Elastic Moduli of Carbon Nanohorns
Dinesh Kumar
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Carbon nanotube is a special case of carbon nanohorns or carbon nanocones with zero apex angle. Research into carbon nanohorns started almost at the same time as the discovery of nanotubes in 1991. Most researchers focused on the investigation of nanotubes, and the exploration of nanohorns attracted little attention. To model the carbon nanohorns, we make use of a more reliable second-generation reactive empirical bond-order potential by Brenner and coworkers. We investigate the elastic moduli and conclude that these nanohorns are equally strong and require in-depth investigation. The values of Young's and Shear moduli decrease with apex angle.
Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure
Schock, R N [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)
1970-05-01
Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)
Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure
Schock, R.N.
1970-01-01
Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)
Plutonium Elastic Moduli, Electron Localization, and Temperature
Migliori, Albert; Mihut-Stroe, Izabella; Betts, Jon B.
2008-01-01
In almost all materials, compression is accompanied naturally by stiffening. Even in materials with zero or negative thermal expansion, where warming is accompanied by volume contraction it is the volume change that primarily controls elastic stiffness. Not so in the metal plutonium. In plutonium, alloying with gallium can change the sign of thermal expansion, but for the positive thermal- expansion monoclinic phase as well as the face-centered-cubic phase with either sign of thermal expansion, and the orthorhombic phase, recent measurements of elastic moduli show soften on warming by an order of magnitude more than expected, the shear and compressional moduli track, and volume seems irrelevant. These effects point toward a novel mechanism for electron localization, and have important implication for the pressure dependence of the bulk compressibility. (authors)
Elastic moduli of a Brownian colloidal glass former
Fritschi, S.; Fuchs, M.
2018-01-01
The static, dynamic and flow-dependent shear moduli of a binary mixture of Brownian hard disks are studied by an event-driven molecular dynamics simulation. Thereby, the emergence of rigidity close to the glass transition encoded in the static shear modulus G_∞ is accessed by three methods. Results from shear stress auto-correlation functions, elastic dispersion relations, and the elastic response to strain deformations upon the start-up of shear flow are compared. This enables one to sample the time-dependent shear modulus G(t) consistently over several decades in time. By that a very precise specification of the glass transition point and of G_∞ is feasible. Predictions by mode coupling theory of a finite shear modulus at the glass transition, of α-scaling in fluid states close to the transition, and of shear induced decay in yielding glass states are tested and broadly verified.
Elastic Moduli of Permanently Densified Silica Glasses
Deschamps, T.; Margueritat, J.; Martinet, C.; Mermet, A.; Champagnon, B.
2014-01-01
Modelling the mechanical response of silica glass is still challenging, due to the lack of knowledge concerning the elastic properties of intermediate states of densification. An extensive Brillouin Light Scattering study on permanently densified silica glasses after cold compression in diamond anvil cell has been carried out, in order to deduce the elastic properties of such glasses and to provide new insights concerning the densification process. From sound velocity measurements, we derive phenomenological laws linking the elastic moduli of silica glass as a function of its densification ratio. The found elastic moduli are in excellent agreement with the sparse data extracted from literature, and we show that they do not depend on the thermodynamic path taken during densification (room temperature or heating). We also demonstrate that the longitudinal sound velocity exhibits an anomalous behavior, displaying a minimum for a densification ratio of 5%, and highlight the fact that this anomaly has to be distinguished from the compressibility anomaly of a-SiO2 in the elastic domain. PMID:25431218
Size-dependent elastic moduli and vibrational properties of fivefold twinned copper nanowires
Zheng, Y. G.; Zhao, Y. T.; Ye, H. F.; Zhang, H. W.
2014-08-01
Based on atomistic simulations, the elastic moduli and vibration behaviors of fivefold twinned copper nanowires are investigated in this paper. Simulation results show that the elastic (i.e., Young’s and shear) moduli exhibit size dependence due to the surface effect. The effective Young’s modulus is found to decrease slightly whereas the effective shear modulus increases slightly with the increase in the wire radius. Both moduli tend to approach certain values at a larger radius and can be suitably described by core-shell composite structure models. Furthermore, we show by comparing simulation results and continuum predictions that, provided the effective Young’s and shear moduli are used, classic elastic theory can be applied to describe the small-amplitude vibration of fivefold twinned copper nanowires. Moreover, for the transverse vibration, the Timoshenko beam model is more suitable because shear deformation becomes apparent.
Size-dependent elastic moduli and vibrational properties of fivefold twinned copper nanowires
Zheng, Y G; Zhao, Y T; Ye, H F; Zhang, H W
2014-01-01
Based on atomistic simulations, the elastic moduli and vibration behaviors of fivefold twinned copper nanowires are investigated in this paper. Simulation results show that the elastic (i.e., Young’s and shear) moduli exhibit size dependence due to the surface effect. The effective Young’s modulus is found to decrease slightly whereas the effective shear modulus increases slightly with the increase in the wire radius. Both moduli tend to approach certain values at a larger radius and can be suitably described by core-shell composite structure models. Furthermore, we show by comparing simulation results and continuum predictions that, provided the effective Young’s and shear moduli are used, classic elastic theory can be applied to describe the small-amplitude vibration of fivefold twinned copper nanowires. Moreover, for the transverse vibration, the Timoshenko beam model is more suitable because shear deformation becomes apparent. (paper)
QUANTITATIVE NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (QNDE) OF THE ELASTIC MODULI OF POROUS TIAL ALLOYS
Yeheskel, O.
2008-01-01
The elastic moduli of γ-TiA1 were studied in porous samples consolidated by various techniques e.g. cold isostatic pressing (CIP), pressure-less sintering, or hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Porosity linearly affects the dynamic elastic moduli of samples. The results indicate that the sound wave velocities and the elastic moduli affected by the processing route and depend not only on the attained density but also on the consolidation temperature. In this paper we show that there is linear correlation between the shear and the longitudinal sound velocities in porous TiA1. This opens the way to use a single sound velocity as a tool for quantitative non-destructive evaluation (QNDE) of porous TiA1 alloys. Here we demonstrate the applicability of an equation derived from the elastic theory and used previously for porous cubic metals
In Silico Measurement of Elastic Moduli of Nematic Liquid Crystals
Sidky, Hythem; de Pablo, Juan J.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.
2018-03-01
Experiments on confined droplets of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB have questioned long-established bounds imposed on the elastic free energy of nematic systems. This elasticity, which derives from molecular alignment within nematic systems, is quantified through a set of moduli which can be difficult to measure experimentally and, in some cases, can only be probed indirectly. This is particularly true of the surfacelike saddle-splay elastic term, for which the available experimental data indicate values on the cusp of stability, often with large uncertainties. Here, we demonstrate that all nematic elastic moduli, including the saddle-splay elastic constant k24, may be calculated directly from atomistic molecular simulations. Importantly, results obtained through in silico measurements of the 5CB elastic properties demonstrate unambiguously that saddle-splay elasticity alone is unable to describe the observed confined morphologies.
Measurements of Young's and shear moduli of rail steel at elevated temperatures.
Bao, Yuanye; Zhang, Haifeng; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Karim, Md Afzalul; Felix Wu, H
2014-03-01
The design and modelling of the buckling effect of Continuous Welded Rail (CWR) requires accurate material constants, especially at elevated temperatures. However, such material constants have rarely been found in literature. In this article, the Young's moduli and shear moduli of rail steel at elevated temperatures are determined by a new sonic resonance method developed in our group. A network analyser is used to excite a sample hanged inside a furnace through a simple tweeter type speaker. The vibration signal is picked up by a Polytec OFV-5000 Laser Vibrometer and then transferred back to the network analyser. Resonance frequencies in both the flexural and torsional modes are measured, and the Young's moduli and shear moduli are determined through the measured resonant frequencies. To validate the measured elastic constants, the measurements have been repeated by using the classic sonic resonance method. The comparisons of obtained moduli from the two methods show an excellent consistency of the results. In addition, the material elastic constants measured are validated by an ultrasound test based on a pulse-echo method and compared with previous published results at room temperature. The measured material data provides an invaluable reference for the design of CWR to avoid detrimental buckling failure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Morphology and linear-elastic moduli of random network solids.
Nachtrab, Susan; Kapfer, Sebastian C; Arns, Christoph H; Madadi, Mahyar; Mecke, Klaus; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E
2011-06-17
The effective linear-elastic moduli of disordered network solids are analyzed by voxel-based finite element calculations. We analyze network solids given by Poisson-Voronoi processes and by the structure of collagen fiber networks imaged by confocal microscopy. The solid volume fraction ϕ is varied by adjusting the fiber radius, while keeping the structural mesh or pore size of the underlying network fixed. For intermediate ϕ, the bulk and shear modulus are approximated by empirical power-laws K(phi)proptophin and G(phi)proptophim with n≈1.4 and m≈1.7. The exponents for the collagen and the Poisson-Voronoi network solids are similar, and are close to the values n=1.22 and m=2.11 found in a previous voxel-based finite element study of Poisson-Voronoi systems with different boundary conditions. However, the exponents of these empirical power-laws are at odds with the analytic values of n=1 and m=2, valid for low-density cellular structures in the limit of thin beams. We propose a functional form for K(ϕ) that models the cross-over from a power-law at low densities to a porous solid at high densities; a fit of the data to this functional form yields the asymptotic exponent n≈1.00, as expected. Further, both the intensity of the Poisson-Voronoi process and the collagen concentration in the samples, both of which alter the typical pore or mesh size, affect the effective moduli only by the resulting change of the solid volume fraction. These findings suggest that a network solid with the structure of the collagen networks can be modeled in quantitative agreement by a Poisson-Voronoi process. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Pressure derivatives of elastic moduli of fused quartz to 10 kb
Peselnick, L.; Meister, R.; Wilson, W.H.
1967-01-01
Measurements of the longitudinal and shear moduli were made on fused quartz to 10 kb at 24??5??C. The anomalous behavior of the bulk modulus K at low pressure, ???K ???P 0, at higher pressures. The pressure derivative of the rigidity modulus ???G ???P remains constant and negative for the pressure range covered. A 15-kb hydrostatic pressure vessel is described for use with ultrasonic pulse instrumentation for precise measurements of elastic moduli and density changes with pressure. The placing of the transducer outside the pressure medium, and the use of C-ring pressure seals result in ease of operation and simplicity of design. ?? 1967.
Structures and Elastic Moduli of Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films
Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team
2014-03-01
Polymeric thin films generally possess unique mechanical and thermal properties due to confinement. In this study we investigated structures and elastic moduli of polymer nanocomposite thin films, which can potentially find wide applications in diverse areas such as in coating, permeation and separation. Conventional thermoplastics (PS, PMMA) and biopolymers (PLA, PCL) were chosen as polymer matrices. Various types of nanoparticles were used including nanoclay, fullerene and functionalized inorganic particles. Samples were prepared by solvent-mixing followed by spin-coating or flow-coating. Film structures were characterized using X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Elastic moduli were measured by strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM), and a strengthening effect was found in certain systems due to strong interaction between polymers and nanoparticles. The effects of polymer structure, nanoparticle addition and film thickness on elastic modulus will be discussed and compared with bulk materials.
Charge-density-shear-moduli relationships in aluminum-lithium alloys.
Eberhart, M
2001-11-12
Using the first principles full-potential linear-augmented-Slater-type orbital technique, the energies and charge densities of aluminum and aluminum-lithium supercells have been computed. The experimentally observed increase in aluminum's shear moduli upon alloying with lithium is argued to be the result of predictable changes to aluminum's total charge density, suggesting that simple rules may allow the alloy designer to predict the effects of dilute substitutional elements on alloy elastic response.
Wave anisotropy of shear viscosity and elasticity
Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.
2014-11-01
The paper presents the theory of shear wave propagation in a "soft solid" material possessing anisotropy of elastic and dissipative properties. The theory is developed mainly for understanding the nature of the low-frequency acoustic characteristics of skeletal muscles, which carry important diagnostic information on the functional state of muscles and their pathologies. It is shown that the shear elasticity of muscles is determined by two independent moduli. The dissipative properties are determined by the fourth-rank viscosity tensor, which also has two independent components. The propagation velocity and attenuation of shear waves in muscle depend on the relative orientation of three vectors: the wave vector, the polarization vector, and the direction of muscle fiber. For one of the many experiments where attention was distinctly focused on the vector character of the wave process, it was possible to make a comparison with the theory, estimate the elasticity moduli, and obtain agreement with the angular dependence of the wave propagation velocity predicted by the theory.
Correlations between elastic moduli and properties in bulk metallic glasses
Wang Weihua
2006-01-01
A survey of the elastic, mechanical, fragility, and thermodynamic properties of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and glass-forming liquids is presented. It is found that the elastic moduli of BMGs have correlations with the glass transition temperature, melting temperature, mechanical properties, and even liquid fragility. On the other hand, the elastic constants of available BMGs show a rough correlation with a weighted average of the elastic constants for the constituent elements. Although the theoretical and physical reasons for the correlations are to be clarified, these correlations could assist in understanding the long-standing issues of glass formation and the nature of glass and simulate the work of theorists. Based on the correlation, we show that the elastic moduli can assist in selecting alloying components for controlling the elastic properties and glass-forming ability of the BMGs and thus can guide BMG design. As case study, we report the formation of the families of rare-earth-based BMGs with controllable properties
Effect of rotation on the elastic moduli of solid 4He
Tsuiki, T.; Takahashi, D.; Murakawa, S.; Okuda, Y.; Kono, K.; Shirahama, K.
2018-02-01
We report measurements of elastic moduli of hcp solid 4He down to 15 mK when the samples are rotated unidirectionally. Recent investigations have revealed that the elastic behavior of solid 4He is dominated by gliding of dislocations and pinning of them by 3He impurities, which move in the solidlike Bloch waves (impuritons). Motivated by the recent controversy of torsional oscillator studies, we have performed direct measurements of shear and Young's moduli of annular solid 4He using pairs of quarter-circle-shape piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) while the whole apparatus is rotated with angular velocity Ω up to 4 rad/s. We have found that shear modulus μ is suppressed by rotation below 80 mK, when shear strain applied by PZT exceeds a critical value, above which μ decreases because the shear strain unbinds dislocations from 3He impurities. The rotation-induced decrement of μ at Ω =4 rad/s is about 14.7(12.3)% of the total change of temperature dependent μ for solid samples of pressure 3.6(5.4) MPa. The decrements indicate that the probability of pinning of 3He on dislocation segment G decreases by several orders of magnitude. We propose that the motion of 3He impuritons under rotation becomes strongly anisotropic by the Coriolis force, resulting a decrease in G for dislocation lines aligning parallel to the rotation axis.
Simultaneous measurement of field dependence of elastic moduli by laser interferometry
Bayon, A; Salazar, F
2000-01-01
A methodology is applied which allows the simultaneous determination of Young's modulus and the shear modulus to evaluate elastic moduli variations with the magnetic field (DELTA E and DELTA G). The method employed is based on the simultaneous detection of the transverse and torsional natural frequencies of a slender magnetic bar located within a solenoid. The resultant vibration is detected via a heterodyne interferometric optical system with a broad bandwidth. The vibration detection and excitation systems do not interact with the sample. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by characterizing 10-mm-diameter nickel bars. The results are compared with those obtained from longitudinal vibrations.
Thermodynamics and elastic moduli of fluids with steeply repulsive potentials
Heyes, D. M.
1997-08-01
Analytic expressions for the thermodynamic properties and elastic moduli of molecular fluids interacting with steeply repulsive potentials are derived using Rowlinson's hard-sphere perturbation treatment which employs a softness parameter, λ specifying the deviation from the hard-sphere potential. Generic potentials of this form might be used to represent the interactions between near-hard-sphere stabilized colloids. Analytic expressions for the equivalent hard-sphere diameter of inverse power [ɛ(σ/r)n where ɛ sets the energy scale and σ the distance scale] exponential and logarithmic potential forms are derived using the Barker-Henderson formula. The internal energies in the hard-sphere limit are predicted essentially exactly by the perturbation approach when compared against molecular dynamics simulation data using the same potentials. The elastic moduli are similarly accurately predicted in the hard-sphere limit, as they are trivially related to the internal energy. The compressibility factors from the perturbation expansion do not compare as favorably with simulation data, and in this case the Carnahan-Starling equation of state prediction using the analytic effective hard-sphere diameter would appear to be a preferable route for this thermodynamic property. A more refined state point dependent definition for the effective hard-sphere diameter is probably required for this property.
Elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy of cold sprayed metallic coatings
Seiner, Hanuš; Cizek, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Huang, R.; Cupera, J.; Dlouhý, I.; Landa, Michal
2016-01-01
Roč. 291, April (2016), s. 342-347 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13616S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-35890S Grant - others:NETME Centre Plus - národní program udržitelnosti(CZ) LO1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : kinetic spray * CGDS * elastic properties * metals and alloys * deposition * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0257897216301165/1-s2.0-S0257897216301165-main.pdf?_tid=1083617a-017f-11e6-92e7-00000aacb361&acdnat=1460555773_2e80d3df20843f3af649bf3ac71c8844
Interface effects on effective elastic moduli of nanocrystalline materials
Wang Gangfeng; Feng Xiqiao; Yu Shouwen; Nan Cewen
2003-01-01
Interfaces often play a significant role in many physical properties and phenomena of nanocrystalline materials (NcMs). In the present paper, the interface effects on the effective elastic property of NcMs are investigated. First, an atomic potential method is suggested for estimating the effective elastic modulus of an interface phase. Then, the Mori-Tanaka effective field method is employed to determine the overall effective elastic moduli of a nanocrystalline material, which is regarded as a binary composite consisting of a crystal or inclusion phase with regular lattice connected by an amorphous-like interface or matrix phase. Finally, the stiffening effects of strain gradients are examined on the effective elastic property by using the strain gradient theory to analyze a representative unit cell. Our analysis shows two physical mechanisms of interfaces that influence the effective stiffness and other mechanical properties of materials. One is the softening effect due to the distorted atomic structures and the increased atomic spacings in interface regions, and another is the baffling effect due to the existence of boundary layers between the interface phase and the crystalline phase
Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue
Yang, Yiqun
In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all
Ghosh, G., E-mail: g-ghosh@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3108 (United States)
2015-08-15
A comprehensive computational study of elastic properties of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) and its alloyed counterparts (M{sub 3}C (M = Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, Cr{sub 2}FeC and CrFe{sub 2}C) having the crystal structure of Fe{sub 3}C is carried out employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT), all-electron PAW pseudopotentials and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy (GGA). Specifically, as a part of our systematic study of cohesive properties of solids and in the spirit of materials genome, following properties are calculated: (i) single-crystal elastic constants, C{sub ij}, of above M{sub 3}Cs; (ii) anisotropies of bulk, Young’s and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio based on calculated C{sub ij}s, demonstrating their extreme anisotropies; (iii) isotropic (polycrystalline) elastic moduli (bulk, shear, Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratio) of M{sub 3}Cs by homogenization of calculated C{sub ij}s; and (iv) acoustic Debye temperature, θ{sub D}, of M{sub 3}Cs based on calculated C{sub ij}s. We provide a critical appraisal of available data of polycrystalline elastic properties of alloyed cementite. Calculated single crystal properties may be incorporated in anisotropic constitutive models to develop and test microstructure-processing-property-performance links in multi-phase materials where cementite is a constituent phase.
Ridge regression for predicting elastic moduli and hardness of calcium aluminosilicate glasses
Deng, Yifan; Zeng, Huidan; Jiang, Yejia; Chen, Guorong; Chen, Jianding; Sun, Luyi
2018-03-01
It is of great significance to design glasses with satisfactory mechanical properties predictively through modeling. Among various modeling methods, data-driven modeling is such a reliable approach that can dramatically shorten research duration, cut research cost and accelerate the development of glass materials. In this work, the ridge regression (RR) analysis was used to construct regression models for predicting the compositional dependence of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glass elastic moduli (Shear, Bulk, and Young’s moduli) and hardness based on the ternary diagram of the compositions. The property prediction over a large glass composition space was accomplished with known experimental data of various compositions in the literature, and the simulated results are in good agreement with the measured ones. This regression model can serve as a facile and effective tool for studying the relationship between the compositions and the property, enabling high-efficient design of glasses to meet the requirements for specific elasticity and hardness.
Effect of TeO2 on the elastic moduli of sodium borate glasses
Saddeek, Y.B.; Abd El Latif, Lamia
2004-01-01
Sodium borate glass containing tellurite as Te x Na 2-2x B 4-4x O 7-5x with x=0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 have been prepared by rapid quenching. Ultrasonic velocity (both longitudinal and shear) measurements have been made using a transducer operated at the fundamental frequency of 4 MHz at room temperature. The density was measured by the conventional Archimedes method. The elastic moduli, the Debye temperature, Poisson's ratio, and the parameters derived from the Makishima-Mackenzie model and the bond compression model have been obtained as a function of TeO 2 content. The monotonic decrease in the velocities and the elastic moduli, and the increase in the ring diameter and the ratio K bc /K e as a function of TeO 2 modifier content reveals the loose packing structure, which is attributed to the increase in the molar volume and the reduction in the vibrations of the borate lattice. The observed results confirm that the addition of TeO 2 changes the rigid character of Na 2 B 4 O 7 to a matrix of ionic behaviour bonds (NBOs). This is due to the creation of more and more discontinuities and defects in the glasses, thus breaking down the borax structure
Ullemeyer, Klaus; Lokajíček, Tomás; Vasin, Roman N.; Keppler, Ruth; Behrmann, Jan H.
2018-02-01
In this study elastic moduli of three different rock types of simple (calcite marble) and more complex (amphibolite, micaschist) mineralogical compositions were determined by modeling of elastic moduli using texture (crystallographic preferred orientation; CPO) data, experimental investigation and extrapolation. 3D models were calculated using single crystal elastic moduli, and CPO measured using time-of-flight neutron diffraction at the SKAT diffractometer in Dubna (Russia) and subsequently analyzed using Rietveld Texture Analysis. To define extrinsic factors influencing elastic behaviour, P-wave and S-wave velocity anisotropies were experimentally determined at 200, 400 and 600 MPa confining pressure. Functions describing variations of the elastic moduli with confining pressure were then used to predict elastic properties at 1000 MPa, revealing anisotropies in a supposedly crack-free medium. In the calcite marble elastic anisotropy is dominated by the CPO. Velocities continuously increase, while anisotropies decrease from measured, over extrapolated to CPO derived data. Differences in velocity patterns with sample orientation suggest that the foliation forms an important mechanical anisotropy. The amphibolite sample shows similar magnitudes of extrapolated and CPO derived velocities, however the pattern of CPO derived velocity is closer to that measured at 200 MPa. Anisotropy decreases from the extrapolated to the CPO derived data. In the micaschist, velocities are higher and anisotropies are lower in the extrapolated data, in comparison to the data from measurements at lower pressures. Generally our results show that predictions for the elastic behavior of rocks at great depths are possible based on experimental data and those computed from CPO. The elastic properties of the lower crust can, thus, be characterized with an improved degree of confidence using extrapolations. Anisotropically distributed spherical micro-pores are likely to be preserved, affecting
Bodryakov, V.Yu.; Povzner, A.A.
2000-01-01
The correlation between the temperature dependence of elastic moduli and the Debye temperature of paramagnetic metal is analyzed in neglect of the temperature dependence of the Poison coefficient σ within the frames of the Debye-Grueneisen presentations. It is shown, that namely the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli determines primarily the temperature dependence of the Debye temperature Θ(T). On the other hand, the temperature dependence Θ(T) very weakly effects the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli. The later made it possible to formulate the self-consistent approach to calculation of the elastic moduli temperature dependence. The numerical estimates of this dependence parameters are conducted by the example of the all around compression modulus of the paramagnetic lutetium [ru
On elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline martensitic NiTi
Qiu, S.; Clausen, B.; Padula, S.A.; Noebe, R.D.; Vaidyanathan, R.
2011-01-01
A combined experimental and computational effort was undertaken to provide insight into the elastic response of B19' martensitic NiTi variants as they exist in bulk, polycrystalline aggregate form during monotonic tensile and compressive loading. The experimental effort centered on using in situ neutron diffraction during loading to measure elastic moduli in several directions along with an average Young's modulus and a Poisson's ratio. The measurements were compared with predictions from a 30,000 variant, self-consistent polycrystalline deformation model that accounted for the elastic intergranular constraint, and also with predictions of single crystal behavior from previously published ab initio studies. Variant conversion and detwinning processes that influenced the intergranular constraint occurred even at stresses where the macroscopic stress-strain response appeared linear. Direct evidence of these processes was revealed in changes in texture, which were captured in inverse pole figures constructed from the neutron diffraction measurements.
On elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline martensitic NiTi
Qiu, S. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Padula, S.A.; Noebe, R.D. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R., E-mail: raj@mail.ucf.edu [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)
2011-08-15
A combined experimental and computational effort was undertaken to provide insight into the elastic response of B19' martensitic NiTi variants as they exist in bulk, polycrystalline aggregate form during monotonic tensile and compressive loading. The experimental effort centered on using in situ neutron diffraction during loading to measure elastic moduli in several directions along with an average Young's modulus and a Poisson's ratio. The measurements were compared with predictions from a 30,000 variant, self-consistent polycrystalline deformation model that accounted for the elastic intergranular constraint, and also with predictions of single crystal behavior from previously published ab initio studies. Variant conversion and detwinning processes that influenced the intergranular constraint occurred even at stresses where the macroscopic stress-strain response appeared linear. Direct evidence of these processes was revealed in changes in texture, which were captured in inverse pole figures constructed from the neutron diffraction measurements.
Preparation and Elastic Moduli of Germanate Glass Containing Lead and Bismuth
Wan M. M. Yunus
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the rapid melt quenching technique preparation for the new family of bismuth-lead germanate glass (BPG systems in the form of (GeO260–(PbO40−x–(½Bi2O3x where x = 0 to 40 mol%. Their densities with respect of Bi2O3 concentration were determined using Archimedes’ method with acetone as a floatation medium. The current experimental data are compared with those of bismuth lead borate (B2O320–(PbO80−x–(Bi2O3x. The elastic properties of BPG were studied using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique where both longitudinal and transverse sound wave velocities have been measured in each glass samples at a frequency of 15 MHz and at room temperature. Experimental data shows that all the physical parameters of BPG including density and molar volume, both longitudinal and transverse velocities increase linearly with increasing of Bi2O3 content in the germanate glass network. Their elastic moduli such as longitudinal, shear and Young’s also increase linearly with addition of Bi2O3 but the bulk modulus did not. The Poisson’s ratio and fractal dimensionality are also found to vary linearly with the Bi2O3 concentration.
Preparation and elastic moduli of germanate glass containing lead and bismuth.
Sidek, Hj A A; Bahari, Hamid R; Halimah, Mohamed K; Yunus, Wan M M
2012-01-01
This paper reports the rapid melt quenching technique preparation for the new family of bismuth-lead germanate glass (BPG) systems in the form of (GeO(2))(60)-(PbO)(40-) (x)-(½Bi(2)O(3))(x) where x = 0 to 40 mol%. Their densities with respect of Bi(2)O(3) concentration were determined using Archimedes' method with acetone as a floatation medium. The current experimental data are compared with those of bismuth lead borate (B(2)O(3))(20)-(PbO)(80-) (x)-(Bi(2)O(3))(x). The elastic properties of BPG were studied using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique where both longitudinal and transverse sound wave velocities have been measured in each glass samples at a frequency of 15 MHz and at room temperature. Experimental data shows that all the physical parameters of BPG including density and molar volume, both longitudinal and transverse velocities increase linearly with increasing of Bi(2)O(3) content in the germanate glass network. Their elastic moduli such as longitudinal, shear and Young's also increase linearly with addition of Bi(2)O(3) but the bulk modulus did not. The Poisson's ratio and fractal dimensionality are also found to vary linearly with the Bi(2)O(3) concentration.
Hamed, Elham [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Novitskaya, Ekaterina, E-mail: eevdokim@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Program, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Li, Jun; Jasiuk, Iwona [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); McKittrick, Joanna [University of California, San Diego, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Program, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
2015-09-01
The elastic moduli of trabecular bone were modeled using an analytical multiscale approach. Trabecular bone was represented as a porous nanocomposite material with a hierarchical structure spanning from the collagen–mineral level to the trabecular architecture level. In parallel, compression testing was done on bovine femoral trabecular bone samples in two anatomical directions, parallel to the femoral neck axis and perpendicular to it, and the measured elastic moduli were compared with the corresponding theoretical results. To gain insights on the interaction of collagen and minerals at the nanoscale, bone samples were deproteinized or demineralized. After such processing, the treated samples remained as self-standing structures and were tested in compression. Micro-computed tomography was used to characterize the hierarchical structure of these three bone types and to quantify the amount of bone porosity. The obtained experimental data served as inputs to the multiscale model and guided us to represent bone as an interpenetrating composite material. Good agreement was found between the theory and experiments for the elastic moduli of the untreated, deproteinized, and demineralized trabecular bone. - Highlights: • A multiscale model was used to predict the elastic moduli of trabecular bone. • Samples included demineralized, deproteinized and untreated bone. • The model portrays bone as a porous, interpenetrating two phase composite. • The experimental elastic moduli for trabecular bone fell between theoretical bounds.
Hamed, Elham; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Li, Jun; Jasiuk, Iwona; McKittrick, Joanna
2015-01-01
The elastic moduli of trabecular bone were modeled using an analytical multiscale approach. Trabecular bone was represented as a porous nanocomposite material with a hierarchical structure spanning from the collagen–mineral level to the trabecular architecture level. In parallel, compression testing was done on bovine femoral trabecular bone samples in two anatomical directions, parallel to the femoral neck axis and perpendicular to it, and the measured elastic moduli were compared with the corresponding theoretical results. To gain insights on the interaction of collagen and minerals at the nanoscale, bone samples were deproteinized or demineralized. After such processing, the treated samples remained as self-standing structures and were tested in compression. Micro-computed tomography was used to characterize the hierarchical structure of these three bone types and to quantify the amount of bone porosity. The obtained experimental data served as inputs to the multiscale model and guided us to represent bone as an interpenetrating composite material. Good agreement was found between the theory and experiments for the elastic moduli of the untreated, deproteinized, and demineralized trabecular bone. - Highlights: • A multiscale model was used to predict the elastic moduli of trabecular bone. • Samples included demineralized, deproteinized and untreated bone. • The model portrays bone as a porous, interpenetrating two phase composite. • The experimental elastic moduli for trabecular bone fell between theoretical bounds
de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Notestine, Randy; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand; Jain, Anubhav; Asta, Mark; Gamst, Anthony
2016-10-03
Materials scientists increasingly employ machine or statistical learning (SL) techniques to accelerate materials discovery and design. Such pursuits benefit from pooling training data across, and thus being able to generalize predictions over, k-nary compounds of diverse chemistries and structures. This work presents a SL framework that addresses challenges in materials science applications, where datasets are diverse but of modest size, and extreme values are often of interest. Our advances include the application of power or Hölder means to construct descriptors that generalize over chemistry and crystal structure, and the incorporation of multivariate local regression within a gradient boosting framework. The approach is demonstrated by developing SL models to predict bulk and shear moduli (K and G, respectively) for polycrystalline inorganic compounds, using 1,940 compounds from a growing database of calculated elastic moduli for metals, semiconductors and insulators. The usefulness of the models is illustrated by screening for superhard materials.
Simultaneous measurements of bulk moduli and particle dynamics in a sheared colloidal glass
Massa, Michael V.; Eisenmann, Christoph; Kim, Chanjoong; Weitz, David A.
2007-03-01
We present a novel study of glassy colloidal systems, using a stress-controlled rheometer in conjunction with a confocal microscope. This experimental setup combines the measurement of bulk moduli, using conventional rheology, with the ability to track the motion of individual particles, through confocal microscopy techniques. We explore the response of the system to applied shear, by simultaneously monitoring the macroscopic relaxation and microscopic particle dynamics, under conditions from the quiescent glass to a shear-melted liquid.
Atomistic Calculation of Elastic Moduli in Strained Silicon
Zhu, Richard; Pan, Ernian; Chung, Peter W; Cai, Xinli; Liew, Kim M; Buldum, Alper
2007-01-01
.... Using our approach, the bulk modulus, effective elastic stiffnesses C11, C12, and C44 of the strained silicon, including also the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, are all calculated...
Elastic moduli of biological fibers in a coarse-grained model: crystalline cellulose and β-amyloids.
Poma, Adolfo B; Chwastyk, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek
2017-10-25
We study the mechanical response of cellulose and β-amyloid microfibrils to three types of deformation: tensile, indentational, and shear. The cellulose microfibrils correspond to the allomorphs Iα or Iβ whereas the β-amyloid microfibrils correspond to the polymorphs of either two- or three-fold symmetry. This response can be characterized by three elastic moduli, namely, Y L , Y T , and S. We use a structure-based coarse-grained model to analyze the deformations in a unified manner. We find that each of the moduli is almost the same for the two allomorphs of cellulose but Y L is about 20 times larger than Y T (140 GPa vs. 7 GPa), indicating the existence of significant anisotropy. For cellulose we note that the anisotropy results from the involvement of covalent bonds in stretching. For β-amyloid, the sense of anisotropy is opposite to that of cellulose. In the three-fold symmetry case, Y L is about half of Y T (3 vs. 7) whereas for two-fold symmetry the anisotropy is much larger (1.6 vs. 21 GPa). The S modulus is derived to be 1.2 GPa for three-fold symmetry and one half of it for the other symmetry and 3.0 GPa for cellulose. The values of the moduli reflect deformations in the hydrogen-bond network. Unlike in our theoretical approach, no experiment can measure all three elastic moduli with the same apparatus. However, our theoretical results are consistent with various measured values: typical Y L for cellulose Iβ ranges from 133 to 155 GPa, Y T from 2 to 25 GPa, and S from 1.8 to 3.8 GPa. For β-amyloid, the experimental values of S and Y T are about 0.3 GPa and 3.3 GPa respectively, while the value of Y L has not been reported.
Digitally controlled measurement of sonic elastic moduli and internal friction by phase analysis
O'Brien, M.H.; Hunter, O. Jr.; Rasmussen, M.D.; Skank, H.D.
1983-01-01
An automated system is described for measuring internal friction and elastic moduli using sonic resonance techniques. This mirocomputer-controlled device does phase angle analysis in addition to traditional decay and peak-width internal friction measurement. The apparatus may be programmed to make measurements at any sequence of temperatures between room temperature and 1600 0 C
REDUCED ISOTROPIC CRYSTAL MODEL WITH RESPECT TO THE FOURTH-ORDER ELASTIC MODULI
O. Burlayenko
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Using a reduced isotropic crystal model the relationship between the fourth-order elastic moduli of an isotropic medium and the independent components of the fourth-order elastic moduli tensor of real crystals of various crystal systems is found. To calculate the coefficients of these relations, computer algebra systems Redberry and Mathematica for working with high order tensors in the symbolic and explicit form were used, in light of the overly complex computation. In an isotropic medium, there are four independent fourth order elastic moduli. This is due to the presence of four invariants for an eighth-rank tensor in the three-dimensional space, that has symmetries over the pairs of indices. As an example, the moduli of elasticity of an isotropic medium corresponding to certain crystals of cubic system are given (LiF, NaCl, MgO, CaF2. From the obtained results it can be seen that the reduced isotropic crystal model can be most effectively applied to high-symmetry crystal systems.
Third-order elastic moduli for alkali-halide crystals possessing the sodium chloride structure
Ray, U.
2010-01-01
The values of third-order elastic moduli for alkali halides, having NaCl-type crystal structure are calculated according to the Born-Mayer potential model, considering the repulsive interactions up to the second nearest neighbours and calculating the values of the potential parameters for each crystal, independently, from the compressibility data. This work presents the first published account of the calculation of the third-order elastic moduli taking the actual value of the potential parameter unlike the earlier works. Third-order elastic constants have been computed for alkali halides at 0 and 300 K. The results of the third-order elastic constants are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. Very good agreement between experimental and theoretical third-order elastic constant data (except C 123 ) is found. We have also computed the values of the pressure derivatives of second-order elastic constants and Anderson-Grueneisen parameter for alkali halides, which agree reasonably well with the experimental values, indicating the satisfactory nature of our computed data for third-order elastic constants.
Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Sudha, C.; Raju, S.; Saibaba, Saroja
2018-04-01
The Young's modulus (E) and Shear modulus (G) of an indigenously developed 18Cr-9Ni-0.1C-2.95 Cu-0.58Nb (wt %) austenitic stainless steel has been evaluated in the temperature range 298 K to 1273 K (25 °C to 1000 °C), using Impulse excitation technique (IET). The Bulk modulus (K) and the poison's ratio have been estimated from the measured values of E and G. It is observed that the elastic constants (E, G and K) are found to decrease in a nonlinear fashion with increase in temperature. The Cu precipitation is found to influence the elastic moduli of the steel in the cooling cycle. The observed elastic moduli are fitted to 3rd order polynomial equations in order to describe the temperature dependence of E, G, K moduli in the temperature range 298-1273 K (25 °C to 1000 °C). The room temperature values of E,G and K moduli is found to be 207, 82 and 145 GPa respectively for the present steel.
Elastic Moduli of Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Thin Films via Buckling on Elastomeric Substrates
Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team
2011-03-01
Polymeric thin films find applications in diverse areas such as coatings, barriers and packaging. The dispersion of nanoparticles into the films was proven to be an effective method to generate tunable properties, particularly mechanical strength. However, there are very few methods for mechanical characterization of the composite thin films with high accuracy. In this study, nanometric polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol films with uniformly dispersed cobalt and Cloisite nanoparticles at varying concentrations were synthesized via flow-coating and then transferred to crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible substrates. The technique of Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) was employed to determine the elastic moduli of the films, which were calculated from the buckling patterns generated by applying compressive stresses. Results on moduli of films as a function of the concentrations of nanoparticles and the thicknesses of the composite films will be presented. *Corresponding author: alamgir@uakron.edu
Analytic approximations for the elastic moduli of two-phase materials
Zhang, Z. J.; Zhu, Y. K.; Zhang, P.
2017-01-01
Based on the models of series and parallel connections of the two phases in a composite, analytic approximations are derived for the elastic constants (Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio) of elastically isotropic two-phase composites containing second phases of various volume...
The Relationship between Elastic Properties and Shear Fabric in Clay-Rich Fault Gouge
Kenigsberg, A.; Saffer, D. M.; Riviere, J.; Ryan, K. L.; Marone, C.
2016-12-01
The low mechanical strength of major crustal faults remains a fundamental problem in geophysics and earthquake mechanics. Although both clay abundance and shear fabric are known as key controls on the frictional weakening of faults, the detailed links between fabric, elastic properties, composition, and fault strength remain poorly understood. This gap in information is in part because data are lacking to fully characterize the evolution of gouge microstructures and elastic properties during shearing. Here, we use seismic wave propagation to probe gouge ultrasonic and elastic properties, as a proxy for the development of shear fabrics. We report on a suite of direct shear experiments that include ultrasonic wave transmission to monitor compressional and shear wave velocities (Vp, Vs), during progressive shear of synthetic, clay-rich fault gouge. In order to better understand when and how clay grain alignment and nano-coatings begin to dominate the affect of shear fabric and local gouge density on elastic properties and shear strength, we studied a suite of synthetic gouges composed of Ca-montmorillonite and quartz ranging from 0-100% clay. Our laboratory experiments document friction coefficients (μ) ranging from 0.21 for gouges composed of 100% smectite to 0.62 for 100% quartz, with μ decreasing as clay content increases. We find that Vp and Vs increases as shear progresses and porosity decreases. Ongoing analyses of ultrasonic waves will assess variations of Vp, Vs, and elastic moduli throughout shear and as a function of gouge composition. We anticipate that these variations will be linked to formation of fabric elements observed via microstructural analysis, and will be indicative of whether quartz or clay is dominating how the fabrics form. Finally, we expect that clay content will be the dominant factor controlling shear fabric evolution and, consequently, the key control on the evolution of elastic properties with shear.
Li Ying; Qiu Xinming; Yin Yajun; Yang Fan; Fan Qinshan
2009-01-01
Under hydrostatic pressure, the equivalent elastic moduli of a zigzag single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) are analytically determined by energy conservation, with the consideration of the covalent bond deformation. The theoretical predictions on the transverse mechanical properties of a zigzag SWNT agree reasonably well with those given by the molecular structures mechanics simulations and also the ab initio calculations. From the simple geometry calculation, the circumferential strain is about 2-3 times of the axial strain of a zigzag SWNT under hydrostatic pressure. The bulk modulus of a zigzag SWNT is found to be 3/7 times of its radial Young's modulus.
Morris, C.E.; Jamieson, J.C.; Yarger, F.L.
1976-01-01
Transit times of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves were measured simultaneously in NaCl and NaF as a function of ''quasihydrostatic'' pressure to 9 GPa. The dimensionless ratio of these transit times yields directly the ratio of the longitudinal to shear velocity. This velocity ratio is independent of sample length. Using third-order elasticity theory a correction for a probable superimposed uniaxial stress component may be made. When done, this allows the direct determination of Poisson's ratio for each pressure. Shock-wave data are used to obtain other elastic moduli and velocities of shear and longitudinal waves. Apparatus for making these measurements is described and data for NaCl and NaF are presented
Experimental and theoretical investigation of the elastic moduli of silicate glasses and crystals
Philipps, Katharina; Stoffel, Ralf Peter; Dronskowski, Richard; Conradt, Reinhard
2017-02-01
A combined quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic approach to the mechanical properties of multicomponent silicate glasses is presented. Quantum chemical calculations based on density-functional theory (DFT) on various silicate systems were performed to explore the crystalline polymorphs existing for a given chemical composition. These calculations reproduced the properties of known polymorphs even in systems with extensive polymorphism, like MgSiO3. Properties resting on the atomic and electronic structure, i.e., molar volumes (densities) and bulk moduli were predicted correctly. The theoretical data (molar equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli) were then used to complement the available experimental data. In a phenomenological evaluation, experimental data of bulk moduli, a macroscopic property resting on phononic structure, were found to linearly scale with the ratios of atomic space demand to actual molar volume in a universal way. Silicates ranging from high-pressure polymorphs to glasses were represented by a single master line. This suggests that above the Debye limit (in practice: above room temperature), the elastic waves probe the short range order coordination polyhedra and their next-neighbor linkage only, while the presence or absence of an extended translational symmetry is irrelevant. As a result, glasses can be treated - with respect to the properties investigated - as commensurable members of polymorphic series. Binary glasses fit the very same line as their one-component end-members, again both in the crystalline and glassy state. Finally, it is shown that the macroscopic properties of multicomponent glasses also are linear superpositions of the properties of their constitutional phases (as determined from phase diagrams or by thermochemical calculations) taken in their respective glassy states. This is verified experimentally for heat capacities and Young’s moduli of industrial glass compositions. It can be concluded, that the combined quantum
Park, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sam Sun; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Wan Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul
2008-01-01
To investigate the relationship between 3D bone architectural parameters and direction-related elastic moduli of cancellous bone of mandibular condyle. Two micro-pigs (Micro-pigR, PWG Genetics Korea) were used. Each pig was about 12 months old and weighing around 44 kg. 31 cylindrical bone specimen were obtained from cancellous bone of condyles for 3D analysis and measured by micro-computed tomography. Six parameters were trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), bone specific surface (BS/BV), percent bone volume (BV/TV), structure model index (SMI), degree of anisotropy (DA) and 3-dimensional fractal dimension (3DFD). Elastic moduli of three orthogonal directions (superiorinferior (SI), medial-lateral (ML), andterior-posterior (AP) direction) were calculated through finite element analysis. Elastic modulus of superior-inferior direction was higher than those of other directions. Elastic moduli of 3 orthogonal directions showed different correlation with 3D architectural parameters. Elastic moduli of SI and ML directions showed significant strong to moderate correlation with BV/TV, SMI and 3DFD. Elastic modulus of cancellous bone of pig mandibular condyle was highest in the SI direction and it was supposed that the change into plate-like structure of trabeculae was mainly affected by increase of trabeculae of SI and ML directions.
feet of the uppermost Kayenta sandstone unit at the Mixed Company site, for which the in situ elastic moduli are determined to be as follows: C11...and plastic anisotropic properties of Kayenta sandstone from the Mixed Company site are in poor agreement with newly generated data. (Author)
Structural control of elastic moduli in ferrogels and the importance of non-affine deformations
Pessot, Giorgio; Cremer, Peet; Borin, Dmitry Y.; Odenbach, Stefan; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.
2014-09-01
One of the central appealing properties of magnetic gels and elastomers is that their elastic moduli can reversibly be adjusted from outside by applying magnetic fields. The impact of the internal magnetic particle distribution on this effect has been outlined and analyzed theoretically. In most cases, however, affine sample deformations are studied and often regular particle arrangements are considered. Here we challenge these two major simplifications by a systematic approach using a minimal dipole-spring model. Starting from different regular lattices, we take into account increasingly randomized structures, until we finally investigate an irregular texture taken from a real experimental sample. On the one hand, we find that the elastic tunability qualitatively depends on the structural properties, here in two spatial dimensions. On the other hand, we demonstrate that the assumption of affine deformations leads to increasingly erroneous results the more realistic the particle distribution becomes. Understanding the consequences of the assumptions made in the modeling process is important on our way to support an improved design of these fascinating materials.
Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films
Ao Zhimin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T and thickness (h-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*, at which thickness Ef(T,h deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ.
An in situ estimation of anisotropic elastic moduli for a submarine shale
Miller, Douglas E.; Leaney, Scott; Borland, William H.
1994-11-01
Direct arrival times and slownesses from wide-aperture walkaway vertical seismic profile data acquired in a layered anisotropic medium can be processed to give direct estimate of the phase slowness surface associated with the medium at the depth of the receivers. This slowness surface can, in turn, be fit by an estimated transversely isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (a 'TIV' medium). While the method requires that the medium between the receivers and the surface be horizontally stratified, no further measurement or knowledge of that medium is required. When applied to data acquired in a compacting shale sequence (here termed the 'Petronas shale') encountered by a well in the South China Sea, the method yields an estimated TIV medium that fits the data extremely well over 180 deg of propagation angles sampled by 201 source positions. The medium is strongly anisotropic. The anisotropy is significantly anelliptic and implies that the quasi-shear mode should be triplicated for off-axis propagation. Estimated density-normalized moduli (in units of sq km/sq s) for the Petronas shale are A(sub 11) = 6.99 +/- 0.21, A(sub 33) = 5.53 +/- 0.17, A(sub 55) = 0.91 +/- 0.05, and A(sub 13) = 2.64 +/- 0.26. Densities in the logged zone just below the survey lie in the range between 2200 and 2400 kg/cu m with an average value close to 2300 kg/cu m.
Chengbo Yu
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The generalized mixture rule (GMR is used to provide a unified framework for describing Young's (E, shear (G and bulk (K moduli, Lame parameter (λ, and P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs as a function of porosity in various isotropic materials such as metals, ceramics and rocks. The characteristic J values of the GMR for E, G, K and λ of each material are systematically different and display consistent correlations with the Poisson's ratio of the nonporous material (ν0. For the materials dominated by corner-shaped pores, the fixed point at which the effective Poisson's ratio (ν remains constant is at ν0 = 0.2, and J(G > J(E > J(K > J(λ and J(G 0.2 and ν0 J(Vp and J(Vs 0.2 and ν0 0.2 and ν0 = 0.2, respectively. For natural rocks containing thin-disk-shaped pores parallel to mineral cleavages, grain boundaries and foliation, however, the ν fixed point decreases nonlinearly with decreasing pore aspect ratio (α: width/length. With increasing depth or pressure, cracks with smaller α values are progressively closed, making the ν fixed point rise and finally reach to the point at ν0 = 0.2.
Min, Young Jae; Yun, Gyeong Won; Kim, Kyung Min; Roh, Yuji; Kim, Young H. [Applied Acoustics Lab, Korea Science Academy of KAIST, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
Single crystalline silicon wafers having (100), (110), and (111) directions are employed as specimens for obtaining slowness profiles. Leaky Lamb waves (LLW) from immersed wafers were detected by varying the incident angles of the specimens and rotating the specimens. From an analysis of LLW signals for different propagation directions and phase velocities of each specimen, slowness profiles were obtained, which showed a unique symmetry with different symmetric axes. Slowness profiles were compared with elastic moduli of each wafer. They showed the same symmetries as crystal structures. In addition, slowness profiles showed expected patterns and values that can be inferred from elastic moduli. This implies that slowness profiles can be used to examine crystal structures of anisotropic solids.
Kenigsberg, A.; Saffer, D. M.; Riviere, J.; Marone, C.
2017-12-01
Ultrasonic/seismic waves are widely used for probing fault zone elastic and mechanical properties (gouge composition, frictional strength, density) and elastic properties (Vp, Vs, bulk and shear moduli), as it can provide insight into key processes and fault properties during shearing. These include fabric and force chain formation, porosity evolution, and fault zone stiffness, which are in turn factors in fault slip, damage, and healing. We report on a suite of direct shear experiments on synthetic fault gouge composed of 50% smectite /50% quartz at a normal stress of 25 MPa, in which we use ultrasonic wave transmission to continuously monitor compressional and shear wave velocities (Vp, Vs) up to shear strains of 25, while simultaneously measuring friction and monitoring the evolution of density and porosity. We find that wavespeeds vary with shear strain, due to fabric development and the evolution of density and porosity. The coefficient of friction peaks at μ .47 at a shear strain of .5 - 1, decreases to a steady state value of μ .43 by shear strains of 4.5- 6 and then remains rather constant to shear strains of 6 - 25, consistent with previous work. Density increases rapidly from 1.78 g/cm3 to 1.83 g/cm3 at shear strains from 0-2 (porosity decreases from 33% to 25% over that range), and then more gradually increases to a density of 2.08 g/cm3 (porosity of 21%) at a shear strain of 25. Vp increases from 2400 m/s to 2900 m/s during the onset of shear until a shear strain of 3, and then decreases to 2400-2500 by shear strain of 7-9. At shear strains above 9, Vp slowly increases as the layer becomes denser and less porous. We interpret the co-evolving changes in friction, porosity, and elastic moduli/wavespeed to reflect fabric development and alignment of clay particles as a function of shearing. More specifically, the decrease in Vp at a shear strain of 3 reflects the clay particles gradually aligning. Once the particles are aligned, the gradual increase of
Ceramic strengthening by tuning the elastic moduli of resin-based luting agents.
Spazzin, Aloísio O; Bacchi, Ataís; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Santos, Mateus B; Basso, Gabriela R; Griggs, Jason; Moraes, Rafael R
2017-03-01
Resin-based luting agents (RBLAs) with tuned elastic moduli (E) were prepared and their influence on the strengthening, reliability, and mode of failure of luted feldspar ceramic was investigated. RBLAs with low E (2.6GPa), intermediate E (6.6GPa), and high E (13.3GPa) were prepared and used to coat acid-etched ceramic disks. Positive (untreated ceramic) and negative (acid-etched ceramic) control groups were tested. The response variables (n=30) were biaxial flexural strength (σ bf , MPa), characteristic strength (σ 0 , MPa), and Weibull modulus at the ceramic surface (z=0) and luting agent surface (z=-t 2 ). A 3D finite element analysis simulated the biaxial flexural test. Fractographic analysis and morphology of the bonded interfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The RBLAs improved σ bf and σ 0 at z=0, particularly those with intermediate and high E, whereas the mechanical reliability was only affected in the negative control. At z=-t 2 , differences between all RBLAs were observed but the structural reliability was independent of the RBLA tested. Increasing E of the RBLA was associated with increased stress concentration at the RBLA and reduced stresses reaching the ceramic. Failures originated on the ceramic surface at the ceramic-cement interface. In the high E group, failure sometimes originated from the RBLA free surface. All RBLAs completely filled the ceramic irregularities. Increased E of the RBLA reduced the variability of strength, the stress reaching the ceramic structure, and sometimes altered the origin of failure. The use of high E RBLAs seems beneficial for luting feldspar ceramics. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bogan, Sam
2001-01-01
The first year included a study of the non-visible damage of composite overwrapped pressure vessels with B. Poe of the Materials Branch of Nasa-Langley. Early determinations showed a clear reduction in non-visible damage for thin COPVs when partially pressurized rather than unpressurized. Literature searches on Thicker-wall COPVs revealed surface damage but clearly visible. Analysis of current Analytic modeling indicated that that current COPV models lacked sufficient thickness corrections to predict impact damage. After a comprehensive study of available published data and numerous numerical studies based on observed data from Langley, the analytic framework for modeling the behavior was determined lacking and both Poe and Bogan suggested any short term (3yr) result for Jove would be overly ambitious and emphasis should be placed on transverse shear moduli studies. Transverse shear moduli determination is relevant to the study of fatigue, fracture and aging effects in composite structures. Based on the techniques developed by Daniel & Tsai, Bogan and Gates determined to verify the results for K3B and 8320. A detailed analytic and experimental plan was established and carried out that included variations in layup, width, thickness, and length. As well as loading rate variations to determine effects and relaxation moduli. The additional axial loads during the torsion testing were studied as was the placement of gages along the composite specimen. Of the proposed tasks, all of tasks I and 2 were completed with presentations given at Langley, SEM conferences and ASME/AIAA conferences. Sensitivity issues with the technique associated with the use of servohydraulic test systems for applying the torsional load to the composite specimen limited the torsion range for predictable and repeatable transverse shear properties. Bogan and Gates determined to diverge on research efforts with Gates continuing the experimental testing at Langley and Bogan modeling the apparent non
Gupta, Manoj; Gupta, T C
2017-10-01
The present study aims to accurately estimate inertial, physical, and dynamic parameters of human body vibratory model consistent with physical structure of the human body that also replicates its dynamic response. A 13 degree-of-freedom (DOF) lumped parameter model for standing person subjected to support excitation is established. Model parameters are determined from anthropometric measurements, uniform mass density, elastic modulus of individual body segments, and modal damping ratios. Elastic moduli of ellipsoidal body segments are initially estimated by comparing stiffness of spring elements, calculated from a detailed scheme, and values available in literature for same. These values are further optimized by minimizing difference between theoretically calculated platform-to-head transmissibility ratio (TR) and experimental measurements. Modal damping ratios are estimated from experimental transmissibility response using two dominant peaks in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. From comparison between dynamic response determined form modal analysis and experimental results, a set of elastic moduli for different segments of human body and a novel scheme to determine modal damping ratios from TR plots, are established. Acceptable match between transmissibility values calculated from the vibratory model and experimental measurements for 50th percentile U.S. male, except at very low frequencies, establishes the human body model developed. Also, reasonable agreement obtained between theoretical response curve and experimental response envelop for average Indian male, affirms the technique used for constructing vibratory model of a standing person. Present work attempts to develop effective technique for constructing subject specific damped vibratory model based on its physical measurements.
Impedance method for measuring shear elasticity of liquids
Badmaev, B. B.; Dembelova, T. S.; Damdinov, B. B.; Gulgenov, Ch. Zh.
2017-11-01
Experimental results of studying low-frequency (74 kHz) shear elasticity of polymer liquids by the impedance method (analogous to the Mason method) are presented. A free-volume thick liquid layer is placed on the horizontal surface of a piezoelectric quartz crystal with dimensions 34.7 × 12 × 5.5 cm. The latter performs tangential vibrations at resonance frequency. The liquid layer experiences shear strain, and shear waves should propagate in it. From the theory of the method, it follows that, with an increase in the layer thickness, both real and imaginary resonance frequency shifts should exhibit damped oscillations and tend to limiting values. For the liquids under study, the imaginary frequency shift far exceeds the real one, which testifies to the presence of bulk shear elasticity.
Helgerud, M.B.; Waite, W.F.; Kirby, S.H.; Nur, A.
2009-01-01
We used ultrasonic pulse transmission to measure compressional, P, and shear, S, wave speeds in laboratory-formed polycrystalline ice Ih, si methane hydrate, and sll methane-ethane hydrate. From the wave speed's linear dependence on temperature and pressure and from the sample's calculated density, we derived expressions for bulk, shear, and compressional wave moduli and Poisson's ratio from -20 to 15??C and 22.4 to 32.8 MPa for ice Ih, -20 to 15??C and 30.5 to 97.7 MPa for si methane hydrate, and -20 to 10??C and 30.5 to 91.6 MPa for sll methane-ethane hydrate. All three materials had comparable P and S wave speeds and decreasing shear wave speeds with increasing applied pressure. Each material also showed evidence of rapid intergranular bonding, with a corresponding increase in wave speed, in response to pauses in sample deformation. There were also key differences. Resistance to uniaxial compaction, indicated by the pressure required to compact initially porous samples, was significantly lower for ice Ih than for either hydrate. The ice Ih shear modulus decreased with increasing pressure, in contrast to the increase measured in both hydrates ?? 2009.
John H. Cantrell
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The chemical treatment of carbon fibers used in carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites greatly affects the fraction of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds formed at the fiber-matrix interface. The H-bonds are major contributors to the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength and play a direct role in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS of the composite. The H-bond contributions τ to the ILSS and magnitudes KN of the fiber-matrix interfacial stiffness moduli of seven carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites, subjected to different fiber surface treatments, are calculated from the Morse potential for the interactions of hydroxyl and carboxyl acid groups formed on the carbon fiber surfaces with epoxy receptors. The τ calculations range from 7.7 MPa to 18.4 MPa in magnitude, depending on fiber treatment. The KN calculations fall in the range (2.01 – 4.67 ×1017 N m−3. The average ratio KN/|τ| is calculated to be (2.59 ± 0.043 × 1010 m−1 for the seven composites, suggesting a nearly linear connection between ILSS and H-bonding at the fiber-matrix interfaces. The linear connection indicates that τ may be assessable nondestructively from measurements of KN via a technique such as angle beam ultrasonic spectroscopy.
Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks
Koski, Kristie J.; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L.
2013-03-01
Spider silks possess nature’s most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured—leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson’s ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction.
Shape oscillations of elastic particles in shear flow.
Subramaniam, Dhananjay Radhakrishnan; Gee, David J
2016-09-01
Particle suspensions are common to biological fluid flows; for example, flow of red- and white-blood cells, and platelets. In medical technology, current and proposed methods for drug delivery use membrane-bounded liquid capsules for transport via the microcirculation. In this paper, we consider a 3D linear elastic particle inserted into a Newtonian fluid and investigate the time-dependent deformation using a numerical simulation. Specifically, a boundary element technique is used to investigate the motion and deformation of initially spherical or spheroidal particles in bounded linear shear flow. The resulting deformed shapes reveal a steady-state profile that exhibits a 'tank-treading' motion for initially spherical particles. Wall effects on particle trajectory are seen to include a modified Jeffrey׳s orbit for spheroidal inclusions with a period that varies inversely with the strength of the shear flow. Alternately, spheroidal inclusions may exhibit either a 'tumbling' or 'trembling' motion depending on the initial particle aspect ratio and the capillary number (i.e., ratio of fluid shear to elastic restoring force). We find for a capillary number of 0.1, a tumbling mode transitions to a trembling mode at an aspect ratio of 0.87 (approx.), while for a capillary number of 0.2, this transition takes place at a lower aspect ratio. These oscillatory modes are consistent with experimental observations involving similarly shaped vesicles and thus serves to validate the use of a simple elastic constitutive model to perform relevant physiological flow calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NUMERICAL ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE ELASTIC MODULI OF SYNTACTIC FOAMS REINFORCED BY SHORT GLASS FIBERS
Wei Yu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hollow glass microsphere/epoxy resin syntactic foams reinforced by short glass fibers are studied using representative volume elements. Both the glass fibers and the hollow glass microspheres exhibit random arrangement in the epoxy resin. The volume fraction and wall thickness of hollow glass microspheres and the volume fraction of glass fibers are considered as parameters. It is observed that the elastic modulus values of syntactic foams decrease with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the microsphere relative wall thickness is lower. However, it increases with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the relative wall thickness exceeds a critical value. The elastic modulus value goes through a maximum when the relative wall thickness is around 0.06 at 25 % volume fraction of microspheres. The addition of glass fibers reduces the critical wall thickness values of the microspheres and increases the mechanical properties of the composites. The highest stress lies on the equatorial plane perpendicular to the loading direction. Adding fibers reduces the large stress distribution areas on the microspheres, and the fibers aligned with the loading direction play an important load-bearing role.
Stan, G; Cook, R F; Ciobanu, C V; Thayer, T P; Wang, G T; Creighton, J R; Purushotham, K P; Bendersky, L A
2009-01-01
A new methodology for determining the radial elastic modulus of a one-dimensional nanostructure laid on a substrate has been developed. The methodology consists of the combination of contact resonance atomic force microscopy (AFM) with finite element analysis, and we illustrate it for the case of faceted AlN nanotubes with triangular cross-sections. By making precision measurements of the resonance frequencies of the AFM cantilever-probe first in air and then in contact with the AlN nanotubes, we determine the contact stiffness at different locations on the nanotubes, i.e. on edges, inner surfaces, and outer facets. From the contact stiffness we have extracted the indentation modulus and found that this modulus depends strongly on the apex angle of the nanotube, varying from 250 to 400 GPa for indentation on the edges of the nanotubes investigated.
Pride, Steven R.; Berryman, James G.
2009-01-05
An analysis is presented to show how it is possible for unconsolidated granular packings to obey overall non-Hertzian pressure dependence due to the imperfect and random spatial arrangements of the grains in these packs. With imperfect arrangement, some gaps that remain between grains can be closed by strains applied to the grain packing. As these gaps are closed, former rattler grains become jammed and new stress-bearing contacts are created that increase the elastic stiffness of the packing. By allowing for such a mechanism, detailed analytical expressions are obtained for increases in bulk modulus of a random packing of grains with increasing stress and strain. Only isotropic stress and strain are considered in this analysis. The model is shown to give a favorable fit to laboratory data on variations in bulk modulus due to variations in applied pressure for bead packs.
Elasticity moduli, thermal expansion coefficients and Debye temperature of titanium alloys
Beletskij, V.M.; Glej, V.A.; Maksimyuk, P.A.; Tabachnik, V.I.; Opanasenko, V.F.
1979-01-01
Studied are the characteristics of titanium alloys which reflect best the bonding forces for atoms in a crystal lattice: elastic modules, their temperature dependences, thermal expansion coefficient and Debye temperatures. For the increase of the accuracy of measuring modules and especially their changes with temperature an ultrasonic echo-impulse method of superposition has been used. The temperature dependences of Young modulus of the VT1-0, VT16 and VT22 titanium alloys are plotted. The Young module and its change with temperature depend on the content of alloying elements. The Young module decrease with temperature may be explained within the framework of the inharmonic effect theory. The analysis of the results obtained permits to suppose that alloying of titanium alloys with aluminium results in an interatomic interaction increase that may be one of the reasons of their strength increase
Thayer, Patrick S; Verbridge, Scott S; Dahlgren, Linda A; Kakar, Sanjeev; Guelcher, Scott A; Goldstein, Aaron S
2016-08-01
Electrospun microfibers are attractive for the engineering of oriented tissues because they present instructive topographic and mechanical cues to cells. However, high-density microfiber networks are too cell-impermeable for most tissue applications. Alternatively, the distribution of sparse microfibers within a three-dimensional hydrogel could present instructive cues to guide cell organization while not inhibiting cell behavior. In this study, thin (∼5 fibers thick) layers of aligned microfibers (0.7 μm) were embedded within collagen hydrogels containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cultured for up to 14 days, and assayed for expression of ligament markers and imaged for cell organization. These microfibers were generated through the electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(ester-urethane) (PEUR), or a 75/25 PEUR/PCL blend to produce microfiber networks with elastic moduli of 31, 15, and 5.6 MPa, respectively. MSCs in composites containing 5.6 MPa fibers exhibited increased expression of the ligament marker scleraxis and the contractile phenotype marker α-smooth muscle actin versus the stiffer fiber composites. Additionally, cells within the 5.6 MPa microfiber composites were more oriented compared to cells within the 15 and 31 MPa microfiber composites. Together, these data indicate that the mechanical properties of microfiber/collagen composites can be tuned for the engineering of ligament and other target tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1894-1901, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nonlinear reflection of shock shear waves in soft elastic media.
Pinton, Gianmarco; Coulouvrat, François; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickaël
2010-02-01
For fluids, the theoretical investigation of shock wave reflection has a good agreement with experiments when the incident shock Mach number is large. But when it is small, theory predicts that Mach reflections are physically unrealistic, which contradicts experimental evidence. This von Neumann paradox is investigated for shear shock waves in soft elastic solids with theory and simulations. The nonlinear elastic wave equation is approximated by a paraxial wave equation with a cubic nonlinear term. This equation is solved numerically with finite differences and the Godunov scheme. Three reflection regimes are observed. Theory is developed for shock propagation by applying the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and entropic constraints. A characteristic parameter relating diffraction and non-linearity is introduced and its theoretical values are shown to match numerical observations. The numerical solution is then applied to von Neumann reflection, where curved reflected and Mach shocks are observed. Finally, the case of weak von Neumann reflection, where there is no reflected shock, is examined. The smooth but non-monotonic transition between these three reflection regimes, from linear Snell-Descartes to perfect grazing case, provides a solution to the acoustical von Neumann paradox for the shear wave equation. This transition is similar to the quadratic non-linearity in fluids.
Sewell, Thomas D.; Bennett, Carl M.
2000-01-01
Isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo calculations were used to obtain predictions of the elastic coefficients and derived engineering moduli and Poisson ratios for crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The elastic coefficients were computed using the strain fluctuation formula due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2662 (1982)]. Calculations were performed as a function of temperature (218 K≤T≤333 K) and hydrostatic pressure (0 GPa≤p≤4 GPa). The predicted values of the moduli and Poisson ratios under ambient conditions are in accord with general expectations for molecular crystals and with a very recent, unpublished determination for RDX. The moduli exhibit a sensitive pressure dependence whereas the Poisson ratios are relatively independent of pressure. The temperature dependence of the moduli is comparable to the precision of the results. However, the crystal does exhibit thermal softening for most pressures. An additional product of the calculations is information about the pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) equation of state. We obtain near-quantitative agreement with experiment for the case of hydrostatic compression and reasonable, but not quantitative, correspondence for thermal expansion. The results indicate a significant dependence of the thermal expansion coefficients on hydrostatic pressure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus
Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Nordez, Antoine; Hogrel, Jean-Yves
2012-01-01
The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties. (note)
Černý, Martin; Glogar, Petr; Manocha, L.
2000-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 15 (2000), s. 2139-2149 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0096; GA ČR GA106/96/0596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.715, year: 2000
Cankurtaran, M.; Saunders, G.A.; Goretta, K.C.; Poeppel, R.B.
1991-12-01
The effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature have been measured on the velocities of longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves propagated in a very dense (96% of theoretical density) ceramic specimen of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . In YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x ceramics with such a high density the effects of porosity on the elastic properties should be much reduced. Nevertheless the bulk modulus of this dense material has the same small magnitude (∼ 55GPa) as that measured ultrasonically in much less dense YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x ceramics. The temperature dependences of the velocities of longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves, which have been measured between 10 K and 300 K, show the step-like increase at 200 K on cooling and a similar decrease at 225 K during warming with hysteresis in the range 190 K to 235 K that has previously been observed in less dense ceramics and tentatively attributed to a phase transformation. The pressure dependences of both mode velocities for dense YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x ceramic show a pronounced change of slope at a pressure P c . For pressures below and above P c the pressure dependence of ultrasonic velocity is essentially linear. Above the knee, the enormous pressure dependences of the longitudinal mode velocity and hence of the bulk modulus persist. The temperature dependences of pressure derivatives of elastic stiffnesses and bulk modulus have been measured between 250 K and 295 K. The pressure P c at which the kink occurs decreases almost linearly with decreasing temperature and extrapolates to atmospheric pressure at about 220 K
Thermal expansion and elastic moduli of the silicide based intermetallic alloys Ti5Si3(X) and Nb5Si3
Zhang, L.; Wu, J.
1997-01-01
Silicides are among those potential candidates for high temperature application because of their high melting temperature, low density and good oxidation resistance. Recent interest is focused on molybdenum silicides and titanium silicides. Extensive investigation has been carried out on MoSi 2 , yet comparatively less work was performed on titanium silicides such as Ti 5 Si 3 and Ti 3 and TiSi 2 which are of lower density than MoSi 2 . Fundamental understanding of the titanium silicides' properties for further evaluation their potential for practical application are thus needed. The thermal expansion coefficients and elastic moduli of intermetallic compounds are two properties important for evaluation as a first step. The thermal expansion determines the possible stress that might arise during cooling for these high melting point compounds, which is crucial to the preparation of defect free specimens; and the elastic moduli are usually reflections of the cohesion in crystal. In Frommeyer's work and some works afterwards, the coefficients of thermal expansion were measured on both polycrystalline and single crystal Ti 5 Si 3 . The elastic modulus of polycrystalline Ti 5 Si 3 was measured by Frommeyer and Rosenkranz. However, in the above works, the referred Ti 5 Si 3 was the binary one, no alloying effect has been reported on this matter. Moreover, the above parameters (coefficient of thermal expansion and elastic modulus) of Nb 5 Si 3 remain unreported so far. In this paper, the authors try to extend the knowledge of alloyed Ti 5 Si 3 compounds with Nb and Cr additions. Results on the coefficients of thermal expansion and elastic moduli of Ti 5 Si 3 compounds and Nb 5 Si 3 are presented and the discussion is focused on the alloying effect
Liu, X Sherry; Sajda, Paul; Saha, Punam K; Wehrli, Felix W; Bevill, Grant; Keaveny, Tony M; Guo, X Edward
2008-02-01
Trabecular plates and rods are important microarchitectural features in determining mechanical properties of trabecular bone. A complete volumetric decomposition of individual trabecular plates and rods was used to assess the orientation and morphology of 71 human trabecular bone samples. The ITS-based morphological analyses better characterize microarchitecture and help predict anisotropic mechanical properties of trabecular bone. Standard morphological analyses of trabecular architecture lack explicit segmentations of individual trabecular plates and rods. In this study, a complete volumetric decomposition technique was developed to segment trabecular bone microstructure into individual plates and rods. Contributions of trabecular type-associated morphological parameters to the anisotropic elastic moduli of trabecular bone were studied. Seventy-one human trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck (FN), tibia, and vertebral body (VB) were imaged using muCT or serial milling. Complete volumetric decomposition was applied to segment trabecular bone microstructure into individual plates and rods. The orientation of each individual trabecula was determined, and the axial bone volume fractions (aBV/TV), axially aligned bone volume fraction along each orthotropic axis, were correlated with the elastic moduli. The microstructural type-associated morphological parameters were derived and compared with standard morphological parameters. Their contributions to the anisotropic elastic moduli, calculated by finite element analysis (FEA), were evaluated and compared. The distribution of trabecular orientation suggested that longitudinal plates and transverse rods dominate at all three anatomic sites. aBV/TV along each axis, in general, showed a better correlation with the axial elastic modulus (r(2) = 0.95 approximately 0.99) compared with BV/TV (r(2) = 0.93 approximately 0.94). The plate-associated morphological parameters generally showed higher correlations with the
Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density
Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun; Zhang, Zhao-Qing
2011-01-01
We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse
Czél, Gergely; Takács, Dénes
2015-01-01
A new material property determination method is presented for the calculation of effective elastic moduli of non-circular ring specimens cut from filament wound oval profile polymer composite sewer liner pipes. The hoop direction elastic moduli was determined using the test results obtained from ring compression tests, which is a very basic setup, and requires no special equipment. Calculations were executed for many different oval profiles, and diagrams were constructed, from which the cross section dependent C_e_f_f constants can be taken. The new method was validated by the comparison of tests and finite element analysis results. The calculation method and the diagrams are essential design tools for engineers, and a big step forward in sizing non-circular profile liner pipes. - Highlights: • A simple modulus measurement method is presented for non-circular ring specimens. • The evaluation method is validated against a finite element model. • Profile shape dependent constants are presented for a wide range of cross-sections. • A set of charts with the constants are provided to aid design engineers.
Ullemeyer, K; Keppler, R; Lokajíček, T; Vasin, R N; Behrmann, J H
2015-01-01
The elastic anisotropy of bulk rock depends on the mineral textures, the crack fabric and external parameters like, e.g., confining pressure. The texture-related contribution to elastic anisotropy can be predicted from the mineral textures, the largely sample-dependent contribution of the other parameters must be determined experimentally. Laboratory measurements of the elastic wave velocities are mostly limited to pressures of the intermediate crust. We describe a method, how the elastic wave velocity trends and, by this means, the elastic constants can be extrapolated to the pressure conditions of the lower crust. The extrapolated elastic constants are compared to the texture-derived ones. Pronounced elastic anisotropy is evident for phyllosilicate minerals, hence, the approach is demonstrated for two phyllosilicate-rich gneisses with approximately identical volume fractions of the phyllosilicates but different texture types. (paper)
Li, Xiang; Wang, Jian-Nan; Fan, Zhi-Ying; Kang, Shu; Liu, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Xia; Wang, Xue-Mei
2015-12-01
We examined breast tissue elasticity during the menstrual cycle using real-time shear wave elastography (RT-SWE), a recent technique developed for soft tissue imaging. Written informed consent for RT-SWE was obtained from all eligible patients, who were healthy women aged between 19 and 52 y. Young's moduli of the breast tissue in the early follicular, late phase and luteal phase were compared. There were no significant differences in the mean, maximum and minimum elasticity values (Emean, Emax and Emin) and standard deviation (ESD). RT-SWE of glandular tissue revealed that ESD was increased in the early follicular phase compared with the luteal phase. Means ± SD of Emin, Emax and Emean in glandular tissue were 5.174 ± 2.138, 8.308 ± 3.166 and 6.593 ± 2.510, respectively, and in adipose tissue, 3.589 ± 2.083, 6.733 ± 3.522 and 4.857 ± 2.564, respectively. There were no significant differences in stiffness between glandular and adipose tissues throughout the menstrual cycle, but glandular tissue stiffness was lower in the luteal phase than in the early follicular phase. On the basis of these observations in normal healthy women, we believe we have obtained sufficient information to establish the baseline changes in human breast elasticity during the menstrual cycle. In the future, we intend to compare the elasticity values of healthy breast tissue with those of breast tissue affected by various pathologies. Our results reveal the significant potential of RT-SWE in the rapid and non-invasive clinical diagnosis of breast diseases, such as breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elastic moduli of boron carbide/copper composites from -400C to 8000C by ultrasonic methods
Gieske, J.H.
1980-10-01
An ultrasonic through-transmission technique for high attenuating materials was developed to determine the ultrasonic longitudinal and shear velocities in B 4 C/Cu composites to 800 0 C. Ultrasonic velocity data was used to calculate Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio for the composites from -40 0 C to 800 0 C. 5 figures, 1 table
Ni, Jennifer E.; Case, Eldon D.; Schmidt, Robert D.; Wu, Chun-I.; Hogan, Timothy P.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.
2013-12-01
Twenty-six (Pb0.95Sn0.05Te)0.92(PbS)0.08-0.055% PbI2-SiC nanoparticle (SiCnp) composite thermoelectric specimens were either hot pressed or pulsed electric current sintered (PECS). Bloating (a thermally induced increase in porosity, P, for as-densified specimens) was observed during annealing at temperatures >603 K for hot-pressed specimens and PECS-processed specimens from wet milled powders, but in contrast seven out of seven specimens densified by PECS from dry milled powders showed no observable bloating following annealing at temperatures up to 936 K. In this study, bloating in the specimens was accessed via thermal annealing induced changes in (i) porosity measured by scanning electron microscopy on fractured specimen surfaces, (ii) specimen volume and (iii) elastic moduli. The moduli were measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. SiCnp additions (1-3.5 vol.%) changed the fracture mode from intergranular to transgranular, inhibited grain growth, and limited bloating in the wet milled PECS specimens. Inhibition of bloating likely occurs due to cleaning of contamination from powder particle surfaces via PECS processing which has been reported previously in the literature.
Pereira, A. H. A.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The work herein verifies the changes of the elastic moduli, damping and modulus of rupture (MOR of a high alumina refractory castable due to heating, cooling and heating-cooling thermal shock damage. Twelve prismatic specimens were prepared for the tests and divided into four groups. The thermal shocks were performed on three groups, each containing three specimens having abrupt temperature changes of 1100°C during heating in the first group, during cooling in the second and during heating followed by cooling in the third group. The fourth group, which was taken as a reference did not receive any thermal shock. The elastic moduli were measured after each thermal shock cycle. After 10 cycles, the MOR, the damping and the damping dependence on excitation amplitude were measured at room temperature for all specimens.
The elastic moduli showed a similar decrease and the damping a similar increase due to the cooling and heating-cooling thermal shocks. The heating thermal shocks caused no significant changes on the elastic moduli and damping. However, the MOR appeared to be sensitive to the heating thermal shock. This work also shows that the damping for the studied refractory castable is non-linear (i.e., amplitude of excitation sensitive and that this non-linearity increases when the damage level rises.
En este trabajo se investigaron las alteraciones de los módulos elásticos dinámicos, del amortiguamiento y del módulo de rotura (MOR de un material refractario moldeable de alta alúmina después de recibir choques térmicos de calentamiento, enfriamiento y calentamiento seguido de enfriamiento (calentamiento-enfriamiento. Para ello se prepararon doce cuerpos prismáticos dividiéndolos en cuatro grupos. Los choques térmicos se le aplicaron a sólo tres grupos, cada uno con tres muestras. Al primer grupo se le aplicó un cambio brusco de temperatura de 1100 °C en calentamiento, en enfriamiento al segundo grupo y calentamiento seguido
Ryota Akagi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available During prolonged low-level contractions, synergist muscles are activated in an alternating pattern of activity and silence called as alternate muscle activity. Resting muscle stiffness is considered to increase due to muscle fatigue. Thus, we investigated whether the difference in the extent of fatigue of each plantar flexor synergist corresponded to the difference in the frequency of alternate muscle activity between the synergists using muscle shear modulus as an index of muscle stiffness. Nineteen young men voluntarily participated in this study. The shear moduli of the resting medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles (MG and LG and soleus muscle (SOL were measured using shear wave ultrasound elastography before and after a 1-h sustained contraction at 10% peak torque during maximal voluntary contraction of isometric plantar flexion. One subject did not accomplish the task and the alternate muscle activity for MG was not found in 2 subjects; therefore, data for 16 subjects were used for further analyses. The magnitude of muscle activation during the fatiguing task was similar in MG and SOL. The percent change in shear modulus before and after the fatiguing task (MG: 16.7 ± 12.0%, SOL: −4.1 ± 13.9%; mean ± standard deviation and the alternate muscle activity during the fatiguing task (MG: 33 [20–51] times, SOL: 30 [17–36] times; median [25th–75th percentile] were significantly higher in MG than in SOL. The contraction-induced change in shear modulus (7.4 ± 20.3% and the alternate muscle activity (37 [20–45] times of LG with the lowest magnitude of muscle activation during the fatiguing task among the plantar flexors were not significantly different from those of the other muscles. These results suggest that the degree of increase in muscle shear modulus induced by prolonged contraction corresponds to the frequency of alternate muscle activity between MG and SOL during prolonged contraction. Thus, it is likely that, compared with
Marín-Santibáñez, Benjamín M.; Pérez-González, José; Rodríguez-González, Francisco
2014-01-01
The origin of shear thickening in an equimolar semidilute wormlike micellar solution of cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was investigated in this work by using Couette rheometry, flow visualization, and capillary Rheo-particle image velocimetry. The use of the combined methods allowed the discovery of gradient shear banding flow occurring from a critical shear stress and consisting of two main bands, one isotropic (transparent) of high viscosity and one structured (turbid) of low viscosity. Mechanical rheometry indicated macroscopic shear thinning behavior in the shear banding regime. However, local velocimetry showed that the turbid band increased its viscosity along with the shear stress, even though barely reached the value of the viscosity of the isotropic phase. This shear band is the precursor of shear induced structures that subsequently give rise to the average increase in viscosity or apparent shear thickening of the solution. Further increase in the shear stress promoted the growing of the turbid band across the flow region and led to destabilization of the shear banding flow independently of the type of rheometer used, as well as to vorticity banding in Couette flow. At last, vorticity banding disappeared and the flow developed elastic turbulence with chaotic dynamics
Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity
Dae Woo Park
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE- based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard tumor and surrounding tissue (soft. The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.
Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.
Park, Dae Woo
2015-01-01
Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.
Surface effects on anti-plane shear waves propagating in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates
Wu, Bin; Zhang, Chunli; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2015-01-01
Material surfaces may have a remarkable effect on the mechanical behavior of magneto-electro-elastic (or multiferroic) structures at nanoscale. In this paper, a surface magneto-electro-elasticity theory (or effective boundary condition formulation), which governs the motion of the material surface of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, is established by employing the state-space formalism. The properties of anti-plane shear (SH) waves propagating in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic plate with nanothickness are investigated by taking surface effects into account. The size-dependent dispersion relations of both antisymmetric and symmetric SH waves are presented. The thickness-shear frequencies and the asymptotic characteristics of the dispersion relations considering surface effects are determined analytically as well. Numerical results show that surface effects play a very pronounced role in elastic wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, and the dispersion properties depend strongly on the chosen surface material parameters of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates. As a consequence, it is possible to modulate the waves in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates through surface engineering. (paper)
Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Park, In-Ae
2014-03-01
The objective of this study was to compare the quantitative and qualitative shear-wave elastographic (SWE) features of breast cancers with mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics. This prospective study was conducted with institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Shear-wave elastography was performed for 30 invasive breast cancers in 30 women before surgery. The mechanical elasticity of a fresh breast tissue section, correlated with the ultrasound image, was measured using an indentation system. Quantitative (maximum, mean, minimum, and standard deviation of elasticity in kilopascals) and qualitative (color heterogeneity and presence of signal void areas in the mass) SWE features were compared with mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics using the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Maximum SWE values showed a moderate correlation with maximum mechanical elasticity (r = 0.530, P = 0.003). There were no significant differences between SWE values and mechanical elasticity in histologic grade I or II cancers (P = 0.268). However, SWE values were significantly higher than mechanical elasticity in histologic grade III cancers (P masses were present in 43% of breast cancers (13 of 30) and were correlated with dense collagen depositions (n = 11) or intratumoral necrosis (n = 2). Quantitative and qualitative SWE features reflect both the mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics of breast cancers.
Shear elastic modulus of magnetic gels with random distribution of magnetizable particles
Iskakova, L. Yu; Zubarev, A. Yu
2017-04-01
Magnetic gels present new type of composite materials with rich set of uniquie physical properties, which find active applications in many industrial and bio-medical technologies. We present results of mathematically strict theoretical study of elastic modulus of these systems with randomly distributed magnetizable particles in an elastic medium. The results show that an external magnetic field can pronouncedly increase the shear modulus of these composites.
Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald
2007-01-01
Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed
Samani, Abbas [Department of Medical Biophysics/Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, Medical Sciences Building, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Zubovits, Judit [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Plewes, Donald [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada)
2007-03-21
Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.
Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald
2007-03-01
Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.
Moreno-Flores, Susana; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis; Benitez, Rafael; Vivanco, Maria dM
2010-01-01
In this work we present a unified method to study the mechanical properties of cells using the atomic force microscope. Stress relaxation and creep compliance measurements permitted us to determine, the relaxation times, the Young moduli and the viscosity of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The results show that the mechanical behaviour of MCF-7 cells responds to a two-layered model of similar elasticity but differing viscosity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with an actin-depolymerising agent results in an overall decrease in both cell elasticity and viscosity, however to a different extent for each layer. The layer that undergoes the smaller decrease (36-38%) is assigned to the cell membrane/cortex while the layer that experiences the larger decrease (70-80%) is attributed to the cell cytoplasm. The combination of the method presented in this work, together with the approach based on stress relaxation microscopy (Moreno-Flores et al 2010 J. Biomech. 43 349-54), constitutes a unique AFM-based experimental framework to study cell mechanics. This methodology can also be extended to study the mechanical properties of biomaterials in general.
Measurements of P- and S wave velocities in a rock massif and its use in estimating elastic moduli
Živor, Roman; Vilhelm, J.; Rudajev, Vladimír; Lokajíček, Tomáš
2011-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 2 (2011), s. 157-167 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seismic source * seismic waves velocity * elastic constants * geophone * piezo -electric transducer Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/02_11/6_Zivor.pdf
Page, L.; Heard, H.C.
1981-01-01
Young's modulus (E), bulk modulus (K), and the coefficient of thermal linear expansion (α) have been determined for Climax quartz monzonite to 500 0 C and pressures (P) to 55 MPa and for Sudbury gabbro to 300 0 C and 55 MPa. For each rock, both E and K decreased with T and increased with P in a nonlinear manner. In the monzonite, E and K decreased by up to 60% as P decreased from 55.2 to 6.9 MPa isothermally, while the gabbro indicated a decrease up to 70% over the same pressure range. As T increased isobarically, E and K for the monzonite decreased by up to a factor of approx. 80% from 19 to 500 0 C. The moduli of the gabbro decreased by as much as 70% from 19 to 300 0 C. α for the monzonite increased with T and decreased with P in a nonmonotonic fashion, with most measured values for α greater than values calculated for the crack-free aggregate. Depending on P, α in the monzonite increased from 8 to 11.10 -6 0 C -1 at 40 0 C to 22 to 25.10 -6 C -1 at 475 0 C. For the gabbro, α also generally decreased with increasing P. Values ranged from 6 to 11.10 -6 0 C -1 , showing a nonlinear trend and very little net increas over the T range from 19 to 300 0 C. Calculated permeability of these rocks based on the α determinations indicated that permeabilities may increase by up to a factor of 3 over the temperature interval 19 to 300 0 C, and the permeability of the monzonite is inferred to increase by up to a factor of 8 by 500 0 C. In both rocks, most measurements are consistent with microcracks controlling the thermoelastic response by opening with T and closing with sigma and P
Steady shear characteristic and behavior of magneto-thermo-elasticity of isotropic MR elastomers
Gao, Wei; Wang, Xingzhe
2016-01-01
The magneto-thermo-elastic steady shear behaviors of isotropic smart composites of silicon rubber matrix randomly filled with ferromagnetic particles, commonly referred to as magnetorheological (MR) elastomers, are investigated experimentally and theoretically in the present study. The strip specimens of the MR elastomer composite with different ferromagnetic particle concentrations are fabricated and implemented for lap-shear tests under both magnetic and thermal fields. It is illustrated that the magneto-thermo-elastic shear modulus of the MR elastomer is markedly enhanced with the volume fraction of ferromagnetic particles and the applied external magnetic field, while the shear modulus is decreased with the environment temperature. To qualitatively elucidate the magneto-thermo-elastic shear performance of this kind of magnetic smart composites, a modified constitutive of hyperelasticity is suggested taking into account the influence of magnetic field and temperature on the magnetic potential energy and strain energy. The theoretical modeling predictions on the stress–strain behaviors for different applied magnetic fields and environment temperatures are compared to experimental observations to demonstrate a good agreement. (paper)
Brian Chin Wing Kot
Full Text Available Standardization on Shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE technical settings will not only ensure that the results are accurate, but also detect any differences over time that may be attributed to true physiological changes. The present study evaluated the variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon using SWUE when different technical aspects were altered. The results of this study indicated that variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon were found when different transducer's pressure and region of interest (ROI's size were applied. No significant differences in elastic modulus of the rectus femoris muscle and patellar tendon were found with different acquisition times of the SWUE sonogram. The SWUE on the muscle and tendon should be performed with the lightest transducer's pressure, a shorter acquisition time for the SWUE sonogram, while measuring the mean elastic modulus regardless the ROI's size.
Seo, Ho Geon; Song, Dong Gi; Jhang, Kyoung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
Measurement of elastic constants is crucial for engineering aspects of predicting the behavior of materials under load as well as structural health monitoring of material degradation. Ultrasonic velocity measurement for material properties has been broadly used as a nondestructive evaluation method for material characterization. In particular, pulse-echo method has been extensively utilized as it is not only simple but also effective when only one side of the inspected objects is accessible. However, the conventional technique in this approach measures longitudinal and shear waves individually to obtain their velocities. This produces a set of two data for each measurement. This paper proposes a simultaneous sensing system of longitudinal waves and shear waves for elastic constant measurement. The proposed system senses both these waves simultaneously as a single overlapped signal, which is then analyzed to calculate both the ultrasonic velocities for obtaining elastic constants. Therefore, this system requires just half the number of data to obtain elastic constants compared to the conventional individual measurement. The results of the proposed simultaneous measurement had smaller standard deviations than those in the individual measurement. These results validate that the proposed approach improves the efficiency and reliability of ultrasonic elastic constant measurement by reducing the complexity of the measurement system, its operating procedures, and the number of data.
Seo, Ho Geon; Song, Dong Gi; Jhang, Kyoung Young
2016-01-01
Measurement of elastic constants is crucial for engineering aspects of predicting the behavior of materials under load as well as structural health monitoring of material degradation. Ultrasonic velocity measurement for material properties has been broadly used as a nondestructive evaluation method for material characterization. In particular, pulse-echo method has been extensively utilized as it is not only simple but also effective when only one side of the inspected objects is accessible. However, the conventional technique in this approach measures longitudinal and shear waves individually to obtain their velocities. This produces a set of two data for each measurement. This paper proposes a simultaneous sensing system of longitudinal waves and shear waves for elastic constant measurement. The proposed system senses both these waves simultaneously as a single overlapped signal, which is then analyzed to calculate both the ultrasonic velocities for obtaining elastic constants. Therefore, this system requires just half the number of data to obtain elastic constants compared to the conventional individual measurement. The results of the proposed simultaneous measurement had smaller standard deviations than those in the individual measurement. These results validate that the proposed approach improves the efficiency and reliability of ultrasonic elastic constant measurement by reducing the complexity of the measurement system, its operating procedures, and the number of data
Namani, R.; Feng, Y.; Okamoto, R. J.; Jesuraj, N.; Sakiyama-Elbert, S. E.; Genin, G. M.; Bayly, P. V.
2012-01-01
The mechanical characterization of soft anisotropic materials is a fundamental challenge because of difficulties in applying mechanical loads to soft matter and the need to combine information from multiple tests. A method to characterize the linear elastic properties of transversely isotropic soft materials is proposed, based on the combination of dynamic shear testing (DST) and asymmetric indentation. The procedure was demonstrated by characterizing a nearly incompressible transversely isot...
Heterogeneous shear elasticity of glasses: The origin of the boson peak
Marruzzo, Alessia
2013-03-08
The local elasticity of glasses is known to be inhomogeneous on a microscopic scale compared to that of crystalline materials. Their vibrational spectrum strongly deviates from that expected from Debye\\'s elasticity theory: The density of states deviates from Debye\\'s law, the sound velocity shows a negative dispersion in the boson-peak frequency regime and there is a strong increase of the sound attenuation near the boson-peak frequency. By comparing a mean-field theory of shear-elastic heterogeneity with a large-scale simulation of a soft-sphere glass we demonstrate that the observed anomalies in glasses are caused by elastic heterogeneity. By observing that the macroscopic bulk modulus is frequency independent we show that the boson-peak-related vibrational anomalies are predominantly due to the spatially fluctuating microscopic shear stresses. It is demonstrated that the boson-peak arises from the steep increase of the sound attenuation at a frequency which marks the transition from wave-like excitations to disorder-dominated ones.
Heterogeneous shear elasticity of glasses: The origin of the boson peak
Marruzzo, Alessia; Schirmacher, Walter; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Ruocco, Giancarlo
2013-01-01
The local elasticity of glasses is known to be inhomogeneous on a microscopic scale compared to that of crystalline materials. Their vibrational spectrum strongly deviates from that expected from Debye's elasticity theory: The density of states deviates from Debye's law, the sound velocity shows a negative dispersion in the boson-peak frequency regime and there is a strong increase of the sound attenuation near the boson-peak frequency. By comparing a mean-field theory of shear-elastic heterogeneity with a large-scale simulation of a soft-sphere glass we demonstrate that the observed anomalies in glasses are caused by elastic heterogeneity. By observing that the macroscopic bulk modulus is frequency independent we show that the boson-peak-related vibrational anomalies are predominantly due to the spatially fluctuating microscopic shear stresses. It is demonstrated that the boson-peak arises from the steep increase of the sound attenuation at a frequency which marks the transition from wave-like excitations to disorder-dominated ones.
Shape Recovery of Elastic Red Blood Cells from Shear Flow Induced Deformation in Three Dimensions
Peng, Yan; Gounley, John
2015-11-01
Red blood cells undergo substantial shape changes in vivo. Modeled as an elastic capsule, the shape recovery of a three dimensional biconcave capsule from shear flow is studied for different preferred elastic and bending configuration. The fluid-structure interaction is modeled using the multiple-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann (LBM) and immersed boundary (IBM) methods. Based on the studies of the limited shape memory observed in three dimensions, the shape recovery is caused by the preferred elastic configuration, at least when paired with a constant spontaneous curvature. For these capsules, the incompleteness of the shape recovery observed precludes any conjecture about whether a single or multiple phase(s) are necessary to describe the recovery process. Longer simulations and a more stable methodology will be necessary. Y. Peng acknowledges support from Old Dominion University Research Foundation Grant #503921 and National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1319078.
Mohd Azmi Ismail; Sri Atmaja Rosyidi; Abdul Rahim Samsudin; Abdul Ghani Rafek; Khairul Anuar Mohd Nayan
2003-01-01
Spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is a non-destructive and in situ method for determining the stiffness profile of soil and pavement sites. The method consists of generation, measurement, and processing of dispersive elastic waves in layered systems. The test is performed on the pavement surface at strain level below 0.001%, where the elastic properties are considered independent of strain amplitude. During an SASW test, the surface of the medium under investigation is subject to an impact to generate energy at various frequencies. Two vertical acceleration transducers are set up near the impact source to detect the energy transmitted through the testing media. By recording signals in digitised form using a data acquisition system and processing them, surface wave velocities can be determined by constructing a dispersion curve. Through forward modeling, the shear wave velocities can be obtained, which can be related to the variation of stiffness with depth. This paper presents the results of two case studies for near?surface profiling of two different asphalt pavement sites. (Author)
The elastic strain energy of crystallographic shear planes in reduced tungsten trioxide
Iguchi, E.; Tilley, R.J.D.
1977-01-01
Calculations of the elastic strain energy due to crystallographic shear (c.s.) planes lying upon 102, 103 and 001 planes in reduced tungsten trioxide crystals have been made. The cases analysed in detail are for both isolated c.s. planes and for pairs of c.s. planes. These results are used to determine the elastic strain energy per unit volume for crystals containing ordered arrays of c.s. planes. It was found that the magnitude of the elastic strain energy was in the sequence 001 < 102 < 103 and that at relatively small inter-c.s. spacings the curves of elastic strain energy against c.s. plane separation take the form of a series of peaks and valleys. These results are compared with experimental observations of c.s. plane spacings in substantially reduced crystals containing quasi-ordered arrays of c.s. planes and with observations of c.s. plane nucleation and growth in both slightly and more appreciably reduced crystals. It was found that the elastic strain energy plays a significant part in controlling the microstructure of c.s. plane arrays in such cases. (author)
Zhao Wei; Yu Niann-i
1998-01-01
Estimation of the elastic modulus is important in engineering design. One difference between CFCCs (continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites), and CMCs (whisker, particulate, or short fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites), is that the anisotropic behavior of CFCCs plays an important role in affecting their mechanical behavior. This feature may also contribute to the variation of elastic properties and strengths of CFCC. In this paper, a Fortran program is developed to quantify the lamina stacking sequence effect on the effective elastic moduli of the laminated CFCCs. The material for modeling is a plain-weave Nicalon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (Nicalon/SiC) CFCCs. Results show that various stacking sequences within the CFCC (a [0/30/60] lay-up) will give different effective elastic moduli of the CFCCs. This trend leads to a variation of the slope of the linear portion on the flexural stress-strain curve, i.e., changing the position of the starting point of the non-linear portion, and the shape of the whole curve, which gives a different value of the peak stress in the curve. (orig.)
Namani, R.; Feng, Y.; Okamoto, R. J.; Jesuraj, N.; Sakiyama-Elbert, S. E.; Genin, G. M.; Bayly, P. V.
2012-01-01
The mechanical characterization of soft anisotropic materials is a fundamental challenge because of difficulties in applying mechanical loads to soft matter and the need to combine information from multiple tests. A method to characterize the linear elastic properties of transversely isotropic soft materials is proposed, based on the combination of dynamic shear testing (DST) and asymmetric indentation. The procedure was demonstrated by characterizing a nearly incompressible transversely isotropic soft material. A soft gel with controlled anisotropy was obtained by polymerizing a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin solutions in a high field magnet (B = 11.7 T); fibrils in the resulting gel were predominantly aligned parallel to the magnetic field. Aligned fibrin gels were subject to dynamic (20–40 Hz) shear deformation in two orthogonal directions. The shear storage modulus was 1.08 ± 0. 42 kPa (mean ± std. dev.) for shear in a plane parallel to the dominant fiber direction, and 0.58 ± 0.21 kPa for shear in the plane of isotropy. Gels were indented by a rectangular tip of a large aspect ratio, aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the normal to the plane of transverse isotropy. Aligned fibrin gels appeared stiffer when indented with the long axis of a rectangular tip perpendicular to the dominant fiber direction. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of asymmetric indentation were used to determine the relationship between direction-dependent differences in indentation stiffness and material parameters. This approach enables the estimation of a complete set of parameters for an incompressible, transversely isotropic, linear elastic material. PMID:22757501
Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity
Knops, Robin John
1971-01-01
The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...
Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Ma, Yanming
2009-01-01
agree well with the experimental values. The elastic constants of Fe2VAl and Fe2VGa are predicted. From the elastic constants the shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, sound velocities, and Debye temperatures are obtained. By analyzing the ratio between the bulk and shear moduli, we conclude...
Elastic properties of gamma-Pu by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy
Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Betts, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trugman, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, C H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, J N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramos, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroe, I [WORXESTER, MA
2009-01-01
Despite intense experimental and theoretical work on Pu, there is still little understanding of the strange properties of this metal. We used resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method to investigate the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline Pu at high temperatures. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli of the {gamma}-phase of Pu were determined simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth linear and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. We calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519K to 0.252 at 571K.
Elastic properties and spectroscopic studies of Na 2 O–ZnO–B 2 O 3 ...
Elastic properties, 11B MAS–NMR and IR spectroscopic studies have been employed to study the structure of Na2O–ZnO–B2O3 glasses. Sound velocities and elastic moduli such as longitudinal, Young's, bulk and shear modulus have been measured at a frequency of 10 MHz as a function of ZnO concentration.
Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density
Wu, Ying
2011-09-02
We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse waves can propagate with a negative dispersion while longitudinal waves are forbidden. This leads to many interesting phenomena such as negative refraction, which is demonstrated by using a wedge sample and a significant amount of mode conversion from transverse waves to longitudinal waves that cannot occur on the interface of two natural solids.
The transverse shear deformation behaviour of magneto-electro-elastic shell
Albarody, Thar M. Badri; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H. [UniversitiTeknologi PETRONAS, Perak (Malaysia); Faris, Waleed [International Islamic University Malaysia, Perak (Malaysia)
2016-01-15
Compared to the large number of possible magneto-electro-elastic shell theories, very few exact solutions determining the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions are possible. While, solving the magneto-electro-elastic shell equations in terms of thermo-magneto-electro-elastic generalized field functions on arbitrary domains and for general conditions exactly are not always possible. In the present work, a linear version of magneto-electro-elastic shell with simply supported boundary conditions, solved exactly, provided that the lamination scheme is cross-ply or anti-symmetric angle-ply laminates. The exact solution that introduced herein can measure the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions. It also allow for an accurate and usually elegant and conclusive investigation of the various sensations in a shell structure. However, it is important for micro-electro-mechanical shell applications to have an approach available that gives the transverse shear deformation Behaviour for cases that cannot examine experimentally. An investigated examples were accompanied and noteworthy conclusions were drawn which highlight the issues of the implementation of the exact solution, implication of the effects of the material properties, lay-ups of the constituent layers, and shell parameters on the static Behaviour.
The transverse shear deformation behaviour of magneto-electro-elastic shell
Albarody, Thar M. Badri; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Faris, Waleed
2016-01-01
Compared to the large number of possible magneto-electro-elastic shell theories, very few exact solutions determining the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions are possible. While, solving the magneto-electro-elastic shell equations in terms of thermo-magneto-electro-elastic generalized field functions on arbitrary domains and for general conditions exactly are not always possible. In the present work, a linear version of magneto-electro-elastic shell with simply supported boundary conditions, solved exactly, provided that the lamination scheme is cross-ply or anti-symmetric angle-ply laminates. The exact solution that introduced herein can measure the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions. It also allow for an accurate and usually elegant and conclusive investigation of the various sensations in a shell structure. However, it is important for micro-electro-mechanical shell applications to have an approach available that gives the transverse shear deformation Behaviour for cases that cannot examine experimentally. An investigated examples were accompanied and noteworthy conclusions were drawn which highlight the issues of the implementation of the exact solution, implication of the effects of the material properties, lay-ups of the constituent layers, and shell parameters on the static Behaviour
A. H. A Pereira
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um equipamento para a caracterização não-destrutiva dos módulos elásticos aplicável a cerâmicas, concretos e materiais frágeis baseado na norma ASTM E 1875-00. Pode-se medir com exatidão, praticidade e simultaneidade o módulo de Young, de cisalhamento e a razão de Poisson. O equipamento obtém, via espectroscopia de ressonância sônica, as freqüências naturais de vibração flexurais e torcionais do corpo de prova e calcula os módulos. O equipamento foi desenvolvido em três partes: suporte do corpo de prova, eletrônica e software. O suporte aplica as condições de contorno mecânicas e a excitação necessária, a eletrônica gera e capta os sinais e o software executa os cálculos. A validação foi realizada com ensaios inter-técnicas e inter-laboratoriais de materiais refratários e de referência. Os resultados mostraram que o equipamento é mais versátil do que as opções atuais para a medida simultânea das três propriedades elásticas apresentadas acima.In this work was developed an equipment for non-destructive characterization of elastic moduli applicable to ceramics, concretes, and brittle materials based on ASTM E 1875-00 standard. The Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio can be simultaneously and easily measured with accuracy applying the new equipment. The natural torsional and flexural vibration frequencies of the sample are measured through sonic resonance spectroscopy. This permits the calculation of the elastic moduli. The system was developed in three parts: the sample holder, the electronics and the software. The sample holder applies the mechanical boundary conditions and excitation. The electronics captures and generates the signals. Finally, the software performs the calculations. The validation was carried out with inter-laboratory and inter-technique tests of refractories and reference materials. The results showed that the equipment is more versatile than the current
Moduli determination of continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs)
Liaw, P.K.; Hsu, D.K.; Miriyala, N.; Snead, L.L.; McHargue, C.J.
1995-01-01
Nicalon TM /silicon carbide composites were fabricated by the Forced Chemical Vapor Infiltration (FCVI) method. Both through-thickness and in-plane (fiber fabric plane) moduli were determined using ultrasonic techniques. The through-thickness elastic constants (moduli) were found to be much less than the in-plane moduli. Increased porosity significantly decreased both in-plane and through-thickness moduli. A periodic model using a homogenization method was formulated to predict the effect of porosity on the moduli of woven fabric composites. The predicted moduli were found to be in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. ((orig.))
Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules
2015-11-01
The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.
Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine
2015-08-01
Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Measurement of tissue-radiation dosage using a thermal steady-state elastic shear wave.
Chang, Sheng-Yi; Hsieh, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Ru; Chen, Jin-Chung; Chou, Chien
2017-08-01
A biodosimeter based on thermal-induced elastic shear wave (TIESW) in silicone acellular porcine dermis (SAPD) at thermal steady state has been proposed and demonstrated. A square slab SAPD treated with ionizing radiation was tested. The SAPD becomes a continuous homogeneous and isotropic viscoelastic medium due to the generation of randomly coiled collagen fibers formed from their bundle-like structure in the dermis. A harmonic TIESW then propagates on the surface of the SAPD as measured by a nanometer-scaled strain-stress response under thermal equilibrium conditions at room temperature. TIESW oscillation frequency was noninvasively measured in real time by monitoring the transverse displacement of the TIESW on the SAPD surface. Because the elastic shear modulus is highly sensitive to absorbed doses of ionizing radiation, this proposed biodosimeter can become a highly sensitive and noninvasive method for quantitatively determining tissue-absorbed dosage in terms of TIESW’s oscillation frequency. Detection sensitivity at 1 cGy and dynamic ranges covering 1 to 40 cGy and 80 to 500 cGy were demonstrated.
Reproducibility of real-time shear wave elastography in the evaluation of liver elasticity
Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Zicchetti, Mabel; Above, Elisabetta; Poma, Gianluigi; Di Gregorio, Marta; Filice, Carlo
2012-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of real-time shear wave elastography in assessing liver elasticity in healthy volunteers. Methods: Forty-two volunteers were studied in day 1. Shear wave elastography studies were performed by using the ultrasound system Aixplorer™ (SuperSonic Imagine S.A., Aix-en-Provence, France) with a convex broadband probe. Measurements were carried by two operators, an expert (operator 1) and a novice (operator 2). Examinations were performed on the right lobe of the liver. Each operator performed 10 consecutive measurements in each volunteer. In a subset of volunteers (n = 18) measurements were performed twice on two different days (day 1 and day 2). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: Intraobserver agreement between measurements performed in the same subject in the same day (day 1 or day 2) showed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.93–0.98) and 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.90–0.96) for operator 1 and operator 2, respectively. Intraobserver agreement between measurements performed in the same subject in different days showed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.69–0.98) and 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.39–0.91) for operator 1 and operator 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.82–0.94). Conclusions: The results of this study show that shear wave elastography is a reliable and reproducible noninvasive method for the assessment of liver elasticity. Expert operator had higher reproducibility of measurements over time than novice operator.
Jiang, Yi; Li, Guoyang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liang, Si; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping
2015-10-01
We use supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) technique to measure not only the linear but also the nonlinear elastic properties of brain matter. Here, we tested six porcine brains ex vivo and measured the velocities of the plane shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force at different states of pre-deformation when the ultrasonic probe is pushed into the soft tissue. We relied on an inverse method based on the theory governing the propagation of small-amplitude acoustic waves in deformed solids to interpret the experimental data. We found that, depending on the subjects, the resulting initial shear modulus [Formula: see text] varies from 1.8 to 3.2 kPa, the stiffening parameter [Formula: see text] of the hyperelastic Demiray-Fung model from 0.13 to 0.73, and the third- [Formula: see text] and fourth-order [Formula: see text] constants of weakly nonlinear elasticity from [Formula: see text]1.3 to [Formula: see text]20.6 kPa and from 3.1 to 8.7 kPa, respectively. Paired [Formula: see text] test performed on the experimental results of the left and right lobes of the brain shows no significant difference. These values are in line with those reported in the literature on brain tissue, indicating that the SSI method, combined to the inverse analysis, is an efficient and powerful tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissue, which is of great importance for computer simulation of traumatic brain injury and virtual neurosurgery.
Reproducibility of real-time shear wave elastography in the evaluation of liver elasticity
Ferraioli, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.ferraioli@unipv.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Tinelli, Carmine, E-mail: ctinelli@smatteo.pv.it [Clinical Epidemiology and Biometric Unit, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, Viale Golgi 19, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Zicchetti, Mabel, E-mail: mabel.zicchetti@unipv.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Above, Elisabetta, E-mail: betta.above@gmail.com [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Poma, Gianluigi, E-mail: gigi.poma@libero.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Di Gregorio, Marta, E-mail: martadigregorio@virgilio.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Filice, Carlo, E-mail: carfil@unipv.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy)
2012-11-15
Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of real-time shear wave elastography in assessing liver elasticity in healthy volunteers. Methods: Forty-two volunteers were studied in day 1. Shear wave elastography studies were performed by using the ultrasound system Aixplorer Trade-Mark-Sign (SuperSonic Imagine S.A., Aix-en-Provence, France) with a convex broadband probe. Measurements were carried by two operators, an expert (operator 1) and a novice (operator 2). Examinations were performed on the right lobe of the liver. Each operator performed 10 consecutive measurements in each volunteer. In a subset of volunteers (n = 18) measurements were performed twice on two different days (day 1 and day 2). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: Intraobserver agreement between measurements performed in the same subject in the same day (day 1 or day 2) showed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.98) and 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.96) for operator 1 and operator 2, respectively. Intraobserver agreement between measurements performed in the same subject in different days showed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.98) and 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.91) for operator 1 and operator 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.94). Conclusions: The results of this study show that shear wave elastography is a reliable and reproducible noninvasive method for the assessment of liver elasticity. Expert operator had higher reproducibility of measurements over time than novice operator.
Fluid Effects on Shear Waves in Finely Layered Porous Media
Berryman, J G
2004-01-01
Although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, one and only one effective shear modulus for the layered system contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves. Pore fluids can increase the magnitude the shear energy stored by this modulus by a term that ranges from the smallest to the largest shear moduli of the VTI system. But, since there are five shear moduli in play, the increase in shear energy overall is reduced by a factor of about 5 in general. We can therefore give definite bounds on the maximum increase of shear modulus, being about 20% of the permitted range, when gas is fully replaced by liquid. An attendant increase of density (depending on porosity and fluid density) by approximately 5 to 10% partially offsets the effect of this shear modulus increase. Thus, an increase of shear wave speed on the order of 5 to 10% is shown to be possible when circumstances are favorable - i.e., when the shear modulus fluctuations are large (resulting in strong anisotropy), and the medium behaves in an undrained fashion due to fluid trapping. At frequencies higher than seismic (such as sonic and ultrasonic waves for well-logging or laboratory experiments), short response times also produce the requisite undrained behavior and, therefore, fluids also affect shear waves at high frequencies by increasing rigidity
Coombes, B K; Tucker, K; Vicenzino, B; Vuvan, V; Mellor, R; Heales, L; Nordez, A; Hug, F
2018-03-01
To compare tendon elastic and structural properties of healthy individuals with those with Achilles or patellar tendinopathy. Sixty-seven participants (22 Achilles tendinopathy, 17 patellar tendinopathy, and 28 healthy controls) were recruited between March 2015 and March 2016. Shear wave velocity (SWV), an index of tissue elastic modulus, and tendon thickness were measured bilaterally at mid-tendon and insertional regions of Achilles and patellar tendons by an examiner blinded to group. Analysis of covariance, adjusted for age, body mass index, and sex was used to compare differences in tendon thickness and SWV between the two tendinopathy groups (relative to controls) and regions. Tendon thickness was included as a covariate for analysis of SWV. Compared to controls, participants with Achilles tendinopathy had lower SWV at the distal insertion (Mean difference MD; 95% CI: -1.56; -2.49 to -0.62 m/s; P < .001) and greater thickness at the mid-tendon (MD 0.19; 0.05-0.33 cm; P = .007). Compared to controls, participants with patellar tendinopathy had higher SWV at both regions (MD 1.25; 0.40-2.10 m/s; P = .005) and greater thickness proximally (MD 0.17; 0.06-0.29 cm; P = .003). Compared to controls, participants with Achilles and patellar tendinopathy displayed lower Achilles tendon elastic modulus and higher patellar tendon elastic modulus, respectively. More research is needed to explore whether maturation, aging, or chronic load underlie these findings and whether current management programs for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy need to be tailored to the tendon. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Atomistic simulation of the structural and elastic properties of ...
experimental data and previous theoretical results, showing no phase transition ... and theoretical [2,9–11] studies have been dedicated to deter- ..... [33] introduced a simple relationship that empirically links the plastic properties of materials with their elastic moduli. The shear modulus G represents the resistance to plastic.
The inversion of relative shear rigidity in different material classes at megabar pressures
Brazhkin, V V
2002-01-01
The behaviour of elastic moduli of substances is analysed in the megabar pressure range. A new effect - inversion of the shear moduli and mechanical properties upon compression - is predicted for various classes of substances. The melting-curve data for different materials confirm the predicted phenomenon. The materials traditionally considered the softest, such as rare-gas solids and molecular substances, may become the hardest in the megabar range. This should be taken into account in developing experimental high-pressure techniques.
Strain localization and elastic-plastic coupling during deformation of porous sandstone
Dewers, Thomas A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Issen, Kathleen A. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering; Holcomb, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Olsson, William A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Ingraham, Mathew D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.
2017-09-12
Results of axisymmetric compression tests on weak, porous Castlegate Sandstone (Cretaceous, Utah, USA), covering a range of dilational and compactional behaviors, are examined for localization behavior. Assuming isotropy, bulk and shear moduli evolve as increasing functions of mean stress and Mises equivalent shear stress respectively, and as decreasing functions of work-conjugate plastic strains. Acoustic emissions events located during testing show onset of localization and permit calculation of observed shear and low-angle compaction localization zones, or bands, as localization commences. Total strain measured experimentally partitions into: A) elastic strain with constant moduli, B) elastic strain due to stress dependence of moduli, C) elastic strain due to moduli degradation with increasing plastic strain, and D) plastic strain. The third term is the elastic-plastic coupling strain, and though often ignored, contributes significantly to pre-failure total strain for brittle and transitional tests. Constitutive parameters and localization predictions derived from experiments are compared to theoretical predictions. In the brittle regime, predictions of band angles (angle between band normal and maximum compression) demonstrate good agreement with observed shear band angles. Compaction localization was observed in the transitional regime in between shear localization and spatially pervasive compaction, over a small range of mean stresses. In contrast with predictions however, detailed acoustic emissions analyses in this regime show low angle, compaction-dominated but shear-enhanced, localization.
Vâgberg, Daniel; Olsson, Peter; Teitel, S.
2017-01-01
We carry out constant volume simulations of steady-state, shear-driven flow in a simple model of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, frictionless disks in two dimensions, using a dissipation law that gives rise to Bagnoldian rheology. Focusing on the small strain rate limit, we map out the rheological behavior as a function of particle packing fraction ϕ and a parameter Q that measures the elasticity of binary particle collisions. We find a Q*(ϕ ) that marks the clear crossover from a region characteristic of strongly inelastic collisions, Q Q* , and give evidence that Q*(ϕ ) diverges as ϕ →ϕJ , the shear-driven jamming transition. We thus conclude that the jamming transition at any value of Q behaves the same as the strongly inelastic case, provided one is sufficiently close to ϕJ. We further characterize the differing nature of collisions in the strongly inelastic vs weakly inelastic regions, and recast our results into the constitutive equation form commonly used in discussions of hard granular matter.
Softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66} in iron-based superconductors
Boehmer, Anna; Burger, Philipp [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Fakultaet fuer Physik, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hardy, Frederic; Schweiss, Peter; Fromknecht, Rainer; Wolf, Thomas; Meingast, Christoph [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Reinecker, Marius; Schranz, Wilfried [Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Physik, A-1090 Wien, Vienna (Austria)
2013-07-01
The structural phase transition of underdoped iron-based superconductors is accompanied by a large softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66}, which has attracted considerable attention. This softening has been discussed both in terms of orbital and spin-nematic fluctuations which would be responsible for the structural phase transition and, possibly, superconductivity. However, sample requirements have so far restricted experimental investigations of C{sub 66} (via measurements of the ultrasound velocity) to the Ba(Fe,Co){sub 2}As{sub 2} system. Here, we report on a new technique, based on a three-point bending setup, to probe the Young's modulus of a sample with a capacitance dilatometer. For certain orientations, the Young's modulus is related to the elastic constant C{sub 66} whose effective temperature dependence can be obtained. Platelet-like samples, as frequently encountered for iron-based systems, are easily studied with our setup. Data on several systems are presented and discussed.
Flow through internal elastic lamina affects shear stress on smooth muscle cells (3D simulations).
Tada, Shigeru; Tarbell, John M
2002-02-01
We describe a three-dimensional numerical simulation of interstitial flow through the medial layer of an artery accounting for the complex entrance condition associated with fenestral pores in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) to investigate the fluid mechanical environment around the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) right beneath the IEL. The IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to water flow except for the fenestral pores, which were assumed to be uniformly distributed over the IEL. The medial layer was modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of a periodic array of cylindrical SMCs embedded in a continuous porous medium representing the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen matrix. Depending on the distance between the IEL bottom surface and the upstream end of the proximal layer of SMCs, the local shear stress on SMCs right beneath the fenestral pore could be more than 10 times higher than that on the cells far removed from the IEL under the conditions that the fenestral pore diameter and area fraction of pores were kept constant at 1.4 microm and 0.05, respectively. Thus these proximal SMCs may experience shear stress levels that are even higher than endothelial cells exposed to normal blood flow (order of 10 dyn/cm(2)). Furthermore, entrance flow through fenestral pores alters considerably the interstitial flow field in the medial layer over a spatial length scale of the order of the fenestral pore diameter. Thus the spatial gradient of shear stress on the most superficial SMC is noticeably higher than computed for endothelial cell surfaces.
Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Carlson, Lindsey C.; Woo, Kaitlin M.; Santoso, Andrew P.; Guerrero, Quinton W.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J.
2018-04-01
Abnormal parturition, e.g. pre- or post-term birth, is associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity and increased economic burden. This could potentially be prevented by accurate detection of abnormal softening of the uterine cervix. Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) techniques that quantify tissue softness, such as shear wave speed (SWS) measurement, are promising for evaluation of the cervix. Still, interpretation of results can be complicated by biological variability (i.e. spatial variations of cervix stiffness, parity), as well as by experimental factors (i.e. type of transducer, posture during scanning). Here we investigated the ability of SWEI to detect cervical softening, as well as sources of SWS variability that can affect this task, in the pregnant and nonpregnant Rhesus macaque. Specifically, we evaluated SWS differences when imaging the cervix transabdominally with a typical linear array abdominal transducer, and transrectally with a prototype intracavitary linear array transducer. Linear mixed effects (LME) models were used to model SWS as a function of menstrual cycle day (in nonpregnant animals) and gestational age (in pregnant animals). Other variables included parity, shear wave direction, and cervix side (anterior versus posterior). In the nonpregnant cervix, the LME model indicated that SWS increased by 2% (95% confidence interval 0–3%) per day, starting eight days before menstruation. During pregnancy, SWS significantly decreased at a rate of 6% (95% CI 5–7%) per week (intracavitary approach) and 3% (95% CI 2–4%) per week (transabdominal approach), and interactions between the scanning approach and other fixed effects were also significant. These results suggest that, while absolute SWS values are influenced by factors such as scanning approach and SWEI implementation, these sources of variability do not compromise the sensitivity of SWEI to cervical softening. Our results also highlight the importance of standardizing SWEI
Chino, Kentaro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki
2017-07-01
The aim of the present study was to measure in vivo skeletal muscle elasticity in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography and then to compare the image stability, measurement values and measurement repeatability between these imaging planes. Thirty-one healthy males participated in this study. Tissue elasticity (shear wave velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, biceps brachii and rectus abdominis was measured in both the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography. Image stability was evaluated by the standard deviation of the colour distribution in the shear wave elastography image. Measurement repeatability was assessed by the coefficient of variance obtained from three measurement values. Image stability of all tested muscles was significantly higher in the longitudinal plane (Pplanes (P>0·05), except in the biceps brachii (P = 0·001). Measurement values of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps brachii were significantly different between the imaging planes (Pplane, which indicates that imaging plane should be considered when measuring skeletal muscle tissue elasticity by shear wave elastography. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chino, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hideyuki
2016-04-01
Passive joint stiffness is an important quantitative measure of flexibility, but is affected by muscle volume and all of the anatomical structures located within and over the joint. Shear wave elastography can assess muscle elasticity independent of the influences of muscle volume and the other nearby anatomical structures. We determined how muscle elasticity, as measured using shear wave elastography, is associated with passive joint stiffness and patient sex. Twenty-six healthy men (24.4 ± 5.9 years) and 26 healthy women (25.2 ± 4.8 years) participated in this study. The passive ankle joint stiffness and tissue elasticity of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) were quantified with the ankle in 30° plantar flexion (PF), a neutral anatomical position (NE), and 20° dorsiflexion (DF). No significant difference in passive joint stiffness by sex was observed with the ankle in PF, but significantly greater passive ankle joint stiffness in men than in women was observed in NE and DF. The MG elasticity was not significantly associated with joint stiffness in PF or NE, but it was significantly associated with joint stiffness in DF. There were no significant differences in MG elasticity by sex at any ankle position. Muscle elasticity, measured independent of the confounding effects of muscle volume and the other nearby anatomical structures, is associated with passive joint stiffness in the joint position where the muscle is sufficiently lengthened, but does not vary by sex in any joint position tested.
Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.
2017-10-01
This paper develops nonlocal elasticity equations and magneto-electro-elastic relations to size-dependent electro-magneto-elastic bending analyses of the functionally graded axisymmetric circular nanoplates based on the first-order shear deformation theory. All material properties are graded along the thickness direction based on exponential varying. It is assumed that a circular nanoplate is made from piezo-magnetic materials. The energy method and Ritz approach is employed for the derivation of governing equations of electro-magneto-elastic bending and the solution of the problem, respectively. The nanoplate is subjected to applied electric and magnetic potentials at top and transverse loads while it is rested on Pasternak's foundation. Some important numerical results are presented in various figures to show the influence of applied electric and magnetic potentials, small scale parameter and inhomogeneous index of an exponentially graded nanoplate.
Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Nelson, Keith Adam
2013-01-01
We present dynamic shear and bulk modulus measurements of supercooled tetraphenyl-tetramethyl-trisiloxane (DC704) and 5-phenyl-4-ether over a range of temperatures close to their glass transition. The data are analyzed and compared in terms of time-temperature superposition (TTS), the relaxation ...
Attar, M.; Karrech, A.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.
2014-05-01
The free vibration of a shear deformable beam with multiple open edge cracks is studied using a lattice spring model (LSM). The beam is supported by a so-called two-parameter elastic foundation, where normal and shear foundation stiffnesses are considered. Through application of Timoshenko beam theory, the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account. In the LSM, the beam is discretised into a one-dimensional assembly of segments interacting via rotational and shear springs. These springs represent the flexural and shear stiffnesses of the beam. The supporting action of the elastic foundation is described also by means of normal and shear springs acting on the centres of the segments. The relationship between stiffnesses of the springs and the elastic properties of the one-dimensional structure are identified by comparing the homogenised equations of motion of the discrete system and Timoshenko beam theory.
Gieske, J.H.
1980-10-01
Young's Modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio for 17-4 pH stainless steel and uranium -2 molybdenum are calculated from ultrasonic longitudinal and shear velocities determined from -40 0 C to 800 0 C. The ultrasonic velocities were determined at elevated temperatures using a through-transmission buffer rod arrangement. An indium-gallium slurry bond was used as an ultrasonic couplant between Cupernickel 10 alloy buffer rods and the specimen. Microstructural changes and phase transitions in the specimens are evident from the temperature dependence of the ultrasonic data. 10 figures, 3 tables
Medkour, Y.; Roumili, A.; Maouche, D.; Saoudi, A.; Louail, L.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Single crystal elastic constants C 11 , C 12 and C 44 were calculated. ► Elastic moduli for polycrystalline aggregate were obtained. ► Increasing the atomic number of A element reduces B, G′, Y and v. ► Mn 3 AlC has a high melting point and light weight. - Abstract: First principle calculations were made to investigate the elastic properties of Mn 3 AC antiperovskites, A = Zn, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge and Sn. The estimated equilibrium lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental ones. From the single crystal elastic constants we have calculated the polycrystalline elastic moduli: the bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, tetragonal shear modulus G′, Young’s modulus Y, Cauchy’s pressure CP, Poisson’s ratio v, elastic anisotropy factor and Pugh’s criterion G/B. Using Debye’s approximation we have deduced the elastic wave velocities and Debye’s temperature.
Chen, S.
2016-01-01
Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging. This session will target these two goals with two presentations. A. Basics and Current Implementations of Ultrasound Imaging of Shear Wave Speed and Elasticity - Shigao Chen, Ph.D. Learning objectives-To understand: Introduction: Importance of tissue elasticity measurement Strain vs. shear wave elastography (SWE), beneficial features of SWE The link between shear wave speed and material properties, influence of viscosity Generation of shear waves External vibration (Fibroscan) ultrasound radiation force Point push Supersonic push (Aixplorer) Comb push (GE Logiq E9) Detection of shear waves Motion detection from pulse-echo ultrasound Importance of frame rate for shear wave imaging Plane wave imaging detection How to achieve high effective frame rate using line-by-line scanners Shear wave speed calculation Time to peak Random sample consensus (RANSAC) Cross correlation Sources of bias and variation in SWE Tissue viscosity Transducer compression or internal pressure of organ Reflection of shear waves at boundaries B. Elasticity Imaging System Biomarker Qualification and User Testing of Systems – Brian Garra, M.D. Learning objectives-To understand: Goals Review the need for quantitative medical imaging Provide examples of quantitative imaging biomarkers Acquaint the participant with the purpose of the RSNA Quantitative Imaging
Chen, S. [Mayo Clinic (United States)
2016-06-15
Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging. This session will target these two goals with two presentations. A. Basics and Current Implementations of Ultrasound Imaging of Shear Wave Speed and Elasticity - Shigao Chen, Ph.D. Learning objectives-To understand: Introduction: Importance of tissue elasticity measurement Strain vs. shear wave elastography (SWE), beneficial features of SWE The link between shear wave speed and material properties, influence of viscosity Generation of shear waves External vibration (Fibroscan) ultrasound radiation force Point push Supersonic push (Aixplorer) Comb push (GE Logiq E9) Detection of shear waves Motion detection from pulse-echo ultrasound Importance of frame rate for shear wave imaging Plane wave imaging detection How to achieve high effective frame rate using line-by-line scanners Shear wave speed calculation Time to peak Random sample consensus (RANSAC) Cross correlation Sources of bias and variation in SWE Tissue viscosity Transducer compression or internal pressure of organ Reflection of shear waves at boundaries B. Elasticity Imaging System Biomarker Qualification and User Testing of Systems – Brian Garra, M.D. Learning objectives-To understand: Goals Review the need for quantitative medical imaging Provide examples of quantitative imaging biomarkers Acquaint the participant with the purpose of the RSNA Quantitative Imaging
Xiaona Liu
Full Text Available We aimed to observe the relationship between the pathological components of a deep venous thrombus (DVT, which was divided into three parts, and the findings on quantitative ultrasonic shear wave elastography (SWE to increase the accuracy of thrombus staging in a rabbit model.A flow stenosis-induced vein thrombosis model was used, and the thrombus was divided into three parts (head, body and tail, which were associated with corresponding observation points. Elasticity was quantified in vivo using SWE over a 2-week period. A quantitative pathologic image analysis (QPIA was performed to obtain the relative percentages of the components of the main clots.DVT maturity occurred at 2 weeks, and the elasticity of the whole thrombus and the three parts (head, body and tail showed an increasing trend, with the Young's modulus values varying from 2.36 ± 0.41 kPa to 13.24 ± 1.71 kPa; 2.01 ± 0.28 kPa to 13.29 ± 1.48 kPa; 3.27 ± 0.57 kPa to 15.91 ± 2.05 kPa; and 1.79 ± 0.36 kPa to 10.51 ± 1.61 kPa, respectively. Significant increases occurred on different days for the different parts: the head showed significant increases on days 4 and 6; the body showed significant increases on days 4 and 7; and the tail showed significant increases on days 3 and 6. The QPIA showed that the thrombus composition changed dynamically as the thrombus matured, with the fibrin and calcium salt deposition gradually increasing and the red blood cells (RBCs and platelet trabecula gradually decreasing. Significant changes were observed on days 4 and 7, which may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi. Significant heterogeneity was observed between and within the thrombi.Variations in the thrombus components were generally consistent between the SWE and QPIA. Days 4 and 7 after thrombus induction may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi in rabbit models. A dynamic examination of the same part of the thrombus
Liu, Xiaona; Li, Na; Wen, Chaoyang
2017-01-01
We aimed to observe the relationship between the pathological components of a deep venous thrombus (DVT), which was divided into three parts, and the findings on quantitative ultrasonic shear wave elastography (SWE) to increase the accuracy of thrombus staging in a rabbit model. A flow stenosis-induced vein thrombosis model was used, and the thrombus was divided into three parts (head, body and tail), which were associated with corresponding observation points. Elasticity was quantified in vivo using SWE over a 2-week period. A quantitative pathologic image analysis (QPIA) was performed to obtain the relative percentages of the components of the main clots. DVT maturity occurred at 2 weeks, and the elasticity of the whole thrombus and the three parts (head, body and tail) showed an increasing trend, with the Young's modulus values varying from 2.36 ± 0.41 kPa to 13.24 ± 1.71 kPa; 2.01 ± 0.28 kPa to 13.29 ± 1.48 kPa; 3.27 ± 0.57 kPa to 15.91 ± 2.05 kPa; and 1.79 ± 0.36 kPa to 10.51 ± 1.61 kPa, respectively. Significant increases occurred on different days for the different parts: the head showed significant increases on days 4 and 6; the body showed significant increases on days 4 and 7; and the tail showed significant increases on days 3 and 6. The QPIA showed that the thrombus composition changed dynamically as the thrombus matured, with the fibrin and calcium salt deposition gradually increasing and the red blood cells (RBCs) and platelet trabecula gradually decreasing. Significant changes were observed on days 4 and 7, which may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi. Significant heterogeneity was observed between and within the thrombi. Variations in the thrombus components were generally consistent between the SWE and QPIA. Days 4 and 7 after thrombus induction may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi in rabbit models. A dynamic examination of the same part of the thrombus may be
Angela Mihai, L.; Goriely, Alain
2013-01-01
Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects
Thomasová, M.; Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Frost, Miroslav; Ševčík, Martin; Szurman, I.; Kocich, R.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Šittner, Petr; Landa, Michal
2017-01-01
Roč. 123, January (2017), s. 146-156 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-28306P; GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : shape memory alloys * polycrystals * elastic behavior Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016
Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Bayramoglu, Zuhal; Caliskan, Emine; Sari, Zeynep Nur Akyol; Adaletli, Ibrahim
2018-01-18
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common autoimmune thyroid disorder in the pediatric age range. Measurement of thyroid gland size is an essential component in evaluation and follow-up of thyroid pathologies. Along with size, tissue elasticity is becoming a more commonly used parameter in evaluation of parenchyma in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the current study was to assess thyroid parenchyma elasticity by shear-wave elastography in pediatric patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis; and compare the elasticity values to a normal control group. In this study; thyroid glands of 59 patients with a diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis based on ultrasonographic and biochemical features, and 26 healthy volunteers without autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid function disorders, were evaluated with shear-wave elastography. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis were further subdivided into three categories based on gray-scale ultrasonography findings as focal thyroiditis (grade 1), diffuse thyroiditis (grade 2), and fibrotic thyroid gland (grade 3). Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 59) had significantly higher elasticity values (14. 9 kPa; IQR 12.9-17.8 kPa) than control subjects (10.6 kPa; IQR 9.0-11.3 kPa) (p thyroiditis, 23 patients had focal thyroiditis involving less than 50% of the gland categorized as grade 1, 24 patients had diffuse involvement of the thyroid gland categorized as grade 2, and 12 patients had marked hyperechoic septations and pseudonodular appearance categorized as grade 3 on gray-scale ultrasound. Based on elastography, grade 3 patients had significantly higher elasticity values (19.7 kPa; IQR 17.8-21.5 kPa) than patients with grade 2 (15.5 kPa; IQR 14.5-17.8 kPa) and grade 1 thyroiditis (12.8 kPa; IQR 11.9-13.1 kPa) (p thyroiditis had significantly higher elasticity values than those with grade 1 thyroiditis (p thyroiditis. Our results indicate that shear-wave elastography could be used to evaluate the degree of
Du, Y.L.; Sun, Z.M.; Hashimoto, H.; Barsoum, M.W.
2009-01-01
We have performed theoretical studies on the elastic and thermodynamic properties of the solid solution: Ti 2 AlC 0.5 N 0.5 . The lattice parameters, elastic constants, bulk, shear, Young's moduli, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature were calculated and compared with those of the end members, Ti 2 AlC and Ti 2 AlN. The temperature dependence of the bulk moduli, thermal expansion coefficient and specific heats of Ti 2 AlC 0.5 N 0.5 were obtained from the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The calculated elastic and thermodynamic properties were compared with experimental data.
Courbin, L.; Panizza, P.
2004-02-01
Multilamellar vesicles can be formed upon shearing lamellar phases (Lα) and phase-separated lamellar-sponge (Lα/L3) mixtures. In the first case, the vesicle volume fraction is always 100% and the vesicle size is monitored by elasticity (“onion textures”). In the second system the vesicle volume fraction can be tuned from 0 to 100% and the mean size results from a balance between capillary and viscous forces (“Taylor droplets”). However, despite these differences, in both systems we show that the formation of vesicles is a strain-controlled process monitored by a universal primary buckling instability of the lamellae.
Gholami, Raheb; Ansari, Reza; Gholami, Yousef
2017-06-01
The aim of the present study is to propose a unified size-dependent higher-order shear deformable plate model for magneto-electro-thermo-elastic (METE) rectangular nanoplates by adopting the nonlocal elasticity theory to capture the size effect, and by utilizing a generalized shape function to consider the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia. By considering various shape functions, the proposed plate model can be reduced to the nonlocal plate model based upon the Kirchhoff, Mindlin and Reddy plate theories, as well as the parabolic, trigonometric, hyperbolic and exponential shear deformation plate theories. The governing equations of motion and corresponding boundary conditions of METE nanoplates subjected to external in-plane, transverse loads as well as magnetic, electric and thermal loadings, are obtained using Hamilton’s principle. Then, as in some case studies, the static bending, buckling, and free vibration characteristics of simply-supported METE rectangular nanoplates are investigated based upon the Navier solution approach. Numerical results are provided in order to investigate the influences of various parameters including the nondimensional nonlocal parameter, type of transverse loading, temperature change, applied voltage, and external magnetic potential on the mechanical behaviors of METE nanoplates. Furthermore, comparisons are made between the results predicted by different nonlocal plate models by utilizing the developed unified nonlocal plate model and selecting the associated shape functions. It is illustrated that by using the presented unified nonlocal plate model, the development of a nonlocal plate model based upon any existing higher-order shear deformable plate theory is a simple task.
Dillman, Jonathan R; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L
2015-03-01
There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three imaging methods, two US systems and multiple operators. Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution No. 1 used an Acuson S3000 US system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Malvern, PA) and three shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution No. 2 used an Aixplorer US system (SuperSonic Imagine, Bothell, WA) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0 cm, 2.5 cm and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student's t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single-measure intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (P = 0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (P > 0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5-6.8%), and interoperator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥ 0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth significantly affected measured SWS (P
Nonlinear shear wave in a non Newtonian visco-elastic medium
Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Chaudhuri, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching (Germany)
2012-06-15
An analysis of nonlinear transverse shear wave has been carried out on non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquid using generalized hydrodynamic model. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior is introduced through velocity shear dependence of viscosity coefficient by well known Carreau-Bird model. The dynamical feature of this shear wave leads to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. Numerical solution has been obtained which shows that initial periodic solutions reoccur after passing through several patterns of periodic waves. A possible explanation for this periodic solution is given by constructing modified Korteweg de Vries equation. This model has application from laboratory to astrophysical plasmas as well as in biological systems.
Benson, A.K.; Wu, J.
2000-01-01
Two of the needed elastic parameters for predicting velocities in porous, fluid-filled rocks, the bulk modulus of the empty, porous rock and the shear modulus of the rock, are very difficult to obtain in situ. A novel modeling approach is developed by inverting the Biot-Geertsma-Gassmann (BGG) and shear-wave equations to generate values for the bulk and shear moduli, respectively, by using available velocity and porosity data obtained from borehole logs and/or cores from water/brine-saturated rocks. These values of bulk and shear moduli, along with reasonable in-situ estimates of rock-matrix and fluid parameters generated from the Batzle-Wang formulation, are then used to predict compressional and shear-wave velocities, compressional-shear wave ratios, and reflection coefficients at the interfaces between host rocks and fluid-saturated rocks, either fully or partially saturated with hydrocarbons or water, as a function of depth and/or porosity
Heterotic moduli stabilization
Cicoli, M.; De Alwis, S.; Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO; Westphal, A.
2013-04-01
We perform a systematic analysis of moduli stabilization for weakly coupled heterotic string theory compactified on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds. We focus on both supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking vacua of generic (0,2) compactifications obtained by minimising the total (F+D)-term scalar potential. After reviewing how to stabilise all the geometric moduli in a supersymmetric way by including fractional fluxes, non-perturbative and threshold effects, we show that the inclusion of α' corrections leads to new de Sitter or nearly Minkowski vacua which break supersymmetry spontaneously. The minimum lies at moderately large volumes of all the geometric moduli, at perturbative values of the string coupling and at the right phenomenological value of the GUT gauge coupling. However the structure of the heterotic 3-form flux used for complex structure moduli stabilization does not contain enough freedom to tune the superpotential. This results in the generic prediction of high-scale supersymmetry breaking around the GUT scale. We finally provide a dynamical derivation of anisotropic compactifications with stabilized moduli which allow for perturbative gauge coupling unification around 10 16 GeV.
Heterotic moduli stabilization
Cicoli, M. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. Fisica ed Astronomia; INFN, Bologna (Italy); Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); De Alwis, S. [Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). UCB 390 Physics Dept.; Westphal, A. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2013-04-15
We perform a systematic analysis of moduli stabilization for weakly coupled heterotic string theory compactified on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds. We focus on both supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking vacua of generic (0,2) compactifications obtained by minimising the total (F+D)-term scalar potential. After reviewing how to stabilise all the geometric moduli in a supersymmetric way by including fractional fluxes, non-perturbative and threshold effects, we show that the inclusion of {alpha}' corrections leads to new de Sitter or nearly Minkowski vacua which break supersymmetry spontaneously. The minimum lies at moderately large volumes of all the geometric moduli, at perturbative values of the string coupling and at the right phenomenological value of the GUT gauge coupling. However the structure of the heterotic 3-form flux used for complex structure moduli stabilization does not contain enough freedom to tune the superpotential. This results in the generic prediction of high-scale supersymmetry breaking around the GUT scale. We finally provide a dynamical derivation of anisotropic compactifications with stabilized moduli which allow for perturbative gauge coupling unification around 10{sup 16} GeV.
Rajagopal, K. R.
2011-01-06
This paper is the first part of an extended program to develop a theory of fracture in the context of strain-limiting theories of elasticity. This program exploits a novel approach to modeling the mechanical response of elastic, that is non-dissipative, materials through implicit constitutive relations. The particular class of models studied here can also be viewed as arising from an explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is specified to be a nonlinear function of stress. This modeling construct generalizes the classical Cauchy and Green theories of elasticity which are included as special cases. It was conjectured that special forms of these implicit theories that limit strains to physically realistic maximum levels even for arbitrarily large stresses would be ideal for modeling fracture by offering a modeling paradigm that avoids the crack-tip strain singularities characteristic of classical fracture theories. The simplest fracture setting in which to explore this conjecture is anti-plane shear. It is demonstrated herein that for a specific choice of strain-limiting elasticity theory, crack-tip strains do indeed remain bounded. Moreover, the theory predicts a bounded stress field in the neighborhood of a crack-tip and a cusp-shaped opening displacement. The results confirm the conjecture that use of a strain limiting explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is given as a function of stress for modeling the bulk constitutive behavior obviates the necessity of introducing ad hoc modeling constructs such as crack-tip cohesive or process zones in order to correct the unphysical stress and strain singularities predicted by classical linear elastic fracture mechanics. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Ishiwata, Koji; Jeong, Kwang Sik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS
2013-12-15
We study a scenario for baryogenesis in modular cosmology and discuss its implications for the moduli stabilization mechanism and the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale. If moduli fields dominate the Universe and decay into the standard model particles through diatonic couplings, the right amount of baryon asymmetry can be generated through CP violating decay of gluino into quark and squark followed by baryon-number violating squark decay. We find that, in the KKLT-type moduli stabilization, at least two non-perturbative terms are required to obtain a sizable CP phase, and that the successful baryogenesis is possible for the soft SUSY breaking mass heavier than O(1) TeV. A part of the parameter space for successful baryogenesis can be probed at the collider experiments, dinucleon decay search experiment, and the measurements of electric dipole moments of neutron and electron. It is also shown that similar baryogenesis works in the case of the gravitino- or the saxion-dominated Universe.
Dillman, Jonathan R.; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S.; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W.; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L.
2014-01-01
Background There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. Purpose To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three different imaging methods, two different ultrasound systems, and multiple operators. Methods and Materials Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution #1 used an Acuson S3000 ultrasound system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.) and three different shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution #2 used an Aixplorer ultrasound system (Supersonic Imagine) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student’s t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single measure intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. Results For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (p=0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (p>0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5–6.8%), and inter-operator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth
Measurement of elastic modules of structural ceramic by acoustic resonance
Ahn, Bong Young; Lee Seong Suck; Kim, Young Gil
1993-01-01
Elastic moduli of structural ceramic materials, Al 2 O 3 , SiC, Si 3 N 4 , were measured by acoustic resonance method. Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio were calculated from the torsional and flexural resonant frequencies, densities, and the dimensions of the specimen. The results by acoustic resonance method were compared with the results by ultrasonic method and the differences were less than 4%.
Kim, Hye Jeong; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Choi, In Ho; Jin, So-Young; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi
2018-02-23
The aim of this study was to address the role of the elasticity index as a possible predictive marker for detecting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and quantitatively assess shear wave elastography (SWE) as a tool for differentiating PTC from benign thyroid nodules. One hundred and nineteen patients with thyroid nodules undergoing SWE before ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy were analyzed. The mean (EMean), minimum (EMin), maximum (EMax), and standard deviation (ESD) of SWE elasticity indices were measured. Among 105 nodules, 14 were PTC and 91 were benign. The EMean, EMin, and EMax values were significantly higher in PTCs than benign nodules (EMean 37.4 in PTC vs. 23.7 in benign nodules, p = 0.005; EMin 27.9 vs. 17.8, p = 0.034; EMax 46.7 vs. 31.5, p < 0.001). The EMean, EMin, and EMax were significantly associated with PTC with diagnostic odds ratios varying from 6.74 to 9.91, high specificities (86.4%, 86.4%, and 88.1%, respectively), and positive likelihood ratios (4.21, 3.69, and 4.82, respectively). The ESD values were significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (6.3 vs. 2.6, p < 0.001). ESD had the highest specificity (96.6%) when applied with a cut-off value of 6.5 kPa. It had a positive likelihood ratio of 14.75 and a diagnostic odds ratio of 28.50. The shear elasticity index of ESD, with higher likelihood ratios for PTC, will probably identify nodules that have a high potential for malignancy. It may help to identify and select malignant nodules, while reducing unnecessary fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsies of benign nodules.
Hui Niu
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Systematic first-principles calculations based on density functional theory were performed on a wide range of Ln2TiO5 compositions (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy and Y in order to investigate their structural, elastic, electronic, and thermal properties. At low temperature, these compounds crystallize in orthorhombic structures with a Pnma symmetry, and the calculated equilibrium structural parameters agree well with experimental results. A complete set of elastic parameters including elastic constants, Hill's bulk moduli, Young's moduli, shear moduli and Poisson's ratio were calculated. All Ln2TiO5 are ductile in nature. Analysis of densities of states and charge densities and electron localization functions suggests that the oxide bonds are highly ionic with some degree of covalency in the Ti-O bonds. Thermal properties including the mean sound velocity, Debye temperature, and minimum thermal conductivity were obtained from the elastic constants.
Improved measurements of elastic properties at acoustic resonant frequencies
Rosinger, H.E.; Ritchie, I.G.; Shillinglaw, A.J.
1976-01-01
The choice of specimens of rectangular cross section for determination of dynamic elastic moduli by the resonant bar technique is often dictated by specimen fabrication problems. The specimen of rectangular cross section lends itself to accurate determination of elastic vibration shapes by a method in which a simple noncontacting optical transducer is used. The unequivocal indexing of the various vibration modes obtained in this way more than compensates for the added computational difficulties associated with rectangular geometry. The approximations used in the calculations of Young's modulus and the shear modulus for bars of rectangular cross section are tested experimentally and it is shown that high precision can be obtained. Determinations of changes in dynamic elastic moduli with temperature or stress are also described. (author)
Shear stiffness in nanolaminar Ti3SiC2 challenges ab initio calculations
Kisi, E H; Zhang, J F; Kirstein, O; Riley, D P; Styles, M J; Paradowska, A M
2010-01-01
Nanolaminates such as the M n+1 AX n (MAX) phases are a material class with ab initio derived elasticity tensors published for over 250 compounds. We have for the first time experimentally determined the full elasticity tensor of the archetype MAX phase, Ti 3 SiC 2 , using polycrystalline samples and in situ neutron diffraction. The experimental elastic constants show extreme shear stiffness, with c 44 more than five times greater than expected for an isotropic material. Such shear stiffness is quite rare in hexagonal materials and strongly contradicts the predictions of all published MAX phase elastic constants derived from ab initio calculations. It is concluded that second order properties such as elastic moduli derived from ab initio calculations require careful experimental verification. The diffraction technique used currently provides the only method of verification for the elasticity tensor for the majority of new materials where single crystals are not available. (fast track communication)
Noirez Laurence
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This work points out the importance of the substrate boundary conditions to lower the dissipation in the dynamic measurement and access the closest dynamic characteristics of liquids, in particular to access the low frequency shear elasticity. The liquid/surface interface is a source of dissipation that enters and impacts the measurement. Examples of steady-state shear flows or flow birefringence are presented to highlight the non-universality of the behavior with respect to the nature of the substrate or the sheared thickness. Additionally the present development completes and extends the identification of low frequency shear elasticity made at sub-millimeter gaps in various one-component liquids to salt-free aqueous solutions (CTAB-water (Hexadecyl-TrimethylAmmonium Bromide.
Elastic properties of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn single crystals with bcc crystal structure
Zhang, Y.W.; Li, S.J.; Obbard, E.G.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.C.; Hao, Y.L.; Yang, R.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → The single crystals of Ti2448 alloy with the bcc crystal structure were prepared. → The elastic moduli and constants were measured by several resonant methods. → The crystal shows significant elastic asymmetry in tension and compression. → The crystal exhibits weak nonlinear elasticity with large elastic strain ∼2.5%. → The crystal has weak atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low symmetry. - Abstract: Single crystals of Ti2448 alloy (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in wt.%) were grown successfully using an optical floating-zone furnace. Several kinds of resonant methods gave consistent Young's moduli of 27.1, 56.3 and 88.1 GPa and shear moduli of 34.8, 11.0 and 14.6 GPa for the , and oriented single crystals, and C 11 , C 12 and C 44 of 57.2, 36.1 and 35.9 GPa respectively. Uniaxial testing revealed asymmetrical elastic behaviors of the crystals: tension caused elastic softening with a large reversible strain of ∼4% and a stress plateau of ∼250 MPa, whereas compression resulted in gradual elastic stiffening with much smaller reversible strain. The crystals exhibited weak nonlinear elasticity with a large elastic strain of ∼2.5% and a high strength, approaching ∼20% and ∼30% of its ideal shear and ideal tensile strength respectively. The crystals showed linear elasticity with a small elastic strain of ∼1%. These elastic deformation characteristics have been interpreted in terms of weakened atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low crystal symmetry under external applied stresses. These results are consistent with the properties of polycrystalline Ti2448, including high strength, low elastic modulus, large recoverable strain and weak strengthening effect due to grain refinement.
Elasticity, electronic properties and hardness of MoC investigated by first principles calculations
Liu, YangZhen; Jiang, YeHua; Feng, Jing; Zhou, Rong
2013-01-01
The crystal structure, cohesive energy, formation enthalpy, mechanical anisotropy, electronic properties and hardness of α−MoC, β−MoC and γ−MoC are investigated by the first-principles calculations. The elastic constants and the bulk moduli, shear moduli, Young's moduli are calculated. The Young's modulus values of α−MoC, β−MoC and γ−MoC are 395.6 GPa, 551.2 GPa and 399.5 GPa, respectively. The surface constructions of Young's moduli identify the mechanical anisotropy of molybdenum carbide, and the results show that anisotropy of α−MoC is stronger than others. The electronic structure indicates that the bonding behaviors of MoC are the combinations of covalent and metallic bonds. The hardness of β−MoC is obviously higher than those of α−MoC and γ−MoC
A micromechanics model of the elastic properties of human dentine
Kinney, J. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Balooch, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marshall, G. W. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Restorative Dentistry; Marshall, S. J. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Restorative Dentistry
1999-10-01
A generalized self-consistent model of cylindrical inclusions in a homogeneous and isotropic matrix phase was used to study the effects of tubule orientation on the elastic properties of dentin. Closed form expressions for the five independent elastic constants of dentin were derived in terms of tubule concentration, and the Young's moduli and Poisson ratios of peri- and intertubular dentin. An atomic force microscope (AFM) indentation technique determined the Young's moduli of the peri- and intertubular dentin as approximately 30 GPa and 15 GPa, respectively. Over the natural variation in tubule density found in dentin, there was only a slight variation in the axial and transverse shear moduli with position in the tooth, and there was no measurable effect of tubule orientation. We conclude that tubule orientation has no appreciable effect on the elastic behavior of normal dentin, and that the elastic properties of healthy dentin can be modeled as an isotropic continuum with a Young's modulus of approximately 16 GPa and a shear modulus of 6.2 GPa.
Niranjan, Manish K
2015-01-01
We present a comparative study of the anisotropy in the elastic properties of the C49, C54 and C40 phases of TiSi 2 , as well as orthorhombic TiSi and hexagonal Ti 5 Si 3 . The elastic constants, elastic moduli, Debye temperature and sound velocities are computed within the framework of density functional theory. The computed values of the elastic constants and moduli are found to be in excellent agreement with available experimental values. The average elastic moduli, such as Young’s modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson’s ratio, of polycrystalline aggregates are computed using the computed elastic constants of single crystals. The anisotropy in elastic properties is analyzed using estimates of shear anisotropic factors, bulk modulus anisotropic factors and variations in Young’s and bulk moduli in different crystallographic directions. Among the Ti–Si phases, the computed directional Young’s modulus profiles of C49 TiSi 2 and C40 TiSi 2 are found to be quite similar to those of bulk Si and Ti, respectively. In addition to the elastic properties, the electronic structure of five Ti–Si phases is studied. The density of states and planar charge density profiles reveal mixed covalent–metallic bonding in all Ti–Si phases. (paper)
Resonant Acoustic Determination of Complex Elastic Moduli
1991-03-01
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Bias of shear wave elasticity measurements in thin layer samples and a simple correction strategy.
Mo, Jianqiang; Xu, Hao; Qiang, Bo; Giambini, Hugo; Kinnick, Randall; An, Kai-Nan; Chen, Shigao; Luo, Zongping
2016-01-01
Shear wave elastography (SWE) is an emerging technique for measuring biological tissue stiffness. However, the application of SWE in thin layer tissues is limited by bias due to the influence of geometry on measured shear wave speed. In this study, we investigated the bias of Young's modulus measured by SWE in thin layer gelatin-agar phantoms, and compared the result with finite element method and Lamb wave model simulation. The result indicated that the Young's modulus measured by SWE decreased continuously when the sample thickness decreased, and this effect was more significant for smaller thickness. We proposed a new empirical formula which can conveniently correct the bias without the need of using complicated mathematical modeling. In summary, we confirmed the nonlinear relation between thickness and Young's modulus measured by SWE in thin layer samples, and offered a simple and practical correction strategy which is convenient for clinicians to use.
EVALUATION OF IRIDOCILIARY AND LENTICULAR ELASTICITY USING SHEAR-WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY IN RABBIT EYES
Efstathios T. Detorakis; Eleni E. Drakonaki; Harilaos Ginis; Nikolaos Karyotakis; Ioannis G. Pallikaris
2014-01-01
Introduction: A previous study has employed shear-wave ultrasound elastographic imaging to assess corneal rigidity in an ex-vivo porcine eye model. This study employs the same modality in vivo in a rabbit eye model in order to assess lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity changes following the instillation of atropine and pilocarpine. Methods: Ten non-pigmented female rabbits were examined. Measurements of the lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity as well as lens thickness and an...
Design of piezoelectric probe for measurement of longitudinal and shear components of elastic wave
Aoyanagi, Masafumi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi; Ebihara, Tadashi
2017-07-01
We focus on ultrasonic probes for nondestructive tests and evaluation. Transient characteristics of probes are important for nondestructive tests such as the pulse echo method. We previously reported the principle of measurement using a piezoelectric probe with triaxial sensitivities. In the results, it was calculated that the probe could transmit and receive particle displacement which contains normal and tangential components. It was confirmed that the probe had sensitivities in triaxial directions. However, its performance in terms of frequency and transient characteristics has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study is to design a probe by changing its shape to obtain better performance. The transient characteristics of probes in longitudinal and shear driving were evaluated by the inverse Fourier transformation of frequency responses of longitudinal and shear components, using the two-dimensional finite element method. As a result, the sensitivities at the dips of frequency characteristics increased when using our probe compared with those measured using conventional probes in longitudinal and shear driving. Hence, the performance in terms of the frequency response was improved by more than 3 dB under the conditions in this simulation. Also, the pulse width of impulse response was decreased by half compared with that of probes with conventional shapes.
Eva Wahyu Indriyati
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The increasing demand of crude oil will increase the price of petroleum asphalt. Indonesia has imported asphalt to meet the need for the annually road construction and maintenance. One solution to improving the rheological properties of bitumen is by adding the harder bitumen or other chemical compound to reduce dependence to petroleum asphalt. In Indonesia there is a source of natural asphalt in Buton Island, Sulawesi with huge amount of deposit that potentially could improve the rheological properties of Pen 60/70 Petroleum Asphalt. In order to obtain a better understanding on the contribution of Asbuton to the improvement of performance on rheological properties, this research used 19 variations of Asbuton and pen 60/70 petroleum bitumen. This variation is then subjected to the basic rheology test and the mechanistic test using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. The conclusion of basic rheological performance is obtained that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petroleum bitumen will increase hardness of bitumen. Conclusion on mechanistic rheological performance is that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petrol bitumen will increase Performance Grade (PG and Complex Shear Modulus (G*. The results from the analysis of Master Curve and Black Diagram, it is shown that the increasing proportion of bitumen Asbuton will decrease the phase angle (δ but its temperature susceptibility is worse.
EVALUATION OF IRIDOCILIARY AND LENTICULAR ELASTICITY USING SHEAR-WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY IN RABBIT EYES
Efstathios T. Detorakis
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: A previous study has employed shear-wave ultrasound elastographic imaging to assess corneal rigidity in an ex-vivo porcine eye model. This study employs the same modality in vivo in a rabbit eye model in order to assess lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity changes following the instillation of atropine and pilocarpine. Methods: Ten non-pigmented female rabbits were examined. Measurements of the lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity as well as lens thickness and anterior chamber depth were taken with the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France with the SuperLinear™ SL 15-4 transducer in both eyes at baseline as well as after pilocarpine and atropine instillation. The IOP was also measured with the TonoPen tonometer. Results: Changes in rigidity in the examined areas following atropine instillation were statistically not significant. Ciliary body rigidity was significantly increased whereas lens and total ocular rigidity were significantly reduced following pilocarpine instillation. The decrease in lens rigidity following pilocarpine was significantly associated with the respective increase in ciliary body rigidity. Conclusions: Shear-wave ultrasound elastography can detect in vivo rigidity changes in the anterior segment of the rabbit eye model and may potentially be applied in human eyes, providing useful clinical information on conditions in which rigidity changes play an important role, such as glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome or presbyopia.
Evaluation of iridociliary and lenticular elasticity using shear-wave elastography in rabbit eyes.
Detorakis, Efstathios T; Drakonaki, Eleni E; Ginis, Harilaos; Karyotakis, Nikolaos; Pallikaris, Ioannis G
2014-01-01
A previous study has employed shear-wave ultrasound elastographic imaging to assess corneal rigidity in an ex-vivo porcine eye model. This study employs the same modality in vivo in a rabbit eye model in order to assess lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity changes following the instillation of atropine and pilocarpine. Ten non-pigmented female rabbits were examined. Measurements of the lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity as well as lens thickness and anterior chamber depth were taken with the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) with the SuperLinear™ SL 15-4 transducer in both eyes at baseline as well as after pilocarpine and atropine instillation. The IOP was also measured with the TonoPen tonometer. Changes in rigidity in the examined areas following atropine instillation were statistically not significant. Ciliary body rigidity was significantly increased whereas lens and total ocular rigidity were significantly reduced following pilocarpine instillation. The decrease in lens rigidity following pilocarpine was significantly associated with the respective increase in ciliary body rigidity. Shear-wave ultrasound elastography can detect in vivo rigidity changes in the anterior segment of the rabbit eye model and may potentially be applied in human eyes, providing useful clinical information on conditions in which rigidity changes play an important role, such as glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome or presbyopia.
The effect of shape on the fracture of a soft elastic gel subjected to shear load.
Kundan, Krishna Kant; Ghatak, Animangsu
2018-02-21
For brittle solids, the fracture energy is the energy required to create a unit area of new surface through the process of division. For crosslinked materials, it is a function of the intrinsic properties like crosslinking density and bond strength of the crosslinks. Here we show that the energy released due to fracture can depend also on the shape of a joint made of this material. Our experiment involves two gel blocks connected via a thin gel disk. The disk is formed into different regular and exotic shapes, but with identical areas of cross-section. When one of the blocks is sheared with respect to the other, the shear load increases with vertical displacement, eventually causing a fracture at a threshold load. The maximum fracture load is different for different disks and among different regularly shaped disks, it is at a maximum for pentagon and hexagon shapes. The fracture energy release rate of the joint depends also on the aspect ratio (height/width) of the shapes. Our experiments also throw light on possible reasons for such a dependence on the shape of the joints.
WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity
Emelianov, S [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hall, T [University of WI-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bouchard, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center and UTHSC at Houston Graduate School of Biomed, Houston, TX (United States)
2014-06-15
Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement
WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity
Emelianov, S; Hall, T; Bouchard, R
2014-01-01
Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement
Angela Mihai, L.
2013-03-01
Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects manifested by specific models. As the finite element method computes uniform deformations exactly, for simple shear deformation and pure shear stress, the Poynting effect is represented exactly, while for the generalised shear and simple torsion, where the deformation is non-uniform, the solution is approximated efficiently and guaranteed computational bounds on the magnitude of the Poynting effect are obtained. The numerical results further indicate that, for a given elastic material, the same sign effect occurs under different shearing mechanisms, showing the genericity of the Poynting effect under a variety of shearing loads. In order to derive numerical models that exhibit either the positive or the negative Poynting effect, the so-called generalised empirical inequalities, which are less restrictive than the usual empirical inequalities involving material parameters, are assumed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Remarks on orthotropic elastic models applied to wood
Nilson Tadeu Mascia
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Wood is generally considered an anisotropic material. In terms of engineering elastic models, wood is usually treated as an orthotropic material. This paper presents an analysis of two principal anisotropic elastic models that are usually applied to wood. The first one, the linear orthotropic model, where the material axes L (Longitudinal, R( radial and T(tangential are coincident with the Cartesian axes (x, y, z, is more accepted as wood elastic model. The other one, the cylindrical orthotropic model is more adequate of the growth caracteristics of wood but more mathematically complex to be adopted in practical terms. Specifically due to its importance in wood elastic parameters, this paper deals with the fiber orientation influence in these models through adequate transformation of coordinates. As a final result, some examples of the linear model, which show the variation of elastic moduli, i.e., Young´s modulus and shear modulus, with fiber orientation are presented.
Elasticity of Pargasite Amphibole: A Hydrous Phase at Mid Lithospheric Discontinuity
Peng, Y.; Mookherjee, M.
2017-12-01
Mid Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD) is characterized by a low shear wave velocity ( 3 to 10 %). In cratons, the depth of MLD varies between 80 and 100 km. The reduction of the shear wave velocity at MLD is similar to what is observed in the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Such low velocity at MLD could be caused by partial melting, temperature induced grain boundary sliding, changes in the elastic anisotropy, and/or metasomatism which may lead to the formation of hydrous phases including mica and amphibole. Thus, it is clear that in order to assess the role of metasomatism at MLD, we need better constraints on the elasticity of hydrous phases. However, such elasticity data are scarce. In this study, we explore elasticity of pargasite amphibole [NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2] using density functional theory (DFT) with local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We find that the pressure-volume results can be adequately described by a finite strain equation with the bulk modulus, K0 being 102 and 85 GPa for LDA and GGA respectively. We also determined the full elastic constant tensor (Cij) using the finite difference method. The bulk modulus, K0 determined from the full elastic constant tensor is 104 GPa for LDA and 87 GPa for GGA. The shear modulus, G0 determined from the full elastic constant tensor is 64 GPa for LDA and 58 GPa for GGA. The bulk and shear moduli predicted with LDA are 5 and 1 % stiffer than the recent results [1]. In contrast, the bulk and shear moduli predicted with GGA are 12 and 10 % softer compared to the recent results [1]. The full elastic constant tensor for pargasite shows significant anisotropy. For instance, LDA predicts compressional (AVP) and shear (AVS) wave anisotropy of 22 and 20 % respectively. At higher pressure, elastic moduli stiffen. However, temperature is likely to have an opposite effect on the elasticity and this remains largely unknown for pargasite. Compared to the major mantle
Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements
Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo
2015-01-01
This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.
Yang, Yiqun; Urban, Matthew W; McGough, Robert J
2018-05-15
Shear wave calculations induced by an acoustic radiation force are very time-consuming on desktop computers, and high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) achieve dramatic reductions in the computation time for these simulations. The acoustic radiation force is calculated using the fast near field method and the angular spectrum approach, and then the shear waves are calculated in parallel with Green's functions on a GPU. This combination enables rapid evaluation of shear waves for push beams with different spatial samplings and for apertures with different f/#. Relative to shear wave simulations that evaluate the same algorithm on an Intel i7 desktop computer, a high performance nVidia GPU reduces the time required for these calculations by a factor of 45 and 700 when applied to elastic and viscoelastic shear wave simulation models, respectively. These GPU-accelerated simulations also compared to measurements in different viscoelastic phantoms, and the results are similar. For parametric evaluations and for comparisons with measured shear wave data, shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs.
Yang, Yiqun; Urban, Matthew W.; McGough, Robert J.
2018-05-01
Shear wave calculations induced by an acoustic radiation force are very time-consuming on desktop computers, and high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) achieve dramatic reductions in the computation time for these simulations. The acoustic radiation force is calculated using the fast near field method and the angular spectrum approach, and then the shear waves are calculated in parallel with Green’s functions on a GPU. This combination enables rapid evaluation of shear waves for push beams with different spatial samplings and for apertures with different f/#. Relative to shear wave simulations that evaluate the same algorithm on an Intel i7 desktop computer, a high performance nVidia GPU reduces the time required for these calculations by a factor of 45 and 700 when applied to elastic and viscoelastic shear wave simulation models, respectively. These GPU-accelerated simulations also compared to measurements in different viscoelastic phantoms, and the results are similar. For parametric evaluations and for comparisons with measured shear wave data, shear wave simulations with the Green’s function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs.
Elastic properties of some transition metal arsenides
Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.; Bisht, P. S.
2018-05-01
The elastic properties of transition metal arsenides (TMAs) have been studied by employing Wien2K package based on density functional theory in the zinc blende (ZB) and rock salt (RS) phase treating valance electron scalar relativistically. Further, we have also treated them non-relativistically to find out the relativistic effect. We have calculated the elastic properties by computing the volume conservative stress tensor for small strains, using the method developed by Charpin. The obtained results are discussed in paper. From the obtained results, it is clear that the values of C11 > C12 and C44 for all the compounds. The values of shear moduli of these compounds are also calculated. The internal parameter for these compounds shows that ZB structures of these compounds have high resistance against bond order. We find that the estimated elastic constants are in good agreement with the available data.
Effect of PbO on the elastic behavior of ZnO–P2O5 glass systems
H.A.A. Sidek
Full Text Available A series of ternary phosphate glasses in the form of 40(P2O5–(60 − xZnO–xPbO and 50(P2O5–(50 − xZnO–xPbO where x = 0–60 mol%, have been successfully prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. Both longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities were measured in different compositions of PbO using the MBS8000 ultrasonic data acquisition system at 10 MHz frequency and at room temperature. The ultrasonic velocity data, the density and the calculated elastic moduli are found to be composition dependent and discussed in terms of PbO modifiers. The correlation of elastic moduli with the atomic packing density of these glasses was discussed. To predict the compositional dependence of elastic moduli of this glass system, the interpretation of the variation in the experimental elastic behavior observed has been studied based on various of the bond compression and the Makishima–Mackenzie models. Keywords: Elastic moduli, Glasses, Zinc phosphate, Bond compression, Makishima–Mackenzie models
Ganau, Sergi, E-mail: sganau@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Andreu, Francisco Javier, E-mail: xandreu@tauli.cat [Pathology Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Escribano, Fernanda, E-mail: fescribano@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Martín, Amaya, E-mail: amartino@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Tortajada, Lidia, E-mail: ltortajada@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Villajos, Maite, E-mail: mvillajos@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); and others
2015-04-15
Highlights: •Shear wave elastography provides a quantitative assessment of the hardness of breast lesions. •The hardness of breast lesions correlates with lesion size: larger lesions are harder than smaller ones. •Histologic type and grade do not correlate clearly with elastography parameters. •HER2, luminal B HER2+, and triple-negative tumors have lower maximum hardness and mean hardness than other tumor types. •Half the tumors classified as BI-RADS 3 were luminal A and half were HER2. -- Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the correlations of maximum stiffness (Emax) and mean stiffness (Emean) of invasive carcinomas on shear-wave elastography (SWE) with St. Gallen consensus tumor phenotypes. Methods: We used an ultrasound system with SWE capabilities to prospectively study 190 women with 216 histologically confirmed invasive breast cancers. We obtained one elastogram for each lesion. We correlated Emax and Emean with tumor size, histologic type and grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2 expression, the Ki67 proliferation index, and the five St. Gallen molecular subtypes: luminal A, luminal B without HER2 overexpression (luminal B HER2−), luminal B with HER2 overexpression (luminal B HER2+), HER2, and triple negative. Results: Lesions larger than 20 mm had significantly higher Emax (148.04 kPa) and Emean (118.32 kPa) (P = 0.005) than smaller lesions. We found no statistically significant correlations between elasticity parameters and histologic type and grade or molecular subtypes, although tumors with HER2 overexpression regardless whether they expressed hormone receptors (luminal B HER2+ and HER2 phenotypes) and triple-negative tumors had lower Emax and Emean than the others. We assessed the B-mode ultrasound findings of the lesions with some of the Emax or Emean values less than or equal to 80 kPa; only four of these had ultrasound findings suggestive of a benign lesion (two with luminal A phenotype and two with HER2 phenotype). Conclusions: We
Ganau, Sergi; Andreu, Francisco Javier; Escribano, Fernanda; Martín, Amaya; Tortajada, Lidia; Villajos, Maite
2015-01-01
Highlights: •Shear wave elastography provides a quantitative assessment of the hardness of breast lesions. •The hardness of breast lesions correlates with lesion size: larger lesions are harder than smaller ones. •Histologic type and grade do not correlate clearly with elastography parameters. •HER2, luminal B HER2+, and triple-negative tumors have lower maximum hardness and mean hardness than other tumor types. •Half the tumors classified as BI-RADS 3 were luminal A and half were HER2. -- Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the correlations of maximum stiffness (Emax) and mean stiffness (Emean) of invasive carcinomas on shear-wave elastography (SWE) with St. Gallen consensus tumor phenotypes. Methods: We used an ultrasound system with SWE capabilities to prospectively study 190 women with 216 histologically confirmed invasive breast cancers. We obtained one elastogram for each lesion. We correlated Emax and Emean with tumor size, histologic type and grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2 expression, the Ki67 proliferation index, and the five St. Gallen molecular subtypes: luminal A, luminal B without HER2 overexpression (luminal B HER2−), luminal B with HER2 overexpression (luminal B HER2+), HER2, and triple negative. Results: Lesions larger than 20 mm had significantly higher Emax (148.04 kPa) and Emean (118.32 kPa) (P = 0.005) than smaller lesions. We found no statistically significant correlations between elasticity parameters and histologic type and grade or molecular subtypes, although tumors with HER2 overexpression regardless whether they expressed hormone receptors (luminal B HER2+ and HER2 phenotypes) and triple-negative tumors had lower Emax and Emean than the others. We assessed the B-mode ultrasound findings of the lesions with some of the Emax or Emean values less than or equal to 80 kPa; only four of these had ultrasound findings suggestive of a benign lesion (two with luminal A phenotype and two with HER2 phenotype). Conclusions: We
Seung-Whan Cha
Full Text Available Shear wave elastography (SWE has not been studied for diagnosing appendicitis. We postulated that an inflamed appendix would become stiffer than a normal appendix. We evaluated the elastic modulus values (EMV by SWE in healthy volunteers, patients without appendicitis, and patients with appendicitis. We also evaluated diagnostic ability of SWE for differentiating an inflamed from a normal appendix in patients with suspected appendicitis.Forty-one patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis and 11 healthy volunteers were prospectively enrolled. Gray-scale ultrasonography (US, SWE and multi-slice computed tomography (CT were performed. The EMV was measured in the anterior, medial, and posterior appendiceal wall using SWE, and the highest value (kPa was recorded.Patients were classified into appendicitis (n = 30 and no appendicitis groups (n = 11. One case of a negative appendectomy was detected. The median EMV was significantly higher in the appendicitis group (25.0 kPa compared to that in the no appendicitis group (10.4 kPa or in the healthy controls (8.3 kPa (p<0.001. Among SWE and other US and CT features, CT was superior to any conventional gray-scale US feature or SWE. Either the CT diameter criterion or combined three CT features predicted true positive in 30 and true negative in 11 cases and yielded 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. An EMV of 12.5 kPa for the stiffest region of the appendix predicted true positive in 28, true negative in 11, and false negative in two cases. The EMV (≥12.5 kPa yielded 93% sensitivity and 100% specificity.Our results suggest that EMV by SWE helps distinguish an inflamed from a normal appendix. Given that SWE has high specificity, quantitative measurement of the elasticity of the appendix may provide complementary information, in addition to morphologic features on gray-scale US, in the diagnosis of appendicitis.
C.C.Roach; Y.C.Lu
2017-01-01
Nanocomposites enhanced with two-dimensional,layered graphene fillers are a new class of engineering materials that exhibit superior properties and characteristics to composites with conventional fillers.However,the roles of "interlayers" in layered graphene fillers have yet to be fully explored.This paper examines the effect of interlayers on mechanical properties of layered graphene polymer composites.As an effective filler,the fundamental properties (in-plane Young's modulus EL1,out-of-plane Young's modulus EL2;shear modulus GL12,major Poisson's ratio 1L12) of the layered graphene were computed by using the Arridge's lamellar model.The effects of interlayers on effective moduli of layered graphene epoxy composites were examined through the Tandon-Weng model.The properties of the interlayer show noticeable impact on elastic properties of the composites,particular the out-of-plane properties (Young's modulus E2 and shear modulus G12).The interlayer spacing is seen to have much great influence on properties of the composites.As the interlayer spacing increases from 0.34 nm to 2 nm,all elastic properties of the composites have been greatly decreased.
Moduli spaces in algebraic geometry
Goettsche, L.
2000-01-01
This volume of the new series of lecture notes of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics contains the lecture notes of the School on Algebraic Geometry which took place at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics from 26 July to 13 August 1999. The school consisted of 2 weeks of lecture courses and one week of conference. The topic of the school was moduli spaces. More specifically the lectures were divided into three subtopics: principal bundles on Riemann surfaces, moduli spaces of vector bundles and sheaves on projective varieties, and moduli spaces of curves
Moduli space of torsional manifolds
Becker, Melanie; Tseng, L.-S.; Yau, S.-T.
2007-01-01
We characterize the geometric moduli of non-Kaehler manifolds with torsion. Heterotic supersymmetric flux compactifications require that the six-dimensional internal manifold be balanced, the gauge bundle be Hermitian Yang-Mills, and also the anomaly cancellation be satisfied. We perform the linearized variation of these constraints to derive the defining equations for the local moduli. We explicitly determine the metric deformations of the smooth flux solution corresponding to a torus bundle over K3
Tsubota, Ken-Ichi; Wada, Shigeo; Liu, Hao
2014-08-01
Direct numerical simulations of the mechanics of a single red blood cell (RBC) were performed by considering the nonuniform natural state of the elastic membrane. A RBC was modeled as an incompressible viscous fluid encapsulated by an elastic membrane. The in-plane shear and area dilatation deformations of the membrane were modeled by Skalak constitutive equation, while out-of-plane bending deformation was formulated by the spring model. The natural state of the membrane with respect to in-plane shear deformation was modeled as a sphere ([Formula: see text]), biconcave disk shape ([Formula: see text]) and their intermediate shapes ([Formula: see text]) with the nonuniformity parameter [Formula: see text], while the natural state with respect to out-of-plane bending deformation was modeled as a flat plane. According to the numerical simulations, at an experimentally measured in-plane shear modulus of [Formula: see text] and an out-of-plane bending rigidity of [Formula: see text] of the cell membrane, the following results were obtained. (i) The RBC shape at equilibrium was biconcave discoid for [Formula: see text] and cupped otherwise; (ii) the experimentally measured fluid shear stress at the transition between tumbling and tank-treading motions under shear flow was reproduced for [Formula: see text]; (iii) the elongation deformation of the RBC during tank-treading motion from the simulation was consistent with that from in vitro experiments, irrespective of the [Formula: see text] value. Based on our RBC modeling, the three phenomena (i), (ii), and (iii) were mechanically consistent for [Formula: see text]. The condition [Formula: see text] precludes a biconcave discoid shape at equilibrium (i); however, it gives appropriate fluid shear stress at the motion transition under shear flow (ii), suggesting that a combined effect of [Formula: see text] and the natural state with respect to out-of-plane bending deformation is necessary for understanding details of the
Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F
2012-03-07
Elasticity imaging methods have been used to study tissue mechanical properties and have demonstrated that tissue elasticity changes with disease state. In current shear wave elasticity imaging methods typically only shear wave speed is measured and rheological models, e.g. Kelvin-Voigt, Maxwell and Standard Linear Solid, are used to solve for tissue mechanical properties such as the shear viscoelastic complex modulus. This paper presents a method to quantify viscoelastic material properties in a model-independent way by estimating the complex shear elastic modulus over a wide frequency range using time-dependent creep response induced by acoustic radiation force. This radiation force induced creep method uses a conversion formula that is the analytic solution of a constitutive equation. The proposed method in combination with shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry is used to measure the complex modulus so that knowledge of the applied radiation force magnitude is not necessary. The conversion formula is shown to be sensitive to sampling frequency and the first reliable measure in time according to numerical simulations using the Kelvin-Voigt model creep strain and compliance. Representative model-free shear complex moduli from homogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms and one excised swine kidney were obtained. This work proposes a novel model-free ultrasound-based elasticity method that does not require a rheological model with associated fitting requirements.
Determination of the elastic constants of portlandite by Brillouin spectroscopy
Speziale, S.; Reichmann, H.J.; Schilling, F.R.; Wenk, H.R.; Monteiro, P.J.M.
2008-01-01
The single crystal elastic constants Cij and the shear and adiabatic bulk modulus of a natural portlandite (Ca(OH)2) crystal were determined by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The elastic constants, expressed in GPa, are: C11 = 102.0(± 2.0), C12 = 32.1(± 1.0), C13 = 8.4(± 0.4), C14 = 4.5(± 0.2), C33 = 33.6(± 0.7), C44 = 12.0(± 0.3), C66 = (C11-C12)/2 = 35.0(± 1.1), where the numbers in parentheses are 1σ standard deviations. The Reuss bounds of the adiabatic bulk and shear moduli are K0S = 26.0(± 0.3) GPa and G0 = 17.5(± 0.4) GPa, respectively, while the Voigt bounds of these moduli are K0S = 37.3(± 0.4) GPa and G0 = 24.4(± 0.3) GPa. The Reuss and Voigt bounds for the aggregate Young's modulus are 42.8(± 1.0) GPa and 60.0(± 0.8) GPa respectively, while the aggregate Poisson's ratio is equal to 0.23(± 0.01). Portlandite exhibits both large compressional elastic anisotropy with C11/C33 = 3.03(± 0.09) equivalent to that of the isostructural hydroxide brucite (Mg(OH)2), and large shear anisotropy with C66/C44 = 2.92(± 0.12) which is 11% larger than brucite. The comparison between the bulk modulus of portlandite and that of lime (CaO) confirms a systematic linear relationship between the bulk moduli of brucite-type simple hydroxides and the corresponding NaCl-type oxides. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moduli mediation without moduli-induced gravitino problem
Akita, Kensuke [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo, 060-0810 (Japan); Oikawa, Akane; Otsuka, Hajime [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan)
2016-05-30
We study the moduli-induced gravitino problem within the framework of the phenomenologically attractive mirage mediations. The huge amount of gravitino generated by the moduli decay can be successfully diluted by introducing an extra light modulus field which does not induce the supersymmetry breaking. Since the lifetime of extra modulus field becomes longer than usually considered modulus field, our proposed mechanism is applied to both the low- and high-scale supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We also point out that such an extra modulus field appears in the flux compactification of type II string theory.
Tane, M.; Hagihara, K.; Ueda, M.; Nakano, T.; Okuda, Y.
2016-01-01
Changes in the elastic properties during room-temperature aging (RT aging) of metastable Ti–Nb-based alloy single crystals with low body-centered cubic (bcc)-phase stability were investigated. The elastic stiffness components of Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr alloys with different Nb concentrations were measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy during RT aging; the results revealed that shear moduli c ′ and c 44 were increased by RT aging. In the alloy with the lowest Nb concentration, i.e., with the lowest bcc phase stability, shear moduli c ′ and c 44 were enhanced by the largest amount. The increase rates were ∼5% for 1.1 × 10 7 s (127 days), whereas the bulk modulus was hardly changed by aging. In Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr–O alloys with different oxygen concentrations, shear moduli c ′ and c 44 of the alloy with the lowest oxygen concentration increased most significantly. Moreover, the electrical resistivity of Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr and Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr–O alloys was increased by RT aging. Importantly, the enhancements of shear moduli and electrical resistivity were suppressed by increases in the bcc-phase stability (i.e., increase in the Nb concentration) and oxygen concentration; these factors are known to suppress ω (hexagonal) phase formation. However, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that only a diffuse ω structure—an ω-like lattice distortion—was formed after RT aging. On the basis of alloying element effects, TEM observations, and analysis of the changes in elastic properties by using a micromechanics model, it was deduced that the enhancements of shear moduli and electrical resistivity were possibly caused by the formation of a diffuse ω structure.
Hydrostatic pressure dependence of elastic constants for lead fluoride crystal
Singh, R.K.; Rao, C.N.
1988-10-01
The variations of the second order elastic constants (SOEC) and longitudinal and shear moduli with hydrostatic pressure for the lead fluoride have been investigated theoretically, for the first time, by means of a three-body force potential (TBP) model. The significance of three-body interactions (TBI) has been clearly demonstrated in these investigations. The present TBP model has reproduced the pressure derivatives of the SOEC of PbF more satisfactorily than the shell model and other model calculations. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
Local elastic properties of nano-confined fluids: A density functional study
Sun, Zongli, E-mail: zongli_sun@163.com [Science and Technology College, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071051 (China); Kang, Yanshuang [College of Science, Agriculture University of Hebei, Baoding 071001 (China)
2014-05-01
The understanding of mechanical properties of confined fluids is essential for modeling and manipulating of nano-scaled systems. Unlike the uniform phase, the confined fluids usually display different features in structure and related properties. Due to the presence of the confining geometry, the density profile and many physical and chemical properties may be position-dependent. The aim of our research is to derive an expression for the local elastic property by using the classical elastic theory. Both the bulk and shear moduli are expressed as functional of density of particle. The theoretical result derived is applied to the Lennard-Jones fluids confined in nano-cavity. Comparison of our numerical result and the simulation result is made and qualitative agreement is observed. Further, influence of bulk density, temperature and external potential on moduli is calculated and the physical mechanism is analyzed. Relationship between contact modulus and the interfacial tension is also calculated. Their opposite trend with temperature is observed.
Local elastic properties of nano-confined fluids: A density functional study
Sun, Zongli; Kang, Yanshuang
2014-01-01
The understanding of mechanical properties of confined fluids is essential for modeling and manipulating of nano-scaled systems. Unlike the uniform phase, the confined fluids usually display different features in structure and related properties. Due to the presence of the confining geometry, the density profile and many physical and chemical properties may be position-dependent. The aim of our research is to derive an expression for the local elastic property by using the classical elastic theory. Both the bulk and shear moduli are expressed as functional of density of particle. The theoretical result derived is applied to the Lennard-Jones fluids confined in nano-cavity. Comparison of our numerical result and the simulation result is made and qualitative agreement is observed. Further, influence of bulk density, temperature and external potential on moduli is calculated and the physical mechanism is analyzed. Relationship between contact modulus and the interfacial tension is also calculated. Their opposite trend with temperature is observed.
String moduli inflation. An overview
Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quevedo, Fernando [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP/CMS; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
2011-06-15
We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the {eta}-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)
String moduli inflation. An overview
Cicoli, Michele; Quevedo, Fernando
2011-06-01
We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the η-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)
Elastic model of the traction behavior of two traction lubricants
Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.
1984-01-01
In the analysis of rolling-sliding concentrated contacts, such as gears, bearings and traction drives, the traction characteristics of the lubricant are of prime importance. The elastic shear modulus and limiting shear stress properties of the lubricant dictate the traction/slip characteristics and power loss associated with an EHD contact undergoing slip and/or spin. These properties can be deducted directly from the initial slope m and maximum traction coefficient micron of an experimental traction curve. In this investigation, correlation equations are presented to predict m and micron for two modern traction fluids based on the regression analysis of 334 separate traction disk machine experiments. The effects of contact pressure, temperature, surface velocity, ellipticity ratio are examined. Problems in deducing lubricant shear moduli from disk machine tests are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20116
Singular moduli and Arakelov intersection
Weng Lin.
1994-05-01
The value of the modular function j(τ) at imaginary quadratic arguments τ in the upper half plane is usually called singular moduli. In this paper, we use Arakelov intersection to give the prime factorizations of a certain combination of singular moduli, coming from the Hecke correspondence. Such a result may be considered as the degenerate one of Gross and Zagier on Heegner points and derivatives of L-series in their paper [GZ1], and is parallel to the result in [GZ2]. (author). 2 refs
Are the dynamics of silicate glasses and glass-forming liquids embedded in their elastic properties?
Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.
According to the elastic theory of the glass transition, the dynamics of glasses and glass-forming liquids are controlled by the evolution of shear modulus. In particular, the elastic shoving model expresses dynamics in terms of an activation energy required to shove aside the surrounding atoms......, which is determined by the shear modulus. First, we here present an in situ high-temperature Brillouin spectroscopy test of the shoving model near the glass transition of eight aluminosilicate glass-forming systems. We find that the measured viscosity data agree qualitatively with the measured...... temperature dependence of shear moduli, as predicted by the shoving model. However, the model systematically underpredicts the values of fragility. Second, we also present a thorough test of the shoving model for predicting the low temperature dynamics of an aluminosilicate glass system. This is done...
The elastic properties of zirconium alloy fuel cladding and pressure tubing materials
Rosinger, H.E.; Northwood, D.O.
1979-01-01
A knowledge of the elastic properties of zirconium alloys is required in the mathematical modelling of cladding and pressure tubing performance. Until recently, little of this type of data was available, particularly at elevated temperatures. The dynamic elastic moduli of zircaloy-2, zircaloy-4, the alloys Zr-1.0 wt%Nb, Zr-2.5 wt%Nb and Marz grade zirconium have therefore been determined over the temperature range 275 to 1000 K. Young's modulus and shear modulus for all the zirconium alloys decrease with temperature and are expressed by empirical relations fitted to the data. The elastic properties are texture dependent and a detailed study has been conducted on the effect of texture on the elastic properties of Zr-1.0 wt% Nb over the temperature range 275 to 775 K. The results are compared with polycrystalline elastic constants computed from single crystal elastic constants, and the effect of texture on the dynamic elastic moduli is discussed in detail. (Auth.)
Guirao, A. J.; Hájek, Petr Pavel
2007-01-01
Roč. 135, č. 10 (2007), s. 3233-3240 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Banach spaces * moduli of convexity * uniformly rotund norms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.520, year: 2007
How to define the storage and loss moduli for a rheologically nonlinear material?
Argatov, Ivan; Iantchenko, Alexei; Kocherbitov, Vitaly
2017-11-01
A large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) is considered in the strain-controlled regime, and the interrelation between the Fourier transform and the stress decomposition approaches is established. Several definitions of the generalized storage and loss moduli are examined in a unified conceptual scheme based on the Lissajous-Bowditch plots. An illustrative example of evaluating the generalized moduli from a LAOS flow is given.
Yi Yang
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In order to reveal the differences and conversion relations between the tensile, compressive and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam, in this paper, we develop a new test method for measuring three moduli simultaneously. By using the materials testing system, we test three moduli of the cement stabilized macadam under different loading rates, propose a flexural modulus calculation formula which considers the shearing effect, reveal the change rules of the tensile, compression and flexural moduli with the loading rate and establish the conversion relationships between the three moduli. The results indicate that: three moduli become larger with the increase of the loading rate, showing a power function pattern; with the shear effect considered, the flexural modulus is increased by 47% approximately over that in the current test method; the tensile and compression moduli of cement stabilized macadam are significantly different. Therefore, if only the compression modulus is used as the structural design parameter of asphalt pavement, there will be a great deviation in the analysis of the load response. In order to achieve scientific design and calculation, the appropriate design parameters should be chosen based on the actual stress state at each point inside the pavement structure.
A first principle study of the pressure dependent elastic properties of monazite LaPO{sub 4}
Ali, Kawsar, E-mail: ali.ksr71@gmail.com; Arya, A.; Ghosh, P. S.; Dey, G. K. [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)
2016-05-06
DFT based ab-initio simulations have been performed to study the effect of pressure on the elastic properties of monazite LaPO{sub 4} which is a promising host material for immobilization of high level nuclear waste. The phase is found to be stable up to 30 GPa. The calculated polycrystalline bulk, shear and Young moduli show an increasing trend as a function of pressure. The ductility and anisotropy in shear modulus of the material have been found to increase with pressure; whilethe bulk modulus anisotropy decreases with pressure.
Chun, Gao; Hui, Qi; Nan, Pan Xiang; Bo, Zhao Yuan
2017-07-01
Theoretical steady state solution of a semi-circular cylinder impacted by an anti-plane point loading in a vertical bound of an elastic quarter is formulated in this paper through using image method and wave function expansion series. The elastic quarter is extended as a half space, and the semi-circular interfacial cylinder is extended as a circular cylinder. Displacement field is constructed as series of Fourier-Hankel and Fourier-Bessel wave functions. At last, circular boundary is expanded as Fourier series to determine coefficients of wave function. Numerical results show that material parameters have two widely divergent effects on the radial and circumferential dynamic stress distribution.
High-Temperature Elasticity of Topaz: A Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopic study
Tennakoon, S.; Peng, Y.; Andreu, L.; Rivera, F.; Mookherjee, M.; Manthilake, G.; Speziale, S.
2017-12-01
Topaz (Al2SiO4(F,OH)2) is a hydrous aluminosilicate mineral stable in the hydrated sediments in subduction zone settings and could transport water into the Earth's interior. To constrain the amount of water subducted, it is important to have a better understanding of the elastic constants of hydrous phases and compare them with the geophysical observations. In this study, we explored the full elastic moduli tensor for a single crystal topaz using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy. We determined the full elastic moduli tensor at ambient conditions (1 bar and 297 K), with the principal components- C11, C22, and C33 are 279, 352 and 288 GPa respectively, the off-diagonal components- C12, C13, and C23 are 124, 72, and 82 GPa respectively, and the shear components- C44, C55, and C66 are 111, 134, and 130 GPa respectively. The compressional (AVP) and shear (AVS) anisotropy for topaz are 13 and 14 % respectively. The aggregate bulk (K) and shear (G) moduli are 162 and 117 GPa respectively. We determined the elasticity of topaz up to 1000 K. The components of the full elastic moduli tensor show softening at high temperature. Temperature derivatives of sound velocity of topaz, dVP/dT = -3.5 ×10-4 km/s/K and dVS/dT = -2.2 ×10-4 km/s/K are smaller than those for corundum [1], α-quartz [2], and olivine [3]. In contrast, the temperature derivatives of primary and shear sound velocity for topaz is greater than that of pyrope garnet [4]. The elasticity and sound velocity of topaz also vary as a function of chemistry i.e., OH-F contents. Our study demonstrates that the effect of composition (xOH) on the velocity is more pronounced than that of temperature.Acknowledgement: This study is supported by US NSF awards EAR-1634422. Reference: [1] Goto, T. et al.,1989, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 7588; [2] Ohno, I. et al., 2006, Phys. Chem. Miner., 33, 1-9; [3] Isaak, D. G., 1992, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 97, 1871-1885; [4] Sinogeikin, S. V., Bass, J. D., 2002, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett
Moduli fields as quintessence and the chameleon
Brax, Philippe; Martin, Jerome
2007-01-01
We consider models where moduli fields are not stabilized and play the role of quintessence. In order to evade gravitational tests, we investigate the possibility that moduli behave as chameleon fields. We find that, for realistic moduli superpotentials, the chameleon effect is not strong enough, implying that moduli quintessence models are gravitationally ruled out. More generally, we state a no-go theorem for quintessence in supergravity whereby models either behave like a pure cosmological constant or violate gravitational tests
Wang Weihua
2011-01-01
We study the similarity and correlations between relaxations and plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) and MG-forming liquids. It is shown that the microscope plastic events, the initiation and formation of shear bands, and the mechanical yield in MGs where the atomic sites are topologically unstable induced by applied stress, can be treated as the glass to supercooled liquid state transition induced by external shear stress. On the other hand, the glass transition, the primary and secondary relaxations, plastic deformation and yield can be attributed to the free volume increase induced flow, and the flow can be modeled as the activated hopping between the inherent states in the potential energy landscape. We then propose an extended elastic model to describe the flow based on the energy landscape theory. That is, the flow activation energy density is linear proportional to the instantaneous elastic moduli, and the activation energy density ρ E is determined to be a simple expression of ρ E =(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The model indicates that both shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in MGs and MG-forming liquids. The elastic model is experimentally certified. We show that the elastic perspectives offers a simple scenario for the flow in MGs and MG-forming liquids and are suggestive for understanding the glass transition, plastic deformation, and nature and characteristics of MGs
Erba, A., E-mail: alessandro.erba@unito.it; Mahmoud, A.; Dovesi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, IT-10125 Torino (Italy); Belmonte, D. [DISTAV, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genoa (Italy)
2014-03-28
A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed.
Erba, A.; Mahmoud, A.; Dovesi, R.; Belmonte, D.
2014-01-01
A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed
Chirality-dependent anisotropic elastic properties of a monolayer graphene nanosheet.
Guo, Jian-Gang; Zhou, Li-Jun; Kang, Yi-Lan
2012-04-01
An analytical approach is presented to predict the elastic properties of a monolayer graphene nanosheet based on interatomic potential energy and continuum mechanics. The elastic extension and torsional springs are utilized to simulate the stretching and angle variation of carbon-carbon bond, respectively. The constitutive equation of the graphene nanosheet is derived by using the strain energy density, and the analytical formulations for nonzero elastic constants are obtained. The in-plane elastic properties of the monolayer graphene nanosheet are proved to be anisotropic. In addition, Young's moduli, Poisson's ratios and shear modulus of the monolayer graphene nanosheet are calculated according to the force constants derived from Morse potential and AMBER force field, respectively, and they were proved to be chirality-dependent. The comparison with experimental results shows a very agreement.
Smolina, Irina Yu.
2015-10-01
Mechanical properties of a cable are of great importance in design and strength calculation of flexible cables. The problem of determination of elastic properties and rigidity characteristics of a cable modeled by anisotropic helical elastic rod is considered. These characteristics are calculated indirectly by means of the parameters received from statistical processing of experimental data. These parameters are considered as random quantities. With taking into account probable nature of these parameters the formulas for estimation of the macroscopic elastic moduli of a cable are obtained. The calculating expressions for macroscopic flexural rigidity, shear rigidity and torsion rigidity using the macroscopic elastic characteristics obtained before are presented. Statistical estimations of the rigidity characteristics of some cable grades are adduced. A comparison with those characteristics received on the basis of deterministic approach is given.
Moduli backreaction on inflationary attractors
Roest, Diederik; Werkman, Pelle
2016-07-01
We investigate the interplay between moduli dynamics and inflation, focusing on the KKLT- scenario and cosmological α-attractors. General couplings between these sectors can induce a significant backreaction and potentially destroy the inflationary regime; however, we demonstrate that this generically does not happen for α-attractors. Depending on the details of the superpotential, the volume modulus can either be stable during the entire inflationary trajectory, or become tachyonic at some point and act as a waterfall field, resulting in a sudden end of inflation. In the latter case there is a universal supersymmetric minimum where the scalars end up, preventing the decompactification scenario. The gravitino mass is independent from the inflationary scale with no fine-tuning of the parameters. The observational predictions conform to the universal value of attractors, fully compatible with the Planck data, with possibly a capped number of e-folds due to the interplay with moduli.
Moduli Backreaction on Inflationary Attractors
Roest, Diederik; Werkman, Pelle
2016-01-01
We investigate the interplay between moduli dynamics and inflation, focusing on the KKLT-scenario and cosmological $\\alpha$-attractors. General couplings between these sectors can induce a significant backreaction and potentially destroy the inflationary regime; however, we demonstrate that this generically does not happen for $\\alpha$-attractors. Depending on the details of the superpotential, the volume modulus can either be stable during the entire inflationary trajectory, or become tachyonic at some point and act as a waterfall field, resulting in a sudden end of inflation. In the latter case there is a universal supersymmetric minimum where the scalars end up, preventing the decompactification scenario. The observational predictions conform to the universal value of attractors, fully compatible with the Planck data, with possibly a capped number of e-folds due to the interplay with moduli.
Elastic modulus of Al-Si/SiC metal matrix composites as a function of volume fraction
Santhosh Kumar, S; Rajasekharan, T [Powder Metallurgy Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad-500 058 (India); Seshu Bai, V [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University PO, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); Rajkumar, K V; Sharma, G K; Jayakumar, T, E-mail: dearsanthosh@gmail.co [Non-Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Chennai-603 102 (India)
2009-09-07
Aluminum alloy matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials for electronic packaging applications in the field of aerospace semiconductor electronics. Composites prepared by the pressureless infiltration technique with high volume fractions in the range 0.41-0.70 were studied using ultrasonic velocity measurements. For different volume fractions of SiC, the longitudinal velocity and shear velocity were found to be in the range of 7600-9300 m s{sup -1} and 4400-5500 m s{sup -1}, respectively. The elastic moduli of the composites were determined from ultrasonic velocities and were analysed as a function of the volume fraction of the reinforcement. The observed variation is discussed in the context of existing theoretical models for the effective elastic moduli of two-phase systems.
Ledbetter, H.M.
1983-01-01
This chapter investigates the following five aspects of engineering-material solid-state elastic constants: general properties, interrelationships, relationships to other physical properties, changes during cooling from ambient to near-zero temperature, and near-zero-temperature behavior. Topics considered include compressibility, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law, elastic-constant measuring methods, thermodynamic potentials, higher-order energy terms, specific heat, thermal expansivity, magnetic materials, structural phase transitions, polymers, composites, textured aggregates, and other-phenomena correlations. Some of the conclusions concerning polycrystalline elastic properties and their temperature dependence are: elastic constants are physical, not mechanical, properties which relate thermodynamically to other physical properties such as specific heat and thermal expansivity; elastic constants at low temperatures are nearly temperature independent, as required by the third law of thermodynamics; and elastic constants can be used to study directional properties of materials, such as textured aggregates and composites
Multi-scale imaging and elastic simulation of carbonates
Faisal, Titly Farhana; Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Jouini, Mohamed Soufiane; Jouiad, Mustapha; Chevalier, Sylvie; Sassi, Mohamed
2016-05-01
Digital Rock Physics (DRP) is an emerging technology that can be used to generate high quality, fast and cost effective special core analysis (SCAL) properties compared to conventional experimental techniques and modeling techniques. The primary workflow of DRP conssits of three elements: 1) image the rock sample using high resolution 3D scanning techniques (e.g. micro CT, FIB/SEM), 2) process and digitize the images by segmenting the pore and matrix phases 3) simulate the desired physical properties of the rocks such as elastic moduli and velocities of wave propagation. A Finite Element Method based algorithm, that discretizes the basic Hooke's Law equation of linear elasticity and solves it numerically using a fast conjugate gradient solver, developed by Garboczi and Day [1] is used for mechanical and elastic property simulations. This elastic algorithm works directly on the digital images by treating each pixel as an element. The images are assumed to have periodic constant-strain boundary condition. The bulk and shear moduli of the different phases are required inputs. For standard 1.5" diameter cores however the Micro-CT scanning reoslution (around 40 μm) does not reveal smaller micro- and nano- pores beyond the resolution. This results in an unresolved "microporous" phase, the moduli of which is uncertain. Knackstedt et al. [2] assigned effective elastic moduli to the microporous phase based on self-consistent theory (which gives good estimation of velocities for well cemented granular media). Jouini et al. [3] segmented the core plug CT scan image into three phases and assumed that micro porous phase is represented by a sub-extracted micro plug (which too was scanned using Micro-CT). Currently the elastic numerical simulations based on CT-images alone largely overpredict the bulk, shear and Young's modulus when compared to laboratory acoustic tests of the same rocks. For greater accuracy of numerical simulation prediction, better estimates of moduli inputs
Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah
2015-01-01
To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio) was affected by the location of the reference fat. For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI) in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin). Mean (Emean) and maximum (Emax) elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat) independently associated with false results. Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (P<0.0001). Among four groups of fat elasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (<25th percentile, 25th percentile~median, median~75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile; 0.973, 0.982, 0.967, and 0.954 for Emean; 0.977, 0.967, 0.966, and 0.957 for Emax). Fat elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001). ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives. Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when it is placed in areas of artifacts.
Ji Hyun Youk
Full Text Available To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio was affected by the location of the reference fat.For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin. Mean (Emean and maximum (Emax elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC. False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat independently associated with false results.Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (P<0.0001. Among four groups of fat elasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (<25th percentile, 25th percentile~median, median~75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile; 0.973, 0.982, 0.967, and 0.954 for Emean; 0.977, 0.967, 0.966, and 0.957 for Emax. Fat elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001. ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives.Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when it is placed in areas of
T. Chourushi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Viscoelastic fluids due to their non-linear nature play an important role in process and polymer industries. These non-linear characteristics of fluid, influence final outcome of the product. Such processes though look simple are numerically challenging to study, due to the loss of numerical stability. Over the years, various methodologies have been developed to overcome this numerical limitation. In spite of this, numerical solutions are considered distant from accuracy, as first-order upwind-differencing scheme (UDS is often employed for improving the stability of algorithm. To elude this effect, some works been reported in the past, where high-resolution-schemes (HRS were employed and Deborah number was varied. However, these works are limited to creeping flows and do not detail any information on the numerical stability of HRS. Hence, this article presents the numerical study of high shearing contraction flows, where stability of HRS are addressed in reference to fluid elasticity. Results suggest that all HRS show some order of undue oscillations in flow variable profiles, measured along vertical lines placed near contraction region in the upstream section of domain, at varied elasticity number E≈5. Furthermore, by E, a clear relationship between numerical stability of HRS and E was obtained, which states that the order of undue oscillations in flow variable profiles is directly proportional to E.
Elasticity of fluorite at high temperatures
Eke, J.; Tennakoon, S.; Mookherjee, M.
2017-12-01
Fluorite (CaF2) is a simple halide with cubic space group symmetry (Fm-3m) and is often used as an internal pressure calibrant in moderate high-pressure/high-temperature experiments [1]. In order to gain insight into the elastic behavior of fluorite, we have conducted Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) on a single crystal of fluorite with rectangular parallelepiped geometry. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction, we aligned the edges of the rectangular parallelepiped with [-1 1 1], [-1 1 -2], and [-1 -1 0] crystallographic directions. We conducted the RUS measurements up to 620 K. RUS spectra are influenced by the geometry, density, and the full elastic moduli tensor of the material. In our high-temperature RUS experiments, the geometry and density were constrained using thermal expansion from previous studies [2]. We determined the elasticity by minimizing the difference between observed resonance and calculated Eigen frequency using Rayleigh-Ritz method [3]. We found that at room temperature, the single crystal elastic moduli for fluorite are 170, 49, and 33 GPa for C11, C12, and C44 respectively. At room temperatures, the aggregate bulk modulus (K) is 90 GPa and the shear modulus (G) is 43 GPa. We note that the elastic moduli and sound wave velocities decrease linearly as a function of temperature with dVP /dT and dVS /dT being -9.6 ×10-4 and -5.0 ×10-4 km/s/K respectively. Our high-temperature RUS results are in good agreement with previous studies on fluorite using both Ultrasonic methods and Brillouin scattering [4,5]. Acknowledgement: This study is supported by US NSF awards EAR-1639552 and EAR-1634422. References: [1] Speziale, S., Duffy, T. S. 2002, Phys. Chem. Miner., 29, 465-472; [2] Roberts, R. B., White, G. K., 1986, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., 19, 7167-7172. [3] Migliori, A., Maynard, J. D., 2005, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 121301. [4] Catlow, C. R. A., Comins, J. D., Germano, F. A., Harley, R. T., Hayes, W., 1978, J. Phys. C Solid State Phys
Moduli destabilization via gravitational collapse
Hwang, Dong-il [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Pedro, Francisco G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2013-06-15
We examine the interplay between gravitational collapse and moduli stability in the context of black hole formation. We perform numerical simulations of the collapse using the double null formalism and show that the very dense regions one expects to find in the process of black hole formation are able to destabilize the volume modulus. We establish that the effects of the destabilization will be visible to an observer at infinity, opening up a window to a region in spacetime where standard model's couplings and masses can differ significantly from their background values.
Hardrock Elastic Physical Properties: Birch's Seismic Parameter Revisited
Wu, M.; Milkereit, B.
2014-12-01
Identifying rock composition and properties is imperative in a variety of fields including geotechnical engineering, mining, and petroleum exploration, in order to accurately make any petrophysical calculations. Density is, in particular, an important parameter that allows us to differentiate between lithologies and estimate or calculate other petrophysical properties. It is well established that compressional and shear wave velocities of common crystalline rocks increase with increasing densities (i.e. the Birch and Nafe-Drake relationships). Conventional empirical relations do not take into account S-wave velocity. Physical properties of Fe-oxides and massive sulfides, however, differ significantly from the empirical velocity-density relationships. Currently, acquiring in-situ density data is challenging and problematic, and therefore, developing an approximation for density based on seismic wave velocity and elastic moduli would be beneficial. With the goal of finding other possible or better relationships between density and the elastic moduli, a database of density, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio was compiled based on a multitude of lab samples. The database is comprised of isotropic, non-porous metamorphic rock. Multi-parameter cross plots of the various elastic parameters have been analyzed in order to find a suitable parameter combination that reduces high density outliers. As expected, the P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity ratios show no correlation with density. However, Birch's seismic parameter, along with the bulk modulus, shows promise in providing a link between observed compressional and shear wave velocities and rock densities, including massive sulfides and Fe-oxides.
Predicting the elastic properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes by molecular dynamics simulation
Zhang Chenli; Shen Huishen
2008-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulation is performed on a double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) to predict its elastic properties based on a double-walled shear deformable shell model. By direct buckling measurement, we present here a method for uniquely determining the effective wall thickness for the shell model. Accounting for two different kinds of DWCNTs by adding an inner or outer tube to a fiducial tube, the mechanical properties of DWCNTs are carefully investigated as compared with those of the fiducial tube. It is found that the predicted values of Young's and shear moduli depend strongly on the construction and helicity of DWCNTs, while the dependence on nanotube length is relatively small. The results also confirm that the temperature variation has a significant effect on the elastic properties of DWCNTs
Structural phase transition and elastic properties of mercury chalcogenides
Varshney, Dinesh, E-mail: vdinesh33@rediffmail.com [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Shriya, S. [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Departement de Technologie, Universite de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria)
2012-08-15
Pressure induced structural transition and elastic properties of ZnS-type (B3) to NaCl-type (B1) structure in mercury chalcogenides (HgX; X = S, Se and Te) are presented. An effective interionic interaction potential (EIOP) with long-range Coulomb, as well charge transfer interactions, Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended up to the second neighbor ions and van der Waals interactions are considered. Emphasis is on the evaluation of the pressure dependent Poisson's ratio {nu}, the ratio R{sub BT/G} of B (bulk modulus) over G (shear modulus), anisotropy parameter, Shear and Young's modulus, Lame constant, Kleinman parameter, elastic wave velocity and thermodynamical property as Debye temperature. The Poisson's ratio behavior infers that Mercury chalcogenides are brittle in nature. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of elastic and thermodynamical properties explicitly the ductile (brittle) nature of HgX and still awaits experimental confirmations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vast volume discontinuity in phase diagram infers transition from ZnS to NaCl structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shear elastic constant C{sub 44} is nonzero confirms the mechanical stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pressure dependence of {theta}{sub D} infers the softening of lattice with increasing pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated bulk, shear and tetragonal moduli satisfied elastic stability criteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In both B3 and B1 phases, C{sub 11} and C{sub 12} increase linearly with pressure.
Fu, Suyu; Yang, Jing; Lin, Jung-Fu
2017-01-01
Brillouin light scattering and impulsive stimulated light scattering have been used to determine the full elastic constants of magnesiosiderite [(Mg0.35Fe0.65)CO3 ] up to 70 GPa at room temperature in a diamond-anvil cell. Drastic softening in C11 , C33 , C12 , and C13 elastic moduli associated with the compressive stress component and stiffening in C44 and C14 moduli associated with the shear stress component are observed to occur within the spin transition between ˜42.4 and ˜46.5 GPa . Negative values of C12 and C13 are also observed within the spin transition region. The Born criteria constants for the crystal remain positive within the spin transition, indicating that the mixed-spin state remains mechanically stable. Significant auxeticity can be related to the electronic spin transition-induced elastic anomalies based on the analysis of Poisson's ratio. These elastic anomalies are explained using a thermoelastic model for the rhombohedral system. Finally, we conclude that mixed-spin state ferromagnesite, which is potentially a major deep-carbon carrier, is expected to exhibit abnormal elasticity, including a negative Poisson's ratio of -0.6 and drastically reduced VP by 10%, in Earth's midlower mantle.
The moduli problem for plane branches
Zariski, Oscar
2006-01-01
Moduli problems in algebraic geometry date back to Riemann's famous count of the 3g-3 parameters needed to determine a curve of genus g. In this book, Zariski studies the moduli space of curves of the same equisingularity class. After setting up and reviewing the basic material, Zariski devotes one chapter to the topology of the moduli space, including an explicit determination of the rare cases when the space is compact. Chapter V looks at specific examples where the dimension of the generic component can be determined through rather concrete methods. Zariski's last chapter concerns the application of deformation theory to the moduli problem, including the determination of the dimension of the generic component for a particular family of curves. An appendix by Bernard Teissier reconsiders the moduli problem from the point of view of deformation theory. He gives new proofs of some of Zariski's results, as well as a natural construction of a compactification of the moduli space.
Candelas, Philip; de la Ossa, Xenia; McOrist, Jock
2017-12-01
Heterotic vacua of string theory are realised, at large radius, by a compact threefold with vanishing first Chern class together with a choice of stable holomorphic vector bundle. These form a wide class of potentially realistic four-dimensional vacua of string theory. Despite all their phenomenological promise, there is little understanding of the metric on the moduli space of these. What is sought is the analogue of special geometry for these vacua. The metric on the moduli space is important in phenomenology as it normalises D-terms and Yukawa couplings. It is also of interest in mathematics, since it generalises the metric, first found by Kobayashi, on the space of gauge field connections, to a more general context. Here we construct this metric, correct to first order in {α^{\\backprime}}, in two ways: first by postulating a metric that is invariant under background gauge transformations of the gauge field, and also by dimensionally reducing heterotic supergravity. These methods agree and the resulting metric is Kähler, as is required by supersymmetry. Checking the metric is Kähler is intricate and the anomaly cancellation equation for the H field plays an essential role. The Kähler potential nevertheless takes a remarkably simple form: it is the Kähler potential of special geometry with the Kähler form replaced by the {α^{\\backprime}}-corrected hermitian form.
Moduli stabilization in non-geometric backgrounds
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Vafa, Cumrun; Walcher, Johannes
2007-01-01
Type II orientifolds based on Landau-Ginzburg models are used to describe moduli stabilization for flux compactifications of type II theories from the world-sheet CFT point of view. We show that for certain types of type IIB orientifolds which have no Kaehler moduli and are therefore intrinsically non-geometric, all moduli can be explicitly stabilized in terms of fluxes. The resulting four-dimensional theories can describe Minkowski as well as anti-de Sitter vacua. This construction provides the first string vacuum with all moduli frozen and leading to a 4D Minkowski background
Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods
Zeng, Fan W.; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Spicer, James B.
2015-05-01
Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements.
The moduli and gravitino (non)-problems in models with strongly stabilized moduli
Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A.; Garcia, Marcos A.G.
2014-01-01
In gravity mediated models and in particular in models with strongly stabilized moduli, there is a natural hierarchy between gaugino masses, the gravitino mass and moduli masses: m 1/2 << m 3/2 << m φ . Given this hierarchy, we show that 1) moduli problems associated with excess entropy production from moduli decay and 2) problems associated with moduli/gravitino decays to neutralinos are non-existent. Placed in an inflationary context, we show that the amplitude of moduli oscillations are severely limited by strong stabilization. Moduli oscillations may then never come to dominate the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, moduli decay to gravitinos and their subsequent decay to neutralinos need not overpopulate the cold dark matter density
Elastic constants and the structural phase transition in La2-xSrxCuO4
Sarrao, J.L.; Lei, Ming; Stekel, A.; Bell, T.M.; Leisure, R.G.; Sham, L.J.; Visscher, W.M.; Migliori, A.; Bussmann-Holder, A.; Tanaka, I.; Kojima, H.
1991-01-01
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy is used to measure the temperature dependence of all six elastic moduli of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 . A giant softening (> 50% reduction) in the in-plane shear modulus, c 66 , is observed and is attributed to the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural phase transition in this material. This phase transition and the corresponding softening is examined with a simple anharmonic mechanical model and a macroscopic Ginsburg-Landau formalism exploiting the full symmetry of the crystal. 16 refs., 5 figs
Kanoun, Mohammed; Hermet, Patrick; Goumri-Said, Souraya
2012-01-01
On the basis of recent experiments, the solid solution transition-metal diborides were proposed to be new ultra-incompressible hard materials. We investigate using density functional theory based methods the structural and mechanical properties, electronic structure, and hardness of Os 1-xRu xB 2 solid solutions. A difference in chemical bonding occurs between OsB 2 and RuB 2 diborides, leading to significantly different elastic properties: a large bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Os-rich diborides and relatively small bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Ru-rich diborides. The electronic structure and bonding characterization are also analyzed as a function of Ru-dopant concentration in the OsB 2 lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Kanoun, Mohammed
2012-05-31
On the basis of recent experiments, the solid solution transition-metal diborides were proposed to be new ultra-incompressible hard materials. We investigate using density functional theory based methods the structural and mechanical properties, electronic structure, and hardness of Os 1-xRu xB 2 solid solutions. A difference in chemical bonding occurs between OsB 2 and RuB 2 diborides, leading to significantly different elastic properties: a large bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Os-rich diborides and relatively small bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Ru-rich diborides. The electronic structure and bonding characterization are also analyzed as a function of Ru-dopant concentration in the OsB 2 lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Using Ultrasonic Lamb Waves To Measure Moduli Of Composites
Kautz, Harold E.
1995-01-01
Measurements of broad-band ultrasonic Lamb waves in plate specimens of ceramic-matrix/fiber and metal-matrix/fiber composite materials used to determine moduli of elasticity of materials. In one class of potential applications of concept, Lamb-wave responses of specimens measured and analyzed at various stages of thermal and/or mechanical processing to determine effects of processing, without having to dissect specimens. In another class, structural components having shapes supporting propagation of Lamb waves monitored ultrasonically to identify signs of deterioration and impending failure.
Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure
Li, Baosheng; Rigden, Sally M.; Liebermann, Robert C.
1996-08-01
The elastic-wave velocities of stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO 2, were measured to 3 GPa at room temperature in a piston cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry on polycrystalline samples. These polycrystalline samples (2-3 mm in length and diameter) were hot-pressed at 14 GPa and 1050°C in a 2000 ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) using fused silica rods as starting material. They were characterized as low porosity (less than 1%), single phase, fine grained, free of cracks and preferred orientation, and acoustically isotropic by using density measurement, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and bench-top velocity measurements. On the basis of subsequent in situ X-ray diffraction study at high P and T on peak broadening on similar specimens, it is evident that the single crystal grains within these polycrystalline aggregates are well equilibrated and that these specimens are free of residual strain. P- and S-wave velocities measured at 1 atm are within 1.5% of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds calculated from single-crystal elastic moduli. Measured pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli, K' 0 = 5.3 ± 0.1 and G' 0 = 1.8 ± 0.1, are not unusual compared with values measured for other transition zone phases such as silicate spinel and majorite garnet. Isothermal compression curves calculated with the measured values of K0 and K' 0 agree well with experimental P-V data to 16 GPa. The experimental value of dG /dP is in excellent agreement with predictions based on elasticity systematics. Theoretical models are not yet able to replicate the measured values of K' 0 and G' 0.
Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology
Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A
2013-01-01
We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).
Determination of static moduli in fractured rocks by T-matrix model
Chalupa, F.; Vilhelm, J.; Petružálek, Matěj; Bukovská, Z.
2017-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 1 (2017), s. 22-31 ISSN 1335-1788 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : fractured rocks * dynamic and static moduli * T-matrix model * elastic wave velocity * well logging Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 0.769, year: 2016 http://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2017/n1/3chalupa.pdf
Kalita, Viktor M.; Snarskii, Andrei A.; Shamonin, Mikhail; Zorinets, Denis
2017-03-01
The influence of an external magnetic field on the static shear strain and the effective shear modulus of a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) is studied theoretically in the framework of a recently introduced approach to the single-particle magnetostriction mechanism [V. M. Kalita et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 062503 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062503]. The planar problem of magnetostriction in an MAE with magnetically soft inclusions in the form of a thin disk (platelet) having the magnetic anisotropy in the plane of this disk is solved analytically. An external magnetic field acts with torques on magnetic filler particles, creates mechanical stresses in the vicinity of inclusions, induces shear strain, and increases the effective shear modulus of these composite materials. It is shown that the largest effect of the magnetic field on the effective shear modulus should be expected in MAEs with soft elastomer matrices, where the shear modulus of the matrix is less than the magnetic anisotropy constant of inclusions. It is derived that the effective shear modulus is nonlinearly dependent on the external magnetic field and approaches the saturation value in magnetic fields exceeding the field of particle anisotropy. It is shown that model calculations of the effective shear modulus correspond to a phenomenological definition of effective elastic moduli and magnetoelastic coupling constants. The obtained theoretical results compare well with known experimental data. Determination of effective elastic coefficients in MAEs and their dependence on magnetic field is discussed. The concentration dependence of the effective shear modulus at higher filler concentrations has been estimated using the method of Padé approximants, which predicts that both the absolute and relative changes of the magnetic-field-dependent effective shear modulus will significantly increase with the growing concentration of filler particles.
Moduli space of Chern-Simons gravity
Soda, Jiro; Yamanaka, Yuki
1990-09-01
Conformally invariant (2+1)-dimensional gravity, Chern-Shimons gravity, is studied. Its solution space, moduli space, is investigated using the linearization method. The dimension of moduli space is determined as 18g - 18 for g > 1,6 for g = 1 and 0 for g = 0. We discuss the geometrical meaning of our investigation. (author)
Ebrahimi, Farzad; Salari, Erfan
2015-01-01
In this study, the thermal effect on the free vibration characteristics of embedded Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) based on the size-dependent Reddy higher order shear deformation beam theory subjected to in-plane thermal loading is investigated by presenting a Navier-type solution and employing a semi-analytical Differential transform method (DTM) for the first time. In addition, the exact nonlocal Reddy beam theory solution presented here should be useful to engineers designing nanoelectromechanical devices. The small scale effect is considered based on nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen. The nonlocal equations of motion are derived through Hamilton's principle, and they are solved by applying DTM. Numerical results reveal that the proposed modeling and semi-analytical approach can provide more accurate frequency results of the SWCNTs compared to analytical results and some cases in the literature. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented, and numerical investigations are performed, whereas emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of several parameters such as small-scale effects, boundary conditions, mode number, thickness ratio, temperature change, and Winkler spring modulus on the natural frequencies of the SWCNTs in detail. The vibration behavior of SWCNTs is significantly influenced by these effects. Results indicate that the inclusion of size effect results in a decrease in nanobeam stiffness and leads to a decrease in natural frequency. Numerical results are presented to serve as benchmarks for future analyses of SWCNTs.
Holmes Amey J
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.
String moduli stabilization at the conifold
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Herschmann, Daniela; Wolf, Florian [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)
2016-08-18
We study moduli stabilization for type IIB orientifolds compactified on Calabi-Yau threefolds in the region close to conifold singularities in the complex structure moduli space. The form of the periods implies new phenomena like exponential mass hierarchies even in the regime of negligible warping. Integrating out the heavy conic complex structure modulus leads to an effective flux induced potential for the axio-dilaton and the remaining complex structure moduli containing exponentially suppressed terms that imitate non-perturbative effects. It is shown that this scenario can be naturally combined with the large volume scenario so that all moduli are dynamically stabilized in the dilute flux regime. As an application of this moduli stabilization scheme, a string inspired model of aligned inflation is designed that features a parametrically controlled hierarchy of mass scales.
Gravitational Particle Production and the Moduli Problem
Felder, G; Linde, Andrei D; Felder, Gary; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei
2000-01-01
A theory of gravitational production of light scalar particles during and after inflation is investigated. We show that in the most interesting cases where long-wavelength fluctuations of light scalar fields can be generated during inflation, these fluctuations rather than quantum fluctuations produced after inflation give the dominant contribution to particle production. In such cases a simple analytical theory of particle production can be developed. Application of our results to the theory of quantum creation of moduli fields demonstrates that if the moduli mass is smaller than the Hubble constant then these fields are copiously produced during inflation. This gives rise to the cosmological moduli problem even if there is no homogeneous component of the classical moduli field in the universe. To avoid this version of the moduli problem it is necessary for the Hubble constant H during the last stages of inflation and/or the reheating temperature T_R after inflation to be extremely small.
Theoretical studies of the pressure-induced phase transition and elastic properties of BeS
Ji, Xu [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu, Yang, E-mail: yuyang@scu.edu.cn [Department of Logistics Management, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Ji, Junyi [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Long, Jianping [College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Chen, Jianjun; Liu, Daijun [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)
2015-02-25
Highlights: • Transition pressure from B3 to B8 of BeS is 58.86 GPa. • Elastic properties of BeS under pressure are predicted for the first time. • Elastic moduli of BeS increase monotonically with increasing pressure. • Elastic anisotropy of BeS has been investigated. - Abstract: First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the structural, electronic and elastic properties of BeS in both B3 and B8 structures. The structural phase transition from B3 to B8 occurs at 58.86 GPa with a volume decrease of 10.74%. The results of the electronic band structure show that the energy gap is indirect for B3 and B8 phases. The pressure dependence of the direct and indirect band gaps for BeS has been investigated. Especially, the elastic constants of B8 BeS under high pressure have been studied for the first time. The mechanical stability of the two phases has been discussed based on the pressure dependence of the elastic constants. In addition, the pressure dependence of bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, elastic wave velocities and brittle–ductile behavior of BeS are all successfully obtained. Finally, the elastic anisotropy has been investigated by using two different methods.
First-principles study of structural and elastic properties of monoclinic and orthorhombic BiMnO3
Mei Zhigang; Shang Shunli; Wang Yi; Liu Zikui
2010-01-01
The structural and elastic properties of BiMnO 3 with monoclinic (C 2/c) and orthorhombic (Pnma) ferromagnetic (FM) structures have been studied by first-principles calculations within LDA + U and GGA + U approaches. The equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli of BiMnO 3 phases are evaluated by equation of state (EOS) fittings, and the bulk properties predicted by LDA + U calculations are in better agreement with experiment. The orthorhombic phase is found to be more stable than the monoclinic phase at ambient pressure. A monoclinic to monoclinic phase transition is predicted to occur at a pressure of about 10 GPa, which is ascribed to magnetism versus volume instability of monoclinic BiMnO 3 . The single-crystal elastic stiffness constants c ij s of the monoclinic and orthorhombic phases are investigated using the stress-strain method. The c 46 of the monoclinic phase is predicted to be negative. In addition, the polycrystalline elastic properties including bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, bulk modulus-shear modulus ratio, Poisson's ratio, and elastic anisotropy ratio are determined based on the calculated elastic constants. The presently predicted phase transition and elastic properties open new directions for investigation of the phase transitions in BiMnO 3 , and provide helpful guidance for the future elastic constant measurements.
Xu, Yuan; Dai, Feng
2018-03-01
A novel method is developed for characterizing the mechanical response and failure mechanism of brittle rocks under dynamic compression-shear loading: an inclined cylinder specimen using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. With the specimen axis inclining to the loading direction of SHPB, a shear component can be introduced into the specimen. Both static and dynamic experiments are conducted on sandstone specimens. Given carefully pulse shaping, the dynamic equilibrium of the inclined specimens can be satisfied, and thus the quasi-static data reduction is employed. The normal and shear stress-strain relationships of specimens are subsequently established. The progressive failure process of the specimen illustrated via high-speed photographs manifests a mixed failure mode accommodating both the shear-dominated failure and the localized tensile damage. The elastic and shear moduli exhibit certain loading-path dependence under quasi-static loading but loading-path insensitivity under high loading rates. Loading rate dependence is evidently demonstrated through the failure characteristics involving fragmentation, compression and shear strength and failure surfaces based on Drucker-Prager criterion. Our proposed method is convenient and reliable to study the dynamic response and failure mechanism of rocks under combined compression-shear loading.
O'Grady, Kieran G
2016-01-01
The author studies the GIT quotient of the symplectic grassmannian parametrizing lagrangian subspaces of \\bigwedge^3{\\mathbb C}^6 modulo the natural action of \\mathrm{SL}_6, call it \\mathfrak{M}. This is a compactification of the moduli space of smooth double EPW-sextics and hence birational to the moduli space of HK 4-folds of Type K3^{[2]} polarized by a divisor of square 2 for the Beauville-Bogomolov quadratic form. The author will determine the stable points. His work bears a strong analogy with the work of Voisin, Laza and Looijenga on moduli and periods of cubic 4-folds.
Determination of the elastic constants of portlandite by Brillouin spectroscopy
Speziale, S.
2008-10-01
The single crystal elastic constants Cij and the shear and adiabatic bulk modulus of a natural portlandite (Ca(OH)2) crystal were determined by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The elastic constants, expressed in GPa, are: C11 = 102.0(± 2.0), C12 = 32.1(± 1.0), C13 = 8.4(± 0.4), C14 = 4.5(± 0.2), C33 = 33.6(± 0.7), C44 = 12.0(± 0.3), C66 = (C11-C12)/2 = 35.0(± 1.1), where the numbers in parentheses are 1σ standard deviations. The Reuss bounds of the adiabatic bulk and shear moduli are K0S = 26.0(± 0.3) GPa and G0 = 17.5(± 0.4) GPa, respectively, while the Voigt bounds of these moduli are K0S = 37.3(± 0.4) GPa and G0 = 24.4(± 0.3) GPa. The Reuss and Voigt bounds for the aggregate Young\\'s modulus are 42.8(± 1.0) GPa and 60.0(± 0.8) GPa respectively, while the aggregate Poisson\\'s ratio is equal to 0.23(± 0.01). Portlandite exhibits both large compressional elastic anisotropy with C11/C33 = 3.03(± 0.09) equivalent to that of the isostructural hydroxide brucite (Mg(OH)2), and large shear anisotropy with C66/C44 = 2.92(± 0.12) which is 11% larger than brucite. The comparison between the bulk modulus of portlandite and that of lime (CaO) confirms a systematic linear relationship between the bulk moduli of brucite-type simple hydroxides and the corresponding NaCl-type oxides. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engel, Aaron J; Bashford, Gregory R
2015-08-01
Ultrasound based shear wave elastography (SWE) is a technique used for non-invasive characterization and imaging of soft tissue mechanical properties. Robust estimation of shear wave propagation speed is essential for imaging of soft tissue mechanical properties. In this study we propose to estimate shear wave speed by inversion of the first-order wave equation following directional filtering. This approach relies on estimation of first-order derivatives which allows for accurate estimations using smaller smoothing filters than when estimating second-order derivatives. The performance was compared to three current methods used to estimate shear wave propagation speed: direct inversion of the wave equation (DIWE), time-to-peak (TTP) and cross-correlation (CC). The shear wave speed of three homogeneous phantoms of different elastic moduli (gelatin by weight of 5%, 7%, and 9%) were measured with each method. The proposed method was shown to produce shear speed estimates comparable to the conventional methods (standard deviation of measurements being 0.13 m/s, 0.05 m/s, and 0.12 m/s), but with simpler processing and usually less time (by a factor of 1, 13, and 20 for DIWE, CC, and TTP respectively). The proposed method was able to produce a 2-D speed estimate from a single direction of wave propagation in about four seconds using an off-the-shelf PC, showing the feasibility of performing real-time or near real-time elasticity imaging with dedicated hardware.
Elastic properties of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in supercooled liquid region
Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.; Jiang, Jianzhong
2001-01-01
In situ ultrasonic measurements for the Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in three states: Glassy solid, supercooled liquid, and crystalline, have been performed. It is found that velocities of both longitudinal and transverse waves and elastic moduli (shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus......, and Lame parameter), together with Debye temperature, gradually decrease with increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature as the Poisson's ratio increases. The behavior of the velocity of transverse wave vs. temperature in the supercooled liquid region could be explained by viscosity...
Yao Qiang; Zhu Yuhong; Wang Yan
2011-01-01
Ultrasoft pseudopotential within a generalized gradient approximation was employed to study the structural stability, electronic structure, and elastic properties of ternary Co 3 (Ga,W) precipitate. The Young's and shear moduli of the polycrystals containing the Co 3 (Ga,W) precipitate were calculated using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging scheme. Results show that the stable ternary Co 3 (Ga,W) compound has the L1 2 structure, and is ductile in nature. The structural stability of the Co 3 (Ga,W) compound is discussed together with the calculated electronic structure.
Farkas, Gavril; Geer, Gerard
2016-01-01
This book provides an overview of the latest developments concerning the moduli of K3 surfaces. It is aimed at algebraic geometers, but is also of interest to number theorists and theoretical physicists, and continues the tradition of related volumes like “The Moduli Space of Curves” and “Moduli of Abelian Varieties,” which originated from conferences on the islands Texel and Schiermonnikoog and which have become classics. K3 surfaces and their moduli form a central topic in algebraic geometry and arithmetic geometry, and have recently attracted a lot of attention from both mathematicians and theoretical physicists. Advances in this field often result from mixing sophisticated techniques from algebraic geometry, lattice theory, number theory, and dynamical systems. The topic has received significant impetus due to recent breakthroughs on the Tate conjecture, the study of stability conditions and derived categories, and links with mirror symmetry and string theory. At the same time, the theory of irred...
Geometry and quantization of moduli spaces
Andersen, Jørgen; Riera, Ignasi
2016-01-01
This volume is based on four advanced courses held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM), Barcelona. It presents both background information and recent developments on selected topics that are experiencing extraordinary growth within the broad research area of geometry and quantization of moduli spaces. The lectures focus on the geometry of moduli spaces which are mostly associated to compact Riemann surfaces, and are presented from both classical and quantum perspectives.
Ravindran, P.; Fast, L.; Korzhavyi, P.A.; Johansson, B.; Wills, J.; Eriksson, O.
1998-01-01
A theoretical formalism to calculate the single crystal elastic constants for orthorhombic crystals from first principle calculations is described. This is applied for TiSi 2 and we calculate the elastic constants using a full potential linear muffin-tin orbital method using the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated values compare favorably with recent experimental results. An expression to calculate the bulk modulus along crystallographic axes of single crystals, using elastic constants, has been derived. From this the calculated linear bulk moduli are found to be in good agreement with the experiments. The shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio for ideal polycrystalline TiSi 2 are also calculated and compared with corresponding experimental values. The directional bulk modulus and the Young's modulus for single crystal TiSi 2 are estimated from the elastic constants obtained from LDA as well as GGA calculations and are compared with the experimental results. The shear anisotropic factors and anisotropy in the linear bulk modulus are obtained from the single crystal elastic constants. From the site and angular momentum decomposed density of states combined with a charge density analysis and the elastic anisotropies, the chemical bonding nature between the constituents in TiSi 2 is analyzed. The Debye temperature is calculated from the average elastic wave velocity obtained from shear and bulk modulus as well as the integration of elastic wave velocities in different directions of the single crystal. The calculated elastic properties are found to be in good agreement with experimental values when the generalized gradient approximation is used for the exchange and correlation potential. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
The stabilities, electronic structures and elastic properties of Rb—As systems
Ozisik Havva Bogaz; Colakoglu Kemal; Deligoz Engin; Ozisik Haci
2012-01-01
The structural, electronic and elastic properties of Rb—As systems (RbAs in NaP, LiAs and AuCu structures, RbAs 2 in the MgCu 2 structure, Rb 3 As in Na 3 As, Cu 3 P and Li 3 Bi structures, and Rb 5 As 4 in the A 5 B 4 structure) are investigated with the generalized gradient approximation in the frame of density functional theory. The lattice parameters, cohesive energies, formation energies, bulk moduli and the first derivatives of the bulk moduli (to fit Murnaghan's equation of state) of the considered structures are calculated and reasonable agreement is obtained. In addition, the phase transition pressures are also predicted. The electronic band structures, the partial densities of states corresponding to the band structures and the charge density distributions are presented and analysed. The second-order elastic constants based on the stress-strain method and other related quantities such as Young's modulus, the shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, sound velocities, the Debye temperature and shear anisotropy factors are also estimated. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
André Luis Christoforo
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Este trabalhou objetiva apresentar uma metodologia analítica para o cálculo dos módulos de elasticidade longitudinal (E e transversal (G em vigas de madeira de dimensões estruturais, segundo o emprego das teorias de vigas de Euler Bernoulli e Timoshenko, sendo utilizado o ensaio de flexão estática a três pontos. As madeiras testadas foram o Pinus elliottii e a Corymbia citriodora. Os resultados encontrados relevaram ser o módulo de elasticidade longitudinal 18,70 vezes superior ao módulo transversal do Pinus elliottii e 21,2 superior ao módulo transversal do Corymbia citriodora, sendo estes compatíveis quando comparada a relação entre E e G estabelecida pela norma Brasileira ABNT NBR 7190:1997 (Projeto de Estruturas de Madeira, que define ser o módulo de elasticidade longitudinal vinte vezes superior ao transversal.This paper proposed a test method to obtain the shear (G and longitudinal (E modulus of elasticity in timber beams with structural dimensions, based on the static three-points bending tests and the Euler Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams theories. The woods tested were the Corymbia citriodora and Pinus elliottii. The results revealed that the longitudinal modulus of elasticity of Pinus elliottii is 18.70 greater than the shear modulus, and 21.16 greater than the shear modulus of Corymbia citriodora, being consistent this results when compared to the proposed by the Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 7190:1997 (Design of Wood Structures, being the longitudinal modulus of elasticity twenty times greater than the shear modulus.
Patrício, P.; Almeida, P. L.; Portela, R.; Sobral, R. G.; Grilo, I. R.; Cidade, T.; Leal, C. R.
2014-08-01
The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology—in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus—strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant, RUSAL9—were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of the cultures of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the cultures of the two strains follows different and rich behaviors, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony-forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL culture keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain culture decreases steeply, still in the exponential phase, remains constant for some time, and increases again, reaching a constant plateau at a maximum value for the late phase of growth. These complex viscoelastic behaviors, which were observed to be shear-stress-dependent, are a consequence of two coupled effects: the cell density continuous increase and its changing interacting properties. The viscous and elastic moduli of strain COL culture, obtained with oscillatory shear, exhibit power-law behaviors whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage. The viscous and elastic moduli of the mutant culture have complex behaviors, emerging from the different relaxation times that are associated with the large molecules of the medium and the self-organized structures of bacteria. Nevertheless, these behaviors reflect the bacteria growth stage.
First-principles investigation of elastic anomalies in niobium at high pressure and temperature
Wang, Yi X.; Geng, Hua Y.; Wu, Q.; Chen, Xiang R.; Sun, Y.
2017-12-01
Niobium does not show any structure transition up to very high pressures. Nonetheless, by using density functional theory, we demonstrate in this work that it exhibits striking softening in elastic moduli C44 and C' at a pressure from 20 to 150 GPa. A novel anomaly softening in C44 from 275 to 400 GPa is also predicted. The physics behind these two anomalies is elaborated by electronic structure calculations, which revealed that they are actually different—first one directly relates to an underlying rhombohedral distortion whereas the latter originates in an electronic topological transition. The large magnitude of the softening leads to a remarkable elastic anisotropy in both the shear and the Young's moduli of Nb. Further investigation shows that thermo-electrons have an important role in these anomalies. This effect has not been noticed before. With increased electronic temperature, it is found that all anomalies (both the elastic softening and anisotropy) in Nb are gradually diminished, effectively giving rise to a temperature-induced hardening phenomenon.
Experimental Validation of the Transverse Shear Behavior of a Nomex Core for Sandwich Panels
Farooqi, M. I.; Nasir, M. A.; Ali, H. M.; Ali, Y.
2017-05-01
This work deals with determination of the transverse shear moduli of a Nomex® honeycomb core of sandwich panels. Their out-of-plane shear characteristics depend on the transverse shear moduli of the honeycomb core. These moduli were determined experimentally, numerically, and analytically. Numerical simulations were performed by using a unit cell model and three analytical approaches. Analytical calculations showed that two of the approaches provided reasonable predictions for the transverse shear modulus as compared with experimental results. However, the approach based upon the classical lamination theory showed large deviations from experimental data. Numerical simulations also showed a trend similar to that resulting from the analytical models.
Moduli stabilization in type IIB orientifolds
Schulgin, W.
2007-01-01
This thesis deals with the stabilization of the moduli fields in the compactifications of the type IIB string theory on orientifolds. A concrete procedure for the construction of solutions, in which all moduli fields are fixed, yields the KKLT scenario. We study, on which models the scenario can be applied, if approximations of the original KKLT work are abandoned. We find that in a series of models, namely such without complex-structure moduli the construction of the consistent solutions in the framework of the KKLT scenario is not possible. The nonperturbative effects, like D3 instantons and gaugino condensates are a further component of the KKLT scenario. They lead to the stabilization of the Kaehler moduli. We present criteria for the generation of the superpotential due to the D3 instantons at a Calaby-Yau manifold in presence of fluxes. Furthermore we show that although the presence of the nonperturbative superpotential in the equations of motions is correlated with the switching on of all ISD and IASD fluxes, the deciding criterium for the generation of the nonperturbative superpotential depends only on the fluxes of the type (2,1). Thereafter we discuss two models, in which we stabilize all moduli fields. Thereby it deals with Calabi-Yau orientifolds which have been obtained by a blow-up procedure from the Z 6-II and Z 2 x Z 4 orientifolds
Aslanides, Ioannis M; Dessi, Claudia; Georgoudis, Panagiotis; Charalambidis, Georgios; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G; Kymionis, George; Mukherjee, Achyut; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N
2016-04-01
The effect of ultraviolet (UV)-riboflavin cross-linking (CXL) has been measured primarily using the strip extensometry technique. We propose a simple and reliable methodology for the assessment of CXL treatment by using an established rheologic protocol based on small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements. It provides information on the average cross-link density and the elastic modulus of treated cornea samples. Three fresh postmortem porcine corneas were used to study the feasibility of the technique, one serving as control and two receiving corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Subsequently, five pairs of fresh postmortem porcine corneas received corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with riboflavin and UVA-irradiation (370 nm; irradiance of 3 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes (Dresden protocol); the contralateral porcine corneas were used as control samples. After the treatment, the linear viscoelastic moduli of the corneal samples were measured using SAOS measurements and the average cross-linking densities extracted. For all cases investigated, the dynamic moduli of the cross-linked corneas were higher compared to those of the corresponding control samples. The increase of the elastic modulus of the treated samples was between 122% and 1750%. The difference was statistically significant for all tested samples (P = 0.018, 2-tailed t-test). We report a simple and accurate methodology for quantifying the effects of cross-linking on porcine corneas treated with the Dresden protocol by means of SAOS measurements in the linear regime. The measured dynamic moduli, elastic and viscous modulus, represent the energy storage and energy dissipation, respectively. Hence, they provide a means to assess the changing physical properties of the cross-linked collagen networks after CXL treatment.
Accidental Kähler moduli inflation
Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske
2015-01-01
We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model
Poživilová, Alena; Plešek, Jiří
2005-01-01
Roč. 482, č. 482 (2005), s. 327-330 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/03/0331; GA ČR(CZ) GP106/03/D038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustoelasticity * large strains * third order elastic moduli Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005
Biskri, Zine Elabidine; Rached, Habib; Bouchear, Merzoug; Rached, Djamel
2014-04-01
The objective of this study is to investigate theoretically the structural, elastic and electronic properties of Lithium Disilicate (LD) crystal (Li2Si2O5), using the pseudo potential method based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the Local Density Approximation (LDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). The calculated structural properties namely the equilibrium lattice parameters and cell volume are in good agreement with the available experimental results. However, for the LD crystal elastic moduli: Shear modulus G, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν we have found a discrepancy between our theoretical values and experimental ones reported in polycrystalline sample containing LD crystals. The calculated elastic properties show that LD is more rigid compared with other components. We also investigated the mechanical stability of Li2Si2O5 compound and we have noticed that this compound is stable against elastic deformations. On the basis of shear to bulk modulus ratio analysis, we inferred that Li2Si2O5 compound is brittle in nature. In order to complete the fundamental characteristics of this compound we have measured the elastic anisotropy. Our results for the energy band structure and Density of States (DOS) show that Li2Si2O5 compound has an insulator characteristic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ultrasound viscoelasticity assessment using an adaptive torsional shear wave propagation method
Ouared, Abderrahmane [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9, Canada and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Kazemirad, Siavash; Montagnon, Emmanuel [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9 (Canada); Cloutier, Guy, E-mail: guy.cloutier@umontreal.ca [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada)
2016-04-15
Purpose: Different approaches have been used in dynamic elastography to assess mechanical properties of biological tissues. Most techniques are based on a simple inversion based on the measurement of the shear wave speed to assess elasticity, whereas some recent strategies use more elaborated analytical or finite element method (FEM) models. In this study, a new method is proposed for the quantification of both shear storage and loss moduli of confined lesions, in the context of breast imaging, using adaptive torsional shear waves (ATSWs) generated remotely with radiation pressure. Methods: A FEM model was developed to solve the inverse wave propagation problem and obtain viscoelastic properties of interrogated media. The inverse problem was formulated and solved in the frequency domain and its robustness to noise and geometric constraints was evaluated. The proposed model was validated in vitro with two independent rheology methods on several homogeneous and heterogeneous breast tissue-mimicking phantoms over a broad range of frequencies (up to 400 Hz). Results: Viscoelastic properties matched benchmark rheology methods with discrepancies of 8%–38% for the shear modulus G′ and 9%–67% for the loss modulus G″. The robustness study indicated good estimations of storage and loss moduli (maximum mean errors of 19% on G′ and 32% on G″) for signal-to-noise ratios between 19.5 and 8.5 dB. Larger errors were noticed in the case of biases in lesion dimension and position. Conclusions: The ATSW method revealed that it is possible to estimate the viscoelasticity of biological tissues with torsional shear waves when small biases in lesion geometry exist.
Moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories
Wendland, K.
2000-08-01
We investigate various features of moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories. A geometric characterization of rational toroidal conformal field theories in arbitrary dimensions is presented and discussed in relation to singular tori and those with complex multiplication. We study the moduli space M 2 of unitary two-dimensional conformal field theories with central charge c = 2. All the 26 non-exceptional non-isolated irreducible components of M 2 are constructed that may be obtained by an orbifold procedure from toroidal theories. The parameter spaces and partition functions are calculated explicitly. All multicritical points and lines are determined, such that all but three of these 26 components are directly or indirectly connected to the space of toroidal theories in M 2 . Relating our results to those by Dixon, Ginsparg, Harvey on the classification of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories, we give geometric interpretations to all non-isolated orbifolds discussed by them and correct their statements on multicritical points within the moduli space of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories. In the main part of this work, we investigate the moduli space M of N = (4, 4) superconformal field theories with central charge c = 6. After a slight emendation of its global description we give generic partition functions for models contained in M. We explicitly determine the locations of various known models in the component of M associated to K3 surfaces
A minicourse on moduli of curves
Looijenga, E.
2000-01-01
These are notes that accompany a short course given at the School on Algebraic Geometry 1999 at the ICTP, Trieste. A major goal is to outline various approaches to moduli spaces of curves. In the last part I discuss the algebraic classes that naturally live on these spaces; these can be thought of as the characteristic classes for bundles of curves. (author)
Moduli spaces of convex projective structures on surfaces
Fock, V. V.; Goncharov, A. B.
2007-01-01
We introduce explicit parametrisations of the moduli space of convex projective structures on surfaces, and show that the latter moduli space is identified with the higher Teichmüller space for defined in [V.V. Fock, A.B. Goncharov, Moduli spaces of local systems and higher Teichmüller theory, math.......AG/0311149]. We investigate the cluster structure of this moduli space, and define its quantum version....
Quantum scattering in two black hole moduli space
Sakamoto, Kenji; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi
2003-01-01
We discuss the quantum scattering process in a moduli space consisting of two maximally charged dilaton black holes. The black hole moduli space geometry has different structures for arbitrary dimensions and various values of the dilaton coupling. We study the quantum effects of the different moduli space geometries with scattering process. Then, it is found that there is a resonance state on certain moduli spaces
The elastic response of composite materials
Laws, N.
1980-01-01
The theory of linear elasticity is used to study the elastic response of composite materials. The main concern is the prediction of overall moduli. Some attention is paid to the problem of deciding upon when the idea of an overall modulus is meaningful. In addition it is shown how to calculate some rigorous bounds on the overall moduli, and some predictions of the self-consistent method are discussed. The paper mainly concentrates on isotropic dispersions of spheres, unidirectional fibre-reinforced materials and laminates. (author)
Elastic Properties of Synthetic Pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) to 9 GPa and 1000°C
Gwanmesia, G. D.; Zhang, J.; Li, B.; Darling, K.; Kung, J.; Neuville, D.; Raterron, P.; Sullivan, S.; Liebermann, R. C.
2003-04-01
We have measured the elastic wave velocities of polycrystalline pyrope (Mg_3Al_2Si_3O12) to 9 GPa and 1000^oC by ultrasonic interferometry, combined with in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and imaging techniques. Fine-grained polycrystalline specimens (99.5% of theoretical density) were hot-pressed from a homogeneous glass starting material in the USSA-2000 apparatus at Stony Brook; the physical properties of the recovered specimens were characterized with density measurements, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Bench-top elastic wave velocities were in excellent agreement with the isotropic averages calculated from single-crystal elastic moduli of Leitner et al. (1980) by the Hashin-Shtrikman method. Travel times of acoustic compressional (P) and shear (S) waves, specimen lengths and PVT equations of state for the specimen and a NaCl standard were measured to 9 GPa and 1000^oC in a DIA-type high pressure apparatus (SAM-85), installed on the superconducting wiggler beamline (X17B) at the National Synchrotron Light Source of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. These data enabled us to determine the pressure and temperature derivatives of the elastic wave velocities and moduli for isotropic pyrope. We compare our new values with those of previous investigators and discuss the implications of these data for interpreting the seismic velocity gradients in the transition zone of the Earth's mantle.
Two-Sided Estimates of Thermo-elastic Characteristics of Dispersed Inclusion Composites
V. S. Zarubin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The composites, dispersion-reinforced with inclusions from high-strength and high-modulus materials are widely used in technology. Nanostructure elements can perform the role of such inclusions as well. Possible applications of such composites in heat-stressed structures under heavy mechanical and thermal influences significantly depend on a complex of thermo-mechanical characteristics including the values of the moduli of elasticity and coefficient of linear thermal expansion. There are different approaches to construction of mathematical models that allow calculating dependences to estimate elastic characteristics of composites. Relation between thermoelastic properties of matrix and inclusions of the composite with its temperature coefficient of linear expansion is studied in less detail. Thus, attention has been insufficient in estimating a degree of reliability and a possible error of derived dependencies.A dual variation formulation of the problem of thermo-elasticity in a non-uniform solids simulating the properties and structure of the composite with dispersed inclusions, makes it possible to define two-sided limits of possible values of the volume elasticity modulus, shear modulus, and coefficient of linear thermal expansion of such composite. These limits allow us to estimate the maximum possible error, if to take a half-sum of the limit values of these parameters as the thermoelastic characteristics of the composite. Implementing this approach to find possible errors, arising when using one or another calculating dependency, improves reliability of predicted thermo-elastic characteristics as applied to existing and promising composites.
Dimensional reduction for D3-brane moduli
Cownden, Brad; Frey, Andrew R.; Marsh, M.C. David; Underwood, Bret
2016-01-01
Warped string compactifications are central to many attempts to stabilize moduli and connect string theory with cosmology and particle phenomenology. We present a first-principles derivation of the low-energy 4D effective theory from dimensional reduction of a D3-brane in a warped Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIB string theory with imaginary self-dual 3-form flux, including effects of D3-brane motion beyond the probe approximation, and find the metric on the moduli space of brane positions, the universal volume modulus, and axions descending from the 4-form potential. As D3-branes may be considered as carrying either electric or magnetic charges for the self-dual 5-form field strength, we present calculations in both duality frames. Our results are consistent with, but extend significantly, earlier results on the low-energy effective theory arising from D3-branes in string compactifications.
Kuhn, Matthew R.; Daouadji, Ali
2018-05-01
The paper addresses a common assumption of elastoplastic modeling: that the recoverable, elastic strain increment is unaffected by alterations of the elastic moduli that accompany loading. This assumption is found to be false for a granular material, and discrete element (DEM) simulations demonstrate that granular materials are coupled materials at both micro- and macro-scales. Elasto-plastic coupling at the macro-scale is placed in the context of thermomechanics framework of Tomasz Hueckel and Hans Ziegler, in which the elastic moduli are altered by irreversible processes during loading. This complex behavior is explored for multi-directional loading probes that follow an initial monotonic loading. An advanced DEM model is used in the study, with non-convex non-spherical particles and two different contact models: a conventional linear-frictional model and an exact implementation of the Hertz-like Cattaneo-Mindlin model. Orthotropic true-triaxial probes were used in the study (i.e., no direct shear strain), with tiny strain increments of 2 ×10-6 . At the micro-scale, contact movements were monitored during small increments of loading and load-reversal, and results show that these movements are not reversed by a reversal of strain direction, and some contacts that were sliding during a loading increment continue to slide during reversal. The probes show that the coupled part of a strain increment, the difference between the recoverable (elastic) increment and its reversible part, must be considered when partitioning strain increments into elastic and plastic parts. Small increments of irreversible (and plastic) strain and contact slipping and frictional dissipation occur for all directions of loading, and an elastic domain, if it exists at all, is smaller than the strain increment used in the simulations.
Ikeda, K.; Goldfarb, E. J.; Tisato, N.
2017-12-01
Digital rock physics (DRP) allows performing common laboratory experiments on numerical models to estimate, for example, rock hydraulic permeability. The standard procedure of DRP involves turning a rock sample into a numerical array using X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT). Each element of the array bears a value proportional to the X-ray attenuation of the rock at the element (voxel). However, the traditional DRP methodology, which includes segmentation, over-predicts rock moduli by significant amounts (e.g., 100%). Recently, a new methodology - the segmentation-less approach - has been proposed leading to more accurate DRP estimate of elastic moduli. This new method is based on homogenization theory. Typically, segmentation-less approach requires calibration points from known density objects, known as targets. Not all micro-CT datasets have these reference points. Here, we describe how we perform segmentation- and target-less DRP to estimate elastic properties of rocks (i.e., elastic moduli), which are crucial parameters to perform subsurface modeling. We calculate the elastic properties of a Berea sandstone sample that was scanned at a resolution of 40 microns per voxel. We transformed the CT images into density matrices using polynomial fitting curve with four calibration points: the whole rock, the center of quartz grains, the center of iron oxide grains, and the center of air-filled volumes. The first calibration point is obtained by assigning the density of the whole rock to the average of all CT-numbers in the dataset. Then, we locate the center of each phase by finding local extrema point in the dataset. The average CT-numbers of these center points are assigned the density equal to either pristine minerals (quartz and iron oxide) or air. Next, density matrices are transformed to porosity and moduli matrices by means of an effective medium theory. Finally, effective static bulk and shear modulus are numerically calculated by using a Matlab code
Special geometry on the moduli space for the two-moduli non-Fermat Calabi–Yau
Konstantin Aleshkin
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We clarify the recently proposed method for computing a special Kähler metric on a Calabi–Yau complex structure moduli space using the fact that the moduli space is a subspace of a particular Frobenius manifold. We use this method to compute a previously unknown special Kähler metric in a two-moduli non-Fermat model.
Special geometry on the moduli space for the two-moduli non-Fermat Calabi-Yau
Aleshkin, Konstantin; Belavin, Alexander
2018-01-01
We clarify the recently proposed method for computing a special Kähler metric on a Calabi-Yau complex structure moduli space using the fact that the moduli space is a subspace of a particular Frobenius manifold. We use this method to compute a previously unknown special Kähler metric in a two-moduli non-Fermat model.
BCFT moduli space in level truncation
Kudrna, Matěj; Maccaferri, C.
2016-01-01
Roč. 2016, č. 4 (2016), 1-33, č. článku 057. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31689S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : deformation: marginal * field theory: string * tachyon: potential * string: open * moduli space * effective potential * nonperturbative * toy model Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016
Supersymmetric SU(5) GUT with Stabilized Moduli
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Panda, Binata
2008-01-01
We construct a minimal example of a supersymmetric grand unified model in a toroidal compactification of type I string theory with magnetized D9-branes. All geometric moduli are stabilized in terms of the background internal magnetic fluxes which are of "oblique" type (mutually non-commuting). The gauge symmetry is just SU(5) and the gauge non-singlet chiral spectrum contains only three families of quarks and leptons transforming in the $10+{\\bar 5}$ representations.
Supersymmetric moduli stabilization and high-scale inflation
Buchmueller, Wilfried; Wieck, Clemens; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang
2014-04-01
We study the back-reaction of moduli fields on the inflaton potential in generic models of F-term inflation. We derive the moduli corrections as a power series in the ratio of Hubble scale and modulus mass. The general result is illustrated with two examples, hybrid inflation and chaotic inflation. We find that in both cases the decoupling of moduli dynamics and inflation requires moduli masses close to the scale of grand unification. For smaller moduli masses the CMB observables are strongly affected.
Braneworld gravity: Influence of the moduli fields
Barcelo, Carlos; Visser, Matt
2000-01-01
We consider the case of a generic braneworld geometry in the presence of one or more moduli fields (e.g., the dilaton) that vary throughout the bulk spacetime. Working in an arbitrary conformal frame, using the generalized junction conditions of gr-qc/0008008 and the Gauss-Codazzi equations, we derive the effective ''induced'' on-brane gravitational equations. As usual in braneworld scenarios, these equations do not form a closed system in that the bulk can exchange both information and stress-energy with the braneworld. We work with an arbitrary number of moduli fields described by an arbitrary sigma model, with arbitrary curvature couplings, arbitrary self interactions, and arbitrary dimension for the bulk. (The braneworld is always codimension one.) Among the novelties we encounter are modifications of the on-brane stress-energy conservation law, anomalous couplings between on-brane gravity and the trace of the on-brane stress-energy tensor, and additional possibilities for modifying the on-brane effective cosmological constant. After obtaining the general stress-energy ''conservation'' law and the ''induced Einstein equations'' we particularize the discussion to two particularly attractive cases: for a (n-2)-brane in ([n-1]+1) dimensions we discuss both the effect of (1) generic variable moduli fields in the Einstein frame, and (2) the effect of a varying dilaton in the string frame. (author)
Note on moduli stabilization, supersymmetry breaking and axiverse
Higaki, Tetsutaro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2011-06-15
We study properties of moduli stabilization in the four dimensional N=1 supergravity theory with heavy moduli and would-be saxion-axion multiplets including light string-theoretic axions. We give general formulation for the scenario that heavy moduli and saxions are stabilized while axions remain light, assuming that moduli are stabilized near the supersymmetric solution. One can find stable vacuum, i.e. nontachyonic saxions, in the non-supersymmetric Minkowski vacua. We also discuss the cases, where the moduli are coupled to the supersymmetry breaking sector and/or moduli have contributions to supersymmetry breaking. Furthermore we study the models with axions originating from matter-like fields. Our analysis on moduli stabilization is applicable even if there are not light axion multiplets. (orig.)
Bernard, Simon; Cloutier, Guy
2017-10-01
Inversion methods in shear wave elastography use simplifying assumptions to recover the mechanical properties of soft tissues. Consequently, these methods suffer from artifacts when applied to media containing strong stiffness contrasts, and do not provide a map of the viscosity. In this work, the shear wave field recorded inside and around an inclusion was used to estimate the viscoelastic properties of the inclusion and surrounding medium, based on an inverse problem approach assuming local homogeneity of both media. An efficient semi-analytical method was developed to model the scattering of an elastic wave by an irregular inclusion, based on a decomposition of the field by Bessel functions and on a decomposition of the boundaries as Fourier series. This model was validated against finite element modeling. Shear waves were experimentally induced by acoustic radiation force in soft tissue phantoms containing stiff and soft inclusions, and the displacement field was imaged at a high frame rate using plane wave imaging. A nonlinear least-squares algorithm compared the model to the experimental data and adjusted the geometrical and mechanical parameters. The estimated shear storage and loss moduli were in good agreement with reference measurements, as well as the estimated inclusion shape. This approach provides an accurate estimation of geometry and viscoelastic properties for a single inclusion in a homogeneous background in the context of radiation force elastography.
Hasnimulyati, L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halimah, M.K., E-mail: halimahmk@upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, A.; Halim, S.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ishak, M. [Technical Support Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)
2017-05-01
A series of glass samples with composition {[(TeO_2)_0_._7(B_2O_3)_0_._3]_0_._7[ZnO]_0_._3}{sub 1-x}{Tm_2O_3}{sub x} was prepared by using the melt-quenching technique. Then, the samples were characterized by using the densimeter, FTIR and ultrasound technique. The variations of density, molar volume, ultrasonic velocity, elastic moduli, and Poisson’s ratio were discussed and correlated with the composition of the glass samples and the FTIR spectra. It was found that the addition of thulium caused bridging and non-bridging oxygen to be formed at the same time due to the different effect that occur to tellurite and borate network as thulium is added. As thulium is varied from 1 until 3 mol%, bridging oxygens had been found to occur at a high rate and caused the ultrasonic velocity to increase. Nonetheless, when thulium oxide exceeded 3 mol%, non-bridging oxygens formed at a high rate. As a result, ultrasonic velocity was reduced. Furthermore, the values of elastic moduli (including bulk, shear, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) were compared with the data that were calculated theoretically by using bulk compression, Makishima-Mackenzie, and Rocherulle models. - Highlights: • Bridging and non-bridging oxygen produced concurrently with the addition of Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • All elastic moduli are increase with the increment of thulium oxide. • The three theoretical models are found invalid to be used in this study.
Device to measure elastic modulus of superconducting windings
CERN PhotoLab
1979-01-01
This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903547X, 7901386.
Elastic Modulus at High Frequency of Polymerically Stabilized Suspensions
Nommensen, P.A.; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.
2000-01-01
The elastic moduli of polymerically stabilized suspensions consisting of colloidal silica particles coated with endgrafted PDMS (Mn = 80 000) in heptane, were measured as a function of concentration. And the elastic modulus at high frequency G'.. was quantitatively described by model calculations
Arithmetic fundamental groups and moduli of curves
Makoto Matsumoto
2000-01-01
This is a short note on the algebraic (or sometimes called arithmetic) fundamental groups of an algebraic variety, which connects classical fundamental groups with Galois groups of fields. A large part of this note describes the algebraic fundamental groups in a concrete manner. This note gives only a sketch of the fundamental groups of the algebraic stack of moduli of curves. Some application to a purely topological statement, i.e., an obstruction to the subjectivity of Johnson homomorphisms in the mapping class groups, which comes from Galois group of Q, is explained. (author)
Structural, elastic, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of ...
2017-09-22
Sep 22, 2017 ... 1Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la ... 5Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud ... elastic moduli, CdHo2S4 is mechanically stable with a ductile nature and a noticeable.
Ni, Jennifer E [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Case, Eldon D., E-mail: casee@egr.msu.edu [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Khabir, Kristen N; Stewart, Ryan C [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wu, Chun-I; Hogan, Timothy P [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Timm, Edward J [Mechanical Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Girard, Steven N; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)
2010-06-15
Two-phase PbTe-PbS materials, in which PbS is a nanostructured phase, are promising thermoelectric materials for the direct conversion of heat energy into electricity. In this study, a Vickers indentation mean hardness of 1.18 {+-} 0.09 GPa was measured for hot pressed specimens Pb{sub 0.95}Sn{sub 0.05}Te-PbS 8% while the mean hardness of cast specimens was 0.68 {+-} 0.07 GPa. The mean fracture toughness of the not pressed specimens was estimated as 0.35 {+-} 0.04 MPa m{sup 1/2} via Vickers indentation. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) measurements on hot pressed specimens gave mean values of Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio of 53.1 GPa, 21.4 GPa and 0.245, respectively while for the cast specimens the Young's and shear moduli were about 10% lower than for the hot pressed, with a mean value of Poisson's ratio of 0.245. The differences between the hardness and elastic moduli values for the cast and hot pressed specimens are discussed.
Anisotropic elastic and thermal properties of titanium borides by first-principles calculations
Sun, Liang; Gao, Yimin [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xiao, Bing [Department of Physics and Quantum Theory Group, School of Science and Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Li, Yefei, E-mail: yefeili@126.com [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Guoliang [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)
2013-12-05
Highlights: •Elastic properties of titanium borides are calculated by first principles calculation. •Thermodynamical stability of titanium borides is analyzed. •Heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for titanium borides are calculated and compared. •Grüneisen parameters of titanium borides are calculated. -- Abstract: The anisotropic elastic and thermal expansions of the titanium borides (TiB{sub 2}, Ti{sub 3}B{sub 4}, TiB{sub P}nma and TiB{sub F}m3{sup ¯}m) are calculated from first-principles using density functional theory. All borides show different anisotropic elastic properties; the bulk, shear and Young’s moduli are consistent with those determined experimentally. The temperature dependence of thermal expansions is mainly caused by the restoration of thermal energy due to phonon excitations at low temperature. When the temperature is higher than 500 K, the volumetric coefficient is increased linearly by increasing temperature. Meanwhile, the heat capacities of titanium borides are obtained based on the knowledge of thermal expansion coefficient and the elasticity, the calculations are in good agreement with the experiments.
Elastic properties of Sr- and Mg-doped lanthanum gallate at elevated temperature
Okamura, T.; Shimizu, S.; Mogi, M.; Tanimura, M.; Furuya, K.; Munakata, F.
The elastic moduli, i.e., Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, of a sintered La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3- δ bulk have been experimentally determined in the temperature range from room temperature to 1373 K using a resonance technique. Anomalous elastic properties were observed over a wide temperature range from 473 to 1173 K. In the results for internal friction and in X-ray diffraction measurements at elevated temperature, two varieties of structural changes were seen in La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3- δ in the examined temperature range. The results agreed with the findings of a previous crystallographic study of the same composition system by Slater et al. In addition, the temperature range in which a successive structural change occurred in La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3- δ was the same as that exhibiting the anomalous elastic properties. Taking all the results together, it can be inferred that the successive structural change in the significant temperature range is responsible for the elastic property anomaly of La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3- δ.
Effect of a growth hormone treatment on bone orthotropic elasticity in dwarf rats
Kohles, S. S.; Martinez, D. A.; Bowers, J. R.; Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R. Jr
1997-01-01
A refinement of the current ultrasonic elasticity technique was used to measure the orthotropic elastic properties of rat cortical bone as well as to quantify changes in elastic properties, density, and porosity of the dwarf rat cortex after a treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). The ultrasonic elasticity technique was refined via optimized signal management of high-frequency wave propagation through cubic cortical specimens. Twenty dwarf rats (37 days old) were randomly assigned to two groups (10 rats each). The dwarf rat model (5-10% of normal GH) was given subcutaneous injections of either rhGH or saline over a 14-day treatment period. Density was measured using Archimedes technique. Porosity and other microstructural characteristics were also explored via scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Statistical tests verified significant decreases in cortical orthotropic Young's (-26.7%) and shear (-16.7%) moduli and density (-2.42%) concomitant with an increase in porosity (+125%) after rhGH treatments to the dwarf model (p bone properties at this time interval. Structural implications of these changes throughout physiological loading regimens should be explored.
Wang, S Q; Ye, H Q; Yip, S
2006-01-01
We investigate the stress-strain relationship and elastic stability of zinc-blende GaP, GaN, InP and BN lattices under hydrostatic pressure by first-principles calculation. A simple and direct ab initio implementation for studying the mechanical properties of cubic crystals is developed. The four phases' full-set stress-strain coefficients in wide pressure ranges are theoretically calculated. The fundamental mechanism of elastic stability and the origin of phase transformation under hydrostatic pressure are explored. We found that the abilities for most of these lattices are enhanced to sustain axial strain but weaken to shear strain under higher pressure. The conditions of lattice stability are analysed using both the thermodynamic work-energy criterion and the elastic-stiffness criteria. We show that the lattice collapse of the perfect crystals is caused by the disappearance of their bulk moduli under volume dilation. Lattice defects are considered to be the main reason causing phase transformation under pressure. The correlation between the phonon softening and the variation of elastic coefficients is studied. The pressure dependence of the Kleinman internal strain parameter and its relationship to elastic stability is also explored
Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.
2011-04-14
An isotropic constitutive model for the parenchyma of lung has been derived from the theory of hypo-elasticity. The intent is to use it to represent the mechanical response of this soft tissue in sophisticated, computational, fluid-dynamic models of the lung. This demands that the continuum model be accurate, yet simple and effcient. An objective algorithm for its numeric integration is provided. The response of the model is determined for several boundary-value problems whose experiments are used for material characterization. The effective elastic, bulk, and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio, as tangent functions, are also derived. The model is characterized against published experimental data for lung. A bridge between this continuum model and a dodecahedral model of alveolar geometry is investigated, with preliminary findings being reported.
Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.
1980-01-01
A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)
On moduli spaces in AdS{sub 4} supergravity
Alwis, Senarath de [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Louis, Jan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 12 - Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik; McAllister, Liam [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Triendl, Hagen [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Division, Physics Dept.; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie
2013-12-15
We study the structure of the supersymmetric moduli spaces of N=1 and N=2 supergravity theories in AdS{sub 4} backgrounds. In the N=1 case, the moduli space cannot be a complex submanifold of the Kaehler field space, but is instead real with respect to the inherited complex structure. In N=2 supergravity the same result holds for the vector multiplet moduli space, while the hypermultiplet moduli space is a Kaehler submanifold of the quaternionic-Kaehler field space. These findings are in agreement with AdS/CFT considerations.
The topology of moduli space and quantum field theory
Montano, D.; Sonnenschein, J.
1989-01-01
We show how an SO(2,1) gauge theory with a fermionic symmetry may be used to describe the topology of the moduli space of curves. The observables of the theory correspond to the generators of the cohomology of moduli space. This is an extension of the topological quantum field theory introduced by Witten to investigate the cohomology of Yang-Mills instanton moduli space. We explore the basic structure of topological quantum field theories, examine a toy U(1) model, and then realize a full theory of moduli space topology. We also discuss why a pure gravity theory, as attempted in previous work, could not succeed. (orig.)
Singular points in moduli spaces of Yang-Mills fields
Ticciati, R.
1984-01-01
This thesis investigates the metric dependence of the moduli spaces of Yang-Mills fields of an SU(2) principal bundle P with chern number -1 over a four-dimensional, simply-connected, oriented, compact smooth manifold M with positive definite intersection form. The purpose of this investigation is to suggest that the surgery class of the moduli space of irreducible connections is, for a generic metric, a Z 2 topological invariant of the smooth structure on M. There are three main parts. The first two parts are local analysis of singular points in the moduli spaces. The last part is global. The first part shows that the set of metrics for which the moduli space of irreducible connections has only non-degenerate singularities has codimension at least one in the space of all metrics. The second part shows that, for a one-parameter family of moduli spaces in a direction transverse to the set of metrics for which the moduli spaces have singularities, passing through a non-degenerate singularity of the simplest type changes the moduli space by a cobordism. The third part shows that generic one-parameter families of metrics give rise to six-dimensional manifolds, the corresponding family of moduli spaces of irreducible connections. It is shown that when M is homeomorphic to S 4 the six-dimensional manifold is a proper cobordism, thus establishing the independence of the surgery class of the moduli space on the metric on M
Moduli stabilization and the pattern of sparticle spectra
Choi, Kiwoon
2008-01-01
We discuss the pattern of low energy sparticle spectra which appears in some class of moduli stabilization scenario. In case that light moduli are stabilized by non-perturbative effects encoded in the superpotential and a phenomenologically viable de Sitter vacuum is obtained by a sequestered supersymmetry breaking sector, the anomaly-mediated soft terms become comparable to the moduli-mediated ones, leading to a quite distinctive pattern of low energy spacticle masses dubbed the mirage mediation pattern. We also discuss low energy sparticle masses in more general mixed-mediation scenario which includes a comparable size of gauge mediation in addition to the moduli and anomaly mediations.
Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen ion implanted silicon
Sarmanova, M.F., E-mail: marina.sarmanova@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Karl, H. [University Augsburg, Institute of Physics, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Mändl, S.; Hirsch, D. [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Mayr, S.G.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); University Leipzig, Institute for Experimental Physics II, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)
2015-04-15
Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen implanted silicon were measured with nanometer-resolution using contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM) as function of ion fluence and post-annealing conditions. The determined range of indentation moduli was between 100 and 180 GPa depending on the annealing duration and nitrogen content. The high indentation moduli can be explained by formation of Si–N bonds, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Elastic constants of the hard disc system in the self-consistent free volume approximation
Wojciechowski, K.W.
1990-09-01
Elastic moduli of the two dimensional hard disc crystal are determined exactly within the Kirkwood self-consistent free volume approximation and compared with the Monte Carlo simulation results. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
Low moduli elastomers with low viscous dissipation
Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2012-01-01
A controlled reaction schema for addition curing silicones leads to both significantly lower elastic modulus and lower viscous dissipation than for the chemically identical network prepared by the traditional reaction schema....
Moduli stabilisation for chiral global models
Cicoli, Michele; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Valandro, Roberto
2011-10-01
We combine moduli stabilisation and (chiral) model building in a fully consistent global set-up in Type IIB/F-theory. We consider compactifications on Calabi-Yau orientifolds which admit an explicit description in terms of toric geometry. We build globally consistent compactifications with tadpole and Freed-Witten anomaly cancellation by choosing appropriate brane set-ups and world-volume fluxes which also give rise to SU(5)- or MSSM-like chiral models. We fix all the Kaehler moduli within the Kaehler cone and the regime of validity of the 4D effective field theory. This is achieved in a way compatible with the local presence of chirality. The hidden sector generating the non-perturbative effects is placed on a del Pezzo divisor that does not have any chiral intersections with any other brane. In general, the vanishing D-term condition implies the shrinking of the rigid divisor supporting the visible sector. However, we avoid this problem by generating r< n D-term conditions on a set of n intersecting divisors. The remaining (n-r) flat directions are fixed by perturbative corrections to the Kaehler potential. We illustrate our general claims in an explicit example. We consider a K3-fibred Calabi-Yau with four Kaehler moduli, that is an hypersurface in a toric ambient space and admits a simple F-theory up-lift. We present explicit choices of brane set-ups and fluxes which lead to three different phenomenological scenarios: the first with GUT-scale strings and TeV-scale SUSY by fine-tuning the background fluxes; the second with an exponentially large value of the volume and TeV-scale SUSY without fine-tuning the background fluxes; and the third with a very anisotropic configuration that leads to TeV-scale strings and two micron-sized extra dimensions. The K3 fibration structure of the Calabi-Yau three-fold is also particularly suitable for cosmological purposes. (orig.)
Moduli stabilisation for chiral global models
Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mayrhofer, Christoph [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Valandro, Roberto [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2011-10-15
We combine moduli stabilisation and (chiral) model building in a fully consistent global set-up in Type IIB/F-theory. We consider compactifications on Calabi-Yau orientifolds which admit an explicit description in terms of toric geometry. We build globally consistent compactifications with tadpole and Freed-Witten anomaly cancellation by choosing appropriate brane set-ups and world-volume fluxes which also give rise to SU(5)- or MSSM-like chiral models. We fix all the Kaehler moduli within the Kaehler cone and the regime of validity of the 4D effective field theory. This is achieved in a way compatible with the local presence of chirality. The hidden sector generating the non-perturbative effects is placed on a del Pezzo divisor that does not have any chiral intersections with any other brane. In general, the vanishing D-term condition implies the shrinking of the rigid divisor supporting the visible sector. However, we avoid this problem by generating r
Surucu, Gokhan, E-mail: g_surucu@yahoo.com [Ahi Evran University, Department of Electric and Energy, 40100, Kirsehir (Turkey); Gazi University, Photonics Application and Research Center, 06500, Ankara (Turkey); Kaderoglu, Cagil [Ankara University, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Deligoz, Engin; Ozisik, Haci [Aksaray University, Department of Physics, 68100, Aksaray (Turkey)
2017-03-01
First principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate the structural, anisotropic elastic and electronic properties of ruthenium doped tungsten-diboride ternary compounds (W{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}B{sub 2}) for an increasing molar fraction of Ru atom from 0.1 to 0.9 by 0.1. Among the nine different compositions, W{sub 0.3}Ru{sub 0.7}B{sub 2} has been found as the most stable one due to the formation energy and band filling theory calculations. Moreover, the band structures and partial density of states (PDOS) have been computed for each x composition. After obtaining the elastic constants for all x compositions, the secondary results such as Bulk modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, Shear modulus, and Vickers Hardness of polycrystalline aggregates have been derived and the relevant mechanical properties have been discussed. In addition, the elastic anisotropy has been visualized in detail by plotting the directional dependence of compressibility, Poisson ratio, Young’s and Shear moduli. - Highlights: • Effects of Ru substitution in WB{sub 2} using increased valence electron concentration. • Structural, electronic, mechanic and elastic properties for increasing Ru content. • Considered alloys are incompressible, brittle, stiffer and high hard materials.
Elastic interaction of partially debonded circular inclusions. II. Application to fibrous composite
Kushch, V.I.; Shmegera, S.V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon
2011-01-01
have been solved to check an accuracy and numerical efficiency of the method. An effect of interface crack density on the effective elastic moduli of periodic and random structure FRC with interface damage has been evaluated. The developed approach provides a detailed analysis of the progressive...... debonding phenomenon including the interface cracks cluster formation, overall stiffness reduction and damage-induced anisotropy of the effective elastic moduli of composite....
Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids
Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan
2010-01-01
In this paper we study the geometry of the moduli space of (non-strongly) parabolic Higgs bundles over a Riemann surface with marked points. We show that this space possesses a Poisson structure, extending the one on the dual of an Atiyah algebroid over the moduli space of parabolic vector bundle...
The universal connection and metrics on moduli spaces
Massamba, Fortune; Thompson, George
2003-11-01
We introduce a class of metrics on gauge theoretic moduli spaces. These metrics are made out of the universal matrix that appears in the universal connection construction of M. S. Narasimhan and S. Ramanan. As an example we construct metrics on the c 2 = 1 SU(2) moduli space of instantons on R 4 for various universal matrices. (author)
Metastable SUSY breaking, de Sitter moduli stabilisation and Kaehler moduli inflation
Krippendorf, Sven; Quevedo, Fernando
2009-01-01
We study the influence of anomalous U(1) symmetries and their associated D-terms on the vacuum structure of global field theories once they are coupled to N = 1 supergravity and in the context of string compactifications with moduli stabilisation. In particular, we focus on a IIB string motivated construction of the ISS scenario and examine the influence of one additional U(1) symmetry on the vacuum structure. We point out that in the simplest one-Kaehler modulus compactification, the original ISS vacuum gets generically destabilised by a runaway behaviour of the potential in the modulus direction. In more general compactifications with several Kaehler moduli, we find a novel realisation of the LARGE volume scenario with D-term uplifting to de Sitter space and both D-term and F-term supersymmetry breaking. The structure of soft supersymmetry breaking terms is determined in the preferred scenario where the standard model cycle is not stabilised non-perturbatively and found to be flavour universal. Our scenario also provides a purely supersymmetric realisation of Kaehler moduli (blow-up and fibre) inflation, with similar observational properties as the original proposals but without the need to include an extra (non-SUSY) uplifting term.
Roeloffs, E. A.
2016-12-01
A Gladwin Tensor Strainmeter (GTSM) is designed to measure changes of the horizontal strain tensor, derived as linear combinations of radial elongations or contractions of the strainmeter's cylindrical housing measured at four azimuths. Each radial measurement responds to changes in the areal, horizontal shear and vertical components of the strain tensor in the surrounding formation. The elastic response coefficients to these components depend on the relative elastic moduli of the housing, formation, and cement. These coefficients must be inferred for each strainmeter after it is cemented into its borehole by analyzing the instrument response to well-characterized strain signals such as earth tides. For some GTSMs of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), however, reconciling observed earth-tide signals with modeled tidal strains requires response coefficients that differ substantially between the instrument's four gauges, and/or orientation corrections of tens of degrees. GTSM response coefficients can also be estimated from high-resolution records of teleseismic Love waves from great earthquakes around the world. Such records can be used in conjunction with apparent propagation azimuths from nearby broadband seismic stations to determine the GTSM's orientation. Knowing the orientation allows the ratios between the shear strain response coefficients of a GTSM's four gauges to be estimated. Applying this analysis to 14 PBO GTSMs confirms that orientations of some instruments differ significantly from orientations measured during installation. Orientations inferred from earth-tide response tend to agree with those inferred from Love waves for GTSMs far from tidal water bodies, but to differ for GTSMs closer to coastlines. Orientations derived from teleseismic Love waves agree with those estimated by Grant and Langston (2010) using strains from a broadband seismic array near Anza, California. PBO GTSM recordings of teleseismic Love waves show differences of
Moduli of Riemann surfaces, transcendental aspects
Hain, R.
2000-01-01
These notes are an informal introduction to moduli spaces of compact Riemann surfaces via complex analysis, topology and Hodge Theory. The prerequisites for the first lecture are just basic complex variables, basic Riemann surface theory up to at least the Riemann-Roch formula, and some algebraic topology, especially covering space theory. The first lecture covers moduli in genus 0 and genus 1 as these can be understood using relatively elementary methods, but illustrate many of the points which arise in higher genus. The notes cover more material than was covered in the lectures, and sometimes the order of topics in the notes differs from that in the lectures. We have seen in genus 1 case that M 1 is the quotient Γ 1 /X 1 of a contractible complex manifold X 1 = H by a discrete group Γ 1 = SL 2 (Z). The action of Γ 1 on X 1 is said to be virtually free - that is, Γ 1 has a finite index subgroup which acts (fixed point) freely on X 1 . In this section we will generalize this to all g >= 1 - we will sketch a proof that there is a contractible complex manifold Xg, called Teichmueller space, and a group Γ g , called the mapping class group, which acts virtually freely on X g . The moduli space of genus g compact Riemann surfaces is the quotient: M g = Γ g /X g . This will imply that M g has the structure of a complex analytic variety with finite quotient singularities. Teichmueller theory is a difficult and technical subject. Because of this, it is only possible to give an overview. In this lecture, we compute the orbifold Picard group of M g for all g >= 1. Recall that an orbifold line bundle over M g is a holomorphic line bundle L over Teichmueller space X g together with an action of the mapping class group Γ g on it such that the projection L → X g is Γ g -equivariant. An orbifold section of this line bundle is a holomorphic Γ g -equivariant section X g → L of L. This is easily seen to be equivalent to fixing a level l>= 3 and considering holomorphic
AELAS: Automatic ELAStic property derivations via high-throughput first-principles computation
Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, R. F.
2017-11-01
The elastic properties are fundamental and important for crystalline materials as they relate to other mechanical properties, various thermodynamic qualities as well as some critical physical properties. However, a complete set of experimentally determined elastic properties is only available for a small subset of known materials, and an automatic scheme for the derivations of elastic properties that is adapted to high-throughput computation is much demanding. In this paper, we present the AELAS code, an automated program for calculating second-order elastic constants of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional single crystal materials with any symmetry, which is designed mainly for high-throughput first-principles computation. Other derivations of general elastic properties such as Young's, bulk and shear moduli as well as Poisson's ratio of polycrystal materials, Pugh ratio, Cauchy pressure, elastic anisotropy and elastic stability criterion, are also implemented in this code. The implementation of the code has been critically validated by a lot of evaluations and tests on a broad class of materials including two-dimensional and three-dimensional materials, providing its efficiency and capability for high-throughput screening of specific materials with targeted mechanical properties. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/f8fwg4j9tw.1 Licensing provisions: BSD 3-Clause Programming language: Fortran Nature of problem: To automate the calculations of second-order elastic constants and the derivations of other elastic properties for two-dimensional and three-dimensional materials with any symmetry via high-throughput first-principles computation. Solution method: The space-group number is firstly determined by the SPGLIB code [1] and the structure is then redefined to unit cell with IEEE-format [2]. Secondly, based on the determined space group number, a set of distortion modes is automatically specified and the distorted structure files are generated
Field characterization of elastic properties across a fault zone reactivated by fluid injection
Jeanne, Pierre; Guglielmi, Yves; Rutqvist, Jonny; Nussbaum, Christophe; Birkholzer, Jens
2017-08-01
We studied the elastic properties of a fault zone intersecting the Opalinus Clay formation at 300 m depth in the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (Switzerland). Four controlled water injection experiments were performed in borehole straddle intervals set at successive locations across the fault zone. A three-component displacement sensor, which allowed capturing the borehole wall movements during injection, was used to estimate the elastic properties of representative locations across the fault zone, from the host rock to the damage zone to the fault core. Young's moduli were estimated by both an analytical approach and numerical finite difference modeling. Results show a decrease in Young's modulus from the host rock to the damage zone by a factor of 5 and from the damage zone to the fault core by a factor of 2. In the host rock, our results are in reasonable agreement with laboratory data showing a strong elastic anisotropy characterized by the direction of the plane of isotropy parallel to the laminar structure of the shale formation. In the fault zone, strong rotations of the direction of anisotropy can be observed. The plane of isotropy can be oriented either parallel to bedding (when few discontinuities are present), parallel to the direction of the main fracture family intersecting the zone, and possibly oriented parallel or perpendicular to the fractures critically oriented for shear reactivation (when repeated past rupture along this plane has created a zone).
Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.
2015-01-01
The structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of yttrium aluminum garnet Y 3 Al 5 O 12 are studied under high pressure by ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Pressure dependences of bond length and bulk moduli of the constituent polyhedra are reported. The evolution of the elastic constants and the major elastic properties, Young and shear modulus, Poisson's ratios, and Zener anisotropy ratio, are described. The mechanical stability is analyzed, on the light of “Born generalized stability criteria,” showing that the garnet is mechanically unstable above 116 GPa. Symmetries, frequencies, and pressure coefficients of the Raman-active modes are discussed on the basis of the calculated total and partial phonon density of states, which reflect the dynamical contribution of each atom. The relations between the phonon modes of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 and the internal and external molecular modes of the different polyhedra are discussed. Infrared-active modes, as well as the silent modes, and their pressure dependence are also investigated. No dynamical instabilities were found below 116 GPa
Electronic, elastic, acoustic and optical properties of cubic TiO2: A DFT approach
Mahmood, Tariq; Cao, Chuanbao; Tahir, Muhammad; Idrees, Faryal; Ahmed, Maqsood; Tanveer, M.; Aslam, Imran; Usman, Zahid; Ali, Zulfiqar; Hussain, Sajad
2013-01-01
The electronic, elastic, acoustic and optical properties of cubic phases TiO 2 fluorite and pyrite are investigated using the first principles calculations. We have employed five different exchange–correlation functions within the local density and generalized gradient approximations using the ultrasoft plane wave pseudopotential method. The calculated band structures of cubic-TiO 2 elucidate that the TiO 2 fluorite and pyrite are direct and indirect semiconductors in contrast to the previous findings. From our studied properties such as bulk and shear moduli, elastic constants C 44 and Debye temperature for TiO 2 fluorite and pyrite, we infer that both the cubic phases are not superhard materials and the pyrite phase is harder than fluorite. The longitudinal and transversal acoustic wave speeds for both phases in the directions [100], [110] and [111] are determined using the pre-calculated elastic constants. In addition, we also calculate the optical properties such as dielectric function, absorption spectrum, refractive index and energy loss function using the pre-optimized structure. On the observation of optical properties TiO 2 fluorite phase turn out to be more photocatalytic than pyrite
Moduli stabilization in higher dimensional brane models
Flachi, Antonino; Pujolas, Oriol; Garriga, Jaume; Tanaka, Takahiro
2003-01-01
We consider a class of warped higher dimensional brane models with topology M x Σ x S 1 /Z 2 , where Σ is a D2 dimensional manifold. Two branes of co-dimension one are embedded in such a bulk space-time and sit at the orbifold fixed points. We concentrate on the case where an exponential warp factor (depending on the distance along the orbifold) accompanies the Minkowski M and the internal space Σ line elements. We evaluate the moduli effective potential induced by bulk scalar fields in these models, and we show that generically this can stabilize the size of the extra dimensions. As an application, we consider a scenario where supersymmetry is broken not far below the cutoff scale, and the hierarchy between the electroweak and the effective Planck scales is generated by a combination of redshift and large volume effects. The latter is efficient due to the shrinking of Σ at the negative tension brane, where matter is placed. In this case, we find that the effective potential can stabilize the size of the extra dimensions (and the hierarchy) without fine tuning, provided that the internal space Σ is flat. (author)
Moduli stabilization in higher dimensional brane models
Flachi, Antonino; Pujolas, Oriol [IFAE, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: pujolas@ifae.es; Garriga, Jaume [IFAE, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Fisica Fonamental and C.E.R. en Astrofisica, Fisica de Particules i Cosmologia Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tanaka, Takahiro [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford MA 02155 (United States); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2003-08-01
We consider a class of warped higher dimensional brane models with topology M x {sigma} x S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}, where {sigma} is a D2 dimensional manifold. Two branes of co-dimension one are embedded in such a bulk space-time and sit at the orbifold fixed points. We concentrate on the case where an exponential warp factor (depending on the distance along the orbifold) accompanies the Minkowski M and the internal space {sigma} line elements. We evaluate the moduli effective potential induced by bulk scalar fields in these models, and we show that generically this can stabilize the size of the extra dimensions. As an application, we consider a scenario where supersymmetry is broken not far below the cutoff scale, and the hierarchy between the electroweak and the effective Planck scales is generated by a combination of redshift and large volume effects. The latter is efficient due to the shrinking of {sigma} at the negative tension brane, where matter is placed. In this case, we find that the effective potential can stabilize the size of the extra dimensions (and the hierarchy) without fine tuning, provided that the internal space {sigma} is flat. (author)
Higher-Derivative Supergravity and Moduli Stabilization
Ciupke, David; Westphal, Alexander; Louis, Jan; Hamburg Univ.
2015-05-01
We review the ghost-free four-derivative terms for chiral superfields in N=1 supersymmetry and supergravity. These terms induce cubic polynomial equations of motion for the chiral auxiliary fields and correct the scalar potential. We discuss the different solutions and argue that only one of them is consistent with the principles of effective field theory. Special attention is paid to the corrections along flat directions which can be stabilized or destabilized by the higher-derivative terms. We then compute these higher-derivative terms explicitly for the type IIB string compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold with fluxes via Kaluza-Klein reducing the (α') 3 R 4 corrections in ten dimensions for the respective N=1 Kaehler moduli sector. We prove that together with flux and the known (α') 3 -corrections the higher-derivative term stabilizes all Calabi-Yau manifolds with positive Euler number, provided the sign of the new correction is negative.
Explicitly broken supersymmetry with exactly massless moduli
Dong, Xi [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Freedman, Daniel Z. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Mathematics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zhao, Yue [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2016-06-16
The AdS/CFT correspondence is applied to an analogue of the little hierarchy problem in three-dimensional supersymmetric theories. The bulk is governed by a supergravity theory in which a U(1) × U(1) R-symmetry is gauged by Chern-Simons fields. The bulk theory is deformed by a boundary term quadratic in the gauge fields. It breaks SUSY completely and sources an exactly marginal operator in the dual CFT. SUSY breaking is communicated by gauge interactions to bulk scalar fields and their spinor superpartners. The bulk-to-boundary propagator of the Chern-Simons fields is a total derivative with respect to the bulk coordinates. Integration by parts and the Ward identity permit evaluation of SUSY breaking effects to all orders in the strength of the deformation. The R-charges of scalars and spinors differ so large SUSY breaking mass shifts are generated. Masses of R-neutral particles such as scalar moduli are not shifted to any order in the deformation strength, despite the fact that they may couple to R-charged fields running in loops. We also obtain a universal deformation formula for correlation functions under an exactly marginal deformation by a product of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic U(1) currents.
Young's moduli of cables for high field superconductive dipole magnet
Yamada, Shunji; Shintomi, Takakazu.
1983-01-01
Superconductive dipole magnets for big accelerators are subjected to enormous electro-magnetic force, when they are operated with high field such as 10 Tesla. They should be constructed by means of superconductive cables, which have high Young's modulus, to obtain good performance. To develop such cables we measured the Young's moduli of cables for practical use of accelerator magnets. They are monolithic and compacted strand cables. We measured also Young's moduli of monolithic copper and brass cables for comparison. The obtained data showed the Young's moduli of 35 and 15 GPa for the monolithic and compacted strand cables, respectively. (author)
Higgs, moduli problem, baryogenesis and large volume compactifications
Higaki, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fuminobu
2012-07-01
We consider the cosmological moduli problem in the context of high-scale supersymmetry breaking suggested by the recent discovery of the standard-model like Higgs boson. In order to solve the notorious moduli-induced gravitino problem, we focus on the LARGE volume scenario, in which the modulus decay into gravitinos can be kinematically forbidden. We then consider the Affleck-Dine mechanism with or without an enhanced coupling with the inflaton, taking account of possible Q-ball formation. We show that the baryon asymmetry of the present Universe can be generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism in LARGE volume scenario, solving the moduli and gravitino problems.
Higgs, moduli problem, baryogenesis and large volume compactifications
Higaki, Tetsutaro [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2012-07-15
We consider the cosmological moduli problem in the context of high-scale supersymmetry breaking suggested by the recent discovery of the standard-model like Higgs boson. In order to solve the notorious moduli-induced gravitino problem, we focus on the LARGE volume scenario, in which the modulus decay into gravitinos can be kinematically forbidden. We then consider the Affleck-Dine mechanism with or without an enhanced coupling with the inflaton, taking account of possible Q-ball formation. We show that the baryon asymmetry of the present Universe can be generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism in LARGE volume scenario, solving the moduli and gravitino problems.
Quantifying the Elastic Property of Nine Thigh Muscles Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography.
Chakouch, Mashhour K; Charleux, Fabrice; Bensamoun, Sabine F
2015-01-01
Pathologies of the muscles can manifest different physiological and functional changes. To adapt treatment, it is necessary to characterize the elastic property (shear modulus) of single muscles. Previous studies have used magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a technique based on MRI technology, to analyze the mechanical behavior of healthy and pathological muscles. The purpose of this study was to develop protocols using MRE to determine the shear modulus of nine thigh muscles at rest. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (mean age = 26 ± 3.41 years) with no muscle abnormalities underwent MRE tests (1.5 T MRI). Five MRE protocols were developed to quantify the shear moduli of the nine following thigh muscles at rest: rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), vastus intermedius (VI), vastus lateralis (VL), sartorius (Sr), gracilis (Gr), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps (BC). In addition, the shear modulus of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was analyzed. The gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus muscles revealed a significantly higher shear modulus (μ_Gr = 6.15 ± 0.45 kPa, μ_ Sr = 5.15 ± 0.19 kPa, and μ_ ST = 5.32 ± 0.10 kPa, respectively) compared to other tissues (from μ_ RF = 3.91 ± 0.16 kPa to μ_VI = 4.23 ± 0.25 kPa). Subcutaneous adipose tissue had the lowest value (μ_adipose tissue = 3.04 ± 0.12 kPa) of all the tissues tested. The different elasticities measured between the tissues may be due to variations in the muscles' physiological and architectural compositions. Thus, the present protocol could be applied to injured muscles to identify their behavior of elastic property. Previous studies on muscle pathology found that quantification of the shear modulus could be used as a clinical protocol to identify pathological muscles and to follow-up effects of treatments and therapies. These data could also be used for modelling purposes.
Lai, Yun
2011-06-26
Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing
2011-01-01
Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Successfully combining SUGRA hybrid inflation and moduli stabilisation
Davis, S.C.
2008-01-01
Inflation and moduli stabilisation mechanisms work well independently, and many string-motivated supergravitymodels have been proposed for them. However a complete theory will contain both, and there will be (gravitational) interactions between the two sectors. These give corrections to the inflaton potential, which generically ruin inflation. This holds true even for fine-tuned moduli stabilisation schemes. We show that a viable combined model can be obtained if it is the Kaehler functions (G=K+ln vertical stroke W vertical stroke 2 ) of the two sectors that are added, rather than the superpotentials (as is usually done). Interaction between the two sectors does still impose some restrictions on the moduli stabilisation mechanism, which are derived. Significantly, we find that the (post-inflation) moduli stabilisation scale no longer needs to be above the inflationary energy scale. (orig.)
Successfully combining SUGRA hybrid inflation and moduli stabilisation
Davis, S.C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Postma, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2008-01-15
Inflation and moduli stabilisation mechanisms work well independently, and many string-motivated supergravitymodels have been proposed for them. However a complete theory will contain both, and there will be (gravitational) interactions between the two sectors. These give corrections to the inflaton potential, which generically ruin inflation. This holds true even for fine-tuned moduli stabilisation schemes. We show that a viable combined model can be obtained if it is the Kaehler functions (G=K+ln vertical stroke W vertical stroke {sup 2}) of the two sectors that are added, rather than the superpotentials (as is usually done). Interaction between the two sectors does still impose some restrictions on the moduli stabilisation mechanism, which are derived. Significantly, we find that the (post-inflation) moduli stabilisation scale no longer needs to be above the inflationary energy scale. (orig.)
Aspects of Moduli Stabilization in Type IIB String Theory
Shaaban Khalil
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We review moduli stabilization in type IIB string theory compactification with fluxes. We focus on KKLT and Large Volume Scenario (LVS. We show that the predicted soft SUSY breaking terms in KKLT model are not phenomenological viable. In LVS, the following result for scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear term is obtained: m0=m1/2=-A0=m3/2, which may account for Higgs mass limit if m3/2~O(1.5 TeV. However, in this case, the relic abundance of the lightest neutralino cannot be consistent with the measured limits. We also study the cosmological consequences of moduli stabilization in both models. In particular, the associated inflation models such as racetrack inflation and Kähler inflation are analyzed. Finally, the problem of moduli destabilization and the effect of string moduli backreaction on the inflation models are discussed.
Metastable SUSY Breaking, de Sitter Moduli Stabilisation and Kähler Moduli Inflation
Krippendorf, Sven
2009-01-01
We study the influence of anomalous U(1) symmetries and their associated D-terms on the vacuum structure of global field theories once they are coupled to N=1 supergravity and in the context of string compactifications with moduli stabilisation. In particular, we focus on a IIB string motivated construction of the ISS scenario and examine the influence of one additional U(1) symmetry on the vacuum structure. We point out that in the simplest one-Kahler modulus compactification, the original ISS vacuum gets generically destabilised by a runaway behaviour of the potential in the modulus direction. In more general compactifications with several Kahler moduli, we find a novel realisation of the LARGE volume scenario with D-term uplifting to de Sitter space and both D-term and F-term supersymmetry breaking. The structure of soft supersymmetry breaking terms is determined in the preferred scenario where the standard model cycle is not stabilised non-perturbatively and found to be flavour universal. Our scenario als...
Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli
2015-08-01
ER D C/ G SL T R -1 5 -3 1 Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli G eo te ch n ic al a n d S tr u...August 2015 Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli Lucy P. Priddy and Carlos R. Gonzalez Geotechnical and...USAF’s) airfield pavement structural evaluation procedures. Determining the structural integrity of airfield pavement relies on the analysis of
Yoneda, M. (Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Shimoda, I. (Oiles Corp., Tokyo (Japan))
1993-12-20
Oil dampers and viscous shearing dampers have been used to control wind-induced cable vibrations of cable-stayed bridges. The damping addition efficiency in the case where only damping force of the viscous shearing damper is considered was discussed in the previous paper. In this paper, more precise estimation is done by also considering the spring elasticity of the damper. Arranging the results of an indoor excitation test on viscous shearing dampers using SA-P viscous body, an experimental equation to express the spring rigidity is derived. The spring elasticity becomes smaller with increasing temperature of viscous body, decreasing frequency, and increasing amplitude. Then, the damping addition effect is measured by installing the viscous shearing damper on the actual bridge cable, and is compared with the theoretical value resulting from the complex-eigenvalue analysis. Consequently, it is shown that the theoretical value is almost correspondent with the measured result through the analysis using equivalent coefficient of viscosity and equivalent spring constant, which are arranged in the experimental equation. Moreover, application examples of damping estimation curves for designing cables with dampers are given. 15 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.
Caravaca, M A; Mino, J C; Perez, V J; Casali, R A; Ponce, C A
2009-01-01
In this work, we study theoretically the elastic properties of the orthorhombic (Pnma) high-pressure phase of IV-B group oxides: titania, zirconia and hafnia. By means of the self-consistent SIESTA code, pseudopotentials, density functional theory in the LDA and GGA approximations, the total energies, hydrostatic pressures and stress tensor components are calculated. From the stress-strain relationships, in the linear regime, the elastic constants C ij are determined. Derived elastic constants, such as bulk, Young's and shear modulus, Poisson coefficient and brittle/ductile behavior are estimated with the polycrystalline approach, using Voigt-Reuss-Hill theories. We have found that C 11 , C 22 and C 33 elastic constants of hafnia and zirconia show increased strength with respect to the experimental values of the normal phase, P 2 1 /c. A similar situation applies to titania if these constants are compared with its normal phase, rutile. However, shear elastic constants C 44 , C 55 and C 66 are similar to the values found in the normal phase. This fact increases the compound anisotropy as well as its ductile behavior. The dependence of unit-cell volumes under hydrostatic pressures is also analyzed. P-V data, fitted to third-order Birch-Murnaghan equations of state, provide the bulk modulus B 0 and its pressure derivatives B' 0 . In this case, LDA estimations show good agreement with respect to recent measured bulk moduli of ZrO 2 and HfO 2 . Thermo-acoustic properties, e.g. the propagation speed of transverse, longitudinal elastic waves together with associated Debye temperatures, are also estimated.
Vavra, G.
1978-01-01
Considered are the limit and the intermediate values of the Young modulus E, modulus of shear G and of linear modulus of compression K obtainable at various temperatures (4.2 to 1133 K) for single crystals of α-zirconium. Determined and presented are the corrected isotropic elasticity characteristics of E, G, K over the above range of temperatures of textured and non-textured α-Zr
Nonlocal elasticity tensors in dislocation and disclination cores
Taupin, V.; Gbemou, K.; Fressengeas, C.; Capolungo, L.
2017-01-01
We introduced nonlocal elastic constitutive laws for crystals containing defects such as dislocations and disclinations. Additionally, the pointwise elastic moduli tensors adequately reflect the elastic response of defect-free regions by relating stresses to strains and couple-stresses to curvatures, elastic cross-moduli tensors relating strains to couple-stresses and curvatures to stresses within convolution integrals are derived from a nonlocal analysis of strains and curvatures in the defects cores. Sufficient conditions are derived for positive-definiteness of the resulting free energy, and stability of elastic solutions is ensured. The elastic stress/couple stress fields associated with prescribed dislocation/disclination density distributions and solving the momentum and moment of momentum balance equations in periodic media are determined by using a Fast Fourier Transform spectral method. Here, the convoluted cross-moduli bring the following results: (i) Nonlocal stresses and couple stresses oppose their local counterparts in the defects core regions, playing the role of restoring forces and possibly ensuring spatio-temporal stability of the simulated defects, (ii) The couple stress fields are strongly affected by nonlocality. Such effects favor the stability of the simulated grain boundaries and allow investigating their elastic interactions with extrinsic defects, (iii) Driving forces inducing grain growth or refinement derive from the self-stress and couple stress fields of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline configurations.
Zhou Mu; Wang Feng; Zheng Zhou; Liu Xiankun; Jiang Tao
2013-01-01
The elastic and thermodynamic properties of UO 2 under extreme physical condition are studied by using the density functional theory and quasi-harmonic Debye model. Results show that UO 2 is still stable ionic crystal under high temperatures, and pressures. Tetragonal shear constant is steady under high pressures and temperatures, while elastic constant C 44 is stable under high temperatures, but rises with pressure sharply. Bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young's modulus increase with pressure rapidly, but temperature would not cause evident debasement of the moduli, all of which indicate that UO 2 has excellent mechanical properties. Heat capacity of different pressures increases with temperature and is close to the Dulong-Petit limit near 1000 K. Debye temperature decreases with temperature, and increases with pressure. Under low pressure, thermal expansion coefficient raises with temperature rapidly, and then gets slow at higher pressure and temperature. Besides, the thermal expansion coefficient of UO 2 is much lower than that of other nuclear materials. (authors)
Elastic wave velocities of iron-bearing Ringwoodite (Mg0.8Fe0.2)2SiO2 to 12GPa at room temperature
Higo, Y.; Li, B.; Inoue, T.; Irifune, T.; Libermann, R. C.
2002-12-01
At present, it is widely accepted that olivine is the most important mineral in the Earth's upper mantle. The elastic property changes associated with the phase transformations to its high-pressure polymorphs are very important parameters to constrain the composition of the mantle transition zone. In this study, we measured the elastic wave velocity of iron-bearing Ringwoodite (Mg0.8Fe0.2)2SiO4. The specimen was hot-pressed at 18GPa and 1273K in a 2000-ton Uniaxial Split Sphere Apparatus (ORANGE-2000: GRC at ehime university). The recovered polycrystalline specimen was characterized by x-ray diffraction, EPMA, ultrasonic techniques, and the density was determined by Archimedes' method, and found to be single-phase and fine-grained. Bench top measurements of the compressional and shear wave velocities yielded Vp=9.10 km/s and Vs=5.52 km/s. High-pressure ultrasonic measurement was carried out in a 1000-ton Uniaxial Split-Cylinder Apparatus (USCA-1000: SUNY) at pressures up to 12GPa at room temperature using ZnTe as internal pressure marker. The sample was surrounded by lead to minimize the deviatoric stress. Also in this experiment, the travel times of the Al2O3 buffer rod were used for pressure calculation. The travel times of the buffer rod under the same cell geometry have been calibrated as a function of sample pressure by the thermal equation of state of NaCl using in-situ X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of our high-pressure experiment, including the elastic moduli and their pressure dependence, effect of iron on the elastic moduli, as well as their implication for the mantle transition zone, will be presented.
Shear stresses around circular cylindrical openings
Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Van Weelden, C.; Blom, C.M.B.
2010-01-01
In this paper stress concentrations are studied around circular cylindrical openings or voids in a linear elastic continuum. The loading is such that a uniform shear stress occurs in the continuum, which is disturbed by the opening. The shear stress is in the direction of the centre axis of the
Simulations of biopolymer networks under shear
Huisman, Elisabeth Margaretha
2011-01-01
In this thesis we present a new method to simulate realistic three-dimensional networks of biopolymers under shear. These biopolymer networks are important for the structural functions of cells and tissues. We use the method to analyze these networks under shear, and consider the elastic modulus,
Quantitative determination of optical trapping strength and viscoelastic moduli inside living cells
Mas, Josep; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Richardson, Andrew C; Reihani, S Nader S; Oddershede, Lene B
2013-01-01
With the success of in vitro single-molecule force measurements obtained in recent years, the next step is to perform quantitative force measurements inside a living cell. Optical traps have proven excellent tools for manipulation, also in vivo, where they can be essentially non-invasive under correct wavelength and exposure conditions. It is a pre-requisite for in vivo quantitative force measurements that a precise and reliable force calibration of the tweezers is performed. There are well-established calibration protocols in purely viscous environments; however, as the cellular cytoplasm is viscoelastic, it would be incorrect to use a calibration procedure relying on a viscous environment. Here we demonstrate a method to perform a correct force calibration inside a living cell. This method (theoretically proposed in Fischer and Berg-Sørensen (2007 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 S239)) takes into account the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm and relies on a combination of active and passive recordings of the motion of the cytoplasmic object of interest. The calibration procedure allows us to extract absolute values for the viscoelastic moduli of the living cell cytoplasm as well as the force constant describing the optical trap, thus paving the way for quantitative force measurements inside the living cell. Here, we determine both the spring constant of the optical trap and the elastic contribution from the cytoplasm, influencing the motion of naturally occurring tracer particles. The viscoelastic moduli that we find are of the same order of magnitude as moduli found in other cell types by alternative methods. (paper)
Multigene Genetic Programming for Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Concrete
Alireza Mohammadi Bayazidi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new multigene genetic programming (MGGP approach for estimation of elastic modulus of concrete. The MGGP technique models the elastic modulus behavior by integrating the capabilities of standard genetic programming and classical regression. The main aim is to derive precise relationships between the tangent elastic moduli of normal and high strength concrete and the corresponding compressive strength values. Another important contribution of this study is to develop a generalized prediction model for the elastic moduli of both normal and high strength concrete. Numerous concrete compressive strength test results are obtained from the literature to develop the models. A comprehensive comparative study is conducted to verify the performance of the models. The proposed models perform superior to the existing traditional models, as well as those derived using other powerful soft computing tools.
Muhammad Ridwan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Bricks of low elastic modulus are occasionally used in some developing countries, such as Indonesia and India. Most of the previous research efforts focused on masonry structures built with bricks of considerably high elastic modulus. The objective of this study is to quantify the equivalent elastic modulus of lower-stiffness masonry structures, when the mortar has a higher modulus of elasticity than the bricks, by employing finite element (FE simulations and adopting the homogenization technique. The reported numerical simulations adopted the two-dimensional representative volume elements (RVEs using quadrilateral elements with four nodes. The equivalent elastic moduli of composite elements with various bricks and mortar were quantified. The numerically estimated equivalent elastic moduli from the FE simulations were verified using previously established test data. Hence, a new simplified formula for the calculation of the equivalent modulus of elasticity of such masonry structures is proposed in the present study.
Xia, Minggang; Liang, Chunping; Hu, Ruixue; Cheng, Zhaofang; Liu, Shiru; Zhang, Shengli
2018-05-01
It is imperative and highly desirable to buffer the stress in flexible electronic devices. In this study, we designed and fabricated lamellate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) samples with gradient elastic moduli, motivated by the protection of the pomelo pulp by its skin, followed by the measurements of their elastic moduli. We demonstrated that the electrical and fatigue performances of a Ag-nanowire thin film device on the PDMS substrate with a gradient elastic modulus are significantly better than those of a device on a substrate with a monolayer PDMS. This study provides a robust scheme to effectively protect flexible electronic devices.
Change of elastic constants induced by point defects in hop crystals
Tome, C.
1979-10-01
An approximate model is developed to calculate the change of elastic constants induced by point defects in hcp metals, supposed the defect configuration is known. General expressions relating the change of elastic moduli to the final atomic coordinates and to the defect force field are derived using the specific symmetry of the defect. Explicit calculations are done for Mg. The predicted change of elastic moduli turns out to be negative for vacancies and trigonal interstitials while for hexagonal interstitials a positive change is predicted. Compatibility with experimental data would suggest that the trigonal configuration is the stable one. (author)
On bulk viscosity and moduli decay
Laine, Mikko
2010-01-01
This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header 'Basics of thermal QCD', reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Boedeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, furthermore, as a platform on which a number of generic thermal field theory concepts are illustrated. The other three lectures (on the QCD equation of state and the rates of elastic as well as inelastic processes experienced by heavy quarks) are recapitulated in brief encyclopedic form. (author)
Dodd, S.P.; Saunders, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Cankurtaran, M. [Hacettepe University, Department of Physics, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey); James, B. [DSTL-Chertsey (Armour Group), Chobham Lane, Chertsey, Surrey KT16 OEE (United Kingdom); Acet, M. [Tieftemperaturephysik, Universitaet Duisburg, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2003-08-01
Pulse-echo-overlap measurements of ultrasonic wave velocity have been used to determine the dependences of the elastic stiffness moduli of polycrystalline cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) on temperature in the range 75-295 K and hydrostatic pressure up to 0.1 GPa at room temperature. The longitudinal stiffness (C{sub L}) and adiabatic bulk modulus (B{sup S}) stiffen, while the shear stiffness ({mu}) and Young's modulus (E) soften with decreasing temperature. The ultrasonic velocities increase approximately linearly with pressure, much more steeply for the longitudinal than the shear mode. The values obtained at 295 K for the hydrostatic-pressure derivatives ({partial_derivative}C{sub L}/{partial_derivative}P){sub P=0}, ({partial_derivative}{mu}/{partial_derivative}P){sub P=0} and ({partial_derivative}B{sup S}/{partial_derivative}P){sub P=0} of cementite are 7.9{+-} 1.7, 1.4{+-}0.1 and 6.1{+-}1.7, respectively: the zone-centre acoustic phonons stiffen under pressure. The longitudinal ({gamma}{sub L}), shear ({gamma}{sub S}) and mean ({gamma}{sup el}) acoustic-mode Grueneisen parameters of cementite are positive; {gamma}{sub S} is markedly smaller than {gamma}{sub L} indicating that the shear acoustic modes are less anharmonic than the longitudinal modes. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping
Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav
2016-01-01
The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...... for alternative excitation cases. The differences between two regimes, the low frequency one, when a waveguide supports only one propagating wave, and the high frequency one, when several waves are supported, are demonstrated and explained....
On D-brane dynamics and moduli stabilization
Kitazawa, Noriaki
2017-09-01
We discuss the effect of the dynamics of D-branes on moduli stabilization in type IIB string theory compactifications, with reference to a concrete toy model of T6/Z 3 orientifold compactification with fractional D3-branes and anti-D3-branes at orbifold fixed points. The resulting attractive forces between anti-D3-branes and D3-branes, together with the repulsive forces between anti-D3-branes and O3-planes, can affect the stability of the compact space. There are no complex structure moduli in T6/Z 3 orientifold, which should thus capture some generic features of more general settings where all complex structure moduli are stabilized by three-form fluxes. The simultaneous presence of branes and anti-branes brings along the breaking of supersymmetry. Non-BPS combinations of this type are typical of “brane supersymmetry breaking” and are a necessary ingredient in the KKLT scenario for stabilizing the remaining Kähler moduli. The conclusion of our analysis is that, while mutual D-brane interactions sometimes help Kähler moduli stabilization, this is not always the case.
Moduli vacuum misalignment and precise predictions in string inflation
Cicoli, Michele; Dutta, Koushik; Maharana, Anshuman; Quevedo, Fernando
2016-01-01
The predictions for all the cosmological observables of any inflationary model depend on the number of e-foldings which is sensitive to the post-inflationary history of the universe. In string models the generic presence of light moduli leads to a late-time period of matter domination which lowers the required number of e-foldings and, in turn, modifies the exact predictions of any inflationary model. In this paper we compute exactly the shift of the number of e-foldings in Kähler moduli inflation which is determined by the magnitude of the moduli initial displacement caused by vacuum misalignment and the moduli decay rates. We find that the preferred number of e-foldings gets reduced from 50 to 45, causing a modification of the spectral index at the percent level. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the full post-inflationary evolution of the universe in order to derive precise predictions in string inflation. To perform this task it is crucial to work in a setting where there is good control over moduli stabilisation.
Moduli vacuum misalignment and precise predictions in string inflation
Cicoli, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN sezione di Bologna,viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Abdus Salam ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dutta, Koushik [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Salt Lake, Kolkata 700064 (India); Maharana, Anshuman [Harish Chandra Research Intitute,Chattnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Quevedo, Fernando [Abdus Salam ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2016-08-03
The predictions for all the cosmological observables of any inflationary model depend on the number of e-foldings which is sensitive to the post-inflationary history of the universe. In string models the generic presence of light moduli leads to a late-time period of matter domination which lowers the required number of e-foldings and, in turn, modifies the exact predictions of any inflationary model. In this paper we compute exactly the shift of the number of e-foldings in Kähler moduli inflation which is determined by the magnitude of the moduli initial displacement caused by vacuum misalignment and the moduli decay rates. We find that the preferred number of e-foldings gets reduced from 50 to 45, causing a modification of the spectral index at the percent level. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the full post-inflationary evolution of the universe in order to derive precise predictions in string inflation. To perform this task it is crucial to work in a setting where there is good control over moduli stabilisation.
Elastic, dynamical, and electronic properties of LiHg and Li3Hg: First-principles study
Wang, Yan; Hao, Chun-Mei; Huang, Hong-Mei; Li, Yan-Ling
2018-04-01
The elastic, dynamical, and electronic properties of cubic LiHg and Li3Hg were investigated based on first-principles methods. The elastic constants and phonon spectral calculations confirmed the mechanical and dynamical stability of the materials at ambient conditions. The obtained elastic moduli of LiHg are slightly larger than those of Li3Hg. Both LiHg and Li3Hg are ductile materials with strong shear anisotropy as metals with mixed ionic, covalent, and metallic interactions. The calculated Debye temperatures are 223.5 K and 230.6 K for LiHg and Li3Hg, respectively. The calculated phonon frequency of the T2 g mode in Li3Hg is 326.8 cm-1. The p states from the Hg and Li atoms dominate the electronic structure near the Fermi level. These findings may inspire further experimental and theoretical study on the potential technical and engineering applications of similar alkali metal-based intermetallic compounds.
Shein, I.R.; Ivanovskii, A.L.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • α and β polymorphs of BaZn 2 As 2 as a parent phase of the new DMSs are examined. • Structural, elastic, electronic properties are evaluated from first principles. • Inter-atomic bonding picture is discussed. -- Abstract: Very recently, on the example of hole- and spin-doped BaZn 2 As 2 , quite an unexpected area of potential applications of 122-like phases was proposed as a promising platform for searching the new diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) (2013; K. Zhao, et al, Nature Commun. 4:1442). Herein, by means of the first-principles calculations, we have examined in detail the basic structural, elastic, electronic properties and the peculiarities of the inter-atomic bonding in α and β polymorphs of 122-like BaZn 2 As 2 – a parent phase of the new DMSs. Our characterization of these materials covers the optimized structural parameters, the main elastic parameters (elastic constants, bulk, shear, and Young’s moduli, Poisson’s ratio, anisotropy indexes, and Pugh’s criterion), as well as electronic bands and densities of electronic states
Influence of Young's moduli in 3D fluid-structure coupled models of the human cochlea
Böhnke, Frank; Semmelbauer, Sebastian; Marquardt, Torsten
2015-12-01
The acoustic wave propagation in the human cochlea was studied using a tapered box-model with linear assumptions respective to all mechanical parameters. The discretisation and evaluation is conducted by a commercial finite element package (ANSYS). The main difference to former models of the cochlea was the representation of the basilar membrane by a 3D elastic solid. The Young's moduli of this solid were modified to study their influence on the travelling wave. The lymph in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani was represented by a viscous and nearly incompressible fluid finite element approach. Our results show the maximum displacement for f = 2kHz at half of the length of the cochlea in accordance with former experiments. For low frequencies f <200 Hz nearly zero phase shifts were found, whereas for f =1 kHz it reaches values up to -12 cycles depending on the degree of orthotropy.
Natural inflation and moduli stabilization in heterotic orbifolds
Ruehle, Fabian; Wieck, Clemens
2015-03-01
We study moduli stabilization in combination with inflation in heterotic orbifold compactifications in the light of a large Hubble scale and the favored tensor-to-scalar ratio r∼0.05. To account for a trans-Planckian field range we implement aligned natural inflation. Although there is only one universal axion in heterotic constructions, further axions from the geometric moduli can be used for alignment and inflation. We argue that such an alignment is rather generic on orbifolds, since all non-perturbative terms are determined by modular weights of the involved fields and the Dedekind η function. We present two setups inspired by the mini-landscape models of the Z 6-II orbifold which realize aligned inflation and stabilization of the relevant moduli. One has a supersymmetric vacuum after inflation, while the other includes a gaugino condensate which breaks supersymmetry at a high scale.
Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Raju, Subramanian; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Saibaba, Saroja
2018-03-01
The polycrystalline elastic constants of an indigenous variant of 9Cr-1W-based reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel have been determined as a function of temperature from 298 K to 1323 K (25 °C to 1000 °C), using impulse excitation technique (IET). The three elastic constants namely, Young's modulus E, shear modulus G, and bulk modulus B, exhibited significant softening with increasing temperature, in a pronounced non-linear fashion. In addition, clearly marked discontinuities in their temperature variations are noticed in the region, where ferrite + carbides → austenite phase transformation occurred upon heating. Further, the incidence of austenite → martensite transformation upon cooling has also been marked by a step-like jump in both elastic E and shear moduli G. The martensite start M s and M f finish temperatures estimated from this study are, M s = 652 K (379 °C) and M f =580 K (307 °C). Similarly, the measured ferrite + carbide → austenite transformation onset ( Ac 1) and completion ( Ac 3) temperatures are found to be 1126 K and 1143 K (853 °C and 870 °C), respectively. The Poisson ratio μ exhibited distinct discontinuities at phase transformation temperatures; but however, is found to vary in the range 0.27 to 0.29. The room temperature estimates of E, G, and μ for normalized and tempered microstructure are found to be 219 GPa, 86.65 GPa, and 0.27, respectively. For the metastable austenite phase, the corresponding values are: 197 GPa, 76.5 GPa, and 0.29, respectively. The measured elastic properties as well as their temperature dependencies are found to be in good accord with reported estimates for other 9Cr-based ferritic-martensitic steel grades. Estimates of θ D el , the elastic Debye temperature and γ G, the thermal Grüneisen parameter obtained from measured bulk elastic properties are found to be θ D el = 465 K (192 °C) and γ G = 1.57.
Elastic properties and short-range structural order in mixed network former glasses.
Wang, Weimin; Christensen, Randilynn; Curtis, Brittany; Hynek, David; Keizer, Sydney; Wang, James; Feller, Steve; Martin, Steve W; Kieffer, John
2017-06-21
Elastic properties of alkali containing glasses are of great interest not only because they provide information about overall structural integrity but also they are related to other properties such as thermal conductivity and ion mobility. In this study, we investigate two mixed-network former glass systems, sodium borosilicate 0.2Na 2 O + 0.8[xBO 1.5 + (1 - x)SiO 2 ] and sodium borogermanate 0.2Na 2 O + 0.8[xBO 1.5 + (1 - x)GeO 2 ] glasses. By mixing network formers, the network topology can be changed while keeping the network modifier concentration constant, which allows for the effect of network structure on elastic properties to be analyzed over a wide parametric range. In addition to non-linear, non-additive mixed-glass former effects, maxima are observed in longitudinal, shear and Young's moduli with increasing atomic number density. By combining results from NMR spectroscopy and Brillouin light scattering with a newly developed statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model, it is possible to determine the relative proportions of all network structural units. This new analysis reveals that the structural characteristic predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission in these glasses is a high density of network cations coordinated by four or more bridging oxygens, as it provides for establishing a network of covalent bonds among these cations with connectivity in three dimensions.
Noncommutative solitons: moduli spaces, quantization, finite θ effects and stability
Hadasz, Leszek; Rocek, Martin; Lindström, Ulf; von Unge, Rikard
2001-06-01
We find the N-soliton solution at infinite θ, as well as the metric on the moduli space corresponding to spatial displacements of the solitons. We use a perturbative expansion to incorporate the leading θ-1 corrections, and find an effective short range attraction between solitons. We study the stability of various solutions. We discuss the finite θ corrections to scattering, and find metastable orbits. Upon quantization of the two-soliton moduli space, for any finite θ, we find an s-wave bound state.
CP violation and moduli stabilization in heterotic models
Giedt, Joel
2002-01-01
The role of moduli stabilization in predictions for CP violation is examined in the context of four-dimensional effective supergravity models obtained from the weakly coupled heterotic string. They point out that while stabilization of compactification moduli has been studied extensively, the determination of background values for other scalar by dynamical means has not been subjected to the same degree of scrutiny. These other complex scalars are important potential sources of CP violation and they show in a simple model how their background values (including complex phases) may be determined from the minimization of the supergravity scalar potential, subject to the constraint of vanishing cosmological constant
Caravaca, M A; Mino, J C; Perez, V J [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNNE, Avenida Las Heras 727, CP 3500, Resistencia (Argentina); Casali, R A; Ponce, C A [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura UNNE, Avenida Libertad 5600, CP 3400, Corrientes (Argentina)
2009-01-07
In this work, we study theoretically the elastic properties of the orthorhombic (Pnma) high-pressure phase of IV-B group oxides: titania, zirconia and hafnia. By means of the self-consistent SIESTA code, pseudopotentials, density functional theory in the LDA and GGA approximations, the total energies, hydrostatic pressures and stress tensor components are calculated. From the stress-strain relationships, in the linear regime, the elastic constants C{sub ij} are determined. Derived elastic constants, such as bulk, Young's and shear modulus, Poisson coefficient and brittle/ductile behavior are estimated with the polycrystalline approach, using Voigt-Reuss-Hill theories. We have found that C{sub 11}, C{sub 22} and C{sub 33} elastic constants of hafnia and zirconia show increased strength with respect to the experimental values of the normal phase, P 2{sub 1}/c. A similar situation applies to titania if these constants are compared with its normal phase, rutile. However, shear elastic constants C{sub 44}, C{sub 55} and C{sub 66} are similar to the values found in the normal phase. This fact increases the compound anisotropy as well as its ductile behavior. The dependence of unit-cell volumes under hydrostatic pressures is also analyzed. P-V data, fitted to third-order Birch-Murnaghan equations of state, provide the bulk modulus B{sub 0} and its pressure derivatives B'{sub 0}. In this case, LDA estimations show good agreement with respect to recent measured bulk moduli of ZrO{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2}. Thermo-acoustic properties, e.g. the propagation speed of transverse, longitudinal elastic waves together with associated Debye temperatures, are also estimated.
Infinite Grassmannian and moduli space of G-bundles
Kumar, S.; Ramanathan, A.
1993-03-01
Let C be a smooth irreducible projective curve and G a simply connected simple affine algebraic group of C. We study in this paper the relationship between the space of vacua defined in Conformal Field Theory and the space of sections of a line bundle on the moduli space of G-bundles over C. (author). 33 refs
Moduli space for endomorphisms of finite dimension vector spaces
Kanarek, H.
1990-12-01
Consider the set (End n ) of endomorphisms of vector spaces of dimension n n ). What we present here is a decomposition of (End n ) in which each element has a fine moduli space and one of them is composed by the semisimple endomorphisms as D. Mumford shows. (author). 2 refs
On the L2-metric of vortex moduli spaces
Baptista, J.M.
2011-01-01
We derive general expressions for the Kähler form of the L2-metric in terms of standard 2-forms on vortex moduli spaces. In the case of abelian vortices in gauged linear sigma-models, this allows us to compute explicitly the Kähler class of the L2-metric. As an application we compute the total
Moduli for decorated tuples of sheaves and representation spaces ...
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
We extend the scope of a former paper to vector bundle problems involving ... the machinery of algebraic geometry to the gauge theoretic moduli space for the pairs ... A nice example of a classification problem which can be formulated in our ... Numerous famous special cases of this construction have been studied in the ...
Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector ...
Abstract. Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.
Moduli and (un)attractor black hole thermodynamics
Astefanesei, D.; Goldstein, K.D.; Mahapatra, S.
2008-01-01
We investigate four-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole solutions in gravity theories with massless, neutral scalars non-minimally coupled to gauge fields. In the non-extremal case, we explicitly show that, under the variation of the moduli, the scalar charges appear in the first law of
On the possibility of large axion moduli spaces
Rudelius, Tom [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2015-04-28
We study the diameters of axion moduli spaces, focusing primarily on type IIB compactifications on Calabi-Yau three-folds. In this case, we derive a stringent bound on the diameter in the large volume region of parameter space for Calabi-Yaus with simplicial Kähler cone. This bound can be violated by Calabi-Yaus with non-simplicial Kähler cones, but additional contributions are introduced to the effective action which can restrict the field range accessible to the axions. We perform a statistical analysis of simulated moduli spaces, finding in all cases that these additional contributions restrict the diameter so that these moduli spaces are no more likely to yield successful inflation than those with simplicial Kähler cone or with far fewer axions. Further heuristic arguments for axions in other corners of the duality web suggest that the difficulty observed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2003/06/001 of finding an axion decay constant parametrically larger than M{sub p} applies not only to individual axions, but to the diagonals of axion moduli space as well. This observation is shown to follow from the weak gravity conjecture of http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2007/06/060, so it likely applies not only to axions in string theory, but also to axions in any consistent theory of quantum gravity.
String loop moduli stabilisation and cosmology in IIB flux compactifications
Cicoli, M.
2010-01-01
We present a detailed review of the moduli stabilisation mechanism and possible cosmological implications of the LARGE Volume Scenario (LVS) that emerges naturally in the context of type IIB Calabi-Yau flux compactifications. After a quick overview of physics beyond the Standard Model, we present string theory as the most promising candidate for a consistent theory of quantum gravity. We then give a pedagogical introduction to type IIB compactifications on Calabi-Yau orientifolds where most of the moduli are stabilised by turning on background fluxes. However in order to fix the Kaehler moduli one needs to consider several corrections beyond the leading order approximations. After presenting a survey of all the existing solutions to this problem, we derive the topological conditions on an arbitrary Calabi-Yau to obtain the LVS since it requires no fine-tuning of the fluxes and provides a natural solution of the hierarchy problem. After performing a systematic study of the behaviour of string loop corrections for general type IIB compactifications, we show how they play a crucial role to achieve full Kaehler moduli stabilisation in the LVS. Before examining the possible cosmological implication of these scenarios, we present a broad overview of string cosmology. We then notice how, in the case of K3-fibrations, string loop corrections give rise naturally to an inflationary model which yields observable gravity waves. We finally study the finite-temperature behaviour of the LVS and discuss prospects for future work. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Elastic constants of a Laves phase compound: C15 NbCr2
Ormeci, A.; Chu, F.; Wills, J.M.; Chen, S.P.; Albers, R.C.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.
1997-01-01
The single-crystal elastic constants of C15 NbCr 2 have been computed by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. From these single-crystal elastic constants the isotropic elastic moduli are calculated using the Voigt and Reuss averages. The calculated values are in fair agreement with the experimental values. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to Poisson's ratio and the direction dependence of Young's modulus
Moduli effective action in warped brane-world compactifications
Garriga, Jaume; Pujolas, Oriol; Tanaka, Takahiro
2003-01-01
We consider a class of 5D brane-world solutions with a power-law warp factor a(y)∝y q , and bulk dilaton with profile phi∝lny, where y is the proper distance in the extra dimension. This class includes the heterotic M-theory brane-world of [Phys. Rev. D 59 (1999) 086001, and] and the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model as a limiting case. In general, there are two moduli fields y ± , corresponding to the 'positions' of two branes (which live at the fixed points of an orbifold compactification). Classically, the moduli are massless, due to a scaling symmetry of the action. However, in the absence of supersymmetry, they develop an effective potential at one loop. Local terms proportional to K ± 4 , where K ± =q/y ± is the local curvature scale at the location of the corresponding brane, are needed in order to remove the divergences in the effective potential. Such terms break the scaling symmetry and hence they may act as stabilizers for the moduli. When the branes are very close to each other, the effective potential induced by massless bulk fields behaves like V∼d -4 , where d is the separation between branes. When the branes are widely separated, the potentials for each one of the moduli generically develop a 'Coleman-Weinberg'-type behaviour of the form a 4 (y ± )K ± 4 ln(K ± /μ ± ), where μ ± are renormalization scales. In the RS case, the bulk geometry is AdS and K ± are equal to a constant, independent of the position of the branes, so these terms do not contribute to the mass of the moduli. However, for generic warp factor, they provide a simple stabilization mechanism. For q > or approx. 10, the observed hierarchy can be naturally generated by this potential, giving the lightest modulus a mass of order m - < or approx. TeV
Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder
Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir D.
2017-07-01
In a wide range of applications, microfluidic channels are implemented in soft substrates. In such configurations, where fluidic inertia and compressibility are negligible, the propagation of fluids in channels is governed by a balance between fluid viscosity and elasticity of the surrounding solid. The viscous-elastic interactions between elastic substrates and non-Newtonian fluids are particularly of interest due to the dependence of viscosity on the state of the system. In this work, we study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics between an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid and a slender linearly elastic cylinder under the creeping flow regime. Considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a nonhomogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We present exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. We show that in contrast to Stokes' problem where a compactly supported front is obtained for shear-thickening fluids, here the role of viscosity is inversed and such fronts are obtained for shear-thinning fluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for the case of a step in inlet pressure, the propagation rate of the front has a tn/n +1 dependence on time (t ), suggesting the ability to indirectly measure the power-law index (n ) of shear-thinning liquids through measurements of elastic deformation.
Effective stress law for anisotropic elastic deformation
Carroll, M.M.
1979-01-01
An effective stress law is derived analytically to describe the effect of pore fluid pressure on the linearly elastic response of saturated porous rocks which exhibit anisotropy. For general anisotropy the difference between the effective stress and the applied stress is not hydrostatic. The effective stress law involves two constants for transversely isotropic response and three constants for orthotropic response; these constants can be expressed in terms of the moduli of the porous material and of the solid material. These expressions simplify considerably when the anisotropy is structural rather than intrinsic, i.e., in the case of an isotropic solid material with an anisotropic pore structure. In this case the effective stress law involves the solid or grain bulk modulus and two or three moduli of the porous material, for transverse isotropy and orthotropy, respectively. The law reduces, in the case of isotropic response, to that suggested by Geertsma (1957) and by Skempton (1961) and derived analytically by Nur and Byerlee
Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Radostin, Andrey V.; Dyskin, Arcady V.; Pasternak, Elena
2017-04-01
We report results of analysis of literature data on P- and S-wave velocities of rocks subjected to variable hydrostatic pressure. Out of about 90 examined samples, in more than 40% of the samples the reconstructed Poisson's ratios are negative for lowest confining pressure with gradual transition to the conventional positive values at higher pressure. The portion of rocks exhibiting negative Poisson's ratio appeared to be unexpectedly high. To understand the mechanism of negative Poisson's ratio, pressure dependences of P- and S-wave velocities were analyzed using the effective medium model in which the reduction in the elastic moduli due to cracks is described in terms of compliances with respect to shear and normal loading that are imparted to the rock by the presence of cracks. This is in contrast to widely used descriptions of effective cracked medium based on a specific crack model (e.g., penny-shape crack) in which the ratio between normal and shear compliances of such a crack is strictly predetermined. The analysis of pressure-dependences of the elastic wave velocities makes it possible to reveal the ratio between pure normal and shear compliances (called q-ratio below) for real defects and quantify their integral content in the rock. The examination performed demonstrates that a significant portion (over 50%) of cracks exhibit q-ratio several times higher than that assumed for the conventional penny-shape cracks. This leads to faster reduction of the Poisson's ratio with increasing the crack concentration. Samples with negative Poisson's ratio are characterized by elevated q-ratio and simultaneously crack concentration. Our results clearly indicate that the traditional crack model is not adequate for a significant portion of rocks and that the interaction between the opposite crack faces leading to domination of the normal compliance and reduced shear displacement discontinuity can play an important role in the mechanical behavior of rocks.
Explicit Gromov-Hausdorff compactifications of moduli spaces of Kähler-Einstein Fano manifolds
Spotti, Cristiano; Sun, Song
We exhibit the first non-trivial concrete examples of Gromov-Hausdorff compactifications of moduli spaces of Kähler-Einstein Fano manifolds in all complex dimensions bigger than two (Fano K-moduli spaces). We also discuss potential applications to explicit study of moduli spaces of K-stable Fano...
On rationality of moduli spaces of vector bundles on real Hirzebruch ...
Introduction. Moduli spaces of semistable vector bundles on a smooth projective variety are studied from various points of view. One of the questions that is often addressed is the birational type of the moduli space, more precisely, the question of rationality. It is known that the moduli space of semistable vector bundles of ...
Cosserat moduli of anisotropic cancellous bone : A micromechanical analysis
Fatemi, J.; Onck, P.R.; Poort, G.; Van Keulen, F.
A micromechanical-based approach is proposed to quantify the effective (in the macroscopic sense) elastic constants of Cosserat materials. The material under investigation (cancellous bone) is cellular and classically elastic at the microscopic level and assumed to be dense Cosserat elastic at the
Mathematically Simulated Elastic Characteristics of the Composite Reinforced by Spherical Inclusions
E. S. Sergeeva
2017-01-01
numerical implementation was used a ANSYS software complex coupled with a specially designed software module that allows creating tensors of elastic coefficient and pliability of the composite, as well as averaging its elastic characteristics to have values of bulk and shear moduli of the material.The results of numerical simulations have been compared with the analytical estimates obtained by the self-consistent method and the dual formulation of the elasticity problem in a heterogeneous solid. It is found that in numerical implementation a choice of the composite periodic cell has a significant impact on the values of the shear modulus as opposed to the bulk modulus of elasticity. It is also shown that the numerical simulation results are between the estimates obtained using the analytical models. These results allow predicting the elastic properties of composites, reinforced by spherical inclusions, including advanced materials, i.e. nanocomposites reinforced by spherical nanoclusters of randomly oriented SWCNTs.The paper is done within the framework of implementing basic part of the Governmental task of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Project 9.7784.2017/БЧ.
Lesaine, Arnaud; Bonamy, Daniel; Gauthier, Georges; Rountree, Cindy L; Lazarus, Véronique
2018-05-16
Layers obtained by drying a colloidal dispersion of silica spheres are found to be a good benchmark to test the elastic behaviour of porous media, in the challenging case of high porosities and nano-sized microstructures. Classically used for these systems, Kendall's approach explicitly considers the effect of surface adhesive forces onto the contact area between the particles. This approach provides the Young's modulus using a single adjustable parameter (the adhesion energy) but provides no further information on the tensorial nature and possible anisotropy of elasticity. On the other hand, homogenization approaches (e.g. rule of mixtures, and Eshelby, Mori-Tanaka and self-consistent schemes), based on continuum mechanics and asymptotic analysis, provide the stiffness tensor from the knowledge of the porosity and the elastic constants of the beads. Herein, the self-consistent scheme accurately predicts both bulk and shear moduli, with no adjustable parameter, provided the porosity is less than 35%, for layers composed of particles as small as 15 nm in diameter. Conversely, Kendall's approach is found to predict the Young's modulus over the full porosity range. Moreover, the adhesion energy in Kendall's model has to be adjusted to a value of the order of the fracture energy of the particle material. This suggests that sintering during drying leads to the formation of covalent siloxane bonds between the particles.
Elastic properties of crystalline and liquid gallium at high pressures
Lyapin, A. G.; Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Yagafarov, O. F.; Stal'Gorova, O. V.; Brazhkin, V. V.
2008-11-01
The elastic properties of gallium, such as the bulk modulus B, the shear modulus G, and the Poisson’s ratio σ, are investigated and the relative change in the volume is determined in the stability regions of the Ga I, Ga II, and liquid phases at pressures of up to 1.7 GPa. The observed lines of the Ga I-Ga II phase transition and the melting curves of the Ga I and Ga II phases are in good agreement with the known phase diagram of gallium; in this case, the coordinates of the Ga I-Ga II-melt triple point are determined to be 1.24 ± 0.40 GPa and 277 ± 2 K. It is shown that the Ga I-Ga II phase transition is accompanied by a considerable decrease in the moduli B (by 30%) and G (by 55%) and an increase in the density by 5.7%. The Poisson’s ratio exhibits a jump from typically covalent values of approximately 0.22-0.25 to values of approximately 0.32-0.33, which are characteristic of metals. The observed behavior of the elastic characteristics is described in the framework of the model of the phase transition from a “quasi-molecular” (partially covalent) metal state to a “normal” metal state. An increase in the Poisson’s ratio in the Ga I phase from 0.22 to 0.25 with an increase in the pressure can be interpreted as a decrease in the degree of covalence, i.e., the degree of spatial anisotropy of the electron density along the bonds, whereas the large value of the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (equal to approximately 8) observed up to the transition to the Ga II phase or the melt is associated not only with the quasicovalent nature of the Ga I phase but also with the structural features. In view of the presence of seven neighbors for each gallium atom in the Ga I phase, the gallium lattice can be treated as a structure intermediate between typical open-packed and close-packed structures. Premelting effects, such as a flattening of the isothermal dependence of the shear modulus G( p) with increasing pressure and an increase in the slope of the
Elastic properties of crystalline and liquid gallium at high pressures
Lyapin, A. G.; Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Yagafarov, O. F.; Stal'gorova, O. V.; Brazhkin, V. V.
2008-01-01
The elastic properties of gallium, such as the bulk modulus B, the shear modulus G, and the Poisson's ratio σ, are investigated and the relative change in the volume is determined in the stability regions of the Ga I, Ga II, and liquid phases at pressures of up to 1.7 GPa. The observed lines of the Ga I-Ga II phase transition and the melting curves of the Ga I and Ga II phases are in good agreement with the known phase diagram of gallium; in this case, the coordinates of the Ga I-Ga II-melt triple point are determined to be 1.24 ± 0.40 GPa and 277 ± 2 K. It is shown that the Ga I-Ga II phase transition is accompanied by a considerable decrease in the moduli B (by 30%) and G (by 55%) and an increase in the density by 5.7%. The Poisson's ratio exhibits a jump from typically covalent values of approximately 0.22-0.25 to values of approximately 0.32-0.33, which are characteristic of metals. The observed behavior of the elastic characteristics is described in the framework of the model of the phase transition from a 'quasi-molecular' (partially covalent) metal state to a 'normal' metal state. An increase in the Poisson's ratio in the Ga I phase from 0.22 to 0.25 with an increase in the pressure can be interpreted as a decrease in the degree of covalence, i.e., the degree of spatial anisotropy of the electron density along the bonds, whereas the large value of the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (equal to approximately 8) observed up to the transition to the Ga II phase or the melt is associated not only with the quasicovalent nature of the Ga I phase but also with the structural features. In view of the presence of seven neighbors for each gallium atom in the Ga I phase, the gallium lattice can be treated as a structure intermediate between typical open-packed and close-packed structures. Premelting effects, such as a flattening of the isothermal dependence of the shear modulus G(p) with increasing pressure and an increase in the slope of the isobaric
Dynamic and static elastic moduli of North Sea and deep sea chalk
Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2001-01-01
We have established an empirical relationship between the dynamic and the static mechanical properties of North Sea and deep sea chalk for a large porosity interval with respect to porosity, effective stress history and textural composition. The chalk investigated is from the Tor and Hod Formatio...
A Laboratory Study of the Effect of Stress State on the Elastic Moduli of Sand
1990-01-01
frequency. Drnevich (1967) investigated the effect of strain history on the dynamic properties of a dry Ottawa sand. One finding of his work was that the...2.2) in which jo = effective octahedral normal stress, e = void ratio, H = ambient stress and vibration history , S - de9,ee of saturation, To...zt) = ik[Cei(kz-wt) - De-i(kz+Wt) (3.20) dz I Substituting Eqs. 3.19 and 3.20 into the second boundary condition at z - L yields ikEA [Cei(kL-cot
Room Temperature Elastic Moduli and Vickers Hardness of Hot-Pressed LLZO Cubic Garnet
2012-01-01
4140-steel [29] as well as composites such as Al/Al2O3 [30] and Ni– YSZ cermets [27]. The RUS apparatus used in this study consists of a computer...Microstructure and lattice parameter of LLZO specimens In this study , the LLZO microstructure was observed on a (i) fracture surface of LLZO-01 (Fig. 1a) and... study are consistent with the trend (Eq. 2) of a power law decrease in mechanical properties with increasing lattice parameter observed for other garnet
Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.
Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A
2016-05-01
Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.
No-scale D-term inflation with stabilized moduli
Buchmueller, Wilfried; Domcke, Valerie; Wieck, Clemens
2013-09-15
We study the consistency of hybrid inflation and moduli stabilization, using the Kallosh- Linde model as an example for the latter. We find that F-term hybrid inflation is not viable since inflationary trajectories are destabilized by tachyonic modes. On the other hand, D-term hybrid inflation is naturally compatible with moduli stabilization due to the absence of a large superpotential term during the inflationary phase. Our model turns out to be equivalent to superconformal D-term inflation and it therefore successfully accounts for the CMB data in the large-field regime. Supersymmetry breaking can be incorporated via an O'Raifeartaigh model. For GUT-scale inflation one obtains a stringent bound on the gravitino mass. A rough estimate yields m{sub 3/2}>or similar 10{sup 5} GeV, contrary to naive expectation.
The Hilbert Series of the One Instanton Moduli Space
Benvenuti, Sergio; Mekareeya, Noppadol; 10.1007
2010-01-01
The moduli space of k G-instantons on R^4 for a classical gauge group G is known to be given by the Higgs branch of a supersymmetric gauge theory that lives on Dp branes probing D(p + 4) branes in Type II theories. For p = 3, these (3 + 1) dimensional gauge theories have N = 2 supersymmetry and can be represented by quiver diagrams. The F and D term equations coincide with the ADHM construction. The Hilbert series of the moduli spaces of one instanton for classical gauge groups is easy to compute and turns out to take a particularly simple form which is previously unknown. This allows for a G invariant character expansion and hence easily generalisable for exceptional gauge groups, where an ADHM construction is not known. The conjectures for exceptional groups are further checked using some new techniques like sewing relations in Hilbert Series. This is applied to Argyres-Seiberg dualities.
Moduli evolution in the presence of flux compactifications
Barreiro, Tiago; Carlos, Beatriz de; Copeland, Ed; Nunes, Nelson J.
2005-01-01
We study the cosmological evolution of the volume moduli in a class of recently proposed inflationary universe models of Kachru et al. arising out of Type IIB string theory, where a number of the moduli fields have been stabilized through flux compactifications. Developing an approach introduced by some of us earlier, we show, in agreement with Brustein et al., how the presence of extra sources of matter act so as to provide additional friction, slowing the modulus field as it evolves down its potential, thereby vastly increasing the region of parameter space which leads to the eventual stabilization of these fields. Extending the case to include both the real and imaginary parts of the volume modulus, we show how the parameter space of initial conditions is modified and comment on the impact for these inflationary models arising out of flux type compactifications
IMPA-ICTP School on Moduli of Curves
Ciliberto, Ciro; Esteves, Eduardo; Melo, Margarida; Voisin, Claire
2017-01-01
Providing a timely description of the present state of the art of moduli spaces of curves and their geometry, this volume is written in a way which will make it extremely useful both for young people who want to approach this important field, and also for established researchers, who will find references, problems, original expositions, new viewpoints, etc. The book collects the lecture notes of a number of leading algebraic geometers and in particular specialists in the field of moduli spaces of curves and their geometry. This is an important subject in algebraic geometry and complex analysis which has seen spectacular developments in recent decades, with important applications to other parts of mathematics such as birational geometry and enumerative geometry, and to other sciences, including physics. The themes treated are classical but with a constant look to modern developments (see Cascini, Debarre, Farkas, and Sernesi's contributions), and include very new material, such as Bridgeland stability (see M...
No-scale D-term inflation with stabilized moduli
Buchmueller, Wilfried; Domcke, Valerie; Wieck, Clemens
2013-09-01
We study the consistency of hybrid inflation and moduli stabilization, using the Kallosh- Linde model as an example for the latter. We find that F-term hybrid inflation is not viable since inflationary trajectories are destabilized by tachyonic modes. On the other hand, D-term hybrid inflation is naturally compatible with moduli stabilization due to the absence of a large superpotential term during the inflationary phase. Our model turns out to be equivalent to superconformal D-term inflation and it therefore successfully accounts for the CMB data in the large-field regime. Supersymmetry breaking can be incorporated via an O'Raifeartaigh model. For GUT-scale inflation one obtains a stringent bound on the gravitino mass. A rough estimate yields m 3/2 >or similar 10 5 GeV, contrary to naive expectation.
The Coulomb Branch Formula for Quiver Moduli Spaces
Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke
2014-01-01
In recent series of works, by translating properties of multi-centered supersymmetric black holes into the language of quiver representations, we proposed a formula that expresses the Hodge numbers of the moduli space of semi-stable representations of quivers with generic superpotential in terms of a set of invariants associated to `single-centered' or `pure-Higgs' states. The distinguishing feature of these invariants is that they are independent of the choice of stability condition. Furthermore they are uniquely determined by the $\\chi_y$-genus of the moduli space. Here, we provide a self-contained summary of the Coulomb branch formula, spelling out mathematical details but leaving out proofs and physical motivations.
Probing the moduli dependence of refined topological amplitudes
I. Antoniadis
2015-12-01
Full Text Available With the aim of providing a worldsheet description of the refined topological string, we continue the study of a particular class of higher derivative couplings Fg,n in the type II string effective action compactified on a Calabi–Yau threefold. We analyse first order differential equations in the anti-holomorphic moduli of the theory, which relate the Fg,n to other component couplings. From the point of view of the topological theory, these equations describe the contribution of non-physical states to twisted correlation functions and encode an obstruction for interpreting the Fg,n as the free energy of the refined topological string theory. We investigate possibilities of lifting this obstruction by formulating conditions on the moduli dependence under which the differential equations simplify and take the form of generalised holomorphic anomaly equations. We further test this approach against explicit calculations in the dual heterotic theory.
Moduli evolution in the presence of thermal corrections
Barreiro, Tiago; Carlos, Beatriz de; Copeland, Edmund J.; Nunes, Nelson J.
2008-01-01
We study the effect of thermal corrections on the evolution of moduli in effective supergravity models. This is motivated by previous results in the literature suggesting that these corrections could alter and even erase the presence of a minimum in the zero temperature potential, something that would have disastrous consequences in these particular models. We show that, in a representative sample of flux compactification constructions, this need not be the case, although we find that the inclusion of thermal corrections can dramatically decrease the region of initial conditions for which the moduli are stabilized. Moreover, the bounds on the reheating temperature coming from demanding that the full, finite temperature potential, has a minimum can be considerably relaxed given the slow pace at which the evolution proceeds.
Quantum moduli spaces of N=1 string theories
Banks, T.; Dine, M.
1996-01-01
Generically, string models with N=1 supersymmetry are not expected to have moduli beyond perturbation theory; stringy nonperturbative effects as well as low energy field-theoretic phenomena such as gluino condensation will lift any flat directions. In this work, we describe models where some subspace of the moduli space survives nonperturbatively. Discrete R symmetries forbid any inherently stringy effects, and dynamical considerations control the field-theoretic effects. The surviving subspace is a space of high symmetry; the system is attracted to this subspace by a potential which we compute. Models of this type may be useful for considerations of duality and raise troubling cosmological questions about string theory. Our considerations also suggest a mechanism for fixing the expectation value of the dilaton. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Instantons from geodesics in AdS moduli spaces
Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas
2018-03-01
We investigate supergravity instantons in Euclidean AdS5 × S5/ℤk. These solutions are expected to be dual to instantons of N = 2 quiver gauge theories. On the supergravity side the (extremal) instanton solutions are neatly described by the (lightlike) geodesics on the AdS moduli space for which we find the explicit expression and compute the on-shell actions in terms of the quantised charges. The lightlike geodesics fall into two categories depending on the degree of nilpotency of the Noether charge matrix carried by the geodesic: for degree 2 the instantons preserve 8 supercharges and for degree 3 they are non-SUSY. We expect that these findings should apply to more general situations in the sense that there is a map between geodesics on moduli-spaces of Euclidean AdS vacua and instantons with holographic counterparts.
Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles
Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina
Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n......Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components...
On Rationality of Moduli Spaces of Vector Bundles on Real ...
Let be a real form of a Hirzebruch surface. Let M H ( r , c 1 , c 2 ) be the moduli space of vector bundles on . Under some numerical conditions on r , c 1 and c 2 , we identify those M H ( r , c 1 , c 2 ) that are rational. Author Affiliations. Indranil Biswas1 Ronnie Sebastian2. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of ...
On natural inflation and moduli stabilisation in string theory
Palti, Eran [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)
2015-10-28
Natural inflation relies on the existence of an axion decay constant which is super-Planckian. In string theory only sub-Planckian axion decay constants have been found in any controlled regime. However in field theory it is possible to generate an enhanced super-Planckian decay constant by an appropriate aligned mixing between axions with individual sub-Planckian decay constants. We study the possibility of such a mechanism in string theory. In particular we construct a new realisation of an alignment scenario in type IIA string theory compactifications on a Calabi-Yau where the alignment is induced through fluxes. Within field theory the original decay constants are taken to be independent of the parameters which induce the alignment. In string theory however they are moduli dependent quantities and so interact gravitationally with the physics responsible for the mixing. We show that this gravitational effect of the fluxes on the moduli can precisely cancel any enhancement of the effective decay constant. This censorship of an effective super-Planckian decay constant depends on detailed properties of Calabi-Yau moduli spaces and occurs for all the examples and classes that we study. We expand these results to a general superpotential assuming only that the axion superpartners are fixed supersymmetrically and are able to show for a large class of Calabi-Yau manifolds, but not all, that the cancellation effect occurs and is independent of the superpotential. We also study simple models where the moduli are fixed non-supersymmetrically and find that similar cancellation behaviour can emerge. Finally we make some comments on a possible generalisation to axion monodromy inflation models.
Von Neuman representations on self-dual Hilbert W* moduli
Frank, M.
1987-01-01
Von Neumann algebras M of bounded operators on self-dual Hilbert W* moduli H possessing a cyclic-separating element x-bar in H are considered. The close relation of them to certain real subspaces of H is established. Under the supposition that the underlying W*-algebra is commutative, a Tomita-Takesaki type theorem is stated. The natural cone in H arising from the pair (M, x-bar) is investigated and its properties are obtained
Samah Al-Qaisi
Full Text Available First-principles investigations of the Terbium oxide TbO are performed on structural, elastic, mechanical and thermodynamic properties. The investigations are accomplished by employing full potential augmented plane wave FP-LAPW method framed within density functional theory DFT as implemented in the WIEN2k package. The exchange-correlation energy functional, a part of the total energy functional, is treated through Perdew Burke Ernzerhof scheme of the Generalized Gradient Approximation PBEGGA. The calculations of the ground state structural parameters, like lattice constants a0, bulk moduli B and their pressure derivative B′ values, are done for the rock-salt RS, zinc-blende ZB, cesium chloride CsCl, wurtzite WZ and nickel arsenide NiAs polymorphs of the TbO compound. The elastic constants (C11, C12, C13, C33, and C44 and mechanical properties (Young’s modulus Y, Shear modulus S, Poisson’s ratio σ, Anisotropic ratio A and compressibility β, were also calculated to comprehend its potential for valuable applications. From our calculations, the RS phase of TbO compound was found strongest one mechanically amongst the studied cubic structures whereas from hexagonal phases, the NiAs type structure was found stronger than WZ phase of the TbO. To analyze the ductility of the different structures of the TbO, Pugh’s rule (B/SH and Cauchy pressure (C12–C44 approaches are used. It was found that ZB, CsCl and WZ type structures of the TbO were of ductile nature with the obvious dominance of the ionic bonding while RS and NiAs structures exhibited brittle nature with the covalent bonding dominance. Moreover, Debye temperature was calculated for both cubic and hexagonal structures of TbO in question by averaging the computed sound velocities. Keywords: DFT, TbO, Elastic properties, Thermodynamic properties
Effect of AlF3 on the Density and Elastic Properties of Zinc Tellurite Glass Systems
Sidek, Haji Abdul Aziz; Rosmawati, Shaharuddin; Halimah, Mohamed Kamari; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Talib, Zainal Abidin
2012-01-01
This paper presents the results of the physical and elastic properties of the ternary zinc oxyfluoro tellurite glass system. Systematic series of glasses (AlF3)x(ZnO)y(TeO2)z with x = 0–19, y = 0–20 and z = 80, 85, 90 mol% were synthesized by the conventional rapid melt quenching technique. The composition dependence of the physical, mainly density and molar volume, and elastic properties is discussed in term of the AlF3 modifiers addition that are expected to produce quite substantial changes in their physical properties. The absence of any crystalline peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the present glass samples indicates the amorphous nature. The addition of AlF3 lowered the values of the densities in ternary oxyfluorotellurite glass systems. The longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves propagated in each glass sample were measured using a MBS8020 ultrasonic data acquisition system. All the velocity data were taken at 5 MHz frequency and room temperature. The longitudinal modulus (L), shear modulus (G), Young’s modulus (E), bulk modulus (K) and Poisson’s ratio (σ) are obtained from both velocities data and their respective density. Experimental data shows the density and elastic moduli of each AlF3-ZnO-TeO2 series are found strongly depend upon the glass composition. The addition of AlF3 modifiers into the zinc tellurite causes substantial changes in their density, molar volume as well as their elastic properties.
High-pressure single-crystal elasticity study of CO{sub 2} across phase I-III transition
Zhang, Jin S., E-mail: zhang72@illinois.edu; Bass, Jay D. [Department of Geology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shieh, Sean R. [Departments of Earth Sciences and Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Dera, Przemyslaw [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Prakapenka, Vitali [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2014-04-07
Sound velocities and elastic moduli of solid single-crystal CO{sub 2} were measured at pressures up to 11.7(3) GPa by Brillouin spectroscopy. The aggregate adiabatic bulk modulus (K{sub S}), shear modulus (G), and their pressure derivatives for CO{sub 2} Phase I are K{sub S0} = 3.4(6) GPa, G{sub 0} = 1.8(2) GPa, (dK{sub S}/dP){sub 0} = 7.8(3), (dG/dP){sub 0} = 2.5(1), (d{sup 2}K{sub S}/dP{sup 2}){sub 0} = −0.23(3) GPa{sup −1}, and (d{sup 2}G/dP{sup 2}){sub 0} = −0.10(1) GPa{sup −1}. A small increase of elastic properties was observed between 9.8(1) and 10.5(3) GPa, in agreement with the CO{sub 2} I-III transition pressure determined from previous x-ray diffraction experiments. Above the transition pressure P{sub T}, we observed a mixture dominated by CO{sub 2}-I, with minor CO{sub 2}-III. The CO{sub 2}-I + III mixture shows slightly increased sound velocities compared to pure CO{sub 2}-I. Elastic anisotropy calculated from the single-crystal elasticity tensor exhibits a decrease with pressure beginning at 7.9(1) GPa, which is lower than P{sub T}. Our results coincide with recent X-ray Raman observations, suggesting that a pressure-induced electronic transition is related to local structural and optical changes.
Moduli effective action in warped brane-world compactifications
Garriga, Jaume E-mail: garriga@ifae.es; Pujolas, Oriol; Tanaka, Takahiro
2003-04-07
We consider a class of 5D brane-world solutions with a power-law warp factor a(y){proportional_to}y{sup q}, and bulk dilaton with profile phi{proportional_to}lny, where y is the proper distance in the extra dimension. This class includes the heterotic M-theory brane-world of [Phys. Rev. D 59 (1999) 086001, and] and the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model as a limiting case. In general, there are two moduli fields y{sub {+-}}, corresponding to the 'positions' of two branes (which live at the fixed points of an orbifold compactification). Classically, the moduli are massless, due to a scaling symmetry of the action. However, in the absence of supersymmetry, they develop an effective potential at one loop. Local terms proportional to K{sub {+-}}{sup 4}, where K{sub {+-}}=q/y{sub {+-}} is the local curvature scale at the location of the corresponding brane, are needed in order to remove the divergences in the effective potential. Such terms break the scaling symmetry and hence they may act as stabilizers for the moduli. When the branes are very close to each other, the effective potential induced by massless bulk fields behaves like V{approx}d{sup -4}, where d is the separation between branes. When the branes are widely separated, the potentials for each one of the moduli generically develop a 'Coleman-Weinberg'-type behaviour of the form a{sup 4}(y{sub {+-}})K{sub {+-}}{sup 4}ln(K{sub {+-}}/{mu}{sub {+-}}), where {mu}{sub {+-}} are renormalization scales. In the RS case, the bulk geometry is AdS and K{sub {+-}} are equal to a constant, independent of the position of the branes, so these terms do not contribute to the mass of the moduli. However, for generic warp factor, they provide a simple stabilization mechanism. For q > or approx. 10, the observed hierarchy can be naturally generated by this potential, giving the lightest modulus a mass of order m{sub -} < or approx. TeV.
Giarola, Diana; Capuani, Domenico; Bigoni, Davide
2018-03-01
A shear band of finite length, formed inside a ductile material at a certain stage of a continued homogeneous strain, provides a dynamic perturbation to an incident wave field, which strongly influences the dynamics of the material and affects its path to failure. The investigation of this perturbation is presented for a ductile metal, with reference to the incremental mechanics of a material obeying the J2-deformation theory of plasticity (a special form of prestressed, elastic, anisotropic, and incompressible solid). The treatment originates from the derivation of integral representations relating the incremental mechanical fields at every point of the medium to the incremental displacement jump across the shear band faces, generated by an impinging wave. The boundary integral equations (under the plane strain assumption) are numerically approached through a collocation technique, which keeps into account the singularity at the shear band tips and permits the analysis of an incident wave impinging a shear band. It is shown that the presence of the shear band induces a resonance, visible in the incremental displacement field and in the stress intensity factor at the shear band tips, which promotes shear band growth. Moreover, the waves scattered by the shear band are shown to generate a fine texture of vibrations, parallel to the shear band line and propagating at a long distance from it, but leaving a sort of conical shadow zone, which emanates from the tips of the shear band.
Ahn, Young Kwan; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young
2017-08-30
Conical refraction, which is quite well-known in electromagnetic waves, has not been explored well in elastic waves due to the lack of proper natural elastic media. Here, we propose and design a unique anisotropic elastic metamaterial slab that realizes conical refraction for horizontally incident longitudinal or transverse waves; the single-mode wave is split into two oblique coupled longitudinal-shear waves. As an interesting application, we carried out an experiment of parallel translation of an incident elastic wave system through the anisotropic metamaterial slab. The parallel translation can be useful for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of a system hidden by obstacles. While the parallel translation resembles light refraction through a parallel plate without angle deviation between entry and exit beams, this wave behavior cannot be achieved without the engineered metamaterial because an elastic wave incident upon a dissimilar medium is always split at different refraction angles into two different modes, longitudinal and shear.
Cell elasticity with altered cytoskeletal architectures across multiple cell types.
Grady, Martha E; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M
2016-08-01
The cytoskeleton is primarily responsible for providing structural support, localization and transport of organelles, and intracellular trafficking. The structural support is supplied by actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, which contribute to overall cell elasticity to varying degrees. We evaluate cell elasticity in five different cell types with drug-induced cytoskeletal derangements to probe how actin filaments and microtubules contribute to cell elasticity and whether it is conserved across cell type. Specifically, we measure elastic stiffness in primary chondrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells (HUVEC), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HUH-7), and fibrosarcoma cells (HT 1080) subjected to two cytoskeletal destabilizers: cytochalasin D and nocodazole, which disrupt actin and microtubule polymerization, respectively. Elastic stiffness is measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the disruption of the cytoskeleton is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. The two cancer cell lines showed significantly reduced elastic moduli values (~0.5kPa) when compared to the three healthy cell lines (~2kPa). Non-cancer cells whose actin filaments were disrupted using cytochalasin D showed a decrease of 60-80% in moduli values compared to untreated cells of the same origin, whereas the nocodazole-treated cells showed no change in elasticity. Overall, we demonstrate actin filaments contribute more to elastic stiffness than microtubules but this result is cell type dependent. Cancer cells behaved differently, exhibiting increased stiffness as well as stiffness variability when subjected to nocodazole. We show that disruption of microtubule dynamics affects cancer cell elasticity, suggesting therapeutic drugs targeting microtubules be monitored for significant elastic changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara
2011-01-01
While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots
Gauge and moduli hierarchy in a multiply warped braneworld scenario
Das, Ashmita; SenGupta, Soumitra
2013-01-01
Discovery of Higgs-like boson near the mass scale ∼126 Gev generates renewed interest to the gauge hierarchy problem in the standard model related to the stabilisation of the Higgs mass within Tev scale without any unnatural fine tuning. One of the successful attempts to resolve this problem has been the Randall–Sundrum warped geometry model. Subsequently this 5-dimensional model was extended to a doubly warped 6-dimensional (or higher) model which can offer a geometric explanation of the fermion mass hierarchy in the standard model of elementary particles (D. Choudhury and S. SenGupta, 2007 [1]). In an attempt to address the dark energy issue, we in this work extend such 6-dimensional warped braneworld model to include non-flat 3-branes at the orbifold fixed points such that a small but non-vanishing brane cosmological constant is induced in our observable brane. We show that the requirements of a Planck to Tev scale warping along with a vanishingly small but non-zero cosmological constant on the visible brane with non-hierarchical moduli, each with scale close to Planck length, lead to a scenario where the 3-branes can have energy scales either close to Tev or close to Planck scale. Such a scenario can address both the gauge hierarchy as well as fermion mass hierarchy problem in standard model without introducing hierarchical scales between the two moduli. Thus simultaneous resolutions to the gauge hierarchy problem, fermion mass hierarchy problem and non-hierarchical moduli problem are closely linked with the near flatness condition of our universe.
Moduli stabilization and uplifting with dynamically generated F-terms
Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe; Pokorski, Stefan
2007-01-01
We use the F-term dynamical supersymmetry breaking models with metastable vacua in order to uplift the vacuum energy in the KKLT moduli stabilization scenario. The main advantage compared to earlier proposals is the manifest supersymmetric treatment and the natural coexistence of a TeV gravitino mass with a zero cosmological constant. We argue that it is generically difficult to avoid anti de-Sitter supersymmetric minima, however the tunneling rate from the metastable vacuum with zero vacuum energy towards them can be very suppressed. We briefly comment on the properties of the induced soft terms in the observable sector
Moduli stabilization and uplifting with dynamically generated F-terms
Dudas, Emilian [CERN Theory Division, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Papineau, Chloe [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Univ. of Warsaw, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)
2007-02-15
We use the F-term dynamical supersymmetry breaking models with metastable vacua in order to uplift the vacuum energy in the KKLT moduli stabilization scenario. The main advantage compared to earlier proposals is the manifest supersymmetric treatment and the natural coexistence of a TeV gravitino mass with a zero cosmological constant. We argue that it is generically difficult to avoid anti de-Sitter supersymmetric minima, however the tunneling rate from the metastable vacuum with zero vacuum energy towards them can be very suppressed. We briefly comment on the properties of the induced soft terms in the observable sector.
Fixing All Moduli in a Simple F-Theory Compactification
Denef, F.
2005-01-01
We discuss a simple example of an F-theory compactification on a Calabi-Yau fourfold where background fluxes, together with nonperturbative effects from Euclidean D3 instantons and gauge dynamics on D7 branes, allow us to fix all closed and open string moduli. We explicitly check that the known higher order corrections to the potential, which we neglect in our leading approximation, only shift the results by a small amount. In our exploration of the model, we encounter interesting new phenomena, including examples of transitions where D7 branes absorb O3 planes, while changing topology to preserve the net D3 charge
Non-minimal gauge mediation and moduli stabilization
Jelinski, T.; Lalak, Z.; Pawelczyk, J.
2010-01-01
In this Letter we consider U(1) A -gauged Polonyi model with two spurions coupled to a twisted closed string modulus. This offers a consistent setup for metastable SUSY breakdown which allows for moduli stabilization and naturally leads to gauge or hybrid gauge/gravitational mediation mechanism. Due to the presence of the second spurion one can arrange for a solution of the μ and B μ problems in a version of modified Giudice-Masiero mechanism, which works both in the limit of pure gauge mediation and in the mixed regime of hybrid mediation.
Moduli/inflaton mixing with supersymmetry breaking field
Endo, M.; Takahashi, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Hamaguchi, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2006-05-15
A heavy scalar field such as moduli or an inflaton generally mixes with a field responsible for the supersymmetry breaking. We study the scalar decay into the standard model particles and their superpartners, gravitinos, and the supersymmetry breaking sector, particularly paying attention to decay modes that proceed via the mixing between the scalar and the supersymmetry breaking field. The impacts of the new decay processes on cosmological scenarios are also discussed; the modulus field generically produces too much gravitinos, and most of the inflation models tend to result in too high reheating temperature and/or gravitino overproduction. (Orig.)
Toher, Cormac; Oses, Corey; Plata, Jose J.; Hicks, David; Rose, Frisco; Levy, Ohad; de Jong, Maarten; Asta, Mark; Fornari, Marco; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Curtarolo, Stefano
2017-06-01
Thorough characterization of the thermomechanical properties of materials requires difficult and time-consuming experiments. This severely limits the availability of data and is one of the main obstacles for the development of effective accelerated materials design strategies. The rapid screening of new potential materials requires highly integrated, sophisticated, and robust computational approaches. We tackled the challenge by developing an automated, integrated workflow with robust error-correction within the AFLOW framework which combines the newly developed "Automatic Elasticity Library" with the previously implemented GIBBS method. The first extracts the mechanical properties from automatic self-consistent stress-strain calculations, while the latter employs those mechanical properties to evaluate the thermodynamics within the Debye model. This new thermoelastic workflow is benchmarked against a set of 74 experimentally characterized systems to pinpoint a robust computational methodology for the evaluation of bulk and shear moduli, Poisson ratios, Debye temperatures, Grüneisen parameters, and thermal conductivities of a wide variety of materials. The effect of different choices of equations of state and exchange-correlation functionals is examined and the optimum combination of properties for the Leibfried-Schlömann prediction of thermal conductivity is identified, leading to improved agreement with experimental results than the GIBBS-only approach. The framework has been applied to the AFLOW.org data repositories to compute the thermoelastic properties of over 3500 unique materials. The results are now available online by using an expanded version of the REST-API described in the Appendix.
Elastic-plastic analysis of the toroidal field coil inner leg of the compact ignition tokamak
Horie, T.
1987-07-01
Elastic-plastic analyses were made for the inner leg of the Compact Ignition Tokamak toroidal field (TF) coil, which is made of copper-Inconel composite material. From the result of the elastic-plastic analysis, the effective Young's moduli of the inner leg were determined by the analytical equations. These Young's moduli are useful for the three-dimensional, elastic, overall TF coil analysis. Comparison among the results of the baseline design (R = 1.324 m), the bucked pressless design, the 1.527-m major radius design, and the 1.6-m major radius design was also made, based on the elastic-plastic TF coil inner leg analyses
Elastic properties of LaSnxNi5-x compounds
Yeheskel, O.; Nattrass, C.E.; Leisure, R.G.; Jacob, I.; Bowman, R.C. Jr.
2004-01-01
Ultrasonic methods were used to measure the room-temperature elastic moduli of polycrystalline LaSn x Ni 5-x compounds for 0≤x≤0.5. These materials are of great importance for their hydrogen storage properties. The samples, prepared by a hot isostatic pressing method, had near-theoretical densities with calculated porosities ranging from 0 to 1.5%. The porosity-corrected moduli decreased with increasing x. Poisson's ratio was approximately constant at 0.314 for all the compounds. The Debye temperature, calculated from the RT polycrystalline moduli, decreased from 359 to 344 K as x increased from 0 to 0.5. The results were used to calculate the elastic interaction energy of an interstitial hydrogen atom with the strain fields of all the other interstitial hydrogen. This energy was in turn used to calculate the critical temperature below which phase separation occurs in LaM x Ni 5-x H y compounds (M=Sn or Al). It was found that the critical temperature decreases with increasing x, confirming in a more general way a conclusion drawn for a specific case from earlier thermodynamic measurements. It is suggested that the lowering of the critical temperature plays a role in limiting the width of the plateaus in pressure-composition isotherms for the two-phase regions of these compounds. This suggestion implies a relation between the elastic properties and the maximum hydrogen capacity
Falling balls and simple shearing strain
Brun, J L; Pacheco, A F
2006-01-01
The problem of particles falling under gravity allows us to relate Hamiltonian mechanics to such different subjects as elasticity and fluid mechanics. It is with this in mind that mechanics gives us the opportunity of introducing, in a rather simple and unusual form, some concepts such as vorticity, the incompressibility condition or simple shear strain to physics students at the undergraduate level
The output least-squares approach to estimating Lamé moduli
Gockenbach, Mark S.
2007-12-01
The Lamé moduli of a heterogeneous, isotropic, planar membrane can be estimated by observing the displacement of the membrane under a known edge traction, and choosing estimates of the moduli that best predict the observed displacement under a finite-element simulation. This algorithm converges to the exact moduli given pointwise measurements of the displacement on an increasingly fine mesh. The error estimates that prove this convergence also show the instability of the inverse problem.
Betekhtin, V. I.; Kolobov, Yu. R.; Golosova, O. A.; Dvořák, Jiří; Sklenička, Václav; Kardashev, B. K.; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Narykova, M. V.; Ivanov, M. B.
2016-01-01
Roč. 45, 1-2 (2016), s. 42-51 ISSN 1606-5131 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Creep * Elastic moduli * Plastic flow * Beta-type titanium alloys * Biomedical applications Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2016
Dimitrakopoulos, P; Kuriakose, S
2015-04-14
Determination of the elastic properties of the membrane of artificial capsules is essential for the better design of the various devices that are utilized in their engineering and biomedical applications. However this task is complicated owing to the combined effects of the shear and area-dilatation moduli on the capsule deformation. Based on computational investigation, we propose a new methodology to determine a membrane's shear modulus, independent of its area-dilatation modulus, by flowing strain-hardening capsules in a converging micro-capillary of comparable size under Stokes flow conditions, and comparing the experimental measurements of the capsule elongation overshooting with computational data. The capsule prestress, if any, can also be determined with the same methodology. The elongation overshooting is practically independent of the viscosity ratio for low and moderate viscosity ratios, and thus a wide range of capsule fluids can be employed. Our proposed experimental device can be readily produced via glass fabrication while owing to the continuous flow in the micro-capillary, the characterization of a large number of artificial capsules is possible.
Leung, Wilson K.C.; Chu, KL
2017-01-01
Background Mechanical loading is crucial for muscle and tendon tissue remodeling. Eccentric heel drop exercise has been proven to be effective in the management of Achilles tendinopathy, yet its induced change in the mechanical property (i.e., stiffness) of the Achilles tendon (AT), medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles (MG and LG) was unknown. Given that shear wave elastography has emerged as a powerful tool in assessing soft tissue stiffness with promising intra- and inter-operator reliability, the objective of this study was hence to characterize the stiffness of the AT, MG and LG in response to an acute bout of eccentric heel drop exercise. Methods Forty-five healthy young adults (36 males and nine females) performed 10 sets of 15-repetition heel drop exercise on their dominant leg with fully-extended knee, during which the AT and gastrocnemius muscles, but not soleus, were highly stretched. Before and immediately after the heel drop exercise, elastic moduli of the AT, MG and LG were measured by shear wave elastography. Results After the heel drop exercise, the stiffness of AT increased significantly by 41.8 + 33.5% (P eccentric heel drop exercise. The findings from this pilot study shed some light on how and to what extent the AT and gastrocnemius muscles mechanically responds to an isolated set of heel drop exercise. Taken together, appropriate eccentric load might potentially benefit mechanical adaptations of the AT and gastrocnemius muscles in the rehabilitation of patients with Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:28740756
Mookherjee, Mainak; Tsuchiya, Jun; Hariharan, Anant
2016-02-01
We examined the equation of state and high-pressure elasticity of the hydrous aluminosilicate mineral topaz-OH (Al2SiO4(OH)2) using first principles simulation. Topaz-OH is a hydrous phase in the Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (ASH) ternary system, which is relevant for the mineral phase relations in the hydrated sedimentary layer of subducting slabs. Based on recent neutron diffraction experiments, it is known that the protons in the topaz-OH exhibit positional disorder with half occupancy over two distinct crystallographic sites. In order to adequately depict the proton environment in the topaz-OH, we examined five crystal structure models with distinct configuration for the protons in topaz-OH. Upon full geometry optimization we find two distinct space group, an orthorhombic Pbnm and a monoclinic P21/c for topaz-OH. The topaz-OH with the monoclinic P21/c space group has a lower energy compared to the orthorhombic Pbmn space group symmetry. The pressure-volume results for the monoclinic topaz-OH is well represented by a third order Birch-Murnaghan formulation, with V0mon = 348.63 (±0.04) Å3, K0mon = 164.7 (±0.04) GPa, and K0mon = 4.24 (±0.05). The pressure-volume results for the orthorhombic topaz-OH is well represented by a third order Birch-Murnaghan formulation, with V0orth = 352.47 (±0.04) Å3, K0orth = 166.4 (±0.06) GPa, and K0orth = 4.03 (±0.04). While the bulk moduli are very similar for both the monoclinic and orthorhombic topaz-OH, the shear elastic constants and the shear moduli are very sensitive to the position of the proton, orientation of the O-H dipole, and the space group symmetry. The S-wave anisotropy for the orthorhombic and monoclinic topaz-OH are also quite distinct. In the hydrated sedimentary layer of subducting slabs, transformation of a mineral assemblage consisting of coesite (SiO2) and diaspore (AlOOH) to topaz-OH (Al2SiO4(OH)2) is likely to be accompanied by an increase in density, compressional velocity, and shear wave velocity. However
Elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites
Chen, J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Davis, L. C.
1995-05-01
We study the elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites with perfect bonding between fibers and matrix, and also with sliding boundary conditions. In the dilute region, there exists an exact analytical solution. Around the rigidity threshold we find the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio by decomposing the deformation into a compression mode and a rotation mode. For perfect bonding, both modes are important, whereas only the compression mode is operative for sliding boundary conditions. We employ the digital-image-based method and a finite element analysis to perform computer simulations which confirm our analytical predictions.
On a new compactification of the moduli of vector bundles on a surface
Timofeeva, N V
2008-01-01
A new compactification of the moduli scheme of Gieseker-stable vector bundles with prescribed Hilbert polynomial on a smooth projective polarized surface (S,H) defined over a field k=k-bar of characteristic zero is constructed. The families of locally free sheaves on the surface S are completed by locally free sheaves on surfaces that are certain modifications of S. The new moduli space has a birational morphism onto the Gieseker-Maruyama moduli space. The case when the Gieseker-Maruyama space is a fine moduli space is considered. Bibliography: 12 titles.
On a new compactification of moduli of vector bundles on a surface. III: Functorial approach
Timofeeva, Nadezhda V
2011-01-01
A new compactification for the scheme of moduli for Gieseker-stable vector bundles with prescribed Hilbert polynomial on the smooth projective polarized surface (S,L) is constructed. We work over the field k=k-bar of characteristic zero. Families of locally free sheaves on the surface S are completed with locally free sheaves on schemes which are modifications of S. The Gieseker-Maruyama moduli space has a birational morphism onto the new moduli space. We propose the functor for families of pairs 'polarized scheme-vector bundle' with moduli space of such type. Bibliography: 16 titles.
Laboratory ultrasonic pulse velocity logging for determination of elastic properties from rock core
Blacklock, Natalie Erin
During the development of deep underground excavations spalling and rockbursting have been recognized as significant mechanisms of violent brittle failure. In order to predict whether violent brittle failure will occur, it is important to identify the location of stiffness transitions that are associated with geologic structure. One approach to identify the effect of geologic structures is to apply borehole geophysical tools ahead of the tunnel advance. Stiffness transitions can be identified using mechanical property analysis surveys that combine acoustic velocity and density data to calculate acoustic estimates of elastic moduli. However, logistical concerns arise since the approach must be conducted at the advancing tunnel face. As a result, borehole mechanical property analyses are rarely used. Within this context, laboratory ultrasonic pulse velocity testing has been proposed as a potential alternative to borehole mechanical property analysis since moving the analysis to the laboratory would remove logistical constraints and improve safety for the evaluators. In addition to the traditional method of conducting velocity testing along the core axis, two new methodologies for point-focused testing were developed across the core diameter, and indirectly along intact lengths of drill core. The indirect test procedure was implemented in a continuous ultrasonic velocity test program along 573m of drill core to identify key geologic structures that generated transitions in ultrasonic elastic moduli. The test program was successful at identifying the location of geologic contacts, igneous intrusions, faults and shear structures. Ultrasonic values of Young's modulus and bulk modulus were determined at locations of significant velocity transitions to examine the potential for energy storage and energy release. Comparison of results from different ultrasonic velocity test configurations determined that the indirect test configuration provided underestimates for values of
Levesque, Daniel; Moreau, Andre; Dubois, Marc; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre; Bussiere, Jean; Lord, Martin; Padioleau, Christian
2000-01-01
Apparatus and method for detecting shear resonances includes structure and steps for applying a radiation pulse from a pulsed source of radiation to an object to generate elastic waves therein, optically detecting the elastic waves generated in the object, and analyzing the elastic waves optically detected in the object. These shear resonances, alone or in combination with other information, may be used in the present invention to improve thickness measurement accuracy and to determine geometrical, microstructural, and physical properties of the object. At least one shear resonance in the object is detected with the elastic waves optically detected in the object. Preferably, laser-ultrasound spectroscopy is utilized to detect the shear resonances.
Modeling Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Springback
Xia, Z. Cedric
2005-01-01
One of the principal foundations of mathematical theory of conventional plasticity for rate-independent metals is that there exists a well-defined yield surface in stress space for any material point under deformation. A material point can undergo further plastic deformation if the applied stresses are beyond current yield surface which is generally referred as 'plastic loading'. On the other hand, if the applied stress state falls within or on the yield surface, the metal will deform elastically only and is said to be undergoing 'elastic unloading'. Although it has been always recognized throughout the history of development of plasticity theory that there is indeed inelastic deformation accompanying elastic unloading, which leads to metal's hysteresis behavior, its effects were thought to be negligible and were largely ignored in the mathematical treatment.Recently there have been renewed interests in the study of unloading behavior of sheet metals upon large plastic deformation and its implications on springback prediction. Springback is essentially an elastic recovery process of a formed sheet metal blank when it is released from the forming dies. Its magnitude depends on the stress states and compliances of the deformed sheet metal if no further plastic loading occurs during the relaxation process. Therefore the accurate determination of material compliances during springback and its effective incorporation into simulation software are important aspects for springback calculation. Some of the studies suggest that the unloading curve might deviate from linearity, and suggestions were made that a reduced elastic modulus be used for springback simulation.The aim of this study is NOT to take a position on the debate of whether elastic moduli are changed during sheet metal forming process. Instead we propose an approach of modeling observed psuedoelastic behavior within the context of mathematical theory of plasticity, where elastic moduli are treated to be
Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2017-01-01
The elastic bulk modulus of a sandstone is affected by the fluid saturation as compression induces a pressure in the fluid thus increasing the bulk modulus of the sandstone as a whole. Assuming a uniform induced pressure and no interaction between the saturating fluid and the solid rock the fluid...... contribution to the elastic bulk modulus is quantified by Gassmann's equations. Experimental measurements of the fluid contribution to the elastic moduli are, however often much larger than predicted within the assumptions of Gassmann. Clay-rich low-mobility sandstones are especially prone to having elastic...... moduli highly sensitive to the fluid saturation. The presence of clay in a sandstone can affect two of the underlying assumptions to Gassmann's equations: decreased fluid mobility can cause pressure gradients and fluid-clay interactions are common. The elastic and petrophysical properties of clay...
Leader, Elliot
1991-01-01
With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees
Wu, Lei; Yang, De-Bin; Liu, Jun-Xiu; Hu, Bo; Xie, Hong-Sen; Li, Fang-Fei; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wen-Liang; Gao, Chun-Xiao
2017-06-01
Hydrous basalt glasses with water contents of 0-6.82% were synthesized using a multi-anvil press at 1.0-2.0 GPa and 1200-1400 °C. The starting materials were natural Mesozoic basalts from the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Their sound velocities and elastic properties were measured by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The longitudinal ( V P) and shear ( V S) wave velocities decreased with increasing water content. Increasing the synthesis pressure resulted in the glass becoming denser, and finally led to an increase in V P. As the degree of depolymerization increased, the V P, V S, and shear and bulk moduli of the hydrous basalt glasses decreased, whereas the adiabatic compressibility increased. The partial molar volumes of water (ν) under ambient conditions were independent of composition, having values of 11.6 ± 0.8, 10.9 ± 0.6 and 11.5 ± 0.5 cm3/mol for the FX (Feixian), FW (Fuxin), and SHT (Sihetun) basalt glasses, respectively. However, the {{V}_{{{{H}}_{{2}}}{O}}} values measured at elevated temperatures and pressures are increasing with increasing temperature or decreasing pressure. The contrasting densities of these hydrous basalt melts with those previously reported for mid-ocean ridge basalt and preliminary reference Earth model data indicate that hydrous basalt melts may not maintain gravitational stability at the base of the upper mantle.
Brown, Judith Alice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steck, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Judith Alice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-08-01
Previous numerical studies of Sylgard filled with glass microballoons (GMB) have relied on various microstructure idealizations to achieve a large range of volume fractions with high mesh quality. This study investigates how different microstructure idealizations and constraints affect the apparent homogenized elastic constants in the virgin state of the material, in which all GMBs are intact and perfectly bonded to the Sylgard matrix, and in the fully damaged state of the material in which all GMBs are destroyed. In the latter state, the material behaves as an elastomeric foam. Four microstructure idealizations are considered relating to how GMBs are packed into a representative volume element (RVE): (1) no boundary penetration nor GMB-GMB overlap, (2) GMB-GMB overlap, (3) boundary penetration, and (4) boundary penetration and GMB-GMB overlap. First order computational homogenization with kinematically uniform displacement boundary conditions (KUBCs) was employed to determine the homogenized (apparent) bulk and shear moduli for the four microstructure idealizations in the intact and fully broken GMB material states. It was found that boundary penetration has a significant effect on the shear modulus for microstructures with intact GMBs, but that neither boundary penetration nor GMB overlap have a significant effect on homogenized properties for microstructures with fully broken GMBs. The primary conclusion of the study is that future investigations into Sylgard/GMB micromechanics should either force GMBs to stay within the RVE fully and/or use periodic BCs (PBCs) to eliminate the boundary penetration issues. The implementation of PBCs requires the improvement of existing tools in Sandia’s Sierra/SM code.
Topographical variation of the elastic properties of articular cartilage in the canine knee.
Jurvelin, J S; Arokoski, J P; Hunziker, E B; Helminen, H J
2000-06-01
Equilibrium response of articular cartilage to indentation loading is controlled by the thickness (h) and elastic properties (shear modulus, mu, and Poisson's ratio, nu) of the tissue. In this study, we characterized topographical variation of Poisson's ratio of the articular cartilage in the canine knee joint (N=6). Poisson's ratio was measured using a microscopic technique. In this technique, the shape change of the cartilage disk was visualized while the cartilage was immersed in physiological solution and compressed in unconfined geometry. After a constant 5% axial strain, the lateral strain was measured during stress relaxation. At equilibrium, the lateral-to-axial strain ratio indicates the Poisson's ratio of the tissue. Indentation (equilibrium) data from our prior study (Arokoski et al., 1994. International Journal of Sports Medicine 15, 254-260) was re-analyzed using the Poisson's ratio results at the test site to derive values for shear and aggregate moduli. The lowest Poisson's ratio (0.070+/-0.016) located at the patellar surface of femur (FPI) and the highest (0.236+/-0.026) at the medial tibial plateau (TMI). The stiffest cartilage was found at the patellar groove of femur (micro=0.964+/-0.189MPa, H(a)=2.084+/-0. 409MPa) and the softest at the tibial plateaus (micro=0.385+/-0. 062MPa, H(a)=1.113+/-0.141MPa). Comparison of the mechanical results and the biochemical composition of the tissue (Jurvelin et al., 1988. Engineering in Medicine 17, 157-162) at the matched sites of the canine knee joint indicated a negative correlation between the Poisson's ratio and collagen-to-PG content ratio. This is in harmony with our previous findings which suggested that, in unconfined compression, the degree of lateral expansion in different tissue zones is related to collagen-to-PG ratio of the zone.
Static friction in elastic adhesion contacts in MEMS
Tas, Niels Roelof; Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt
2003-01-01
Static friction in a shearing mode can be expressed as the product of the shear strength of the interface and the real contact area. The influence of roughness on friction in elastic adhesion contact is analyzed. The effect of adhesion is included using Maugis' expansion of the Greenwood and
Static friction in elastic adhesive MEMS contacts, models and experiment
Tas, Niels Roelof; Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt
2000-01-01
Static friction in shearing mode can be expressed as the product of the shear strength of the interface and the real contact area. The influence of roughness on friction in elastic adhesive contact is analyzed. Special attention is paid to low loading conditions, in which the number of contact
Electronic, magnetic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa
Ghosh, Sukriti [Department of Physics, Government Kamla Raja Girls Autonomous Post Graduate College, Gwalior 474001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, Madhya Pradesh (India); Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, Madhya Pradesh (India)
2016-08-01
The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method in the stable Fm-3m phase has been implemented to investigate the structural, elastic, magnetic and electronic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. The optimized equilibrium lattice parameter in stable phase is found to be 5.9495 Å. By the spin resolved density of states calculations, we have shown that the exchange splitting due to Mn atom is the main reason of ferromagnetic behavior of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. The absence of energy gap in both the spin channels predicts that the material is metallic. The total and partial density of states, elastic constants, Shear, Bulk and Young’s moduli, Zener isotropy factor, Cauchy pressure, Pugh's ductility, Kleinman parameter and Poisson's ratio are reported for the first time for the alloy. Cauchy's pressure and Pugh's index of ductility label Cu{sub 2}MnGa as ductile. Cu{sub 2}MnGa is found to be ferromagnetic and anisotropic in nature. The quasi-harmonic approximations have been employed to study the pressure and temperature dependent thermodynamic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. - Highlights: • It is the first attempt to predict a variety of crystal properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. • Cu{sub 2}MnGa shows magnetism and hence can prove to be important in modern technology. • Cu{sub 2}MnGa is ductile and hence can attract attention of scientists and technologists.
Takahashi, T.
2017-12-01
The static Young's modulus (deformability) of a rock is indispensable for designing and constructing tunnels, dams and underground caverns in civil engineering. Static Young's modulus which is an elastic modulus at large strain level is usually obtained with the laboratory tests of rock cores sampled in boreholes drilled in a rock mass. A deformability model of the entire rock mass is then built by extrapolating the measurements based on a rock mass classification obtained in geological site characterization. However, model-building using data obtained from a limited number of boreholes in the rock mass, especially a complex rock mass, may cause problems in the accuracy and reliability of the model. On the other hand, dynamic Young's modulus which is the modulus at small strain level can be obtained from seismic velocity. If dynamic Young's modulus can be rationally converted to static one, a seismic velocity model by the seismic method can be effectively used to build a deformability model of the rock mass. In this study, we have, therefore, developed a rock physics model (Mavko et al., 2009) to estimate static Young's modulus from dynamic one for sedimentary rocks. The rock physics model has been generally applied to seismic properties at small strain level. In the proposed model, however, the sandy shale model, one of rock physics models, is extended for modeling the static Young's modulus at large strain level by incorporating the mixture of frictional and frictionless grain contacts into the Hertz-Mindlin model. The proposed model is verified through its application to the dynamic Young's moduli derived from well log velocities and static Young's moduli measured in the tri-axial compression tests of rock cores sampled in the same borehole as the logs were acquired. This application proves that the proposed rock physics model can be possibly used to estimate static Young's modulus (deformability) which is required in many types of civil engineering applications
Quantitative shear wave ultrasound elastography: initial experience in solid breast masses
Evans, Andrew; Whelehan, Patsy; Thomson, Kim; McLean, Denis; Brauer, Katrin; Purdie, Colin; Jordan, Lee; Baker, Lee; Thompson, Alastair
2010-01-01
Introduction Shear wave elastography is a new method of obtaining quantitative tissue elasticity data during breast ultrasound examinations. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (2) to correlate the elasticity values of a series of solid breast masses with histological findings and (3) to compare shear wave elastography with greyscale ultrasound for benign/malignant classification. Methods Using the Aixplorer® ultrasound system (SuperSoni...
Elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber reinforced composites - General features
Datta, Subhendu; Ledbetter, Hassel; Lei, Ming
The salient features of the elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber-reinforced composites are examined by considering the complete set of elastic constants of composites comprising isotropic uniaxial fibers in an isotropic matrix. Such materials exhibit transverse-isotropic symmetry and five independent elastic constants in Voigt notation: C(11), C(33), C(44), C(66), and C(13). These C(ij) constants are calculated over the entire fiber-volume-fraction range 0.0-1.0, using a scattered-plane-wave ensemple-average model. Some practical elastic constants such as the principal Young moduli and the principal Poisson ratios are considered, and the behavior of these constants is discussed. Also presented are the results for the four principal sound velocities used to study uniaxial-fiber-reinforced composites: v(11), v(33), v(12), and v(13).
Elastic response of thermal spray deposits under indentation tests
Leigh, S.H.; Lin, C.K.; Berndt, C.C.
1997-01-01
The elastic response behavior of thermal spray deposits at Knoop indentations has been investigated using indentation techniques. The ration of hardness to elastic modulus, which is an important prerequisite for the evaluation of indentation fracture toughness, is determined by measuring the elastic recovery of the in-surface dimensions of Knoop indentations. The elastic moduli of thermal spray deposits are in the range of 12%--78% of the comparable bulk materials and reveal the anisotropic behavior of thermal spray deposits. A variety of thermal spray deposits has been examined, including Al 2 O 3 , yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ), and NiAl. Statistical tools have been used to evaluate the error estimates of the data
Elastic softness of hybrid lead halide perovskites
Ferreira, A. C.; Lé toublon, A.; Paofai, S.; Raymond, S.; Ecolivet, C.; Rufflé , B.; Cordier, S.; Katan, C.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Zhumekenov, A. A.; Bakr, Osman; Even, J.; Bourges, Ph.
2018-01-01
scattering, low frequency acoustic phonons in four different hybrid perovskite single crystals: MAPbBr3, FAPbBr3, MAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium). We report a complete set of elastic constants caracterized by a very soft shear
A Linear Theory for Pretwisted Elastic Beams
Krenk, Steen
1983-01-01
contains a general system of differential equations and gives explicit solutions for homogenous extension, torsion, and bending. The theory accounts explicitly for the shear center, the elastic center, and the axis of pretwist. The resulting torsion-extension coupling is in agreement with a recent...
Exact moduli space metrics for hyperbolic vortex polygons
Krusch, S.; Speight, J. M.
2010-01-01
Exact metrics on some totally geodesic submanifolds of the moduli space of static hyperbolic N-vortices are derived. These submanifolds, denoted as Σ n,m , are spaces of C n -invariant vortex configurations with n single vortices at the vertices of a regular polygon and m=N-n coincident vortices at the polygon's center. The geometric properties of Σ n,m are investigated, and it is found that Σ n,n-1 is isometric to the hyperbolic plane of curvature -(3πn) -1 . The geodesic flow on Σ n,m and a geometrically natural variant of geodesic flow recently proposed by Collie and Tong ['The dynamics of Chern-Simons vortices', Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 78, 065013 (2008);e-print arXiv:hep-th/0805.0602] are analyzed in detail.
Dynamics of moduli and gaugino condensates in an expanding universe
Papineau, C.; Ramos-Sanchez, S.; Postma, M.
2009-08-01
We study dynamical moduli stabilization driven by gaugino condensation in supergravity. In the presence of background radiation, there exists a region of initial conditions leading to successful stabilization. We point out that most of the allowed region corresponds to initial Hubble rate H close to the scale of condensation Λ, which is the natural cutoff of the effective theory. We first show that including the condensate dynamics sets a strong bound on the initial conditions. We then find that (complete) decoupling of the condensate happens at H about two orders of magnitude below Λ. This bound implies that in the usual scenario with the condensate integrated out, only the vicinity of the minimum leads to stabilization. Finally, we discuss the effects of thermal corrections. (orig.)
Yukawa unification in moduli-dominant SUSY breaking
Khalil, S.; Tatsuo Kobayashi
1997-07-01
We study Yukawa in string models with moduli-dominant SUSY breaking. This type of SUSY breaking in general leads to non-universal soft masses, i.e. soft scalar masses and gaugino masses. Such non-universality is important for phenomenological aspects of Yukawa unification, i.e., successful electroweak breaking, SUSY corrections to the bottom mass and the branching ratio of b → sγ. We show three regions in the whole parameter space which lead to successful electroweak breaking and allow small SUSY corrections to the bottom mass. For these three regions we investigated the b → sγ decay and mass spectra. (author). 26 refs, 6 figs
Instanton transition in thermal and moduli deformed de Sitter cosmology
Kounnas, Costas; Partouche, Herve
2008-01-01
We consider the de Sitter cosmology deformed by the presence of a thermal bath of radiation and/or time-dependent moduli fields. Depending on the parameters, either a first or second-order phase transition can occur. In the first case, an instanton allows a double analytic continuation. It induces a probability to enter the inflationary evolution by tunnel effect from another cosmological solution. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. A temperature duality exchanges the two cosmological branches. In the limit where the pure de Sitter universe is recovered, the tunnel effect reduces to a 'creation from nothing', due to the vanishing of the big bang branch. However, the latter may be viable in some range of the deformation parameter. In the second case, there is a smooth evolution from a big bang to the inflationary phase
Guechi, A., E-mail: ab_guechi@yahoo.fr [Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Setif-1 University, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Laboratory of Optoelectronics and Components, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Setif-1 University, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Merabet, A. [Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Setif-1 University, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Laboratory of Physics and Mechanics of Metallic Materials, Setif-1 University, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Chegaar, M. [Laboratory of Optoelectronics and Components, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Setif-1 University, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Bouhemadou, A. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Setif-1 University, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Guechi, N. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Setif-1 University, 19000 Setif (Algeria)
2015-02-25
Highlights: • KAsSn is interesting in the materials community due to its complex structure and narrow gap. • Physical properties of KAsSn have not taken much attention in previous studies. • The KAsSn structure is shown to be mechanically stable. • KAsSn is predicted to be brittleness and characterized by a weak elastic anisotropy. • Its high absorption in the U.V. energy range shows its use in the optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: In this work, a first-principles study of ternary Zintl phase KAsSn compound using density-functional theory (DFT) method within the generalized gradient approximation developed by Wu–Cohen (GGA-Wc) has been performed. Based on the optimized structural parameter, the electronic structure, elastic and optical properties have been investigated. The calculated lattice constants agree reasonably with the previous results. The effect of high pressure on the structural parameters has been shown. The elastic constants were calculated and satisfy the stability conditions for hexagonal crystal. These indicate that this compound is stable in the studied pressure regime. The single crystal elastic constants (C{sub ij}) and related properties are calculated using the static finite strain technique, moreover the polycrystalline elastic moduli such as bulk modulus, shear modulus, micro-hardness parameter H{sub ν}, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio were estimated using Voigt, Reuss and Hill’s (VRH) approximations. The elastic anisotropy of the KAsSn was also analyzed. On another hand the Debye temperature was obtained from the average sound velocity. Electronic properties have been studied throughout the calculation of band structure, density of states and charge densities. It is shown that this crystal belongs to the semiconductors with a pseudo gap of about 0.34 eV. Furthermore, in order to clarify the optical transitions of this compound, linear optical functions including the complex dielectric function, refractive index
Vâgberg, Daniel; Olsson, Peter; Teitel, S.
2017-05-01
We report on numerical simulations of simple models of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, massive disks in two dimensions, as a function of packing fraction ϕ , inelasticity of collisions as measured by a parameter Q , and applied uniform shear strain rate γ ˙. Our particles have contact interactions consisting of normally directed elastic repulsion and viscous dissipation, as well as tangentially directed viscous dissipation, but no interparticle Coulombic friction. Mapping the phase diagram in the (ϕ ,Q ) plane for small γ ˙, we find a sharp first-order rheological phase transition from a region with Bagnoldian rheology to a region with Newtonian rheology, and show that the system is always Newtonian at jamming. We consider the rotational motion of particles and demonstrate the crucial importance that the coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom has on the phase structure at small Q (strongly inelastic collisions). At small Q , we show that, upon increasing γ ˙, the sharp Bagnoldian-to-Newtonian transition becomes a coexistence region of finite width in the (ϕ ,γ ˙) plane, with coexisting Bagnoldian and Newtonian shear bands. Crossing this coexistence region by increasing γ ˙ at fixed ϕ , we find that discontinuous shear thickening can result if γ ˙ is varied too rapidly for the system to relax to the shear-banded steady state corresponding to the instantaneous value of γ ˙.
Moduli Spaces for Linear Differential Equations and the Painlevé Equations
Put, Marius van der; Saito, Masa-Hiko
2009-01-01
A systematic construction of isomonodromic families of connections of rank two on the Riemarm sphere is obtained by considering the analytic Riemann-Hilbert map RH : M -> R, where M is a moduli space of connections and 72, the monodromy space, is a moduli space for analytic data (i.e., ordinary
Evaluating interfacial shear stresses in composite hollo
Aiham Adawi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Analytical evaluation of the interfacial shear stresses for composite hollowcore slabs with concrete topping is rare in the literature. Adawi et al. (2014 estimated the interfacial shear stiffness coefficient (ks that governs the behavior of the interface between hollowcore slabs and the concrete topping using push-off tests. This parameter is utilized in this paper to provide closed form solutions for the differential equations governing the behavior of simply supported composite hollowcore slabs. An analytical solution based on the deformation compatibility of the composite section and elastic beam theory, is developed to evaluate the shear stresses along the interface. Linear finite element modeling of the full-scale tests presented in Adawi et al. (2015 is also conducted to validate the developed analytical solution. The proposed analytical solution was found to be adequate in estimating the magnitude of horizontal shear stress in the studied composite hollowcore slabs.
Ultrasonic measurement of elastic constants at temperatures from 20 to 11000C
Moyer, M.W.; Hammond, J.P.
1976-09-01
Measurements of the elastic moduli at temperatures from 20 to 1100 0 C of a number of materials of interest in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor and the High Temperature Gas Reactor were accomplished using acoustic techniques. A two-step process was required to complete the measurements. First, the acoustic velocities were measured accurately on bulk samples at room temperature, then a wire sample was used to make elevated-temperature measurements. A computer was used to calculate the moduli and plot the data. A detailed summary has been made of the sources of error and a calculation of the precision of the measurements is given
Micromechanics-based determination of effective elastic properties of polymer bonded explosives
Banerjee, Biswajit; Adams, D.O.
2003-01-01
Polymer bonded explosives are particulate composites containing a high volume fraction of stiff elastic explosive particles in a compliant viscoelastic binder. Since the volume fraction of particles can be greater than 0.9 and the modulus contrast greater than 20 000, rigorous bounds on the elastic moduli of the composite are an order of magnitude different from experimentally determined values. Analytical solutions are also observed to provide inaccurate estimates of effective elastic properties. Direct finite element approximations of effective properties require large computational resources because of the complexity of the microstructure of these composites. An alternative approach, the recursive cells method (RCM) is also explored in this work. Results show that the degree of discretization and the microstructures used in finite element models of PBXs can significantly affect the estimated Young's moduli
Joyce, Duncan; Parnell, William J; Assier, Raphaël C; Abrahams, I David
2017-05-01
In Parnell & Abrahams (2008 Proc. R. Soc. A 464 , 1461-1482. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2007.0254)), a homogenization scheme was developed that gave rise to explicit forms for the effective antiplane shear moduli of a periodic unidirectional fibre-reinforced medium where fibres have non-circular cross section. The explicit expressions are rational functions in the volume fraction. In that scheme, a (non-dilute) approximation was invoked to determine leading-order expressions. Agreement with existing methods was shown to be good except at very high volume fractions. Here, the theory is extended in order to determine higher-order terms in the expansion. Explicit expressions for effective properties can be derived for fibres with non-circular cross section, without recourse to numerical methods. Terms appearing in the expressions are identified as being associated with the lattice geometry of the periodic fibre distribution, fibre cross-sectional shape and host/fibre material properties. Results are derived in the context of antiplane elasticity but the analogy with the potential problem illustrates the broad applicability of the method to, e.g. thermal, electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The efficacy of the scheme is illustrated by comparison with the well-established method of asymptotic homogenization where for fibres of general cross section, the associated cell problem must be solved by some computational scheme.
Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.
2001-05-01
This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.
Elastic constants of a Laves phase compound: C15 NbCr{sub 2}
Ormeci, A. [Koc Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chu, F.; Wills, J.M.; Chen, S.P.; Albers, R.C.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1997-04-01
The single-crystal elastic constants of C15 NbCr{sub 2} have been computed by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. From these single-crystal elastic constants the isotropic elastic moduli are calculated using the Voigt and Reuss averages. The calculated values are in fair agreement with the experimental values. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to Poisson`s ratio and the direction dependence of Young`s modulus.
Frequency dependence of complex moduli of brain tissue using a fractional Zener model
Kohandel, M; Sivaloganathan, S; Tenti, G; Darvish, K
2005-01-01
Brain tissue exhibits viscoelastic behaviour. If loading times are substantially short, static tests are not sufficient to determine the complete viscoelastic behaviour of the material, and dynamic test methods are more appropriate. The concept of complex modulus of elasticity is a powerful tool for characterizing the frequency domain behaviour of viscoelastic materials. On the other hand, it is well known that classical viscoelastic models can be generalized by means of fractional calculus to describe more complex viscoelastic behaviour of materials. In this paper, the fractional Zener model is investigated in order to describe the dynamic behaviour of brain tissue. The model is fitted to experimental data of oscillatory shear tests of bovine brain tissue to verify its behaviour and to obtain the material parameters
The Infinitesimal Moduli Space of Heterotic G 2 Systems
de la Ossa, Xenia; Larfors, Magdalena; Svanes, Eirik E.
2018-06-01
Heterotic string compactifications on integrable G 2 structure manifolds Y with instanton bundles {(V,A), (TY,\\tilde{θ})} yield supersymmetric three-dimensional vacua that are of interest in physics. In this paper, we define a covariant exterior derivative D and show that it is equivalent to a heterotic G 2 system encoding the geometry of the heterotic string compactifications. This operator D acts on a bundle Q}=T^*Y \\oplus End(V) \\oplus End(TY)} and satisfies a nilpotency condition \\check{{D^2=0} , for an appropriate projection of D. Furthermore, we determine the infinitesimal moduli space of these systems and show that it corresponds to the finite-dimensional cohomology group H^1_{D}(Q). We comment on the similarities and differences of our result with Atiyah's well-known analysis of deformations of holomorphic vector bundles over complex manifolds. Our analysis leads to results that are of relevance to all orders in the {α'} expansion.
Quantum triangulations. Moduli spaces, strings, and quantum computing
Carfora, Mauro; Marzouli, Annalisa [Univ. degli Studi di Pavia (Italy). Dipt. Fisica Nucleare e Teorica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy)
2012-07-01
Research on polyhedral manifolds often points to unexpected connections between very distinct aspects of Mathematics and Physics. In particular triangulated manifolds play quite a distinguished role in such settings as Riemann moduli space theory, strings and quantum gravity, topological quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and critical phenomena. Not only do they provide a natural discrete analogue to the smooth manifolds on which physical theories are typically formulated, but their appearance is rather often a consequence of an underlying structure which naturally calls into play non-trivial aspects of representation theory, of complex analysis and topology in a way which makes manifest the basic geometric structures of the physical interactions involved. Yet, in most of the existing literature, triangulated manifolds are still merely viewed as a convenient discretization of a given physical theory to make it more amenable for numerical treatment. The motivation for these lectures notes is thus to provide an approachable introduction to this topic, emphasizing the conceptual aspects, and probing, through a set of cases studies, the connection between triangulated manifolds and quantum physics to the deepest. This volume addresses applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists working in the field of quantum geometry and its applications. (orig.)
Effective moduli of high volume fraction particulate composites
Kwon, P.; Dharan, C.K.H.
1995-01-01
Predictions using current micromechanics theories for the effective moduli of particulate-reinforced composites tend to break down at high volume fractions of the reinforcing phase. The predictions are usually well below experimentally measured values of the Young's modulus for volume fractions exceeding about 0.6. In this paper, the concept of contiguity, which is a measure of phase continuity, is applied to Mori-Tanaka micromechanics theory. It is shown that contiguity of the second phase increases with volume fraction, leading eventually to a reversal in the roles of the inclusion and matrix. In powder metallurgy practice, it is well known that at high volume fractions, sintering and consolidation of the reinforcement make it increasingly continuous and more like the matrix phase, while the former matrix tends to become more like the inclusion phase. The concept of contiguity applied to micromechanics theory results in very good agreement between the predicted Young's modulus and experimental data on tungsten carbide particulate-reinforced cobalt
Explaining the electroweak scale and stabilizing moduli in M theory
Acharya, Bobby S.; Bobkov, Konstantin; Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Shao Jing
2007-01-01
In a recent paper [B. Acharya, K. Bobkov, G. Kane, P. Kumar, and D. Vaman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 191601 (2006).] it was shown that in fluxless M theory vacua with at least two hidden sectors undergoing strong gauge dynamics and a particular form of the Kaehler potential, all moduli are stabilized by the effective potential and a stable hierarchy is generated, consistent with standard gauge unification. This paper explains the results of [B. Acharya, K. Bobkov, G. Kane, P. Kumar, and D. Vaman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 191601 (2006).] in more detail and generalizes them, finding an essentially unique de Sitter vacuum under reasonable conditions. One of the main phenomenological consequences is a prediction which emerges from this entire class of vacua: namely, gaugino masses are significantly suppressed relative to the gravitino mass. We also present evidence that, for those vacua in which the vacuum energy is small, the gravitino mass, which sets all the superpartner masses, is automatically in the TeV-100 TeV range
Explaining the electroweak scale and stabilizing moduli in M theory
Acharya, Bobby S.; Bobkov, Konstantin; Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Shao, Jing
2007-12-01
In a recent paper [B. Acharya, K. Bobkov, G. Kane, P. Kumar, and D. Vaman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 191601 (2006).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.191601] it was shown that in fluxless M theory vacua with at least two hidden sectors undergoing strong gauge dynamics and a particular form of the Kähler potential, all moduli are stabilized by the effective potential and a stable hierarchy is generated, consistent with standard gauge unification. This paper explains the results of [B. Acharya, K. Bobkov, G. Kane, P. Kumar, and D. Vaman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 191601 (2006).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.191601] in more detail and generalizes them, finding an essentially unique de Sitter vacuum under reasonable conditions. One of the main phenomenological consequences is a prediction which emerges from this entire class of vacua: namely, gaugino masses are significantly suppressed relative to the gravitino mass. We also present evidence that, for those vacua in which the vacuum energy is small, the gravitino mass, which sets all the superpartner masses, is automatically in the TeV 100 TeV range.
Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear
Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent
2016-03-01
Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals.
Zhao, Xin
2013-01-01
Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects
Moduli Potentials in Type IIA Compactifications with RR and NS Flux
Kachru, S.
2004-12-01
We describe a simple class of type IIA string compactifications on Calabi-Yau manifolds where background fluxes generate a potential for the complex structure moduli, the dilaton, and the Kaehler moduli. This class of models corresponds to gauged {Nu} = 2 supergravities, and the potential is completely determined by a choice of gauging and by data of the {Nu} = 2 Calabi-Yau model--the prepotential for vector multiplets and the quaternionic metric on the hypermultiplet moduli space. Using mirror symmetry, one can determine many (though not all) of the quantum corrections which are relevant in these models.
Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?
Parker, K. J.
2017-09-01
Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.
ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD
Adriano Wagner Ballarin
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.
Elastic spheres can walk on water.
Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy C; Jandron, Michael A; Bower, Allan F; Truscott, Tadd T
2016-02-04
Incited by public fascination and engineering application, water-skipping of rigid stones and spheres has received considerable study. While these objects can be coaxed to ricochet, elastic spheres demonstrate superior water-skipping ability, but little is known about the effect of large material compliance on water impact physics. Here we show that upon water impact, very compliant spheres naturally assume a disk-like geometry and dynamic orientation that are favourable for water-skipping. Experiments and numerical modelling reveal that the initial spherical shape evolves as elastic waves propagate through the material. We find that the skipping dynamics are governed by the wave propagation speed and by the ratio of material shear modulus to hydrodynamic pressure. With these insights, we explain why softer spheres skip more easily than stiffer ones. Our results advance understanding of fluid-elastic body interaction during water impact, which could benefit inflatable craft modelling and, more playfully, design of elastic aquatic toys.
Stan, G.; Krylyuk, S.; Davydov, A.V.; Vaudin, M.D.; Bendersky, L.A.; Cook, R.F.
2009-01-01
Quantitative measurements of the elastic modulus of nanosize systems and nanostructured materials are provided with great accuracy and precision by contact-resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM). As an example of measuring the elastic modulus of nanosize entities, we used the CR-AFM technique to measure the out-of-plane indentation modulus of tellurium nanowires. A size-dependence of the indentation modulus was observed for the investigated tellurium nanowires with diameters in the range 20-150 nm. Over this diameter range, the elastic modulus of the outer layers of the tellurium nanowires experienced significant enhancement due to a pronounced surface stiffening effect. Quantitative estimations for the elastic moduli of the outer and inner parts of tellurium nanowires of reduced diameter are made with a core-shell structure model. Besides localized elastic modulus measurements, we have also developed a unique CR-AFM imaging capability to map the elastic modulus over a micrometer-scale area. We used this CR-AFM capability to construct indentation modulus maps at the junction between two adjacent facets of a tellurium microcrystal. The clear contrast observed in the elastic moduli of the two facets indicates the different surface crystallography of these facets.
Elasticity maps of living neurons measured by combined fluorescence and atomic force microscopy.
Spedden, Elise; White, James D; Naumova, Elena N; Kaplan, David L; Staii, Cristian
2012-09-05
Detailed knowledge of mechanical parameters such as cell elasticity, stiffness of the growth substrate, or traction stresses generated during axonal extensions is essential for understanding the mechanisms that control neuronal growth. Here, we combine atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy to produce systematic, high-resolution elasticity maps for three different types of live neuronal cells: cortical (embryonic rat), embryonic chick dorsal root ganglion, and P-19 (mouse embryonic carcinoma stem cells) neurons. We measure how the stiffness of neurons changes both during neurite outgrowth and upon disruption of microtubules of the cell. We find reversible local stiffening of the cell during growth, and show that the increase in local elastic modulus is primarily due to the formation of microtubules. We also report that cortical and P-19 neurons have similar elasticity maps, with elastic moduli in the range 0.1-2 kPa, with typical average values of 0.4 kPa (P-19) and 0.2 kPa (cortical). In contrast, dorsal root ganglion neurons are stiffer than P-19 and cortical cells, yielding elastic moduli in the range 0.1-8 kPa, with typical average values of 0.9 kPa. Finally, we report no measurable influence of substrate protein coating on cell body elasticity for the three types of neurons. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The multiple V-shaped double peeling of elastic thin films from elastic soft substrates
Menga, N.; Afferrante, L.; Pugno, N. M.; Carbone, G.
2018-04-01
In this paper, a periodic configuration of V-shaped double peeling process is investigated. Specifically, an elastic thin film is detached from a soft elastic material by applying multiple concentrated loads periodically distributed with spatial periodicity λ. The original Kendall's idea is extended to take into account the change in elastic energy occurring in the substrate when the detachment fronts propagate. The symmetric configuration typical of a V-peeling process causes the energy release rate to be sensitive to variations of the elastic energy stored in the soft substrate. This results in an enhancement of the adhesion strength because part of the external work required to trigger the peeling mechanism is converted in substrate elastic energy. A key role is played by both spatial periodicity λ and elasticity ratio E/Eh, between tape and substrate elastic moduli, in determining the conditions of stable adhesion. Indeed, the presence of multiple peeling fronts determines a modification of the mechanism of interaction, because deformations close to each peeling front are also affected by the stresses related to the other fronts. Results show that the energy release rate depends on the detached length of the tape so that conditions can be established which lead to an increase of the supported load compared to the classical peeling on rigid substrates. Finally, we also find that for any given value of the load per unit length, an optimum value of the wavelength λ exists that maximizes the tolerance of the system, before unstable propagation of the peeling front can occur.
Compositional dependence of Young's moduli for amorphous FeCo-SiO2 thin films
Zhang, L.; Xie, J. L.; Deng, L. J.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, Z. W.; Bi, L.
2011-01-01
Systematic force-deflection measurements with microcantilevers and a combinatorial-deposition method have been used to investigate the Young's moduli of amorphous composite FeCo-SiO 2 thin films as a function of film composition, with high compositional resolution. It is found that the modulus decreases monotonically with increasing FeCo content. Such a trend can be explained in terms of the metalloid atoms having a significant effect on the Young's moduli of metal-metalloid composites, which is associated with the strong chemical interaction between the metalloid and themetallic atoms rather than that between the metallic components themselves. This work provides an efficient and effective method to study the moduli of magnetic thin films over a largecomposition coverage, and to compare the relative magnitudes of moduli for differentcompositions at high compositional resolution.
Moduli of mathematical instanton vector bundles with odd c2 on projective space
Tikhomirov, Aleksandr S
2012-01-01
We study the moduli space I n of mathematical instanton vector bundles of rank 2 with second Chern class n≥1 on the projective space P 3 , and prove the irreducibility of I n for arbitrary odd n≥1.
2012-12-01
Backcalculation of pavement moduli has been an intensively researched subject for more than four decades. Despite the existence of many backcalculation programs employing different backcalculation procedures and algorithms, accurate inverse of the la...
A flux-scaling scenario for high-scale moduli stabilization in string theory
Ralph Blumenhagen
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Tree-level moduli stabilization via geometric and non-geometric fluxes in type IIB orientifolds on Calabi–Yau manifolds is investigated. The focus is on stable non-supersymmetric minima, where all moduli are fixed except for some massless axions. The scenario includes the purely axionic orientifold-odd moduli. A set of vacua allowing for parametric control over the moduli vacuum expectation values and their masses is presented, featuring a specific scaling with the fluxes. Uplift mechanisms and supersymmetry breaking soft masses on MSSM-like D7-branes are discussed as well. This scenario provides a complete effective framework for realizing the idea of F-term axion monodromy inflation in string theory. It is argued that, with all masses close to the Planck and GUT scales, one is confronted with working at the threshold of controlling all mass hierarchies.
A flux-scaling scenario for high-scale moduli stabilization in string theory
Blumenhagen, Ralph [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Font, Anamaría [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Fuchs, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Herschmann, Daniela, E-mail: herschma@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Plauschinn, Erik [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Sekiguchi, Yuta; Wolf, Florian [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany)
2015-08-15
Tree-level moduli stabilization via geometric and non-geometric fluxes in type IIB orientifolds on Calabi–Yau manifolds is investigated. The focus is on stable non-supersymmetric minima, where all moduli are fixed except for some massless axions. The scenario includes the purely axionic orientifold-odd moduli. A set of vacua allowing for parametric control over the moduli vacuum expectation values and their masses is presented, featuring a specific scaling with the fluxes. Uplift mechanisms and supersymmetry breaking soft masses on MSSM-like D7-branes are discussed as well. This scenario provides a complete effective framework for realizing the idea of F-term axion monodromy inflation in string theory. It is argued that, with all masses close to the Planck and GUT scales, one is confronted with working at the threshold of controlling all mass hierarchies.
Resolution of axial shear strain elastography
Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan
2006-01-01
The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 45 0 to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45 0 orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift
Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows
Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard
2005-01-01
The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape
Deformations, moduli stabilisation and gauge couplings at one-loop
Honecker, Gabriele; Koltermann, Isabel [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, MITP & Institut für Physik (WA THEP),Johannes Gutenberg-Universität,Staudingerweg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staessens, Wieland [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2017-04-05
We investigate deformations of ℤ{sub 2} orbifold singularities on the toroidal orbifold T{sup 6}/(ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 6}) with discrete torsion in the framework of Type IIA orientifold model building with intersecting D6-branes wrapping special Lagrangian cycles. To this aim, we employ the hypersurface formalism developed previously for the orbifold T{sup 6}/(ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 2}) with discrete torsion and adapt it to the (ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 6}×ΩR) point group by modding out the remaining ℤ{sub 3} subsymmetry and the orientifold projection ΩR. We first study the local behaviour of the ℤ{sub 3}×ΩR invariant deformation orbits under non-zero deformation and then develop methods to assess the deformation effects on the fractional three-cycle volumes globally. We confirm that D6-branes supporting USp(2N) or SO(2N) gauge groups do not constrain any deformation, while deformation parameters associated to cycles wrapped by D6-branes with U(N) gauge groups are constrained by D-term supersymmetry breaking. These features are exposed in global prototype MSSM, Left-Right symmetric and Pati-Salam models first constructed in (DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2015.10.009; 10.1002/prop.201400066), for which we here count the number of stabilised moduli and study flat directions changing the values of some gauge couplings. Finally, we confront the behaviour of tree-level gauge couplings under non-vanishing deformations along flat directions with the one-loop gauge threshold corrections at the orbifold point and discuss phenomenological implications, in particular on possible LARGE volume scenarios and the corresponding value of the string scale M{sub string}, for the same global D6-brane models.
Picard-Fuchs equations and the moduli space of superconformal field theories
Cadavid, A.C.; Ferrara, S.
1991-01-01
We derive simple techniques which allow us to relate Picard-Fuchs differential equations for the periods of holomorphic p-forms on certain complex manifolds, to their moduli space and its modular group (target space duality). For Calabi-Yau manifolds the special geometry of moduli space gives the Zamolodchikov metric and the Yukawa couplings in terms of the periods. For general N=2 superconformal theories these equations exactly determine perturbed correlation functions of the chiral rings of primary fields. (orig.)
On the reconstruction of a unitary matrix from its moduli. Existence of continuous ambiguities
Auberson, G.
1989-01-01
It is shown that, for an n x n unitary matrix with n ≥ 4, the knowledge of the moduli of its elements is not always sufficient to determine this matrix up to 'trivial' or 'discrete' ambiguities. Using a parametrization a la Kobayashi-Maskawa in the case n=4, we exhibit various configurations of the moduli for which a continuous ambiguity appears (i.e., some non-trivial phase remains free). (orig.)
Symplectic geometry on moduli spaces of holomorphic bundles over complex surfaces
Khesin, Boris; Rosly, Alexei
2000-01-01
We give a comparative description of the Poisson structures on the moduli spaces of flat connections on real surfaces and holomorphic Poisson structures on the moduli spaces of holomorphic bundles on complex surfaces. The symplectic leaves of the latter are classified by restrictions of the bundles to certain divisors. This can be regarded as fixing a "complex analogue of the holonomy" of a connection along a "complex analogue of the boundary" in analogy with the real case.
On transformation shear of precipitated zirconia particles
Zhang, J.M.; Lam, K.Y.
1993-01-01
A model is proposed to investigate the transformation shear of the precipitated zirconia particles which undergo a stress-induced lattice transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic symmetry. Kinematically admissible twinning planes and the corresponding twinning elements are determined according to the continuum theory of dispacive phase transformation. It is postulated that only one twinning mode prevails in each transformed particle and that the minimization of elastic strain energy change dictates the morphology of the transformed variants. The transformation shear is determined by the twinning mode and the volume fraction of the corresponding variant. Numerical calculations show that each of the six kinematically admissible twinning modes may be kinematically favorable and therefore operate in constrained particle. The actual transformation shear in a transformed particle is shown to be dependent on the transformation stress, on the particle shape as well as on the lattice orientation relative to the principal axes of the ellipsoidal particle
Li, Tao; Zeng, Kaiyang
2014-01-01
The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the elasticity variations of the abalone shell caused by different micro-constituents and crystal orientations are reported, and the elasticity values of the aragonite and calcite nanograins are quantified.The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the
Environmental bias and elastic curves on surfaces
Guven, Jemal; María Valencia, Dulce; Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo
2014-01-01
The behavior of an elastic curve bound to a surface will reflect the geometry of its environment. This may occur in an obvious way: the curve may deform freely along directions tangent to the surface, but not along the surface normal. However, even if the energy itself is symmetric in the curve's geodesic and normal curvatures, which control these modes, very distinct roles are played by the two. If the elastic curve binds preferentially on one side, or is itself assembled on the surface, not only would one expect the bending moduli associated with the two modes to differ, binding along specific directions, reflected in spontaneous values of these curvatures, may be favored. The shape equations describing the equilibrium states of a surface curve described by an elastic energy accommodating environmental factors will be identified by adapting the method of Lagrange multipliers to the Darboux frame associated with the curve. The forces transmitted to the surface along the surface normal will be determined. Features associated with a number of different energies, both of physical relevance and of mathematical interest, are described. The conservation laws associated with trajectories on surface geometries exhibiting continuous symmetries are also examined. (paper)
Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer
Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping
1988-03-01
The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs
Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing
Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.
2014-12-01
For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding
Microcracking and Healing in Semibrittle Salt-Rock: Elastic and Plastic Behavior
Ding, J.; Chester, F. M.; Chester, J. S.; Shen, X.; Arson, C. F.
2017-12-01
Microcracking and healing during semibrittle deformation are important processes that affect physical properties such as elastic moduli and permeability. We study these processes through triaxial compression tests involving cyclic differential loading and isostatic-holds on synthetic salt-rock at room temperature and low confining pressure (Pc, 1 to 4 MPa). The salt samples are produced by uniaxial pressing of granular (300 µm dia.) halite to 75 MPa at 150˚C for 10^3 s, to create low-porosity ( 5%) aggregates of nearly equant, work-hardened grains. Alternating large- and small-load cycles are performed to track the evolution of plastic and elastic properties, respecitively, with progressive strain to 8% axial shortening. 24-hour holds are carried out at about 4% axial shortening followed by renewed cyclic loading to investigate healing. During large load cycles samples yield and exhibit distributed flow with dilatancy and small work hardening. Young's Modulus (YM) decreases and then tends to stabilize, while Poisson's Ratio (PR) increases at a reducing rate, with progressive strain. Microstructures at sequential stages show that opening-mode grain-boundary cracking, grain-boundary sliding, and some intracrystalline plasticity are the dominant deformation processes. Opening and shear occur preferentially on boundaries that are parallel and inclined to the shortening axis, respectively, leading to progressive redistribution of porosity. Opening-mode grain-boundary cracks increase in number and aperature with strain, and are linked by sliding grain-boundaries to form en echelon arrays. After a 24-hour hold, samples show yielding and flow behavior consistent with that prior to the hold, whereas YM and PR are reset to the same values documented at zero strain and subsequently evolve with additional strain similar to that documented at smaller strains prior to the hold. Open grain-boundary cracks are not closed or healed during the hold. Observations suggest that
Zhao, Xin
2013-05-01
Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.
Anomalous elasticity, fluctuations and disorder in elastic membranes
Le Doussal, Pierre; Radzihovsky, Leo
2018-05-01
Motivated by freely suspended graphene and polymerized membranes in soft and biological matter we present a detailed study of a tensionless elastic sheet in the presence of thermal fluctuations and quenched disorder. The manuscript is based on an extensive draft dating back to 1993, that was circulated privately. It presents the general theoretical framework and calculational details of numerous results, partial forms of which have been published in brief Letters (Le Doussal and Radzihovsky, 1992; 1993). The experimental realization atom-thin graphene sheets (Novoselov et al., 2004) have driven a resurgence in this fascinating subject, making our dated predictions and their detailed derivations timely. To this end we analyze the statistical mechanics of a generalized D-dimensional elastic "membrane" embedded in d dimensions using a self-consistent screening approximation (SCSA), that has proved to be unprecedentedly accurate in this system, exact in three complementary limits: (i) d → ∞, (ii) D → 4, and (iii) D = d. Focusing on the critical "flat" phase, for a homogeneous two-dimensional (D = 2) membrane embedded in three dimensions (d = 3), we predict its universal roughness exponent ζ = 0 . 590, length-scale dependent elastic moduli exponents η = 0 . 821 and ηu = 0 . 358, and an anomalous Poisson ratio, σ = - 1 / 3. In the presence of random uncorrelated heterogeneity the membrane exhibits a glassy wrinkled ground state, characterized by ζ‧ = 0 . 775 ,η‧ = 0 . 449, ηu‧ = 1 . 101 and a Poisson ratio σ‧ = - 1 / 3. Motivated by a number of physical realizations (charged impurities, disclinations and dislocations) we also study power-law correlated quenched disorder that leads to a variety of distinct glassy wrinkled phases. Finally, neglecting self-avoiding interaction we demonstrate that at high temperature a "phantom" sheet undergoes a continuous crumpling transition, characterized by a radius of gyration exponent, ν = 0 . 732 and η = 0
A-thermal elastic behavior of silicate glasses.
Rabia, Mohammed Kamel; Degioanni, Simon; Martinet, Christine; Le Brusq, Jacques; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique
2016-02-24
Depending on the composition of silicate glasses, their elastic moduli can increase or decrease as function of the temperature. Studying the Brillouin frequency shift of these glasses versus temperature allows the a-thermal composition corresponding to an intermediate glass to be determined. In an intermediate glass, the elastic moduli are independent of the temperature over a large temperature range. For sodium alumino-silicate glasses, the a-thermal composition is close to the albite glass (NaAlSi3O8). The structural origin of this property is studied by in situ high temperature Raman scattering. The structure of the intermediate albite glass and of silica are compared at different temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C. When the temperature increases, it is shown that the high frequency shift of the main band at 440 cm(-1) in silica is a consequence of the cristobalite-like alpha-beta transformation of 6-membered rings. This effect is stronger in silica than bond elongation (anharmonic effects). As a consequence, the elastic moduli of silica increase as the temperature increases. In the albite glass, the substitution of 25% of Si(4+) ions by Al(3+) and Na(+) ions decreases the proportion of SiO2 6-membered rings responsible for the silica anomaly. The effects of the silica anomaly balance the anharmonicity in albite glass and give rise to an intermediate a-thermal glass. Different networks, formers or modifiers, can be added to produce different a-thermal glasses with useful mechanical or chemical properties.
Elastic properties of amorphous thin films studied by Rayleigh waves
Schwarz, R.B.; Rubin, J.B.
1993-01-01
Physical vapor deposition in ultra-high vacuum was used to co-deposit nickel and zirconium onto quartz single crystals and grow amorphous Ni 1-x Zr x (0.1 < x < 0.87) thin film. A high-resolution surface acoustic wave technique was developed for in situ measurement of film shear moduli. The modulus has narrow maxima at x = 0. 17, 0.22, 0.43, 0.5, 0.63, and 0.72, reflecting short-range ordering and formation of aggregates in amorphous phase. It is proposed that the aggregates correspond to polytetrahedral atom arrangements limited in size by geometrical frustration
Internal strain estimation for quantification of human heel pad elastic modulus: A phantom study.
Holst, Karen; Liebgott, Hervé; Wilhjelm, Jens E; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Torp-Pedersen, Søren T; Delachartre, Philippe; Jensen, Jørgen A
2013-02-01
Shock absorption is the most important function of the human heel pad. However, changes in heel pad elasticity, as seen in e.g. long-distance runners, diabetes patients, and victims of Falanga torture are affecting this function, often in a painful manner. Assessment of heel pad elasticity is usually based on one or a few strain measurements obtained by an external load-deformation system. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for quantitative measurements of heel pad elastic modulus based on several internal strain measures from within the heel pad by use of ultrasound images. Nine heel phantoms were manufactured featuring a combination of three heel pad stiffnesses and three heel pad thicknesses to model the normal human variation. Each phantom was tested in an indentation system comprising a 7MHz linear array ultrasound transducer, working as the indentor, and a connected load cell. Load-compression data and ultrasound B-mode images were simultaneously acquired in 19 compression steps of 0.1mm each. The internal tissue displacement was for each step calculated by a phase-based cross-correlation technique and internal strain maps were derived from these displacement maps. Elastic moduli were found from the resulting stress-strain curves. The elastic moduli made it possible to distinguish eight of nine phantoms from each other according to the manufactured stiffness and showed very little dependence of the thickness. Mean elastic moduli for the three soft, the three medium, and the three hard phantoms were 89kPa, 153kPa, and 168kPa, respectively. The combination of ultrasound images and force measurements provided an effective way of assessing the elastic properties of the heel pad due to the internal strain estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.
2004-12-01
Localized ductile shear zones with widths of cm to m are observed in exposures of Earth's shallow mantle (e.g., Kelemen & Dick JGR 95; Vissers et al. Tectonophys 95) and dredged from oceanic fracture zones (e.g., Jaroslow et al. Tectonophys 96). These are mylonitic (grain size 10 to 100 microns) and record mineral cooling temperatures from 1100 to 600 C. Pseudotachylites in a mantle shear zone show that shear heating temperatures can exceed the mantle solidus (e.g., Obata & Karato Tectonophys 95). Simple shear, recrystallization, and grain boundary sliding all decrease the spacing between pyroxenes, so olivine grain growth at lower stress is inhibited; thus, once formed, these shear zones do not "heal" on geological time scales. Reasoning that grain-size sensitive creep will be localized within these shear zones, rather than host rocks (grain size 1 to 10 mm), and inspired by the work of Whitehead & Gans (GJRAS 74), we thought these might undergo repeated shear heating instabilities. In this view, as elastic stress increases, the shear zone weakens via shear heating; rapid deformation of the weak shear zone releases most stored elastic stress; lower stress and strain rate coupled with diffusion of heat into host rocks leads to cooling and strengthening, after which the cycle repeats. We constructed a simple numerical model incorporating olivine flow laws for dislocation creep, diffusion creep, grain boundary sliding, and low T plasticity. We assumed that viscous deformation remains localized in shear zones, surrounded by host rocks undergoing elastic deformation. We fixed the velocity along one side of an elastic half space, and calculated stress due to elastic strain. This stress drives viscous deformation in a shear zone of specified width. Shear heating and thermal diffusion control temperature evolution in the shear zone and host rocks. A maximum of 1400 C (where substantial melting of peridotite would occur) is imposed. Grain size evolves during dislocation
Song, Pengfei; Macdonald, Michael C.; Behler, Russell H.; Lanning, Justin D.; Wang, Michael H.; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Zhao, Heng; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography presents 2D quantitative shear elasticity maps of tissue, which are clinically useful for both focal lesion detection and diffuse disease diagnosis. Realization of 2D shear wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners, however, is challenging due to the low tracking pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) of these systems. While some clinical and research platforms support software beamforming and plane wave imaging with high PRF, the majority of...
Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks
Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.
2018-01-01
Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.
Role of architecture in the elastic response of semiflexible polymer and fiber networks
Heussinger, Claus; Frey, Erwin
2007-01-01
We study the elasticity of cross-linked networks of thermally fluctuating stiff polymers. As compared to their purely mechanical counterparts, it is shown that these thermal networks have a qualitatively different elastic response. By accounting for the entropic origin of the single-polymer elasticity, the networks acquire a strong susceptibility to polydispersity and structural randomness that is completely absent in athermal models. In extensive numerical studies we systematically vary the architecture of the networks and identify a wealth of phenomena that clearly show the strong dependence of the emergent macroscopic moduli on the underlying mesoscopic network structure. In particular, we highlight the importance of the polymer length, which to a large extent controls the elastic response of the network, surprisingly, even in parameter regions where it does not enter the macroscopic moduli explicitly. Understanding these subtle effects is only possible by going beyond the conventional approach that considers the response of typical polymer segments only. Instead, we propose to describe the elasticity in terms of a typical polymer filament and the spatial distribution of cross-links along its backbone. We provide theoretical scaling arguments to relate the observed macroscopic elasticity to the physical mechanisms on the microscopic and mesoscopic scales.
Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method
Bao, Y.W.; Zhou, Y.C.; Bu, X.X.; Qiu, Y.
2007-01-01
A simple approach named relative method is developed for determining the elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings. Analytical relationship among the moduli of the film, the substrate, and the film/substrate system was derived based on bending model, from which the elastic modulus of the coating can be determined uniquely via the measured moduli of the samples before and after coating. Furthermore, the relationship between the strength of the films and the bending strength of the coated sample is derived, thus both the modulus and the strength of coating can be evaluated via traditional tests on coated samples. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived, respectively for rectangular beam samples with three types of coating configurations: single face coating, sandwich coating and around coating. Experimental results using various brittle coatings demonstrated the validity and convenience of this method