwark, G A; Cresswell, A G

    2017-01-01

    Lateral connections between muscles provide pathways for myofascial force transmission. To elucidate whether these pathways have functional roles in vivo, we examined whether activation could alter the shear between the soleus (SOL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles. We hypothesized that selective activation of LG would decrease the stretch-induced shear between LG and SOL. Eleven volunteers underwent a series of knee joint manipulations where plantar flexion force, LG, and SOL muscle fascicle lengths and relative displacement of aponeuroses between the muscles were obtained. Data during a passive full range of motion were recorded, followed by 20° knee extension stretches in both passive conditions and with selective electrical stimulation of LG. During active stretch, plantar flexion force was 22% greater (P stronger (stiffer) connectivity between the two muscles, at least at flexed knee joint angles, which may serve to facilitate myofascial force transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of Shear Wall-RC Frame Interaction of High-Rise Buildings using 2-D model Approach

    Dipali Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of structural walls in the framing of buildings has long been recognized. It is generally preferred to use shear wall in combination with moment resisting frame. In the present study, an effort is also made to investigate the shear wall-RC frame interaction using 2-D modeling of 20, 30 and 35 storey RC frame building with shear wall. In equivalent simplified 2-D model, two exterior frames with shear wall modeled as single frame with double stiffness, strength and weight. The interior frames without shear wall are modeled as a single frame with equivalent stiffness, strength and weight. The modeled frames are connected with rigid link at each floor level. Using 2-D plane frame model the lateral force distribution between Exterior frame with shear wall and Interior frame without shear wall is investigated. From the analysis, it is observed that up to bottom seven/eight storey more than 50% load is taken by frame with shear wall and the lower most three storeys take about 75% of total storey shear.

  13. Influence of static pressure and shear rate on hemolysis of red blood cells.

    Yasuda, T; Funakubo, A; Miyawaki, F; Kawamura, T; Higami, T; Fukui, Y

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multiple mechanical forces in hemolysis. Specific attention is focused on the effects of shear and pressure. An experimental apparatus consisting of a rotational viscometer, compression chamber, and heat exchanger was prepared to apply multiple mechanical forces to a blood sample. The rotational viscometer, in which bovine blood was subjected to shear rates of 0, 500, 1,000, and 1,500 s(-1), was set in the compression chamber and pressurized with an air compressor at 0, 200, 400, and 600 mm Hg. The blood temperature was maintained at 21 degrees C and 28 degrees C. Free hemoglobin at 600 mm Hg was observed to be approximately four times higher than at 0 mm Hg for a shear rate of 1,500 s(-1) (p dynamics analysis, flow visualization, and computational fluid dynamics.

  14. Origins of Shear Jamming for Frictional Grains

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Hu; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Granular systems have been shown to be able to behave like solids, under shear, even when their densities are below the critical packing fraction for frictionless isotropic jamming. To understand such a phenomena, called shear jamming, the question we address here is: how does shear bring a system from a unjammed state to a jammed state, where the coordination number, Z, is no less than 3, the isotropic jamming point for frictional grains? Since Z can be used to distinguish jammed states from unjammed ones, it is vital to understand how shear increases Z. We here propose a set of three particles in contact, denoted as a trimer, as the basic unit to characterize the deformation of the system. Trimers, stabilized by inter-grain friction, fail under a certain amount of shear and bend to make extra contacts to regain stability. By defining a projection operator of the opening angle of the trimer to the compression direction in the shear, O, we see a systematically linear decrease of this quantity with respect to shear strain, demonstrating the bending of trimers as expected. In addition, the average change of O from one shear step to the next shows a good collapse when plotted against Z, indicating a universal behavior in the process of shear jamming. We acknowledge support from NSF DMR1206351, NASA NNX15AD38G, the William M. Keck Foundation and a RT-MRSEC Fellowship.

  15. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    Farrar, C.R.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs

  16. Atomic force and shear force based tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and imaging

    Kharintsev, S.S.; Hoffmann, G.G.; Dorozhkin, P.S.; With, de G.; Loos, J.

    2007-01-01

    Underlying near-field optibal effects on the nanoscale have stimulated the development of apertureless vibrational spectroscopy and imaging with ultrahigh spatial resolution. We demonstrate tip-enhanced Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), recorded with a scanning near-field

  17. Shear thinning behaviors in magmas

    Vetere, F. P.; Cassetta, M.; Perugini, D.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on magma rheology are of fundamental importance to understanding magmatic processes from depth to surface. Since viscosity is one of the most important parameter controlling eruption mechanisms, as well as lava flow emplacement, a comprehensive knowledge on the evolution of magma viscosities during crystallization is required. We present new viscosity data on partly crystalized basalt, andesite and analogue lavas comparable to those erupted on Mercury's northern volcanic plains. High-temperature viscosity measurements were performed using a rotational Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the PVRG labs, in Perugia (Italy) (http://pvrg.unipg.it). The relative proportion of phases in each experimental run were determined by image analysis on BS-SEM images at different magnifications; phases are glasses, clinopyroxene, spinel, plagioclase for the basalt, plagioclase and spinel for the andesite and pure enstatite and clinopyroxenes, for the analogue Mercury's composition. Glass and crystalline fractions determined by image analysis well correlate with compositions of residual melts. In order to constrain the viscosity (η) variations as a function of crystallinity, shear rate (γ) was varied from 0.1 to 5 s-1. Viscosity vs. time at constant temperature shows a typical S-shape curve. In particular, for basaltic composition η vary from 3.1-3.8 Pa s [log η] at 1493 K and crystallinity of 19 area % as γ vary from 1.0 to 0.1 s-1; the andesite viscosity evolution is 3.2 and 3.7 Pa s [log η] as γ varies from 1 to 0.1 at 1493 K and crystal content of 17 area %; finally, Mercury's analogue composition was investigated at different temperature ranging from 1533 to 1502 K (Vetere et al., 2017). Results, for γ = 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 s-1, show viscosity variation between 2.7-4.0, 2.5-3.4 and 2.0-3.0 [log η inPa s] respectively while crystallinity vary from 9 to 27 (area %). As viscosity decreases as shear rate increases, these data points to a shear thinning behaviour

  18. Shear Modulus of Sintered 'House of Cards'-Like Assemblies of Crystals

    Schaink, H.M.; Malssen, van K.

    2007-01-01

    A cell model of a 'house of cards'-like assembly of crystals is used for the study of the evolution of the shear modulus during sintering. The crystals are assumed to have a lozenge shape. The cell model takes different crystal-crystal contacts into account. The force needed to separate two sintered

  19. Numerical investigations of two-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibration in shear flow

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mengke; Han, Yang; Li, Jian; Gui, Mingyue; Chen, Zhihua, E-mail: zhanghui1902@hotmail.com [Science and Technology on Transient Physics Laboratory, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Exponential-polar coordinates attached to a moving cylinder are used to deduce the stream function-vorticity equations for two-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibration, the initial and boundary conditions, and the distribution of the hydrodynamic force, which consists of the vortex-induced force, inertial force, and viscous damping force. The fluid-structure interactions occurring from the motionless cylinder to the steady vibration are investigated numerically, and the variations of the flow field, pressure, lift/drag, and cylinder displacement are discussed. Both the dominant vortex and the cylinder shift, whose effects are opposite, affect the shear layer along the transverse direction and the secondary vortex along the streamwise direction. However, the effect of the cylinder shift is larger than that of the dominant vortices. Therefore, the former dominates the total effects of the flow field. Moreover, the symmetry of the flow field is broken with the increasing shear rate. With the effect of the background vortex, the upper vortices are strengthened, and the lower vortices are weakened; thus, the shear layer and the secondary vortices induced by the upper shedding vortices are strengthened, while the shear layer and the secondary vortices induced by the lower shedding vortices are weakened. Therefore, the amplitudes of the displacement and drag/lift dominated by the upper vortex are larger than those of the displacement and drag/lift dominated by the lower vortex. (paper)

  20. A multi-axis confocal rheoscope for studying shear flow of structured fluids

    Lin, Neil Y. C.; McCoy, Jonathan H.; Cheng, Xiang; Leahy, Brian; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    of confinement effects. By using our shear cell in conjunction with a biaxial force measurement device and a high-speed confocal microscope, we are able to measure the real-time biaxial stress while simultaneously imaging the material three-dimensional structure

  1. Comparison of direct shear and simple shear responses of municipal solid waste in USA

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Although large-size simple shear (SS) testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) may arguably provide a more realistic estimate of the shear strength (τ ) of MSW than the most commonly used direct shear (DS) testing, a systematic comparison between

  2. Turbulence suppression by E x B shear in JET optimized shear pulses

    Beer, M.A.; Budny, R.V.; Challis, C.D.; Conway, G.

    2000-01-01

    The authors calculate microinstability growth rates in JET optimized shear plasmas with a comprehensive gyrofluid model, including sheared E x B flows, trapped electrons, and all dominant ion species in realistic magnetic geometry. They find good correlation between E x B shear suppression of microinstabilities and both the formation and collapse of the internal transport barrier

  3. Does modifying the particle size distribution of a granular material (i.e., material scalping alters its shear strength?

    Azéma Emilien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of two dimensional contact dynamics simulations, we analyzed the effect of the particle size distribution (PSD on the shear strength of granular materials composed of un-breakable disks. We modelled PSDs with a normalized beta function, which allows for building S-shaped gradation curves, such as those that typically occur in soils. We systematically controlled and varied the size span and the shape of the PSD, and found that the shear strength is independent both characteristics. This implies that PSD modification procedures such as material scalping (i.e., removing the smallest and/or largest particles in the sample should not affect significantly the shear strength of the material composed of unbreakable discs. In order to explore the origins of the invariance of the shear strength with PSD, we analyzed the connectivity, force transmission, and friction mobilization in terms of anisotropies, finding that the constant shear strength is due to a subtle compensation of anisotropies.

  4. Force-Induced Rupture of a DNA Duplex: From Fundamentals to Force Sensors.

    Mosayebi, Majid; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K; Ouldridge, Thomas E

    2015-12-22

    The rupture of double-stranded DNA under stress is a key process in biophysics and nanotechnology. In this article, we consider the shear-induced rupture of short DNA duplexes, a system that has been given new importance by recently designed force sensors and nanotechnological devices. We argue that rupture must be understood as an activated process, where the duplex state is metastable and the strands will separate in a finite time that depends on the duplex length and the force applied. Thus, the critical shearing force required to rupture a duplex depends strongly on the time scale of observation. We use simple models of DNA to show that this approach naturally captures the observed dependence of the force required to rupture a duplex within a given time on duplex length. In particular, this critical force is zero for the shortest duplexes, before rising sharply and then plateauing in the long length limit. The prevailing approach, based on identifying when the presence of each additional base pair within the duplex is thermodynamically unfavorable rather than allowing for metastability, does not predict a time-scale-dependent critical force and does not naturally incorporate a critical force of zero for the shortest duplexes. We demonstrate that our findings have important consequences for the behavior of a new force-sensing nanodevice, which operates in a mixed mode that interpolates between shearing and unzipping. At a fixed time scale and duplex length, the critical force exhibits a sigmoidal dependence on the fraction of the duplex that is subject to shearing.

  5. Tensile and shear strength of adhesives

    Stibolt, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    This experiment is conducted in a freshman-level course: Introduction to Engineering Materials. There are no prerequisites for the course although students should have some knowledge of basic algebra. The objectives are to tension and shear test adhesives and to determine the tensile and shear properties of adhesives. Details of equipment of procedure are given.

  6. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  7. Shear stresses around circular cylindrical openings

    Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Van Weelden, C.; Blom, C.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper stress concentrations are studied around circular cylindrical openings or voids in a linear elastic continuum. The loading is such that a uniform shear stress occurs in the continuum, which is disturbed by the opening. The shear stress is in the direction of the centre axis of the

  8. Simulations of biopolymer networks under shear

    Huisman, Elisabeth Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we present a new method to simulate realistic three-dimensional networks of biopolymers under shear. These biopolymer networks are important for the structural functions of cells and tissues. We use the method to analyze these networks under shear, and consider the elastic modulus,

  9. Rating precast prestressed concrete bridges for shear

    2008-12-01

    Shear capacity of real-world prestressed concrete girders designed in the 1960s and 1970s is a concern because : AASHTO Standard Specifications (AASHTO-STD) employed the quarter-point rule for shear design, which is less : conservative for shea...

  10. Visco-instability of shear viscoelastic collisional dusty plasma systems

    Mahdavi-Gharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the stability of Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscoelastic collisional shear-velocity dusty plasmas is studied, using the framework of a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. Motivated by Banerjee et al.'s work (Banerjee et al., New J. Phys., vol. 12 (12), 2010, p. 123031), employing linear perturbation theory as well as the local approximation method in the inhomogeneous direction, the dispersion relations of the Fourier modes are obtained for Newtonian and non-Newtonian dusty plasma systems in the presence of a dust-neutral friction term. The analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the non-Newtonian case shows that the inhomogeneous viscosity force depending on the velocity shear profile can be the genesis of a free energy source which leads the shear system to be unstable. Study of the dust-neutral friction effect on the instability of the considered systems using numerical analysis of the dispersion relation in the Newtonian case demonstrates that the maximum growth rate decreases considerably by increasing the collision frequency in the hydrodynamic regime, while this reduction can be neglected in the kinetic regime. Results show a more significant stabilization role of the dust-neutral friction term in the non-Newtonian cases, through decreasing the maximum growth rate at any fixed wavenumber and construction of the instable wavenumber region. The results of the present investigation will greatly contribute to study of the time evolution of viscoelastic laboratory environments with externally applied shear; where in these experiments the dust-neutral friction process can play a considerable role.

  11. Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids

    Ben, Dalton,; Peter, Daivis,; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system...... systems. Using the sinusoidal transverse force method to produce shearing velocity profiles and the sinusoidal longitudinal force method to produce inhomogeneous density profiles, we are able to observe the interactions between the two property inhomogeneities at the level of individual Fourier components....... This gives us a method for direct measurement of the coupling between the density and velocity fields and allows us to introduce various feedback control mechanisms which customize fluid behavior in individual Fourier components. We briefly discuss the role of temperature inhomogeneity and consider whether...

  12. Different forces

    1982-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  13. Labor Force

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  14. Behaviour of C-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading: An experimental study

    Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N.H.; Suhatril, Meldi; Shariati, Ali; Arabnejad Khanouki, M.M.; Sinaei, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► C-shaped angle connectors show 8.8–33.1% strength degradation under cyclic loading. ► Connector fracture type of failure was experienced in C-shaped angle shear connectors. ► In push-out samples, more cracking was observed in those slabs with longer angles. ► C-shaped angle connectors show good behaviour in terms of the ultimate shear capacity. ► C-shaped angle connectors did not fulfil the requirements for ductility criteria. -- Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the structural behaviour of C-shaped angle shear connectors in composite beams, suitable for transferring shear force in composite structures. The results of the experimental programme, including eight push-out tests, are presented and discussed. The results include resistance, strength degradation, ductility, and failure modes of C-shaped angle shear connectors, under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading. The results show that connector fracture type of failure was experienced in C-shaped angle connectors and after the failure, more cracking was observed in those slabs with longer angles. On top of that, by comparing the shear resistance of C-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic and cyclic loading, these connectors showed 8.8–33.1% strength degradation, under fully reversed cyclic loading. Furthermore, it was concluded that the mentioned shear connector shows a proper behaviour, in terms of the ultimate shear capacity, but it does not satisfy the ductility criteria, imposed by the Eurocode 4, to perform a plastic distribution of the shear force between different connectors along the beam length.

  15. Friction of Shear-Fracture Zones

    Riikilä, T. I.; Pylväinen, J. I.; Åström, J.

    2017-12-01

    A shear fracture of brittle solids under compression undergoes a substantial evolution from the initial microcracking to a fully formed powder-filled shear zone. Experiments covering the entire process are relatively easy to conduct, but they are very difficult to investigate in detail. Numerically, the large strain limit has remained a challenge. An efficient simulation model and a custom-made experimental device are employed to test to what extent a shear fracture alone is sufficient to drive material to spontaneous self-lubrication. A "weak shear zone" is an important concept in geology, and a large number of explanations, specific for tectonic conditions, have been proposed. We demonstrate here that weak shear zones are far more general, and that their emergence only demands that a microscopic, i.e., fragment-scale, stress relaxation mechanism develops during the fracture process.

  16. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  17. Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates.

    Casa, Lauren D C; Ku, David N

    2017-06-21

    The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. The prediction of high-shear thrombosis is a major area of biofluid mechanics in which point-of-care testing and computational modeling are promising future directions for clinically relevant research. Further research in this area will enable identification of patients at high risk for arterial thrombosis, improve prevention and treatment based on shear-dependent biological mechanisms, and improve blood-contacting device design to reduce thrombosis risk.

  18. Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

    Affouard, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test [fr

  19. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  20. Evaluation of Nonlinear Behavior of Dual Steel Frame-Shear Wall System by a Group of Real Earthquakes

    Reza Bemanian; Hamzeh Shakib

    2016-01-01

    Dual system of steel moment frame and steel plate shear wall has many advantages in comparison to the other systems. Since the last four decades the dual system has been used more frequently in new and existing structures. the steel shear wall has many advantages such as high ductility, strength, stiffness and it has light weight, it consequent reduce lateral forces and time efficiency in contracture procedure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the dual steel fra...

  1. SCFA lead lab technical assistance at Oak Ridge Y-12 nationalsecurity complex: Evaluation of treatment and characterizationalternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedialaction DARA solids storage facility (SSF)

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On July 17-18, 2002, a technical assistance team from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with the Bechtel Jacobs Company Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) environmental project leader to review treatment and characterization options for the baseline for the DARA Solids Storage Facility (SSF). The technical assistance request sought suggestions from SCFA's team of technical experts with experience and expertise in soil treatment and characterization to identify and evaluate (1) alternative treatment technologies for DARA soils and debris, and (2) options for analysis of organic constituents in soil with matrix interference. Based on the recommendations, the site may also require assistance in identifying and evaluating appropriate commercial vendors.

  2. Development of an in-situ banking shear test method; Moritsuchi no gen'ichi sendan shikenho no kaihatsu

    Nishikata, U. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-12-10

    Development was made on a simplified site-use single face shear testing device and a test method that can perform in-situ and direct measurement during construction on shear strength of coarse particle materials having large diameters. The test device consists of shear frames embedded in the in-situ ground bed, a weight for vertical loading, and a traction device to load horizontal force. In the test, prescribed rolling compaction is performed by a vibration roller which presses in the shear frames into unwound banking by using a four-piece vibration roller. Crushed stones are piled on cells of the shear frames to the same height. The specified weight is placed thereon via a loading plate, which is used as the vertical load. The shear force is loaded by horizontally pulling chains connected to the shear frames by using the traction device, and is measured by a load cell. The vertical displacement is measured by two vertical displacement meters, and the horizontal displacement by one horizontal displacement meter. A verification test is continuing using the test device. Four cases with different vertical stresses can be tested in about one day. (NEDO)

  3. Integration of remote sensing, geochemical and field data in the Qena-Safaga shear zone: Implications for structural evolution of the Eastern Desert, Egypt

    El-Din, Gamal Kamal; Abdelkareem, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    The Qena-Safaga shear zone (QSSZ) represents a significant structural characteristic in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Remote Sensing, field and geochemical data were utilized in the present study. The results revealed that the QSSZ dominated by metamorphic complex (MC) that intruded by syn-tectonic granitoids. The low angle thrust fault brings calc-alkaline metavolcanics to overlie MC and its association. Subsequently, the area is dissected by strike-slip faults and the small elongated basins of Hammamat sediments of Precambrian were accumulated. The MC intruded by late-to post-tectonic granites (LPG) and Dokhan Volcanics which comprise felsic varieties forming distinctive columnar joints. Remote sensing analysis and field data revealed that major sub-vertical conspicuous strike-slip faults (SSF) including sinistral NW-SE and dextral ca. E-W shaped the study area. Various shear zones that accompanying the SSF are running NW-SE, NE-SW, E-W, N-S and ENE-WSW. The obtained shear sense presented a multiphase of deformation on each trend. i.e., the predominant NW-SE strike-slip fault trend started with sinistral displacement and is reactivated during later events to be right (dextral) strike slip cutting with dextral displacement the E-W trending faults; while NE-SW movements are cut by both the N-S and NNW - SSE trends. Remote sensing data revealed that the NW-SE direction that dominated the area is associated with hydrothermal alteration processes. This allowed modifying the major and trace elements of the highly deformed rocks that showed depletion in SiO2 and enrichments in Fe2O3, MnO, Al2O3, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, Cu, Zn and Pb contents. The geochemical signatures of major and trace elements revealed two types of granites including I-type calc-alkaline granites (late-to post-tectonic) that formed during an extensional regime. However, syn-tectonic granitoids are related to subduction-related environment.

  4. Multiscale mechanical integrity of human supraspinatus tendon in shear after elastin depletion.

    Fang, Fei; Lake, Spencer P

    2016-10-01

    Human supraspinatus tendon (SST) exhibits region-specific nonlinear mechanical properties under tension, which have been attributed to its complex multiaxial physiological loading environment. However, the mechanical response and underlying multiscale mechanism regulating SST behavior under other loading scenarios are poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution of elastin to tendon mechanics. We hypothesized that (1) SST exhibits region-specific shear mechanical properties, (2) fiber sliding is the predominant mode of local matrix deformation in SST in shear, and (3) elastin helps maintain SST mechanical integrity by facilitating force transfer among collagen fibers. Through the use of biomechanical testing and multiphoton microscopy, we measured the multiscale mechanical behavior of human SST in shear before and after elastase treatment. Three distinct SST regions showed similar stresses and microscale deformation. Collagen fiber reorganization and sliding were physical mechanisms observed as the SST response to shear loading. Measures of microscale deformation were highly variable, likely due to a high degree of extracellular matrix heterogeneity. After elastase treatment, tendon exhibited significantly decreased stresses under shear loading, particularly at low strains. These results show that elastin contributes to tendon mechanics in shear, further complementing our understanding of multiscale tendon structure-function relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct displacement-based design of special composite RC shear walls with steel boundary elements

    H. Kazemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Special composite RC shear wall (CRCSW with steel boundary elements is a kind of lateral force resisting structural system which is used in earthquake-prone regions. Due to their high ductility and energy dissipation, CRCSWs have been widely used in recent years by structural engineers. However, there are few studies in the literature on the seismic design of such walls. Although there are many studies in the literature on the Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD of RC structures, however, no study can be found on DDBD of CRCSWs. Therefore, the aim of present study is to evaluate the ability of DDBD method for designing CRCSWs. In this study, four special composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel boundary elements of 4, 8, 12 and 16 story numbers were designed using the DDBD method for target drift of 2%. The seismic behavior of the four CRCSWs was studied using nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. Dynamic analyses were performed for the mentioned walls using 7 selected earthquake records. The seismic design parameters considered in this study includes: lateral displacement profile, inelastic dynamic inter-story drift demand, failure pattern and the composite RC shear walls overstrength factor. For each shear wall, the overall overstrength factor was calculated by dividing the ultimate dynamic base shear demand (Vu by the base shear demand (Vd as per the Direct Displacement Based-Design (DDBD method. The results show that the DDBD method can be used to design CRCSWs safely in seismic regions with predicted behavior.

  6. Shear thickening in suspensions: the lubricated-to-frictional contact scenario

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of solid particles in viscous liquids can vary from low-viscosity liquids to wet granular materials or soft solids depending on the solids loading and the forces acting between particles. When the particles are very concentrated, these mixtures are ''dense suspensions.'' Dense suspensions often exhibit shear thickening, an increase in apparent viscosity as the shear rate is increased. In its most extreme form, order of magnitude increases in viscosity over such a narrow range in shear rate occur that the term discontinuous shear thickening (DST) is applied. DST is particularly striking as it occurs in the relatively simple case of nearly hard spheres in a Newtonian liquid, and is found to take place for submicron particles in colloidal dispersions to much larger particle corn starch dispersions. We focus on simulations of a recently developed ``lubricated-to-frictional'' rheology in which the interplay of viscous lubrication, repulsive surface forces, and contact friction between particle surfaces provides a scenario to explain DST. Our simulation method brings together elements of the discrete-element method from granular flow with a simplified Stokesian Dynamics, and can rationalize not only the abrupt change in properties with imposed shear rate (or shear stress), but also the magnitude of the change. The large change in properties is associated with the breakdown of lubricating films between particles, with activation of Coulomb friction between particles. The rate dependence is caused by the shearing forces driving particles to contact, overwhelming conservative repulsive forces between surfaces; the repulsive forces are representative of colloidal stabilization by surface charge or steric effects, e.g. due to adsorbed polymer. The results of simulation are compared to developments by other groups, including a number of experimental studies and a theory incorporating the same basic elements as the simulation. The comparison to experiments of the

  7. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P.; Searles, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm 2 ) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p · ) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO · pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  8. R5FORCE: a program to compute fluid induced forces using hydrodynamic output from the RELAP5 code

    Watkins, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the computer code R5FORCE, a postprocessor to the RELAP5/MOD1 thermal-hydraulics code. R5FORCE computes piping hydraulic force/time histories that can be input into various structural analysis computer codes. R5FORCE solves the momentum conservation equation using the pressure and wall shear force terms rather than the pressure and fluid acceleration terms; eliminating potential instabilities associated with computing the time derivative in the fluid acceleration term. The updates to REALP5 required to generate the input data to R5FORCE are also discussed

  9. Evaluation of Interface Shear Strength Properties of Geogrid Reinforced Foamed Recycled Glass Using a Large-Scale Direct Shear Testing Apparatus

    Arul Arulrajah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interface shear strength properties of geogrid reinforced recycled foamed glass (FG were determined using a large-scale direct shear test (DST apparatus. Triaxial geogrid was used as a geogrid reinforcement. The geogrid increases the confinement of FG particles during shear; consequently the geogrid reinforced FG exhibits smaller vertical displacement and dilatancy ratio than FG at the same normal stress. The failure envelope of geogrid reinforced FG, at peak and critical states, coincides and yields a unique linear line possibly attributed to the crushing of FG particles and the rearrangement of crushed FG after peak shear state. The interface shear strength coefficient α is approximately constant at 0.9. This value can be used as the interface parameter for designing a reinforced embankment and mechanically stabilized earth (MSE wall when FG is used as a lightweight backfill and triaxial geogrid is used as an extensible earth reinforcement. This research will enable FG, recently assessed as suitable for lightweight backfills, to be used together with geogrids in a sustainable manner as a lightweight MSE wall. The geogrid carries tensile forces, while FG reduces bearing stresses imposed on the in situ soil. The use of geogrid reinforced FG is thus significant from engineering, economical, and environmental perspectives.

  10. An automatic braking system that stabilizes leukocyte rolling by an increase in selectin bond number with shear.

    Chen, S; Springer, T A

    1999-01-11

    Wall shear stress in postcapillary venules varies widely within and between tissues and in response to inflammation and exercise. However, the speed at which leukocytes roll in vivo has been shown to be almost constant within a wide range of wall shear stress, i.e., force on the cell. Similarly, rolling velocities on purified selectins and their ligands in vitro tend to plateau. This may be important to enable rolling leukocytes to be exposed uniformly to activating stimuli on endothelium, independent of local hemodynamic conditions. Wall shear stress increases the rate of dissociation of individual selectin-ligand tether bonds exponentially (, ) thereby destabilizing rolling. We find that this is compensated by a shear-dependent increase in the number of bonds per rolling step. We also find an increase in the number of microvillous tethers to the substrate. This explains (a) the lack of firm adhesion through selectins at low shear stress or high ligand density, and (b) the stability of rolling on selectins to wide variation in wall shear stress and ligand density, in contrast to rolling on antibodies (). Furthermore, our data successfully predict the threshold wall shear stress below which rolling does not occur. This is a special case of the more general regulation by shear of the number of bonds, in which the number of bonds falls below one.

  11. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  12. Nonlinear damping for vibration isolation of microsystems using shear thickening fluid

    Iyer, S. S.; Vedad-Ghavami, R.; Lee, H.; Liger, M.; Kavehpour, H. P.; Candler, R. N.

    2013-06-01

    This work reports the measurement and analysis of nonlinear damping of micro-scale actuators immersed in shear thickening fluids (STFs). A power-law damping term is added to the linear second-order model to account for the shear-dependent viscosity of the fluid. This nonlinear model is substantiated by measurements of oscillatory motion of a torsional microactuator. At high actuation forces, the vibration velocity amplitude saturates. The model accurately predicts the nonlinear damping characteristics of the STF using a power-law index extracted from independent rheology experiments. This result reveals the potential to use STFs as adaptive, passive dampers for vibration isolation of microelectromechanical systems.

  13. Multi Resonance Shear Mode Transducers

    2016-11-21

    force and effect as if they were given in full text . Upon request the awarding office contact named in block 22 will make their full text available, or...34scissoring" motion. The response is very broad band, but as the impedance and phase curves in Figure 22 illustrate , the effect is largely reactive, and...contact (block 22) will make their full text available. Please direct questions to the contacts @: http: //www.onr .navy .mil / Contracts-Gr ants

  14. Dynamically adjustable foot-ground contact model to estimate ground reaction force during walking and running.

    Jung, Yihwan; Jung, Moonki; Ryu, Jiseon; Yoon, Sukhoon; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Koo, Seungbum

    2016-03-01

    Human dynamic models have been used to estimate joint kinetics during various activities. Kinetics estimation is in demand in sports and clinical applications where data on external forces, such as the ground reaction force (GRF), are not available. The purpose of this study was to estimate the GRF during gait by utilizing distance- and velocity-dependent force models between the foot and ground in an inverse-dynamics-based optimization. Ten males were tested as they walked at four different speeds on a force plate-embedded treadmill system. The full-GRF model whose foot-ground reaction elements were dynamically adjusted according to vertical displacement and anterior-posterior speed between the foot and ground was implemented in a full-body skeletal model. The model estimated the vertical and shear forces of the GRF from body kinematics. The shear-GRF model with dynamically adjustable shear reaction elements according to the input vertical force was also implemented in the foot of a full-body skeletal model. Shear forces of the GRF were estimated from body kinematics, vertical GRF, and center of pressure. The estimated full GRF had the lowest root mean square (RMS) errors at the slow walking speed (1.0m/s) with 4.2, 1.3, and 5.7% BW for anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and vertical forces, respectively. The estimated shear forces were not significantly different between the full-GRF and shear-GRF models, but the RMS errors of the estimated knee joint kinetics were significantly lower for the shear-GRF model. Providing COP and vertical GRF with sensors, such as an insole-type pressure mat, can help estimate shear forces of the GRF and increase accuracy for estimation of joint kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Problems pilots face involving wind shear

    Melvin, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  16. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.

    2002-06-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  17. Shear Melting of a Colloidal Glass

    Eisenmann, Christoph; Kim, Chanjoong; Mattsson, Johan; Weitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We use confocal microscopy to explore shear melting of colloidal glasses, which occurs at strains of ˜0.08, coinciding with a strongly non-Gaussian step size distribution. For larger strains, the particle mean square displacement increases linearly with strain and the step size distribution becomes Gaussian. The effective diffusion coefficient varies approximately linearly with shear rate, consistent with a modified Stokes-Einstein relationship in which thermal energy is replaced by shear energy and the length scale is set by the size of cooperatively moving regions consisting of ˜3 particles.

  18. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  19. Sudden Relaminarization and Lifetimes in Forced Isotropic Turbulence.

    Linkmann, Moritz F; Morozov, Alexander

    2015-09-25

    We demonstrate an unexpected connection between isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence forced at large scales at moderate Reynolds numbers and observe sudden transitions from a chaotic dynamics to a spatially simple flow, analogous to the laminar state in wall bounded shear flows. We find that the survival probabilities of turbulence are exponential and the typical lifetimes increase superexponentially with the Reynolds number. Our results suggest that both isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows qualitatively share the same phase-space dynamics.

  20. Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: stability analysis.

    Salhi, A; Cambon, C

    2009-03-01

    We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Omega(0)) and the additional "precessing" Coriolis force (with angular velocity -epsilonOmega(0)), normal to it. A "weak" shear flow, with rate 2epsilon of the same order of the Poincaré "small" ratio epsilon , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler's equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov's [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré's [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small epsilon . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet's theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small epsilon , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger epsilon values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally

  1. Influence of polymer charge on the shear yield stress of silica aggregated with adsorbed cationic polymers.

    Zhou, Ying; Yu, Hai; Wanless, Erica J; Jameson, Graeme J; Franks, George V

    2009-08-15

    Flocs were produced by adding three cationic polymers (10% charge density, 3.0x10(5) g/mol molecular weight; 40% charge density, 1.1x10(5) g/mol molecular weight; and 100% charge density, 1.2x10(5) g/mol molecular weight) to 90 nm diameter silica particles. The shear yield stresses of the consolidated sediment beds from settled and centrifuged flocs were determined via the vane technique. The polymer charge density plays an important role in influencing the shear yield stresses of sediment beds. The shear yield stresses of sediment beds from flocs induced by the 10% charged polymer were observed to increase with an increase in polymer dose, initial solid concentration and background electrolyte concentration at all volume fractions. In comparison, polymer dose has a marginal effect on the shear yield stresses of sediment beds from flocs induced by the 40% and 100% charged polymers. The shear yield stresses of sediments from flocs induced by the 40% charged polymer are independent of salt concentration whereas the addition of salt decreases the shear yield stresses of sediments from flocs induced by the 100% charged polymer. When flocculated at the optimum dose for each polymer (12 mg/g silica for the 10% charged polymer at 0.03 M NaCl, 12 mg/g for 40% and 2 mg/g for 100%), shear yield stress increases as polymer charge increases. The effects observed are related to the flocculation mechanism (bridging, patch attraction or charge neutralisation) and the magnitude of the adhesive force. Comparison of shear and compressive yield stresses show that the network is only slightly weaker in shear than in compression. This is different than many other systems (mainly salt and pH coagulation) which have shear yield stress much less than compressive yield stress. The existing models relating the power law exponent of the volume fraction dependence of the shear yield stress to the network fractal structure are not satisfactory to predict all the experimental behaviour.

  2. Shear strength of clay and silt embankments.

    2009-09-01

    Highway embankment is one of the most common large-scale geotechnical facilities constructed in Ohio. In the past, the design of these embankments was largely based on soil shear strength properties that had been estimated from previously published e...

  3. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2016-09-18

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Recent progress in shear punch testing

    Hamilton, M.L.; Toloczko, M.B.; Lucas, G.E.

    1994-09-01

    The shear punch test was developed in response to the needs of the materials development community for small-scale mechanical properties tests. Such tests will be of great importance when a fusion neutron simulation device is built, since such a device is expected to have a limited irradiation volume. The shear punch test blanks a circular disk from a fixed sheet metal specimen, specifically a TEM disk. Load-displacement data generated during the test can be related to uniaxial tensile properties such as yield and ultimate strength. Shear punch and tensile tests were performed at room temperature on a number of unirradiated aluminum, copper, vanadium, and stainless steel alloys and on several irradiated aluminum alloys. Recent results discussed here suggest that the relationship between shear punch strength and tensile strength varies with alloy class, although the relationship determined for the unirradiated condition remains valid for the irradiated aluminum alloys

  5. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced

  6. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  7. Shear-induced phase changes in mixtures

    Romig, K.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory to account for the behavior of liquid mixtures exposed to a shear is developed. One consequence of the theory is that shear-induced phase changes are predicted. The theory is based on a thermodynamics that includes specifically the shear rate in the formalism and is applied to mixtures by a straightforward modification of the corresponding states, conformalsolution approach. The approach is general but is used here for a mixture of Lennard-Jones particles with a Lennard-Jones equation of state as a reference fluid. The results are discussed in the context of the Scott and Van Konynenberg phase classification. It is shown that the influence of a shear does affect substantially the type of the phase behavior. Results from the model mixture are equated loosely with those from real polymeric liquids

  8. Evaluating interfacial shear stresses in composite hollo

    Aiham Adawi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical evaluation of the interfacial shear stresses for composite hollowcore slabs with concrete topping is rare in the literature. Adawi et al. (2014 estimated the interfacial shear stiffness coefficient (ks that governs the behavior of the interface between hollowcore slabs and the concrete topping using push-off tests. This parameter is utilized in this paper to provide closed form solutions for the differential equations governing the behavior of simply supported composite hollowcore slabs. An analytical solution based on the deformation compatibility of the composite section and elastic beam theory, is developed to evaluate the shear stresses along the interface. Linear finite element modeling of the full-scale tests presented in Adawi et al. (2015 is also conducted to validate the developed analytical solution. The proposed analytical solution was found to be adequate in estimating the magnitude of horizontal shear stress in the studied composite hollowcore slabs.

  9. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    Katsaounis, Theodoros; Lee, Min-Gi; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Acoustic waves in unbounded shear flows

    Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.; Rogava, A.D.

    1996-05-01

    The linear evolution of acoustic waves in fluid flow with constant density and uniform shear of velocity is investigated. The process of the mean flow energy extraction by the three-dimensional acoustic waves which is due to the non-normality of linear dynamics in shear flows is analyzed. The thorough examination of the dynamics of different physical quantities, specifying the wave evolution, is outlined. The revealing of the behaviour becomes possible owing to the nonmodal approach that has been extensively used in the study of the perturbations evolution in shear flows since the beginning of the nineties. In addition, a detailed analyses of the physics of shear energy gain by vortex and acoustic perturbations is presented. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  11. Stress analysis of shear/compression test

    Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Ueno, S.

    1997-01-01

    Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed

  12. Analytical and experimental evaluation of the capacity of the bottom rail in partially anchored timber shear walls

    Caprolu, Giuseppe; Källsner, Bo; Girhammar, Ulf Arne; Vessby, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed plastic design methods for light-frame timber shear walls that can be used for determining the load-carrying capacity when the shear walls are partially anchored. For such walls, the leading stud is not fully anchored against uplift and tying down forces are developed in the sheathing-to-framing joints. Since the forces in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail will be subjected to cross...

  13. Modeling and implementation of wind shear data

    Frost, Walter

    1987-01-01

    The problems of implementing the JAWS wind shear data are discussed. The data sets are described from the view of utilizing them in an aircraft performance computer program. Then, some of the problems of nonstandard procedures are described in terms of programming the equations of aircraft motion when the effects of temporal and spatially variable winds are included. Finally, some of the computed effects of the various wind shear terms are shown.

  14. Line Crack Subject to Antiplane Shear.

    1978-07-01

    shear is obtained for the initiation of fracture. If the concept of the surface tension is usedone is able to calculate the cohesive stress for brittle ...Expression of the Griffith -racture criterion for brittle fracture. We have arrived at this result via the maximum shear-stress hypothesis, rather than...Crescent Beach Road, Glen Cove Prof. G.S. Heller Long Island, New York 11542 Division of Engineering Brown University Prof. Daniel

  15. Experimental study of shear rate dependence in perpetually sheared granular matter

    Liu, Sophie Yang; Guillard, François; Marks, Benjy; Rognon, Pierre; Einav, Itai

    2017-06-01

    We study the shear behaviour of various granular materials by conducting novel perpetual simple shear experiments over four orders of magnitude of relatively low shear rates. The newly developed experimental apparatus employed is called "3D Stadium Shear Device" which is an extended version of the 2D Stadium Shear Device [1]. This device is able to provide a non-radial dependent perpetual shear flow and a nearly linear velocity profile between two oppositely moving shear walls. Using this device, we are able to test a large variety of granular materials. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the device on glass beads (diameter 1 mm, 3 mm, and 14 mm) and rice. We particularly focus on studying these materials at very low inertial number I ranging from 10-6 to 10-2. We find that, within this range of I, the friction coefficient μ of glass beads has no shear rate dependence. A particularly appealing observation comes from testing rice, where the attainment of critical state develops under much longer duration than in other materials. Initially during shear we find a value of μ similar to that found for glass beads, but with time this value decreases gradually towards the asymptotic critical state value. The reason, we believe, lies in the fact that rice grains are strongly elongated; hence the time to achieve the stable μ is primarily controlled by the time for particles to align themselves with respect to the shear walls. Furthermore, the initial packing conditions of samples also plays a role in the evolution of μ when the shear strain is small, but that impact will eventually be erased after sufficient shear strain.

  16. Shear Strains, Strain Rates and Temperature Changes in Adiabatic Shear Bands

    1980-05-01

    X14A. It has been found that when bainitic and martensitic steels are sheared adiabatically, a layer of material within ths shear zone is altezed and...Sooiety for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1978, pp. 148-0. 21 TABLE II SOLID-STATE TRANSFORMATIONS IN BAINITIC STEEL TRANSFORMATION TRANSFORMATION...shear, thermoplastic, plasticity, plastic deformation, armor, steel IL AnSRACT ( -=nba asoa.tm a naeoesM iN faity by bleak n bet/2972 Experiments

  17. Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field

    Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of velocity shear on ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven vortices in a nonuniform plasma in a curved, sheared magnetic field is investigated. In absence of parallel ion dynamics, vortex solutions for the ITG mode are studied analytically. It is shown that under certain conditions...... and ultimately lead to a dominating monopolar form. The effects of magnetic shear indicate it may destroy these structures. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics....

  18. Experimental study of shear rate dependence in perpetually sheared granular matter

    Liu Sophie Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the shear behaviour of various granular materials by conducting novel perpetual simple shear experiments over four orders of magnitude of relatively low shear rates. The newly developed experimental apparatus employed is called “3D Stadium Shear Device” which is an extended version of the 2D Stadium Shear Device [1]. This device is able to provide a non-radial dependent perpetual shear flow and a nearly linear velocity profile between two oppositely moving shear walls. Using this device, we are able to test a large variety of granular materials. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the device on glass beads (diameter 1 mm, 3 mm, and 14 mm and rice. We particularly focus on studying these materials at very low inertial number I ranging from 10−6 to 10−2. We find that, within this range of I, the friction coefficient μ of glass beads has no shear rate dependence. A particularly appealing observation comes from testing rice, where the attainment of critical state develops under much longer duration than in other materials. Initially during shear we find a value of μ similar to that found for glass beads, but with time this value decreases gradually towards the asymptotic critical state value. The reason, we believe, lies in the fact that rice grains are strongly elongated; hence the time to achieve the stable μ is primarily controlled by the time for particles to align themselves with respect to the shear walls. Furthermore, the initial packing conditions of samples also plays a role in the evolution of μ when the shear strain is small, but that impact will eventually be erased after sufficient shear strain.

  19. Resolution of axial shear strain elastography

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 45 0 to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45 0 orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift

  20. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys

  1. Cosmology with cosmic shear observations: a review.

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as the implications for cosmology. We then conclude with an outlook on the various future surveys and missions, for which cosmic shear is one of the main science drivers, and discuss promising new weak cosmological lensing techniques for future observations.

  2. Edge Sheared Flows and Blob Dynamics

    Myra, J.; D' Ippolito, D.; Russell, D., E-mail: jrmyra@lodestar.com [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder (United States); Davis, W. M.; Zweben, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Terry, J.; LaBombard, B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: A study of sheared flows in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) and their interaction with blob-filaments is presented. Edge sheared flows are believed to be important for the L-H, and H-L transitions. Blob generation and dynamics impacts both the (near-separatrix) scrape-off-layer (SOL) width critical for power handling in the divertor, and the interaction of plasma in the far SOL with plasma-facing components. These topics are critical for ITER and future devices. A fluid-based 2D curvature-interchange model embedded in the SOLT code is employed to study these issues. Sheared binormal flows both regulate the power flux crossing the separatrix and control the character of emitted turbulence structures such as blob-filaments. At a critical power level (depending on parameters) the laminar flows containing intermittent, but bound, structures give way to full-blown blob emissions signifying a transition from quasi-diffusive to convective transport. In order to diagnose sheared flows in experiments and assess their interaction with blobs, a blob-tracking algorithm has been developed and applied to both NSTX and Alcator C-Mod data. Blob motion and ellipticity can be affected by sheared flows, and are diagnosed and compared with seeded blob simulations. A picture of the interaction of blobs and sheared flows is emerging from advances in the theory and simulation of edge turbulence, combined with ever-improving capabilities for edge diagnostics and their analysis. (author)

  3. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape

  4. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  5. Nuclear forces

    Holinde, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  6. The brittle-viscous-plastic evolution of shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone

    Bukovská, Zita; Jeřábek, Petr; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Lexa, Ondrej; Milke, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Shear bands are microscale shear zones that obliquely crosscut an existing anisotropy such as a foliation. The resulting S-C fabrics are characterized by angles lower than 45° and the C plane parallel to shear zone boundaries. The S-C fabrics typically occur in granitoids deformed at greenschist facies conditions in the vicinity of major shear zones. Despite their long recognition, mechanical reasons for localization of deformation into shear bands and their evolution is still poorly understood. In this work we focus on microscale characterization of the shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone, where the S-C fabrics were first recognized by Berthé et al. (1979). The initiation of shear bands in the right-lateral South Armorican Shear Zone is associated with the occurrence of microcracks crosscutting the recrystallized quartz aggregates that define the S fabric. In more advanced stages of shear band evolution, newly formed dominant K-feldspar, together with plagioclase, muscovite and chlorite occur in the microcracks, and the shear bands start to widen. K-feldspar replaces quartz by progressively bulging into the grain boundaries of recrystallized quartz grains, leading to disintegration of quartz aggregates and formation of fine-grained multiphase matrix mixture. The late stages of shear band development are marked by interconnection of fine-grained white mica into a band that crosscuts the original shear band matrix. In its extremity, the shear band widening may lead to the formation of ultramylonites. With the increasing proportion of shear band matrix from ~1% to ~12%, the angular relationship between S and C fabrics increases from ~30° to ~40°. The matrix phases within shear bands show differences in chemical composition related to distinct evolutionary stages of shear band formation. The chemical evolution is well documented in K-feldspar, where the albite component is highest in porphyroclasts within S fabric, lower in the newly formed grains within

  7. Exact coherent structures in an asymptotically reduced description of parallel shear flows

    Beaume, Cédric; Knobloch, Edgar; Chini, Gregory P.; Julien, Keith

    2015-02-01

    A reduced description of shear flows motivated by the Reynolds number scaling of lower-branch exact coherent states in plane Couette flow (Wang J, Gibson J and Waleffe F 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 204501) is constructed. Exact time-independent nonlinear solutions of the reduced equations corresponding to both lower and upper branch states are found for a sinusoidal, body-forced shear flow. The lower branch solution is characterized by fluctuations that vary slowly along the critical layer while the upper branch solutions display a bimodal structure and are more strongly focused on the critical layer. The reduced equations provide a rational framework for investigations of subcritical spatiotemporal patterns in parallel shear flows.

  8. Exact coherent structures in an asymptotically reduced description of parallel shear flows

    Beaume, Cédric; Knobloch, Edgar; Chini, Gregory P; Julien, Keith

    2015-01-01

    A reduced description of shear flows motivated by the Reynolds number scaling of lower-branch exact coherent states in plane Couette flow (Wang J, Gibson J and Waleffe F 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 204501) is constructed. Exact time-independent nonlinear solutions of the reduced equations corresponding to both lower and upper branch states are found for a sinusoidal, body-forced shear flow. The lower branch solution is characterized by fluctuations that vary slowly along the critical layer while the upper branch solutions display a bimodal structure and are more strongly focused on the critical layer. The reduced equations provide a rational framework for investigations of subcritical spatiotemporal patterns in parallel shear flows. (paper)

  9. Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.

  10. Tailoring the gradient ultrafine-grained structure in low-carbon steel during drawing with shear

    G. I. Raab

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drawing and drawing with shear were conducted on the rods of low-carbon steel. Deformation by simple drawing forms basically a homogenous structure and leads to a uniform change in microhardness along the billet volume. A comparative analysis of the models of these processes showed that shear drawing of steel at room temperature reduces energy characteristics in half, normal forces on the die – by 1,8, and enhances the strain intensity from 0,5 to 1,6. During drawing with shear, strain-induced cementite dissolution occurs and a gradient structure is formed, which increases the microhardness of the surface layer up to values close to 7 000 MPa.

  11. Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell

    Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersion...... of a water or ethanol suspension of starch granules on the surfaces. Depending on the substrate and on the suspending liquid, the aggregates differed in size and shape. Aggregate removal was studied at two flow rates. At the lower flow rate (Re-inlet = 955), the values of critical wall shear stress...... for the different surfaces suggested that capillary forces were, for all of them, playing an important role in aggregate adhesion since aqueous based aggregates were always more difficult to remove. At the higher flow rate (Re-inlet = 2016) the critical wall shear stress increased as a result of the change...

  12. Degradation of homogeneous polymer solutions in high shear turbulent pipe flow

    Elbing, B. R.; Winkel, E. S.; Solomon, M. J.; Ceccio, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    This study quantifies degradation of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer solutions in large diameter (2.72 cm) turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers to 3 × 105 and shear rates greater than 105 1/s. The present results support a universal scaling law for polymer chain scission reported by Vanapalli et al. (2006) that predicts the maximum chain drag force to be proportional to Re 3/2, validating this scaling law at higher Reynolds numbers than prior studies. Use of this scaling gives estimated backbone bond strengths from PEO and PAM of 3.2 and 3.8 nN, respectively. Additionally, with the use of synthetic seawater as a solvent the onset of drag reduction occurred at higher shear rates relative to the pure water solvent solutions, but had little influence on the extent of degradation at higher shear rates. These results are significant for large diameter pipe flow applications that use polymers to reduce drag.

  13. Higher derivative corrections to the entropic force from holography

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Luo, Zhong-jie; Hou, De-fu

    2018-04-01

    The entropic force has been recently argued to be responsible for dissociation of heavy quarkonia. In this paper, we analyze R2 corrections and R4 corrections to the entropic force, respectively. It is shown that for R2 corrections, increasing λGB (Gauss-Bonnet factor) leads to increasing the entropic force. While for R4 corrections, increasing λ ('t Hooft coupling) leads to decreasing the entropic force. Also, we discuss how the entropic force changes with the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, at strong coupling.

  14. Transport barriers with and without shear flows in a magnetized plasma

    Martinell, Julio J.

    2014-01-01

    Different ways of producing a transport barrier in a toroidal magnetized plasma are discussed and the properties of the barriers are analyzed. The first mechanism is associated with the presence of a sheared plasma flow that is present in a limited region of the plasma, which creates a zonal flow. In contrast to the usual paradigm stating that the sheared flow reduces the turbulence correlation length and leads to suppression of the fluctuation driven transport in the region of highest shear, it is shown that from the perspective of chaotic transport of plasma particles in the fluctuation fields, the transport barrier is formed in the region of zero shear and it can be destroyed when the fluctuation level is high enough. It is also shown that finite gyroradius effects modify the dynamics and introduces new conditions for barrier formation. The second mechanism considers a method in which radio-frequency waves injected into the plasma can stabilize the drift waves and therefore the anomalous transport is reduced, creating a barrier. This process does not involve the presence of sheared flows and depends only on the effect of the RF wave field on the drift waves. The stabilizing effect in this case is due to the nonlinear ponderomotive force which acts in a way that offsets the pressure gradient destabilization. Finally, a mechanism based on the ponderomotive force of RF waves is described which produces poloidal plasma rotation around the resonant surface due to the asymmetry of induced transport; it creates a transport barrier by shear flow stabilization of turbulence

  15. Evolution of allowable stresses in shear for lumber

    Robert L. Ethington; William L. Galligan; Henry M. Montrey; Alan D. Freas

    1979-01-01

    This paper surveys research leading to allowable shear stress parallel to grain for lumber. In early flexure tests of lumber, some pieces failed in shear. The estimated shear stress at time of failure was generally lower than shear strength measured on small, clear, straight-grained specimens. This and other engineering observations gave rise to adjustments that...

  16. Shape oscillations of elastic particles in shear flow.

    Subramaniam, Dhananjay Radhakrishnan; Gee, David J

    2016-09-01

    Particle suspensions are common to biological fluid flows; for example, flow of red- and white-blood cells, and platelets. In medical technology, current and proposed methods for drug delivery use membrane-bounded liquid capsules for transport via the microcirculation. In this paper, we consider a 3D linear elastic particle inserted into a Newtonian fluid and investigate the time-dependent deformation using a numerical simulation. Specifically, a boundary element technique is used to investigate the motion and deformation of initially spherical or spheroidal particles in bounded linear shear flow. The resulting deformed shapes reveal a steady-state profile that exhibits a 'tank-treading' motion for initially spherical particles. Wall effects on particle trajectory are seen to include a modified Jeffrey׳s orbit for spheroidal inclusions with a period that varies inversely with the strength of the shear flow. Alternately, spheroidal inclusions may exhibit either a 'tumbling' or 'trembling' motion depending on the initial particle aspect ratio and the capillary number (i.e., ratio of fluid shear to elastic restoring force). We find for a capillary number of 0.1, a tumbling mode transitions to a trembling mode at an aspect ratio of 0.87 (approx.), while for a capillary number of 0.2, this transition takes place at a lower aspect ratio. These oscillatory modes are consistent with experimental observations involving similarly shaped vesicles and thus serves to validate the use of a simple elastic constitutive model to perform relevant physiological flow calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-Axis Ground Reaction Force Distribution during Straight Walking.

    Hori, Masataka; Nakai, Akihito; Shimoyama, Isao

    2017-10-24

    We measured the three-axis ground reaction force (GRF) distribution during straight walking. Small three-axis force sensors composed of rubber and sensor chips were fabricated and calibrated. After sensor calibration, 16 force sensors were attached to the left shoe. The three-axis force distribution during straight walking was measured, and the local features of the three-axis force under the sole of the shoe were analyzed. The heel area played a role in receiving the braking force, the base area of the fourth and fifth toes applied little vertical or shear force, the base area of the second and third toes generated a portion of the propulsive force and received a large vertical force, and the base area of the big toe helped move the body's center of mass to the other foot. The results demonstrate that measuring the three-axis GRF distribution is useful for a detailed analysis of bipedal locomotion.

  18. Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids

    Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho; Venerus, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data......, and suggests a novel analysis of the data. This analysis demonstrates thatexponential shearing flow is no more capable of stretching polymer chains than is inception of steady shear at comparableinstantaneous shear rates. In fact, all exponential shear flow stresses measured are bounded quantitatively...

  19. Frictional forces between cohesive powder particles studied by AFM

    Jones, Robert; Pollock, Hubert M; Geldart, Derek; Verlinden-Luts, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A range of commercially important powders (hydrated alumina, limestone, titania and zeolite) and glass ballotini were attached to atomic force microscope cantilevers, and inter-particle friction forces studied in air using lateral force microscopy (LFM). The in situ calibration procedure for friction forces is described. LF images, line profiles, LF histograms, surface roughness, pull-off forces, and the load dependence of friction in the range 0-25 nN were studied for both particle-particle and particle-wall (steel) contacts. The single-particle friction results are discussed in terms of contact mechanics theory. Particle-particle contacts showed load-dependent friction, involving single asperity contacts (non-linear behaviour) or multi-asperity contacts (linear behaviour). Particle-wall contacts usually showed little load dependence and were more adhesive. The results are also related to shear stress-normal stress data (yield loci) for the same materials from bulk shear testers

  20. Biomechanics of P-selectin PSGL-1 bonds: Shear threshold and integrin-independent cell adhesion

    Xiao, Zhihua; Goldsmith, Harry L.; MacIntosh, Fiona A.; Shankaran, Harish; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2006-03-01

    Platelet-leukocyte adhesion may contribute to thrombosis and inflammation. We examined the heterotypic interaction between unactivated neutrophils and either thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) stimulated platelets or P-selectin bearing beads (Ps-beads) in suspension. Cone-plate viscometers were used to apply controlled shear rates from 14-3000/s. Platelet-neutrophil and bead-neutrophil adhesion analysis was performed using both flow cytometry and high-speed videomicroscopy. We observed that while blocking antibodies against either P-selectin or P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) alone inhibited platelet-neutrophil adhesion by ~60% at 140/s, these reagents completely blocked adhesion at 3000/s. Anti-Mac-1 alone did not alter platelet-neutrophil adhesion rates at any shear rate, though in synergy with selectin antagonists it abrogated cell binding. Unstimulated neutrophils avidly bound Ps-beads and activated platelets in an integrin-independent manner, suggesting that purely selectin-dependent cell adhesion is possible. In support of this, antagonists against P-selectin or PSGL-1 dissociated previously formed platelet-neutrophil and Ps-bead neutrophil aggregates under shear in a variety of experimental systems, including in assays performed with whole blood. In studies where medium viscosity and shear rate were varied, a subtle shear threshold for P-selectin PSGL-1 binding was also noted at shear rates<100/s and at force loading rates of ~300pN/sec. Results are discussed in light of biophysical computations that characterize the collision between unequal size particles in linear shear flow. Overall, our studies reveal an integrin-independent regime for cell adhesion that may be physiologically relevant.

  1. Control of a three-dimensional turbulent shear layer by means of oblique vortices

    Jürgens, Werner; Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob

    2018-04-01

    The effect of local forcing on the separated, three-dimensional shear layer downstream of a backward-facing step is investigated by means of large-eddy simulation for a Reynolds number based on the step height of 10,700. The step edge is either oriented normal to the approaching turbulent boundary layer or swept at an angle of 40°. Oblique vortices with different orientation and spacing are generated by wavelike suction and blowing of fluid through an edge parallel slot. The vortices exhibit a complex three-dimensional structure, but they can be characterized by a wavevector in a horizontal section plane. In order to determine the step-normal component of the wavevector, a method is developed based on phase averages. The dependence of the wavevector on the forcing parameters can be described in terms of a dispersion relation, the structure of which indicates that the disturbances are mainly convected through the fluid. The introduced vortices reduce the size of the recirculation region by up to 38%. In both the planar and the swept case, the most efficient of the studied forcings consists of vortices which propagate in a direction that deviates by more than 50° from the step normal. These vortices exhibit a spacing in the order of 2.5 step heights. The upstream shift of the reattachment line can be explained by increased mixing and momentum transport inside the shear layer which is reflected in high levels of the Reynolds shear stress -ρ \\overline{u'v'}. The position of the maximum of the coherent shear stress is found to depend linearly on the wavelength, similar to two-dimensional free shear layers.

  2. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  3. Added value of Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the ultrasound assessment of breast lesions.

    Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura Maria; Dunant, Ariane; Vielh, Philippe; Mazouni, Chafika; Delaloge, Suzette; Dromain, Clarisse; Blidaru, Alexandru; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. Conventional B-mode and elasticity imaging were used to evaluate 110 breast lesions. Elastographic assessment of breast tissue abnormalities was done using a shear wave based technique, Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ), implemented on a Siemens Acuson S3000 ultrasound machine. Tissue mechanical properties were interpreted as two-dimensional qualitative and quantitative colour maps displaying relative shear wave velocity. Wave speed measurements in m/s were possible at operator defined regions of interest. The pathologic diagnosis was established on samples obtained by ultrasound guided core biopsy or fine needle aspiration. BIRADS based B-mode evaluation of the 48 benign and 62 malignant lesions achieved 92% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. Subsequently performed VTIQ elastography relying on visual interpretation of the colour overlay displaying relative shear wave velocities managed similar standalone diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity and 64.6% specificity. Lesion and surrounding tissue shear wave speed values were calculated and a significant difference was found between the benign and malignant populations (Mann-Whitney U test, pmasses, we reached overall levels of 92% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity. VTIQ qualitative and quantitative elastography has the potential to further characterise B-mode detected breast lesions, increasing specificity and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Max Denis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE for classification of breast masses.CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results.Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s. Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC.CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  5. Anomalously low strength of serpentinite sheared against granite and implications for creep on the Hayward and Calaveras Faults

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.; Ponce, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Serpentinized ophiolitic rocks are juxtaposed against quartzofeldspathic rocks at depth across considerable portions of the Hayward and Calaveras Faults. The marked compositional contrast between these rock types may contribute to fault creep that has been observed along these faults. To investigate this possibility, we are conducting hydrothermal shearing experiments to look for changes in frictional properties resulting from the shear of ultramafic rock juxtaposed against quartzose rock units. In this paper we report the first results in this effort: shear of bare-rock surfaces of serpentinite and granite, and shear of antigorite-serpentinite gouge between forcing blocks of granitic rock. All experiments were conducted at 250°C. Serpentinite sheared against granite at 50 MPa pore-fluid pressure is weaker than either rock type separately, and the weakening is significantly more pronounced at lower shearing rates. In contrast, serpentinite gouge sheared dry between granite blocks is as strong as the bare granite surface. We propose that the weakening is the result of a solution-transfer process involving the dissolution of serpentine minerals at grain-to-grain contacts. Dissolution of serpentine is enhanced by modifications to pore-fluid chemistry caused by interaction of the fluid with the quartz-bearing rocks. The compositional differences between serpentinized ultramafic rocks of the Coast Range Ophiolite and quartzofeldspathic rock units such as those of the Franciscan Complex may provide the mechanism for aseismic slip (creep) in the shallow crust along the Hayward, Calaveras, and other creeping faults in central and northern California.

  6. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng [Automotive Steel Research Institute, R and D Center, BaoShan Iron and Steel Co.,Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China)

    2013-12-16

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully.

  7. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui; Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully

  8. Roughness-dependent tribology effects on discontinuous shear thickening.

    Hsu, Chiao-Peng; Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Zanini, Michele; Spencer, Nicholas D; Isa, Lucio

    2018-05-15

    Surface roughness affects many properties of colloids, from depletion and capillary interactions to their dispersibility and use as emulsion stabilizers. It also impacts particle-particle frictional contacts, which have recently emerged as being responsible for the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions. Tribological properties of these contacts have been rarely experimentally accessed, especially for nonspherical particles. Here, we systematically tackle the effect of nanoscale surface roughness by producing a library of all-silica, raspberry-like colloids and linking their rheology to their tribology. Rougher surfaces lead to a significant anticipation of DST onset, in terms of both shear rate and solid loading. Strikingly, they also eliminate continuous thickening. DST is here due to the interlocking of asperities, which we have identified as "stick-slip" frictional contacts by measuring the sliding of the same particles via lateral force microscopy (LFM). Direct measurements of particle-particle friction therefore highlight the value of an engineering-tribology approach to tuning the thickening of suspensions. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. Gravitational convergence, shear deformation and rotation of magnetic forcelines

    Giantsos, Vangelis; Tsagas, Christos G.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the 'kinematics' of space-like congruences and apply them to a family of self-gravitating magnetic forcelines. Our aim is to investigate the convergence and the possible focusing of these lines, as well as their rotation and shear deformation. In so doing, we introduce a covariant 1+2 splitting of the 3-D space, parallel and orthogonal to the direction of the field lines. The convergence, or not, of the latter is monitored by a specific version of the Raychaudhuri equation, obtained after propagating the spatial divergence of the unit magnetic vector along its own direction. The resulting expression shows that, although the convergence of the magnetic forcelines is affected by the gravitational pull of all the other sources, it is unaffected by the field's own gravity, irrespective of how strong the latter is. This rather counterintuitive result is entirely due to the magnetic tension, namely to the negative pressure the field exerts parallel to its lines of force. In particular, the magnetic tension always cancels out the field's energy-density input to the Raychaudhuri equation, leaving the latter free of any direct magnetic-energy contribution. Similarly, the rotation and the shear deformation of the aforementioned forcelines are also unaffected by the magnetic input to the total gravitational energy. In a sense, the magnetic lines do not seem to 'feel' their own gravitational field no matter how strong the latter may be.

  10. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow

    Hsiao, Lilian C.; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F.; Larson, Ronald G.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  11. Utility of Shear Wave Elastography for Diagnosing Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Takahiro Fukuhara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI for diagnosing chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT and to verify the effect of fibrotic thyroid tissue on shear wave velocity (SWV. The subjects were 229 patients with 253 normal thyroid lobes (controls and 150 CAT lobes. The SWV for CAT (2.47 ± 0.57 m/s was significantly higher than that for controls (1.59 ± 0.41 m/s (P<0.001. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve for CAT was 0.899, and the SWV cut-off value was 1.96 m/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 87.4%, 78.7%, and 85.1%, respectively. Levels of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies and thyroid isthmus thickness were correlated with tissue stiffness in CAT. However, there was no correlation between levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and tissue stiffness. Quantitative SWE is useful for diagnosing CAT, and it is possible that SWE can be used to evaluate the degree of fibrosis in patients with CAT.

  12. Soil-root Shear Strength Properties of Some Slope Plants

    Normaniza Osman; Mohamad Nordin Abdullah; Faisal Haji Ali

    2011-01-01

    Rapid development in hilly areas in Malaysia has become a trend that put a stress to the sloping area. It reduces the factor of safety by reducing the resistant force and therefore leads to slope failure. Vegetation plays a big role in reinforcement functions via anchoring the soils and forms a binding network within the soil layer that tied the soil masses together. In this research, three plant species namely Acacia mangium, Dillenia suffruticosa and Leucaena leucocaphala were assessed in term of their soil-root shear strength properties. Our results showed that Acacia mangium had the highest shear strength values, 30.4 kPa and 50.2 kPa at loads 13.3 kPa and 24.3 kPa, respectively. Leucaena leucocaphala showed the highest in cohesion factor, which was almost double the value in those of Dillenia suffruticosa and Acacia mangium. The root profile analysis indicated Dillenia suffruticosa exhibited the highest values in both root length density and root volume, whilst Leucaena leucocaphala had the highest average of root diameter. (author)

  13. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow.

    Hsiao, Lilian C; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F; Larson, Ronald G; Solomon, Michael J

    2017-10-13

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  14. Shearing-induced asymmetry in entorhinal grid cells.

    Stensola, Tor; Stensola, Hanne; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I

    2015-02-12

    Grid cells are neurons with periodic spatial receptive fields (grids) that tile two-dimensional space in a hexagonal pattern. To provide useful information about location, grids must be stably anchored to an external reference frame. The mechanisms underlying this anchoring process have remained elusive. Here we show in differently sized familiar square enclosures that the axes of the grids are offset from the walls by an angle that minimizes symmetry with the borders of the environment. This rotational offset is invariably accompanied by an elliptic distortion of the grid pattern. Reversing the ellipticity analytically by a shearing transformation removes the angular offset. This, together with the near-absence of rotation in novel environments, suggests that the rotation emerges through non-coaxial strain as a function of experience. The systematic relationship between rotation and distortion of the grid pattern points to shear forces arising from anchoring to specific geometric reference points as key elements of the mechanism for alignment of grid patterns to the external world.

  15. Hydrostatic pressure and shear stress affect endothelin-1 and nitric oxide release by endothelial cells in bioreactors.

    Vozzi, Federico; Bianchi, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti; Domenici, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abundant experimental evidence demonstrates that endothelial cells are sensitive to flow; however, the effect of fluid pressure or pressure gradients that are used to drive viscous flow is not well understood. There are two principal physical forces exerted on the blood vessel wall by the passage of intra-luminal blood: pressure and shear. To analyze the effects of pressure and shear independently, these two stresses were applied to cultured cells in two different types of bioreactors: a pressure-controlled bioreactor and a laminar flow bioreactor, in which controlled levels of pressure or shear stress, respectively, can be generated. Using these bioreactor systems, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells were measured under various shear stress and pressure conditions. Compared to the controls, a decrease of ET-1 production by the cells cultured in both bioreactors was observed, whereas NO synthesis was up-regulated in cells under shear stress, but was not modulated by hydrostatic pressure. These results show that the two hemodynamic forces acting on blood vessels affect endothelial cell function in different ways, and that both should be considered when planning in vitro experiments in the presence of flow. Understanding the individual and synergic effects of the two forces could provide important insights into physiological and pathological processes involved in vascular remodeling and adaptation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Forward and inverse viscoelastic wave scattering by irregular inclusions for shear wave elastography.

    Bernard, Simon; Cloutier, Guy

    2017-10-01

    Inversion methods in shear wave elastography use simplifying assumptions to recover the mechanical properties of soft tissues. Consequently, these methods suffer from artifacts when applied to media containing strong stiffness contrasts, and do not provide a map of the viscosity. In this work, the shear wave field recorded inside and around an inclusion was used to estimate the viscoelastic properties of the inclusion and surrounding medium, based on an inverse problem approach assuming local homogeneity of both media. An efficient semi-analytical method was developed to model the scattering of an elastic wave by an irregular inclusion, based on a decomposition of the field by Bessel functions and on a decomposition of the boundaries as Fourier series. This model was validated against finite element modeling. Shear waves were experimentally induced by acoustic radiation force in soft tissue phantoms containing stiff and soft inclusions, and the displacement field was imaged at a high frame rate using plane wave imaging. A nonlinear least-squares algorithm compared the model to the experimental data and adjusted the geometrical and mechanical parameters. The estimated shear storage and loss moduli were in good agreement with reference measurements, as well as the estimated inclusion shape. This approach provides an accurate estimation of geometry and viscoelastic properties for a single inclusion in a homogeneous background in the context of radiation force elastography.

  17. An Experimental Investigation of an Airfoil Traversing Across a Shear Flow

    Hamedani, Borhan A.; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    2017-11-01

    While the aerodynamics of an airfoil in a uniform approach flow is well understood, less attention has been paid to airfoils in non-uniform flows. An aircraft encounters such flow, for example, during landing through the air wake of an aircraft carrier. The present work is focused on investigating the fundamental aerodynamics of airfoils in such an environment using canonical flow experiments. To generate a shear approach flow, a shaped honeycomb block is employed in a wind tunnel setup. Direct force measurements are performed on a NACA 0012 airfoil, with an aspect ratio of 1.8, as the airfoil traverses steadily across the shear region. Measurements are conducted at a chord Reynolds number Rec 75k, based on the mean approach stream velocity at the center of the shear zone, for a range of airfoil traverse velocities and angles of attack (0 - 12 degree). The results are compared to those obtained for the same airfoil when placed statically at different points along the traverse path inside the shear zone. The comparison enables examination of the applicability of quasi-steady analysis in computing the forces on the moving airfoil. This work is supported by ONR Grant Number N00014-16-1-2760.

  18. Laminar shear stress modulates endothelial luminal surface stiffness in a tissue-specific manner.

    Merna, Nick; Wong, Andrew K; Barahona, Victor; Llanos, Pierre; Kunar, Balvir; Palikuqi, Brisa; Ginsberg, Michael; Rafii, Shahin; Rabbany, Sina Y

    2018-04-17

    Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm 2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness. Lung endothelial cells aligned parallel to flow, while cardiac endothelial cells did not. This rapid alignment was accompanied by increased cell stiffness. The addition of arachidonic acid to cardiac endothelial cells increased alignment and stiffness in response to shear stress. Inhibition of arachidonic acid in lung endothelial cells and embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells prevented cellular alignment and decreased cell stiffness. Our findings suggest that increased endothelial luminal surface stiffness in microvascular cells may facilitate mechanotransduction and alignment in response to laminar shear stress. Furthermore, the arachidonic acid pathway may mediate this tissue-specific process. An improved understanding of this response will aid in the treatment of organ-specific vascular disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparison of direct shear and simple shear responses of municipal solid waste in USA

    Fei, Xunchang

    2017-10-25

    Although large-size simple shear (SS) testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) may arguably provide a more realistic estimate of the shear strength (τ ) of MSW than the most commonly used direct shear (DS) testing, a systematic comparison between the shear responses of MSW obtained from the two testing methods is lacking. In this study, a large-size shear device was used to test identical MSW specimens sampled in USA in DS and SS. Eight DS tests and 11 SS tests were conducted at vertical effective stresses of 50–500 kPa. The stress–displacement response of MSW in SS testing was hyperbolic and a maximum shear stress was reached, whereas a maximum shear stress was not reached in most DS tests. The τ, effective friction angle (ϕ ′) and cohesion (c ′) of MSW were obtained from DS and SS tests by using a displacement failure criterion of 40 mm. τ in SS testing was found to be equal to or lower than τ in DS testing with ratios of τ between 73 and 101%. SS testing resulted in higher ϕ ′ but lower c ′ than DS testing. The shear strength parameters were lower than those obtained in previous studies from DS tests at 55 mm displacement.

  20. Support force measures of midsized men in seated positions.

    Bush, Tamara Reid; Hubbard, Robert P

    2007-02-01

    Two areas not well researched in the field of seating mechanics are the distribution of normal and shear forces, and how those forces change with seat position. The availability of these data would be beneficial for the design and development of office, automotive and medical seats. To increase our knowledge in the area of seating mechanics, this study sought to measure the normal and shear loads applied to segmental supports in 12 seated positions, utilizing three inclination angles and four levels of seat back articulation that were associated with automotive driving positions. Force data from six regions, including the thorax, sacral region, buttocks, thighs, feet, and hand support were gathered using multi-axis load cells. The sample contained 23 midsized subjects with an average weight of 76.7 kg and a standard deviation of 4.2 kg, and an average height of 1745 mm with a standard deviation of 19 mm. Results were examined in terms of seat back inclination and in terms of torso articulation for relationships between seat positions and support forces. Using a repeated measures analysis, significant differences (p<0.05) were identified for normal forces relative to all inclination angles except for forces occurring at the hand support. Other significant differences were observed between normal forces behind the buttocks, pelvis, and feet for torso articulations. Significant differences in the shear forces occurred under the buttocks and posterior pelvis during changes in seat back inclination. Significant differences in shear forces were also identified for torso articulations. These data suggest that as seat back inclination or torso articulation change, significant shifts in force distribution occur.

  1. Piezoelectric energy harvesting through shear mode operation

    Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent candidates for use in energy harvesting applications due to their high electromechanical coupling properties that enable them to convert input mechanical energy into useful electric power. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the piezoelectric material is one of the most significant parameters affecting energy conversion and is dependent on the piezoelectric mode of operation. In most piezoceramics, the d 15 piezoelectric shear coefficient is the highest coefficient compared to the commonly used axial and transverse modes that utilize the d 33 and the d 31 piezoelectric strain coefficients. However, complicated electroding methods and challenges in evaluating the performance of energy harvesting devices operating in the shear mode have slowed research in this area. The shear deformation of a piezoelectric layer can be induced in a vibrating sandwich beam with a piezoelectric core. Here, a model based on Timoshenko beam theory is developed to predict the electric power output from a cantilever piezoelectric sandwich beam under base excitations. It is shown that the energy harvester operating in the shear mode is able to generate ∼50% more power compared to the transverse mode for a numerical case study. Reduced models of both shear and transverse energy harvesters are obtained to determine the optimal load resistance in the system and perform an efficiency comparison between two models with fixed and adaptive resistances. (paper)

  2. Evaluation of shear mounted elastomeric damper

    Zorzi, E.; Walton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Viton-70 elastomeric shear mounted damper was built and tested on a T-55 power turbine spool in the rotor's high speed balancing rig. This application of a shear mounted elastomeric damper demonstrated for the first time, the feasibility of using elastomers as the primary rotor damping source in production turbine engine hardware. The shear damper design was selected because it was compatible with actual gas turbine engine radial space constraints, could accommodate both the radial and axial thrust loads present in gas turbine engines, and was capable of controlled axial preload. The shear damper was interchangeable with the production T-55 power turbine roller bearing support so that a direct comparison between the shear damper and the production support structure could be made. Test results show that the Viton-70 elastomer damper operated successfully and provided excellent control of both synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations through all phases of testing up to the maximum rotor speed of 16,000 rpm. Excellent correlation between the predicted and experienced critical speeds, mode shapes and log decrements for the power turbine rotor and elastomer damper assembly was also achieved.

  3. Ballooning mode stabilization by moderate sheared rotation

    Hameiri, E.

    1996-01-01

    Sheared toroidal plasma rotation has been known for some time to have a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A recent calculation showed that a large flow shear, with dΩ/dq of the order of the Alfven toroidal frequency, can stabilize the ballooning modes. This latest result is, in fact, not so optimistic. For observed flows with Mach number of order unity one gets dΩ/dq smaller by a factor O(√β) from the required level (if the flow shear length is of the same order as the magnetic shear length). Moreover, the calculation does not take into account a possibly large transient growth of the mode amplitude due to its Floquet structures We show here that, in fact, there is a general tendency of the ballooning mode to stabilize as soon as the flow shear dΩ/dq exceeds the (O√β smaller) open-quotes slowclose quotes magnetosonic wave frequency. Our analysis is perturbative, where the small parameter is related to the small coupling between the slow and Alfven waves-as is the case in a high aspect-ratio tokamak. (In the perturbation it is important to take the Hamiltonian nature of the governing equations into account.) Moreover, our results apply to the relevant transient growth of the mode amplitude

  4. Delayed shear enhancement in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion

    Moran, M.D. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada); Pielke, R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion (MAD) is more complicated than smaller-scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays a much more important role on the mesoscale: horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and often dominated by vertical wind shear on these scales through the interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing. Just over 30 years ago, Pasquill suggested that this interaction need not be simultaneous and that the combination of differential horizontal advection with delayed or subsequent vertical mixing could maintain effective horizontal diffusion in spite of temporal or spatial reductions in boundary-layer turbulence intensity. This two-step mechanism has not received much attention since then, but a recent analysis of observations from and numerical simulations of two mesoscale tracer experiments suggests that delayed shear enhancement can play an important role in MAD. This paper presents an overview of this analysis, with particular emphasis on the influence of resolvable vertical shear on MAD in these two case studies and the contributions made by delayed shear enhancement.

  5. Examining shear processes during magma ascent

    Kendrick, J. E.; Wallace, P. A.; Coats, R.; Lamur, A.; Lavallée, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Lava dome eruptions are prone to rapid shifts from effusive to explosive behaviour which reflects the rheology of magma. Magma rheology is governed by composition, porosity and crystal content, which during ascent evolves to yield a rock-like, viscous suspension in the upper conduit. Geophysical monitoring, laboratory experiments and detailed field studies offer the opportunity to explore the complexities associated with the ascent and eruption of such magmas, which rest at a pivotal position with regard to the glass transition, allowing them to either flow or fracture. Crystal interaction during flow results in strain-partitioning and shear-thinning behaviour of the suspension. In a conduit, such characteristics favour the formation of localised shear zones as strain is concentrated along conduit margins, where magma can rupture and heal in repetitive cycles. Sheared magmas often record a history of deformation in the form of: grain size reduction; anisotropic permeable fluid pathways; mineral reactions; injection features; recrystallisation; and magnetic anomalies, providing a signature of the repetitive earthquakes often observed during lava dome eruptions. The repetitive fracture of magma at ( fixed) depth in the conduit and the fault-like products exhumed at spine surfaces indicate that the last hundreds of meters of ascent may be controlled by frictional slip. Experiments on a low-to-high velocity rotary shear apparatus indicate that shear stress on a slip plane is highly velocity dependent, and here we examine how this influences magma ascent and its characteristic geophysical signals.

  6. Influence of the potential well on the breakage rate of colloidal aggregates in simple shear and uniaxial extensional flows.

    Ren, Zhiqiang; Harshe, Yogesh M; Lattuada, Marco

    2015-06-02

    In this work we build on our previous paper (Harshe, Y. M.; Lattuada, M. Langmuir 2012, 28, 283-292) and compute the breakage rate of colloidal aggregates under the effect of shear forces by means of Stokesian dynamics simulations. A library of clusters made of identical spherical particles covering a broad range of masses and fractal dimension values (from 1.8 to 3.0) was generated by means of a combination of several Monte Carlo methods. DLVO theory has been used to describe the interparticle interactions, and contact forces have been introduced by means of the discrete element method. The aggregate breakage process was investigated by exposing them to well-defined shear forces, generated under both simple shear and uniaxial extensional flow conditions, and by recording the time required to reach the first breakage event. It has been found that the breakage rate of clusters was controlled by the potential well between particles as described by DLVO theory. A semiempirical Arrhenius-type exponential equation that relates the potential well to the breakage rate has been used to fit the simulation results. The dependence of the breakage process on the radius of gyration, on the external shear strength, and on the fractal dimension has been obtained, providing a very general relationship for the breakage rate of clusters. It was also found that the fragment mass distribution is insensitive to the presence of electrostatic repulsive interactions. We also clarify the physical reason for the large difference in the breakage rate of clusters between simple shear and the uniaxial extensional flow using a criterion based on the energy dissipation rate. Finally, in order to answer the question of the minimum cluster size that can break under simple shear conditions, a critical rotation number has been introduced, expressing the maximum number of rotations that a cluster exposed to simple shear could sustain before breakage.

  7. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Han, Xianglong; Liu, Xiaolin; Bai, Ding; Meng, Yao; Huang, Lan

    2008-11-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  8. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Han Xianglong; Liu Xiaolin; Bai Ding; Meng Yao; Huang Lan

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure

  9. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Han Xianglong [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu Xiaolin [Department of Orthodontics, Stomatology Hospital, Dalian University, Dalian 116021 (China); Bai Ding [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: baiding88@hotmail.com; Meng Yao; Huang Lan [Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2008-11-15

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  10. Evaluation of mechanical properties of construction joint between new and old concrete under combined tensile and shear stresses; Shinkyu concrete no uchitsugime no incho sendan oryokuka no kyodo tokusei no hyoka

    Ujiike, I. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshida, N. [Shikoku Railway Company, Kagawa (Japan); Morishita, S. [Oriental Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-15

    The objective of this study is to examine the mechanical properties of construction joints between existing and newly placed concrete under combined tensile and shear stresses. Loading tests are conducted by using push off type specimens. The joint surface of existing concrete is roughened by shot blast and a half of the specimen is reconstructed by new concrete using ultra rapid hardening cement. The insufficient treatment of joint surface of the old concrete causes the lowering of tensile rigidity, while shearing rigidity is almost the same as that of the other specimen. The shearing and tensile rigidities of non jointed concrete and concrete shot blasted properly are not dependent on the combination of shearing and tensile forces. For the jointed concrete shot blasted insufficiently, the shearing rigidity decreases with the increase of tensile force and the tensile digidity also becomes lower by the action of shearing force. Both the tensile strength and shearing strength of jointed concrete become small compared to those of non jointed concrete. The ratio of reduction in tensile strength is larger than that in shearing strength. The strength of jointed concrete under combined tensile and shear stresses can be evaluated by Mohr`s failure envelope expressed by parabola tangent to both tensile strength circle and compressive strength circle. 7 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Shear and extensional properties of kefiran.

    Piermaría, Judith; Bengoechea, Carlos; Abraham, Analía Graciela; Guerrero, Antonio

    2016-11-05

    Kefiran is a neutral polysaccharide constituted by glucose and galactose produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. It is included into kefir grains and has several health promoting properties. In the present work, shear and extensional properties of different kefiran aqueous dispersions (0.5, 1 and 2% wt.) were assessed and compared to other neutral gums commonly used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutics industries (methylcellulose, locust bean gum and guar gum). Kefiran showed shear flow characteristics similar to that displayed by other representative neutral gums, although it always yielded lower viscosities at a given concentration. For each gum system it was possible to find a correlation between dynamic and steady shear properties by a master curve including both the apparent and complex viscosities. When studying extensional properties of selected gums at 2% wt. by means of a capillary break-up rheometer, kefiran solutions did not show important extensional properties, displaying a behaviour close the Newtonian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On transformation shear of precipitated zirconia particles

    Zhang, J.M.; Lam, K.Y.

    1993-01-01

    A model is proposed to investigate the transformation shear of the precipitated zirconia particles which undergo a stress-induced lattice transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic symmetry. Kinematically admissible twinning planes and the corresponding twinning elements are determined according to the continuum theory of dispacive phase transformation. It is postulated that only one twinning mode prevails in each transformed particle and that the minimization of elastic strain energy change dictates the morphology of the transformed variants. The transformation shear is determined by the twinning mode and the volume fraction of the corresponding variant. Numerical calculations show that each of the six kinematically admissible twinning modes may be kinematically favorable and therefore operate in constrained particle. The actual transformation shear in a transformed particle is shown to be dependent on the transformation stress, on the particle shape as well as on the lattice orientation relative to the principal axes of the ellipsoidal particle

  13. On shear rheology of gel propellants

    Rahimi, Shai; Peretz, Arie [RAFAEL, MANOR Propulsion and Explosive Systems Division, Haifa (Israel); Natan, Benveniste [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2007-04-15

    Selected fuel, oxidizer and simulant gels were prepared and rheologically characterized using a rotational rheometer. For fuel gelation both organic and inorganic gellants were utilized, whereas oxidizers and simulants were gelled with addition of silica and polysaccharides, respectively. The generalized Herschel-Bulkley constitutive model was found to most adequately represent the gels studied. Hydrazine-based fuels, gelled with polysaccharides, were characterized as shear-thinning pseudoplastic fluids with low shear yield stress, whereas inhibited red-fuming nitric acid (IRFNA) and hydrogen peroxide oxidizers, gelled with silica, were characterized as yield thixotropic fluids with significant shear yield stress. Creep tests were conducted on two rheological types of gels with different gellant content and the results were fitted by Burgers-Kelvin viscoelastic constitutive model. The effect of temperature on the rheological properties of gel propellant simulants was also investigated. A general rheological classification of gel propellants and simulants is proposed. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Development of Flexible Extremities Protection utilizing Shear Thickening Fluid/Fabric Composites

    2012-01-19

    The influence of Interparticle Interactions and Hydrodynamic Forces on Shear Thickening in Concentrated Colloidal Dispersions and Slurries 10...Armor Using Fumed SiO2 Nanoparticles Dispersed into Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) through Sonic Cavitation , NSTI-Nanotech 2006. 2006/05/07 00:00:00...for a wide variety of suspensions such as clay–water [17], calcium carbonate–water [18], polystyrene spheres in silicon oil [19], iron particles in

  15. Strain hardening in startup shear of long-chain branched polymer solutions.

    Liu, Gengxin; Cheng, Shiwang; Lee, Hyojoon; Ma, Hongwei; Xu, Hongde; Chang, Taihyun; Quirk, Roderic P; Wang, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-09

    We show for the first time that entangled polymeric liquids containing long-chain branching can exhibit strain hardening upon startup shear. As the significant long-chain branching impedes chain disentanglement, Gaussian coils between entanglements can deform to reach the finite extensibility limit where the intrachain retraction force exceeds the value expected from the usual conformational entropy loss evaluated based on Gaussian chain statistics. The phenomenon is expected to lead to further theoretical understanding.

  16. Combined shearing interferometer and hartmann wavefront sensor

    Hutchin, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive wavefront sensor combining attributes of both a Hartmann type of wavefront sensor and an AC shearing interferometer type of wavefront sensor. An incident wavefront, the slope of which is to be detected, is focussed to first and second focal points at which first and second diffraction gratings are positioned to shear and modulate the wavefront, which then diverges therefrom. The diffraction patterns of the first and second gratings are positioned substantially orthogonal to each other to shear the wavefront in two directions to produce two dimensional wavefront slope data for the AC shearing interferometer portion of the wavefront sensor. First and second dividing optical systems are positioned in the two diverging wavefronts to divide the sheared wavefront into an array of subapertures and also to focus the wavefront in each subaperture to a focal point. A quadrant detector is provided for each subaperture to detect the position of the focal point therein, which provides a first indication, in the manner of a Hartmann wavefront sensor, of the local wavefront slope in each subaperture. The total radiation in each subaperture, as modulated by the diffraction grating, is also detected by the quadrant detector which produces a modulated output signal representative thereof, the phase of which relative to modulation by the diffraction grating provides a second indication of the local wavefront slope in each subaperture, in the manner of an AC shearing interferometer wavefront sensor. The data from both types of sensors is then combined by long term averaging thereof to provide an extremely sensitive wavefront sensor

  17. Friction of polymer hydrogels studied by resonance shear measurements.

    Ren, Huai-Yin; Mizukami, Masashi; Tanabe, Tadao; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-08-21

    The friction between an elastomer and a hard surface typically has two contributors, i.e., the interfacial and deformation components. The friction of viscoelastic hydrogel materials has been extensively studied between planar gel and planar substrate surfaces from the viewpoint of an interfacial interaction. However, the geometry of the contact in practical applications is much more complex. The contribution of geometric and elastic deformation terms of a gel to friction could not be neglected. In this study, we used resonance shear measurements (RSMs) for characterizing the shear response of a glass sphere on a flat polymer hydrogel, a double network (DN) gel of 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and N,N-dimethylacrylamide. The contact mechanics conformed to the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory. The observed resonance curves exhibited rather sharp peaks when the DN gel and the silica sphere were brought into contact, and their intensity and frequency increased with the increase in the normal load. We proposed a simple physical model of the shearing system, and the elastic (k2) and viscous (b2) parameters of the interface between a silica sphere and a flat DN gel were obtained. The friction force from elastic deformation and viscous dissipation terms was then estimated using the obtained parameters. It was revealed that the elastic parameter (k2) increased up to 1780 N m(-1) at a normal load of 524 mN, while the viscous parameter (b2) was zero or quite low (friction force between a flat DN gel and a silica sphere in air was dominated by the elastic term due to the local deformation by contact with the silica sphere. By adding water, the elastic parameter (k2) remained the same, while the viscous parameter (b2) slightly increased. However, the viscous term fviscous was still much smaller than felastic. To the best of our knowledge, this study was the first quantitative estimation of the contribution of the elastic deformation term to the friction in the case

  18. The effects of buoyancy on shear-induced melt bands in a compacting porous medium

    Butler, S. L.

    2009-03-01

    It has recently been shown [Holtzman, B., Groebner, N., Zimmerman, M., Ginsberg, S., Kohlstedt, D., 2003. Stress-driven melt segregation in partially molten rocks. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, Art. No. 8607; Holtzman, B.K., Kohlstedt, D.L., 2007. Stress-driven melt segregation and strain partitioning in partially molten rocks: effects of stress and strain. J. Petrol. 48, 2379-2406] that when partially molten rock is subjected to simple shear, bands of high and low porosity are formed at a particular angle to the direction of instantaneous maximum extension. These have been modeled numerically and it has been speculated that high porosity bands may form an interconnected network with a bulk, effective permeability that is enhanced in a direction parallel to the bands. As a result, the bands may act to focus mantle melt towards the axis of mid-ocean ridges [Katz, R.F., Spiegelman, M., Holtzman, B., 2006. The dynamics of melt and shear localization in partially molten aggregates. Nature 442, 676-679]. In this contribution, we examine the combined effects of buoyancy and matrix shear on a deforming porous layer. The linear theory of Spiegelman [Spiegelman, M., 1993. Flow in deformable porous media. Part 1. Simple analysis. J. Fluid Mech. 247, 17-38; Spiegelman, M., 2003. Linear analysis of melt band formation by simple shear. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, doi:10.1029/2002GC000499, Article 8615] and Katz et al. [Katz, R.F., Spiegelman, M., Holtzman, B., 2006. The dynamics of melt and shear localization in partially molten aggregates. Nature 442, 676-679] is generalized to include both the effects of buoyancy and matrix shear on a deformable porous layer with strain-rate dependent rheology. The predictions of linear theory are compared with the early time evolution of our 2D numerical model and they are found to be in excellent agreement. For conditions similar to the upper mantle, buoyancy forces can be similar to or much greater than matrix shear-induced forces. The

  19. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    Leahy, Brian D.

    2013-05-29

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle\\'s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  20. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    Cornelius, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat....... Codes for designing prefabricated reinforced components of aircrete structures have adopted these recently developed approaches.......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  1. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Burchardt, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other. Such ...... given credit for and may be responsible for some reverse kinematics reported in shear zones....... or wakes, elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones or wakes. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators usually display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either side of the shear zone or wake reported here show reverse...... kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit shear zones with opposed senses of movement across their center-lines or -planes.We have used field observations and results from analytical and numerical models to suggest that examples of wakes are the transit paths that develop where denser blocks sink within salt...

  2. Modeling mechanical properties of a shear thickening fluid damper based on phase transition theory

    Wei, Minghai; Lin, Kun; Guo, Qian

    2018-03-01

    Shear thickening fluids (STFs) are highly concentrated colloidal suspensions consisting of monodisperse nano-particles suspended in a carrying fluid, and have the capacity to display both flowable and rigid behaviors, when subjected to sudden stimuli. In that process, the external energy that acts on an STF can be dissipated quickly. The aim of this study is to present a dynamic model of a damper filled with STF that can be directly used in control engineering fields. To this end, shear stress during phase transition of the STF material is chosen as an internal variable. A non-convex function with bifurcation behavior is used to describe the phase transitioning of STF by determining the relationship between the behavioral characteristics of the microscopic phase and macroscopic damping force. This model is able to predict force-velocity and force-displacement relationships as functions of the loading frequency. Efficacy of the model is demonstrated via comparison with experimental results from previous studies. In addition, the results confirm the hypothesis regarding the occurrence of STF phase transitioning when subject to shear stress.

  3. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure) Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Ohashi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure) and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure) ratio (SPR) was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH) as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure), concretely, peak values (SPR-p) and time integral values (SPR-i). The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i. PMID:28050567

  4. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Ayumi Amemiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure ratio (SPR was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure, concretely, peak values (SPR-p and time integral values (SPR-i. The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i.

  5. Shear thinning and shear thickening of a confined suspension of vesicles

    Nait Ouhra, A.; Farutin, A.; Aouane, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Misbah, C.

    2018-01-01

    Widely regarded as an interesting model system for studying flow properties of blood, vesicles are closed membranes of phospholipids that mimic the cytoplasmic membranes of red blood cells. In this study we analyze the rheology of a suspension of vesicles in a confined geometry: the suspension, bound by two planar rigid walls on each side, is subject to a shear flow. Flow properties are then analyzed as a function of shear rate γ ˙, the concentration of the suspension ϕ , and the viscosity contrast λ =ηin/ηout , where ηin and ηout are the fluid viscosities of the inner and outer fluids, respectively. We find that the apparent (or effective viscosity) of the suspension exhibits both shear thinning (decreasing viscosity with shear rate) or shear thickening (increasing viscosity with shear rate) in the same concentration range. The shear thinning or thickening behaviors appear as subtle phenomena, dependant on viscosity contrast λ . We provide physical arguments on the origins of these behaviors.

  6. Effect of Boundary Condition on the Shear Behaviour of Rock Joints in the Direct Shear Test

    Bahaaddini, M.

    2017-05-01

    The common method for determination of the mechanical properties of the rock joints is the direct shear test. This paper aims to study the effect of boundary condition on the results of direct shear tests. Experimental studies undertaken in this research showed that the peak shear strength is mostly overestimated. This problem is more pronounced for steep asperities and under high normal stresses. Investigation of the failure mode of these samples showed that tensile cracks are generated at the boundary of sample close to the specimen holders and propagated inside the intact materials. In order to discover the reason of observed failure mechanism in experiments, the direct shear test was simulated using PFC2D. Results of numerical models showed that the gap zone size between the upper and lower specimen holders has a significant effect on the shear mechanism. For the high gap size, stresses concentrate at the vicinity of the tips of specimen holders and result in generation and propagation of tensile cracks inside the intact material. However, by reducing the gap size, stresses are concentrated on asperities, and damage of specimen at its boundary is not observed. Results of this paper show that understanding the shear mechanism of rock joints is an essential step prior to interpreting the results of direct shear tests.

  7. Design and implementation of a shearing apparatus for the experimental study of shear displacement in rocks

    Moore, Johnathan; Crandall, Dustin; Gill, Magdalena; Brown, Sarah; Tennant, Bryan

    2018-04-01

    Fluid flow in the subsurface is not well understood in the context of "impermeable" geologic media. This is especially true of formations that have undergone significant stress fluctuations due to injection or withdrawal of fluids that alters the localized pressure regime. When the pressure regime is altered, these formations, which are often already fractured, move via shear to reduce the imbalance in the stress state. While this process is known to happen, the evolution of these fractures and their effects on fluid transport are still relatively unknown. Numerous simulation and several experimental studies have been performed that characterize the relationship between shearing and permeability in fractures; while many of these studies utilize measurements of fluid flow or the starting and ending geometries of the fracture to characterize shear, they do not characterize the intermediate stages during shear. We present an experimental apparatus based on slight modifications to a commonly available Hassler core holder that allows for shearing of rocks, while measuring the hydraulic and mechanical changes to geomaterials during intermediate steps. The core holder modification employs the use of semi-circular end caps and structural supports for the confining membrane that allow for free movement of the sheared material while preventing membrane collapse. By integrating this modified core holder with a computed tomography scanner, we show a new methodology for understanding the interdependent behavior between fracture structure and flow properties during intermediate steps in shearing. We include a case study of this device function which is shown here through shearing of a fractured shale core and simultaneous observation of the mechanical changes and evolution of the hydraulic properties during shearing.

  8. The effect of dry shear aligning of nanotube thin films on the photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells.

    Stolz, Benedikt W; Tune, Daniel D; Flavel, Benjamin S

    2016-01-01

    Recent results in the field of carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells have suggested that the best performance is obtained when the nanotube film provides good coverage of the silicon surface and when the nanotubes in the film are aligned parallel to the surface. The recently developed process of dry shear aligning - in which shear force is applied to the surface of carbon nanotube thin films in the dry state, has been shown to yield nanotube films that are very flat and in which the surface nanotubes are very well aligned in the direction of shear. It is thus reasonable to expect that nanotube films subjected to dry shear aligning should outperform otherwise identical films formed by other processes. In this work, the fabrication and characterisation of carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells using such films is reported, and the photovoltaic performance of devices produced with and without dry shear aligning is compared.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF INNER SHEAR RESISTANCE OF GEOGRIDS BUILT UNDER GRANULAR PROTECTION LAYERS AND RAILWAY BALLAST

    Sz. Fischer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  10. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    Koyi, H.; Schmeling, H.; Burchardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    , elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators ideally display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either sides of the shear zone reported here show reverse kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit...... by progressive extension and (perhaps) where slabs of subducted oceanic lithosphere delaminate from the continental crust and sink into the asthenosphere. We also argue that such shear zones may be more common than they have been given the credit for and may be responsible for some of the kinematic reversals...

  11. Lightweight concrete modification factor for shear friction.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes the results of a study initiated to examine the influence of concrete unit weight on the direct shear transfer across an interface of concretes cast at different times. This type of interface is common with structural precast co...

  12. Falling balls and simple shearing strain

    Brun, J L; Pacheco, A F

    2006-01-01

    The problem of particles falling under gravity allows us to relate Hamiltonian mechanics to such different subjects as elasticity and fluid mechanics. It is with this in mind that mechanics gives us the opportunity of introducing, in a rather simple and unusual form, some concepts such as vorticity, the incompressibility condition or simple shear strain to physics students at the undergraduate level

  13. Shear Adhesion of Tapered Nanopillar Arrays.

    Cho, Younghyun; Minsky, Helen K; Jiang, Yijie; Yin, Kaiyang; Turner, Kevin T; Yang, Shu

    2018-04-04

    Tapered nanopillars with various cross sections, including cone-shaped, stepwise, and pencil-like structures (300 nm in diameter at the base of the pillars and 1.1 μm in height), are prepared from epoxy resin templated by nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The effect of pillar geometry on the shear adhesion behavior of these nanopillar arrays is investigated via sliding experiments in a nanoindentation system. In a previous study of arrays with the same geometry, it was shown that cone-shaped nanopillars exhibit the highest adhesion under normal loading while stepwise and pencil-like nanopillars exhibit lower normal adhesion strength due to significant deformation of the pillars that occurs with increasing indentation depth. Contrary to the previous studies, here, we show that pencil-like nanopillars exhibit the highest shear adhesion strength at all indentation depths among three types of nanopillar arrays and that the shear adhesion increases with greater indentation depth due to the higher bending stiffness and closer packing of the pencil-like nanopillar array. Finite element simulations are used to elucidate the deformation of the pillars during the sliding experiments and agree with the nanoindentation-based sliding measurements. The experiments and finite element simulations together demonstrate that the shape of the nanopillars plays a key role in shear adhesion and that the mechanism is quite different from that of adhesion under normal loading.

  14. A Shear Banding Model for Penetration Calculations

    2000-04-01

    mechanism of strength reduction to zero within a shear band in three different steels, includ- ing AISI 4340 with RHC 44, which is reasonably similar to RHA...TECH LIB CHINA LAKE CA 93555-6001 CDR NAVAL SUR WAR CTR C S COFFEY PPARK FZERILLI CODE 4140 R K GARRET JR JMCKIRGAN TECH LIB 101 STRAUSS AVE

  15. Prediction of turbulent shear layers in turbomachines

    Bradshaw, P.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of turbulent shear layers in turbomachines are compared with the turbulent boundary layers on airfoils. Seven different aspects are examined. The limits of boundary layer theory are investigated. Boundary layer prediction methods are applied to analysis of the flow in turbomachines.

  16. Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1998-01-01

    time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  17. Genome-wide association of meat quality traits and tenderness in swine

    Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts o...

  18. Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Ione Helena Vieira Portella Brunharo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10, where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill micro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. RESULTS: Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27±2.78; burs 9.26±3.01; stone 7.95±3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04±3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82±1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54±2.87, and without treatment 2.75±1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83, burs (0.98 and stone drilling (0.46. CONCLUSION: The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

  19. Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Brunharo, Ione Helena Vieira Portella; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; de Miranda, Mauro Sayão; Artese, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10), where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill micro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane) was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27 ± 2.78; burs 9.26 ± 3.01; stone 7.95 ± 3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04 ± 3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82 ± 1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54 ± 2.87, and without treatment 2.75 ± 1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83), burs (0.98) and stone drilling (0.46). The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

  20. Shear localization and microstructure in coarse grained beta titanium alloy

    Wang, Bingfeng, E-mail: biw009@ucsd.edu [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, United States of America (United States); Key Lab of Nonferrous Materials, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Wang, Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Li, Zezhou [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, United States of America (United States); Ma, Rui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Zhao, Shiteng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, United States of America (United States); Xie, Fangyu [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Adiabatic shear localization plays an important role in the deformation and failure of the coarse grained beta titanium alloy Ti-5 Al-5 Mo-5 V-1 Cr-1 Fe with grain size about 1 mm at high strain rate deformation. Hat shaped specimens with different nominal shear strains are used to induce the formation of shear bands under the controlled shock-loading experiments. The true stress in the specimens can reach about 1040 MPa where the strain is about 1.83. The whole shear localization process lasts about 35 μs. The microstructures within the shear band are investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy / electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the width of the shear bands decreases with increasing nominal shear strain, and the grains in the transition region near the shear band are elongated along the shear band, and the core of the shear band consists of the ultrafine deformed grains with width of 0.1 μm and heavy dislocations. With the aims of accommodating the imposed shear strain and maintaining neighboring grain compatibility, the grain subdivision continues to take place within the band. A fiber texture is formed in the core of the shear band. The calculated temperature rise in the shear band can reach about 722 K. Dynamic recovery is responsible for the formation of the microstructure in coarse grained beta titanium alloy.

  1. Cargo Release from Polymeric Vesicles under Shear

    Yingying Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the release of cargo from polymeric nano-carriers under shear. Vesicles formed by two star block polymers— A 12 B 6 C 2 ( A B C and A 12 B 6 A 2 ( A B A —and one linear block copolymer— A 14 B 6 ( A B , are investigated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations. A - and C -blocks are solvophobic and B -block is solvophilic. The three polymers form vesicles of different structures. The vesicles are subjected to shear both in bulk and between solvophobic walls. In bulk shear, the mechanisms of cargo release are similar for all vesicles, with cargo travelling through vesicle membrane with no preferential release location. When sheared between walls, high cargo release rate is only observed with A B C vesicle after it touches the wall. For A B C vesicle, the critical condition for high cargo release rate is the formation of wall-polymersome interface after which the effect of shear rate in promoting cargo release is secondary. High release rate is achieved by the formation of solvophilic pathway allowing cargo to travel from the vesicle cavity to the vesicle exterior. The results in this paper show that well controlled target cargo release using polymersomes can be achieved with polymers of suitable design and can potentially be very useful for engineering applications. As an example, polymersomes can be used as carriers for surface active friction reducing additives which are only released at rubbing surfaces where the additives are needed most.

  2. Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

    Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

  3. Thermal Transport and Drag Force in Improved Holographic QCD

    Gürsoy, Umut; Michalogiorgakis, Georgios; Nitti, Francesco; 10.1088

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the bulk viscosity, drag force and jet quenching parameter in Improved Holographic QCD. We find that the bulk viscosity rises near the phase transition but does not exceed the shear viscosity. The drag force shows the effects of asymptotic freedom both as a function of velocity and temperature. It indicates diffusion times of heavy quarks in rough agreement with data. The jet quenching parameter values computed via the light-like Wilson loop are in the lower range suggested by data.

  4. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  5. Coriolis Force

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  6. Invisible force

    Panek, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Astronomers have compiled evidence that what we always thought of as the actual universe- all the planets, stars, galaxies and matter in space -represents a mere 4% of what's out there. The rest is dark: 23% is called dark matter, 73% dark energy. Scientists have ideas about what dark matter is, but hardly any understanding about dark energy. This has led to rethinking traditional physics and cosmology. Assuming the existence of dark matter and that the law of gravitation is universal, two teams of astrophysicists, from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Australian National University, analysed the universe's growth and to their surprise both concluded that the universe expansion is not slowing but speeding up. If the dominant force of evolution isn't gravity what is it?

  7. Shear stress induces cell apoptosis via a c-Src-phospholipase D-mTOR signaling pathway in cultured podocytes

    Huang, Chunfa, E-mail: chunfa.huang@case.edu [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Bruggeman, Leslie A. [Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hydo, Lindsey M. [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Miller, R. Tyler [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    The glomerular capillary wall, composed of endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the podocytes, is continually subjected to hemodynamic force arising from tractional stress due to blood pressure and shear stress due to blood flow. Exposure of glomeruli to abnormal hemodynamic force such as hyperfiltration is associated with glomerular injury and progressive renal disease, and the conversion of mechanical stimuli to chemical signals in the regulation of the process is poorly understood in podocytes. By examining DNA fragmentation, apoptotic nuclear changes and cytochrome c release, we found that shear stress induced cell apoptosis in cultured podocytes. Meanwhile, podocytes exposed to shear stress also stimulated c-Src phosphorylation, phospholipase D (PLD) activation and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Using the antibodies against c-Src, PLD{sub 1}, and PLD{sub 2} to perform reciprocal co-immunoprecipitations and in vitro PLD activity assay, our data indicated that c-Src interacted with and activated PLD{sub 1} but not PLD{sub 2}. The inhibition of shear stress-induced c-Src phosphorylation by PP{sub 2} (a specific inhibitor of c-Src kinase) resulted in reduced PLD activity. Phosphatidic acid, produced by shear stress-induced PLD activation, stimulated mTOR signaling, and caused podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis.

  8. Comminution of solids caused by kinetic energy of high shear strain rate, with implications for impact, shock, and shale fracturing.

    Bazant, Zdenek P; Caner, Ferhun C

    2013-11-26

    Although there exists a vast literature on the dynamic comminution or fragmentation of rocks, concrete, metals, and ceramics, none of the known models suffices for macroscopic dynamic finite element analysis. This paper outlines the basic idea of the macroscopic model. Unlike static fracture, in which the driving force is the release of strain energy, here the essential idea is that the driving force of comminution under high-rate compression is the release of the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate. The density of this energy at strain rates >1,000/s is found to exceed the maximum possible strain energy density by orders of magnitude, making the strain energy irrelevant. It is shown that particle size is proportional to the -2/3 power of the shear strain rate and the 2/3 power of the interface fracture energy or interface shear stress, and that the comminution process is macroscopically equivalent to an apparent shear viscosity that is proportional (at constant interface stress) to the -1/3 power of this rate. A dimensionless indicator of the comminution intensity is formulated. The theory was inspired by noting that the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate plays a role analogous to the local kinetic energy of eddies in turbulent flow.

  9. Forces involved in bacterial adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    Boks, N.P.; Norde, W.; Meil, H.C.; Busscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, the hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent bacterial adhesion (F-prev) and to detach adhering bacteria (F-det) were evaluated for hydrophilic glass, hydrophobic, dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS)-coated glass and six different bacterial strains, in order to test the

  10. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples

    Razani, Marjan; Luk, Timothy W.H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Siegler, Peter; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kolios, Michael C.; Yang, Victor X.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) in an inhomogeneous phantom and carotid artery samples based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs duration, applying acoustic radiation force (ARF) to inhomogeneous phantoms and carotid artery samples, synchronized with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) imaging system. The phantoms were composed of gelatin and titanium dioxide whereas the carotid artery samples were embedded in gel. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, detected the microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms and samples of different stiffness. We present the technique for calculating tissue mechanical properties by propagating shear waves in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and carotid artery samples using the ARF of an ultrasound transducer, and measuring the shear wave speed and its associated properties in the different layers with OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo studies of mechanical property measurements of biological tissues such as vascular tissues, where normal and pathological structures may exhibit significant contrast in the shear modulus. PMID:24688822

  11. Naesliden Project: direct shear tests of filled and unfilled joints

    Ludvig, B.

    1980-05-15

    Joints from the Naesliden mine have been tested in a small field shear box and in a large shear rig. The large shear rig is described in detail, and its ability to test joints with an area of 600 mc/sup 2/ at a maximum normal stress of up to 20 MPa is emphasized. The stiffness and shear strength of the discontinuities in the Naesliden mine is presented. The values estimated at direct shear tests are compared with results from in situ measurements and tests on drillcores. The results show that the in situ measurements give lower values for the shear resistance than the direct shear tests. Estimation of the normal stiffness for joints in drill cores gave much higher stiffness than the estimations in the shear rig.

  12. Shear stress and interleukin-8 (IL-8) on the proliferation ...

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow, are also found ... into tissues and neovascularization, the cells are exposed to fluid shear stress. ... Both shear stress and IL-8 can influence the process of EPCs repair in wound.

  13. Shear Wave Generation by Decoupled and Partially Coupled Explosions

    Stevens, Jeffry L; Xu, Heming; Baker, G. E

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the sources of shear wave generation by decoupled and partially coupled explosions, and the differences in shear wave generation between tamped and decoupled explosions...

  14. Evaluation of size effect on shear strength of reinforced concrete ...

    of the longitudinal and the web reinforcement, shear span-to-depth ratio and the ... A simple equation for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete deep ..... AASHTO 2007 LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, American Association of ...

  15. Stress relaxation of shear in metals during shock loading

    Glazyrin, V.P.; Platova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Constructed determining equation, taking into account stress relaxation of shear, was used to calculate the evolution of plane shock waves of primary and secondary compression in metals. Values of shear stress and viscosity coefficient were

  16. Heat Treatment of Al 7075 for Ejection Seat Shear Wire

    Wong, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    .... Current lots of Al 6061 could not duplicate the double shear breaking load values and so it was attempted to achieve the required double shear breaking load in the Al 7075 alloy with a stable microstructure...

  17. To determine the slow shearing rate for consolidation drained shear box tests

    Jamalludin, Damanhuri; Ahmad, Azura; Nordin, Mohd Mustaqim Mohd; Hashim, Mohamad Zain; Ibrahim, Anas; Ahmad, Fauziah

    2017-08-01

    Slope failures always occur in Malaysia especially during the rainy seasons. They cause damage to properties and fatalities. In this study, a total of 24 one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out on soil samples taken from 16 slope failures in Penang Island and in Baling, Kedah. The slope failures in Penang Island are within the granitic residual soil while in Baling, Kedah they are situated within the sedimentary residual soil. Most of the disturbed soil samples were taken at 100mm depth from the existing soil surface while some soil samples were also taken at 400, 700 and 1000mm depths from the existing soil surface. They were immediately placed in 2 layers of plastic bag to prevent moisture loss. Field bulk density tests were also carried out at all the locations where soil samples were taken. The field bulk density results were later used to re-compact the soil samples for the consolidation tests. The objective of the research is to determine the slow shearing rate to be used in consolidated drained shear box for residual soils taken from slope failures so that the effective shear strength parameters can be determined. One dimensional consolidation tests were used to determine the slow shearing rate. The slow shearing rate found in this study to be used in the consolidated drained shear box tests especially for Northern Malaysian residual soils was 0.286mm/minute.

  18. Microstructural evolution of a model, shear-banding micellar solution during shear startup and cessation.

    López-Barrón, Carlos R; Gurnon, A Kate; Eberle, Aaron P R; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J

    2014-04-01

    We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations.

  19. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P. [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Searles, Charles D., E-mail: csearle@emory.edu [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1670 Clarimont Road, Decatur, GA 30033 (United States)

    2010-03-19

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm{sup 2}) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). The miRNA with the greatest change was miR-21; it was increased 5.2-fold (p = 0.002) in USS-treated versus control cells. Western analysis demonstrated that PTEN, a known target of miR-21, was downregulated in HUVECs exposed to USS or transfected with pre-miR-21. Importantly, HUVECs overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}}) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO{sup {center_dot}} pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  20. Hydrodynamic of a deformed bubble in linear shear flow; Hydrodynamique d'une bulle deformee dans un ecoulement cisaille

    Adoua, S.R

    2007-07-15

    This work is devoted to the study of an oblate spheroidal bubble of prescribed shape set fixed in a linear shear flow using direct numerical simulation. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates using a finite volume method. The bubble response is studied over a wide range of the aspect ratio (1-2.7), the bubble Reynolds number (50-2000) and the non-dimensional shear rate (0.-1.2). The numerical simulations shows that the shear flow imposes a plane symmetry of the wake whatever the parameters of the flow. The trailing vorticity is organized into two anti-symmetrical counter rotating tubes with a sign imposed by the competition of two mechanisms (the Lighthill mechanism and the instability of the wake). Whatever the Reynolds number, the lift coefficient reaches the analytical value obtained in an inviscid, weakly sheared flow corresponding to a lift force oriented in the same direction as that of a spherical bubble. For moderate Reynolds numbers, the direction of the lift force reverses when the bubble aspect ratio is large enough as observed in experiments. This reversal occurs for aspect ratios larger than 2.225 and is found to be directly linked to the sign of the trailing vorticity which is concentrated within two counter-rotating threads which propel the bubble in a direction depending of their sign of rotation. The behavior of the drag does not revel any significant effect induced by the wake structure and follows a quadratic increase with the shear rate. Finally, the torque experienced by the bubble also reverses for the same conditions inducing the reversal of the lift force. By varying the orientation of the bubble in the shear flow, a stable equilibrium position is found corresponding to a weak angle between the small axis of the bubble and the flow direction. (author)