Sample records for shape selective super

  1. Shape memory effect and super elasticity. Its dental applications.


    Kotian R


    The shape memory alloys are quite fascinating materials characterized by a shape memory effect and super elasticity which ordinary metals do not have. This unique behaviour was first found in a Au-47.5 at % Cd alloy in 1951, and was published in 1963 by the discovery of Ti-Ni alloy. Shape memory alloys now being practically used as new functional alloys for various dental and medical applications.

  2. Event shapes in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V; Korchemsky, G P; Sokatchev, E; Zhiboedov, A


    We study event shapes in N=4 SYM describing the angular distribution of energy and R-charge in the final states created by the simplest half-BPS scalar operator. Applying the approach developed in the companion paper arXiv:1309.0769, we compute these observables using the correlation functions of certain components of the N=4 stress-tensor supermultiplet: the half-BPS operator itself, the R-symmetry current and the stress tensor. We present master formulas for the all-order event shapes as convolutions of the Mellin amplitude defining the correlation function of the half-BPS operators, with a coupling-independent kernel determined by the choice of the observable. We find remarkably simple relations between various event shapes following from N=4 superconformal symmetry. We perform thorough checks at leading order in the weak coupling expansion and show perfect agreement with the conventional calculations based on amplitude techniques. We extend our results to strong coupling using the correlation function of ...

  3. SHAPE selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R


    transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES...

  4. Selective laser melting of Inconel super alloy-a review (United States)

    Karia, M. C.; Popat, M. A.; Sangani, K. B.


    Additive manufacturing is a relatively young technology that uses the principle of layer by layer addition of material in solid, liquid or powder form to develop a component or product. The quality of additive manufactured part is one of the challenges to be addressed. Researchers are continuously working at various levels of additive manufacturing technologies. One of the significant powder bed processes for met als is Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Laser based processes are finding more attention of researchers and industrial world. The potential of this technique is yet to be fully explored. Due to very high strength and creep resistance Inconel is extensively used nickel based super alloy for manufacturing components for aerospace, automobile and nuclear industries. Due to law content of Aluminum and Titanium, it exhibits good fabricability too. Therefore the alloy is ideally suitable for selective laser melting to manufacture intricate components with high strength requirements. The selection of suitable process for manufacturing for a specific component depends on geometrical complexity, production quantity, and cost and required strength. There are numerous researchers working on various aspects like metallurgical and micro structural investigations and mechanical properties, geometrical accuracy, effects of process parameters and its optimization and mathematical modeling etc. The present paper represents a comprehensive overview of selective laser melting process for Inconel group of alloys.

  5. Selection of quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles (United States)

    Rösch, Michael; Pfeifer, Sascha; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank


    Size-segregated quasi monodisperse particles are essential for e.g. fundamental research concerning cloud microphysical processes. Commonly a DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer) is used to produce quasi-monodisperse submicron particles. Thereto first, polydisperse aerosol particles are bipolarly charged by a neutralizer, and then selected according to their electrical mobility with the DMA [Knutson et al. 1975]. Selecting a certain electrical mobility with a DMA results in a particle size distribution, which contains singly charged particles as well as undesired multiply charged larger particles. Often these larger particles need to either be removed from the generated aerosol or their signals have to be corrected for in the data inversion and interpretation process. This problem becomes even more serious when considering super-micron particles. Here we will present two different techniques for generating quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles with no or only an insignificant number of larger sized particles being present. First, we use a combination of a cyclone with adjustable aerodynamic cut-off diameter and our custom-built Maxi-DMA [Raddatz et al. 2013]. The cyclone removes particles larger than the desired ones prior to mobility selection with the DMA. This results in a reduction of the number of multiply charged particles of up to 99.8%. Second, we utilize a new combination of cyclone and PCVI (Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor), which is based on purely inertial separation and avoids particle charging. The PCVI instrument was previously described by Boulter et al. (2006) and Kulkarni et al. (2011). With our two setups we are able to produce quasi-monodisperse aerosol particles in the diameter range from 0.5 to 4.4 µm without a significant number of larger undesired particles being present. Acknowledgements: This work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. References

  6. SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data (United States)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R.; Krogh, Anders; Vinther, Jeppe


    Selective 2′ Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) is an accurate method for probing of RNA secondary structure. In existing SHAPE methods, the SHAPE probing signal is normalized to a no-reagent control to correct for the background caused by premature termination of the reverse transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES-based selection of cDNA–RNA hybrids on streptavidin beads effectively removes the large majority of background signal present in SHAPE probing data and that sequencing-based SHAPES data contain the same amount of RNA structure data as regular sequencing-based SHAPE data obtained through normalization to a no-reagent control. Moreover, the selection efficiently enriches for probed RNAs, suggesting that the SHAPES strategy will be useful for applications with high-background and low-probing signal such as in vivo RNA structure probing. PMID:25805860

  7. A process for selection and training of super-users for ERP implementation projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Peter; Sandfeld Hansen, Kenneth; Helt, Mads


    The concept of super-users as a means to facilitate ERP implementation projects has recently taken a foothold in practice, but is still largely overlooked in research. In particular, little is known about the selection and training processes required to successfully develop skilled super......-users in practice. To address this research gap, we analyze the case of an ERP implementation program at a large manufacturing company. We combine Katz’s widely accepted skill measurement model with the process observed in practice to describe and test a model of super-user selection and training. The resulting...... model contains a systematic process of super-user development and highlights the specific skillsets required in different phases of the selection and training process. Our results from a comparative assessment of management expectations and super-user skills in the ERP program show that the model can...

  8. Proposal of a super trait for the optimum selection of popcorn progenies based on path analysis. (United States)

    do Amaral Júnior, A T; Dos Santos, A; Gerhardt, I F S; Kurosawa, R N F; Moreira, N F; Pereira, M G; de A Gravina, G; de L Silva, F H


    A challenge faced by popcorn breeding programs is the existence of a negative correlation between the two main traits, popping expansion and yield, which hinders simultaneous gains. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of a new variable or super trait, which favors the reliable selection of superior progenies. The super trait 'expanded popcorn volume per hectare' was introduced in the evaluation of 200 full-sib families of the eighth recurrent intrapopulation selection cycle, which were arranged in randomized blocks with three replicates in two environments. Although the inability to obtain simultaneous gains through selection via popping expansion or yield was confirmed, the super trait was positively associated with both yield and popping expansion, allowing simultaneous gains via indirect selection using 'expanded popcorn volume per hectare' as the main trait. This approach is recommended because this super trait can be used in breeding programs to optimize selective gains for the crop.

  9. Advanced in situ metrology for x-ray beam shaping with super precision. (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Sutter, John; Sawhney, Kawal


    We report a novel method for in situ metrology of an X-ray bimorph mirror by using the speckle scanning technique. Both the focusing beam and the "tophat" defocussed beam have been generated by optimizing the bimorph mirror in a single iteration. Importantly, we have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach accuracy in the range of two nanoradians. When compared with conventional ex-situ metrology techniques, the method enables a substantial increase of around two orders of magnitude in the angular sensitivity and opens the way to a previously inaccessible region of slope error measurement. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial for both the manufacture of polished mirrors and the optimization of beam shaping.

  10. A process for selection and training of super-users for ERP implementation projects


    Danielsen, Peter; Sandfeld Hansen, Kenneth; Helt, Mads; Holm Nielsen, Lasse; Obwegeser, Nikolaus


    The concept of super-users as a means to facilitate ERP implementation projects has recently taken a foothold in practice, but is still largely overlooked in research. In particular, little is known about the selection and training processes required to successfully develop skilled super-users in practice. To address this research gap, we analyze the case of an ERP implementation program at a large manufacturing company. We combine Katz’s widely accepted skill measurement model with the proce...

  11. Quantum phase amplification for temporal pulse shaping and super-resolution in remote sensing (United States)

    Yin, Yanchun

    The use of nonlinear optical interactions to perform nonclassical transformations of electromagnetic field is an area of considerable interest. Quantum phase amplification (QPA) has been previously proposed as a method to perform nonclassical manipulation of coherent light, which can be experimentally realized by use of nonlinear optical mixing processes, of which phase-sensitive three-wave mixing (PSTWM) is one convenient choice. QPA occurs when PSTWM is operated in the photon number deamplification mode, i.e., when the energy is coherently transferred among the low-frequency signal and idler waves and the high-frequency pump wave. The final state is nonclassical, with the field amplitude squeezed and the phase anti-squeezed. In the temporal domain, the use of QPA has been studied to facilitate nonlinear pulse shaping. This novel method directly shapes the temporal electric field amplitude and phase using the PSTWM in a degenerate and collinear configuration, which has been analyzed using a numerical model. Several representative pulse shaping capabilities of this technique have been identified, which can augment the performance of common passive pulse shaping methods operating in the Fourier domain. The analysis indicates that a simple quadratic variation of temporal phase facilitates pulse compression and self-steepening, with features significantly shorter than the original transform-limited pulse. Thus, PSTWM can act as a direct pulse compressor based on the combined effects of phase amplification and group velocity mismatch, even without the subsequent linear phase compensation. Furthermore, it is shown numerically that pulse doublets and pulse trains can be produced at the pump frequency by utilizing the residual linear phase of the signal. Such pulse shaping capabilities are found to be within reach of this technique in common nonlinear optical crystals pumped by pulses available from compact femtosecond chirped-pulse amplification laser systems. The use of

  12. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface (United States)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Jungwoo; Shin, Jennifer H.; Byun, Doyoung


    Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  13. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jungwoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Doyoung, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  14. Does learning or instinct shape habitat selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an important behavioural process widely studied for its population-level effects. Models of habitat selection are, however, often fit without a mechanistic consideration. Here, we investigated whether patterns in habitat selection result from instinct or learning for a population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Alberta, Canada. We found that habitat selection and relatedness were positively correlated in female bears during the fall season, with a trend in the spring, but not during any season for males. This suggests that habitat selection is a learned behaviour because males do not participate in parental care: a genetically predetermined behaviour (instinct would have resulted in habitat selection and relatedness correlations for both sexes. Geographic distance and home range overlap among animals did not alter correlations indicating that dispersal and spatial autocorrelation had little effect on the observed trends. These results suggest that habitat selection in grizzly bears are partly learned from their mothers, which could have implications for the translocation of wildlife to novel environments.

  15. Determination of Microlensing Selection Criteria for the SuperMACHO Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A


    The SuperMACHO project is a 5 year survey to determine the nature of the lens population responsible for the excess microlensing rate toward the Large Magellanic Cloud observed by the MACHO project [1]. The survey probes deeper than earlier surveys unveiling many more extragalactic contaminants, particularly type Ia supernovae and active galactic nuclei. Using {approx}10{sup 7} simulated light curves of both microlensing events and type Ia supernovae we determine selection criteria optimized to maximize the microlensing detection efficiency while minimizing the contamination rate from non-microlensing events. We discuss these simulations and the selection criteria.

  16. Simulation of Ni-Based Super-Alloy and Optimizing of Its Mechanical Properties in a Near-Shaped Turbine Blade Part


    Alizadeh, Mohammd Reza


    This paper presents simulation of a Ni-based super-alloy during filling of a near-shaped turbine blade part to optimize its mechanical properties. Since geometrical shape of the airfoil is so complicated, a simple near-shaped part was made by plexiglass to water modeling. Condition and parameters of water modeling were obtained from the Procast software simulation. The flow pattern of the transparent systems, recorded by a high speed video camera, was analyzed. Air bubble amounts were quantit...

  17. A Distributed Dynamic Super Peer Selection Method Based on Evolutionary Game for Heterogeneous P2P Streaming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen


    Full Text Available Due to high efficiency and good scalability, hierarchical hybrid P2P architecture has drawn more and more attention in P2P streaming research and application fields recently. The problem about super peer selection, which is the key problem in hybrid heterogeneous P2P architecture, is becoming highly challenging because super peers must be selected from a huge and dynamically changing network. A distributed super peer selection (SPS algorithm for hybrid heterogeneous P2P streaming system based on evolutionary game is proposed in this paper. The super peer selection procedure is modeled based on evolutionary game framework firstly, and its evolutionarily stable strategies are analyzed. Then a distributed Q-learning algorithm (ESS-SPS according to the mixed strategies by analysis is proposed for the peers to converge to the ESSs based on its own payoff history. Compared to the traditional randomly super peer selection scheme, experiments results show that the proposed ESS-SPS algorithm achieves better performance in terms of social welfare and average upload rate of super peers and keeps the upload capacity of the P2P streaming system increasing steadily with the number of peers increasing.

  18. Object detection via structural feature selection and shape model. (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Bai, Xiao; Zhou, Jun; Cheng, Jian; Zhao, Huijie


    In this paper, we propose an approach for object detection via structural feature selection and part-based shape model. It automatically learns a shape model from cluttered training images without need to explicitly use bounding boxes on objects. Our approach first builds a class-specific codebook of local contour features, and then generates structural feature descriptors by combining context shape information. These descriptors are robust to both within-class variations and scale changes. Through exploring pairwise image matching using fast earth mover's distance, feature weights can be iteratively updated. Those discriminative foreground features are assigned high weights and then selected to build a part-based shape model. Finally, object detection is performed by matching each testing image with this model. Experiments show that the proposed method is very effective. It has achieved comparable performance to the state-of-the-art shape-based detection methods, but requires much less training information.

  19. The use of super-selective mesenteric embolisation as a first-line management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Soh, MBBS, BBiomedSci, PGDipSurgAnat


    Conclusion: Super-selective mesenteric embolisation is a viable, safe and effective first line management for localised LGIB. Our results overall compare favourably with the published experiences of other institutions. It is now accepted first-line practice at our institution to manage localised LGIB with embolisation.

  20. Super-surface selective nanomembranes providing simultaneous high permeation flux and high selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Simpson, John T.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Sturgeon, Matthew R.


    Superhydrophobic membrane structures having a beneficial combination of throughput and a selectivity. The membrane structure can include a porous support substrate; and a membrane layer adherently disposed on and in contact with the porous support substrate. The membrane layer can include a nanoporous material having a superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface can include a textured surface, and a modifying material disposed on the textured surface. Methods of making and using the membrane structures.

  1. Facial nerve paralysis after super-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy for oral cancer. (United States)

    Sugiyama, S; Iwai, T; Oguri, S; Koizumi, T; Mitsudo, K; Tohnai, I


    Facial nerve paralysis (FNP) after super-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (SSIAC) is a relatively rare local side effect of SSIAC to the maxillary artery (MA) or the middle meningeal artery (MMA). The incidence and prognosis of FNP after SSIAC in 381 patients with oral cancer (133 with catheterization of the MA, 248 without) was investigated retrospectively. Only three patients (two male and one female) had FNP, for an incidence of 0.8%. All patients with FNP had undergone catheterization of the MA, and the incidence of FNP in this group was 2.3% (3/133). One of the three patients with FNP had paralysis of the third branch of the trigeminal nerve. FNP occurred a mean of 8.7 days (range 5-11 days) after initial SSIAC, and the mean total dose of cisplatin was 55.8mg (range 42.5-67.2mg) and of docetaxel was 25.4mg (range 17.0-33.6mg). FNP resolved completely a mean of 12.7 months (range 6-19 months) after onset. Because the administration of anticancer agents via the MA or MMA carries a risk of FNP, this information will be useful when obtaining informed consent from patients before treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Event Shape Sorting: selecting events with similar evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomášik Boris


    Full Text Available We present novel method for the organisation of events. The method is based on comparing event-by-event histograms of a chosen quantity Q that is measured for each particle in every event. The events are organised in such a way that those with similar shape of the Q-histograms end-up placed close to each other. We apply the method on histograms of azimuthal angle of the produced hadrons in ultrarelativsitic nuclear collisions. By selecting events with similar azimuthal shape of their hadron distribution one chooses events which are likely that they underwent similar evolution from the initial state to the freeze-out. Such events can more easily be compared to theoretical simulations where all conditions can be controlled. We illustrate the method on data simulated by the AMPT model.

  3. Simulation of Ni-Based Super-Alloy and Optimizing of Its Mechanical Properties in a Near-Shaped Turbine Blade Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammd Reza Alizadeh


    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of a Ni-based super-alloy during filling of a near-shaped turbine blade part to optimize its mechanical properties. Since geometrical shape of the airfoil is so complicated, a simple near-shaped part was made by plexiglass to water modeling. Condition and parameters of water modeling were obtained from the Procast software simulation. The flow pattern of the transparent systems, recorded by a high speed video camera, was analyzed. Air bubble amounts were quantitatively measured by an image analysis software. Quantified results were used to compare two systems in terms of ability to prevent bubble formation and entrainment. Both water modeling and computer simulating methods indicated that highest turbulences in bottom- and top-poured systems form in first initially pouring times. According to the water modeling results amount of bubble values was 40 and 18 percent for top-poured and bottom-poured systems, respectively. Then the Ni-base super-alloy IN939 is poured by investment casting in bottom- and top-poured systems and compared with each other. The results stated that bottom-poured system had higher mechanical properties compared to top-poured one. Ultimate tensile strength for the former was 820 MPa while for the part which was cast by bottom-poured system it was 850 MPa.

  4. Exploring Representations of "Super" Women in Popular Culture: Shaping Critical Discussions with Female College Students with Learning Exceptionalities (United States)

    Taber, Nancy; Woloshyn, Vera; Munn, Caitlin; Lane, Laura


    In this article, we discuss how our analysis of several popular culture artifacts featuring "super" women characters (superheroes and supernatural) provided the foundation for a media discussion group for female college students with learning exceptionalities. We explore the use of popular culture in discussion groups as well as discuss…

  5. Shape-selective zeolite catalysis for bioplastics production (United States)

    Dusselier, Michiel; Van Wouwe, Pieter; Dewaele, Annelies; Jacobs, Pierre A.; Sels, Bert F.


    Biodegradable and renewable polymers, such as polylactic acid, are benign alternatives for petrochemical-based plastics. Current production of polylactic acid via its key building block lactide, the cyclic dimer of lactic acid, is inefficient in terms of energy, time, and feedstock use. We present a direct zeolite-based catalytic process, which converts lactic acid into lactide. The shape-selective properties of zeolites are essential to attain record lactide yields, outperforming those of the current multistep process by avoiding both racemization and side-product formation. The highly productive process is strengthened by facile recovery and practical reactivation of the catalyst, which remains structurally fit during at least six consecutive reactions, and by the ease of solvent and side-product recycling.

  6. GREEN CHEMISTRY. Shape-selective zeolite catalysis for bioplastics production. (United States)

    Dusselier, Michiel; Van Wouwe, Pieter; Dewaele, Annelies; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F


    Biodegradable and renewable polymers, such as polylactic acid, are benign alternatives for petrochemical-based plastics. Current production of polylactic acid via its key building block lactide, the cyclic dimer of lactic acid, is inefficient in terms of energy, time, and feedstock use. We present a direct zeolite-based catalytic process, which converts lactic acid into lactide. The shape-selective properties of zeolites are essential to attain record lactide yields, outperforming those of the current multistep process by avoiding both racemization and side-product formation. The highly productive process is strengthened by facile recovery and practical reactivation of the catalyst, which remains structurally fit during at least six consecutive reactions, and by the ease of solvent and side-product recycling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Clinical interrogation and application of super-selective intracranial artery infusion chemotherapy for lung cancer patients with brain metastases. (United States)

    Rong, J; Chunhua, M; Yuan, L; Ning, M; Jinduo, L; Bin, W; Liwei, S


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of super-selective intracranial artery infusion chemotherapy and to determine correlated prognostic parameters for advanced lung cancer patients with brain metastases. Fifty-four lung cancer patients with brain metastasis who had no previous treatment were enrolled for the study. These patients received super-selective intracranial artery infusion chemotherapy, as well as arterial infusion chemotherapy for primary and metastatic lesions. The procedure was performed once every 4 weeks. Patients were monitored to evaluate short-term clinical outcomes 4 weeks after the first 2 treatments, and follow-up visits performed every 4 weeks after the first 4 treatments until the appearance of disease progression or intolerable toxicity. All 54 cases were treated at least 4 times. The overall response rate was 55.56% (30/54), and the disease control rate was 85.19% (46/54). The median overall survival was 7 months, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 5.87-8.13 months, and the median progression-free survival was 4 months, with a 95% CI of 3.20-4.80 months. The 6-month survival rate and 1-year survival rate were 81.48% (44/54) and 18.52% (10/54), respectively. Super-selective intracranial artery infusion chemotherapy provides a clinically efficacious avenue of treatment for lung cancer patients with brain metastases. Pathological classification, Karnofsky performance status, and extracranial metastases may serve as reliable prognostic parameters in determining the clinical outcomes for lung cancer patients with brain metastases.

  8. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanoimprinted polymer patterns by selective fluorophore adsorption combined with redox switching

    KAUST Repository

    Yabiku, Y.


    We applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on selective adsorption and redox switching of the fluorescent dye molecules for studying polymer nanostructures. We demonstrate that nano-scale structures of polymer thin films can be visualized with the image resolution better than 80 nm. The method was applied to image 100 nm-wide polymer nanopatterns fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting. The results point to the applicability of the method for evaluating residual polymer thin films and dewetting defect of the polymer resist patterns which are important for the quality control of the fine nanoimprinted patterns. 2013 Author(s).

  9. Shape selection and multi-stability in helical ribbons (United States)

    Guo, Q.; Mehta, A. K.; Grover, M. A.; Chen, W.; Lynn, D. G.; Chen, Z.


    Helical structures, almost ubiquitous in biological systems, have inspired the design and manufacturing of helical devices with applications in nanoelecromechanical systems, morphing structures, optoelectronics, micro-robotics, and drug delivery devices. Meanwhile, multi-stable structures, represented by the Venus flytrap and slap bracelet, have attracted increasing attention due to their applications in making artificial muscles, bio-inspired robots, deployable aerospace components, and energy harvesting devices. Here we show that the mechanical anisotropy pertinent to helical deformation, together with geometric nonlinearity associated with multi-stability, can lead to a selection principle of the geometric shape and multi-stability in spontaneous helical ribbons. Simple table-top experiments were also performed to illustrate the working principle. Our work will promote understanding of spontaneous curling, twisting, wrinkling of thin objects, and their instabilities. The proposed theoretical framework can also serve as a tool for developing functional structures and devices featuring tunable, morphing geometries and smart actuation mechanisms that can be applied in a spectrum of areas.

  10. A U-shaped type II contraction pattern in patients with strict left bundle branch block predicts super-response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. (United States)

    Jackson, Tom; Sohal, Manav; Chen, Zhong; Child, Nicholas; Sammut, Eva; Behar, Jonathan; Claridge, Simon; Carr-White, Gerald; Razavi, Reza; Rinaldi, Christopher Aldo


    New criteria to define strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) on the basis of pathophysiological principles predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Heterogeneous activation and contraction patterns have been identified in patients with classical LBBB. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has demonstrated that a U-shaped (type II) contraction predicts reverse remodeling post-CRT. A homogeneous spread of (type I) contraction is less predictive. The purpose of this study was to investigate contraction patterns among patients with strict LBBB and to test whether a type II contraction pattern better predicts CRT response and super-response. Thirty-seven patients with strict LBBB (QRS duration ≥140 ms for men and ≥130 ms for women with mid-QRS notching or slurring in ≥2 contiguous leads) underwent cine CMR imaging pre-CRT with an analysis of their contraction patterns by using endocardial contour tracking software. Patients were evaluated for reverse remodeling 6 months postimplantation. Nineteen patients (51%) had a type II contraction pattern. A total of 25 patients (68%) of the cohort reverse remodeled. In the type II contraction group, all 19 patients (100%) reverse remodeled as compared with 6 patients (33%) in the type I contraction group (P < .01). Super-response was achieved in 21 patients (57%) of the total cohort: 5 patients with a type I contraction pattern (28%) and 16 patients with a type II contraction pattern (84%) (P < .01). Patients with strict LBBB who are guideline indicated for CRT have heterogeneous contraction patterns derived from cine CMR. A type II contraction pattern is strongly predictive for reverse remodeling and super-response. This questions whether strict LBBB criteria alone are sufficient to reliably predict a positive response to CRT. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-task reinforcement learning: shaping and feature selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Whiteson, S.


    Shaping functions can be used in multi-task reinforcement learning (RL) to incorporate knowledge from previously experienced source tasks to speed up learning on a new target task. Earlier work has not clearly motivated choices for the shaping function. This paper discusses and empirically compares

  12. Experimental observations on uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and low-cycle stress fatigue of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes (United States)

    Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng


    In this work, the low-cycle fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes with a wall thickness of 150 μm is investigated by uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic tests at human body temperature 310 K. The effects of mean stress, peak stress, and stress amplitude on the uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and fatigue failure of the NiTi alloy are observed. It is concluded that the fatigue life depends significantly on the stress levels, and the extent of martensite transformation and its reverse play an important role in determining the fatigue life. High peak stress or complete martensite transformation shortens the fatigue life.

  13. Indices estimated using REML/BLUP and introduction of a super-trait for the selection of progenies in popcorn. (United States)

    Vittorazzi, C; Amaral Junior, A T; Guimarães, A G; Viana, A P; Silva, F H L; Pena, G F; Daher, R F; Gerhardt, I F S; Oliveira, G H F; Pereira, M G


    Selection indices commonly utilize economic weights, which become arbitrary genetic gains. In popcorn, this is even more evident due to the negative correlation between the main characteristics of economic importance - grain yield and popping expansion. As an option in the use of classical biometrics as a selection index, the optimal procedure restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased predictor (REML/BLUP) allows the simultaneous estimation of genetic parameters and the prediction of genotypic values. Based on the mixed model methodology, the objective of this study was to investigate the comparative efficiency of eight selection indices estimated by REML/BLUP for the effective selection of superior popcorn families in the eighth intrapopulation recurrent selection cycle. We also investigated the efficiency of the inclusion of the variable "expanded popcorn volume per hectare" in the most advantageous selection of superior progenies. In total, 200 full-sib families were evaluated in two different areas in the North and Northwest regions of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The REML/BLUP procedure resulted in higher estimated gains than those obtained with classical biometric selection index methodologies and should be incorporated into the selection of progenies. The following indices resulted in higher gains in the characteristics of greatest economic importance: the classical selection index/values attributed by trial, via REML/BLUP, and the greatest genotypic values/expanded popcorn volume per hectare, via REML. The expanded popcorn volume per hectare characteristic enabled satisfactory gains in grain yield and popping expansion; this characteristic should be considered super-trait in popcorn breeding programs.

  14. Patch-based generative shape model and MDL model selection for statistical analysis of archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads; Brandt, Sami


    a patch-based dictionary for possible shapes, (2) building up a time-homogeneous Markov model to model the neighbourhood correlations between the patches, and (3) automatic selection of the model complexity by the minimum description length principle. The generative shape model is proposed...

  15. Selection of an Interval for Variable Shape Parameter in Approximation by Radial Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Biazar


    Full Text Available In radial basis function approximation, the shape parameter can be variable. The values of the variable shape parameter strategies are selected from an interval which is usually determined by trial and error. As yet there is not any algorithm for determining an appropriate interval, although there are some recipes for optimal values. In this paper, a novel algorithm for determining an interval is proposed. Different variable shape parameter strategies are examined. The results show that the determined interval significantly improved the accuracy and is suitable enough to count on in variable shape parameter strategies.

  16. Biometric evidence that sexual selection has shaped the hominin face.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M Weston

    Full Text Available We consider sex differences in human facial morphology in the context of developmental change. We show that at puberty, the height of the upper face, between the lip and the brow, develops differently in males and females, and that these differences are not explicable in terms of sex differences in body size. We find the same dimorphism in the faces of human ancestors. We propose that the relative shortening in men and lengthening in women of the anterior upper face at puberty is the mechanistic consequence of extreme maxillary rotation during ontogeny. A link between this developmental model and sexual dimorphism is made for the first time, and provides a new set of morphological criteria to sex human crania. This finding has important implications for the role of sexual selection in the evolution of anthropoid faces and for theories of human facial attractiveness.

  17. Properties shaping and repair of selected types of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar


    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of twofold use of TIG - Tungsten Inert Gas also known as GTA - Gas Tungsten Arc. First is surfacing by welding on cold and hot-cold to repair chromium cast iron with chromium content about 15%. Second is remelting with electric arc of selected gray (with pearlitic matrix and ductile (with ferritic-pearlitic matrix cast iron. Repair of cast iron elements was realized in order to cut out a casting defects. Defects decrease a usability of castings for constructional application and increase a manufacturing costs. Application of surface heat treatment guarantees mechanical properties i.e. hardness and wear resistance improvement. The result of investigations show possibility of castings repair by put on defects a good quality padding welds, which have comparable properties with base material. Use of electric arc surface heat treatment resulted in increase of hardness and wear resistance, which was measured on the basis of ASTM G 65 - 00 standard.

  18. Glycolysis selectively shapes the presynaptic action potential waveform. (United States)

    Lujan, Brendan; Kushmerick, Christopher; Banerjee, Tania Das; Dagda, Ruben K; Renden, Robert


    Mitochondria are major suppliers of cellular energy in neurons; however, utilization of energy from glycolysis vs. mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in the presynaptic compartment during neurotransmission is largely unknown. Using presynaptic and postsynaptic recordings from the mouse calyx of Held, we examined the effect of acute selective pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial OxPhos on multiple mechanisms regulating presynaptic function. Inhibition of glycolysis via glucose depletion and iodoacetic acid (1 mM) treatment, but not mitochondrial OxPhos, rapidly altered transmission, resulting in highly variable, oscillating responses. At reduced temperature, this same treatment attenuated synaptic transmission because of a smaller and broader presynaptic action potential (AP) waveform. We show via experimental manipulation and ion channel modeling that the altered AP waveform results in smaller Ca 2+ influx, resulting in attenuated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). In contrast, inhibition of mitochondria-derived ATP production via extracellular pyruvate depletion and bath-applied oligomycin (1 μM) had no significant effect on Ca 2+ influx and did not alter the AP waveform within the same time frame (up to 30 min), and the resultant EPSC remained unaffected. Glycolysis, but not mitochondrial OxPhos, is thus required to maintain basal synaptic transmission at the presynaptic terminal. We propose that glycolytic enzymes are closely apposed to ATP-dependent ion pumps on the presynaptic membrane. Our results indicate a novel mechanism for the effect of hypoglycemia on neurotransmission. Attenuated transmission likely results from a single presynaptic mechanism at reduced temperature: a slower, smaller AP, before and independent of any effect on synaptic vesicle release or receptor activity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Intraspecific shape variation in horseshoe crabs: the importance of sexual and natural selection for local adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby, Søren; Nielsen, Kasper Sauer Kollerup; Bussarawit, Somchai


    A morphometric analysis of the body shape of three species of horseshoe crabs was undertaken in order to infer the importance of natural and sexual selection. It was expected that natural selection would be most intense, leading to highest regional differentiation, in the American species Limulus...... polyphemus, which has the largest climatic differences between different populations. Local adaptation driven by sexual selection was expected in males but not females because horseshoe crab mating behaviour leads to competition between males, but not between females. Three hundred fifty-nine horseshoe crabs....... Differences in shape variation between sexes were tested with F-tests, which showed lower intrapopulation morphometric variation in males than females. These results indicate a lower degree of local adaptation on body shape in C. rotundicauda and T. gigas than in L. polyphemus and a lower degree of local...

  20. Selective nature of end-Triassic tetrapod extinctions consistent with scenarios of extreme volcanic winters not a super-greenhouse (United States)

    Olsen, P. E.


    Eruptions of the giant Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) are temporally linked to the end-Triassic extinction event (ETE). Continental tetrapod extinctions were highly selective affecting specific higher taxa and different latitudinal zones. The Late Triassic tropics were strongly dominated by diverse crocodile-line archosaurs while dinosaurs were rare, represented only by relatively small carnivores. Triassic high-latitudes had higher dinosaur diversity with abundant and often large dinosaurian herbivores. Only two small-bodied crocodile-line lineages survived the ETE, with a near-global homogenization of continental assemblages. Herbivorous dinosaurs spread globally while carnivorous dinosaurs became much larger. CAMP-sourced CO2 doublings (1,2) over 10s to 100s of thousands of years produced significant warming and some tropical lethality, but how this led to higher latitude extinctions is hard to see. In contrast, the taxonomic and geographic selectivity is consistent with many brief but severe sulfate "volcanic winters" (3) plausibly leading to freezing tropics. Crocodile-line archosaurs, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs and were relatively resistant to heat induced water stress, but the Crocodile-line archosaurs lacked insolation, while the latter had it. The lengthy super-greenhouse events allowed small crocodile-line archosaurs to escape to cooler climes or burrow, but during volcanic winters larger forms had nowhere to go. I hypothesize that crocodile-line and other herptile extinctions resulted from extreme cold events, for which they had no adaptations. In contrast, dinosaurs, other insulated forms, as well as burrowers survived the cold. This hypothesis is consistent with global post-ETE faunal homogenization, when the higher latitude dinosaurs spreading globally and becoming ecologically dominant. Tropical freezing predicts that ice crystal impressions should be found in facies that typically have reptile footprints in eastern North America deposited

  1. Development of new force sensor using super-multilayer alternating laminated film comprising piezoelectric poly(l-lactic acid) and poly(d-lactic acid) films in the shape of a rectangle with round corners (United States)

    Tajitsu, Yoshiro; Adachi, Yu; Nakatsuji, Takahiro; Tamura, Masataka; Sakamoto, Kousei; Tone, Takaaki; Imoto, Kenji; Kato, Atsuko; Yoshida, Testuo


    A new super-multilayer alternating laminated film in the shape of a rectangle with round corners has been developed. The super-multilayer film, which comprised piezoelectric poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactic acid) (PDLA) films, was wound with the number of turns on the order of from 100 to 1000 to form piezoelectric rolls. These piezoelectric rolls could generate an induced voltage of more than 95% of the initial voltage for over 10 s when a constant load was applied. The desired duration and magnitude of the piezoelectric response voltage were realized by adjusting the number of turns of the piezoelectric rolls. Similarly to many other conventional piezoelectrics, the piezoelectric rolls enable instantaneous load-dependent voltage generation and attenuation. The piezoelectric rolls are also lighter than conventional piezoelectric ceramics and can be used as a novel pressure sensor.

  2. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: the intrinsic shape of kinematically selected galaxies (United States)

    Foster, C.; van de Sande, J.; D'Eugenio, F.; Cortese, L.; McDermid, R. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Bryant, J.; Croom, S. M.; Goodwin, M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Scott, N.; Taranu, D. S.; Tonini, C.; Zafar, T.


    Using the stellar kinematic maps and ancillary imaging data from the Sydney AAO Multi Integral field (SAMI) Galaxy Survey, the intrinsic shape of kinematically selected samples of galaxies is inferred. We implement an efficient and optimized algorithm to fit the intrinsic shape of galaxies using an established method to simultaneously invert the distributions of apparent ellipticities and kinematic misalignments. The algorithm output compares favourably with previous studies of the intrinsic shape of galaxies based on imaging alone and our re-analysis of the ATLAS3D data. Our results indicate that most galaxies are oblate axisymmetric. We show empirically that the intrinsic shape of galaxies varies as a function of their rotational support as measured by the `spin' parameter proxy λ _{R_e}. In particular, low-spin systems have a higher occurrence of triaxiality, while high-spin systems are more intrinsically flattened and axisymmetric. The intrinsic shape of galaxies is linked to their formation and merger histories. Galaxies with high-spin values have intrinsic shapes consistent with dissipational minor mergers, while the intrinsic shape of low-spin systems is consistent with dissipationless multimerger assembly histories. This range in assembly histories inferred from intrinsic shapes is broadly consistent with expectations from cosmological simulations.

  3. On the selection of shape and orientation of a greenhouse. Thermal modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, Punjab (India)


    In this study, five most commonly used single span shapes of greenhouses viz. even-span, uneven-span, vinery, modified arch and quonset type have been selected for comparison. The length, width and height (at the center) are kept same for all the selected shapes. A mathematical model for computing transmitted total solar radiation (beam, diffused and ground reflected) at each hour, for each month and at any latitude for the selected geometry greenhouses (through each wall, inclined surfaces and roofs) is developed for both east-west and north-south orientation. Computed transmitted solar radiation is then introduced in a transient thermal model developed to compute hourly inside air temperature for each shape and orientation. Experimental validation of both the models is carried out for the measured total solar radiation and inside air temperature for an east-west orientation, even-span greenhouse (for a typical day in summer) at Ludhiana (31 N and 77 E) Punjab, India. During the experimentation, capsicum crop is grown inside the greenhouse. The predicted and measured values are in close agreement. Results show that uneven-span shape greenhouse receives the maximum and quonset shape receives the minimum solar radiation during each month of the year at all latitudes. East-west orientation is the best suited for year round greenhouse applications at all latitudes as this orientation receives greater total radiation in winter and less in summer except near the equator. Results also show that inside air temperature rise depends upon the shape of the greenhouse and this variation from uneven-span shape to quonset shape is 4.6 C (maximum) and 3.5 C (daily average) at 31 N latitude. (author)

  4. Fusion and Visualization of HiRISE Super-Resolution, Shape-from-Shading DTM with MER Stereo 3D Reconstructions (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Paar, G.; Muller, J. P.; Tao, Y.; Tyler, L.; Traxler, C.; Hesina, G.; Huber, B.; Nauschnegg, B.


    The FP7-SPACE project PRoViDE has assembled a major portion of the imaging data gathered so far from rover vehicles, landers and probes on extra-terrestrial planetary surfaces into a unique database, bringing them into a common planetary geospatial context and providing access to a complete set of 3D vision products. One major aim of PRoViDE is the fusion between orbiter and rover image products. To close the gap between HiRISE imaging resolution (down to 25cm for the OrthoRectified image (ORI), down to 1m for the DTM) and surface vision products, images from multiple HiRISE acquisitions are combined into a super resolution data set (Tao & Muller, 2014), increasing to 5cm resolution the Ortho images. Furthermore, shape-from-shading is applied to one of the ORIs at its original resolution for refinement of the HiRISE DTM, leading to DTM ground resolutions of up to 25 cm. After texture-based co-registration with these refined orbiter 3D products, MER PanCam and NavCam 3D image products can be smoothly pasted into a multi-resolution 3D data representation. Typical results from the MER mission are presented by a dedicated real-time rendering tool which is fed by a hierarchical 3D data structure that is able to cope with all involved scales from global planetary scale down to close-up reconstructions in the mm range. This allows us to explore and analyze the geological characteristics of rock outcrops, for example the detailed geometry and internal features of sedimentary rock layers, to aid paleoenvironmental interpretation. This integrated approach enables more efficient development of geological models of martian rock outcrops. The rendering tool also provides measurement tools to obtain geospatial data of surface points and distances between them. We report on novel scientific use cases and the added value potential of the resultant high-quality data set and presentation means to support further geologic investigations. The research leading to these results has

  5. [Super selective transcatheter arterial embolization for treatment of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: report of 21 cases]. (United States)

    Yan, Jie-yu; Wang, Mao-qiang; Liu, Feng-yong; Wang, Zhi-jun; Duan, Feng; Song, Peng


    To evaluate the efficiency and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for treatment of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). From January 2005 to December 2010, super selective TAE was performed for 21 patients with FNH. The patients consisted of 16 men and 5 women with age range of 16 to 44 years (mean age, 28 ± 12). Liver contrast enhancement CT and ultrasonography (US) were performed in all patients, dynamic contrast enhancement MRI was performed in 17 patients. All patients underwent percutaneous needle biopsies and the diagnosis of FNH was proven histologically. The indications for TAE were patients with progressive increase in size of FNH, who were not candidates for surgical treatment, or who refused for surgery. Embolic materials used in this series included emulsion of iodized oil and bleomycin and polyvinyl alcohol particle (PVA). Follow-up examinations included the routine blood tests, liver and renal function tests, US, CT or MRI. Eighteen patients (85.7%) had a single solitary focus and 3 (14.3%) had multiple foci. The diameter of the mass varied from 3.5 cm to 9.5 cm with a mean of 5.5 cm (5.5 ± 3.0 cm). All patients presented angiographically with characteristic findings, such as feeding artery that was distributed with a spinning wheel appearance, an extensive hypervascular mass, without arterio-venous shunt or portal vein invasion. A single session of TAE was performed in all patients. Technical success of TAE was achieved in all cases. No major complications were encountered in any of our patients. All patients were regularly followed up ranging from 1 to 6 years (3.5 ± 2.0) and they were healthy without recurrence. Marked reduction in the size of the FNH without arterial blood supply was found in 16 patients, and almost complete resolution of the FNH was observed in 6 patients. TAE is a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with FNH. TAE could control FNH very well and even could be considered as a radical treatment.

  6. Toward optimization of in vivo super-resolution ultrasound imaging using size-selected microbubble contrast agents. (United States)

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Xiong, Fangyuan; Sirsi, Shashank R; Shaul, Philip W; Mattrey, Robert F; Hoyt, Kenneth


    Microvascular processes play key roles in many diseases including diabetes. Improved understanding of the microvascular changes involved in disease development could offer crucial insight into the relationship of these changes to disease pathogenesis. Super-resolution ultrasound (SR-US) imaging has showed the potential to visualize microvascular detail down to the capillary level (i.e., subwavelength resolution), but optimization is still necessary. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo SR-US imaging of skeletal muscle microvascularity using microbubble (MB) contrast agents of various size and concentration while evaluating different ultrasound (US) system level parameters such as imaging frame rate and image acquisition length. An US system equipped with a linear array transducer was used in a harmonic imaging mode at low transmit power. C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet were used in this study. An assortment of size-selected MB contrast agents (1-2 μm, 3-4 μm, and 5-8 μm in diameter) were slowly infused in the tail vein at various doses (1.25 × 10(7) , 2.5 × 10(7) , or 5 × 10(7)  MBs). US image data were collected before MB injection and thereafter for 10 min at 30 frames per s (fps). The US transducer was fixed throughout and between each imaging period to help capture microvascular patterns along the same image plane. An adaptive SR-US image processing technique was implemented using custom Matlab software. Experimental findings illustrate the use of larger MB results in better SR-US images in terms of skeletal muscle microvascular detail. A dose of 2.5 × 10(7)  MBs resulted in SR-US images with optimal spatial resolution. An US imaging rate of at least 20 fps and image acquisition length of at least 8 min also resulted in SR-US images with pronounced microvascular detail. This study indicates that MB size and dose and US system imaging rate and data acquisition length have significant impact on the quality of in vivo SR

  7. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species. (United States)

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert


    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation.

  8. Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu


    A sorption experiment using a gas chromatograph is described that can help students understand the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites in the subnano regime. Hexane isomers are used as probe molecules to demonstrate the sorption phenomena. In the experiment, a zeolite adsorbs certain hexane isomers with molecular sizes smaller than…

  9. The effect of boundary shape and minima selection on single limb stance postural stability. (United States)

    Cobb, Stephen C; Joshi, Mukta N; Bazett-Jones, David M; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E


    The effect of time-to-boundary minima selection and stability limit definition was investigated during eyes open and eyes closed condition single-limb stance postural stability. Anteroposterior and mediolateral time-to-boundary were computed using the mean and standard deviation (SD) of all time-to-boundary minima during a trial, and the mean and SD of only the 10 absolute time-to-boundary minima. Time-to-boundary with rectangular, trapezoidal, and multisegmented polygon defined stability limits were also calculated. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test results revealed significant medium-large correlations between anteroposterior and mediolateral time-to-boundary scores calculated using both the mean and SD of the 10 absolute time-to-boundary minima and of all the time-to-boundary minima. Friedman test results revealed significant mediolateral time-to-boundary differences between boundary shape definitions. Follow-up Wilcoxon signed rank test results revealed significant differences between the rectangular boundary shape and both the trapezoidal and multisegmented polygon shapes during the eyes open and eyes closed conditions when both the mean and the SD of the time-to-boundary minima were used to represent postural stability. Significant differences were also revealed between the trapezoidal and multisegmented polygon definitions during the eyes open condition when the SD of the time-to-boundary minima was used to represent postural stability. Based on these findings, the overall results (i.e., stable versus unstable participants or groups) of studies computing postural stability using different minima selection can be compared. With respect to boundary shape, the trapezoid or multisegmented polygon shapes may be more appropriate than the rectangular shape as they more closely represent the anatomical shape of the stance foot.

  10. Size- and shape-selective isostructural microporous metal-organic frameworks with different effective aperture sizes. (United States)

    Liu, Xinfang; Oh, Minhak; Lah, Myoung Soo


    Two isostructural metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) having micropores of the same "static aperture size" but different "effective aperture size" have been prepared using 5-(pyridin-3-ylethynyl)isophthalic acid as a ligand having two different types of functional units, an isophthalate (iph) unit and a pyridyl unit, simultaneously in a single ligand. The combination of iph unit and Cu (or Zn) ion led to two-dimensional layers of Kagomé (kgm) net topology, the layers being further pillared by the internal auxiliary pyridyl unit to form a three-dimensional microporous framework having two different types of cage-like pores, cage A and cage B, with different aperture sizes and shapes. (1) The MOFs can distinguish the adsorbates (N(2)/Ar) not based on the widely used kinetic diameters of the adsorbates but based on the minimum diameters of the adsorbates, which are more shape dependent. While cage A with a sufficiently large aperture size compared with the size of the adsorbates does not show any size selectivity, cage B with an approximate size match between the adsorbates and the pore apertures shows shape selectivity for the adsorbates. The smaller but spherically shaped Ar atom is not allowed into the pore with the oval-shaped aperture; however, the larger linear N(2) molecule is allowed into the pore with the oval-shaped aperture. (2) Even though the two isostructural MOFs have the same static aperture size of cage B, they show different size selectivity for the adsorbates based on the effective aperture size, which reflects the different extents of the framework flexibility. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid-carbon paste electrode as a super selectivity sensor: application to potentiometric monitoring of mercury ion(II). (United States)

    Khani, Hadi; Rofouei, Mohammad Kazem; Arab, Pezhman; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Vafaei, Zahra


    In this article a super selectivity potentiometric methodology, using an ion-selective electrode, for determination of mercury ion(II) in aqueous solution was investigated. For modification of the electrode a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM·BF(4)), was applied as a super conductive binder, and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was used in the composition of the carbon paste to improve conductivity and transduction of chemical signal to electrical signal. Moreover, incorporation of 1-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-3-(3-nitrophenyl)triazene (ENTZ) as an ionophore to this composition caused to significantly enhanced selectivity toward Hg(II) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0×10(-4) to 5.0×10(-9) M with a lower detection limit of 2.5×10(-9) M (0.5 ppb) and a Nernstian slope of 29.3±(0.2) mV decade(-1) of Hg(II) activity. The electrode has a short response time (∼5s) and can be used for at least 55 days without any considerable divergence in potentials, and the working pH range was 2.0-4.3. Finally, the proposed electrode was successfully used as an indicator for potentiometric determination of Hg(II) in dental amalgam and water samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antagonistic natural and sexual selection on wing shape in a scrambling damselfly. (United States)

    Outomuro, David; Söderquist, Linus; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Cortázar-Chinarro, María; Lundgren, Cecilia; Johansson, Frank


    Wings are a key trait underlying the evolutionary success of birds, bats, and insects. For over a century, researchers have studied the form and function of wings to understand the determinants of flight performance. However, to understand the evolution of flight, we must comprehend not only how morphology affects performance, but also how morphology and performance affect fitness. Natural and sexual selection can either reinforce or oppose each other, but their role in flight evolution remains poorly understood. Here, we show that wing shape is under antagonistic selection with regard to sexual and natural selection in a scrambling damselfly. In a field setting, natural selection (survival) favored individuals with long and slender forewings and short and broad hindwings. In contrast, sexual selection (mating success) favored individuals with short and broad forewings and narrow-based hindwings. Both types of selection favored individuals of intermediate size. These results suggest that individuals face a trade-off between flight energetics and maneuverability and demonstrate how natural and sexual selection can operate in similar directions for some wing traits, that is, wing size, but antagonistically for others, that is, wing shape. Furthermore, they highlight the need to study flight evolution within the context of species' mating systems and mating behaviors. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Epistasis and natural selection shape the mutational architecture of complex traits. (United States)

    Jones, Adam G; Bürger, Reinhard; Arnold, Stevan J


    The evolutionary trajectories of complex traits are constrained by levels of genetic variation as well as genetic correlations among traits. As the ultimate source of all genetic variation is mutation, the distribution of mutations entering populations profoundly affects standing variation and genetic correlations. Here we use an individual-based simulation model to investigate how natural selection and gene interactions (that is, epistasis) shape the evolution of mutational processes affecting complex traits. We find that the presence of epistasis allows natural selection to mould the distribution of mutations, such that mutational effects align with the selection surface. Consequently, novel mutations tend to be more compatible with the current forces of selection acting on the population. These results suggest that in many cases mutational effects should be seen as an outcome of natural selection rather than as an unbiased source of genetic variation that is independent of other evolutionary processes.

  14. Picture Yourself Healthy-How Users Select Mediated Images to Shape Health Intentions and Behaviors. (United States)

    Wilson, Brianna; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Robinson, Melissa J


    Hypotheses on how selective viewing of mediated images may sustain eating habits and aid healthier eating were derived from the Selective Exposure Self- and Affect Management model. The model posits that individuals select to view media to manage their self-concepts-and that this exposure affects subsequent intentions and behaviors. Participants (N = 265) selectively viewed Instagram-like postings featuring healthy or unhealthy food imagery. Beforehand, participants reported habits and perceived expert recommendations regarding food intake. After viewing postings, participants chose gift cards representing healthy or unhealthy food purchases and indicated food intake intentions. Results show that existing eating behavior predicts selective exposure to healthy or unhealthy food imagery, which in turn shapes gift card choices and (both healthy and unhealthy) food intake intentions.

  15. Microarray Analysis of Replicate Populations Selected Against a Wing-Shape Correlation in Drosophila melanogaster (United States)

    Weber, Kenneth E.; Greenspan, Ralph J.; Chicoine, David R.; Fiorentino, Katia; Thomas, Mary H.; Knight, Theresa L.


    We selected bidirectionally to change the phenotypic correlation between two wing dimensions in Drosophila melanogaster and measured gene expression differences in late third instar wing disks, using microarrays. We tested an array of 12 selected lines, including 10 from a Massachusetts population (5 divergently selected pairs) and 2 from a California population (1 divergently selected pair). In the Massachusetts replicates, 29 loci showed consistent, significant expression differences in all 5 line-pair comparisons. However, the significant loci in the California lines were almost completely different from these. The disparity between responding genes in different gene pools confirms recent evidence that surprisingly large numbers of loci can affect wing shape. Our results also show that with well-replicated selection lines, of large effective size, the numbers of candidate genes in microarray-based searches can be reduced to realistic levels. PMID:18245369

  16. Characterization and Design of Zeolite Catalysts Solid Acidity, Shape Selectivity and Loading Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Niwa, Miki; Okumura, Kazu


    Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents. Zeolite-based catalysts are used by industrial chemical companies in the interconversion of hydrocarbons and the alkylation of aromatic compounds. The current book deals with the characterization of specific properties of Zeolites and calculations for the design of catalysts. Measurements and utilization of solid acidity, shape selectivity, and loading properties, that are three prominent properties of a Zeolite catalyst, are treated in detail. These features concern chemical vapor deposition of silica, shape selectivity, loading properties, solid activity, Brønsted or Lewis character, ammonia temperature programmed desorption, control of the pore-opening size by chemical vapor deposition of silica and XAFS analysis of metals being highly dispersed inside and outside a framework.

  17. Velocity and shape selection of dendritic crystals in a forced flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, X. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Beckermann, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Karma, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)


    The phase-field method is used to simulate the two-dimensional growth of a dendritic crystal in a forced flow. The selection of the velocity and shape of the dendrite tip is investigated as a function of flow rate, growth direction relative to the flow, as well as anisotropy strength, and the results for the upstream growing tips are compared to existing theoretical predictions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. Adaptive feature selection using v-shaped binary particle swarm optimization. (United States)

    Teng, Xuyang; Dong, Hongbin; Zhou, Xiurong


    Feature selection is an important preprocessing method in machine learning and data mining. This process can be used not only to reduce the amount of data to be analyzed but also to build models with stronger interpretability based on fewer features. Traditional feature selection methods evaluate the dependency and redundancy of features separately, which leads to a lack of measurement of their combined effect. Moreover, a greedy search considers only the optimization of the current round and thus cannot be a global search. To evaluate the combined effect of different subsets in the entire feature space, an adaptive feature selection method based on V-shaped binary particle swarm optimization is proposed. In this method, the fitness function is constructed using the correlation information entropy. Feature subsets are regarded as individuals in a population, and the feature space is searched using V-shaped binary particle swarm optimization. The above procedure overcomes the hard constraint on the number of features, enables the combined evaluation of each subset as a whole, and improves the search ability of conventional binary particle swarm optimization. The proposed algorithm is an adaptive method with respect to the number of feature subsets. The experimental results show the advantages of optimizing the feature subsets using the V-shaped transfer function and confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of the feature subsets obtained under different classifiers.

  19. Selective on site separation and detection of molecules in diluted solutions with super-hydrophobic clusters of plasmonic nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco T.


    Super-hydrophobic surfaces are bio-inspired interfaces with a superficial texture that, in its most common evolution, is formed by a periodic lattice of silicon micro-pillars. Similar surfaces reveal superior properties compared to conventional flat surfaces, including very low friction coefficients. In this work, we modified meso-porous silicon micro-pillars to incorporate networks of metal nano-particles into the porous matrix. In doing so, we obtained a multifunctional-hierarchical system in which (i) at a larger micrometric scale, the super-hydrophobic pillars bring the molecules dissolved in an ultralow-concentration droplet to the active sites of the device, (ii) at an intermediate meso-scale, the meso-porous silicon film adsorbs the low molecular weight content of the solution and, (iii) at a smaller nanometric scale, the aggregates of silver nano-particles would measure the target molecules with unprecedented sensitivity. In the results, we demonstrated how this scheme can be utilized to isolate and detect small molecules in a diluted solution in very low abundance ranges. The presented platform, coupled to Raman or other spectroscopy techniques, is a realistic candidate for the protein expression profiling of biological fluids. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  20. “Stereoscopic” 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework: Design, synthesis and selective sorption towards uranium at high acidic condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Bo; Bai, Chiyao; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Rui; Zhang, Meicheng; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Phosphorus element was first introduced into covalent organic frameworks (COFs). • Monomer in C{sub 3}-like spatial configuration was first used to construct COF materials. • A new 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based sorbent (MPCOF) was synthesized. • Separation of U (VI) by MPCOF at high acidic media (up to 1M HNO{sub 3}) was achieved. • Selectivity for U (VI) separation from multi-ion solution can reach unreported 92%. - Abstract: So far, only five primary elements (C, H, O, N and B) and two types of spatial configuration (C{sub 2}–C{sub 4}, C{sub 6} and T{sub d}) are reported to build the monomers for synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which have partially limited the route selection for accessing COFs with new topological structure and novel properties. Here, we reported the design and synthesis of a new “stereoscopic” 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework (MPCOF) by using hexachorocyclotriphosphazene (a P-containing monomer in a C{sub 3}-like spatial configuration) and p-phenylenediamine (a linker). The as-synthesized MPCOF shows high crystallinity, relatively high heat and acid stability and distinctive super-microporous structure with narrow pore-size distributions ranging from 1.0–2.1 nm. The results of batch sorption experiments with a multi-ion solution containing 12 co-existing cations show that in the pH range of 1–2.5, MPCOF exhibits excellent separation efficiency for uranium with adsorption capacity more than 71 mg/g and selectivity up to record-breaking 92%, and furthermore, an unreported sorption capacity (>50 mg/g) and selectivity (>60%) were obtained under strong acidic condition (1 M HNO{sub 3}). Studies on sorption mechanism indicate that the uranium separation by MPCOF in acidic solution is realized mainly through both intra-particle diffusion and size-sieving effect.

  1. Shape-shift: semicircular canal morphology responds to selective breeding for increased locomotor activity. (United States)

    Schutz, Heidi; Jamniczky, Heather A; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Garland, Theodore


    Variation in semicircular canal morphology correlates with locomotor agility among species of mammals. An experimental evolutionary mouse model was used to test the hypotheses that semicircular canal morphology (1) evolves in response to selective breeding for increased locomotor activity, (2) exhibits phenotypic plasticity in response to early-onset chronic exercise, and (3) is unique in individuals possessing the minimuscle phenotype. We examined responses in canal morphology to prolonged wheel access and selection in laboratory mice from four replicate lines bred for high voluntary wheel-running (HR) and four nonselected control (C) lines. Linear measurements and a suite of 3D landmarks were obtained from 3D reconstructions of μCT-scanned mouse crania (μCT is microcomputed tomography). Body mass was smaller in HR than C mice and was a significant predictor of both radius of curvature and 3D canal shape. Controlling for body mass, radius of curvature did not differ statistically between HR and C mice, but semicircular canal shape did. Neither chronic wheel access nor minimuscle affected radius of curvature or canal shape These findings suggest that semicircular canal morphology is responsive to evolutionary changes in locomotor behavior, but the pattern of response is potentially different in small- versus large-bodied species. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. New algorithm for mode shape estimation based on ambient signals considering model order selection (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Lu, Chao; Han, Yingduo


    Using time-synchronized phasor measurements, a new signal processing approach for estimating the electromechanical mode shape properties from ambient signals is proposed. In this method, Bayesian information criterion and the ARMA(2 n,2 n - 1) modeling procedure are first used to automatically select the optimal model order, and the auto regressive moving averaging models are built based on ambient data, then the low-frequency oscillation modal frequency and damping ratio are identified. Next, Prony models of ambient signals are presented, and the mode shape information of multiple dominant interarea oscillation modes are simultaneously estimated. The advantages of the new ARMA-P method are demonstrated by its applications in both a simulation system and measured data from China Southern Power Grid.

  3. Selective discrimination of small hydrophobic biomolecules based on ion-current rectification in conically shaped nanochannel. (United States)

    Guo, Zhijun; Wang, Jiahai; Wang, Erkang


    In this study, based on ion-current rectification in the conically shaped nanochannel embedded in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane, we have selectively discriminated three small biomolecules. Because three positive biomolecules (Hoechst 33342, Propidium and Bupivacaine) have different hydrophobicities, their interactions with inside wall of the conical nanochannel are different and their binding affinities can be derived from Langmuir absorption model. Therefore, we can successfully discriminate these small biomolecules. The highest binding constant was obtained for the small molecule with highest hydrophobicity. Another interesting result is that the detection limit for the small molecule with the highest binding constant shifts to submicromole. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Four super water-stable lanthanide-organic frameworks with active uncoordinated carboxylic and pyridyl groups for selective luminescence sensing of Fe(3.). (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Tong; Yang, Guo-Ping; Liu, Bo; Yan, Yang-Tian; Xi, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Yao-Yu


    Four super water-stable isostructural lanthanide-organic frameworks, [Ln(HL)(H2O)2]n·2H2O (1-Ln) (Ln = Eu, Tb, Nd and Sm), have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions with 3,5-di(2,4-dicarboxylphenyl)pyridine (H4L) and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O. 1-Ln shows a novel 2D layered structure with uncoordinated carboxylic and pyridyl groups pointing to the interior of interlayer channels. The luminescent properties of 1-Eu in the solid state and one steeped in aqueous solution have been measured, which show excellent luminescence and good luminescent stability in water. Next 1-Eu was chosen as a probe for sensing different metal ions. Consequently, 1-Eu exhibits a highly selective response to Fe(3+) through the luminescence quenching effect in aqueous solutions. The probable mechanisms of the quenching effects have been investigated in detail.

  5. Inhibition shapes selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus of awake mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary eMayko


    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC is a major center for integration of auditory information as itreceives ascending projections from a variety of brainstem nuclei as well as descending projectionsfrom the thalamus and auditory cortex. The ascending projections are both excitatory andinhibitory and their convergence at the IC results in a microcircuitry that is important forshaping responses to simple, binaural, and modulated sounds in the IC. Here, we examined therole inhibition plays in shaping selectivity to vocalizations in the IC of awake, normal-hearingadult mice (CBA/CaJ strain. Neurons in the IC of mice show selectivity in their responses tovocalizations, and we hypothesized that this selectivity is created by inhibitory microcircuitryin the IC. We compared single unit responses in the IC to pure tones and a variety of ultrasonicmouse vocalizations before and after iontophoretic application of GABAA receptor (GABAARand glycine receptor (GlyR antagonists. The most pronounced effects of blocking GABAAR andGlyR on IC neurons were to increase spike rates and broaden excitatory frequency tuning curvesin response to pure tone stimuli, and to decrease selectivity to vocalizations. Thus, inhibitionplays an important role in creating selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus.

  6. Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures. (United States)

    Motaung, D E; Mhlongo, G H; Nkosi, S S; Malgas, G F; Mwakikunga, B W; Coetsee, E; Swart, H C; Abdallah, H M I; Moyo, T; Ray, S S


    We report on the room temperature ferromagnetism of various highly crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, such as hexagonally shaped nanorods, nanocups, nanosamoosas, nanoplatelets, and hierarchical nano "flower-like" structures. These materials were synthesized in a shape-selective manner using simple microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated the as-synthesized ZnO nanostructures to be stable and of high purity. Structural analyses showed that the ZnO nanostructures are polycrystalline and wurtzite in structure, without any secondary phases. Combination of electron paramagnetic resonance, photoluminescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed that the zinc vacancies (VZn) and singly ionized oxygen vacancies (VO(+)) located mainly on the ZnO surface are the primary defects in ZnO structures. A direct link between ferromagnetism and the relative occupancy of the VZn and VO(+) was established, suggesting that both VZn and VO(+) on the ZnO surface plays a vital role in modulating ferromagnetic behavior. An intense structure- and shape-dependent ferromagnetic signal with an effective g-value of >2.0 and a sextet hyperfine structure was shown. Moreover, a novel low field microwave absorption signal was observed and found to increase with an increase in microwave power and temperature.

  7. Neural correlates of facilitations in face learning by selective caricaturing of facial shape or reflectance. (United States)

    Itz, Marlena L; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Schulz, Claudia; Kaufmann, Jürgen M


    Spatially caricatured faces were recently shown to benefit face learning (Schulz et al., 2012a). Moreover, spatial information may be particularly important for encoding unfamiliar faces, but less so for recognizing familiar faces (Kaufmann et al., 2013). To directly test the possibility of a major role of reflectance information for the recognition of familiar faces, we compared effects of selective photorealistic caricaturing in either shape or reflectance on face learning and recognition. Participants learned 3D-photographed faces across different viewpoints, and different images were presented at learning and test. At test, performance benefits for both types of caricatures were modulated by familiarity: Benefits for learned faces were substantially larger for reflectance caricatures, whereas benefits for novel faces were numerically larger for shape caricatures. ERPs confirmed a consistent reduction of the occipitotemporal P200 (200-240 ms) by shape caricaturing, whereas the most prominent effect of reflectance caricaturing was seen in an enhanced posterior N250 (240-400 ms), a component that has been related to the activation of acquired face representations. Our results suggest that performance benefits for face learning caused by distinctive spatial versus reflectance information are mediated by different neural processes with different timing and support a prominent role of reflectance for the recognition of learned faces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feedbacks between community assembly and habitat selection shape variation in local colonization (United States)

    Kraus, J.M.; Vonesh, J.R.


    1. Non-consumptive effects of predators are increasingly recognized as important drivers of community assembly and structure. Specifically, habitat selection responses to top predators during colonization and oviposition can lead to large differences in aquatic community structure, composition and diversity. 2. These differences among communities due to predators may develop as communities assemble, potentially altering the relative quality of predator vs. predator-free habitats through time. If so, community assembly would be expected to modify the subsequent behavioural responses of colonists to habitats containing top predators. Here, we test this hypothesis by manipulating community assembly and the presence of fish in experimental ponds and measuring their independent and combined effects on patterns of colonization by insects and amphibians. 3. Assembly modified habitat selection of dytscid beetles and hylid frogs by decreasing or even reversing avoidance of pools containing blue-spotted sunfish (Enneacanthus gloriosus). However, not all habitat selection responses to fish depended on assembly history. Hydrophilid beetles and mosquitoes avoided fish while chironomids were attracted to fish pools, regardless of assembly history. 4. Our results show that community assembly causes taxa-dependent feedbacks that can modify avoidance of habitats containing a top predator. Thus, non-consumptive effects of a top predator on community structure change as communities assemble and effects of competitors and other predators combine with the direct effects of top predators to shape colonization. 5. This work reinforces the importance of habitat selection for community assembly in aquatic systems, while illustrating the range of factors that may influence colonization rates and resulting community structure. Directly manipulating communities both during colonization and post-colonization is critical for elucidating how sequential processes interact to shape communities.

  9. An event-related brain potential study of visual selective attention to conjunctions of color and shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, HGOM; Jakob, A; Heinze, HJ

    What cognitive processes underlie event-related brain potential (ERP) effects related to visual multidimensional selective attention and how are these processes organized? We recorded ERPs when participants attended to one conjunction of color, global shape and local shape and ignored other

  10. Shape-selective catalysis for synthesis of high-value chemicals from aromatics in coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    Liquids derived from coals contain numerous aromatic compounds. Many of the one- to four-ring aromatic and polar compounds can be converted into valuable chemicals. Economic analysis of the viability of liquefaction (and related conversion processes) may well produce a different result if some of the aromatics and phenolics are used for making high-value chemicals and some of the liquids for making high-quality fuels such as thermally stable aviation fuels. To make effective use of aromatics in coal liquids, we are studying shape-selective catalytic conversion of multi-ring compounds. The products of such reactions are intermediates for making value-added chemicals, monomers of advanced polymer materials, or components of advanced jet fuels. Two broad strategic approaches can be used for making chemicals and materials from coals. The first is the indirect approach: conversion of coals to liquids, followed by transformation of compounds in the liquids into value-added products. The second is direct conversion of coals to materials and chemicals. Both approaches are being explored in this laboratory. In this paper, we will give an account of our recent work on (1) shape-selective catalysis which demonstrates that high-value chemicals can be obtained from aromatic compounds by catalytic conversion over certain zeolites; and (2) catalytic graphitization of anthracites, which reveals that using some metal compounds promotes graphitization at lower temperatures and may lead to a more efficient process for making graphites from coals.

  11. Properties of Cu-Based Shape-Memory Alloys Prepared by Selective Laser Melting (United States)

    Gustmann, T.; dos Santos, J. M.; Gargarella, P.; Kühn, U.; Van Humbeeck, J.; Pauly, S.


    Two shape-memory alloys with the nominal compositions (in wt.%) Cu-11.85Al-3.2Ni-3Mn and Cu-11.35Al-3.2Ni-3Mn-0.5Zr were prepared by selective laser melting (SLM). The parameters were optimised to identify the process window, in which almost fully dense samples can be obtained. Their microstructures were analysed and correlated with the shape-memory behaviour as well as the mechanical properties. Suction-cast specimens were also produced for comparison. Mainly, β 1' martensite forms in all samples, but 0.5 wt.% of Zr stabilises the Y phase (Cu2AlZr), and its morphology depends on the thermal history and cooling rate. After annealing, the Y phase is primarily found at the grain boundaries hampering grain coarsening. Due to the relative high cooling rates applied here, Zr is mostly dissolved in the martensite in the as-prepared samples and it has a grain-refining effect only up to a critical cooling rate. The Zr-containing samples have increased transformation temperatures, and the Y phase seems to be responsible for the jerky martensite-to-austenite transformation. All the samples are relatively ductile because they mostly fracture in a transgranular manner, exhibiting the typical double yielding. Selective laser melting allows the adjustment of the transformation temperatures and the mechanical properties already during processing without the need of a subsequent heat treatment.

  12. A New Spectral Shape-Based Record Selection Approach Using Np and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Bojórquez


    Full Text Available With the aim to improve code-based real records selection criteria, an approach inspired in a parameter proxy of spectral shape, named Np, is analyzed. The procedure is based on several objectives aimed to minimize the record-to-record variability of the ground motions selected for seismic structural assessment. In order to select the best ground motion set of records to be used as an input for nonlinear dynamic analysis, an optimization approach is applied using genetic algorithms focuse on finding the set of records more compatible with a target spectrum and target Np values. The results of the new Np-based approach suggest that the real accelerograms obtained with this procedure, reduce the scatter of the response spectra as compared with the traditional approach; furthermore, the mean spectrum of the set of records is very similar to the target seismic design spectrum in the range of interest periods, and at the same time, similar Np values are obtained for the selected records and the target spectrum.

  13. A mixed methods study of how clinician 'super users' influence others during the implementation of electronic health records. (United States)

    Yuan, Christina T; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Nembhard, Ingrid M


    Despite the potential for electronic health records (EHRs) to improve patient safety and quality of care, the intended benefits of EHRs are not always realized because of implementation-related challenges. Enlisting clinician super users to provide frontline support to employees has been recommended to foster EHR implementation success. In some instances, their enlistment has been associated with implementation success; in other cases, it has not. Little is known about why some super users are more effective than others. The purpose of this study was to identify super users' mechanisms of influence and examine their effects on EHR implementation outcomes. We conducted a longitudinal (October 2012 - June 2013), comparative case study of super users' behaviors on two medical units of a large, academic hospital implementing a new EHR system. We assessed super users' behaviors by observing 29 clinicians and conducting 24 in-depth interviews. The implementation outcome, clinicians' information systems (IS) proficiency, was assessed using longitudinal survey data collected from 43 clinicians before and after the EHR start-date. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate the relationship between clinicians' IS proficiency and the clinical unit in which they worked. Super users on both units employed behaviors that supported and hindered implementation. Four super user behaviors differed between the two units: proactivity, depth of explanation, framing, and information-sharing. The unit in which super users were more proactive, provided more comprehensive explanations for their actions, used positive framing, and shared information more freely experienced significantly greater improvement in clinicians' IS proficiency (p =0.03). Use of the four behaviors varied as a function of super users' role engagement, which was influenced by how the two units' managers selected super users and shaped the implementation climate. Super users' behaviors in implementing EHRs

  14. The role of selection in shaping diversity of natural M. tuberculosis populations. (United States)

    Pepperell, Caitlin S; Casto, Amanda M; Kitchen, Andrew; Granka, Julie M; Cornejo, Omar E; Holmes, Edward C; Holmes, Eddie C; Birren, Bruce; Galagan, James; Feldman, Marcus W


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the cause of tuberculosis (TB), is estimated to infect a new host every second. While analyses of genetic data from natural populations of M.tb have emphasized the role of genetic drift in shaping patterns of diversity, the influence of natural selection on this successful pathogen is less well understood. We investigated the effects of natural selection on patterns of diversity in 63 globally extant genomes of M.tb and related pathogenic mycobacteria. We found evidence of strong purifying selection, with an estimated genome-wide selection coefficient equal to -9.5 × 10(-4) (95% CI -1.1 × 10(-3) to -6.8 × 10(-4)); this is several orders of magnitude higher than recent estimates for eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. We also identified different patterns of variation across categories of gene function. Genes involved in transport and metabolism of inorganic ions exhibited very low levels of non-synonymous polymorphism, equivalent to categories under strong purifying selection (essential and translation-associated genes). The highest levels of non-synonymous variation were seen in a group of transporter genes, likely due to either diversifying selection or local selective sweeps. In addition to selection, we identified other important influences on M.tb genetic diversity, such as a 25-fold expansion of global M.tb populations coincident with explosive growth in human populations (estimated timing 1684 C.E., 95% CI 1620-1713 C.E.). These results emphasize the parallel demographic histories of this obligate pathogen and its human host, and suggest that the dominant effect of selection on M.tb is removal of novel variants, with exceptions in an interesting group of genes involved in transportation and defense. We speculate that the hostile environment within a host imposes strict demands on M.tb physiology, and thus a substantial fitness cost for most new mutations. In this respect, obligate bacterial pathogens may differ from

  15. Directional selection has shaped the oral jaws of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. (United States)

    Albertson, R Craig; Streelman, J Todd; Kocher, Thomas D


    East African cichlid fishes represent one of the most striking examples of rapid and convergent evolutionary radiation among vertebrates. Models of ecological speciation would suggest that functional divergence in feeding morphology has contributed to the origin and maintenance of cichlid species diversity. However, definitive evidence for the action of natural selection has been missing. Here we use quantitative genetics to identify regions of the cichlid genome responsible for functionally important shape differences in the oral jaw apparatus. The consistent direction of effects for individual quantitative trait loci suggest that cichlid jaws and teeth evolved in response to strong, divergent selection. Moreover, several chromosomal regions contain a disproportionate number of quantitative trait loci, indicating a prominent role for pleiotropy or genetic linkage in the divergence of this character complex. Of particular interest are genomic intervals with concerted effects on both the length and height of the lower jaw. Coordinated changes in this area of the oral jaw apparatus are predicted to have direct consequences for the speed and strength of jaw movement. Taken together, our results imply that the rapid and replicative nature of cichlid trophic evolution is the result of directional selection on chromosomal packages that encode functionally linked aspects of the craniofacial skeleton.

  16. Direction-Selective Circuits Shape Noise to Ensure a Precise Population Code. (United States)

    Zylberberg, Joel; Cafaro, Jon; Turner, Maxwell H; Shea-Brown, Eric; Rieke, Fred


    Neural responses are noisy, and circuit structure can correlate this noise across neurons. Theoretical studies show that noise correlations can have diverse effects on population coding, but these studies rarely explore stimulus dependence of noise correlations. Here, we show that noise correlations in responses of ON-OFF direction-selective retinal ganglion cells are strongly stimulus dependent, and we uncover the circuit mechanisms producing this stimulus dependence. A population model based on these mechanistic studies shows that stimulus-dependent noise correlations improve the encoding of motion direction 2-fold compared to independent noise. This work demonstrates a mechanism by which a neural circuit effectively shapes its signal and noise in concert, minimizing corruption of signal by noise. Finally, we generalize our findings beyond direction coding in the retina and show that stimulus-dependent correlations will generally enhance information coding in populations of diversely tuned neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequential shape-selective adsorption and photocatalytic transformation of acrylonitrile production wastewater. (United States)

    Dai, Yunrong; Song, Yonghui; Tu, Xiang; Jiang, Yanpeng; Yuan, Yu


    Acrylonitrile production wastewater has been widely recognized as one type of refractory organic wastewater because of its complicated composition and low bioavailability. It usually contains plenty of micromolecular nitrile and pyridine, resulting in high chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. In this study, a novel microporous zeolite, CS-Z1, was developed as an adsorbent for rapidly shape-selective adsorption of the micromolecular pollutants from the acrylonitrile production wastewater, and a visible light-driven Ti-β-Bi2O3 photocatalysis was introduced to sequentially treat the residual macromolecular pollutants for complete purification. The adsorption processes by CS-Z1 were mostly achieved within the first 5 min, and the equilibrium was reached quickly after 30 min, where the CODCr, TOC and TN removal efficiencies of the wastewater were as high as 93.5%, 92.2% and 96.8%, respectively, much higher than those by other adsorbents. Furthermore, the adsorption efficiencies of CS-Z1 were barely affected by the variation of pH value and temperature, which was mainly attributed to the shape-selective adsorption mechanism of the CS-Z1 zeolite. The Ti-β-Bi2O3 photocatalysis could remove more than 95% of the residual macromolecular pollutants in the wastewater, where a synergistic mechanism of reduction-oxidation/polymerization was proposed. In a 108 h of CS-Z1 adsorption and Ti-β-Bi2O3 photocatalysis sequential process, the CODCr, TOC and TN concentrations was reduced to below 20, 7 and 5 mg L(-1), respectively, demonstrating the excellent practical potential of the sequential treatment system for acrylonitrile production wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Novel Method for Super-selective Coil Embolization Using an Extremely Soft Bare Coil through a Liquid Embolic Delivery Microcatheter (United States)

    HORIE, Nobutaka; HAYASHI, Kentaro; MORIKAWA, Minoru; IZUMO, Tsuyoshi; NAGATA, Izumi

    Endovascular coil embolization for intracranial aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), and hypervascular tumors are recognized as an effective adjunctive or curative treatment. In this setting, it is sometimes difficult to navigate a coil delivery microcatheter to the target point of a tiny, tortuous vessel. We herein present a case series of a novel method that enabled super-selective coil embolization using an extremely soft bare, electrodetachable coil (ED extrasoft® coil) through a liquid embolic delivery microcatheter (Marathon®). The Marathon® catheter was successfully placed at the target point of the tiny, tortuous vessel, and coil embolization was achieved in all 16 patients with 9 AVMs, 2 distal aneurysms, 2 AVFs, and 3 meningiomas. The primary ED extrasoft® coil and delivery wire have a very small radius, and the coil is rapidly detachable with an alarm notice from the generator even under Marathon® with one marker. We believe that this technique can provide safe and efficient embolization for selected patients. PMID:24670315

  19. Super-heptazethrene

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong


    The challenging synthesis of a laterally extended heptazethrene molecule, the super-heptazethrene derivative SHZ-CF3, is reported. This molecule was prepared using a strategy involving a multiple selective intramolecular Friedel–Crafts alkylation followed by oxidative dehydrogenation. Compound SHZ-CF3 exhibits an open-shell singlet diradical ground state with a much larger diradical character compared with the heptazethrene derivatives. An intermediate dibenzo-terrylene SHZ-2H was also obtained during the synthesis. This study provides a new synthetic method to access large-size quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons with unique physical properties.

  20. 3D human shape model adaptation by automatic frame selection and batch-mode optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, M.; Gavrila, D.M.


    We present a novel approach for 3D human body shape model adaptation to a sequence of multi-view images, given an initial shape model and initial pose sequence. In a first step, the most informative frames are determined by optimization of an objective function that maximizes a shape-texture

  1. Applications of Hilbert Curves to the Selection of Subsets of Spatially Inhomogeneous Observational Data for Cross-validation and to the Construction of Super- observations (United States)

    de Pondeca, M. S.; Park, S.; Purser, R.; Dimego, G.


    Cross-validation techniques provide robust methods for estimating the optimal parameters defining the covariance models employed by statistical variational assimilation schemes based on the given observational data. Provided the effective errors of the measurement data are statistically independent, the mean-square difference between a subset of these measurements and the collocated values of the analysis performed with these selected data withheld, which is the cross-validation statistic associated with this subset, can be used as an objective criterion for the tuning of covariance parameters. The use of multiple disjoint validation subsets to produce an aggregate validation statistic improves the reliability and robustness of the cross-validation method by reducing the random scatter that comes from the inevitable sampling effects. It is desirable that each validation subset contains representative data from all the geographical regions observed, but without the redundancy implied by selections that lead to close pairs or tight clusters in the validation subset, even if such clustering exists in the complete data set. We show that an application of a continuous space-filling Hilbert curve, to which all the data are mapped and sorted in the order of the curve's single real parameter, offers simple strategies for simultaneously constructing multiple disjoint validation subsets tending to possess the desired properties of representativeness and non-redundancy. We further show that a variant of this construction very naturally leads to an efficient partition of the data into subsets suitable for combination into super-observations that enable an effective reduction of the size of the measurement data sets with only minimal loss of actual information. The application of these ideas is illustrated in the context of NCEP's Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA) system for North American surface data.

  2. Application of Ni-Ti base shape memory and super-elastic alloys; Ni-Ti kikeijo kioku oyobi chodansei gokin no jitsuyoka jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Yokahama (Japan). Yakahama R and D Laboratories


    The thermal hysteresis Hs of Ni-Ti binary alloy was between 20K and 40K. Those values had no problem when the alloy was used as a one-way element, but were too large for the use of the alloy as a reversible two-way actuator. Hs decreased to 10 - 15K by copper addition, and shape memory effect due to R (Rhombohedral) phase transformation was found later which decreased Hs by a large margin. Hs became as small as about 2K with the repetition life of more than 1 million times, and Hs became 100K by utilizing micro-dispersion of niobium. Applications of Ni-Ti binary alloy, Ni-Ti-Cu alloy, R phase alloy, and Ni-Ti-Nb alloy were discussed. Superelasticity was put to practical use in such a surprising field as the core grid for the brassiere, and used also for medical corsets. The field of spectacles rim is a treasure-house for the application of superelasticity. Applications also to antennas for portable telephones and orthodontic wire are successful. 30 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Morpho morphometrics: Shared ancestry and selection drive the evolution of wing size and shape in Morpho butterflies. (United States)

    Chazot, Nicolas; Panara, Stephen; Zilbermann, Nicolas; Blandin, Patrick; Le Poul, Yann; Cornette, Raphaël; Elias, Marianne; Debat, Vincent


    Butterfly wings harbor highly diverse phenotypes and are involved in many functions. Wing size and shape result from interactions between adaptive processes, phylogenetic history, and developmental constraints, which are complex to disentangle. Here, we focus on the genus Morpho (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, 30 species), which presents a high diversity of sizes, shapes, and color patterns. First, we generate a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of these 30 species. Next, using 911 collection specimens, we quantify the variation of wing size and shape across species, to assess the importance of shared ancestry, microhabitat use, and sexual selection in the evolution of the wings. While accounting for phylogenetic and allometric effects, we detect a significant difference in wing shape but not size among microhabitats. Fore and hindwings covary at the individual and species levels, and the covariation differs among microhabitats. However, the microhabitat structure in covariation disappears when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Our results demonstrate that microhabitat has driven wing shape evolution, although it has not strongly affected forewing and hindwing integration. We also found that sexual dimorphism of forewing shape and color pattern are coupled, suggesting a common selective force. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Validation of planning-free vessel-encoded pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MR imaging as territorial-ASL strategy by comparison to super-selective p-CASL MRI. (United States)

    Hartkamp, Nolan S; Helle, Michael; Chappell, Michael A; Okell, Thomas W; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Bokkers, Reinoud P H; van Osch, Matthias J P


    Vessel-encoded (VE) pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (p-CASL) is a territorial ASL (T-ASL) technique to identify the perfusion territories of cerebral arteries. The aim of this study was to validate the output of three Vessel-encoded p-CASL image processing methods, k-means clustering with and without subsequent linear analysis and a Bayesian framework, by comparison with the perfusion maps acquired with super-selective p-CASL. The comparison was done quantitatively using the Hausdorff distance and Dice similarity coefficient in the territories of the right and left internal carotid arteries, the basilar artery, and the right and left vertebral arteries. A qualitative comparison was done in the areas of the anterior and posterior circulation, and the deep gray matter. The overall agreement between the Vessel-encoded p-CASL image processing methods and super-selective p-CASL was good; with the difference that the linear analysis and the Bayesian framework were able to detect mixed perfusion. Planning-free Vessel-encoded p-CASL with k-means clustering appears suitable as a general purpose T-ASL strategy, but to determine mixed perfusion a combination with linear analysis, or the Bayesian framework is preferable, which are superior in this regard. To accurately determine the perfusion territory of a single vessel, super-selective p-CASL is still recommended. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genomic architecture of habitat-related divergence and signature of directional selection in the body shapes of Gnathopogon fishes. (United States)

    Kakioka, Ryo; Kokita, Tomoyuki; Kumada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Okuda, Noboru


    Evolution of ecomorphologically relevant traits such as body shapes is important to colonize and persist in a novel environment. Habitat-related adaptive divergence of these traits is therefore common among animals. We studied the genomic architecture of habitat-related divergence in the body shape of Gnathopogon fishes, a novel example of lake-stream ecomorphological divergence, and tested for the action of directional selection on body shape differentiation. Compared to stream-dwelling Gnathopogon elongatus, the sister species Gnathopogon caerulescens, exclusively inhabiting a large ancient lake, had an elongated body, increased proportion of the caudal region and small head, which would be advantageous in the limnetic environment. Using an F2 interspecific cross between the two Gnathopogon species (195 individuals), quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis with geometric morphometric quantification of body shape and restriction-site associated DNA sequencing-derived markers (1622 loci) identified 26 significant QTLs associated with the interspecific differences of body shape-related traits. These QTLs had small to moderate effects, supporting polygenic inheritance of the body shape-related traits. Each QTL was mostly located on different genomic regions, while colocalized QTLs were detected for some ecomorphologically relevant traits that are proxy of body and caudal peduncle depths, suggesting different degree of modularity among traits. The directions of the body shape QTLs were mostly consistent with the interspecific difference, and QTL sign test suggested a genetic signature of directional selection in the body shape divergence. Thus, we successfully elucidated the genomic architecture underlying the adaptive changes of the quantitative and complex morphological trait in a novel system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Maternal Style Selectively Shapes Amygdalar Development and Social Behavior in Rats Genetically Prone to High Anxiety. (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M


    The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Response of fluctuating and directional asymmetry to selection on wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Pélabon, C; Hansen, T F; Carter, A J R; Houle, D


    We tested whether directional selection on an index-based wing character in Drosophila melanogaster affected developmental stability and patterns of directional asymmetry. We selected for both an increase (up selection) and a decrease (down selection) of the index value on the left wing and compared patterns of fluctuating and directional asymmetry in the selection index and other wing traits across selection lines. Changes in fluctuating asymmetry across selection lines were predominantly small, but we observed a tendency for fluctuating asymmetry to decrease in the up-selected lines in both replicates. Because changes in fluctuating asymmetry depended on the direction of selection, and were not related to changes in trait size, these results fail to support existing hypotheses linking directional selection and developmental stability. Selection also produced a pattern of directional asymmetry that was similar in all selected lines whatever the direction of selection. This result may be interpreted as a release of genetic variance in directional asymmetry under selection.

  8. Selection of Vector Boson Fusion Events in the $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ Decay Channel Using an Inclusive Event Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Braren, Früd; Schleper, Peter

    Present-day measurements of the signal strength of the Higgs-boson production mode vector boson fusion tend to suffer from large theoretical uncertainties on the gluon fusion contamination in the vector boson fusion selection. The measurements are still limited by the statistical uncertainties, but as more data will be recorded, the statistical uncertainties will be reduced. Therefore it is of importance to think of alternative vector boson fusion selections with a better control over the theoretical uncertainty. Vector boson fusion selections use a central jet veto. Such a veto can be implemented via the inclusive event shape 2-jettiness as an alternative to the presently used central-jet veto. In this thesis, the properties of this event shape in $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ events and its use in a vector boson fusion selection are examined. The theoretical uncertainties accompanying this event-shape based selection are studied. Finally, the vector boson fusion signal strength is determined using 8 TeV ATLAS ...

  9. Ending Aging in Super Glassy Polymer Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, CH; Nguyen, PT; Hill, MR; Thornton, AW; Konstas, K; Doherty, CM; Mulder, RJ; Bourgeois, L; Liu, ACY; Sprouster, DJ; Sullivan, JP; Bastow, TJ; Hill, AJ; Gin, DL; Noble, RD


    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N-2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations.

  10. Target objects defined by a conjunction of colour and shape can be selected independently and in parallel. (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin


    It is generally assumed that during search for targets defined by a feature conjunction, attention is allocated sequentially to individual objects. We tested this hypothesis by tracking the time course of attentional processing biases with the N2pc component in tasks where observers searched for two targets defined by a colour/shape conjunction. In Experiment 1, two displays presented in rapid succession (100 ms or 10 ms SOA) each contained a target and a colour-matching or shape-matching distractor on opposite sides. Target objects in both displays elicited N2pc components of similar size that overlapped in time when the SOA was 10 ms, suggesting that attention was allocated in parallel to both targets. Analogous results were found in Experiment 2, where targets and partially matching distractors were both accompanied by an object without target-matching features. Colour-matching and shape-matching distractors also elicited N2pc components, and the target N2pc was initially identical to the sum of the two distractor N2pcs, suggesting that the initial phase of attentional object selection was guided independently by feature templates for target colour and shape. Beyond 230 ms after display onset, the target N2pc became superadditive, indicating that attentional selection processes now started to be sensitive to the presence of feature conjunctions. Results show that independent attentional selection processes can be activated in parallel by two target objects in situations where these objects are defined by a feature conjunction.

  11. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usama Siddiqui


    Full Text Available We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed.

  12. Effect of catch size and shape on the selectivity of diamond mesh cod-ends: II. Theoretical study of haddock selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent


    A series of computer simulations were carried out to predict how the selectivity of haddock in a diamond mesh cod-end varies according to total catch, by-catch, entry time of by-catch and the shape of the catch build-up in the cod-end. Results were compared to those from sea trials. I also...... in the values for L50 as well as more narrow SRs, assuming that the shape of the cod-end remained constant during the tow. The simulations strongly indicate that the change of shape of the diamond mesh cod-end as the catch builds up during towing is a major contribution to the SR....

  13. The Influence of Selected Parameters on Evaluation of the Geometrical Shape Deviation - Cylindricity in 3D Measuring Machine Workspace (United States)

    Drbúl, Mário; Šajgalík, Michal; Litvaj, lvan; Babík, Ondrej


    Each part as a final product and its surface is composed of various geometric elements, although at first glance seem as smooth and shiny. During the manufacturing process, there is a number of influences (e.g. selected manufacturing technology, production process, human factors, the strategy of measurement, scanning speed, shape of the measurement contact tip, temperature, or the surface tension and the like), which hinder the production of component with ideally shaped elements. From the economic and design point of view (in accordance with determined GPS standards), there is necessary fast and accurate analyze and evaluate these elements. Presented article deals with the influence of scanning speed and measuring strategy for assessment of shape deviations.

  14. Selection on the Major Color Gene Melanocortin-1-Receptor Shaped the Evolution of the Melanocortin System Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dib


    Full Text Available Modular genetic systems and networks have complex evolutionary histories shaped by selection acting on single genes as well as on their integrated function within the network. However, uncovering molecular coevolution requires the detection of coevolving sites in sequences. Detailed knowledge of the functions of each gene in the system is also necessary to identify the selective agents driving coevolution. Using recently developed computational tools, we investigated the effect of positive selection on the coevolution of ten major genes in the melanocortin system, responsible for multiple physiological functions and human diseases. Substitutions driven by positive selection at the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R induced more coevolutionary changes on the system than positive selection on other genes in the system. Contrarily, selection on the highly pleiotropic POMC gene, which orchestrates the activation of the different melanocortin receptors, had the lowest coevolutionary influence. MC1R and possibly its main function, melanin pigmentation, seems to have influenced the evolution of the melanocortin system more than functions regulated by MC2-5Rs such as energy homeostasis, glucocorticoid-dependent stress and anti-inflammatory responses. Although replication in other regulatory systems is needed, this suggests that single functional aspects of a genetic network or system can be of higher importance than others in shaping coevolution among the genes that integrate it.

  15. Effect of catch size and shape on the selectivity of diamond mesh cod-ends: I. Model development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent


    from information on the shape of the cod-end, which depends on the catch weight. The cod-end shape is updated dynamically as the catch builds up during the tow. During a simulation the selection process is continually visualized, that is, the entry, movement and escape attempts of individual fish......An individual-based model that simulates fish selection processes in diamond mesh cod-ends of towed fishing gears is outlined. The model is implemented in a computer program called PRESEMO. A typical simulation can be carried out within a few minutes on a personal computer. Up to four different...... populations of fish entering the cod-end during a tow can be accounted for. Each fish is assigned a weight, girth, width and height according to its length, and is assumed to have an elliptical cross-section. Fish are allocated a period of travel time down the cod-end, a period for swimming in the cod...

  16. Cyclodextrin Films with Fast Solvent Transport and Shape-Selective Permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco


    This study describes the molecular-level design of a new type of filtration membrane made of crosslinked cyclodextrins-inexpensive macrocycles of glucose, shaped like hollow truncated cones. The channel-like cavities of cyclodextrins spawn numerous paths of defined aperture in the separation layer that can effectively discriminate between molecules. The transport of molecules through these membranes is highly shape-sensitive. In addition, the presence of hydrophobic (cavity) and hydrophilic (ester-crosslinked outer part) domains in these films results in high permeances for both polar and nonpolar solvents.

  17. Highly selective SERS probe for Hg(II) detection using tryptophan-protected popcorn shaped gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Senapati, Tapas; Senapati, Dulal; Singh, Anant Kumar; Fan, Zhen; Kanchanapally, Rajashekhar; Ray, Paresh Chandra


    Contamination of the environment with toxic Hg(II) is becoming a huge concern throughout the world now. Driven by the need, this communication reports for the first time a tryptophan protected popcorn shaped gold nanomaterials based SERS probe for rapid, easy and highly selective recognition of Hg(II) ions in the 5 ppb level from aqueous solution, with high sensitivity and selectivity over competing analytes. We demonstrate that our SERS assay is capable of measuring the amount of Hg(II) in alkaline battery. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Systems and methods for selective detection and imaging in coherent Raman microscopy by spectral excitation shaping (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Freudiger, Christian; Min, Wei


    A microscopy imaging system is disclosed that includes a light source system, a spectral shaper, a modulator system, an optics system, an optical detector and a processor. The light source system is for providing a first train of pulses and a second train of pulses. The spectral shaper is for spectrally modifying an optical property of at least some frequency components of the broadband range of frequency components such that the broadband range of frequency components is shaped producing a shaped first train of pulses to specifically probe a spectral feature of interest from a sample, and to reduce information from features that are not of interest from the sample. The modulator system is for modulating a property of at least one of the shaped first train of pulses and the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of a train of pulses of interest transmitted or reflected through the common focal volume. The processor is for detecting a modulation at the modulation frequency of the integrated intensity of substantially all of the optical frequency components of the train of pulses of interest due to the non-linear interaction of the shaped first train of pulses with the second train of pulses as modulated in the common focal volume, and for providing an output signal for a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.

  19. Shape Selection of Surface-Bound Helical Filaments: Biopolymers on Curved Membranes. (United States)

    Quint, David A; Gopinathan, Ajay; Grason, Gregory M


    Motivated to understand the behavior of biological filaments interacting with membranes of various types, we employ a theoretical model for the shape and thermodynamics of intrinsically helical filaments bound to curved membranes. We show that filament-surface interactions lead to a host of nonuniform shape equilibria, in which filaments progressively unwind from their native twist with increasing surface interaction and surface curvature, ultimately adopting uniform-contact curved shapes. The latter effect is due to nonlinear coupling between elastic twist and bending of filaments on anisotropically curved surfaces such as the cylindrical surfaces considered here. Via a combination of numerical solutions and asymptotic analysis of shape equilibria, we show that filament conformations are critically sensitive to the surface curvature in both the strong- and weak-binding limits. These results suggest that local structure of membrane-bound chiral filaments is generically sensitive to the curvature radius of the surface to which it is bound, even when that radius is much larger than the filament's intrinsic pitch. Typical values of elastic parameters and interaction energies for several prokaryotic and eukaryotic filaments indicate that biopolymers are inherently very sensitive to the coupling between twist, interactions, and geometry and that this could be exploited for regulation of a variety of processes such as the targeted exertion of forces, signaling, and self-assembly in response to geometric cues including the local mean and Gaussian curvatures. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension and mutational profiling (SHAPE-MaP) for direct, versatile, and accurate RNA structure analysis (United States)

    Smola, Matthew J.; Rice, Greggory M.; Busan, Steven; Siegfried, Nathan A.; Weeks, Kevin M.


    SHAPE chemistries exploit small electrophilic reagents that react with the 2′-hydroxyl group to interrogate RNA structure at single-nucleotide resolution. Mutational profiling (MaP) identifies modified residues based on the ability of reverse transcriptase to misread a SHAPE-modified nucleotide and then counting the resulting mutations by massively parallel sequencing. The SHAPE-MaP approach measures the structure of large and transcriptome-wide systems as accurately as for simple model RNAs. This protocol describes the experimental steps, implemented over three days, required to perform SHAPE probing and construct multiplexed SHAPE-MaP libraries suitable for deep sequencing. These steps include RNA folding and SHAPE structure probing, mutational profiling by reverse transcription, library construction, and sequencing. Automated processing of MaP sequencing data is accomplished using two software packages. ShapeMapper converts raw sequencing files into mutational profiles, creates SHAPE reactivity plots, and provides useful troubleshooting information, often within an hour. SuperFold uses these data to model RNA secondary structures, identify regions with well-defined structures, and visualize probable and alternative helices, often in under a day. We illustrate these algorithms with the E. coli thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch, E. coli 16S rRNA, and HIV-1 genomic RNAs. SHAPE-MaP can be used to make nucleotide-resolution biophysical measurements of individual RNA motifs, rare components of complex RNA ensembles, and entire transcriptomes. The straightforward MaP strategy greatly expands the number, length, and complexity of analyzable RNA structures. PMID:26426499

  1. Twenty years of artificial directional selection have shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed. (United States)

    Schiavo, G; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Samorè, A B; Bertolini, F; Russo, V; Gallo, M; Buttazzoni, L; Fontanesi, L


    In this study, we investigated at the genome-wide level if 20 years of artificial directional selection based on boar genetic evaluation obtained with a classical BLUP animal model shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed. The most influential boars of this breed (n = 192), born from 1992 (the beginning of the selection program of this breed) to 2012, with an estimated breeding value reliability of >0.85, were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. After grouping the boars in eight classes according to their year of birth, filtered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to evaluate the effects of time on genotype frequency changes using multinomial logistic regression models. Of these markers, 493 had a PBonferroni  selection program. The obtained results indicated that the genome of the Italian Large White pigs was shaped by a directional selection program derived by the application of methodologies assuming the infinitesimal model that captured a continuous trend of allele frequency changes in the boar population. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Shape, sizing optimization and material selection based on mixed variables and genetic algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, X.; Bassir, D.H.; Zhang, W.


    In this work, we explore simultaneous designs of materials selection and structural optimization. As the material selection turns out to be a discrete process that finds the optimal distribution of materials over the design domain, it cannot be performed with common gradient-based optimization

  3. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server


    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  4. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server


    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  5. Shapes, rotation, and pole solutions of the selected Hilda and Trojan asteroids (United States)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Sonnett, Sarah; Torppa, Johanna; Mainzer, Amy; Muinonen, Karri; Penttilä, Antti; Grav, Thomas; Masiero, Joseph; Bauer, James; Kramer, Emily


    Binary asteroid systems contain key information about the dynamical and chemical environments in which they formed. For example, determining the formation environments of Trojan and Hilda asteroids (in 1:1 and 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter, respectively) will provide critical constraints on how small bodies and the planets that drive their migration must have moved throughout Solar System history, see e.g. [1-3]. Therefore, identifying and characterizing binary asteroids within the Trojan and Hilda populations could offer a powerful means of discerning between Solar System evolution models. Dozens of possibly close or contact binary Trojans and Hildas were identified within the data obtained by NEOWISE [4]. Densely sampled light curves of these candidate binaries have been obtained in order to resolve rotational light curve features that are indicative of binarity (e.g., [5-7]). We present analysis of the shapes, rotation, and pole solutions of some of the follow-up targets observed with optical ground-based telescopes. For modelling the asteroid photometric properties, we use parameters describing the shape, surface light scattering properties and spin state of the asteroid. Scattering properties of the asteroid surface are modeled using a two parameter H-G12 magnitude system. Determination of the initial best-fit parameters is carried out by first using a triaxial ellipsoid shape model, and scanning over the period values and spin axis orientations, while fitting the other parameters, after which all parameters were fitted, taking the initial values for spin properties from the spin scanning. In addition to the best-fit parameters, we also provide the distribution of the possible solution, which should cover the inaccuracies of the solution, caused by the observing errors and model. The distribution of solutions is generated by Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampling the spin and shape model parameters, using both an ellipsoid shape model and a convex model

  6. Precipitation Kinetics of M23C6 Carbides in the Super304H Austenitic Heat-Resistant Steel (United States)

    Zhou, Qingwen; Ping, Shaobo; Meng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ruikun; Gao, Yan


    The precipitation kinetics of M23C6 carbides in Super304H and TP304H steels were investigated using the selective-etching method, SEM backscattered electron images and Image-Pro-Plus 6.0 software. Precipitation-temperature-time (PTT) diagrams of M23C6 carbides in the as-received Super304H (fine grains), coarsened Super304H (coarse grains) and TP304H (coarse grains) steels all show the typical C-shaped character with nose temperature range from 800 to 850 °C. Compared with the TP304H steel, the same trend is found of the PTT curve of M23C6 carbides for both kinds of Super304H steels, but their start lines move to the right and finish lines to the left. The preferential formation of Nb(C,N) phase at grain boundaries in the Super304H steels inhibited the nucleation of M23C6 carbides in the early stage of precipitation, causing the right shift of the start line of PTT curve. The main reason for the left shift of the finish line of the two Super304H steels was the quicker growing and coarsening rate of M23C6 in the later precipitation stage due to their higher C content than in TP304H. For the difference in PPT curves between the two grain sizes of the Super304H steel, the lower diffusion rate of atoms in the coarse-grained Super304H steel may explain its righter finish line than the fine-grained counterpart, while the reason for its lefter start line is due to the higher solute segregation along coarse-grained boundaries.

  7. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices. (United States)

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin


    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Prior auditory information shapes visual category-selectivity in ventral occipito-temporal cortex. (United States)

    Adam, Ruth; Noppeney, Uta


    Objects in our natural environment generate signals in multiple sensory modalities. This fMRI study investigated the influence of prior task-irrelevant auditory information on visually-evoked category-selective activations in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Subjects categorized pictures as landmarks or animal faces, while ignoring the preceding congruent or incongruent sound. Behaviorally, subjects responded slower to incongruent than congruent stimuli. At the neural level, the lateral and medial prefrontal cortices showed increased activations for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli consistent with their role in response selection. In contrast, the parahippocampal gyri combined visual and auditory information additively: activation was greater for visual landmarks than animal faces and landmark-related sounds than animal vocalizations resulting in increased parahippocampal selectivity for congruent audiovisual landmarks. Effective connectivity analyses showed that this amplification of visual landmark-selectivity was mediated by increased negative coupling of the parahippocampal gyrus with the superior temporal sulcus for congruent stimuli. Thus, task-irrelevant auditory information influences visual object categorization at two stages. In the ventral occipito-temporal cortex auditory and visual category information are combined additively to sharpen visual category-selective responses. In the left inferior frontal sulcus, as indexed by a significant incongruency effect, visual and auditory category information are integrated interactively for response selection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A smooth multimode waveform command shaping control with selectable command length (United States)

    Masoud, Ziyad N.; Alhazza, Khaled A.


    Input and command shapers are great open-loop control strategies in reducing residual vibration in rest-to-rest maneuvers. The generation of such command usually contains multiple impulses and jerks. Multiple impulses usually degrade the performance due to actuation delay and mismatch timing while jerks reduce the life expectancy of actuator and increase maintenance. In this work, a smooth single multimode command shaping control is proposed and tested numerically and experimentally to eliminate residual vibration in rest-to-rest maneuvers. The advantages of the technique are summarized as, the proposed technique has an adjustable maneuvering time, can eliminate all vibration modes regardless of the number, the required parameters are found analytically which eliminate the need of complex or lengthy calculation needed for most multimode shaper, smooth command profile to eliminate jerks i.e. inrush current, and it is continuous with single actuation to eliminate inaccurate timing and delay. The technique performance is validated numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations prove that the shaped commands are capable of completely eliminating residual vibrations of multimode systems. Furthermore, the proposed technique is utilized to reduce the sensitivity of the shaper to modeling errors. Unlike other shaper the proposed reduction in the sensitivity can be implemented for all modes with no added complexity.

  10. Synthesis and Study of Shape-Memory Polymers Selectively Induced by Near-Infrared Lights via In Situ Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Fang


    Full Text Available Shape-memory polymers (SMPs selectively induced by near-infrared lights of 980 or 808 nm were synthesized via free radical copolymerization. Methyl methacrylate (MMA monomer, ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA as a cross-linker, and organic complexes of Yb(TTA2AAPhen or Nd(TTA2AAPhen containing a reactive ligand of acrylic acid (AA were copolymerized in situ. The dispersion of the organic complexes in the copolymer matrix was highly improved, while the transparency of the copolymers was negligibly influenced in comparison with the pristine cross-linked PMMA. In addition, the thermal resistance of the copolymers was enhanced with the complex loading, while their glass transition temperature, cross-linking level, and mechanical properties were to some extent reduced. Yb(TTA2AAPhen and Nd(TTA2AAPhen provided the prepared copolymers with selective photothermal effects and shape-memory functions for 980 and 808 nm NIR lights, respectively. Finally, smart optical devices which exhibited localized transparency or diffraction evolution procedures were demonstrated based on the prepared copolymers, owing to the combination of good transparency and selective light wavelength responsivity.

  11. Natural Selection and Recombination Rate Variation Shape Nucleotide Polymorphism Across the Genomes of Three Related Populus Species. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Street, Nathaniel R; Scofield, Douglas G; Ingvarsson, Pär K


    A central aim of evolutionary genomics is to identify the relative roles that various evolutionary forces have played in generating and shaping genetic variation within and among species. Here we use whole-genome resequencing data to characterize and compare genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism, site frequency spectrum, and population-scaled recombination rates in three species of Populus: Populus tremula, P. tremuloides, and P. trichocarpa. We find that P. tremuloides has the highest level of genome-wide variation, skewed allele frequencies, and population-scaled recombination rates, whereas P. trichocarpa harbors the lowest. Our findings highlight multiple lines of evidence suggesting that natural selection, due to both purifying and positive selection, has widely shaped patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at linked neutral sites in all three species. Differences in effective population sizes and rates of recombination largely explain the disparate magnitudes and signatures of linked selection that we observe among species. The present work provides the first phylogenetic comparative study on a genome-wide scale in forest trees. This information will also improve our ability to understand how various evolutionary forces have interacted to influence genome evolution among related species. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Shape-selective Valorization of Biomass-derived Glycolaldehyde using Tin-containing Zeolites. (United States)

    Tolborg, Søren; Meier, Sebastian; Saravanamurugan, Shunmugavel; Fristrup, Peter; Taarning, Esben; Sádaba, Irantzu


    A highly selective self-condensation of glycolaldehyde to different C4 molecules has been achieved using Lewis acidic stannosilicate catalysts in water at moderate temperatures (40-100 °C). The medium-sized zeolite pores (10-membered ring framework) in Sn-MFI facilitate the formation of tetrose sugars while hindering consecutive aldol reactions leading to hexose sugars. High yields of tetrose sugars (74 %) with minor amounts of vinyl glycolic acid (VGA), an α-hydroxyacid, are obtained using Sn-MFI with selectivities towards C4 products reaching 97 %. Tin catalysts having large pores or no pore structure (Sn-Beta, Sn-MCM-41, Sn-SBA-15, tin chloride) led to lower selectivities for C4 sugars due to formation of hexose sugars. In the case of Sn-Beta, VGA is the main product (30 %), illustrating differences in selectivity of the Sn sites in the different frameworks. Under optimized conditions, GA can undergo further conversion, leading to yields of up to 44 % of VGA using Sn-MFI in water. The use of Sn-MFI offers multiple possibilities for valorization of biomass-derived GA in water under mild conditions selectively producing C4 molecules. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Shape-selective Valorization of Biomass-derived Glycolaldehyde using Tin-containing Zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Meier, Sebastian; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan


    A highly selective self-condensation of glycolaldehyde to different C4 molecules has been achieved using Lewis acidic stannosilicate catalysts in water at moderate temperatures (40–100 °C). The medium-sized zeolite pores (10-membered ring framework) in Sn-MFI facilitate the formation of tetrose s...... undergo further conversion, leading to yields of up to 44 % of VGA using Sn-MFI in water. The use of Sn-MFI offers multiple possibilities for valorization of biomass-derived GA in water under mild conditions selectively producing C4 molecules....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.


    A series of bimetallic core-shell-alloy type Au-Pt nanomaterials with various morphologies, aspect ratios and compositions, were produced in a heterogenous epitaxial fashion. Gold nanoparticles with well-controlled particle size and shape, e.g. spheres, rods and cubes, were used as 'seeds' for platinum growth in the presence of a mild reducing agent, ascorbic acid and a cationic surfactant cethyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The reactions take place in air and water, and are quick, economical and amenable for scaling up. The synthesized nanocatalysts were characterized by electron microscopy techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Nafion membranes were embedded with the Au-Pt nanomaterials and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their potential in direct methanol fuel cells applications.

  15. AB141. Synthetic Bax-Anti Bcl 2 combination module actuated by super artificial hTERT promoter selectively inhibits malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer


    Zhang, Tianbiao; Zhang, Weixing


    Objective We aimed to construct a synthetic combination module driven by a super artificial hTERT promoter and to investigate its influence on the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer. Methods The dual luciferase assay system was used to verify the driven efficiency and tumor-specificity of the artificial hTERT promoter and to confirm the relationship between ETS-1 and the driven efficiency of the artificial hTERT promoter. CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were used to test the effects of the Bax-...

  16. The logic of social exchange: has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. (United States)

    Cosmides, L


    In order to successfully engage in social exchange--cooperation between two or more individuals for mutual benefit--humans must be able to solve a number of complex computational problems, and do so with special efficiency. Following Marr (1982), Cosmides (1985) and Cosmides and Tooby (1989) used evolutionary principles to develop a computational theory of these adaptive problems. Specific hypotheses concerning the structure of the algorithms that govern how humans reason about social exchange were derived from this computational theory. This article presents a series of experiments designed to test these hypotheses, using the Wason selection task, a test of logical reasoning. Part I reports experiments testing social exchange theory against the availability theories of reasoning; Part II reports experiments testing it against Cheng and Holyoak's (1985) permission schema theory. The experimental design included eight critical tests designed to choose between social exchange theory and these other two families of theories; the results of all eight tests support social exchange theory. The hypothesis that the human mind includes cognitive processes specialized for reasoning about social exchange predicts the content effects found in these experiments, and parsimoniously explains those that have already been reported in the literature. The implications of this line of research for a modular view of human reasoning are discussed, as well as the utility of evolutionary biology in the development of computational theories.

  17. Selection of a LGp0-shaped fundamental mode in a laser cavity: Phase versus amplitude masks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hasnaoui, A


    Full Text Available Laser beams of a single high-order transverse mode have been of interest to the laser community for several years now. In order to achieve such a mode as the fundamental mode of the cavity, mode selecting elements in the form of a phase or amplitude...

  18. Similar Efficacies of Selection Shape Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes in Both Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. (United States)

    Cooper, Brandon S; Burrus, Chad R; Ji, Chao; Hahn, Matthew W; Montooth, Kristi L


    Deleterious mutations contribute to polymorphism even when selection effectively prevents their fixation. The efficacy of selection in removing deleterious mitochondrial mutations from populations depends on the effective population size (Ne) of the mitochondrial DNA and the degree to which a lack of recombination magnifies the effects of linked selection. Using complete mitochondrial genomes from Drosophila melanogaster and nuclear data available from the same samples, we reexamine the hypothesis that nonrecombining animal mitochondrial DNA harbor an excess of deleterious polymorphisms relative to the nuclear genome. We find no evidence of recombination in the mitochondrial genome, and the much-reduced level of mitochondrial synonymous polymorphism relative to nuclear genes is consistent with a reduction in Ne. Nevertheless, we find that the neutrality index, a measure of the excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism relative to the neutral expectation, is only weakly significantly different between mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This difference is likely the result of the larger proportion of beneficial mutations in X-linked relative to autosomal loci, and we find little to no difference between mitochondrial and autosomal neutrality indices. Reanalysis of published data from Homo sapiens reveals a similar lack of a difference between the two genomes, although previous studies have suggested a strong difference in both species. Thus, despite a smaller Ne, mitochondrial loci of both flies and humans appear to experience similar efficacies of purifying selection as do loci in the recombining nuclear genome. Copyright © 2015 Cooper et al.

  19. SuperB, the super flavor factory


    Hitlin, D.G.


    Heavy flavor physics measurements, in particular B and τ physics results from the B Factories, currently provide strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. SuperB, a next generation asymmetric collider with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique insights into New Physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  20. SuperB, the super flavor factory (United States)

    Hitlin, D. G.


    Heavy flavor physics measurements, in particular B and τ physics results from the B Factories, currently provide strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. SuperB, a next generation asymmetric collider with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique insights into New Physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  1. Artificial selection on introduced Asian haplotypes shaped the genetic architecture in European commercial pigs. (United States)

    Bosse, Mirte; Lopes, Marcos S; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Frantz, Laurent A F; Harlizius, Barbara; Bastiaansen, John W M; Groenen, Martien A M


    Early pig farmers in Europe imported Asian pigs to cross with their local breeds in order to improve traits of commercial interest. Current genomics techniques enabled genome-wide identification of these Asian introgressed haplotypes in modern European pig breeds. We propose that the Asian variants are still present because they affect phenotypes that were important for ancient traditional, as well as recent, commercial pig breeding. Genome-wide introgression levels were only weakly correlated with gene content and recombination frequency. However, regions with an excess or absence of Asian haplotypes (AS) contained genes that were previously identified as phenotypically important such as FASN, ME1, and KIT. Therefore, the Asian alleles are thought to have an effect on phenotypes that were historically under selection. We aimed to estimate the effect of AS in introgressed regions in Large White pigs on the traits of backfat (BF) and litter size. The majority of regions we tested that retained Asian deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) showed significantly increased BF from the Asian alleles. Our results suggest that the introgression in Large White pigs has been strongly determined by the selective pressure acting upon the introgressed AS. We therefore conclude that human-driven hybridization and selection contributed to the genomic architecture of these commercial pigs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Attending to quadrants and ring-shaped regions: ERP effects of visual attention in different spatial selection tasks. (United States)

    Eimer, M


    Attentional modulations of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured when subjects were cued to attend to a visual quadrant or to a ring-shaped region of visual space to detect infrequently presented targets within the attended region. Spatial attention directed to quadrants was reflected in modulations of sensory-evoked P1 and N1 components at lateral posterior sites and enhanced negativities (Nds) at midline electrodes that started around 150 ms poststimulus. When attention was directed to ring-shaped regions, no modulations of P1 and N1 amplitudes were found, and Nd effects observed at midline electrodes were delayed by about 50 ms. These findings indicate that behavioral effects observed both when attention is directed to contiguous regions and to general areas of visual space may be caused by different underlying processes. Intraperceptual "sensory gating" mechanisms operating in a way suggested by the notion of an attentional "zoom-lens" may be responsible for the selection of single regions, quadrants, or hemifields. When relevant regions are more complex, spatial selectivity will affect primarily postperceptual processes.

  3. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing


    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  4. Social Groups Prioritize Selective Attention to Faces: How Social Identity Shapes Distractor Interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    Full Text Available Human faces automatically attract visual attention and this process appears to be guided by social group memberships. In two experiments, we examined how social groups guide selective attention toward in-group and out-group faces. Black and White participants detected a target letter among letter strings superimposed on faces (Experiment 1. White participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (Black compared to in-group (White distractor faces. Likewise, Black participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (White compared to in-group (Black distractor faces. However, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load-when the task was visually difficult. To examine the malleability of this pattern of racial bias, a separate sample of participants were assigned to mixed-race minimal groups (Experiment 2. Participants assigned to groups were less accurate on trials with their minimal in-group members compared to minimal out-group distractor faces, regardless of race. Again, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load. Taken together, these results suggest that social identity guides selective attention toward motivationally relevant social groups-shifting from out-group bias in the domain of race to in-group bias in the domain of minimal groups-when perceptual resources are scarce.

  5. Does selection against transcriptional interference shape retroelement-free regions in mammalian genomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Willerslev, Eske


    ). This is expected if genes are subject to selection against transcriptional interference. We do not find microRNAs to be associated with genomic regions devoid of either SINEs or LINEs. We further observe an increased relative activity of genes overlapping LINE-free regions during early embryogenesis, where...... regions being intolerant to insertions of retroelements. The inadvertent transcriptional activity of retroelements may affect neighbouring genes, which in turn could be detrimental to an organism. We speculate that such retroelement transcription, or transcriptional interference, is a contributing factor...... in generating and maintaining retroelement-free regions in the human genome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the known transcriptional properties of retroelements, we expect long interspersed elements (LINEs) to be able to display a high degree of transcriptional interference. In contrast, we expect...

  6. Natural selection shaped the rise and fall of passenger pigeon genomic diversity. (United States)

    Murray, Gemma G R; Soares, André E R; Novak, Ben J; Schaefer, Nathan K; Cahill, James A; Baker, Allan J; Demboski, John R; Doll, Andrew; Da Fonseca, Rute R; Fulton, Tara L; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Heintzman, Peter D; Letts, Brandon; McIntosh, George; O'Connell, Brendan L; Peck, Mark; Pipes, Marie-Lorraine; Rice, Edward S; Santos, Kathryn M; Sohrweide, A Gregory; Vohr, Samuel H; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth


    The extinct passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in North America, and possibly the world. Although theory predicts that large populations will be more genetically diverse, passenger pigeon genetic diversity was surprisingly low. To investigate this disconnect, we analyzed 41 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear genomes from passenger pigeons and 2 genomes from band-tailed pigeons, which are passenger pigeons' closest living relatives. Passenger pigeons' large population size appears to have allowed for faster adaptive evolution and removal of harmful mutations, driving a huge loss in their neutral genetic diversity. These results demonstrate the effect that selection can have on a vertebrate genome and contradict results that suggested that population instability contributed to this species's surprisingly rapid extinction. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. GPR Detection of Buried Symmetrically Shaped Mine-like Objects using Selective Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Larsen, Jan


    This paper addresses the detection of mine-like objects in stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar (SF-GPR) data as a function of object size, object content, and burial depth. The detection approach is based on a Selective Independent Component Analysis (SICA). SICA provides an automatic...... from small-scale anti-personal (AP) mines to large-scale anti-tank (AT) mines were designed. Large-scale SF-GPR measurements on this series of mine-like objects buried in soil were performed. The SF-GPR data was acquired using a wideband monostatic bow-tie antenna operating in the frequency range 750...... MHz- 3.0 GHz. The detection and clutter reduction approaches based on SICA are successfully evaluated on this SF-GPR dataset....

  8. Predictive framework for shape-selective separations in three-dimensional zeolites and metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    First, Eric L; Gounaris, Chrysanthos E; Floudas, Christodoulos A


    With the growing number of zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) available, computational methods are needed to screen databases of structures to identify those most suitable for applications of interest. We have developed novel methods based on mathematical optimization to predict the shape selectivity of zeolites and MOFs in three dimensions by considering the energy costs of transport through possible pathways. Our approach is applied to databases of over 1800 microporous materials including zeolites, MOFs, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, and hypothetical MOFs. New materials are identified for applications in gas separations (CO2/N2, CO2/CH4, and CO2/H2), air separation (O2/N2), and chemicals (propane/propylene, ethane/ethylene, styrene/ethylbenzene, and xylenes).

  9. Experimental Support That Natural Selection Has Shaped the Latitudinal Distribution of Mitochondrial Haplotypes in Australian Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Camus, M Florencia; Wolff, Jonci N; Sgrò, Carla M; Dowling, Damian K


    Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude, or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance. Specifically, haplotypes predominating in tropical climates are predicted to encode increased tolerance to heat stress, but decreased tolerance to cold stress. We present direct evidence for these predictions, using mtDNA haplotypes sampled from the Australian distribution of Drosophila melanogaster. We show that the ability of flies to tolerate extreme thermal challenges is affected by sequence variation across mtDNA haplotypes, and that the thermal performance associated with each haplotype corresponds with its latitudinal prevalence. The haplotype that predominates at low (subtropical) latitudes confers greater resilience to heat stress, but lower resilience to cold stress, than haplotypes predominating at higher (temperate) latitudes. We explore molecular mechanisms that might underlie these responses, presenting evidence that the effects are in part regulated by SNPs that do not change the protein sequence. Our findings suggest that standing variation in the mitochondrial genome can be shaped by thermal selection, and could therefore contribute to evolutionary adaptation under climatic stress. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  10. Deforming super Riemann surfaces with gravitinos and super Schottky groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Playle, Sam [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)


    The (super) Schottky uniformization of compact (super) Riemann surfaces is briefly reviewed. Deformations of super Riemann surface by gravitinos and Beltrami parameters are recast in terms of super Schottky group cohomology. It is checked that the super Schottky group formula for the period matrix of a non-split surface matches its expression in terms of a gravitino and Beltrami parameter on a split surface. The relationship between (super) Schottky groups and the construction of surfaces by gluing pairs of punctures is discussed in an appendix.

  11. Mechanical and shape memory properties of porous Ni50.1Ti49.9 alloys manufactured by selective laser melting. (United States)

    Taheri Andani, Mohsen; Saedi, Soheil; Turabi, Ali Sadi; Karamooz, M R; Haberland, Christoph; Karaca, Haluk Ersin; Elahinia, Mohammad


    Near equiatomic NiTi shape memory alloys were fabricated in dense and designed porous forms by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and their mechanical and shape memory properties were systematically characterized. Particularly, the effects of pore morphology on their mechanical responses were investigated. Dense and porous NiTi alloys exhibited good shape memory effect with a recoverable strain of about 5% and functional stability after eight cycles of compression. The stiffness and residual plastic strain of porous NiTi were found to depend highly on the pore shape and the level of porosity. Since porous NiTi structures have lower elastic modulus and density than dense NiTi with still good shape memory properties, they are promising materials for lightweight structures, energy absorbers, and biomedical implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ending aging in super glassy polymer membranes. (United States)

    Lau, Cher Hon; Nguyen, Phuc Tien; Hill, Matthew R; Thornton, Aaron W; Konstas, Kristina; Doherty, Cara M; Mulder, Roger J; Bourgeois, Laure; Liu, Amelia C Y; Sprouster, David J; Sullivan, James P; Bastow, Timothy J; Hill, Anita J; Gin, Douglas L; Noble, Richard D


    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Shape Engineering Driven by Selective Growth of SnO2 on Doped Ga2O3 Nanowires. (United States)

    Alonso-Orts, Manuel; Sánchez, Ana M; Hindmarsh, Steven A; López, Iñaki; Nogales, Emilio; Piqueras, Javier; Méndez, Bianchi


    Tailoring the shape of complex nanostructures requires control of the growth process. In this work, we report on the selective growth of nanostructured tin oxide on gallium oxide nanowires leading to the formation of SnO2/Ga2O3 complex nanostructures. Ga2O3 nanowires decorated with either crossing SnO2 nanowires or SnO2 particles have been obtained in a single step treatment by thermal evaporation. The reason for this dual behavior is related to the growth direction of trunk Ga2O3 nanowires. Ga2O3 nanowires grown along the [001] direction favor the formation of crossing SnO2 nanowires. Alternatively, SnO2 forms rhombohedral particles on [110] Ga2O3 nanowires leading to skewer-like structures. These complex oxide structures were grown by a catalyst-free vapor-solid process. When pure Ga and tin oxide were used as source materials and compacted powders of Ga2O3 acted as substrates, [110] Ga2O3 nanowires grow preferentially. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals epitaxial relationship lattice matching between the Ga2O3 axis and SnO2 particles, forming skewer-like structures. The addition of chromium oxide to the source materials modifies the growth direction of the trunk Ga2O3 nanowires, growing along the [001], with crossing SnO2 wires. The SnO2/Ga2O3 junctions does not meet the lattice matching condition, forming a grain boundary. The electronic and optical properties have been studied by XPS and CL with high spatial resolution, enabling us to get both local chemical and electronic information on the surface in both type of structures. The results will allow tuning optical and electronic properties of oxide complex nanostructures locally as a function of the orientation. In particular, we report a dependence of the visible CL emission of SnO2 on its particular shape. Orange emission dominates in SnO2/Ga2O3 crossing wires while green-blue emission is observed in SnO2 particles attached to Ga2O3 trunks. The results show that the Ga2O3-SnO2

  14. SuperQuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Kjeldsen, Frank


    ). Peptides were fragmented with collision-induced dissociation using isolation windows of 1, 2, and 4 Th while recording data both with high-resolution and low-resolution. The results obtained using SuperQuant were compared to those using the conventional ion trap-based approach (low mass accuracy MS2...... spectra), which is known to achieve high identification performance. Compared to the common high-resolution approach, the SuperQuant approach identifies up to 70% more peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs), 40% more peptides, and 20% more proteins at the 0.01 FDR level. It identifies more PSMs and peptides than......SuperQuant is a quantitative proteomics data processing approach that uses complementary fragment ions to identify multiple co-isolated peptides in tandem mass spectra allowing for their quantification. This approach can be applied to any shotgun proteomics data set acquired with high mass accuracy...

  15. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    and aerial imaging to medical image processing, to facial image analysis, text image analysis, sign and number plates reading, and biometrics recognition, to name a few. This has resulted in many research papers, each developing a new super-resolution algorithm for a specific purpose. The current...... comprehensive survey provides an overview of most of these published works by grouping them in a broad taxonomy. For each of the groups in the taxonomy, the basic concepts of the algorithms are first explained and then the paths through which each of these groups have evolved are given in detail, by mentioning...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  16. SuperSegger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianidou, Stella; Brennan, Connor; Nissen, Silas B


    Many quantitative cell biology questions require fast yet reliable automated image segmentation to identify and link cells from frame-to-frame, and characterize the cell morphology and fluorescence. We present SuperSegger, an automated MATLAB-based image processing package well......-suited to quantitative analysis of high-throughput live-cell fluorescence microscopy of bacterial cells. SuperSegger incorporates machine-learning algorithms to optimize cellular boundaries and automated error resolution to reliably link cells from frame-to-frame. Unlike existing packages, it can reliably segment micro......, and computing statistics on cellular fluorescence, the location and intensity of fluorescent foci. SuperSegger provides a variety of post-processing data visualization tools for single cell and population level analysis, such as histograms, kymographs, frame mosaics, movies, and consensus images. Finally, we...

  17. Synthetic Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module actuated by super artificial hTERT promoter selectively inhibits malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer. (United States)

    Liu, Li; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Tianbiao; Wu, Hanwei; Lin, Muqi; Wang, Chaoliang; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhou, Qing; Qiao, Baoping; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Guoping; Zhang, Weixing; Huang, Weiren


    The synthetic biology technology which enhances the specificity and efficacy of treatment is a novel try in biomedical therapy during recent years. A high frequency of somatic mutations was shown in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter in bladder cancer, indicating that a mutational hTERT promoter might be a tumor-specific element for bladder cancer therapy. In our study, we aimed to construct a synthetic combination module driven by a super artificial hTERT promoter and to investigate its influence on the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer. The dual luciferase assay system was used to verify the driven efficiency and tumor-specificity of the artificial hTERT promoter and to confirm the relationship between ETS-1 and the driven efficiency of the artificial hTERT promoter. CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were used to test the effects of the Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module driven by the artificial hTERT promoter on cell proliferation. Simultaneously, the cell apoptosis was detected by the caspase 3ELISA assay and the flow cytometry analysis after transfection. The results of CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were analyzed by ANOVA. The independent samples t-test was used to analyze other data. We demonstrated that the artificial hTERT promoter had a higher driven efficiency which might be regulated by transcription factor ETS-1 in bladder cancer cells, compared with wild-type hTERT promoter. Meanwhile, the artificial hTERT promoter showed a strong tumor-specific effect. The cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were observed in artificial hTERT promoter- Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module -transfected bladder cancer 5637 and T24 cells, but not in the module -transfected normal human fibroblasts. This module offers us a useful synthetic biology platform to inhibit the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer in a more specific and effective way.

  18. Super Star Clusters (United States)

    O'Connell, R. W.


    Super star clusters represent an extreme in the star formation process. They are very luminous, compact objects with L_V > 10(6) L_{V,sun} and diameters = 100 times higher than normal OB associations and clusters in ``giant H II regions''. Prior to HST about a dozen such objects had been identified in nearby galaxies, but at ground-based resolution they are nearly point sources. We review recent HST observations of individual super star clusters in NGC 1140, 1569, and 1705. They have half-light radii of only 2--3.5 pc, and some show evidence of substructure which should be resolvable with the repaired HST. After allowing for age differences, the surface brightness of NGC 1569-A is over 65 times higher than the core of 30 Doradus in the LMC and 1200 times higher than the mean rich LMC star cluster. In some cases, the energy released by the clusters into their surroundings is sufficient to drive galaxy-wide winds. Their properties make super star clusters good analogues of young globular clusters. In some, though not all, cases super star clusters appear to form in the aftermath of a merger or accretion event. The most impressive examples are the clusters detected by HST in NGC 1275 and 7252, one of which has the extraordinary luminosity ~ 6 times 10(8) L_{V,sun}. M82 affords a nearby view of a post-interaction system. HST imaging has identified over 80 super star clusters in its central regions with mean luminosities of ~ 3 times 10(6) L_{V,sun}. Their close packing and signs of interaction with the well-known supernova-driven wind suggest that they do not evolve independently. Super cluster evolution in starbursts is probably a collective phenomenon.

  19. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K


    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  20. Direct observation of enhanced magnetism in individual size- and shape-selected 3 d transition metal nanoparticles (United States)

    Kleibert, Armin; Balan, Ana; Yanes, Rocio; Derlet, Peter M.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Timm, Martin; Fraile Rodríguez, Arantxa; Béché, Armand; Verbeeck, Jo; Dhaka, R. S.; Radovic, Milan; Nowak, Ulrich; Nolting, Frithjof


    Magnetic nanoparticles are critical building blocks for future technologies ranging from nanomedicine to spintronics. Many related applications require nanoparticles with tailored magnetic properties. However, despite significant efforts undertaken towards this goal, a broad and poorly understood dispersion of magnetic properties is reported, even within monodisperse samples of the canonical ferromagnetic 3 d transition metals. We address this issue by investigating the magnetism of a large number of size- and shape-selected, individual nanoparticles of Fe, Co, and Ni using a unique set of complementary characterization techniques. At room temperature, only superparamagnetic behavior is observed in our experiments for all Ni nanoparticles within the investigated sizes, which range from 8 to 20 nm. However, Fe and Co nanoparticles can exist in two distinct magnetic states at any size in this range: (i) a superparamagnetic state, as expected from the bulk and surface anisotropies known for the respective materials and as observed for Ni, and (ii) a state with unexpected stable magnetization at room temperature. This striking state is assigned to significant modifications of the magnetic properties arising from metastable lattice defects in the core of the nanoparticles, as concluded by calculations and atomic structural characterization. Also related with the structural defects, we find that the magnetic state of Fe and Co nanoparticles can be tuned by thermal treatment enabling one to tailor their magnetic properties for applications. This paper demonstrates the importance of complementary single particle investigations for a better understanding of nanoparticle magnetism and for full exploration of their potential for applications.

  1. Handbook of Super 8 Production. (United States)

    Telzer, Ronnie, Ed.

    This handbook is designed for anyone interested in producing super 8 films at any level of complexity and cost. Separate chapters present detailed discussions of the following topics: super 8 production systems and super 8 shooting and editing systems; budgeting; cinematography and sound recording; preparing to edit; editing; mixing sound tracks;…

  2. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken


    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...

  3. Optimal Super Dielectric Material (United States)


    that must be overcome to provide soldiers and sailors full electronic capability without hindrance due to size, weight or operating costs [6]. The...Publishers, 2004. [26] H. Lee, N. Byamba-Ochir, W. Shim, M. Balathanigaimani, and H. Moon , “High- performance super capacitors based on activated

  4. 'SuperMac' Apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanizadeh, S.; Groleau, Y.; Levasseur, A.; Carisse, O.; Rekika, D.; DeEll, J.; Prive, J.P.; Alli, I.; Kemp, H.


    `SuperMac' (Malus xdomestica Borkh) is being released as a replacement for `Spartan', which is presently being grown in Eastern Canada for its excellent shelf life. However, it is susceptibility to scab [Venturia inaequalis (Cke) Wint.], the most common apple disease. This new cultivar produces

  5. Super B Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the magnet power supplies, the RF system, the digital feedback system, and many vacuum components. This should reduce the cost and engineering effort needed to bring the project to fruition [13]. This Super B Factory concept is generating substantial interest in the physics community. It may, in fact, be the most promising ...

  6. Creating a Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpää, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter


    traditionally been dependent on their existing instrumental skills, various technological solutions can be used to reach beyond them. This paper focuses on the possibilities of enhancing composers' and performing pianists' technical and expressive vocabulary in the context of electroacoustic super instrument...

  7. Complete control, direct observation and study of molecular super rotors

    CERN Document Server

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery


    Extremely fast rotating molecules carrying significantly more energy in their rotation than in any other degree of freedom are known as "super rotors". It has been speculated that super rotors may exhibit a number of unique and intriguing properties. Theoretical studies showed that ultrafast molecular rotation may change the character of molecular scattering from solid surfaces, alter molecular trajectories in external fields, make super rotors surprisingly stable against collisions, and lead to the formation of gas vortices. New ways of molecular cooling and selective chemical bond breaking by ultrafast spinning have been proposed. Owing to the fundamental laws of nature, bringing a large number of molecules to fast, directional and synchronous rotation is rather challenging. As a result, only indirect evidence of super rotors has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first controlled creation, direct observation and study of molecular super rotors. Using intense laser pulses tailored to produce an ...

  8. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt Hierarchy and Its Super Hamiltonian Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixing Tao


    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity, and the conserved functionals were proved to be in involution in pairs under the defined Poisson bracket. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  9. On demand shape-selective integration of individual vertical germanium nanowires on a Si(111) substrate via laser-localized heating. (United States)

    Ryu, Sang-Gil; Kim, Eunpa; Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Hwang, David J; Xiang, Bin; Dubon, Oscar D; Minor, Andrew M; Grigoropoulos, Costas P


    Semiconductor nanowire (NW) synthesis methods by blanket furnace heating produce structures of uniform size and shape. This study overcomes this constraint by applying laser-localized synthesis on catalytic nanodots defined by electron beam lithography in order to accomplish site- and shape-selective direct integration of vertically oriented germanium nanowires (GeNWs) on a single Si(111) substrate. Since the laser-induced local temperature field drives the growth process, each NW could be synthesized with distinctly different geometric features. The NW shape was dialed on demand, ranging from cylindrical to hexagonal/irregular hexagonal pyramid. Finite difference time domain analysis supported the tunability of the light absorption and scattering spectra via controlling the GeNW shape.

  10. Growth of shape- and size-selective zinc oxide nanorods by a microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method: effect on photocatalysis properties. (United States)

    Shinde, Vaishali R; Gujar, Tanaji P; Noda, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Vinu, Ajayan; Grandcolas, Mathieu; Ye, Jinhua


    Herein, we demonstrate the shape- and size-selective growth of ZnO nanostructures on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by using a microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method. By systematically controlling the deposition parameters, it is possible to produce shape- and size-selective nanostructures with high alignment and uniformity. Specifically, the pH of the bath can be used to control the shape of rods from bundled structures to tapered and flat tips. Furthermore, the deposition temperature can be used to control the size of the ZnO array from 770 to 125 nm. The prepared rods were active catalysts in the degradation of methylene blue under UV radiation, and exhibited size-dependent activity.

  11. Introduction of a Simple Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Demonstrating the Lewis Acid and Shape-Selective Properties of Zeolite Na-Y (United States)

    Maloney, Vincent; Szczepanski, Zach

    A simple, inexpensive, discovery-based experiment for undergraduate organic laboratories has been developed that demonstrates the Lewis acid and shape-selective properties of zeolites. Calcined zeolite Na-Y promotes the electrophilic aromatic bromination of toluene with a significantly higher para/ortho ratio than observed under conventional…

  12. Introduction of a Simple Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Demonstrating the Lewis Acid and Shape-Selective Properties of Zeolite Na-Y (United States)

    Maloney, Vincent; Szczepanski, Zach


    A simple, inexpensive, discovery-based experiment for undergraduate organic laboratories has been developed that demonstrates the Lewis acid and shape-selective properties of zeolites. Calcined zeolite Na-Y promotes the electrophilic aromatic bromination of toluene with a significantly higher para/ortho ratio than observed under conventional…

  13. Efficient screening of dioxins in food and feed using shape-selective pressurized liquid extraction and cell based bioassay analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nording, M. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umea (Sweden)]|[Umea Univ. (Sweden). Environmental Chemistry, Dept. of Chemistry; Sporring, S.; Bjoerklund, E. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Wiberg, K.; Haglund, P. [Umea Univ. (Sweden). Environmental Chemistry, Dept. of Chemistry


    Cell based bioassays with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) detection are potential screening methods for determination of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, such as dioxins and similar compounds, in environmental samples. With this technique, it is possible to detect dioxins at levels normally found in food and feed, i.e. pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/g. Since the signal from the bioassay might be caused by compounds other than dioxins binding to the AhR, determination of the dioxin TEQ generally involve extraction with organic solvents or solvent mixtures, e.g. using a Soxhlet apparatus, followed by clean-up with sulphuric acid or sulphuric acid impregnated silica gel and carbon fractionation in order to exclude possible interferences from the extracts. Until now, sample preparation has been time consuming and labour intensive, but alternatives to traditional methods have recently been developed, with the benefits of shorter analysis times and reduced organic solvent consumption. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) may, for instance, be used with a fat retainer in the PLE cell to selectively extract PCBs from food, feed, and biota matrices. In order to further streamline the sample preparation, new assemblies have been developed to fit into a commercially available PLE-equipment. The assemblies are packed with an activated carbon/celite mixture and the sample. In the subsequent extraction, the pollutants are fractionated into three fractions according to their planarity (shape-selective extraction). In the first fraction (I) bulk lipids and PCBs are eluted, in the second fraction (II) the majority of planar (non-ortho) PCBs, and in the third fraction (III), which is back-flushed, the dioxins are recovered. In this way, a pure dioxin fraction may be isolated and analysed separately with the cell based bioassay described above. This study was conducted to meet the imperative demands for dioxin monitoring. The aim was to develop a comprehensive method for

  14. Super-resolution imaging applied to moving object tracking (United States)

    Swalaganata, Galandaru; Ratna Sulistyaningrum, Dwi; Setiyono, Budi


    Moving object tracking in a video is a method used to detect and analyze changes that occur in an object that being observed. Visual quality and the precision of the tracked target are highly wished in modern tracking system. The fact that the tracked object does not always seem clear causes the tracking result less precise. The reasons are low quality video, system noise, small object, and other factors. In order to improve the precision of the tracked object especially for small object, we propose a two step solution that integrates a super-resolution technique into tracking approach. First step is super-resolution imaging applied into frame sequences. This step was done by cropping the frame in several frame or all of frame. Second step is tracking the result of super-resolution images. Super-resolution image is a technique to obtain high-resolution images from low-resolution images. In this research single frame super-resolution technique is proposed for tracking approach. Single frame super-resolution was a kind of super-resolution that it has the advantage of fast computation time. The method used for tracking is Camshift. The advantages of Camshift was simple calculation based on HSV color that use its histogram for some condition and color of the object varies. The computational complexity and large memory requirements required for the implementation of super-resolution and tracking were reduced and the precision of the tracked target was good. Experiment showed that integrate a super-resolution imaging into tracking technique can track the object precisely with various background, shape changes of the object, and in a good light conditions.

  15. Lambda-type sharp rise in the widths of Raman and infra-red line shape near the Widom line in super-critical water above its gas-liquid critical temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Tuhin


    A lambda-type divergent rise of Raman linewidth of liquid nitrogen near its critical temperature has been a subject of many discussions in the past[1-5]. Here we explore the possibility of such an anomaly in infra-red and Raman spectroscopy of super-critical water (SCW) by varying the density across the Widom line just above its critical temperature. Vibrational phase relaxation is expected to be a sensitive probe of fluid dynamics. We carry out computer simulations of two different model potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) to obtain the necessary time correlation functions. An additional feature of this work is a quantum chemical calculation of the anharmonicity parameter that largely controls frequency fluctuations. We find a sharp rise in the vibrational relaxation rate (or the line widths) for both the models as we travel across the Widom line. The rise is noticeably less sharp in water than in nitrogen. We attribute this difference to the faster relaxation rate in water. We demonstrate that the anomalous r...

  16. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria


    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  17. Minimal Super Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, M.; Di Chiara, S.; Sannino, F.


    We introduce novel extensions of the Standard Model featuring a supersymmetric technicolor sector (supertechnicolor). As the first minimal conformal supertechnicolor model we consider N=4 Super Yang-Mills which breaks to N=1 via the electroweak interactions. This is a well defined, economical......, between unparticle physics and Minimal Walking Technicolor. We consider also other N =1 extensions of the Minimal Walking Technicolor model. The new models allow all the standard model matter fields to acquire a mass....

  18. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.


    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  19. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciosmak, Paweł [Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw,ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  20. Efficient genetic transformation of Lotus corniculatus L. using a direct shoot regeneration protocol, stepwise hygromycin B selection, and a super-binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka


    Full Text Available Cotyledons from 6-day-old Lotus corniculatus cv. Bokor seedlings, transversally cut into two halves, were capa­ble of regenerating buds without intervening callus formation. The explants were co-cultivated with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404/pTOK233 superbinary vector carrying the uidA-intron gene and the genes hpt and nptII. They were cultured for 14 days on a regeneration medium, then subjected to a stepwise hygromycin B selection procedure consisting of gradually increasing antibiotic concentrations (5-15 mg L-1 over 21 weeks. Transformed shoots were obtained within 5 months after co-cultivation. Out of 124 initially co-cultivated explants, 52 (42% plants survived hygromycin B selection. The presence of transgenes in regenerated plants was verified by β-glucuronidase histochemical assays and PCR analysis for the presence of uidA gene sequences. Hygromycin B-resistant and PCR-positive T0 plants were cultured in the greenhouse to produce flowers and seeds. The obtained data demonstrate that the reported transformation protocol could be useful for introducing agriculturally important genes into the new L. corniculatus cultivar Bokor.

  1. Variables for probing neutrino oscillation at super-Kamiokande and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... We propose several new variables, insensitive to the absolute flux of the incident solar or supernova neutrino beam, which probe the shape of the observed spectrum at super-Kamiokande and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiments and can sensitively signal neutrino oscillations. One class of such ...

  2. Source to sink zircon grain shape: Constraints on selective preservation and significance for Western Australian Proterozoic basin provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Markwitz


    Calculations of the proportions of source material in sedimentary rocks relative to the proportions of source material in the overall catchment area (erosion parameter ‘K’ calculated based on age spectra produced values typical for mature river systems, with K = 6 for the Yilgarn-Capricorn and K = 5.5 for the Musgrave-Amadeus source-sink system. For the Yilgarn-Capricorn system, we also calculated ‘K’ based on Minor Axis, to determine whether grain width can be linked to age populations. Results of the shape-based K of 5.3 suggest a similarity between age-based and shape-based ‘K’ values, demonstrating that zircon grain width may be a useful discriminator of provenance. Contrary to commonly applied qualitative shape classifications, we found no consistent correlations between shape descriptors of magmatic zircons and the composition of their host rock. While metamict zircons were preferentially removed during transport, the similarities in grain shape and age distribution of magmatic and detrital populations suggest that hydraulic sorting did not have a significant effect. We conclude that transport of zircon grains from magmatic source to sedimentary sink affects their width less than their length.

  3. Electrochromic fiber-shaped supercapacitors. (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Deng, Jue; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Guan, Guozhen; Peng, Huisheng


    An electrochromic fiber-shaped super-capacitor is developed by winding aligned carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite sheets on an elastic fiber. The fiber-shaped supercapacitors demonstrate rapid and reversible chromatic transitions under different working states, which can be directly observed by the naked eye. They are also stretchable and flexible, and are woven into textiles to display designed signals in addition to storing energy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L


    We review here the prospects of a long-term upgrade programme for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN laboratory's new proton-proton collider. The super-LHC, which is currently under evaluation and design, is expected to deliver of the order of ten times the statistics of the LHC. In addition to a non-technical summary of the principal physics arguments for the upgrade, I present a pedagogical introduction to the technological challenges on the accelerator and experimental fronts, and a review of the current status of the planning.

  5. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken


    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...

  6. Modular: The Super Computer


    Malashevich, B.,; Malashevich, D.,


    International audience; This article is deals with the history modular arithmetic, based on the rest classes calculus system «Restklassenarithmetik» (RCCS), or Modular Arithmetic, regarding its creation and development in the USSR. Characteristics of the USSR first modular super-computers: “Т-340А”, “К-340А”, “Diamond (Алмаз)” and “5E53” and their development history are briefly considered. A brief analysis of the weakening of interest in the modular arithmetic in the USSR and its subsequent ...

  7. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. Final report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)


    Argonne National Laboratory carried out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry-specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it was desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It was desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The original goal was to produce shape-selective catalysts that had the potential to limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' This cage would also restrict their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity and strength was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. Since there was no improvement, the program plan was modified as discussed below. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those

  8. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER (United States)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide


    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  9. Quantitative super-resolution microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkes, Rolf


    Super-Resolution Microscopy is an optical fluorescence technique. In this thesis we focus on single molecule super-resolution, where the position of single molecules is determined. Typically these molecules can be localized with a 10 to 30nm precision. This technique is applied in four different

  10. Super D-branes revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Townsend, P.K.


    A version of the κ-symmetric super Dp-brane action is presented in which the tension is a dynamical variable, equal to the flux of a p-form world-volume gauge field. The Lagrangian is shown to be invariant under all (super)isometries of the background for appropriate transformations of the

  11. Did sexual selection shape human music? Testing predictions from the sexual selection hypothesis of music evolution using a large genetically informative sample of over 10,000 twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosing, M.A.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Madison, G.; Pedersen, N.L.; Zietsch, B.P.; Ullén, F.


    Although music is a universal feature of human culture, little is known about its origins and functions. A prominent theory of music evolution is the sexual selection hypothesis, which proposes that music evolved as a signal of genetic quality to potential mates. The sexual selection hypothesis

  12. History and Super Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Hawkey


    Full Text Available The article looks at the perspectives on history amongst adolescent children of different backgrounds living in inner-cities in England and builds on previous research in this area. The current article presents exploratory research which focuses on the views of particular groups of adolescents, namely those from long established settled immigrant communities; those from more recently arrived migrant and immigrant communities; and those from white indigenous communities. An inclusive, perspectival and dynamic approach towards history education is outlined and the underlying view of knowledge and implications for pedagogy of this approach discussed alongside comparisons with other approaches towards the subject. The exploratory work and analysis is used to generate a research agenda through which history for a super diverse society can be developed. Although the research was conducted in the English context, the issues it raises are pertinent elsewhere.

  13. The Super DREAM Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigmans, Richard [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)


    Despite the fact that DOE provided only a fraction of the requested funds, the goals we defined in the proposal on which award ER41783 was based were essentially all met. This was partially due to the fact that other funding agencies, which supported our collaborators (especially from Italy and Korea) contributed as well, and partially due to the effective solutions that were developed to compensate for the fact that the detector we had proposed to build had to be scaled down. The performance of the SuperDREAM calorimeter is better than anything that has been built or proposed so far. This has of course not gone unnoticed in the scientific community. Scientists who are preparing experiments for the proposed new generation of particle accelerators (FCCee, CPEC,..) are all very seriously considering the technology developed in this project. Several new collaborations have formed which aim to adapt the dual-readout calorimeter principles to the demands of a 4 environment. Preliminary measurements using silicon photomultipliers as light sensors have already been carried out. This type of readout would make it possible to operate this detector in a magnetic field, and it would also allow for a longitudinal segmentation into electromagnetic and hadronic sections, if so desired. In addition, SiPM readout would eliminate the need for “forests” of fibers sticking out of the rear end of the calorimeter (Figure 1), and obtain an arbitrary fine lateral segmentation, which might be very important for recognizing electrons inside jets. The improvements in our understanding of the fundamental structure of matter and the forces that govern its behavior have always hinged on the availability of detectors that make it possible to explore the possibilities of new, more powerful particle accelerators to the fullest extent. We believe that the SuperDREAM project has created a quantum leap in detector technology, which may turn out to be crucially important for future discoveries in

  14. Selection shaped the evolution of mouse androgen-binding protein (ABP) function and promoted the duplication of Abp genes. (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M


    In the present article, we summarize two aspects of our work on mouse ABP (androgen-binding protein): (i) the sexual selection function producing incipient reinforcement on the European house mouse hybrid zone, and (ii) the mechanism behind the dramatic expansion of the Abp gene region in the mouse genome. Selection unifies these two components, although the ways in which selection has acted differ. At the functional level, strong positive selection has acted on key sites on the surface of one face of the ABP dimer, possibly to influence binding to a receptor. A different kind of selection has apparently driven the recent and rapid expansion of the gene region, probably by increasing the amount of Abp transcript, in one or both of two ways. We have shown previously that groups of Abp genes behave as LCRs (low-copy repeats), duplicating as relatively large blocks of genes by NAHR (non-allelic homologous recombination). The second type of selection involves the close link between the accumulation of L1 elements and the expansion of the Abp gene family by NAHR. It is probably predicated on an initial selection for increased transcription of existing Abp genes and/or an increase in Abp gene number providing more transcriptional sites. Either or both could increase initial transcript production, a quantitative change similar to increasing the volume of a radio transmission. In closing, we also provide a note on Abp gene nomenclature.

  15. Genetic diversity of MHC class I loci in six non-model frogs is shaped by positive selection and gene duplication. (United States)

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, K M; Richmond, J Q; Savage, A E; Lips, K R; Zamudio, K R


    Comparative studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes across vertebrate species can reveal the evolutionary processes that shape the structure and function of immune regulatory proteins. In this study, we characterized MHC class I sequences from six frog species representing three anuran families (Hylidae, Centrolenidae and Ranidae). Using cDNA from our focal species, we amplified a total of 79 unique sequences spanning exons 2-4 that encode the extracellular domains of the functional alpha chain protein. We compared intra- and interspecific nucleotide and amino-acid divergence, tested for recombination, and identified codon sites under selection by estimating the rate of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions with multiple codon-based maximum likelihood methods. We determined that positive (diversifying) selection was acting on specific amino-acid sites located within the domains that bind pathogen-derived peptides. We also found significant signals of recombination across the physical distance of the genes. Finally, we determined that all the six species expressed two or three putative classical class I loci, in contrast to the single locus condition of Xenopus laevis. Our results suggest that MHC evolution in anurans is a dynamic process and that variation in numbers of loci and genetic diversity can exist among taxa. Thus, the accumulation of genetic data for more species will be useful in further characterizing the relative importance of processes such as selection, recombination and gene duplication in shaping MHC loci among amphibian lineages.

  16. Can you hear me now? Musical training shapes functional brain networks for selective auditory attention and hearing speech in noise. (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina


    Even in the quietest of rooms, our senses are perpetually inundated by a barrage of sounds, requiring the auditory system to adapt to a variety of listening conditions in order to extract signals of interest (e.g., one speaker's voice amidst others). Brain networks that promote selective attention are thought to sharpen the neural encoding of a target signal, suppressing competing sounds and enhancing perceptual performance. Here, we ask: does musical training benefit cortical mechanisms that underlie selective attention to speech? To answer this question, we assessed the impact of selective auditory attention on cortical auditory-evoked response variability in musicians and non-musicians. Outcomes indicate strengthened brain networks for selective auditory attention in musicians in that musicians but not non-musicians demonstrate decreased prefrontal response variability with auditory attention. Results are interpreted in the context of previous work documenting perceptual and subcortical advantages in musicians for the hearing and neural encoding of speech in background noise. Musicians' neural proficiency for selectively engaging and sustaining auditory attention to language indicates a potential benefit of music for auditory training. Given the importance of auditory attention for the development and maintenance of language-related skills, musical training may aid in the prevention, habilitation, and remediation of individuals with a wide range of attention-based language, listening and learning impairments.

  17. Can you hear me now? Musical training shapes functional brain networks for selective auditory attention and hearing speech in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Strait


    Full Text Available Even in the quietest of rooms, our senses are perpetually inundated by a barrage of sounds, requiring the auditory system to adapt to a variety of listening conditions in order to extract signals of interest (e.g., one speaker’s voice amidst others. Brain networks that promote selective attention are thought to sharpen the neural encoding of a target signal, suppressing competing sounds and enhancing perceptual performance. Here, we ask: does musical training benefit cortical mechanisms that underlie selective attention to speech? To answer this question, we assessed the impact of selective auditory attention on cortical auditory-evoked response variability in musicians and nonmusicians. Outcomes indicate strengthened brain networks for selective auditory attention in musicians in that musicians but not nonmusicians demonstrate decreased prefrontal response variability with auditory attention. Results are interpreted in the context of previous work from our laboratory documenting perceptual and subcortical advantages in musicians for the hearing and neural encoding of speech in background noise. Musicians’ neural proficiency for selectively engaging and sustaining auditory attention to language indicates a potential benefit of music for auditory training. Given the importance of auditory attention for the development of language-related skills, musical training may aid in the prevention, habilitation and remediation of children with a wide range of attention-based language and learning impairments.

  18. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.


    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  19. Selective etching of dislocations in GaN and quantitative SEM analysis with shape-reconstruction method. (United States)

    Wzorek, M; Czerwinski, A; Ratajczak, J; Dylewicz, R; Katcki, J


    Due to the differences in etch-pit morphologies, chemical etching offers a possibility to determine densities of dislocations in respect to their type. In the present paper we propose a method, which implements a simple shape-from-shading procedure, i.e. with results derived from image brightness dependence on surface slope. It allows estimation of etch-pit depth distributions from scanning electron microscopy micrographs. This method is used to obtain depth distributions from GaN surface after etching in molten KOH-NaOH eutectic mixture. Depth distributions are used to estimate densities of etch-pits related to a given dislocation type. The distributions are compared with dislocation densities determined with transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Thermo-super-hydrophobic effect (United States)

    Floryan, Jerzy M.


    Super-hydrophobic effect involves capture of gas bubbles in pores of solid wall. These bubbles separate moving liquid from the solid surface resulting in a substantial reduction of shear drag experienced by the liquid. The super-hydrophobic effect requires presence of two phases and thus drag reduction can be accomplished only for liquids. Thermo-super-hydrophobic effect takes advantage of the localized heating to create separation bubbles and thus can work with single phase flow systems. Analysis of a simple model problem shows that this effect is very strong in the case of small Re flows such as those found in micro-channels and can reduce pressure drop down to 50% of the reference value if the heating pattern as well as the heating intensity are suitable chosen. The thermo-super-hydrophobic effect becomes marginal when Re increases above a certain critical value.

  1. Shape Descriptors for the Quantification of Microstructures (United States)


    interacted with Dr. Alan Ardell (UCLA) to compare their shape analysis of super alloy gamma’ particles with our own. She also collaborated with Prof. Veera...them. Furthermore, this project should establish a mathematical and numerical methodology for the analysis and identification of 3-D shapes based on...a mathematical and numerical methodology for the analysis and identification of 3-D shapes based on random 2-D sections and explore ways in which this

  2. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei


    The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions. For instance, fluorescence microscopy faces a ‘colour barrier’, owing to the intrinsically broad (about 1,500 inverse centimetres) and featureless nature of fluorescence spectra that limits the number of resolvable colours to two to five (or seven to nine if using complicated instrumentation and analysis). Spontaneous Raman microscopy probes vibrational transitions with much narrower resonances (peak width of about 10 inverse centimetres) and so does not suffer from this problem, but weak signals make many bio-imaging applications impossible. Although surface-enhanced Raman scattering offers high sensitivity and multiplicity, it cannot be readily used to image specific molecular targets quantitatively inside live cells. Here we use stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions to image target molecules inside living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity (down to 250 nanomolar with a time constant of 1 millisecond). We create a palette of triple-bond-conjugated near-infrared dyes that each displays a single peak in the cell-silent Raman spectral window; when combined with available fluorescent probes, this palette provides 24 resolvable colours, with the potential for further expansion. Proof-of-principle experiments on neuronal co-cultures and brain tissues reveal cell-type-dependent heterogeneities in DNA and protein metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions, underscoring the

  3. Binaural inhibition is important in shaping the free-field frequency selectivity of single neurons in the inferior colliculus. (United States)

    Gooler, D M; Xu, J; Feng, A S


    1. We have shown previously that under free-field stimulation in the frontal field, frequency selectivity of the majority of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons became sharper when the loudspeaker was shifted to ipsilateral azimuths. These results indicated that binaural inhibition may be responsible for the direction-dependent sharpening of frequency selectivity. To test the above hypothesis directly, we investigated the frequency selectivity of IC neurons under several conditions: monaural stimulation using a semiclosed acoustical stimulation system, binaural stimulation dichotically also using a semiclosed system, free-field stimulation from different azimuths, and free-field stimulation when the ipsilateral ear was occluded monaurally (coated with a thick layer of petroleum jelly, which effectively attenuated acoustic input to this ear). 2. The binaural interaction pattern of 98 IC neurons of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens pipiens) were evaluated; of these neurons, there were 34 EE and 64 EO neurons. The majority of IC neurons (92 of 98) showed some degree of binaural inhibition (i.e., showing diminished response when the ipsilateral and contralateral ears were stimulated simultaneously) whether they were designated as EE or EO; these IC neurons thus were classified as EE-I or EO-I. Neurons were classified as exhibiting strong inhibition if the ILD function showed a pronounced response decrement, i.e., a decrease of > or = 50% of the response to monaural stimulation of the contralateral ear. Those neurons that showed smaller response decrements (decrease was > or = 25% but neurons (n = 68) showed strong binaural inhibition. 3. In agreement with results from our earlier studies, frequency threshold curves (FTCs) of IC neurons were altered by sound azimuth. Independent of binaural interaction pattern, most IC neurons (59 of 98) showed a narrowing of the FTC as sound direction was changed from contralateral 90 deg (c90 degrees) to ipsilateral 90 deg (i90

  4. The Landscape of A-to-I RNA Editome Is Shaped by Both Positive and Purifying Selection (United States)

    Kong, Yimeng; Pan, Bohu; Chen, Longxian; Wang, Hongbing; Hao, Pei; Li, Xuan


    The hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I editing) in precursor mRNA induces variable gene products at the post-transcription level. How and to what extent A-to-I RNA editing diversifies transcriptome is not fully characterized in the evolution, and very little is known about the selective constraints that drive the evolution of RNA editing events. Here we present a study on A-to-I RNA editing, by generating a global profile of A-to-I editing for a phylogeny of seven Drosophila species, a model system spanning an evolutionary timeframe of approximately 45 million years. Of totally 9281 editing events identified, 5150 (55.5%) are located in the coding sequences (CDS) of 2734 genes. Phylogenetic analysis places these genes into 1,526 homologous families, about 5% of total gene families in the fly lineages. Based on conservation of the editing sites, the editing events in CDS are categorized into three distinct types, representing events on singleton genes (type I), and events not conserved (type II) or conserved (type III) within multi-gene families. While both type I and II events are subject to purifying selection, notably type III events are positively selected, and highly enriched in the components and functions of the nervous system. The tissue profiles are documented for three editing types, and their critical roles are further implicated by their shifting patterns during holometabolous development and in post-mating response. In conclusion, three A-to-I RNA editing types are found to have distinct evolutionary dynamics. It appears that nervous system functions are mainly tested to determine if an A-to-I editing is beneficial for an organism. The coding plasticity enabled by A-to-I editing creates a new class of binary variations, which is a superior alternative to maintain heterozygosity of expressed genes in a diploid mating system. PMID:27467689

  5. Realization of super-reflection and cloaking based on graphene-silica metamaterial (United States)

    Wei, Buzheng; Jian, Shuisheng


    An epsilon-near-zero graphene-silica metamaterial-based structure is proposed and numerically investigated to realize super-reflection and cloaking. The advantage of this structure is that the operating bandwidth can be actively controlled by varying the chemical potential of graphene. By applying different electromagnetic boundary conditions, super-reflection and cloaking can be realized no matter what shape and size the object is inside this device. The ultracompact structure has potential applications in microcosmic science and military detection.

  6. Super Dielectric Materials (United States)

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan


    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc.), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density. PMID:28788298

  7. On the Segmentation of the Response Surfaces for Super ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Solutions of Linear and Quadratic Programming Problems using Super Convergent Line Series involving the Segmentation of the Response Surface are presented in the paper. It is verified that the number of segments, S for which optimal solutions of these problems selected for verification are obtained are 2 and 4 for ...

  8. Structural behaviour of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    A new structural concept, called Super-light Structures (SLS), has recently been invented and patented at the Technical University of Denmark. The basic concept of SLS is to construct a skeleton of a stiff and strong material, such as ordinary or high strength concrete, and stabilize this skeleton...... with a lighter and softer material, such as lightweight concrete. The combined use of stiff and light material in SLS results in structures of high stiffness and low weight. The applied technology and the advantages of SLS are elaborated upon in [1] in these proceedings. The present paper focuses...... on the structural correlation between the stiff material and the light material. The shape of the skeleton can be optimized for the primary load on the structure, and it will take up the majority of the load. The lighter material forms the outer geometry of the structural component (e.g. a wall), and has several...

  9. Quantization of super Teichmueller spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla


    The quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces has found important applications to conformal field theory and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We construct a quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces, using coordinates associated to the ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. We construct a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations. Therefore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential. In the quantum Teichmueller theory, it was observed that the key object defining the Teichmueller theory has a close relation to the representation theory of the Borel half of U{sub q}(sl(2)). In our research we observed that the role of U{sub q}(sl(2)) is taken by quantum superalgebra U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). A Borel half of U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)) is the super quantum plane. The canonical element of the Heisenberg double of the quantum super plane is evaluated in certain infinite dimensional representations on L{sup 2}(R) x C{sup 1} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 1} and compared to the flip operator from the Teichmueller theory of super Riemann surfaces.

  10. Sociocultural Influences in Eating Disorders: Shape, Super Woman and Sport. (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Through a review of the literature, this presentation provides information on eating disorders as they relate to sport and fitness and examines the role of all physical and health education teachers, coaches, administrators, and guidance counsellors in either precipitating or preventing anorexia nervosa or bulimia. These professionals are in a…

  11. Introgression and selection shaped the evolutionary history of sympatric sister-species of coral reef fishes (genus: Haemulon)

    KAUST Repository

    Bernal, Moisés A.


    Closely related marine species with large overlapping ranges provide opportunities to study mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between such lineages. Here, we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister-species. On the other hand, complete lineage sorting was observed at the nuclear loci and most of the SNPs. Under neutral expectations, the smaller effective population size of mtDNA should lead to fixation of mutations faster than nDNA. Thus, these results suggest that hybridization in the recent past (0.174-0.263Ma) led to introgression of the mtDNA, with little effect on the nuclear genome. Analyses of the SNP data revealed 28 loci potentially under divergent selection between the two species. The combination of mtDNA introgression and limited nuclear DNA introgression provides a mechanism for the evolution of independent lineages despite recurrent hybridization events. This study adds to the growing body of research that exemplifies how genetic divergence can be maintained in the presence of gene flow between closely related species.

  12. Convection shapes the trade-off between antibiotic efficacy and the selection for resistance in spatial gradients (United States)

    Gralka, Matti; Fusco, Diana; Martis, Stephen; Hallatschek, Oskar


    Since penicillin was discovered about 90 years ago, we have become used to using drugs to eradicate unwanted pathogenic cells. However, using drugs to kill bacteria, viruses or cancer cells has the serious side effect of selecting for mutant types that survive the drug attack. A crucial question therefore is how one could eradicate as many cells as possible for a given acceptable risk of drug resistance evolution. We address this general question in a model of drug resistance evolution in spatial drug gradients, which recent experiments and theories have suggested as key drivers of drug resistance. Importantly, our model takes into account the influence of convection, resulting for instance from blood flow. Using stochastic simulations, we study the fates of individual resistance mutations and quantify the trade-off between the killing of wild-type cells and the rise of resistance mutations: shallow gradients and convection into the antibiotic region promote wild-type death, at the cost of increasing the establishment probability of resistance mutations. We can explain these observed trends by modeling the adaptation process as a branching random walk. Our analysis reveals that the trade-off between death and adaptation depends on the relative length scales of the spatial drug gradient and random dispersal, and the strength of convection. Our results show that convection can have a momentous effect on the rate of establishment of new mutations, and may heavily impact the efficiency of antibiotic treatment.

  13. Convection shapes the trade-off between antibiotic efficacy and the selection for resistance in spatial gradients. (United States)

    Gralka, Matti; Fusco, Diana; Martis, Stephen; Hallatschek, Oskar


    Since penicillin was discovered about 90 years ago, we have become used to using drugs to eradicate unwanted pathogenic cells. However, using drugs to kill bacteria, viruses or cancer cells has the serious side effect of selecting for mutant types that survive the drug attack. A crucial question therefore is how one could eradicate as many cells as possible for a given acceptable risk of drug resistance evolution. We address this general question in a model of drug resistance evolution in spatial drug gradients, which recent experiments and theories have suggested as key drivers of drug resistance. Importantly, our model takes into account the influence of convection, resulting for instance from blood flow. Using stochastic simulations, we study the fates of individual resistance mutations and quantify the trade-off between the killing of wild-type cells and the rise of resistance mutations: shallow gradients and convection into the antibiotic region promote wild-type death, at the cost of increasing the establishment probability of resistance mutations. We can explain these observed trends by modeling the adaptation process as a branching random walk. Our analysis reveals that the trade-off between death and adaptation depends on the relative length scales of the spatial drug gradient and random dispersal, and the strength of convection. Our results show that convection can have a momentous effect on the rate of establishment of new mutations, and may heavily impact the efficiency of antibiotic treatment.

  14. A genome-wide metabolic QTL analysis in Europeans implicates two loci shaped by recent positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nicholson


    Full Text Available We have performed a metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL study of the (1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H NMR metabolome in humans, building on recent targeted knowledge of genetic drivers of metabolic regulation. Urine and plasma samples were collected from two cohorts of individuals of European descent, with one cohort comprised of female twins donating samples longitudinally. Sample metabolite concentrations were quantified by (1H NMR and tested for association with genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Four metabolites' concentrations exhibited significant, replicable association with SNP variation (8.6×10(-11selection in European populations. Genes NAT8 and PYROXD2, both with relatively uncharacterized functional roles, are good candidates for mediating the corresponding mQTL associations. The study's longitudinal twin design allowed detailed variance-components analysis of the sources of population variation in metabolite levels. The mQTLs explained 40%-64% of biological population variation in the corresponding metabolites' concentrations. These effect sizes are stronger than those reported in a recent, targeted mQTL study of metabolites in serum using the targeted-metabolomics Biocrates platform. By re-analysing our plasma samples using the Biocrates platform, we replicated the mQTL findings of the previous study and discovered a previously uncharacterized yet substantial familial component of variation in metabolite levels in addition to the heritability contribution from

  15. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Techner, Joerg [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group


    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  16. Super resolution volume rendering hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Marco; Smit, Jaap; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Jeroen


    The resolution obtained in volume rendering is greatly increased over known methods through the introduction of super resolution techniques which make it possible to enlarge the view o f the dataset without the introduction of unnecessary positional, gradient and opacity errors. In this paper our

  17. Phase strength and super lattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Powder XRD investigations on dotriacontane-decane and dotriacontane-decanol mixtures are made. Phase strength, phase separation and formation of superlattices are discussed. The role of tunnel-like defects is considered. Keywords. Hydrocarbons; mixtures; phase strength; tunnel-like defects; super lattices. 1.

  18. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian


    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  19. Midpoint Shapes. (United States)

    Welchman, Rosamond; Urso, Josephine


    Emphasizes the importance of children exploring hands-on and minds-on mathematics. Presents a midpoint shape activity for students to explore the midpoint shape of familiar quadrilaterals, such as squares and rectangles. (KHR)

  20. Super ionic conductive glass (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  1. swot: Super W Of Theta (United States)

    Coupon, Jean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Kilbinger, Martin; Medezinski, Elinor


    SWOT (Super W Of Theta) computes two-point statistics for very large data sets, based on “divide and conquer” algorithms, mainly, but not limited to data storage in binary trees, approximation at large scale, parellelization (open MPI), and bootstrap and jackknife resampling methods “on the fly”. It currently supports projected and 3D galaxy auto and cross correlations, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and weighted histograms.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Louis K [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL


    High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.


    CERN Multimedia


    What happened? A number of accidents have occurred with the use of 'Super Glues'. Some individuals have suffered injuries - severe irritation, or skin bonded together - through getting glue on their face and in their eyes. What are the hazards associated with glues? 'Super Glues' (i.e. cyanoacrylates): Are harmful if swallowed and are chemical irritants to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. Present the risk of polymerization (hardening) leading to skin damage. Be careful ! 'Super Glues' can bond to skin and eyes in seconds. Note: Other glues, resins and hardeners are also chemicals and as such can cause serious damage to the skin, eyes, respiratory or digestive tract. (For example: some components can be toxic, harmful, corrosive, sensitizing agents, etc.). How to prevent accidents in the future? Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all of the glues you work with. Check the label on the container to find out which of the materials you work with are hazardous. Wear the right Per...

  4. Resolution and super-resolution. (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J R


    Many papers have claimed the attainment of super-resolution, i.e. resolution beyond that achieved classically, by measurement of the profile of a feature in the image. We argue that measurement of the contrast of the image of a dark bar on a bright background does not give a measure of resolution, but of detection sensitivity. The width of a bar that gives an intensity at the center of the bar of 0.735 that in the bright region (the same ratio as in the Rayleigh resolution criterion) is λ/(13.9×numerical aperture) for the coherent case with central illumination. This figure, which compares with λ/(numerical aperture) for the Abbe resolution limit with central illumination, holds for the classical case, and so is no indication of super-resolution. Theoretical images for two points, two lines, arrays of lines, arrays of bars, and grating objects are compared. These results can be used a reference for experimental results, to determine if super-resolution has indeed been attained. The history of the development of the theory of microscope resolution is outlined. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)


    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  6. Development of super-ensemble techniques for ocean analyses: the Mediterranean Sea case


    Pistoia, Jenny; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Collins, Matthew; Korres, Gerasimos; Drillet, Yann


    A super-ensemble methodology is proposed to improve the quality of short-term ocean analyses for sea surface temperature (SST) in the Mediterranean Sea. The methodology consists of a multiple linear regression technique applied to a multi-physics multi-model super-ensemble (MMSE) data set. This is a collection of different operational forecasting analyses together with ad hoc simulations, created by modifying selected numerical model parameterizations. A new linear regressio...

  7. Propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams in fractional Schrödinger equation: from linear to nonlinear regimes. (United States)

    Zhang, Lifu; Li, Chuxin; Zhong, Haizhe; Xu, Changwen; Lei, Dajun; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan


    We have investigated the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian optical beams in fractional Schrödinger equation. We have identified the difference between the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams and that of Gaussian beams. We show that, the linear propagation dynamics of the super-Gaussian beams with order m > 1 undergo an initial compression phase before they split into two sub-beams. The sub-beams with saddle shape separate each other and their interval increases linearly with propagation distance. In the nonlinear regime, the super-Gaussian beams evolve to become a single soliton, breathing soliton or soliton pair depending on the order of super-Gaussian beams, nonlinearity, as well as the Lévy index. In two dimensions, the linear evolution of super-Gaussian beams is similar to that for one dimension case, but the initial compression of the input super-Gaussian beams and the diffraction of the splitting beams are much stronger than that for one dimension case. While the nonlinear propagation of the super-Gaussian beams becomes much more unstable compared with that for the case of one dimension. Our results show the nonlinear effects can be tuned by varying the Lévy index in the fractional Schrödinger equation for a fixed input power.

  8. A crown ether appended super gelator with multiple stimulus responsiveness. (United States)

    Dong, Shengyi; Zheng, Bo; Xu, Donghua; Yan, Xuzhou; Zhang, Mingming; Huang, Feihe


    A crown ether appended super gelator is designed and synthesized. It can gel a variety of organic solvents and shows excellent gelation properties with both low critical gelation concentration and short gelation time. Due to the introduction of the crown ether moiety and a secondary ammonium unit, the supramolecular gels show reversible gel-sol transitions. The supramolecular gels can also be molded into shape-persistent and free-standing objects. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Super Bowl Sunday: risky business for at-risk (male) drinkers? (United States)

    Dearing, Ronda L; Twaragowski, Cheryl L; Smith, Philip H; Homish, Gregory G; Connors, Gerard J; Walitzer, Kimberly S


    Major sporting events and other festive occasions are typically associated with alcohol consumption; however, little is known about risky drinking during events such as the "Super Bowl." We sought to determine whether drinking on Super Bowl Sunday differed from Saturdays (the heaviest drinking day of the week) surrounding the date of the Super Bowl among at-risk drinkers. Heavy drinking participants (N = 208) were recruited via advertisements for a 2-year prospective study of drinking behaviors. From this larger sample, 196 were selected for whom the date of the Super Bowl was included in their daily alcohol consumption reports (including reports of abstinence on those days) for 2006, 2007, and/or 2008. Participants' average age was 36.4 (SD = 12.9); 49.5% were women. Participants at the point of recruitment were not seeking treatment and had not been in alcohol treatment in the past year. Analyses using multilevel modeling comparing Super Bowl Sunday to Saturdays indicated that men drank more alcohol on Super Bowl Sunday across all 3 years, whereas women's drinking was higher in only one of the 3 years. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: These findings suggest that heavy drinking during the Super Bowl (and in association with other sporting events), particularly among men, warrants additional attention due to the potential for deleterious public health consequences.

  10. Results from Super-Kamiokande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki


    Results from Super-Kamiokande on atmospheric neutrinos and solar neutrinos are presented. The atmospheric neutrino data exhibited a zenith angle dependent deficit of muon neutrinos. Experimental biases and uncertainties in the prediction were unable to explain the data. However, the data were in good agreement with two flavor {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_reversible} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations. The solar neutrino data showed a deficit of the neutrinos. The day-night effect and the energy spectrum of recoil electrons were studied.

  11. Colloid Science of Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts in 2D and 3D Structures. Challenges of Nucleation, Growth, Composition, Particle Shape, Size Control and their Influence on Activity and Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.


    Recent breakthroughs in synthesis in nanosciences have achieved control of size and shapes of nanoparticles that are relevant for catalyst design. In this article, we review the advance of synthesis of nanoparticles, fabrication of two and three dimensional model catalyst system, characterization, and studies of activity and selectivity. The ability to synthesize monodispersed platinum and rhodium nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm range permitted us to study the influence of composition, structure, and dynamic properties of monodispersed metal nanoparticle on chemical reactivity and selectivity. We review the importance of size and shape of nanoparticles to determine the reaction selectivity in multi-path reactions. The influence of metal-support interaction has been studied by probing the hot electron flows through the metal-oxide interface in catalytic nanodiodes. Novel designs of nanoparticle catalytic systems are discussed.

  12. Classification of Low Dimensional Lie Super-Bialgebras


    Juszczak, Cezary; Sobczyk, Jan T.


    A thorough analysis of Lie super-bialgebra structures on Lie super-algebras osp(1|2) and super-e(2) is presented. Combined technique of computer algebraic computations and a subsequent identification of equivalent structures is applied. In all the cases Poisson-Lie brackets on supergroups are found. Possibility of quantizing them in order to obtain quantum groups is discussed. It turns out to be straightforward for all but one structures for super-E(2) group.

  13. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : atomic layer deposition of active catalytic metals. Activity report : January 1, 2005 - September 30, 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)


    Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry - specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. The broad goal is to produce diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Originally the goal was to prepare shape-selective catalysts that would limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. We are currently awaiting follow-up experiments to determine the attrition strength of these catalysts. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide

  14. Super high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryon, J.C.


    This patent describes a super high-rise building for human occupation having at least 100 vertically spaced, human-occupiable stories comprising: a foundation; and a hollow vertical prism of reinforced concrete, mounted on the foundation and being at least 100 stories high, for transmitting to the foundation substantially all loads above at least the 75th floor of the building in a manner such that automatic lateral rigidity, stability, and strength are attained. The sides of the prism have apertures for such purposes as allowing human movement between the inside end and outside of the prism. The portion of substantially any horizontal circumference of the prism which is occupied by the apertures is less than about 25% of the horizontal circumference.

  15. Annotation: Hyperlexia: disability or superability? (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred


    Hyperlexia is the phenomenon of spontaneous and precocious mastery of single-word reading that has been of interest to clinicians and researchers since the beginning of the last century. An extensive search of publications on the subject of hyperlexia was undertaken and all available publications were reviewed. The literature can be subdivided into discussions of the following issues: (1) whether hyperlexia is a phenomenon that is characteristic only of specific clinical populations (e.g., children with developmental delays) or whether it can also be observed in the general population; (2) whether hyperlexia is a distinct syndrome comorbid with a number of different disorders or whether it is a part of the spectrum of some other clinical condition(s); (3) whether hyperlexia should be defined through single-word reading superiority with regard to reading comprehension, vocabulary, general intelligence, any combination of the three, or all three characteristics; (4) whether there is a specific neuropsychological profile associated with hyperlexia; (5) whether hyperlexia is characterized by a particular developmental profile; and (6) whether hyperlexia should be viewed as a disability (deficit) or superability (talent). We interpret the literature as supporting the view that hyperlexia is a superability demonstrated by a very specific group of individuals with developmental disorders (defined through unexpected single-word reading in the context of otherwise suppressed intellectual functioning) rather than as a disability exhibited by a portion of the general population (defined through a discrepancy between levels of single-word reading and comprehension). We simultaneously argue, however, that multifaceted and multi-methodological approaches to studying the phenomenon of hyperlexia, defined within the research framework of understanding single-word reading, are warranted and encouraged.

  16. Seeing the forest tree by tree: super-resolution light microscopy meets the neurosciences. (United States)

    Maglione, Marta; Sigrist, Stephan J


    Light microscopy can be applied in vivo and can sample large tissue volumes, features crucial for the study of single neurons and neural circuits. However, light microscopy per se is diffraction-limited in resolution, and the substructure of core signaling compartments of neuronal circuits--axons, presynaptic active zones, postsynaptic densities and dendritic spines-can be only insufficiently characterized by standard light microscopy. Recently, several forms of super-resolution light microscopy breaking the diffraction-imposed resolution limit have started to allow highly resolved, dynamic imaging in the cell-biologically highly relevant 10-100 nanometer range ('mesoscale'). New, sometimes surprising answers concerning how protein mobility and protein architectures shape neuronal communication have already emerged. Here we start by briefly introducing super-resolution microscopy techniques, before we describe their use in the analysis of neuronal compartments. We conclude with long-term prospects for super-resolution light microscopy in the molecular and cellular neurosciences.

  17. Bell-shaped size selection in a bottom trawl: A case study for Nephrops directed fishery with reduced catches of cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövgren, Johan; Herrmann, Bent; Feekings, Jordan P.


    and size selectivity have motivated the development of selective systems in trawl fisheries that utilize more than one selective device simultaneously. An example can be found in the Swedish demersal trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), which simultaneously aims at avoiding catches...

  18. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, B.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Pous, E.; /Barcelona U.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; /Bergen U.; Asgeirsson, D.; /British Columbia U.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; /Caltech; Heinemeyer, S.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; McElrath, B.; /CERN; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; /Cincinnati U.; Blanke, M.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison


    SuperB is a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B{sub u,d,s}, D and {tau} decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the {Upsilon}(4S) and {phi}(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over

  19. Experiments with SuperJANET/SMDS


    Simpson, Steven; Hutchison, David


    A series of measurements of a computer link using the Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), as provided in the United Kingdom SuperJANET network, are described in this paper. The computer link is subject to the effects of using several access networks at the peripheries of SuperJANET, making the measurements valid only in the context of the link from one computer to another, rather than describing any attributes of SuperJANET in general. However, the measurement mechanism is refined seve...

  20. Tracheotomy Outcomes in Super Obese Patients. (United States)

    Marshall, Ryan V; Haas, Patrick J; Schweinfurth, John M; Replogle, William H


    Surgeons need to understand the expected outcomes for super obese patients undergoing tracheotomy to appropriately counsel patients and families about likely risks and benefits. To determine the outcomes, complications, and mortality after tracheotomy in super obese patients (those with a body mass index [BMI] greater than 50). A retrospective review was conducted of billing records from a tertiary care academic medical center from November 1, 2010, through June 30, 2013, to identify patients undergoing tracheotomy. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with a BMI (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) greater than 50 and a control group with a BMI of 30 to 50. Patient characteristics, including BMI, age, race/ethnicity, primary diagnosis for hospitalization, medical comorbidities, and surgical technique, were measured. The primary outcome measure was dependence on tracheostomy at discharge. Secondary outcomes included rates of ventilator dependence, mortality, postoperative complications, and discharge disposition. The super obese population included 31 patients and was predominantly African American (20 patients [65%]) and female (21 patients [68%]). Mean BMI of super obese patients was 64.0 (range, 50.2-95.5). The obese patient population was mainly African American (25 patients [74%]) and female (17 patients [50%]). Twenty-five of 31 super obese patients (81%) were discharged with a tracheotomy tube in place, compared with 16 of 34 obese patients (52%). Seven patients (23%) in the super obese group were ventilator dependent at discharge, compared with 4 patients (13%) in the obese group. Only 2 of the super obese patients (3%) were decannulated before discharge, compared with 15 (44%) in the obese group. In-hospital mortality was similar for the 2 groups (super obese, 4 patients [13%] and obese, 3 patients [9%]). The overall complication rate was 19% in the super obese group (6 patients) compared with 6% in the

  1. Towards robust and effective shape modeling: sparse shape composition. (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean


    Organ shape plays an important role in various clinical practices, e.g., diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment evaluation. It is usually derived from low level appearance cues in medical images. However, due to diseases and imaging artifacts, low level appearance cues might be weak or misleading. In this situation, shape priors become critical to infer and refine the shape derived by image appearances. Effective modeling of shape priors is challenging because: (1) shape variation is complex and cannot always be modeled by a parametric probability distribution; (2) a shape instance derived from image appearance cues (input shape) may have gross errors; and (3) local details of the input shape are difficult to preserve if they are not statistically significant in the training data. In this paper we propose a novel Sparse Shape Composition model (SSC) to deal with these three challenges in a unified framework. In our method, a sparse set of shapes in the shape repository is selected and composed together to infer/refine an input shape. The a priori information is thus implicitly incorporated on-the-fly. Our model leverages two sparsity observations of the input shape instance: (1) the input shape can be approximately represented by a sparse linear combination of shapes in the shape repository; (2) parts of the input shape may contain gross errors but such errors are sparse. Our model is formulated as a sparse learning problem. Using L1 norm relaxation, it can be solved by an efficient expectation-maximization (EM) type of framework. Our method is extensively validated on two medical applications, 2D lung localization in X-ray images and 3D liver segmentation in low-dose CT scans. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our model exhibits better performance in both studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic shape. (United States)

    Koenderink, J J; van Doorn, A J


    Many useful notions of partial order and/or similarity and relatedness of different geometrical features of smooth shapes that occur in psychologically valid descriptions of shape have no equivalents in the usual geometrical shape theories. This is especially true where similarities are noted between objects of different connectivity: in almost all of the present theories the topological type generates the primary categorization. It is argued that such relations find a logical place only in shape theories that involve morphogenesis. Any object can be embedded uniquely in a morphogenetic sequence if one takes resolution as the parameter of the sequence. A theory of measurement is presented that allows one to define surfaces and (boundary-) curves on multiple levels of resolution. The embedding is essentially unique and is generated via a partial differential equation that governs the evolution. A canonical projection connects any high resolution specimen to lower resolution versions. The bifurcation set of the projection generates natural part boundaries. Singularities of the evolution are completely characterized as emergence, accretion and versification processes (involving topological change) and singularities by which inflections (inflection points for curves, parabolic curves for surfaces) are generated. The latter singularities involve a single process for the generation of inflections and three other processes by which the existing inflection structure may be changed. Relations with existing theories in vogue in robotics and AI, as well as in psychophysics are discussed.

  3. Acoustic Design of Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas

    in a controlled laboratory environment have been conducted with the element in order to evaluate its performance in airborne and impact sound insulation. These results have been employed in simulations of the flanking transmission to estimate the in-situ performance of the super-light slab element. The flanking...... transmission has been done both in a standard room consisting of precast concrete elements and as a parametric study in order to estimate the accuracy of the used model. Experiments on the ultimate limit state regarding moment, shear and pull-out resistance is carried out for the super-light element. As a part...... of the same test series elastic behaviour of the super-light element is also investigated. This is done to verify that requirements and methods supplied by design codes can be applied to the element with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the super-light slab element has been exposed to a standard fire test...

  4. Architectural Engineering to Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas

    with architectural engineering as a starting point. The thesis is based on a two stringed hypothesis: Architectural engineering gives rise to better architecture and Super-Light Structures support and enables a static, challenging architecture. The aim of the thesis is to clarify architectural engineering's impact...... on the work process between architects and engineers in the design development. Using architectural engineering, Super-Light Structures are examined in an architectural context, and it is explained how digital tools can support architectural engineering and design of Super-Light Structures. The experiences...... of implementing a new structural system are described, as well as cases, demonstrating how concept solutions with Super-Light Structures can support architecture. The research in this thesis is carried out in cooperation with architect practice Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG), who has allowed the projects...

  5. Axial Super-resolution Evanescent Wave Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Pendharker, Sarang; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin


    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axi...

  6. Super-resolution imaging in live cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, Susan

    Over the last twenty years super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has gone from proof-of-concept experiments to commercial systems being available in many labs, improving the resolution achievable...

  7. Sustainable composite super absorbents made from polysaccharides


    Ye, Zhuoliang; Tang, Mi; Hong, Xiaoting; K. S. Hui


    Compared to traditional super absorbent polymers using raw materials from petrochemical industry, natural polymer absorbents are more favorable because they are sustainable and biodegradable. In this study, composite absorbents were developed by crosslinking carrageenan with sodium alginate using calcium chloride. Effect of composition on absorption was tested. Absorption was improved by increasing carrageenan content. The super absorbent exhibited the maximal swelling ratio of 13.1 g/g in 0....

  8. Super-Eddington Accreting Tidal Disruption Events (United States)

    Lin, Dacheng; Guillochon, James; Komossa, St.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Irwin, Jimmy; Maksym, W. Peter; Grupe, Dirk; Godet, Olivier; Webb, Natalie; Barret, Didier; Zauderer, Bevin; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Gwyn, Stephen


    Multiwavelength flares from tidal disruption and subsequent accretion of stars are important for study of otherwise dormant massive black holes in galactic nuclei. Previous well-monitored candidate flares were short-lived, with most emission confined to within ~1 year. Here, we report our discovery of a well observed super-long (>11 years) luminous X-ray flare from the nuclear region of a dwarf starburst galaxy. After an apparently fast rise within ~4 months a decade ago, the X-ray luminosity, though showing a weak trend of decay, has been persistently high at around the Eddington limit. The X-ray spectra are soft and can be described with Comptonized emission from an optically thick low-temperature corona, a super-Eddington accretion signature often observed in accreting stellar-mass black holes. Dramatic spectral softening was also caught in one recent observation, implying either a temporary transition from the super-Eddington accretion state to the standard thermal state, or the presence of a transient highly blueshifted (~0.36c) warm absorber. All these properties in concert suggest a tidal disruption event with an unusually long super-Eddington accretion phase that has never before been observed. We also found two additional events showing similar X-ray spectra characteristic of super-Eddington accretion from two otherwise quiescent galaxies. Therefore these events seem to form a new, super-Eddington accreting class of tidal disruption events.

  9. Studies of the Super VELO

    CERN Document Server



    The Super VELO is the Run 5 upgrade of the VeloPix detector of the LHCb experiment. Its most challenging task is to cope with a luminosity increase of the factor 10. This study examines the potential physics performance of a detector based on the VeloPix design at high luminosity conditions. It is found that an unmodified VeloPix detector shows poor performance when exposed to 10x design luminosity, most gravely high ghost rates of 40 %. When applying basic assumptions about material changes such as cutting the silicon thickness by half and removing the RF foil, the ghost rate drops by 20 %. When using thin silicon and re-optimizing the tracking algorithm, the ghost rate can even be reduced by 60 %. Applying the additional modification of a pixel area size four times smaller, the ghost rate drops by 88 % and the IP resolution improves. Finally, in a dream scenario with thin silicon, smaller pixels and no RF foil, big gains in resolution and a ghost rate of less than 4 % can be achieved.

  10. Super-B Project Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Donald, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Yocky, G.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /Pisa U. /CERN


    The SuperB project aims at the construction of an asymmetric very high luminosity B-Factory on the Frascati/Tor Vergata (Italy) area, providing a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavour sector of the Standard Model. The luminosity goal of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be reached with a new collision scheme with 'large Piwinski angle' (LPA) and the use of 'crab waist sextupoles' (CW). A LPA&CW Interaction Region (IR) has been successfully tested at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF-Frascati in 2008. The LPA&CW scheme, together with very low {beta}*, will allow for operation with relatively low beam currents and reasonable bunch length, comparable to those of PEP-II and KEKB. In the High Energy Ring (HER), two spin rotators will bring longitudinally polarized beams into collision at the IP. The lattice has been designed with a very low intrinsic emittance and is quite compact, less than 2 km long. The tight focusing requires the final doublet quadrupoles to be very close to the IP and very compact. A Conceptual Design Report was published in March 2007, and beam dynamics and collective effects R&D studies are in progress in order to publish a Technical Design Report by the end of 2010.

  11. Hybrid super electron donors – preparation and reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Garnier


    Full Text Available Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature. The stronger pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene donor converts iodoarenes to aryl anions efficiently under appropriate conditions (3 equiv of donor. The presence of excess sodium hydride base has a very important and selective effect on some of these electron-transfer reactions, and a rationale for this is proposed.

  12. HapMap-based study of human soluble glutathione S-transferase enzymes: the role of natural selection in shaping the single nucleotide polymorphism diversity of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes. (United States)

    Polimanti, Renato; Piacentini, Sara; Fuciarelli, Maria


    Glutathione S-transferase enzymes (GSTs; EC: constitute the principal phase II superfamily, which plays a key role in cellular detoxification. GST genes are organized in chromosomal clusters; most of these genes are polymorphic, mainly due to single nucleotide substitutions. Different studies proved significant interethnic differences in GST allelic frequencies but, at present, the role of natural selection in human genetic variability of GSTs is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of natural selection in shaping single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity of soluble GST genes. Using the HapMap database, we analyzed the population differences in the soluble GST genes using the phasing data from unrelated individuals shared among 11 populations in the International HapMap project. A Fst-based selection test was applied to HapMap data to detect soluble GST loci under selection. Comparisons between GST gene polymorphisms among HapMap populations highlight that ethnicity is an influencing factor of GST genetic variability. By applying a genome scan based on F-statistics, we identified nine SNPs that present F-coefficients significantly more different than those expected under neutrality (rs2239892, rs3814309, rs7483, rs1571858, rs929166, rs11807, rs4715344, rs4715354, and rs3734431). Our study confirms that GST gene variation reflects human demographic history, but it also demonstrates that natural selection could shape the genetic profile of some GST SNPs. Moreover, the identification of human genome regions and targets of natural selection may have detected candidate genes for complex diseases. In analyzing the literature, we provide complex disease hypothesis (male infertility, embryotoxicity) for the identified GST SNPs.

  13. Experimental and numerical studies on super-cavitating flow of axisymmetric cavitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Kwon Ahn


    Full Text Available Recently underwater systems moving at high speed such as a super-cavitating torpedo have been studied for their practical advantage of the dramatic drag reduction. In this study we are focusing our attention on super-cavitating flows around axisymmetric cavitators. A numerical method based on inviscid flow is developed and the results for several shapes of the cavitator are presented. First using a potential based boundary element method, we find the shape of the cavitator yielding a sufficiently large enough cavity to surround the body. Second, numerical predictions of supercavity are validated by comparing with experimental observations carried out in a high speed cavitation tunnel at Chungnam National University (CNU CT.

  14. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope. (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor


    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  15. 5-Fluorouracil intercalated iron oxide@layered double hydroxide core-shell nano-composites with isotropic and anisotropic architectures for shape-selective drug delivery applications. (United States)

    Tuncelli, Gülsevde; Ay, Ahmet Nedim; Zümreoglu-Karan, Birgül


    We report the synthesis, characterization and in vitro release behavior of anti-cancer drug carrying iron oxide@layered double hydroxide core-shell nanocomposites with sizes ranging from 40 to 300 nm, good drug loading capacities and soft ferromagnetic properties. HRTEM analyses verified that nearly spherical isotropic carriers were obtained by coating spherical magnetite particles while anisotropic carriers were obtained by coating spindle-shaped hematite particles. They both displayed a fluctuating in vitro release profile with a higher release percentage for the anisotropic carrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety aspects of superconducting magnets for Super-FRS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The Super Fragment Separator (Super FRS) is a two-stage in flight separator to be built next to the site of GSI, Darmstadt, Germany as part of FAIR (Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research). Its purpose is to create and separate rare isotope beams and to enable the mass measurement also for very short lived nuclei. A superferric design with superconducting coils and standard iron yoke shaping the magnetic field was chosen for the magnets. The cooling will be by a liquid Helium bath. For the main dipoles only the coil is at cold for the multiplets (asemblies of quadrupoles and hgher order correctors) also the iron yoke will be in the bath. From a safety point of view the large He-volumes of more than 1000 l of the multiplets, the high design pressure of 20 bar, as well as the high inductances of the magnets up to 30 H are challenges to be considered in the design and definition of the testing procedures.

  17. Super-resolution thermographic imaging using blind structured illumination (United States)

    Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas; Gruber, Jürgen; Mayr, Günther


    Using an infrared camera for thermographic imaging allows the contactless temperature measurement of many surface pixels simultaneously. From the measured surface data, the structure below the surface, embedded inside a sample or tissue, can be reconstructed and imaged, if heated by an excitation light pulse. The main drawback in active thermographic imaging is the degradation of the spatial resolution with the imaging depth, which results in blurred images for deeper lying structures. We circumvent this degradation by using blind structured illumination combined with a non-linear joint sparsity reconstruction algorithm. We demonstrate imaging of a line pattern and a star-shaped structure through a 3 mm thick steel sheet with a resolution four times better than the width of the thermal point-spread-function. The structured illumination is realized by parallel slits cut in an aluminum foil, where the excitation coming from a flashlight can penetrate. This realization of super-resolution thermographic imaging demonstrates that blind structured illumination allows thermographic imaging without high degradation of the spatial resolution for deeper lying structures. The groundbreaking concept of super-resolution can be transferred from optics to diffusive imaging by defining a thermal point-spread-function, which gives the principle resolution limit for a certain signal-to-noise ratio, similar to the Abbe limit for a certain optical wavelength. In future work, the unknown illumination pattern could be the speckle pattern generated by a short laser pulse inside a light scattering sample or tissue.

  18. Super-resolution in plenoptic cameras using FPGAs. (United States)

    Pérez, Joel; Magdaleno, Eduardo; Pérez, Fernando; Rodríguez, Manuel; Hernández, David; Corrales, Jaime


    Plenoptic cameras are a new type of sensor that extend the possibilities of current commercial cameras allowing 3D refocusing or the capture of 3D depths. One of the limitations of plenoptic cameras is their limited spatial resolution. In this paper we describe a fast, specialized hardware implementation of a super-resolution algorithm for plenoptic cameras. The algorithm has been designed for field programmable graphic array (FPGA) devices using VHDL (very high speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) hardware description language). With this technology, we obtain an acceleration of several orders of magnitude using its extremely high-performance signal processing capability through parallelism and pipeline architecture. The system has been developed using generics of the VHDL language. This allows a very versatile and parameterizable system. The system user can easily modify parameters such as data width, number of microlenses of the plenoptic camera, their size and shape, and the super-resolution factor. The speed of the algorithm in FPGA has been successfully compared with the execution using a conventional computer for several image sizes and different 3D refocusing planes.

  19. Super-Resolution in Plenoptic Cameras Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Pérez


    Full Text Available Plenoptic cameras are a new type of sensor that extend the possibilities of current commercial cameras allowing 3D refocusing or the capture of 3D depths. One of the limitations of plenoptic cameras is their limited spatial resolution. In this paper we describe a fast, specialized hardware implementation of a super-resolution algorithm for plenoptic cameras. The algorithm has been designed for field programmable graphic array (FPGA devices using VHDL (very high speed integrated circuit (VHSIC hardware description language. With this technology, we obtain an acceleration of several orders of magnitude using its extremely high-performance signal processing capability through parallelism and pipeline architecture. The system has been developed using generics of the VHDL language. This allows a very versatile and parameterizable system. The system user can easily modify parameters such as data width, number of microlenses of the plenoptic camera, their size and shape, and the super-resolution factor. The speed of the algorithm in FPGA has been successfully compared with the execution using a conventional computer for several image sizes and different 3D refocusing planes.

  20. Across-environment genetic correlations and the frequency of selective environments shape the evolutionary dynamics of growth rate in Impatiens capensis. (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Izem, Rima; Heschel, M Shane; McGoey, Brechann V; Schmitt, Johanna


    Trade-offs can exist within and across environments, and constrain evolutionary trajectories. To examine the effects of competition and resource availability on trade-offs, we grew individuals of recombinant inbred lines of Impatiens capensis in a factorial combination of five densities with two light environments (full light and neutral shade) and used a Bayesian logistic growth analysis to estimate intrinsic growth rates. To estimate across-environment constraints, we developed a variance decomposition approach to principal components analysis, which accounted for sample size, model-fitting, and within-RIL variation prior to eigenanalysis. We detected negative across-environment genetic covariances in intrinsic growth rates, although only under full-light. To evaluate the potential importance of these covariances, we surveyed natural populations of I. capensis to measure the frequency of different density environments across space and time. We combined our empirical estimates of across-environment genetic variance-covariance matrices and frequency of selective environments with hypothetical (yet realistic) selection gradients to project evolutionary responses in multiple density environments. Selection in common environments can lead to correlated responses to selection in rare environments that oppose and counteract direct selection in those rare environments. Our results highlight the importance of considering both the frequency of selective environments and the across-environment genetic covariances in traits simultaneously. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Local Refinement of the Super Element Model of Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Mazo


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for petroleum reservoir simulation. The method uses two models with different degrees of detailing to describe hydrodynamic processes of different space-time scales. At the first stage, the global dynamics of the energy state of the deposit and reserves is modeled (characteristic scale of such changes is km / year. The two-phase flow equations in the model of global dynamics operate with smooth averaged pressure and saturation fields, and they are solved numerically on a large computational grid of super-elements with a characteristic cell size of 200-500 m. The tensor coefficients of the super-element model are calculated using special procedures of upscaling of absolute and relative phase permeabilities. At the second stage, a local refinement of the super-element model is constructed for calculating small-scale processes (with a scale of m / day, which take place, for example, during various geological and technical measures aimed at increasing the oil recovery of a reservoir. Then we solve the two-phase flow problem in the selected area of the measure exposure on a detailed three-dimensional grid, which resolves the geological structure of the reservoir, and with a time step sufficient for describing fast-flowing processes. The initial and boundary conditions of the local problem are formulated on the basis of the super-element solution. This approach allows us to reduce the computational costs in order to solve the problems of designing and monitoring the oil reservoir. To demonstrate the proposed approach, we give an example of the two-stage modeling of the development of a layered reservoir with a local refinement of the model during the isolation of a water-saturated high-permeability interlayer. We show a good compliance between the locally refined solution of the super-element model in the area of measure exposure and the results of numerical modeling of the whole history of reservoir

  2. The Development of a Computer Controlled Super 8 Motion Picture Projector. (United States)

    Reynolds, Eldon J.

    Instructors in Child Development at the University of Texas at Austin selected sound motion pictures as the most effective medium to simulate the observation of children in nursery laboratories. A computer controlled projector was designed for this purpose. An interface and control unit controls the Super 8 projector from a time-sharing computer…

  3. Super-light Structures with Pearl-chain Reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Bagger, Anne


    Steel structures are considered to be light compared to concrete structures. This paper presents a newly invented type of structure which is often light compared to steel structures, and therefore it is called "Super-light Structures", or SLS. The basic idea of SLS is to build a skeleton...... of prefabricated segments of a strong material, assembled by one or more prestressing wires. By means of pearl-chain reinforcement, it becomes affordable to provide structures with a wide variety of shapes. This allows a more resource-economical design, because it removes practical hindrances for application...... and maintenance, and increased safety for fire, earthquake, and explosions. This moves the limits for resource economic buildings, and enables great architectural freedom. This paper presents the new patented technology and possible applications of it....

  4. Selective excitation of multiple Raman Stokes wavelengths (green-yellow-red) using shaped multi-step pulses from an all-fiber PM MOPA. (United States)

    Lin, Dejiao; Alam, Shaif-ul; Teh, Peh Siong; Chen, Kang Kang; Richardson, David J


    We report a rapidly tunable, wavelength agile fiber laser system capable of the synchronous generation of sequences of pulses with different wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum using stimulated Raman scattering of multi-step pump pulses in a 250 m length of fiber. The frequency doubled output of a single polarization all-fiber Yb-doped MOPA operating at 1060 nm was used as the pump source. By adjusting the pump power and the pulse profiles we achieved the sequential excitation of green (1st Stokes), yellow (4th Stokes) and red light (6th Stokes) using 3-step pulses, or the combination of any two using 2-step pulses. The wavelength switching time was <5 ns and was limited only by the pulse shaping drive electronics.

  5. Simultaneous excitation of selective multiple Raman Stokes wavelengths (green-yellow-red) using shaped multi-step pulses from an all-fiber MOPA system (United States)

    Lin, Dejiao; Alam, Shaif-ul; Teh, Peh Siong; Chen, Kang Kang; Richardson, David J.


    We report the simultaneous excitation of multiple Raman Stokes lines in a 250 m long fiber using multi-step pump pulses. The frequency doubled output of a single polarization all-fiber Yb-doped MOPA operating at 1060 nm was used as the pump source. By adjusting the pump power and the pulse profiles we achieved the simultaneous excitation of green (1st Stokes), yellow (4th Stokes) and red light (6th Stokes) using 3-step pulses or the combination of any two using 2-step pulses. Through the use of pulse shaping we generate sequences of colored pulses with the flexibility of providing dynamic, agile frequency tuning between well-defined wavelengths.

  6. A Fundamentally New SuperDARN Technique (United States)

    Gjerloev, Jesper; Waters, Colin; Barnes, Robin


    All past SuperDARN models have been based on the idea that global convection pattern is controlled by the solar wind conditions. The implied causality raises a list of questions such as: What is the delay between the cause and effect, whether the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) system has inertia and whether internal M-I processes can be ignored. In this talk we answer these question by presenting a new SuperDARN technique which is based on a fundamentally different approach. The method combines historical data from the SuperDARN data base, Principal Component Analysis and a spherical cap basis function expansion process in order to `fill-in' convection data where there are observations for any given time. Our model show significant differences from all past SuperDARN models but its behavior is in excellent agreement with both the SuperMAG and AMPERE. We outline the technique, validate the solutions and show the results from a typical substorm as well as a storm event.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Super-resolution Imaging Measurement with Dictionary-optimized Sparse Learning (United States)

    Li, Jun-Bao; Liu, Jing; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Yao, Hongxun


    Magnetic Resonance Super-resolution Imaging Measurement (MRIM) is an effective way of measuring materials. MRIM has wide applications in physics, chemistry, biology, geology, medical and material science, especially in medical diagnosis. It is feasible to improve the resolution of MR imaging through increasing radiation intensity, but the high radiation intensity and the longtime of magnetic field harm the human body. Thus, in the practical applications the resolution of hardware imaging reaches the limitation of resolution. Software-based super-resolution technology is effective to improve the resolution of image. This work proposes a framework of dictionary-optimized sparse learning based MR super-resolution method. The framework is to solve the problem of sample selection for dictionary learning of sparse reconstruction. The textural complexity-based image quality representation is proposed to choose the optimal samples for dictionary learning. Comprehensive experiments show that the dictionary-optimized sparse learning improves the performance of sparse representation.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Super-resolution Imaging Measurement with Dictionary-optimized Sparse Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun-Bao


    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Super-resolution Imaging Measurement (MRIM is an effective way of measuring materials. MRIM has wide applications in physics, chemistry, biology, geology, medical and material science, especially in medical diagnosis. It is feasible to improve the resolution of MR imaging through increasing radiation intensity, but the high radiation intensity and the longtime of magnetic field harm the human body. Thus, in the practical applications the resolution of hardware imaging reaches the limitation of resolution. Software-based super-resolution technology is effective to improve the resolution of image. This work proposes a framework of dictionary-optimized sparse learning based MR super-resolution method. The framework is to solve the problem of sample selection for dictionary learning of sparse reconstruction. The textural complexity-based image quality representation is proposed to choose the optimal samples for dictionary learning. Comprehensive experiments show that the dictionary-optimized sparse learning improves the performance of sparse representation.

  9. The super period matrix with Ramond punctures (United States)

    Witten, Edward


    We generalize the super period matrix of a super Riemann surface to the case that Ramond punctures are present. For a super Riemann surface of genus g with 2 r Ramond punctures, we define, modulo certain choices that generalize those in the classical theory (and assuming a certain generic condition is satisfied), a g | r × g | r period matrix that is symmetric in the Z2-graded sense. As an application, we analyze the genus 2 vacuum amplitude in string theory compactifications to four dimensions that are supersymmetric at tree level. We find an explanation for a result that has been found in orbifold examples in explicit computations by D'Hoker and Phong: with their integration procedure, the genus 2 vacuum amplitude always vanishes "pointwise" after summing over spin structures, and hence is given entirely by a boundary contribution.

  10. A New Cone Shaped Asymmetrically Substituted Calix[4]arene as an ExcellentIonophore in Construction of Ag(I) ion-Selective Membrane Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Babaei, Leila Hajiagha [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Saeed Taghvaei; Modjallal, Atoosa [Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba [Kermanshah University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Morteza [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javanbakht, Mehran [Payamenoor University, Delijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A PVC membrane electrode for silver ion based on a new cone shaped calix[4]arene (CASCA) as membrane carrier was prepared. The electrode exhibits a Nernstian response for Ag+ over a wide concentration range (1.0 x 10{sup -1}-8.0 x 10{sup -6} M) with a slope of 58.2 {+-} 0.5 mV per decade. The limit of detection of the sensor is 5.0 x 10{sup -6} M. The sensor has a very fast response time ({approx}5 s) in the concentration range of {<=} = 1.0 x 10{sup -3} M, and a useful working pH range of 4.0-9.5. The proposed sensor displays excellent discriminating ability toward Ag{sup +} ion with respect to common alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Ag{sup +} with EDTA and in direct determination of silver ion in wastewater of silver electroplating

  11. Considering photodynamic therapy as a therapeutic modality in selected cases of dome-shaped macula complicated by foveal serous retinal detachment. (United States)

    Arapi, Ilir; Neri, Piergiorgio; Mariotti, Cesare; Gesuita, Rosaria; Pirani, Vittorio; Freddo, Francesco; Lutaj, Pajtim; Giovannini, Alfonso


    To study the role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a therapeutic modality in myopic patients with dome-shaped macula (DSM) associated with foveal serous retinal detachment (SRD). Retrospective interventional case series. The medical records of 10 consecutive myopic patients (10 eyes) with DSM associated with subfoveal SRD and treated with PDT were reviewed. Visual gain and loss were considered as increasing or decreasing of two or more lines of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), respectively, and eyes with fluid resolution were deemed responsive to PDT. All eyes underwent several PDT treatments, with a median of three and a median follow-up time of 15.5 months. At final follow-up, six eyes (60%) showed complete resolution of the foveal SRD. The baseline hypocyanescent macular area observed during late indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) frames was significantly lower in the group of patients who responded to PDT and had an increase of at least two Snellen lines in BCVA (P = .01). Data suggest that myopic eyes associated with DSM and foveal SRD may be responsive to PDT, showing total resolution of fluid accumulation and positive BCVA changes if baseline ICGA findings show evidence of a limited hypocyanescent macular area. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian


    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  13. Temporal super resolution using variational methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads


    Temporal super resolution (TSR) is the ability to convert video from one frame rate to another and is as such a key functionality in modern video processing systems. A higher frame rate than what is recorded is desired for high frame rate displays, for super slow-motion, and for video/film format...... and intensities are calculated simultaneously in a multiresolution setting. A frame doubling version of our algorithm is implemented and in testing it, we focus on making the motion of high contrast edges to seem smooth and thus reestablish the illusion of motion pictures....

  14. Revisiting super-cycles in commodity prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pınar Erdem


    Full Text Available It is argued that business cycles have been moderating. However, there are a limited number of studies in the literature analyzing the cyclical behaviour of commodity prices in the last decades. This paper attempts to fill this gap by investigating the super-cycles in oil prices. In addition, interdependence between cycles in GDP and oil prices and co-movements between cycles in oil and other commodity prices are investigated. Results show that super-cycles in oil prices still exist and are not moderating. The last peak in long-term oil price was observed in 2012 and since then it has been on a downward trend.

  15. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP (United States)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.


    SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  16. The current status of super computers (United States)

    Knight, J. C.


    In this paper, commercially available super computers are surveyed. Computer performance in general is limited by circuit speeds and physical size. Assuming the use of the fastest technology, super computers typically use parallelism in the form of either vector processing or array processing to obtain performance. The Burroughs Scientific Processor is an array computer with 16 separate processors, the Cray-1 and CDC STAR-100 are vector processors, the Goodyear Aerospace STARAN is an array processor with up to 8192 single bit processors, and the Systems Development Corporation PEPE is a collection of up to 288 separate processors.

  17. Super-resolution near field imaging device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Super-resolution imaging device comprising at least a first and a second elongated coupling element, each having a first transverse dimension at a first end and a second transverse dimension at a second end and being adapted for guiding light between their respective first and second ends, each...... of the matrix and the second ends of the coupling elements are located at or in a vicinity of the second side of the matrix. The second transverse dimension is larger than the first transverse dimension. A microscope objective system and a microscope comprising the super-resolution imaging device are also...

  18. The Weighted Super Bergman Kernels Over the Supermatrix Spaces (United States)

    Feng, Zhiming


    The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, using Howe duality for , we obtain integral formulas of the super Schur functions with respect to the super standard Gaussian distributions. Secondly, we give explicit expressions of the super Szegö kernels and the weighted super Bergman kernels for the Cartan superdomains of type I. Thirdly, combining these results, we obtain duality relations of integrals over the unitary groups and the Cartan superdomains, and the marginal distributions of the weighted measure.

  19. Landscape genomics of Populus trichocarpa: the role of hybridization, limited gene flow, and natural selection in shaping patterns of population structure. (United States)

    Geraldes, Armando; Farzaneh, Nima; Grassa, Christopher J; McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; Mansfield, Shawn D; Douglas, Carl J; Cronk, Quentin C B


    Populus trichocarpa is an ecologically important tree across western North America. We used a large population sample of 498 accessions over a wide geographical area genotyped with a 34K Populus SNP array to quantify geographical patterns of genetic variation in this species (landscape genomics). We present evidence that three processes contribute to the observed patterns: (1) introgression from the sister species P. balsamifera, (2) isolation by distance (IBD), and (3) natural selection. Introgression was detected only at the margins of the species' distribution. IBD was significant across the sampled area as a whole, but no evidence of restricted gene flow was detected in a core of drainages from southern British Columbia (BC). We identified a large number of FST outliers. Gene Ontology analyses revealed that FST outliers are overrepresented in genes involved in circadian rhythm and response to red/far-red light when the entire dataset is considered, whereas in southern BC heat response genes are overrepresented. We also identified strong correlations between geoclimate variables and allele frequencies at FST outlier loci that provide clues regarding the selective pressures acting at these loci. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Run for your life, but bite for your rights? How interactions between natural and sexual selection shape functional morphology across habitats (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Carretero, Miguel A.; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni


    A central issue in evolutionary biology is how morphology, performance, and habitat use coevolve. If morphological variation is tightly associated with habitat use, then differences in morphology should affect fitness through their effect on performance within specific habitats. In this study, we investigate how evolutionary forces mold morphological traits and performance differently given the surrounding environment, at the intraspecific level. For this purpose, we selected populations of the lizard Podarcis bocagei from two different habitat types, agricultural walls and dunes, which we expected to reflect saxicolous vs ground-dwelling habits. In the laboratory, we recorded morphological traits as well as performance traits by measuring sprint speed, climbing capacity, maneuverability, and bite force. Our results revealed fast-evolving ecomorphological variation among populations of P. bocagei, where a direct association existed between head morphology and bite performance. However, we could not establish links between limb morphology and locomotor performance at the individual level. Lizards from walls were better climbers than those from dunes, suggesting a very fast evolutionary response. Interestingly, a significant interaction between habitat and sex was detected in climbing performance. In addition, lizards from dunes bit harder than those from walls, although sexual differentiation was definitely the main factor driving variation in head functional morphology. Taking into account all the results, we found a complex interaction between natural and sexual selection on whole-organism performance, which are, in some cases, reflected in morphological variation.

  1. The structure of the super-W∞(λ) algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Wit, B. de; Vasiliev, M.


    We give a comprehensive treatment of the super-W∞(λ) algebra, an extension of the super-Virasoro algebra that contains generators of spin s ≥ ½. The parameter λ defines the embedding of the Virasoro subalgebra. We describe how to obtain the super-W∞(λ) algebra from the associative algebra of

  2. Single Image Super Resolution via Sparse Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.


    High resolution sensors are required for recognition purposes. Low resolution sensors, however, are still widely used. Software can be used to increase the resolution of such sensors. One way of increasing the resolution of the images produced is using multi-frame super resolution algorithms.

  3. Nanostructured coatings for super hydrophobic textiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, silica nanoparticles can be suitably functionalized or can be used as a component of nanocom- posite coating to adhere with cotton surface. Amino functiona- lized silica nanoparticles applied on epoxy functionalized cotton fabric shows excellent super-hydrophobicity (∼170. ◦. ). The functionalization of silica and ...

  4. Structural optimization of super-repellent surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin


    Micro-patterning is an effective way to achieve surfaces with extreme liquid repellency. This technique does not rely on chemical coatings and is therefore a promising concept for application in food processing and bio-compatibile coatings. This super-repellent behaviour is obtained by suspending...

  5. Super Darboux-Egoroff equations and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, P.H.M.; Martini, Ruud


    Super Darboux-Egoroff equations are discussed. First of all linearity of the potential $\\varphi$ with respect to odd variables is proved. Solutions of Darboux-Egoroff equations in dimension $(2|2)$ including flatness of the unit vector field are constructed. Moreover solutions of Darboux-Egoroff

  6. Constraining the Composition of Super-Earths (United States)

    Carrera, D.; Ford, E. B.; Wolfgang, A.


    We use computer simulations to model planet formation, including migration, accretion, and atmosphere loss via giant impacts. For each model we predict the mass and density ratios of TTV planets, and compare them to super-Earths in the Kepler field.

  7. Super-thermal light for imaging applications (United States)

    Allevi, Alessia; Cassina, Silvia; Bondani, Maria


    We report on a new classical light source useful for ghost-imaging applications. The light is obtained by frequency doubling a conventional speckle pattern having an overall multi-mode thermal distribution. The frequency-doubled light acquires a super-thermal distribution, which induces higher correlations at a beam splitter and, as a consequence, a higher visibility in ghost-imaging protocols.

  8. Atmospheric neutrino results from Super-Kamiokande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Kamioka Observatory, Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research, Tokyo Univ., Kamioka, Gifu (Japan)


    Recent results from Super-kamiokande on atmospheric neutrino measurement are presented. The small ({mu}/e){sub data}/({mu}/e){sub MC} was strongly confirmed. In addition, a statistically significant zenith angle dependence of the high-energy {mu}-like events was observed, suggesting {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)


    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R{sub ⊕}, 2–20M{sub ⊕}) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R{sub ⊕}, 2–6M{sub ⊕}). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  10. Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI: New Physics at the Super Flavor Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Hitlin, D.G.; Asner, D.M.; Hurth, T.; McElrath, B.; Shindou, T.; Ronga, F.; Rama, M.; Tosi, S.; Simi, G.; Robertson, S.; Paradisi, P.; Bigi, I.; Stocchi, A.; Viaud, B.; Domingo, F.; Kou, E.; Morandin, M.; Batignani, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Neri, N.; Walsh, J.; Giorgi, M.; Isidori, G.; Lusiani, A.; Bevan, A.; Faccini, R.; Renga, F.; Polosa, A.; Silvestrini, L.; Virto, J.; Ciuchini, M.; Heinemeyer, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Gambino, P.; Azzolini, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Botella, F.; Branco, G.C.; Lopez March, N.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Pich, A.; Sanchis Lozano, M.A.; Vidal, J.; Vives, O.; Banerjee, Swagato; Roney, J.M.; Gershon, T.


    The sixth SuperB Workshop was convened in response to questions posed by the INFN Review Committee, evaluating the SuperB project at the request of INFN. The working groups addressed the capability of a high-luminosity flavor factory that can gather a data sample of 50 to 75 /ab in five years to elucidate New Physics phenomena unearthed at the LHC. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop.

  11. SuperB A High-Luminosity Asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ Super Flavour Factory : Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, M.; Grauges Pous, E.; Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Venturini, M.; Soni, N.; Bruschi, M.; De Castro, S.; Faccioli, P.; Gabrieli, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Semprini Cesare, N.; Spighi, R.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J.; Soni, A.; Khan, A.; Barniakov, A.Y.; Barniakov, M.Y.; Blinov, V.E.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Koop, I.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Nikitin, S.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Piminov, P.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shatilov, D.N.; Skovpen, Y.I.; Solodov, E.A.; Cheng, C.H.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D.J.; Porter, F.C.; Asner, D.M.; Pham, T.N.; Fleischer, R.; Giudice, G.F.; Hurth, T.; Mangano, M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B.T.; Schwartz, A.J.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soffer, A.; Beard, C.D.; Haas, T.; Mankel, R.; Hiller, G.; Ball, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Pennington, M.R.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Abada, A.; Becirevic, D.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Pene, O.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabresi, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Stancari, G.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Drago, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Guiducci, S.; Isidori, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.M.; Piccolo, M.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Rama, M.; Vaccarezza, C.; Zallo, A.; Zobov, M.; De Sangro, R.; Buzzo, A.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M.R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Matias, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Borzumati, F.; Eyges, V.; Prell, S.A.; Pedlar, T.K.; Korpar, S.; Pestonik, R.; Staric, M.; Neubert, M.; Denig, A.G.; Nierste, U.; Agoh, T.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Fry, J.R.; Touramanis, C.; Wolski, A.; Golob, B.; Krizan, P.; Flaecher, H.; Bevan, A.J.; Di Lodovico, F.; George, K.A.; Barlow, R.; Lafferty, G.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D.A.; Simi, G.; Patel, P.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Kaidalov, A.; Buras, A.J.; Tarantino, C.; Buchalla, G.; Sanda, A.I.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Ricciardi, G.; Bigi, I.; Jessop, C.P.; Losecco, J.M.; Honscheid, K.; Arnaud, N.; Chehab, R.; Fedala, Y.; Polci, F.; Roudeau, P.; Sordini, V.; Soskov, V.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Vivoli, A.; Wormser, G.; Zomer, F.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Lombardo, V.; Calderini, G.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Servoli, L.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Dell'Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Mazur, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J.; Braun, V.; Lenz, A.; Adams, G.S.; Danko, I.Z.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gaspero, Mario; Jackson, P.; Martinelli, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morganti, Silvio; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Voena, C.; Catani, L.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Messi, R.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Wilson, F.F.; Godang, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M.; Trivedi, A.; White, R.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Allen, M.T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Cai, Y.; Coleman, J.; Convery, M.R.; DeBarger, S.; Dingfelder, J.C.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Haller, G.; Heifets, S.A.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kocian, M.L.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Li, N.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; MacFarlane, D.; Messner, R.; Muller, D.R.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Pivi, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Roodman, A.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Snyder, A.; Sullivan, M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W.; Stoeck, H.; Cheng, H.Y.; Li, H.N.; Keum, Y.Y.; Gronau, M.; Grossman, Y.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Gambino, P.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Mussa, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D.A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paradisi, P.; Pich, A.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Roney, J.M.; Back, J.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Harrison, P.F.; Latham, T.E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Petrov, A.A.; Pierini, M.; INFN


    The physics objectives of SuperB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider with a luminosity above 10^36/cm^2/s are described, together with the conceptual design of a novel low emittance design that achieves this performance with wallplug power comparable to that of the current B Factories, and an upgraded detector capable of doing the physics in the SuperB environment.

  12. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap (United States)

    Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, Thorben


    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  13. Development of Super-Ensemble techniques for ocean analyses: the Mediterranean Sea case (United States)

    Pistoia, Jenny; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Collins, Matthew; Korres, Gerasimos; Drillet, Yann


    Short-term ocean analyses for Sea Surface Temperature SST in the Mediterranean Sea can be improved by a statistical post-processing technique, called super-ensemble. This technique consists in a multi-linear regression algorithm applied to a Multi-Physics Multi-Model Super-Ensemble (MMSE) dataset, a collection of different operational forecasting analyses together with ad-hoc simulations produced by modifying selected numerical model parameterizations. A new linear regression algorithm based on Empirical Orthogonal Function filtering techniques is capable to prevent overfitting problems, even if best performances are achieved when we add correlation to the super-ensemble structure using a simple spatial filter applied after the linear regression. Our outcomes show that super-ensemble performances depend on the selection of an unbiased operator and the length of the learning period, but the quality of the generating MMSE dataset has the largest impact on the MMSE analysis Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) evaluated with respect to observed satellite SST. Lower RMSE analysis estimates result from the following choices: 15 days training period, an overconfident MMSE dataset (a subset with the higher quality ensemble members), and the least square algorithm being filtered a posteriori.

  14. Influence of crystallite size and shape of zeolite ZSM-22 on its activity and selectivity in the catalytic cracking of n-octane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bager, F.; Ernst, S. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology


    Light olefins belong to the major building blocks for the petrochemical industry, particularly for the production of polymers. It has become necessary to increase the production of light olefins specifically in the case for propene with so called 'on-purpose propene' technologies. One possible route is to increase the amount of propene that can be obtained from Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) by optimizing the catalyst through introducing new additives, which offer a high selectivity to propene. Zeolite ZSM-22 samples with different crystallite sizes and morphologies have been synthesized via hydrothermal syntheses and characterized by powder X-Ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, atomic absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The zeolites in the Broensted-acid form have been tested as catalysts in the catalytic cracking of n-octane as a model hydrocarbon. Clear influences of the crystallite size on the deactivation behavior have been observed. Larger crystals of zeolite ZSM-22 produce an increased amount of coke deposits resulting in a faster deactivation of the catalyst. The experimental results suggest that there is probably some influence of pore diffusion on the catalytic activity of the ZSM-22 sample with the large crystallite size. However a noticeable influence on the general product distribution could not be observed. (orig.)

  15. Interactive online brain shape visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Keshavan


    Full Text Available The open-source Mindboggle package improves the labeling and morphometry estimates of brain imaging data. At the 2015 Brainhack event, we developed a web-based, interactive, brain shape visualization of Mindboggle outputs. The application links a 3D brain visualization with boxplots that describe shape measures across a selected cortical label. The code is freely available at and a demo is online at

  16. The Super-TIGER Instrument to Probe Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.; Binns, W. R.; Bose, R, G.; Braun, D. L.; Christian, E. R.; Daniels, W. M; DeNolfo, G. A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; hide


    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is under construction for the first of two planned Antarctic long-duration balloon flights in December 2012. This new instrument will measure the abundances of ultra-heavy elements (30Zn and heavier), with individual element resolution, to provide sensitive tests of the emerging model of cosmic-ray origins in OB associations and models of the mechanism for selection of nuclei for acceleration. Super-TIGER builds on the techniques of TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements 31Ga, 32Ge, and 34Se. Plastic scintillators together with acrylic and silica-aerogel Cherenkov detectors measure particle charge. Scintillating-fiber hodoscopes track particle trajectories. Super-TIGER has an active area of 5.4 sq m, divided into two independent modules. With reduced material thickness to decrease interactions, its effective geometry factor is approx.6.4 times larger than TIGER, allowing it to measure elements up to 42Mo with high statistical precision, and make exploratory measurements up to 56Ba. Super-TIGER will also accurately determine the energy spectra of the more abundant elements from l0Ne to 28Ni between 0.8 and 10 GeV/nucleon to test the hypothesis that microquasars or other sources could superpose spectral features. We will discuss the implications of Super-TIGER measurements for the study of cosmic-ray origins and will present the measurement technique, design, status, and expected performance, including numbers of events and resolution. Details of the hodoscopes, scintillators, and Cherenkov detectors will be given in other presentations at this conference.

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Surgical Site Infections Caused by Gram-negative Rod-shaped Bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriacae and Gram-positive Cocci from the Genus Staphylococcus in Patients who Underwent Surgical Procedures on Selected Surgical Wards. (United States)

    Tomaszewska-Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kołomecki, Krzysztof; Wieloch-Torzecka, Maria


    Surgical site infections on surgical wards are the most common cause of postoperative complications. Prevalence of surgical site infections depends on the surgical specialization. Analysis of the causes of surgical site infections allows to conclude that microorganisms from the patient's own microbiota - Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriacae and from the patient's skin microbiota - Gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus are the most common agents inducing surgical site infections. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and characteristics of surgical site infections caused by Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Eneterobacteriacae and Gram-positive cocci from the genus Staphylococcus in patients who underwent surgical procedures at the Regional Specialist Hospital named after M. Copernika in Łódź on selected surgical wards. The study was performed based on retrospective analysis of medical documentation of the treated patients. The study included 195 patients of the Regional Specialist Hospital named after M. Copernik in Łódź who were treated between 2012 and 2014 on the wards of: Vascular, General and Oncological Surgery, Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Neosurgery and Nervous System Tumors and the Ward of Endocrine Surgery - in the Clinic of Endocrine Surgery. The study included 84 women and 111 men. Mean age was 59 years (18 - 94 years old). \\ Results. Surgical site infections caused by Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriacae were reported in 84 out of 195 patients (43.08% of the study group) and by Gram-positive cocci from the genus Staphylococcus were reported in 52 patients (26.67% of the study group). Mixed microbiota was an etiological agent of surgical site infections in four patients (2.5% of the study group). Etiological agent of surgical site infections depends on the ward profile, surgical field cleanliness and a form of surgical site infection.

  18. Ultrabroadband super-Planckian radiative heat transfer with artificial continuum cavity states in patterned hyperbolic metamaterials (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Ding, Fei; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Yan, Min


    Localized cavity resonances due to nanostructures at material surfaces can greatly enhance radiative heat transfer (RHT) between two closely placed bodies owing to stretching of cavity states in momentum space beyond the light line. Based on such understanding, we numerically demonstrate the possibility of ultrabroadband super-Planckian RHT between two plates patterned with trapezoidal-shaped hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) arrays. The phenomenon is rooted not only in HMM's high effective index for creating subwavelength resonators but also its extremely anisotropic isofrequency contour. The two properties enable one to create photonic bands with a high spectral density to populate a desired thermal radiation window. At submicron gap sizes between such two plates, the artificial continuum states extend outside the light cone, tremendously increasing overall RHT. Our study reveals that structured HMM offers unprecedented potential in achieving a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer for thermal management at nanoscale.

  19. Belle-II High Level Trigger at SuperKEKB (United States)

    Lee, S.; Itoh, R.; Higuchi, T.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Won, E.


    A next generation B-factory experiment, Belle II, is now being constructed at KEK in Japan. The upgraded accelerator SuperKEKB is designed to have the maximum luminosity of 8 × 1035 cm-2s-1 that is a factor 40 higher than the current world record. As a consequence, the Belle II detector yields a data stream of the event size ~1 MB at a Level 1 rate of 30 kHz. The Belle II High Level Trigger (HLT) is designed to reduce the Level 1 rate to 1/5 by performing the real time full event reconstruction and by applying the physics level event selection as the software trigger. In this paper, the development of the high level trigger system for Belle II and its performance is discussed.

  20. Optimized multiple linear mappings for single image super-resolution (United States)

    Zhang, Kaibing; Li, Jie; Xiong, Zenggang; Liu, Xiuping; Gao, Xinbo


    Learning piecewise linear regression has been recognized as an effective way for example learning-based single image super-resolution (SR) in literature. In this paper, we employ an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to further improve the SR performance of our previous multiple linear mappings (MLM) based SR method. In the training stage, the proposed method starts with a set of linear regressors obtained by the MLM-based method, and then jointly optimizes the clustering results and the low- and high-resolution subdictionary pairs for regression functions by using the metric of the reconstruction errors. In the test stage, we select the optimal regressor for SR reconstruction by accumulating the reconstruction errors of m-nearest neighbors in the training set. Thorough experimental results carried on six publicly available datasets demonstrate that the proposed SR method can yield high-quality images with finer details and sharper edges in terms of both quantitative and perceptual image quality assessments.

  1. Italian super-eruption larger than thought (United States)

    Schultz, Colin


    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  2. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.


    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  3. Hierarchical super-resolution-based inpainting. (United States)

    Le Meur, Olivier; Ebdelli, Mounira; Guillemot, Christine


    This paper introduces a novel framework for examplar-based inpainting. It consists in performing first the inpainting on a coarse version of the input image. A hierarchical super-resolution algorithm is then used to recover details on the missing areas. The advantage of this approach is that it is easier to inpaint low-resolution pictures than high-resolution ones. The gain is both in terms of computational complexity and visual quality. However, to be less sensitive to the parameter setting of the inpainting method, the low-resolution input picture is inpainted several times with different configurations. Results are efficiently combined with a loopy belief propagation and details are recovered by a single-image super-resolution algorithm. Experimental results in a context of image editing and texture synthesis demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared to five state-of-the-art inpainting methods.

  4. Super-Resolution for Color Imagery (United States)


    University of Maryland, College Park , MD S Susan Young Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Approved for public...separately; however, it requires performing the super-resolution computation 3 times. We transform images in the default red, green, blue (RGB) color space...chrominance components based on ARL’s alias-free image upsampling using Fourier-based windowing methods. A reverse transformation is performed on

  5. The SuperNova Early Warning System


    Scholberg, K.


    A core collapse in the Milky Way will produce an enormous burst of neutrinos in detectors world-wide. Such a burst has the potential to provide an early warning of a supernova's appearance. I will describe the nature of the signal, the sensitivity of current detectors, and SNEWS, the SuperNova Early Warning System, a network designed to alert astronomers as soon as possible after the detected neutrino signal.

  6. Storytelling Revealed in Super Bowl 2016 Advertisements


    Rellahan, Celina


    This thesis investigates the use of storytelling in advertising applications and its influence on the instigation of social activity as measured by online views and social activity generated for advertisements broadcast during the 2016 Super Bowl. The thesis aims at identifying those elements of storytelling that are found in these advertisements and relating these characteristics to the success of the promotion in terms of immediate engagement of the viewing audience. The thesis present...

  7. Hadamard model on the super Riemann surface (United States)

    Shuji, Matsumoto; Shozo, Uehara; Yukinori, Yasui


    A supersymmetrically extended version of the Hadamard model is investigated. Classical solutions are given, which imply that the system is chaotic. Quantization is performed in the path integral method. The quantized energy sum rule is shown to be a superanalog of the Selberg trace formula. The Selberg super zeta function is introduced and energy spectra associated with bosonic (fermionic) states are given by order 1 zero-points (poles) of the zeta function.

  8. Super-sensing through industrial process tomography. (United States)

    Soleimani, Manuchehr


    In this introduction article, we present a brief overview of industrial process tomography. This will start by linking between the concept of industrial process tomography and super-sensing. This will follow with a brief introduction to various process tomography systems and in particular electrical tomography methods. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. SuperB Simulation Production System (United States)

    Tomassetti, L.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Del Prete, D.; Di Simone, A.; Donvito, G.; Fella, A.; Franchini, P.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Paolini, A.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.


    The SuperB asymmetric e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a peak luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1. The SuperB Computing group is working on developing a simulation production framework capable to satisfy the experiment needs. It provides access to distributed resources in order to support both the detector design definition and its performance evaluation studies. During last year the framework has evolved from the point of view of job workflow, Grid services interfaces and technologies adoption. A complete code refactoring and sub-component language porting now permits the framework to sustain distributed production involving resources from two continents and Grid Flavors. In this paper we will report a complete description of the production system status of the art, its evolution and its integration with Grid services; in particular, we will focus on the utilization of new Grid component features as in LB and WMS version 3. Results from the last official SuperB production cycle will be reported.

  10. HD 97658 and its super-Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Grootel V.


    Full Text Available Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition. We present the confirmation, based on Spitzer observations, that the super-Earth HD 97658 b transits its host star. HD 97658 is a low-mass (M* = 0.77 ± 0.05 M⊙ K1 dwarf, as determined from the Hipparcos parallax and stellar evolution modeling. To constrain the planet parameters, we carry out Bayesian global analyses of Keck-HIRES radial velocities, and MOST and Spitzer photometry. HD 97658 b is a massive (MP = 7.55−0.79+0.83 M⊕ and large (RP = 2.247−0.095+0.098 R⊕ at 4.5 μm super-Earth. We investigate the possible internal compositions for HD 97658 b. Our results indicate a large rocky component, by at least 60% by mass, and very little H-He components, at most 2% by mass. We also discuss how future asteroseismic observations can improve the knowledge of the HD 97658 system, in particular by constraining its age.

  11. Super U Technique for Ingrown Nails. (United States)

    Correa, J; Magliano, J; Agorio, C; Bazzano, C


    Ingrown nails are a common problem, seen mostly in young adults. Also known as onychcrypotisis, this condition typically affects the great toenail. Four stages have been defined according to the severity and duration of the condition, and treatment varies from conservative to surgical techniques depending on the stage. We present our experience with this condition, describing the characteristics of our population and surgical treatment, in particular the super U technique. This was a retrospective, descriptive study of patients with ingrown great toenail treated surgically using the super U technique. We also describe postoperative management. Ten patients with a mean age of 35.7 years underwent operation, 9 for unilateral ingrown great toenail and 1 for bilateral disease. Stage II ingrown nail was the most common. Half of the patients had been treated previously using other surgical techniques. The mean time to healing was 6 weeks. The only postoperative complication was infection in 1 patient. Mild to moderate postoperative pain persisted for a week. The majority of patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result. We believe the super U technique is very useful in stage II ingrown nail and in disease that has recurred after previous surgery, and is the treatment of choice in stage III or IV disease in which excessive hypertrophic tissue is found. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. SuperB Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Baszczyk, M; Kolodziej, J; Kucewicz, W; Sapor, M; Jeremie, A; Pous, E Grauges; Bruno, G E; De Robertis, G; Diacono, D; Donvito, G; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Giordano, F; Loddo, F; Loparco, F; Maggi, G P; Manzari, V; Mazziotta, M N; Nappi, E; Palano, A; Santeramo, B; Sgura, I; Silvestris, L; Spinoso, V; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Zhuo, Z; Jenkovszky, L; Balbi, G; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Cafaro, V; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Di Sipio, R; Fabbri, F; Fabbri, L; Gabrielli, A; Galli, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giorgi, F M; Grandi, C; Lax, I; Meo, S Lo; Marconi, U; Montanari, A; Pellegrini, G; Piccinini, M; Rovelli, T; Cesari, N Semprini; Torromeo, G; Tosi, N; Travaglini, R; Vagnoni, V M; Valentinetti, S; Villa, M; Zoccoli, A; Caron, J -F; Hearty, C; Lu, P F -T; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y -C; Barnyakov, M Yu; Blinov, V E; Botov, A A; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Levichev, E B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Shtol, D A; Skovpen, Y I; Solodov, E P; Cardini, A; Carpinelli, M; Chao, D S -T; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Flood, K; Hanson, J; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Zhu, R Y; Randazzo, N; Burelo, E De La Cruz; Zheng, Y; Campos, P; De Silva, M; Kathirgamaraju, A; Meadows, B; Pushpawela, B; Shi, Y; Sokoloff, M; Castro, G Lopez; Ciaschini, V; Franchini, P; Giacomini, F; Paolini, A; Polania, G A Calderon; Laczek, S; Romanowicz, P; Szybinski, B; Czuchry, M; Flis, L; Harezlak, D; Kocot, J; Radecki, M; Sterzel, M; Szepieniec, T; Szymocha, T; Wójcik, P; Andreotti, M; Baldini, W; Calabrese, R; Carassiti, V; Cibinetto, G; Ramusino, A Cotta; Evangelisti, F; Gianoli, A; Luppi, E; Malaguti, R; Manzali, M; Melchiorri, M; Munerato, M; Padoan, C; Santoro, V; Tomassetti, L; Beretta, M M; Biagini, M; Boscolo, M; Capitolo, E; de Sangro, R; Esposito, M; Felici, G; Finocchiaro, G; Gatta, M; Gatti, C; Guiducci, S; Lauciani, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Raimondi, P; Rama, M; Sanelli, C; Tomassini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Delepine, D; Santos, M A Reyes; Chrzaszcz, M; Grzymkowski, R; Knap, P; Kotula, J; Lesiak, T; Ludwin, J; Michalowski, J; Pawlik, B; Rachwal, B; Stodulski, M; Wiechczynski, J; Witek, M; Zawiejski, L; Zdybal, M; Aushev, V Y; Ustynov, A; Arnaud, N; Bambade, P; Beigbeder, C; Bogard, F; Borsato, M; Breton, D; Brossard, J; Burmistrov, L; Charlet, D; Chaumat, V; Dadoun, O; Berni, M El; Maalmi, J; Puill, V; Rimbault, C; Stocchi, A; Tocut, V; Variola, A; Wallon, S; Wormser, G; Grancagnolo, F; Ben-Haim, E; Sitt, S; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; Deconto, J -M; Martinez, Y Gomez; Monseu, N; Muraz, J -F; Real, J -S; Vescovi, C; Cenci, R; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D; Twedt, E W; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Nderitu, S; Patel, P; Robertson, S H; Swersky, D; Warburton, A; Flores, E Cuautle; Sanchez, G Toledo; Biassoni, P; Bombelli, L; Citterio, M; Coelli, S; Fiorini, C; Liberali, V; Monti, M; Nasri, B; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Sabatini, F; Stabile, A; Berra, A; Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Lietti, D; Maino, M; Pessina, G; Prest, M; Martin, J -P; Simard, M; Starinski, N; Taras, P; Drutskoy, A; Makarychev, S; Nefediev, A V; Aloisio, A; Cavaliere, S; De Nardo, G; Della Pietra, M; Doria, A; Giordano, R; Ordine, A; Pardi, S; Russo, G; Sciacca, C; Bigi, I I; Jessop, C P; Wang, W; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Corvo, M; Crescente, A; Corso, F Dal; Dosselli, U; Fanin, C; Gianelle, A; Longo, S; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Morandin, M; Pengo, R; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Stroili, R; Gaioni, L; Manazza, A; Manghisoni, M; Ratti, L; Re, V; Traversi, G; Zucca, S; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Cecchi, C; Germani, S; Lebeau, M; Lubrano, P; Manoni, E; Papi, A; Rossi, A; Scolieri, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Fella, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M; Lilli, L; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paladino, A; Pantaleo, F; Paoloni, E; Perez, A L Perez; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Beck, G; Berman, M; Bevan, A; Gannaway, F; Inguglia, G; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Bocci, V; Capodiferro, M; Chiodi, G; Dafinei, I; Drenska, N V; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Gargiulo, C; Gauzzi, P; Luci, C; Lunadei, R; Martellotti, G; Pellegrino, F; Pettinacci, V; Pinci, D; Recchia, L; Ruggeri, D; Zullo, A; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; De Santis, C; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Felice, V; Di Palma, F; Di Simone, A; Marcelli, L; Messi, R; Moricciani, D; Sparvoli, R; Tammaro, S; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Bussino, S; Ciuchini, M; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Ruggieri, F; Spiriti, E; Wilson, F; Monzon, I Leon; Millan-Almaraz, J R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Aston, D; Dey, B; Fisher, A; Jackson, P D; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; MacFarlane, D; McCulloch, M; Metcalfe, S; Novokhatski, A; Osier, S; Prepost, R; Ratcliff, B; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M; Va'vra, J; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W; Altschul, B D; Purohit, M V; Baudot, J; Ripp-Baudot, I; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Bezshyyko, O; Dolinska, G; Soffer, A; Bianchi, F; De Mori, F; Filippi, A; Gamba, D; Marcello, S; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cristaudo, P; Lanceri, L; Liberti, B; Rashevskaya, I; Stella, C; Vallazza, E S; Vitale, L; Auriemma, G; Satriano, C; Vidal, F Martinez; de Cos, J Mazorra; Oyanguren, A; Valls, P Ruiz; Beaulieu, A; Dejong, S; Franta, J; Lewczuk, M J; Roney, M; Sobie, R


    In this Technical Design Report (TDR) we describe the SuperB detector that was to be installed on the SuperB e+e- high luminosity collider. The SuperB asymmetric collider, which was to be constructed on the Tor Vergata campus near the INFN Frascati National Laboratory, was designed to operate both at the Upsilon(4S) center-of-mass energy with a luminosity of 10^{36} cm^{-2}s^{-1} and at the tau/charm production threshold with a luminosity of 10^{35} cm^{-2}s^{-1}. This high luminosity, producing a data sample about a factor 100 larger than present B Factories, would allow investigation of new physics effects in rare decays, CP Violation and Lepton Flavour Violation. This document details the detector design presented in the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2007. The R&D and engineering studies performed to arrive at the full detector design are described, and an updated cost estimate is presented. A combination of a more realistic cost estimates and the unavailability of funds due of the global economic ...

  13. SuperB Progress Reports - Physics

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, B.; Ramon, M.; Pous, E.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Asgeirsson, D.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; Heinemeyer, S.; McElrath, B.; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; Blanke, M.; Lesiak, T.; Shindou, T.; Ronga, F.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Rama, M.; Bossi, F.; Guido, E.; Patrignani, C.; Tosi, S.; Davies, C.; Lunghi, E.; Haisch, U.; Hurth, T.; Westhoff, S.; Crivellin, A.; Hofer, L.; Goto, T.; Brown, David Nathan; Branco, G.C.; Zupan, J.; Herrero, M.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Simi, G.; Tackmann, F.J.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Lindemann, D.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Duling, B.; Gemmler, K.; Gorbahn, M.; Jager, S.; Paradisi, P.; Straub, D.M.; Bigi, I.; Asner, D.M.; Fast, J.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Morandin, M.; Rotondo, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Arnaud, N.; Burmistrov, L.; Kou, E.; Perez, A.; Stocchi, A.; Viaud, B.; Domingo, F.; Piccinini, F.; Manoni, E.; Batignani, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Neri, N.; Walsh, J.; Bevan, A.; Bona, M.; Walker, C.; Weiland, C.; Lenz, A.; Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Faccini, R.; Renga, F.; Polosa, A.; Silvestrini, L.; Virto, J.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, C.; Wilson, F.F.; Carpinelli, M.; Huber, T.; Mannel, T.; Graham, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Santoro, V.; Sekula, S.; Shougaev, K.; Soffer, A.; Shimizu, Y.; Gambino, P.; Mussa, R.; Nardecchia, M.; Stal, O.; Bernabeu, J.; Botella, F.; Jung, M.; Lopez March, N.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Pich, A.; Lozano, M.A.Sanchis; Vidal, J.; Vives, O.; Banerjee, S.; Roney, J.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Flood, K.


    SuperB is a high luminosity e+e- collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measure...

  14. Further results on super graceful labeling of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gee-Choon Lau


    Full Text Available Let G=(V(G,E(G be a simple, finite and undirected graph of order p and size q. A bijection f:V(G∪E(G→{k,k+1,k+2,…,k+p+q−1} such that f(uv=|f(u−f(v| for every edge uv∈E(G is said to be a k-super graceful labeling of G. We say G is k-super graceful if it admits a k-super graceful labeling. For k=1, the function f is called a super graceful labeling and a graph is super graceful if it admits a super graceful labeling. In this paper, we study the super gracefulness of complete graph, the disjoint union of certain star graphs, the complete tripartite graphs K(1,1,n, and certain families of trees. We also present four methods of constructing new super graceful graphs. In particular, all trees of order at most 7 are super graceful. We conjecture that all trees are super graceful.

  15. Development of spent fuel reprocessing by super-critical fluid (Development of super DIREX method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Takashi; Ogumo, Shin-ya; Mori, Yukihide; Ishihara, Nobuo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosaka, Yuji; Ito, Kunihiro [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Supercritical fluid DIRect EXtraction (Super-DIREX) Method has been developed, and it is the technique of extracting Uranium and Plutonium elements directly from spent fuel oxides by supercritical CO{sub 2} containing HNO{sub 3}-tributylphosphate (TBP) complex (at 313K-333K and 10-20MPa). From this study, it is concluded that the reprocessing system adopting Super-DIREX Method is more simple and unexpensive than PUREX system. The experiment was carried out by using test piece of unirradiated Uranium oxide included imitative fission product (FP) elements oxides, and the results showed that Uranium could be extracted in separating from FP elements at 313K and 12MPa and that one step extraction by Super DIREX Method could get more than 100 of decontamination factor (DE) of the FP elements. (author)

  16. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon (United States)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  17. Edge energies and shapes of nanoprecipitates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, John C.


    In this report we present a model to explain the size-dependent shapes of lead nano-precipitates in aluminum. Size-dependent shape transitions, frequently observed at nanolength scales, are commonly attributed to edge energy effects. This report resolves an ambiguity in the definition and calculation of edge energies and presents an atomistic calculation of edge energies for free clusters. We also present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of ''magic-shapes'' defined as precipitate shapes having near zero elastic strains when inserted into similarly shaped voids in the Al matrix. An algorithm for constructing a complete set of magic-shapes is presented. The experimental observations are explained by elastic strain energies and interfacial energies; edge energies play a negligible role. We replicate the experimental observations by selecting precipitates having magic-shapes and interfacial energies less than a cutoff value.

  18. Event shape engineering with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrin, A


    The strong fluctuations in the initial energy density of heavy-ion collisions allow an efficient selection of events corresponding to a specific initial geometry. For such "shape engineered events", the elliptic flow coefficient, $v_2$, of unidentified charged particles, pions and (anti-)protons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\snn = 2.76$ TeV is measured by the ALICE collaboration. $v_2$ obtained with the event plane method at mid-rapidity, $|\\eta|<0.8$, is reported for different collision centralities as a function of transverse momentum, $\\pt$, out to $\\pt=20$ GeV/$c$. The measured $v_2$ for the shape engineered events is significantly larger or smaller than the average which demonstrates the ability to experimentally select events with the desired shape of the initial spatial asymmetry.

  19. SuperB: An opportunity to study baryons with beauty and bottom super-nuclei (United States)

    Feliciello, A.


    SuperB is an INFN flagship project for a new high-luminosity heavy-flavor factory. Along with its companion detector, it is dedicated to the search for CP violation effects in the B meson sector with the aim of looking for direct and indirect signals of new physics, beyond the Standard Model. However it could offer as well the opportunity for a systematic, high-statistics study of b baryon properties and for a search for bottom super-nuclei, that is bound nuclear systems with an explicit content of beauty.

  20. Design of super-efficient mixer based on induced charge electroosmotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kai


    Full Text Available The super-efficient sample mixing induced by the induced-charge electrokinetic flow around conducting/Janus cylinder was numerically studied in a confined |U-shaped microchannel with suddenly applied DC weak electric filed. It’s found that there are four large circulations around the conducting cylinder and two smaller circulations around the Janus cylinder. The results show that samples can still be well mixed with high flux due to the induced electroosmosis. It is demonstrated that the local flow circulations provide effective means to enhance the flow mixing between different solutions. The dependence of the degree of mixing enhancement on the electric field is also predicted.

  1. Effect of the direction of ester linkage on molecular shape selectivity through multiple carbonyl-pi interaction with octadecyl chain branched polymers as organic phases in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Rana, Ashequl A; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka


    Poly(vinyl octadecanoate)-grafted porous silica (Sil-VODn, n=23) was newly prepared to investigate the efficiencies of the carbonyl groups in the polymer chain for recognition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in RP-HPLC. In Sil-VOD23, the octadecyl side chains were connected to the polymer main chain through ester linkage in opposite direction to that in poly(octadecylacrylate)-grafted silica (Sil-ODAn, n=25) which has been reported by us. Sil-ODAn performs enhanced molecular shape selectivity of PAHs in RP-HPLC through multiple carbonyl-pi interaction of aligned carbonyl groups which are induced by the formation of highly oriented structure of side chains. Differential scanning calorimetry of VOD23 demonstrated that octadecyl alkyl chains showed crystalline to isotropic phase transition with endothermic peak at 48.7 degrees C which was similar to ODA25 (at 47.8 degrees C). After grafting of both polymers, phase transition phenomenon was completely disappeared in Sil-VOD23 whereas Sil-ODA25 still exhibits phase transition although at lower endothermic peak top temperature (38.5 degrees C). This indicates that the slight structural change in Sil-VODn and Sil-ODAn influence the ordered structure of side alkyl chains. Moreover, solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the long alkyl chain in Sil-VOD23 is highly disordered as compared with that of Sil-ODA25. Sil-VOD23 was applied to RP-HPLC stationary phase using PAHs as pi-electron containing elutes, and compared with Sil-ODA25 and conventional monomeric octadecylated silica (ODS). Results confirmed that Sil-VOD23 showed much higher selectivity for PAH isomers than ODS, but lower than Sil-ODA25. For example, the separation factors for trans-/cis-stilbene were 1.47 (Sil-VOD23), 1.70 (Sil-ODA25) and 1.07 (ODS), respectively. These results indicate that carbonyl groups in Sil-VOD23 are effective for molecular shape recognition of PAHs through carbonyl-pi interactions even in the disordered state.

  2. Breeding strategies for increasing yield potential in super hybrid rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua CHENG,Xiaodeng ZHAN,Liyong CAO


    Full Text Available Super hybrid rice breeding is a new breeding method combining semi-dwarf breeding and heterosis breeding using germplasm and gene-environment interactions. This paper reviews the breeding strategies of super hybrid rice breeding in China, focusing on the utilization of heterosis of indica and japonica subspecies, construction of ideal plant architecture and pyramiding of disease resistant genes in restorer lines. To develop super hybrid rice, considerable effort should be made to explore genes related with high yield, good quality, resistance to pests and diseases, tolerance to stresses. Molecular breeding methods in combination with crossing techniques should be adopted in super hybrid rice breeding.

  3. Laboratory measurements of super-resolving Toraldo pupils for radio astronomical applications (United States)

    Olmi, Luca; Bolli, Pietro; Cresci, Luca; D'Agostino, Francesco; Migliozzi, Massimo; Mugnai, Daniela; Natale, Enzo; Nesti, Renzo; Panella, Dario; Stefani, Lorenzo


    The concept of super-resolution refers to various methods for improving the angular resolution of an optical imaging system beyond the classical diffraction limit. Although several techniques to narrow the central lobe of the illumination Point Spread Function have been developed in optical microscopy, most of these methods cannot be implemented on astronomical telescopes. A possible exception is represented by the variable transmittance filters, also known as "Toraldo Pupils" (TPs) since they were introduced for the first time by G. Toraldo di Francia in 1952 (Toraldo di Francia, Il Nuovo Cimento (Suppl.) 9, 426, 1952). In the microwave range, the first successful laboratory test of TPs was performed in 2003 (Mugnai et al. Phys. Lett. A 311, 77-81, 2003). These first results suggested that TPs could represent a viable approach to achieve super-resolution in Radio Astronomy. We have therefore started a project devoted to a more exhaustive analysis of TPs, in order to assess their potential usefulness to achieve super-resolution on a radio telescope, as well as to determine their drawbacks. In the present work we report on the results of extensive microwave measurements, using TPs with different geometrical shapes, which confirm the correctness of the first experiments in 2003. We have also extended the original investigation to carry out full-wave electromagnetic numerical simulations and also to perform planar scanning of the near-field and transform the results into the far-field.

  4. Development of an optical simulation for the SuperNEMO calorimeter (United States)

    Huber, Arnaud; SuperNEMO Collaboration


    The SuperNEMO double beta decay project is a modular tracker-calorimeter based experiment. The aim of this project is to reach a sensitivity of the order of 1026 years concerning the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life, corresponding to a Majorana neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. The main calorimeter of the SuperNEMO demonstrator is based on 520 Optical Modules made of large volume plastic scintillators (10L) coupled with large area photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R5912-MOD and R6594). The design of the calorimeter is optimized for the double beta decay detection and allows gamma tagging for background rejection. In large volumes of scintillators, a similar deposited energy by electrons or photons will give different visible energy and signal shapes due to different interactions inside the scintillator. The aim of the optical simulation, developed for SuperNEMO, is to model the Optical Module response on the energy and time performances, regarding the particle type.

  5. Search For Non-zero Neutrino Magnetic Moments Using Super-kamiokande-i Solar Neutrino Data

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, D


    Non-zero neutrino magnetic moments would mean new physics beyond the standard model. Therefore a search for a nonzero neutrino magnetic moment has been conducted using the high statistic 1496 live day solar neutrino data from Super-Kamiokande-I. The search looked for distortions to the energy spectrum of recoil electrons from ν-e elastic scattering. A nonzero neutrino magnetic moment would cause an increase of event rates at lower energies. In the absence of clear signal, we found μν ≤ 3.6 × 10−10 μB at 90% C.L. by fitting to the Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) day/night energy spectra. The fitting took into account the effect of neutrino oscillations on the shape of energy spectra. With the results from other neutrino experiments constraining the oscillation parameter region, a limit of μν ≤ 1.1 × 10 −10 μB at 90% C.L. was obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnawi Hasnawi


    Full Text Available Tambak teknologi super-intensif tidak memerlukan lahan budidaya yang luas, produksi yang tinggi dimungkinkan dengan padat tebar tinggi dan input teknologi. Keberhasilan teknologi ini sangat ditentukan oleh lokasi budidaya yang tepat, infrastruktur yang memadai dan memenuhi standar, dilengkapi instalasi pengolahan air limbah (IPAL, serta dukungan faktor sosial yang menjadi penentu penerapan dan keberlanjutannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan lokasi potensial pengembangan tambak super-intensif di kawasan pesisir Kabupaten Barru Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Pada tahap awal, kawasan pesisir yang potensial diidentifikasi melalui analisis elevasi lahan dari citra satelit Aster GDEM dan penggunaan lahan dari data Google Earth. Selanjutnya faktor sosial berupa potensi konflik dengan penggunaan lahan saat ini menjadi data awal yang dikumpulkan sebelum dilakukan pengukuran variabel lain. Variabel yang diobservasi langsung antara lain; elevasi lahan, tekstur tanah, ketersediaan infrastruktur pendukung, pasang surut, penggunaan lahan saat ini, dan kualitas perairan dilakukan di sekitar lokasi potensial terpilih. Analisis data dilakukan dengan mengaplikasikan sistem informasi geografis (SIG. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lokasi potensial dijumpai di Desa Pancana Kecamatan Tanete Rilau dengan luas kawasan sekitar 17,5 ha. Variabel yang diidentifikasi menjadi pembatas utama untuk pengembangan tambak super-intensif di kawasan tersebut adalah elevasi lahan dan keberadaan potensi konflik dengan penggunaan lahan saat ini. A super-intensive pond technology does not require extensive land cultivation, however the high production is expected from its ability to increase stocking density particularly for vannamei species. The success of this technology is highly depend upon proper site selection, availability of supporting infrastructure, the availability of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP, and supporting of social factor determining the implementation

  7. Shape Modeling of a Concentric-tube Continuum Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Shaoping; Xing, Charles Chuhao


    is modeled on the basis of energy approach for both the in-plane and out-plane cases. The torsional influences on the shape of the concentric-tube robots are considered. An experimental device was build for the model validation. The results of simulation and experiments are included and analyzed.......Concentric-tube continuum robots feature with simple and compact structures and have a great potential in medical applications. The paper is concerned with the shape modeling of a type of concentric-tube continuum robot built with a collection of super-elastic NiTiNol tubes. The mechanics...

  8. Super-Hamiltonian Structures and Conservation Laws of a New Six-Component Super-Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucai You


    Full Text Available A six-component super-Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (-AKNS hierarchy is proposed by the zero curvature equation associated with Lie superalgebras. Supertrace identity is used to furnish the super-Hamiltonian structures for the resulting nonlinear superintegrable hierarchy. Furthermore, we derive the infinite conservation laws of the first two nonlinear super-AKNS equations in the hierarchy by utilizing spectral parameter expansions. PACS: 02.30.Ik; 02.30.Jr; 02.20.Sv.

  9. If d is super-metric, then d/(1+d) is super-metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs


    If a function d is metric, a well-known result is that d/(1 + d) is also metric. We consider m-ary analogs of the binary notion of semimetric, called hemi-metrics and super-metrics. The metrics are totally symmetric maps from Xm+1 into R≥0. It is shown that, if d is supermetric, then d/(1 + d) is

  10. Atmospheric Neutrino Results from Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Toshito, T


    We present atmospheric neutrino results from a 71 kiloton year (1140 days) exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector. Our data are well explained by nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / 2-flavor oscillations. We update the 3 flavor analysis of contained events. Also we have been attempting to discriminate between the possible oscillating partners of the muon neutrino as being either the tau neutrino or the sterile neutrino. These tests use expected differences due to neutral currents and matter effects to discriminate the possibilities. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at 99% confidence level.

  11. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...... Architectural expressions never seen before. 3 Material savings of more than 50 %. 4 Energy and CO2 savings of more than 50 %. 5 No Scaffolding and cheaper moulds. 6 Improved durability. 7 Extreme thermal insulation. 8 Better indoor-climate. 9 User friendly operation and maintenance. 10 Increased safety...

  12. Production of super-smooth articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.


    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  13. Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2236 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 JT2A.34.pdf Optics in the Life... Sciences Congress Technical Digest © 2013 The Optical Society (OSA) Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams Melanie McLaren, Thulile Khanyile, Patience Mthunzi and Andrew Forbes* National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  14. SuperLU users' guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James W.; Gilbert, John R.; Li, Xiaoye S.


    This document describes a collection of three related ANSI C subroutine libraries for solving sparse linear systems of equations AX = B: Here A is a square, nonsingular, n x n sparse matrix, and X and B are dense n x nrhs matrices, where nrhs is the number of right-hand sides and solution vectors. Matrix A need not be symmetric or definite; indeed, SuperLU is particularly appropriate for matrices with very unsymmetric structure. All three libraries use variations of Gaussian elimination optimized to take advantage both of sparsity and the computer architecture, in particular memory hierarchies (caches) and parallelism.

  15. Shape memory alloys: metallurgy, biocompatibility, and biomechanics for neurosurgical applications. (United States)

    Hoh, Daniel J; Hoh, Brian L; Amar, Arun P; Wang, Michael Y


    SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS possess distinct dynamic properties with particular applications in neurosurgery. Because of their unique physical characteristics, these materials are finding increasing application where resiliency, conformation, and actuation are needed. Nitinol, the most frequently manufactured shape memory alloy, responds to thermal and mechanical stimuli with remarkable mechanical properties such as shape memory effect, super-elasticity, and high damping capacity. Nitinol has found particular use in the biomedical community because of its excellent fatigue resistance and biocompatibility, with special interest in neurosurgical applications. The properties of nitinol and its diffusionless phase transformations contribute to these unique mechanical capabilities. The features of nitinol, particularly its shape memory effect, super-elasticity, damping capacity, as well as its biocompatibility and biomechanics are discussed herein. Current and future applications of nitinol and other shape memory alloys in endovascular, spinal, and minimally invasive neurosurgery are introduced. An understanding of the metallurgic properties of nitinol provides a foundation for further exploration of its use in neurosurgical implant design.

  16. Magnetic Shape Memory Microactuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Kohl


    Full Text Available By introducing smart materials in micro systems technologies, novel smart microactuators and sensors are currently being developed, e.g., for mobile, wearable, and implantable MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical-system devices. Magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs are a promising material system as they show multiple coupling effects as well as large, abrupt changes in their physical properties, e.g., of strain and magnetization, due to a first order phase transformation. For the development of MSMA microactuators, considerable efforts are undertaken to fabricate MSMA foils and films showing similar and just as strong effects compared to their bulk counterparts. Novel MEMS-compatible technologies are being developed to enable their micromachining and integration. This review gives an overview of material properties, engineering issues and fabrication technologies. Selected demonstrators are presented illustrating the wide application potential.

  17. Shape memory polymers (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.


    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  18. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.


    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  19. Super-resolution imaging in live cells. (United States)

    Cox, Susan


    Over the last twenty years super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has gone from proof-of-concept experiments to commercial systems being available in many labs, improving the resolution achievable by up to a factor of 10 or more. There are three major approaches to super-resolution, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and localisation microscopy, which have all produced stunning images of cellular structures. A major current challenge is optimising performance of each technique so that the same sort of data can be routinely taken in live cells. There are several major challenges, particularly phototoxicity and the speed with which images of whole cells, or groups of cells, can be acquired. In this review we discuss the various approaches which can be successfully used in live cells, the tradeoffs in resolution, speed, and ease of implementation which one must make for each approach, and the quality of results that one might expect from each technique. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of Super Crunchers by Ian Ayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gaze


    Full Text Available Ayers, I. Super Crunchers: Why Thinking-by-Numbers Is the New Way to be Smart. (Bantam Dell Publishing Group, 2007. 272 pp. Hard cover $25 ISBN 978-0-553-80540-6.Super Crunchers tells the story of how analyzing data is changing the ways in which decisions are made. We in the National Numeracy Network make a case for the importance of quantitative literacy by referring to how much quantitative information is now available to each of us: “a world awash in numbers.” Ian Ayres zeroes in on the people who are making a living crunching all of these data. From the seemingly innocuous (how wines are rated, and the scouting of baseball players to the life impacting (diagnosis of disease, and parole of inmates, this book paints a vivid portrayal of how data analysis is impacting decision making at every level in our society. The use of simple regression models and randomized trials is calling into question who the “experts” of the twenty-first century will be, and why thinking-by-numbers really is the new way to be smart.

  1. Exploring the Diversity of Super-Earths (United States)

    Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Lothringer, Joshua; Dragomir, Diana; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Howard, Andrew; McCullough, Peter R.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Kempton, Eliza; Morley, Caroline


    The discovery of planets with masses and radii intermediate between Earth and Neptune was one of the biggest surprises in the brief history of exoplanet science. These "super-Earths" are an order of magnitude more abundant than close-in giant planets. Despite this ubiquity, we know little about their typical compositions and formation histories. Spectroscopic transit observations can shed new light on these mysterious worlds by probing their atmospheric compositions. In this talk, we will give an overview of our ongoing 124-orbit (200-hour) Hubble Space Telescope program to reveal the chemical diversity and formation histories of super-Earths. This unprecedented survey will provide the first comprehensive look at this intriguing new class of planets ranging from 1 Neptune mass and temperatures close to 2000K to a 1 Earth mass planet near the habitable zone of its host star. We will discuss the scope of the program, demonstrate observational techniques to observe extremely bright exoplanet targets with HST WFC3 and STIS, and present early results.

  2. 3D super-virtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai


    Super-virtual refraction interferometry enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of far-offset refractions. However, when applied to 3D cases, traditional 2D SVI suffers because the stationary positions of the source-receiver pairs might be any place along the recording plane, not just along a receiver line. Moreover, the effect of enhancing the SNR can be limited because of the limitations in the number of survey lines, irregular line geometries, and azimuthal range of arrivals. We have developed a 3D SVI method to overcome these problems. By integrating along the source or receiver lines, the cross-correlation or the convolution result of a trace pair with the source or receiver at the stationary position can be calculated without the requirement of knowing the stationary locations. In addition, the amplitudes of the cross-correlation and convolution results are largely strengthened by integration, which is helpful to further enhance the SNR. In this paper, both synthetic and field data examples are presented, demonstrating that the super-virtual refractions generated by our method have accurate traveltimes and much improved SNR.

  3. Ultra-super computing; Chodaikibo keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagawa, G.; Yoshimura, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Okuda, H. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)


    Two projects are presented as challenges to perform ultra-super computing. The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, in its ADVENTURE project launched in fiscal 1997, intends to develop a general-purpose finite element analysis system which will solve practical mechanical problems assuming CAD (computer-aided design)-given geometries of 10-100 million degrees of freedom within 1-24 hours. For this purpose, the ministry plans to use a machine capable of 30-100 teraflops that will become available in around 2002. The Science and Technology Agency has been working its Earth Simulator project since fiscal 1997. Under this project, the agency will develop an ultra-super parallel computer Earth Simulator capable of a peak processing speed of 40 teraflops and having a total main memory of 10 terabytes, and an article of huge parallel software for the Earth Simulator. Using them, the agency wants to construct a virtual earth on the computer for the study of various problems surrounding the global environments. GeoFEM is a parallel finite element analysis software system to deal with various problems pertinent to the solid earth, which is one of the items of the huge parallel software for the Earth Simulator. (NEDO)

  4. Evaluation of response to super-ovulation, estrous synchronization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at Holetta and Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centers dairy herd in 2011 to evaluate the number of embryos collected per super-ovulated donor cow, estrus rate (ER) and pregnancy rate (PR) of recipient cows/heifers after embryo transfer. For super-ovulation treatment a total of 19 Holstein ...

  5. Shedding light on endocytosis with optimized super-resolution microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyton Puig, D.M.


    Super-resolution microscopy is a relatively new microscopy technique that is still under optimization. In this thesis we focus on the improvement of the quality of super-resolution images, to apply them to the study of the processes of cell signaling and endocytosis. First, we show that the use of a

  6. Super-resolution by pupil plane phase filtering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Resolution capability of any optical imaging system is limited by residual aberrations as well as diffraction effects. Overcoming this fundamental limit is called super-resolution. Several new paradigms for super-resolution in optical systems use 'a posteriori' digital image processing. In these ventures the ...

  7. A fast subgradient algorithm in image super-resolution (United States)

    Lazzaro, D.; Loli Piccolomini, E.; Ruggiero, V.; Zama, F.


    In this paper we propose an ε–subgradient method for solving a constrained minimization problem arising in super-resolution imaging applications. The method, compared to the state-of-the-art methods for single image super-resolution on some test problems, proves to be very efficient, both for the reconstruction quality and the computational time.

  8. Analysing 'super-participation' in online third spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, Todd; Wright, Scott; Cantijoch, Marta; Gibson, Rachel; Ward, Stephen


    This chapter focuses on our attempts to overcome the methodological challenges of 'super-participation' in online discussion forums, focusing on the participatory patterns and discursive activity of what we call 'super-participants'. Our principal contribution in this area (Graham and Wright 2013)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of super-microporous material with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Synthesis and characterization of super-microporous material with enhanced hydrothermal stability. SHUJIE WU, KE SONG, JINGQI GUAN and QIUBIN KAN*. College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023, P.R. China. MS received 9 July 2009; revised 18 November 2009. Abstract. Super-microporouos silicon ...

  10. Solar neutrino measurements in Super-Kamiokande-I

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, J; Kameda, J; Koshio, Y; Minamino, A; Mitsuda, C; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Namba, T; Obayashi, Y; Sakurai, N; Sarrat, A; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Yamada, S; Higuchi, I; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kaneyuki, K; Mitsuka, G; Nakayama, S; Nishino, H; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Saji, C; Takenaga, Y; Clark, S; Desai, S; Kearns, E; Likhoded, S; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Wang, W; Goldhaber, M; Casper, D; Cravens, J P; Kropp, W R; Liu, D W; Mine, S; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Sterner, C W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Jang, J S; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Guillian, G; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Messier, M D; Hayato, Y; Ichikawa, A K; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwashita, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nitta, K; Oyama, Y; Totsuka, Y; Suzuki, A T; Hasegawa, M; Kato, I; Maesaka, H; Nakaya, T; Nishikawa, K; Sasaki, T; Sato, H; Yamamoto, S; Yokoyama, M; Haines, T J; Dazeley, S; Kim, B K; Lee, K B; Hatakeyama, S; Svoboda, R; Blaufuss, E; Goodman, J A; Sullivan, G W; Turcan, D; Cooley, J; Habig, A; Fukuda, Y; Sato, T; Itow, Y; Jung, C K; Kato, T; Kobayashi, K; Malek, M; Martens, K; Mauger, C; McGrew, C; Sharkey, E; Yanagisawa, C; Tamura, N; Sakuda, M; Kuno, Y; Yoshida, M; Kim, S B; Yoo, J; Okazawa, H; Ishizuka, T; Choi, Y; Seo, H K; Gando, Y; Hasegawa, T; Inoue, K; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Nishijima, K; Ishino, H; Watanabe, Y; Koshiba, M; Kielczewska, D; Zalipska, J; Berns, H G; Gran, R; Shiraishi, K K; Stachyra, A L; Washburn, K; Wilkes, R J


    The details of Super--Kamiokande--I's solar neutrino analysis are given. Solar neutrino measurement in Super--Kamiokande is a high statistics collection of $^8$B solar neutrinos via neutrino-electron scattering. The analysis method and results of the 1496 day data sample are presented. The final oscillation results for the data are also presented.

  11. Super Bowli teooria soovitab aktsiaid osta / Fredy-Edwin Esse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin


    Super Bowli teooria kohaselt tõuseb Dow Jones, kui võidab algupärase NFL-i meeskond. MarketWatchi peaökonomist Irwin Keller avaldab arvamust, miks tasuks investoritel Super Bowli tulemustele tähelepanu pöörata

  12. Super-resolution Spectral Reconstruction for DWDM Channel Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Zibar, Darko


    We demonstrate a super-resolution algorithm to estimate channel power and spacing. We show minimal loss in power accuracy and frequency accuracy 1000x below the spectrometer resolution.......We demonstrate a super-resolution algorithm to estimate channel power and spacing. We show minimal loss in power accuracy and frequency accuracy 1000x below the spectrometer resolution....

  13. Cool White Dwarfs from the SuperCOSMOS and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys (United States)

    Hambly, N. C.; Digby, A. P.; Oppenheimer, B. R.


    We have used datamining techniques in the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive ( to obtain a large, well defined proper motion and magnitude selected sample of cool white dwarfs. Using accurate 5-colour photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR1 and SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey photometry and astrometry, we demonstrate the power of reduced proper motion in obtaining a sample of >700 white dwarfs. We examine the characteristics of these objects in various two-colour diagrams in conjunction with new model atmosphere predictions recently computed in the SDSS photometric system. Ultimately, we intend to analyse these data with techniques similar to those already used to examine the subdwarf luminosity function (Digby et al. 2003). In this way, we aim to decompose the contribution of thin disk, thick disk and spheroid white dwarfs in the sample to enable computation of accurate luminosity functions for those respective populations.

  14. Super-Resolution Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy: Tricks of the Trade. (United States)

    Whelan, Donna R; Bell, Toby D M


    Application of single-molecule fluorescence detection has led to the development of light microscopy techniques that make it possible to study fluorescent samples at spatial resolutions significantly improved upon the diffraction limit of light. The biological and materials science applications of these "super-resolution" microscopy methods are vast, causing current demand for them to be high. However, implementation, execution, and interpretation of these techniques, particularly involving biological samples, require a broad interdisciplinary skillset, not often found in a single laboratory. Those already used to interdisciplinary work as well as navigating communication and collaboration between more pure forms of physics, chemistry, and biology are well-positioned to spearhead such efforts. In this Perspective, we describe various aspects of single-molecule super-resolution imaging, discussing, in particular, the role that physical chemistry has so far played in its development and establishment. We also highlight a selection of some of the remarkable recent research achievements in this vibrant field.

  15. Bridging the Mass Divide: Super & Massive AGB Star Yields (United States)

    Doherty, C. L.; Gil-Pons, P.; Lau, H. H. B.; Lattanzio, J. C.


    Super Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (Super AGBs) lie in the mass range 6-11 M⊙, which bridges the divide between low/intermediate mass AGB and massive stars. During the thermally pulsing phase of evolution competition between hot bottom burning (HBB) and third dredge up (3DU) events determine the stellar yields. Obtaining these yields is far more computationally demanding than those of most AGB stars because Super AGBs undergo up to a few thousand thermal pulses. We describe results from evolutionary and nucleosynthetic calculations for these stellar models. We examine element production in these Super AGB stars over time, with results from five metallicities spanning the range Z = 0.02-10-4 ([Fe/H] 0 to -2.3). Super AGB star nucleosynthetic yields have hitherto been neglected in galactic chemical evolution modelling.

  16. Achromatic and super-achromatic zero-order waveplates (United States)

    Samoylov, A. V.; Samoylov, V. S.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Perekhod, A. V.


    We discuss a brief classification of waveplates including achromatic and super-achromatic ones. Anizotropic properties of polymethylmethacrylat (PMMA) subjected to one-axis stretching are analyzed. The parameters controlling the value of the PMMA birefringence are identified and their typical spectral dependence is discussed. The technology for manufacturing achromatic and super-achromatic, one-axis-stretched PMMA wavelpates is described, which excludes any mechanical processing of waveplate component surfaces. Technical characteristics of achromatic and super-achromatic waveplates manufactured of the same material (anisotropic PMMA) are discussed. It is shown that the use of the same material eliminates the appearance of interference ripple in transmission, which is a typical characteristic of quarts-MgF2 super-achromatic waveplates. Examples of using super-achromatic waveplates in astronomical observations are described.

  17. A Novel Technique for Improving Bodily Experience in a Non-operable Super-Super Obesity Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serino, Silvia; Scarpina, Federica; Keizer, Anouk; Pedroli, Elisa; Dakanalis, Antonios; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Chirico, Alice; Novelli, Margherita; Gaudio, Santino; Riva, Giuseppe


    INTRODUCTION: The available clinical guidelines for super-super obese patients (i.e., with body mass index (BMI) > 60 kg/m(2)) that are not suitable for bariatric surgery mandate a palliative multidisciplinary treatment (i.e., production and maintenance of weight loss) provided in a center of

  18. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.


    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  19. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei; Des noyaux lourds aux super-lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, Ch


    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei. (author)

  20. High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super-Resolution Algorithm Super-Resolution Forests (United States)


    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5514--17-9692 High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate

  1. Pitowsky's Kolmogorovian Models and Super-determinism. (United States)

    Kellner, Jakob


    In an attempt to demonstrate that local hidden variables are mathematically possible, Pitowsky constructed "spin-[Formula: see text] functions" and later "Kolmogorovian models", which employs a nonstandard notion of probability. We describe Pitowsky's analysis and argue (with the benefit of hindsight) that his notion of hidden variables is in fact just super-determinism (and accordingly physically not relevant). Pitowsky's first construction uses the Continuum Hypothesis. Farah and Magidor took this as an indication that at some stage physics might give arguments for or against adopting specific new axioms of set theory. We would rather argue that it supports the opposing view, i.e., the widespread intuition "if you need a non-measurable function, it is physically irrelevant".

  2. The SPL-based Neutrino Super Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E; Bobeth, C; Bouquerel, E; Caretta, O; Cupial, P; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Dracos, M; Fitton, M; Gaudiot, G; Kozien, M; Lacny, L; Lepers, B; Longhin, A; Loveridge, P; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Rooney, M; Skoczen, B; Szybinski, B; Ustrzycka, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Wilcox, D; Wroblewski, A; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V; Zito, M


    The EUROnu Super Beam work package has studied a neutrino beam based on SPL at CERN and aimed at MEMPHYS, a large water Cherenkov detector, proposed for the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (Fr\\'ejus tunnel, France), with a baseline of 130 km. The aim of this proposed experiment is to study the CP violation in the neutrino sector. In the study reported here, we have developed the conceptual design of the neutrino beam, especially the target and the magnetic focusing device. Indeed, this beam present several unprecedented challenges, like the high primary proton beam power (4 MW), the high repetition rate (50 Hz) and the low energy of the protons (4.5 GeV). The design is completed by a study of all the main component of the system, starting from the transport system to guide the beam to the target up to the beam dump.

  3. SuperDARN scalar radar equations

    CERN Document Server

    Berngardt, O I; Potekhin, A P


    The quadratic scalar radar equations are obtained for SuperDARN radars that are suitable for the analysis and interpretation of experimental data. The paper is based on a unified approach to the obtaining radar equations for the monostatic and bistatic sounding with use of hamiltonian optics and ray representation of scalar Green's function and without taking into account the polarization effects. The radar equation obtained is the sum of several terms corresponding to the propagation and scattering over the different kinds of trajectories, depending on their smoothness and the possibility of reflection from the ionosphere. It is shown that the monostatic sounding in the media with significant refraction, unlike the case of refraction-free media, should be analyzed as a combination of monostatic and bistatic scattering. This leads to strong dependence of scattering amplitude on background ionospheric density due to focusing mechanism and appearance of new (bistatic) areas of effective scattering with signific...

  4. Super-renormalizable and finite gravitational theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Modesto


    Full Text Available We hereby introduce and extensively study a class of non-polynomial higher derivative theories of gravity that realize a ultraviolet (UV completion of Einstein general relativity. These theories are unitary (ghost free and at most only one-loop divergences survive. The outcome is a class of theories super-renormalizable in even dimension and finite in odd dimension. Moreover, we explicitly prove in D=4 that there exists an extension of the theory that is completely finite and all the beta functions vanish even at one-loop. These results can be easily extended in extra dimensions and it is likely that the higher dimensional theory can be made finite, too. Therefore we have the possibility for “finite quantum gravity” in any dimension.

  5. SuperB Muon Detector Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The test objective is to optimize the muon identification in an experiment at a Super B Factory. To accomplish this, experimenters will study the muon identification capability of a detector with different iron configurations at different beam energies. The detector is a full scale prototype, composed of a stack of iron tiles. The segmentation of the iron allows the study of different configurations. Between the tiles, one or two extruded scintillator slabs can be inserted to test two different readout options; a Binary Readout and a Time Readout. In the Binary Readout option the two coordinates are given by the two orthogonal scintillator bars, and the spatial resolution is driven by the bar width. In the Time Readout option one coordinate is determined by the scintillator position and the other by the arrival time of the signal read with a TDC.

  6. Supermassive blackholes without super Eddington accretion (United States)

    Christian, Damian Joseph; Kim, Matt I.; Garofalo, David; D'Avanzo, Jaclyn; Torres, John


    We explore the X-ray luminosity function at high redshift for active galactic nuclei using an albeit simplified model for mass build-up using a combination of mergers and mass accretion in the gap paradigm (Garofalo et al. 2010). Using a retrograde-dominated configuration we find an interesting low probability channel for the growth of one billion solar mass black holes within hundreds of millions of years of the big bang without appealing to super Eddington accretion (Kim et al. 2016). This result is made more compelling by the connection between this channel and an end product involving active galaxies with FRI radio morphology but weaker jet powers in mildly sub-Eddington accretion regimes. We will discuss our connection between the unexplained paucity of a given family of AGNs and the rapid growth of supermassive black holes, two heretofore seemingly unrelated aspects of the physics of AGNs that will help further understand their properties and evolution.

  7. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC (United States)


    Employees take a look at this NASCAR auto being displayed during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  8. Shaping Robust System through Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, Kunihiko


    Biological functions are generated as a result of developmental dynamics that form phenotypes governed by genotypes. The dynamical system for development is shaped through genetic evolution following natural selection based on the fitness of the phenotype. Here we study how this dynamical system is robust to noise during development and to genetic change by mutation. We adopt a simplified transcription regulation network model to govern gene expression, which gives a fitness function. Through simulations of the network that undergoes mutation and selection, we show that a certain level of noise in gene expression is required for the network to acquire both types of robustness. The results reveal how the noise that cells encounter during development shapes any network's robustness, not only to noise but also to mutations. We also establish a relationship between developmental and mutational robustness through phenotypic variances caused by genetic variation and epigenetic noise. A universal relationship betwee...

  9. The SuperCOSMOS Science Archive (United States)

    Hambly, N.; Read, M.; Mann, R.; Sutorius, E.; Bond, I.; MacGillivray, H.; Williams, P.; Lawrence, A.


    The SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey (SSS {}; Hambly et al., 2001) consists of digitised scans of Schmidt photographic survey material in a multi-colour (BRI), multi-epoch, uniformly calibrated product. It covers the whole southern hemisphere, with an extension into the north currently underway. Public online access to the 2 Tbytes of SSS pixel data and object catalogues has been available for some time; data are being downloaded at a rate of several gigabytes per week, and many new science results are emerging from community use of the data. In this poster we describe the terabyte-scale SuperCOSMOS Science Archive {} (SSA), which is a recasting of the SSS object catalogue system from flat files into an RDBMS, with an enhanced user interface. We describe some aspects of the hardware and schema design of the SSA, which aims to produce a high performance, VO-compatible database, suitable for data mining by `power users', while maintaining the ease of use praised in the old SSS system. Initially, the SSA will allow access through web forms and a flexible SQL interface. It acts as the prototype for the next generation survey archives to be hosted by the University of Edinburgh's Wide Field Astronomy Unit, such as the WFCAM Science Archive of infrared sky survey data, as well as being a scalability testbed for use by AstroGrid, the UK's Virtual Observatory project. As a result of these roles, it will display subsequently an expanding functionality, as web - and later, Grid - services are deployed on it.

  10. Super-virtual refraction interferometry: Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Bharadwaj, Pawan


    Inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution by refraction traveltime tomography is a well-accepted imaging method by both the exploration and earthquake seismology communities. A significant drawback, however, is that the recorded traces become noisier with increasing offset from the source position, and so prevents accurate picking of traveltimes in far-offset traces. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the far-offset traces, we present the theory of super-virtual refraction interferometry where the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of far-offset head-wave arrivals can be theoretically increased by a factor proportional to N; here, N is the number of receiver and source positions associated with the recording and generation of the head-wave arrival. There are two steps to this methodology: correlation and summation of the data to generate traces with virtual head-wave arrivals, followed by the convolution of the data with the virtual traces to create traces with super-virtual head-wave arrivals. This method is valid for any medium that generates head-wave arrivals. There are at least three significant benefits to this methodology: 1). enhanced SNR of far-offset traces so the first-arrival traveltimes of the noisy far-offset traces can be more reliably picked to extend the useful aperture of data, 2). the SNR of head waves in a trace that arrive after the first arrival can be enhanced for accurate traveltime picking and subsequent inversion by traveltime tomography, and 3). common receiver-pair gathers can be analyzed to detect the presence of diving waves in the first arrivals, which can be used to assess the nature of the refracting boundary. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  11. The Origin of Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia: Glaciated Super Valley, Not Super Flooding (United States)

    Khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; Otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa


    Research for morphology, its origin of the Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia, is few and far between, particularly, any in recent years. The origin of the morphology of the basin presents a new study, combining previous study materials, their results and interpreting the digital photos. Also the main bases of theory is Pleistocene Last Glacial Maximum distribution. Many scholars have proven that global glaciation covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene era. This global glaciation occurred in the northwest part of Mongolia to Mongolian Altay, Khangay and Khuvsgul mountain range. At the same time, the present appearance of basin that developed inheriting since the Mesozoic era, forms by global glaciation. The morphology of Basin of Great Lakes is super trough or glaciated super valley. At current day, "knock and lochan" topography (scoured region) and rock drumlins lie in the central part of the basin. Huge meltwater from this glaciation formed Shargasub-basin as a super kettle hole by erosion and overflowed water from it formed pluvial basins or big lakes in the Lake Valley.

  12. Self-erecting shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, Matthew W.


    Technologies for making self-erecting structures are described herein. An exemplary self-erecting structure comprises a plurality of shape-memory members that connect two or more hub components. When forces are applied to the self-erecting structure, the shape-memory members can deform, and when the forces are removed the shape-memory members can return to their original pre-deformation shape, allowing the self-erecting structure to return to its own original shape under its own power. A shape of the self-erecting structure depends on a spatial orientation of the hub components, and a relative orientation of the shape-memory members, which in turn depends on an orientation of joining of the shape-memory members with the hub components.

  13. Shaped Recess Flow Control (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)


    One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.

  14. Super-leadership and work enjoyment: direct and moderated influences. (United States)

    Müller, Günter F; Georgianna, Sibylle; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Roth, Anne C; Schreiber, Walter A; Sauerland, Martin; Muessigmann, Michael J; Jilg, Franziska


    Super-leadership is part of an approach called 'empowering leadership.' Within this approach, super-leadership is assumed to enable subordinates to lead themselves. The current study examined correlates of super-leadership. A questionnaire measuring two dimensions of super-leadership was used to analyze relationships between super-leadership and subordinates' work enjoyment, i.e., job satisfaction, subjective well-being, and emotional organizational commitment. In addition, moderating effects of the organizational context, i.e., organizational decentralization, on the relationships between super-leadership and work enjoyment were explored. 198 German employees from different occupations participated in the study. Latent moderator structural equation analysis revealed that the two factors of super-leadership, "coaching and communicative support" and "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility," had direct positive effects on subordinates' work enjoyment. Organizational decentralization moderated the effect of "coaching and communicative support" on work enjoyment but not the relations involving "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility." Conclusions for further research and practical applications were discussed.

  15. The Hue of Shapes (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo


    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  16. Building with shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Mooney, Carla


    There are shapes everywhere you look. You can put shapes together or build with them. What can you build with three circles? In this title, students will explore and understand that certain attributes define what a shape is called. This title will allow students to identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

  17. Is the Sequence of SuperAlarm Triggers More Predictive Than Sequence of the Currently Utilized Patient Monitor Alarms? (United States)

    Bai, Yong; Do, Duc; Ding, Quan; Palacios, Jorge Arroyo; Shahriari, Yalda; Pelter, Michele M; Boyle, Noel; Fidler, Richard; Hu, Xiao


    Our previous studies have shown that "code blue" events can be predicted by SuperAlarm patterns that are multivariate combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test results cooccurring frequently preceding the events but rarely among control patients. Deploying these patterns to the monitor data streams can generate SuperAlarm sequences. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that SuperAlarm sequences may contain more predictive sequential patterns than monitor alarms sequences. Monitor alarms and laboratory test results are extracted from a total of 254 adult coded and 2213 control patients. The training dataset is composed of subsequences that are sampled from complete sequences and then further represented as fixed-dimensional vectors by the term frequency inverse document frequency method. The information gain technique and weighted support vector machine are adopted to select the most relevant features and train a classifier to differentiate sequences between coded patients and control patients. Performances are assessed based on an independent dataset using three metrics: sensitivity of lead time (Sen L @T), alarm frequency reduction rate (AFRR), and work-up to detection ratio (WDR). The performance of 12-h-long sequences of SuperAlarm can yield a Sen L@2 of 93.33%, an AFRR of 87.28%, and a WDR of 3.01. At an AFRR = 87.28%, Sen L@2 for raw alarm sequences and discretized alarm sequences are 73.33% and 70.19%, respectively. At a WDR = 3.01, Sen L@2 are 49.88% and 43.33%. The results demonstrate that SuperAlarm sequences indeed outperform monitor alarm sequences and suggest that one can focus on sequential patterns from SuperAlarm sequences to develop more precise patient monitoring solutions.

  18. Dictionary learning based noisy image super-resolution via distance penalty weight model (United States)

    Han, Yulan; Zhao, Yongping; Wang, Qisong


    In this study, we address the problem of noisy image super-resolution. Noisy low resolution (LR) image is always obtained in applications, while most of the existing algorithms assume that the LR image is noise-free. As to this situation, we present an algorithm for noisy image super-resolution which can achieve simultaneously image super-resolution and denoising. And in the training stage of our method, LR example images are noise-free. For different input LR images, even if the noise variance varies, the dictionary pair does not need to be retrained. For the input LR image patch, the corresponding high resolution (HR) image patch is reconstructed through weighted average of similar HR example patches. To reduce computational cost, we use the atoms of learned sparse dictionary as the examples instead of original example patches. We proposed a distance penalty model for calculating the weight, which can complete a second selection on similar atoms at the same time. Moreover, LR example patches removed mean pixel value are also used to learn dictionary rather than just their gradient features. Based on this, we can reconstruct initial estimated HR image and denoised LR image. Combined with iterative back projection, the two reconstructed images are applied to obtain final estimated HR image. We validate our algorithm on natural images and compared with the previously reported algorithms. Experimental results show that our proposed method performs better noise robustness. PMID:28759633

  19. Dictionary learning based noisy image super-resolution via distance penalty weight model. (United States)

    Han, Yulan; Zhao, Yongping; Wang, Qisong


    In this study, we address the problem of noisy image super-resolution. Noisy low resolution (LR) image is always obtained in applications, while most of the existing algorithms assume that the LR image is noise-free. As to this situation, we present an algorithm for noisy image super-resolution which can achieve simultaneously image super-resolution and denoising. And in the training stage of our method, LR example images are noise-free. For different input LR images, even if the noise variance varies, the dictionary pair does not need to be retrained. For the input LR image patch, the corresponding high resolution (HR) image patch is reconstructed through weighted average of similar HR example patches. To reduce computational cost, we use the atoms of learned sparse dictionary as the examples instead of original example patches. We proposed a distance penalty model for calculating the weight, which can complete a second selection on similar atoms at the same time. Moreover, LR example patches removed mean pixel value are also used to learn dictionary rather than just their gradient features. Based on this, we can reconstruct initial estimated HR image and denoised LR image. Combined with iterative back projection, the two reconstructed images are applied to obtain final estimated HR image. We validate our algorithm on natural images and compared with the previously reported algorithms. Experimental results show that our proposed method performs better noise robustness.

  20. Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method for water hammer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Chen


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fast and efficient algorithm, Chebyshev super spectral viscosity (SSV method, is introduced to solve the water hammer equations. Compared with standard spectral method, the method's advantage essentially consists in adding a super spectral viscosity to the equations for the high wave numbers of the numerical solution. It can stabilize the numerical oscillation (Gibbs phenomenon and improve the computational efficiency while discontinuities appear in the solution. Results obtained from the Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method exhibit greater consistency with conventional water hammer calculations. It shows that this new numerical method offers an alternative way to investigate the behavior of the water hammer in propellant pipelines.

  1. Super p53 for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0036 TITLE: Super p53 for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Carol S. Lim University of Utah...Super p53 for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0036 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Carol S. Lim...ABSTRACT In this final report, we show gene therapy using re-engineered super p53 (p53-CC constructs) kills some ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro

  2. A Kaluza-Klein Reduction of Super-integrable Systems


    Fordy, Allan P.


    Given a super-integrable system in $n$ degrees of freedom, possessing an integral which is linear in momenta, we use the "Kaluza-Klein construction" in reverse to reduce to a lower dimensional super-integrable system. We give two examples of a reduction from 3 to 2 dimensions. The constant curvature metric (associated with the kinetic energy) is the same in both cases, but with two different super-integrable extensions. For these, we use different elements of the algebra of isometries of the ...

  3. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter


    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  4. Transforming shape in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Miquel; Lim, Sungwoo; Jowers, Iestyn


    This paper is concerned with how design shapes are generated and explored by means of sketching. It presents research into the way designers transform shapes from one state to another using sketch representations. An experimental investigation of the sketching processes of designers is presented....... Connections between sketches are defined in terms of shape transformations and described according to shape rules. These rules provide a formal description of the shape exploration process and develop understanding of the mechanics of sketching in design. The paper concludes by discussing the important...

  5. Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-CKdV equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)


    From the super-matrix Lie algebras, we consider a super-extension of the CKdV equation hierarchy in the present Letter, and propose the super-CKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super-CKdV hierarchy.

  6. Super W 1+∞ n-Algebra in the Supersymmetric Landau Problem (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Hong; Ding, Lu; Yan, Zhao-Wen; Wu, Ke; Zhao, Wei-Zhong


    We analyze the super n-bracket built from associative operator products. Since the super n-bracket with n even satisfies the so-called generalized super Jacobi identity, we deal with the n odd case and give the generalized super Bremner identity. For the infinite conserved operators in the supersymmetric Landau problem, we derive the super {W}1+∞ n-algebra which satisfies the generalized super Jacobi and Bremner identities for the n even and odd cases, respectively. Moreover the super {W}1+∞ sub-2n-algebra is also given. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11375119, 11475116, and 11547101

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolated from Super-Shedder and Low-Shedder Cattle (United States)

    Munns, Krysty D.; Zaheer, Rahat; Xu, Yong; Stanford, Kim; Laing, Chad R.; Gannon, Victor P. J.; Selinger, L. Brent; McAllister, Tim A.


    Cattle are the primary reservoir of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, with the concentration and frequency of E. coli O157:H7 shedding varying substantially among individual hosts. The term ‘‘super-shedder” has been applied to cattle that shed ≥104 cfu E. coli O157:H7/g of feces. Super-shedders have been reported to be responsible for the majority of E. coli O157:H7 shed into the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if there are phenotypic and/or genotypic differences between E. coli O157:H7 isolates obtained from super-shedder compared to low-shedder cattle. From a total of 784 isolates, four were selected from low-shedder steers and six isolates from super-shedder steers (4.01–8.45 log cfu/g feces) for whole genome sequencing. Isolates were phage and clade typed, screened for substrate utilization, pH sensitivity, virulence gene profiles and Stx bacteriophage insertion (SBI) sites. A range of 89–2473 total single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified when sequenced strains were compared to E. coli O157:H7 strain Sakai. More non-synonymous SNP mutations were observed in low-shedder isolates. Pan-genomic and SNPs comparisons did not identify genetic segregation between super-shedder or low-shedder isolates. All super-shedder isolates and 3 of 4 of low-shedder isolates were typed as phage type 14a, SBI cluster 3 and SNP clade 2. Super-shedder isolates displayed increased utilization of galactitol, thymidine and 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-arabinose when compared to low-shedder isolates, but no differences in SNPs were observed in genes encoding for proteins involved in the metabolism of these substrates. While genetic traits specific to super-shedder isolates were not identified in this study, differences in the level of gene expression or genes of unknown function may still contribute to some strains of E. coli O157:H7 reaching high densities within bovine feces. PMID:27018858

  8. Super pixel-level dictionary learning for hyperspectral image classification (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Wen; Liao, Bo; Fu, Xiangzheng


    This paper presents a superpixel-level dictionary learning model for hyperspectral data. The idea is to divide the hyperspectral image into a number of super-pixels by means of the super-pixel segmentation method. Each super-pixel is a spatial neighborhood called contextual group. That is, each pixel is represented using a linear combination of a few dictionary items learned from the train data, but since pixels inside a super-pixel are often consisting of the same materials, their linear combinations are constrained to use common items from the dictionary. To this end, the sparse coefficients of the context group have a common sparse pattern by using the joint sparse regularizer for dictionary learning. The sparse coefficients are then used for classification using linear support vector machines. The validity of the proposed method is experimentally verified on a real hyperspectral images.

  9. A numerical model for super resolution effect in optical discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assafrao, A.C.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Fery, C.; Von Riewel, L.; Knappmann, S.


    A simplified computational model for super resolution effect in optical discs is proposed and simulations are compared with experimental results, providing basic understanding of this phenomenon. Simulations show that resolution beyond the diffraction limit is achieved and signal destruction occurs

  10. PALM and STORM: unlocking live-cell super-resolution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henriques, R


    Full Text Available of molecular visualization at the nanometer scale. Resolutions previously only attained with electron microscopes are now within the grasp of light microscopes. However, until recently, live-cell imaging approaches have eluded super-resolution microscopy...

  11. Kuu plaat : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Heliplaatidest : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity", Metsatöll "Terast mis hangund me hinge 10218", Ursula "Annamemenõu", Critikal "Chapter One ehk Teine Maitse", Robbie Williams "Intensive Care", Depeche Mode "Playing the Angel"

  12. Putting super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to work


    Lippincott-Schwartz, J; Manley, Suliana


    Super-resolution microscopy is poised to revolutionize our understanding of the workings of the cell. But the technology still has some limitations, and these must be taken into consideration if widespread application is to yield biological insight.

  13. Future Carrier vs. Super Carrier: New Issues and Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Sean P


    .... This paper explores whether the era of the super carrier--a large aircraft carrier that is superior in size, capability and status--is coming to a close by examining the United States' need for large carriers...

  14. Super Polishing of Aluminum 6061-T6 Mirrors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative 2D super-polishing process for Aluminum 6061-T6 planar mirrors which removes diamond point turning (DPT) grooves and attains rms surface finishes below...

  15. WDVV equations for pure Super-Yang-Mills theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, L.K.; Martini, Ruud


    In the literature, there are two proofs that the prepotential of $N=2$ pure Super-Yang-Mills theory satisfies the Witten-Dijkgraaf-Verlinde-Verlinde (WDVV) equations. We show that these two methods are in fact equivalent.

  16. Ketogenic Diet in Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus


    Smith, Garnett; Press, Craig A.


    Researchers from the Children’s National Health System in Washington, D.C. studied the feasibility, rate of complications, and effect on seizures of initiating the Ketogenic Diet (KD) in pediatric patients with Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE).

  17. Propiedades de transporte de una superred de grafeno tipo sinusoidal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. A. Briones-Torres; I. Rodríguez-Vargas


    ... a través de superredes en grafeno. Consideramos una superred con potencial sinusoidal o polaridad invertida, para ello consideramos dos maneras de crearla, una por medio de sustratos mixtos junto...

  18. Super-resolved thickness maps using ultrahigh resolution OCT (United States)

    Aranha dos Santos, Valentin; Schmetterer, Leopold; Triggs, Graham J.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Werkmeister, René M.


    OCT imaging in the super-resolution regime was investigated using simulations and experiments. Samples of known thickness in the range 46-163 nm were fabricated and imaged. Measurements of the tear film lipid layer were performed.

  19. "SuperNoova" jõudis Fashion TVsse!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Klipp "Fashion Designer Contest - SuperNoova (Estonie) - Femme Pret ̉ Porter - Automne-Hiver 2002/2003" jõudis FTV ekraanile. Disaineritest on esile tõstetud võitjad: Jaanus Orgusaar vanemas ja Leelo nooremas kategoorias

  20. Sensor System for Super-Pressure Balloon Performance Modeling Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-duration balloon flights are an exciting new area of scientific ballooning, enabled by the development of large super-pressure balloons. As these balloons...

  1. Video super-resolution using simultaneous motion and intensity calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads


    In this paper we propose an energy based algorithm for motion compensated video super-resolution (VSR) targeted on upscaling of standard definition (SD) video to high definition (HD) video. Since the motion (flow field) of the image sequence is generally unknown, we introduce a formulation...... for super-resolved sequences. Computing super-resolved flows has to our knowledge not been done before. Most advanced super-resolution (SR) methods found in literature cannot be applied to general video with arbitrary scene content and/or arbitrary optical flows, as it is possible with our simultaneous VSR...... method. Series of experiments show that our method outperforms other VSR methods when dealing with general video input and that it continues to provide good results even for large scaling factors, up to 8×8....

  2. Poisson Deformed Super-Algebras and Moyal Quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, A [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006, Burgos (Spain); Celeghini, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN-Sezione di Firenze, I50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Olmo, M A del, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005, Valladolid (Spain)


    The procedure to obtain the semi-classical limit of Lie-Hopf and quantum algebras introduced in preceding papers has been extended to Lie and quantum super-algebras. With a different definition of the limit the approach is the same: an h-depending family of Hopf super-algebras is constructed starting from the super-bialgebra; then the singular limit h {yields} 0 allows to move from quantum to semi-classical framework in the spirit of Moyal quantization. The Poisson undeformed osp{sup P}(1|2) and deformed osp{sup P}{sub q}(1|2) super-algebras are exhibited, both as a paradigmatic example and because of their interest in applications.

  3. Bayesian model selection techniques as decision support for shaping a statistical analysis plan of a clinical trial: An example from a vertigo phase III study with longitudinal count data as primary endpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrion Christine


    provide excellent tools for preparing decisions within the SAP in a transparent way when structuring the primary analysis, sensitivity or ancillary analyses, and specific analyses for secondary endpoints. The mean logarithmic score and DIC discriminate well between different model scenarios. It becomes obvious that the naive choice of a conventional random effects Poisson model is often inappropriate for real-life count data. The findings are used to specify an appropriate mixed model employed in the sensitivity analyses of an ongoing phase III trial. Conclusions The proposed Bayesian methods are not only appealing for inference but notably provide a sophisticated insight into different aspects of model performance, such as forecast verification or calibration checks, and can be applied within the model selection process. The mean of the logarithmic score is a robust tool for model ranking and is not sensitive to sample size. Therefore, these Bayesian model selection techniques offer helpful decision support for shaping sensitivity and ancillary analyses in a statistical analysis plan of a clinical trial with longitudinal count data as the primary endpoint.

  4. Optical data transmission at the superconducting super collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovar, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    Digital and analog data transmissions via fiber optics for the Superconducting Super Collider have been investigated. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides, receivers and associated electronics components are reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the radiation environment on the performance of an optical data transmission system components. Also, the performance of candidate components of the wide band digital and analog transmission systems intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector is discussed.

  5. Unique Spectrometer Experiments with the Super-FRS at FAIR (United States)

    Äystö, J.; Behr, K.-H.; Benlliure, J.; Bracco, A.; Egelhof, P.; Fomichev, A.; Gales, S.; Geissel, H.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R.; Heinz, S.; Itahashi, K.; Jokinen, A.; Kalantar, N.; Kanungo, R.; Khanzadeev, A. V.; Lenske, H.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Pivovarov, Y.; Plass, W.; Prochazka, A.; Purushothaman, S.; Saito, T.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Tanihata, I.; Toki, H.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkler, M.; Zamfir, V.

    The Super-FRS at FAIR is a powerful superconducting in-flight separator and also a versatile high-resolution spectrometer system for exotic nuclei over a large energy range equivalent to a maximum magnetic rigidity of 20 Tm. In this contribution we present the physics program of the Super-FRS Collaboration. This program is partially based on the previous experimental results obtained with the FRS of GSI, but will also extend the research to directions not considered before.

  6. Spatiotemporal super-resolution for low bitrate H.264 video


    Anantrasirichai, N; Canagarajah, CN


    Super-resolution and frame interpolation enhance low resolution low-framerate videos. Such techniques are especially important for limited bandwidth communications. This paper proposes a novel technique to up-scale videos compressed with H.264 at low bit-rate both in spatial and temporal dimensions. A quantisation noise model is used in the super-resolution estimator, designed for low bitrate video, and a weighting map for decreasing inaccuracy of motion estimation are proposed. Results show ...

  7. Super-resolved imaging geometrical and diffraction approaches

    CERN Document Server


    In this brief we review several approaches that provide super resolved imaging, overcoming the geometrical limitation of the detector as well as the diffraction effects set by the F number of the imaging lens. In order to obtain the super resolved enhancement, we use spatially non-uniform and/or random transmission structures to encode the image or the aperture planes. The desired resolution enhanced images are obtained by post-processing decoding of the captured data.

  8. Multi-frame super resolution robust to local and global motion (United States)

    Ji, Zhengping; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Lilong; Ovsiannikov, Ilia


    Super resolution (SR) is to produce a higher resolution image from one or a sequence of low resolution images of a scene. It is essential in medical image analysis as a zooming of a specific area of interest is often required. This paper presents a new multi-frame super resolution (SR) method that is robust to both global and local motion. One of major challenges in multi-frame SR is concurrent global and local motion emergent in the sequence of low resolution images. It poses difficulties in aligning the low resolution images, resulting in artifacts or blurred pixels in the computed high resolution image. We solve the problem via a series of new methods. We first align the upscaled images from bicubic interpolation, and analyze the pixel distribution for the presence of local motion. If local motion is identified, we conduct the local image registration using dense SIFT features. Based on the local registration of images, we analyze pixel locations whose cross-frame variation is high and adaptively select subset of frame pixels in those locations. The adaptive selection of frame pixels is based on a clustering analysis of luminance values of pixels aligned at the same position, such that noise and motion biases are excluded. At the end, a median filter is applied for the selected pixels at each pixel location for super resolution image. We conduct experiments for multi-frame SR, where the proposed method delivers favorable results, especially better than state-of-the-art in dealing with concurrent local and global motions across frames.

  9. Super-honeycomb lattice: A hybrid fermionic and bosonic system

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Hua; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Da; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Yanpeng; Li, Fuli; Belić, Milivoj R; Xiao, Min


    We report on transport properties of the super-honeycomb lattice, the band structure of which possesses a flat band and Dirac cones, according to the tight-binding approximation. This super-honeycomb model combines the honeycomb lattice and the Lieb lattice and displays the properties of both. The super-honeycomb lattice also represents a hybrid fermionic and bosonic system, which is rarely seen in nature. By choosing the phases of input beams properly, the flat-band mode of the super-honeycomb will be excited and the input beams will exhibit a strong localization during propagation. On the other hand, if the modes of Dirac cones of the super-honeycomb lattice are excited, one will observe conical diffraction. Furthermore, if the input beam is properly chosen to excite a sublattice of the super-honeycomb lattice and the modes of Dirac cones with different pseudospins, e.g., the three-beam interference pattern, the pseudospin-mediated vortices will be observed.

  10. Perspectives in shape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie


    This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...

  11. Mean proloculus size, delta super(13) C and delta super(18) O variations in recent benthic foraminifera from the west coast of India and their climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarkar, A.

    The interrelationship between mean proloculus size (MPS), delta super(18) O and delta super(13) C vatiations in benthic foraminiferal species Rotalidium annectens and their relation with temperature (T) and salinity (S) have been studied in samples...

  12. The Super-GUT CMSSM Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John


    We revisit minimal supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification (GUT) models in which the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) are universal at some input scale, $M_{in}$, above the supersymmetric gauge coupling unification scale, $M_{GUT}$. As in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), we assume that the scalar masses and gaugino masses have common values, $m_0$ and $m_{1/2}$ respectively, at $M_{in}$, as do the trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters $A_0$. Going beyond previous studies of such a super-GUT CMSSM scenario, we explore the constraints imposed by the lower limit on the proton lifetime and the LHC measurement of the Higgs mass, $m_h$. We find regions of $m_0$, $m_{1/2}$, $A_0$ and the parameters of the SU(5) superpotential that are compatible with these and other phenomenological constraints such as the density of cold dark matter, which we assume to be provided by the lightest neutralino. Typically, these allowed regions appear for $m_0$ and $m_{1/...

  13. Concept and design of super junction devices (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Wentong; Qiao, Ming; Zhan, Zhenya; Li, Zhaoji


    The super junction (SJ) has been recognized as the " milestone” of the power MOSFET, which is the most important innovation concept of the voltage-sustaining layer (VSL). The basic structure of the SJ is a typical junction-type VSL (J-VSL) with the periodic N and P regions. However, the conventional VSL is a typical resistance-type VSL (R-VSL) with only an N or P region. It is a qualitative change of the VSL from the R-VSL to the J-VSL, introducing the bulk depletion to increase the doping concentration and optimize the bulk electric field of the SJ. This paper firstly summarizes the development of the SJ, and then the optimization theory of the SJ is discussed for both the vertical and the lateral devices, including the non-full depletion mode, the minimum specific on-resistance optimization method and the equivalent substrate model. The SJ concept breaks the conventional " silicon limit” relationship of R on∝V B 2.5, showing a quasi-linear relationship of R on∝V B 1.03.

  14. SuperB Progress Report for Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Buonomo, B.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Esposito, M.; Guiducci, S.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pellegrino, L.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Ricci, R.; Rotundo, U.; Sanelli, C.; Serio, M.; Stella, A.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Brachman, A.; /SLAC /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Orsay, LAL /Annecy, LAPP /LPSC, Grenoble /IRFU, SPP, Saclay /DESY /Cockroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /U. Liverpool /CERN


    This report details the progress made in by the SuperB Project in the area of the Collider since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008. With this document we propose a new electron positron colliding beam accelerator to be built in Italy to study flavor physics in the B-meson system at an energy of 10 GeV in the center-of-mass. This facility is called a high luminosity B-factory with a project name 'SuperB'. This project builds on a long history of successful e+e- colliders built around the world, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. The key advances in the design of this accelerator come from recent successes at the DAFNE collider at INFN in Frascati, Italy, at PEP-II at SLAC in California, USA, and at KEKB at KEK in Tsukuba Japan, and from new concepts in beam manipulation at the interaction region (IP) called 'crab waist'. This new collider comprises of two colliding beam rings, one at 4.2 GeV and one at 6.7 GeV, a common interaction region, a new injection system at full beam energies, and one of the two beams longitudinally polarized at the IP. Most of the new accelerator techniques needed for this collider have been achieved at other recently completed accelerators including the new PETRA-3 light source at DESY in Hamburg (Germany) and the upgraded DAFNE collider at the INFN laboratory at Frascati (Italy), or during design studies of CLIC or the International Linear Collider (ILC). The project is to be designed and constructed by a worldwide collaboration of accelerator and engineering staff along with ties to industry. To save significant construction costs, many components from the PEP-II collider at SLAC will be recycled and used in this new accelerator. The interaction region will be designed in collaboration with the particle physics detector to guarantee successful mutual use. The accelerator collaboration will consist of several groups at present

  15. Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots (United States)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Sakurai, Takashi


    Sunspots are the most notable structure on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields. The field is generally strongest in a dark area (umbra), but sometimes stronger fields are found in non-dark regions, such as a penumbra and a light bridge. The formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report clear evidence of the magnetic field of 6250 G, which is the strongest field among Stokes I profiles with clear Zeeman splitting ever observed on the Sun. The field was almost parallel to the solar surface and located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. Using a time series of spectral data sets, we discuss the formation process of the super-strong field and suggest that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the horizontal flow from the other umbra, such as the subduction of the Earth’s crust in plate tectonics.

  16. New Physics at a Super Flavor Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Browder, Thomas E; Pirjol, Dan; Soni, Amarjit; Zupan, Jure


    The potential of a Super Flavor Factory (SFF) for searches of New Physics is reviewed. While very high luminosity B physics is assumed to be at the core of the program, its scope for extensive charm and tau studies are also emphasized. The possibility to run at the Upsilon(5S) as well as at the Upsilon(4S) is also very briefly discussed; in principle, this could provide very clean measurements of B_s decays. The strength and reach of a SFF is most notably due to the possibility of examining an impressive array of very clean observables. The angles and the sides of the unitarity triangle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy. These serve as a reference for New Physics (NP) sensitive decays such as B^+ ->tau^+ nu and penguin dominated hadronic decay modes, providing tests of generic NP scenarios with an accuracy of a few percent. Besides, very precise studies of direct and time dependent CP asymmetries in radiative B decays and forward-backward asymmetry studies in B -> X_s l^+ l^- and numerous null tes...

  17. The super-GUT CMSSM revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Evans, Jason L. [KIAS, School of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mustafayev, Azar; Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    We revisit minimal supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification (GUT) models in which the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) are universal at some input scale, M{sub in}, above the supersymmetric gauge-coupling unification scale, M{sub GUT}. As in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), we assume that the scalar masses and gaugino masses have common values, m{sub 0} and m{sub 1/2}, respectively, at M{sub in}, as do the trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters A{sub 0}. Going beyond previous studies of such a super-GUT CMSSM scenario, we explore the constraints imposed by the lower limit on the proton lifetime and the LHC measurement of the Higgs mass, m{sub h}. We find regions of m{sub 0}, m{sub 1/2}, A{sub 0} and the parameters of the SU(5) superpotential that are compatible with these and other phenomenological constraints such as the density of cold dark matter, which we assume to be provided by the lightest neutralino. Typically, these allowed regions appear for m{sub 0} and m{sub 1/2} in the multi-TeV region, for suitable values of the unknown SU(5) GUT-scale phases and superpotential couplings, and with the ratio of supersymmetric Higgs vacuum expectation values tanβ

  18. Radon background study in Super-Kamiokande (United States)

    Nakano, Yuuki; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration


    Super-Kamiokande (SK), a 50 kton water Cherenkov detector in Japan, observes 8B solar neutrinos with neutrino-electron elastic scattering. SK searches for distortions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum caused by the edge of the MSW resonance in the core of the Sun. The installation of new front-end electronics in 2008 marks the beginning of the 4th phase of SK (SK-IV). With the improvement of the water circulation system, calibration methods, reduction cuts, this phase achieved the lowest energy threshold thus far (3.5 MeV kinetic energy). To improve the sensitivity to the MSW effect, it is required to achieve lower energy threshold. For this purpose, understanding the origin of background events and reducing them are important. Currently, the main background is known as a beta decay of 214Bi in a Radon decay chain. So far, SK collaboration has developed several techniques for studying Radon contamination in the SK water. In this proceedings, a measurement system which can measure Radon concentration in the SK water with the accuracy of 0.1 mBq/m3 level is presented. In addition, an evaluation of Radon background events in SK injecting Radon rich water into the SK tank, as well as future prospects are also presented.

  19. Super-Resolution for Synthetic Zooming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin


    Full Text Available Optical zooming is an important feature of imaging systems. In this paper, we investigate a low-cost signal processing alternative to optical zooming—synthetic zooming by super-resolution (SR techniques. Synthetic zooming is achieved by registering a sequence of low-resolution (LR images acquired at varying focal lengths and reconstructing the SR image at a larger focal length or increased spatial resolution. Under the assumptions of constant scene depth and zooming speed, we argue that the motion trajectories of all physical points are related to each other by a unique vanishing point and present a robust technique for estimating its D coordinate. Such a line-geometry-based registration is the foundation of SR for synthetic zooming. We address the issue of data inconsistency arising from the varying focal length of optical lens during the zooming process. To overcome the difficulty of data inconsistency, we propose a two-stage Delaunay-triangulation-based interpolation for fusing the LR image data. We also present a PDE-based nonlinear deblurring to accommodate the blindness and variation of sensor point spread functions. Simulation results with real-world images have verified the effectiveness of the proposed SR techniques for synthetic zooming.

  20. Segmentation of tongue muscles from super-resolution magnetic resonance images. (United States)

    Ibragimov, Bulat; Prince, Jerry L; Murano, Emi Z; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž


    Imaging and quantification of tongue anatomy is helpful in surgical planning, post-operative rehabilitation of tongue cancer patients, and studying of how humans adapt and learn new strategies for breathing, swallowing and speaking to compensate for changes in function caused by disease, medical interventions or aging. In vivo acquisition of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) images with clearly visible tongue muscles is currently not feasible because of breathing and involuntary swallowing motions that occur over lengthy imaging times. However, recent advances in image reconstruction now allow the generation of super-resolution 3D MR images from sets of orthogonal images, acquired at a high in-plane resolution and combined using super-resolution techniques. This paper presents, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt towards automatic tongue muscle segmentation from MR images. We devised a database of ten super-resolution 3D MR images, in which the genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles were manually segmented and annotated with landmarks. We demonstrate the feasibility of segmenting the muscles of interest automatically by applying the landmark-based game-theoretic framework (GTF), where a landmark detector based on Haar-like features and an optimal assignment-based shape representation were integrated. The obtained segmentation results were validated against an independent manual segmentation performed by a second observer, as well as against B-splines and demons atlasing approaches. The segmentation performance resulted in mean Dice coefficients of 85.3%, 81.8%, 78.8% and 75.8% for the second observer, GTF, B-splines atlasing and demons atlasing, respectively. The obtained level of segmentation accuracy indicates that computerized tongue muscle segmentation may be used in surgical planning and treatment outcome analysis of tongue cancer patients, and in studies of normal subjects and subjects with speech and

  1. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P


    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  2. Moving object detection based on shape prediction. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Jie


    Statistical analysis is widely used for moving object detection from video sequences, and generally it assumes that the recent segmentations are the desirable samples. However, we think the recent segmentations are not desirable for the detection of deformable objects, such as a pedestrian. We present an object detection framework that is designed to select the most desirable samples from all historical segmentations for statistical analysis. Central to this algorithm is that the shape evolution of the deformable object is learned from historical segmentations by an autoregressive model. Based on the learned model, the shape of the moving object in a current frame is predicted. Those historical segmentations that show similar shape to the predicted shape are selected for statistical analysis instead of the recent segmentations. Definitive experiments demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  3. Exploration of continuous variability in collections of 3D shapes

    KAUST Repository

    Ovsjanikov, Maks


    As large public repositories of 3D shapes continue to grow, the amount of shape variability in such collections also increases, both in terms of the number of different classes of shapes, as well as the geometric variability of shapes within each class. While this gives users more choice for shape selection, it can be difficult to explore large collections and understand the range of variations amongst the shapes. Exploration is particularly challenging for public shape repositories, which are often only loosely tagged and contain neither point-based nor part-based correspondences. In this paper, we present a method for discovering and exploring continuous variability in a collection of 3D shapes without correspondences. Our method is based on a novel navigation interface that allows users to explore a collection of related shapes by deforming a base template shape through a set of intuitive deformation controls. We also help the user to select the most meaningful deformations using a novel technique for learning shape variability in terms of deformations of the template. Our technique assumes that the set of shapes lies near a low-dimensional manifold in a certain descriptor space, which allows us to avoid establishing correspondences between shapes, while being rotation and scaling invariant. We present results on several shape collections taken directly from public repositories. © 2011 ACM.

  4. SuperB: A High-Luminosity Asymmetric e+e- Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, M.; /et al.


    We discuss herein the exciting physics program that can be accomplished with a very large sample of heavy quark and heavy lepton decays produced in the very clean environment of an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider; a program complementary to that of an experiment such as LHCb at a hadronic machine. It then presents the conceptual design of a new type of e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that produces a nearly two-order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity over the current generation of asymmetric B Factories. The key idea is the use of low emittance beams produced in an accelerator lattice derived from the ILC Damping Ring Design, together with a new collision region, again with roots in the ILC final focus design, but with important new concepts developed in this design effort. Remarkably, SuperB produces this very large improvement in luminosity with circulating currents and wallplug power similar to those of the current B Factories. There is clear synergy with ILC R&D; design efforts have already influenced one another, and many aspects of the ILC Damping Rings and Final Focus would be operationally tested at SuperB. Finally, the design of an appropriate detector, based on an upgrade of BABAR as an example, is discussed in some detail. A preliminary cost estimate is presented, as is an example construction timeline.

  5. Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces (II): achievement of a super-smooth polishing (United States)

    Ando, Manabu; Negishi, Mahito; Takimoto, Masafumi; Deguchi, Akinobu; Nakamura, Nobuo


    This paper discusses super-smooth polishing technology for excimer lasers, soft X-rays, and other short-wavelength light applications. Short-wavelength light elements require surface quality and contour accuracy superior to traditional specifications, as well as free-form contours. For this reason, our target for free-form contours of a 500 mm diameter was set to 0.08 mm PV for contour accuracy, and 0.2 nm RMS for surface roughness. To improve surface quality we employed local pitch polishing, utilizing a flexible tool laminated with an elastic sheet, which adapts well to various contours. For greater contour accuracy, we developed the CSSP (Canon Super-Smooth Polisher), which polishes 500 mm diameter optical elements. The CSSP polishing process achieves a contour accuracy of 0.078 mm PV and a surface roughness of 0.13 nm RMS on a 500 mm diameter fused silica toroidal mirror. We also fabricated both CaF2 and CVD-SiC, materials widely used in short-wavelength light elements.

  6. Role of Mass Asymmetry in Fusion of Super-Heavy Nuclei (United States)

    Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Wilczyński, J.

    By using well tested standard statistical model for calculating survival probabilities of super-heavy compound nuclei, Psurv, and reliably predicted capture cross sections σcap, "empirical" values of the fusion hindrance Pfus = σsyn/(σcap · Psurv) have been determined from the formation cross sections σsyn for production of super-heavy nuclei of 102 ≤ Z ≤ 113 measured at GSI Darmstadt and RIKEN. So determined fusion hindrance can be well reproduced with a simple model based on the Smoluchowski diffusion equation applied to describe thermal shape fluctuations of the fusing system. An applicability of this model for a wider class of fusing systems could be verified on data from an interesting experiment on the synthesis of isotopes of Hs (Z = 108) in the 136Xe + 136Xe reaction, scheduled to be carried out in Dubna this year. Synthesis cross sections for 269-271Hs isotopes, strongly reduced by the fusion hindrance effect in this symmetric fusion reaction, are predicted.

  7. Neutrino-induced upward-going muons in Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Habig, A


    Upward-going muons observed by the Super-Kamiokande detector are produced by high-energy atmospheric neutrinos which interact in rock around the detector. Those which pass completely through the detector have a mean parent neutrino energy of ~100 GeV, while those which range out inside the detector come from neutrinos of mean energy ~10 GeV. The neutrino baseline varies with the observed muon zenith angle, allowing for an independent test via nu-mu disappearance of the neutrino oscillations observed in the Super-Kamiokande contained events. 614 upward through-going and 137 upward stopping muons were observed over 537 (516) live days, resulting in a flux of Phi_t=1.74\\pm0.07(stat.)\\pm0.02(sys.), Phi_s=0.380\\pm0.038(stat.)^{+0.019}_{-0.016}(sys.) x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1}. The observed stopping/through-going ratio R=0.218\\pm0.023(stat.)^{+0.014}_{-0.013}(syst.) is 2.9 sigma lower than the expectation of 0.368^{+0.049}_{-0.044}(theo.). Both the shape of the zenith angle distribution of the observed flux and ...

  8. Milling Of Shaped Grooves - Profile Of Form Tools (United States)

    Pilc, Jozef; Sajgalik, Michal; Stancekova, Dana; Janota, Miroslav; Pitela, David


    This paper deals with design of milling tool for milling of shaped groove. Actual industry production requires the large amount of tools and notably the special tools used for example when shaped milling. The requirements on the quality of tools are increasingly demanding. The quality of tools is given by construction, production process, selected material and also heat treatment. Shaped milling requires special tools made for given shape. Main request on the construction of tool is making of shape of cutting edge, which can produce the required shape of workpiece.

  9. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik


    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...... source Matlab code. The problems with the early MDL approaches are discussed. Finally the MDL approach is extended to an MDL Appearance Model, which is proposed as a means to perform unsupervised image segmentation....

  10. Consideration of correlativity between litho and etching shape (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Shinichi; Toyoda, Yasutaka


    We developed an effective method for evaluating the correlation of shape of Litho and Etching pattern. The purpose of this method, makes the relations of the shape after that is the etching pattern an index in wafer same as a pattern shape on wafer made by a lithography process. Therefore, this method measures the characteristic of the shape of the wafer pattern by the lithography process and can predict the hotspot pattern shape by the etching process. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used wafer CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and lithography management, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the semiconductor business. 2-dimensional shape of wafer quantification is important as optimal solution over these problems. Although 1-dimensional shape measurement has been performed by the conventional technique, 2-dimensional shape management is needed in the mass production line under the influence of RET. We developed the technique of analyzing distribution of shape edge performance as the shape management technique. In this study, we conducted experiments for correlation method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional litho and etch evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a litho and etch was considered. It is possible to analyze variability of the edge of the same position with high precision.

  11. Shape from touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.


    The shape of objects cannot only be recognized by vision, but also by touch. Vision has the advantage that shapes can be seen at a distance, but touch has the advantage that during exploration many additional object properties become available, such as temperature (Jones, 2009), texture (Bensmaia,

  12. Status epilepticus: Refractory and super-refractory. (United States)

    Dubey, Deepanshu; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K


    Status epilepticus (SE) is an important neurological emergency. It is defined as seizures lasting for 5 minutes or more or recurrent seizures without recovery of consciousness to baseline between the attacks. Refractory SE (RSE) is defined as SE persisting despite sufficient dose of benzodiazepines and at least one antiepileptic drug (AED), irrespective of time. Super refractory SE (SRSE) is defined as SE that continues for 24 hours or more after the use of anesthetic therapy, including cases that recur on weaning of the anesthestic agent. RSE occurs in 23%-48% of the patients and SRSE in approximately 22% of the patients with SE. In general, RSE occurs in patients with new-onset seizures rather than in patients with chronic epilepsy. The etiology of RSE in developing countries is dominated by central nervous system (CNS) infections and head injury compared to stroke and drug withdrawal in the developed countries. The treatment of RSE and SRSE is not evidence based. Following benzodiazepines, the second line antiepileptic drugs include sodium valproate, phenytoin, levetiracetam, and anesthetic drugs such as midazolam, phenobarbital, and propofol. Most intravenous anesthetic drugs produce hypotension and respiratory suppression; therefore, patients with RSE are managed in intensive care units (ICUs). In RSE patients, electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression with interburst interval of 2-20 s or even flat EEG has been tried. Recently, concerns have been raised on the safety of burst suppression in RSE and SRSE. The paucity of ICUs in developing countries limits the use of these management protocols. There is a need to explore intravenous AEDs with safer cardiovascular and respiratory profile for the management of SE.

  13. The Formation of Super-Earths by Tidally Forced Turbulence (United States)

    Yu, Cong


    The Kepler observations indicate that many exoplanets are super-Earths, which brings about a puzzle for the core-accretion scenario. Since observed super-Earths are in the range of critical mass, they accrete gas efficiently and become gas giants. Theoretically, super-Earths are predicted to be rare in the core-accretion framework. To resolve this contradiction, we propose that the tidally forced turbulent diffusion may affect the heat transport inside the planet. Thermal feedback induced by turbulent diffusion is investigated. We find that the tidally forced turbulence generates pseudo-adiabatic regions within radiative zones, which pushes the radiative-convective boundaries inward. This decreases the cooling luminosity and enhances the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) timescale. For a given lifetime of protoplanetary disks (PPDs), there exists a critical threshold for the turbulent diffusivity, ν critical. If ν turb > ν critical, the KH timescale is longer than the disk lifetime and the planet becomes a super-Earth, rather than a gas giant. We find that even a small value of turbulent diffusion has influential effects on the evolution of super-Earths. The ν critical increases with the core mass. We further ascertain that, within the minimum-mass extrasolar nebula, ν critical increases with the semimajor axis. This may explain the feature that super-Earths are common in inner PPD regions, while gas giants are common in outer PPD regions. The predicted envelope mass fraction is not fully consistent with observations. We discuss physical processes, such as late core assembly and mass-loss mechanisms, that may be operating during super-Earth formation.

  14. Microsphere-based super-resolution scanning optical microscope. (United States)

    Huszka, Gergely; Yang, Hui; Gijs, Martin A M


    High-refractive index dielectric microspheres positioned within the field of view of a microscope objective in a dielectric medium can focus the light into a so-called photonic nanojet. A sample placed in such nanojet can be imaged by the objective with super-resolution, i.e. with a resolution beyond the classical diffraction limit. However, when imaging nanostructures on a substrate, the propagation distance of a light wave in the dielectric medium in between the substrate and the microsphere must be small enough to reveal the sample's nanometric features. Therefore, only the central part of an image obtained through a microsphere shows super-resolution details, which are typically ∼100 nm using white light (peak at λ = 600 nm). We have performed finite element simulations of the role of this critical distance in the super-resolution effect. Super-resolution imaging of a sample placed beneath the microsphere is only possible within a very restricted central area of ∼10 μm2, where the separation distance between the substrate and the microsphere surface is very small (∼1 μm). To generate super-resolution images over larger areas of the sample, we have fixed a microsphere on a frame attached to the microscope objective, which is automatically scanned over the sample in a step-by-step fashion. This generates a set of image tiles, which are subsequently stitched into a single super-resolution image (with resolution of λ/4-λ/5) of a sample area of up to ∼104 μm2. Scanning a standard optical microscope objective with microsphere therefore enables super-resolution microscopy over the complete field-of-view of the objective.

  15. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed (United States)


    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  16. Super-light and pearl-chain technology for support of ancient structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Goltermann, Per


    optimal and often curved paths of strong concrete assembled from smaller segments by prestressing wires, so that expensive curved moulds and supports can be avoided. Pearl-chains can provide a resistance to impact and earthquake of ancient structures. High-strength concrete and prestressed carbon fibre...... reinforcement may be applied, because the new technology solves the main problems for that, since the light aggregate concrete provides a fire protection needed for both materials and provides a stabilization of the slender cores in compression. The paper explains more about the new technology......The patented super-light technology is inspired by ancient Roman concrete structures with strong concrete placed, where the engineer would like the forces to be, and light concrete fills out the shape stabilizing the strong and protecting it. Pearl-chain technology is invented in order to create...

  17. High temperature seals between ceramic separation membranes and super-alloy housing (United States)

    Honea, G.; Sridhar, K. R.


    One of the concepts for oxygen production from Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide involves the use of tubular electrochemical membranes for oxygen separation. The tubular configuration offers the advantage of being able to separate the oxygen at pressures of up to 500 psi, thereby eliminating the need for a pre-liquefaction oxygen compressor. A key technology that has to be developed in order for the electrochemical separator to combine as a compressor is a high temperature static seal between the ceramic separation cell and the nickel-based super-alloy tube. Equipment was designed and fabricated to test the seals. Efforts are under way to develop a finite element model to study the thermal stresses at the joints and on the seal, and the optimal shape of the seal. The choice of seal materials and the technique to be used to fabricate the seals are also being investigated.

  18. Noise and coupling in magnetic super-resolution media for magneto-optical readout (United States)

    Peng, Chubing; Mansuripur, M.


    Interfacial magnetic coupling, transient thermal response, and carrier and noise levels are investigated for two central aperture detection magnetic super-resolution disks. In one of the disks, the two magnetic layers are exchange-coupled, while in the other the coupling is of magneto-static nature. For the exchange-coupled disk, the coupling between the two magnetic layers is fairly strong, and the Kerr loop of the readout layer does not have a square shape. For the magneto-statically coupled disk, the strength of coupling depends on the nonuniformity of the magnetization of the storage layer. The readout layer has a square Kerr loop, but its perpendicular magnetization in the hot region under the focused spot has random orientation if the stray field from the storage layer is weak. This random orientation of magnetization within the readout layer gives rise to a high level of noise during readout.

  19. Experimental Facility for Checking the Possibility to Obtain Super-High Temperature Due to Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M B; Sobolev, Yu G; Kostenko, B F


    An experimental facility developed for checking the possibility to obtain super-high temperature sufficient for thermonuclear reaction D($d, n$)$^{3}$He in an acoustic cavitation is described. The acoustic part of the instrumentation consists of a resonator and a system exciting high amplitude of the acoustic field within the resonator. The cavitation process is controlled with the use of fast neutron pulses. The instrument includes a system of pumping out solute gases from the liquid (acetone enriched with deuterium up to 99{\\%}) without losses of matter. Measuring of the field is based on the calibration procedure including observation of sonoluminescence. The system of detection and identification of D($d, n$)$^{3}$He reaction is based on a scintillation detector of fast neutrons and a system of measuring multiparameter events by the correlation technique with separation of the neutrons from the $\\gamma $-radiation background (pulse shape discrimination).

  20. Super-catastrophic disruption of asteroids at small perihelion distances. (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F; Beshore, Edward; Vokrouhlický, David; Delbò, Marco; Michel, Patrick


    Most near-Earth objects came from the asteroid belt and drifted via non-gravitational thermal forces into resonant escape routes that, in turn, pushed them onto planet-crossing orbits. Models predict that numerous asteroids should be found on orbits that closely approach the Sun, but few have been seen. In addition, even though the near-Earth-object population in general is an even mix of low-albedo (less than ten per cent of incident radiation is reflected) and high-albedo (more than ten per cent of incident radiation is reflected) asteroids, the characterized asteroids near the Sun typically have high albedos. Here we report a quantitative comparison of actual asteroid detections and a near-Earth-object model (which accounts for observational selection effects). We conclude that the deficit of low-albedo objects near the Sun arises from the super-catastrophic breakup (that is, almost complete disintegration) of a substantial fraction of asteroids when they achieve perihelion distances of a few tens of solar radii. The distance at which destruction occurs is greater for smaller asteroids, and their temperatures during perihelion passages are too low for evaporation to explain their disappearance. Although both bright and dark (high- and low-albedo) asteroids eventually break up, we find that low-albedo asteroids are more likely to be destroyed farther from the Sun, which explains the apparent excess of high-albedo near-Earth objects and suggests that low-albedo asteroids break up more easily as a result of thermal effects.

  1. Super-Eight: The brightest z 8 Galaxies (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne


    What are the properties of the most massive z 8 galaxies (Super-Eights) and how luminous can these galaxies become at that epoch? Answering these questions is challenging due to the rarity of luminous z 8 galaxies and the large field-to-field variations in their volume densities. Indeed, the full wide-area CANDELS program only shows 3 z 8 galaxy candidates brighter than 25.5 mag and all of these candidates conspicuously lie in the same CANDELS field (EGS). One of our strongest new probes for particularly luminous z 8 galaxies are the WFC3 Pure-Parallel (PP) programs. Particularly intriguing are 8 bright z 8 candidates in these observations. These candidates have similar luminosities as the 3 brightest z 8 candidates from CANDELS (all spectroscopically confirmed). However, the uncertain contamination levels at extreme bright end of z 8 selection mean that follow-up observations are critical. We propose highly-efficient pointed HST and Spitzer/IRAC observations to determine if these candidates are indeed at z 8. We estimate that anywhere from 50 to 100% of the targeted sources will be confirmed to be at z 8 based on our results from CANDELS. The estimate is very uncertain due to very large cosmic variance in the CANDELS result and contamination from rare low-redshift sources.When combined with CANDELS, our observations would provide us the strongest current constraints on the volume density of bright, massive galaxies in the early Universe (serving as a guide to models of their build-up) and also provide valuable targets for future spectroscopy (e.g. with JWST), useful for probing the ionization state of the IGM.

  2. The Super-Remnant of the Recurrent Nova M31N 2008-12a - A Signpost to Type Ia Supernovae? (United States)

    Darnley, Matt


    M31N 2008-12a is the single most important nova system in M31. With an unprecedented 9 observed eruptions in just 9 years, an ultra-high mass white dwarf, a high accretion rate, and low ejected mass, it is the leading pre-explosion Supernova Type Ia progenitor candidate in any galaxy. Our team uncovered a vast elliptical nebula, centred on the nova - a recurrent nova 'super-remnant', the relic of many thousands of past eruptions. State-of-the-art 'multi-cycle' nova eruption models have shown that a CO WD in a short-recurrence period nova does indeed grow towards the Chandrasekhar mass. Such models predict frequent He-flashes, ejecting significantly more mass at higher velocities, every few-hundred eruptions. Our Cycle 24 Halpha observations confirmed the association between the recurrent nova and its super-remnant, enabled the mapping of the gas density, and provided the first possible evidence of the proposed recurrent He-flashes - large scale 'ripples' in the super-remnant. We propose to utilize the unique high-spatial resolution capabilities of HST at visible wavelengths to obtain a series of deep [S II] images to: (i) uniquely trace the remnant shock structure; (ii) confirm the detection of the signature ripples laid down in the super-remnant by the recurrent He-flashes, hence (iii) constrain models of the super-remnant, allowing extrapolation to other systems, and (iv) validate long-term nova eruption models, and also (v) explore shaping mechanisms both by the nova process and surrounding ISM. The relics of He-flashes within the super-remnant would confirm the new single-degenerate WD growth model, providing crucial evidence in support of the nova pathway to SNe Ia.

  3. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States)


    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system.Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest

  4. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  5. Shape memory polymer foams (United States)

    Santo, Loredana


    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  6. Genotypic correlation and path analysis in early and super-early maize genotypes. (United States)

    Alves, B M; Cargnelutti Filho, A


    The aims of this study were to assess the linear relationships between agronomic and nutritional traits and to identify promising traits for indirect selection in early and super-early maturing maize genotypes. Two trials were run in the 2009/2010 agricultural year, each consisting of a randomized block design with three replications. One trial was run on 36 early maturing maize genotypes and the other on 22 super-early maturing genotypes. Six agronomic traits, 11 protein-nutritional traits, and four energetic-nutritional traits were measured. Error normality assumptions were verified using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and residual variance homogeneity assumptions using the Levene test. Analysis of variance and the F-test were run for each of the 21 traits. Next, the genotype correlation coefficient matrix was estimated for the 21 traits and each trial. Ridge path analysis was based on values of k = 0.00 and k = 0.10 on the diagonal of X'X correlation matrix, taking the nutritional traits as principal variables and agronomic traits as explanatory variables. The number of days from sowing to male flowering, the number of days from sowing to female flowering, plant height, ear insertion height, ear weight and grain yield can be used in indirect selection as indicators of grain nutritional quality.

  7. Nobel Lecture: Single-molecule spectroscopy, imaging, and photocontrol: Foundations for super-resolution microscopy* (United States)

    Moerner, W. E. William E.


    The initial steps toward optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules in condensed matter arose out of the study of inhomogeneously broadened optical absorption profiles of molecular impurities in solids at low temperatures. Spectral signatures relating to the fluctuations of the number of molecules in resonance led to the attainment of the single-molecule limit in 1989 using frequency-modulation laser spectroscopy. In the early 1990s, many fascinating physical effects were observed for individual molecules, and the imaging of single molecules as well as observations of spectral diffusion, optical switching and the ability to select different single molecules in the same focal volume simply by tuning the pumping laser frequency provided important forerunners of the later super-resolution microscopy with single molecules. In the room-temperature regime, imaging of single copies of the green fluorescent protein also uncovered surprises, especially the blinking and photoinduced recovery of emitters, which stimulated further development of photoswitchable fluorescent protein labels. Because each single fluorophore acts as a light source roughly 1 nm in size, microscopic observation and localization of individual fluorophores is a key ingredient to imaging beyond the optical diffraction limit. Combining this with active control of the number of emitting molecules in the pumped volume led to the super-resolution imaging of Eric Betzig and others, a new frontier for optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit. The background leading up to these observations is described and selected current developments are summarized.

  8. Aerogels: transparent and super-insulating materials; Les aerogels: isolants transparent-super isolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melka, S.; Rigacci, A.; Achard, P.; Bezian, J.J. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06 - Sophia-Antipolis (France); Sallee, H.; Chevalier, B. [Centre des Sciences et Techniques du Batiment, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France)


    Recent studies have demonstrated the super-insulating properties of silica aerogel in its monolithic or finely divided state. In its monolithic state, this material conciliates excellent thermal insulation performances, a good transmission of visible light and interesting acoustic properties. Also its amazing structural characteristics (lightness, high global porosity, small diameter of pores) are particularly interesting for its use in double glazing windows as transparent insulating spacer. The aim of the work carried out by the Energetic Centre of the Ecole des Mines of Paris is to understand the thermal transfer phenomena in all forms of silica aerogel. In this paper, the main steps of the synthesis process of monolithic silica aerogel is presented with the thermal conductivities obtained. Then, a model is built to describe the thermal transfer mechanisms in finely divided aerogel beds. Finally, the hot wire thermal characterization method is presented and the results obtained on silica aerogels are discussed. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  9. Varieties of sweet sorghum Super-1 and Super-2 and its equipment for bioethanol in Indonesia (United States)

    Pabendon, M. B.; Efendi, R.; Santoso, S. B.; Prastowo, B.


    The demands for alternative sources of energy are currently growing because people now are more aware of the many negative impacts fossil fuel gives to the environment. Plant based renewable energy provides potential sources of energy with advantages of cleaner fuel effect and capability of integration with food crop production. Sorghum have been considered to be a highly potential source of food, feed and fuel, especially sweet stalk sorghum that posses both functions as source of food from its grain and fuel made from its stalk juice. Sorghum varieties are well known to have excellent adaptability in marginal areas, especially drought prone areas where other food crops are unable to thrive. The current paper aimed to share ongoing research on many functional uses of sweet stalk sorghum varieties released at Indonesian Cereals Research Institute (ICERI). Among many varieties that had been released were two sweet stalk sorghum varieties SUPER-1 and SUPER-2 released in 2013 that stands out in biomass yield and bioethanol production. Based on various researches conducted at different location and planting season, yield potential of biomass ranged at 30 - 40 t/ha with higher yield occurred during dry season. Stalk juice sugar content in brix were found to be higher in dry season ranged at 13.6 % to 18.4 %, and the amount of juice stalk was obtained at about 30-50 % from total biomass yield. Furthermore, bioethanol production from stalk juice after fermentation was at the range of 8 to 10 % from total stalk juice volume. Modification of processing equipment of bioethanol have also been carried out and was able to increased the concentration of ethanol being distilled from 85% -92% to 90% -95%. Another result obtained was able to decreased fermentation time from 14-21 days to 6-10 days. Furthermore, the yield of ethanol from juice was also from an average of 4.95% to 6.75%.

  10. Super-lncRNAs: identification of lncRNAs that target super-enhancers via RNA:DNA:DNA triplex formation. (United States)

    Soibam, Benjamin


    Super-enhancers are characterized by high levels of Mediator binding and are major contributors to the expression of their associated genes. They exhibit high levels of local chromatin interactions and a higher order of local chromatin organization. On the other hand, lncRNAs can localize to specific DNA sites by forming a RNA:DNA:DNA triplex, which in turn can contribute to local chromatin organization. In this paper, we characterize a new class of lncRNAs called super-lncRNAs that target super-enhancers and which can contribute to the local chromatin organization of the super-enhancers. Using a logistic regression model based on the number of RNA:DNA:DNA triplex sites a lncRNA forms within the super-enhancer, we identify 442 unique super-lncRNA transcripts in 27 different human cell and tissue types; 70% of these super-lncRNAs were tissue restricted. They primarily harbor a single triplex-forming repeat domain, which forms an RNA:DNA:DNA triplex with multiple anchor DNA sites (originating from transposable elements) within the super-enhancers. Super-lncRNAs can be grouped into 17 different clusters based on the tissue or cell lines they target. Super-lncRNAs in a particular cluster share common short structural motifs and their corresponding super-enhancer targets are associated with gene ontology terms pertaining to the tissue or cell line. Super-lncRNAs may use these structural motifs to recruit and transport necessary regulators (such as transcription factors and Mediator complexes) to super-enhancers, influence chromatin organization, and act as spatial amplifiers for key tissue-specific genes associated with super-enhancers. © 2017 Soibam; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Shape memory polyurethane foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Kim


    Full Text Available Molded flexible polyurethane (PU foams have been synthesized from polypropylene glycol (PPG with different molecular weights (Mw and functionalities (f, and 2,4/2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI-80 with water as blowing agent. It was found that the glassy state properties of the foam mainly depended on the urethane group content while the rubbery state properties on the crosslink density. That is, PPG of low MW and low f (more urethane groups provided superior glass state modulus, strength, density, shape fixity and glass transition temperature (Tg, while that of high Mw and high f (higher crosslink density showed high rubbery modulus and shape recovery. Consequently shape fixity of low Mw PPG decreased from 85 to 72% while shape recovery increased from 52 to 63% as the content of high Mw PPG increased from 0 to 40%.

  12. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...... and surrounds an internal volume of the body, a distance member that is connected to the facing inside the body and extends from the facing and into the internal volume of the body, and at least one reinforcing member that operates in tension for reinforcing the facing against inward deflections...... and that is connected to the facing inside the internal volume of the body at the same side of the profile chord as the connection of the distance member to the facing and to the distance member at a distance from the facing....

  13. Shaft mode shape demonstration (United States)

    Grissom, R.


    The dynamic response of a rotating machine is directly influenced by its geometric configuration and all aspects of the rotor construction. These determine two significant parameters, mass distribution and stiffness, which yield a spectrum of natural frequencies and mode shapes. The mode shapes can be presented as snapshots of the characteristic amplitude/phase reponse patterns of the shaft, due to the major forcing function of unbalance, at different rotative speeds. To demonstrate the three shaft mode shapes of the rotor rig using the Shaft Mode Demonstrator and oscilloscopes. The synchronous (1X) amplitude and phase of the rotor vibration in the vertical direction from several points along the shaft is displayed on corresponding points of the demonstrator. Unfiltered vibration from vertical and horizontal probe pairs is displayed on the oscilloscopes in orbit format for a dynamic presentation of the mode shape.

  14. New evidence of relative age effects in "super-elite" sportsmen: a case for the survival and evolution of the fittest. (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin D; Lawrence, Gavin P; Hardy, Lew


    The relative age effect (RAE) describes an overrepresentation of players born early (Q1) in a selection year and is highly prevalent within youth sport pathways. However, a dearth of research has investigated the RAE at the "super-elite" level. The present research assessed the presence of RAE in super-elite performers. Study 1 investigated RAEs in the world's best international Test cricketers (N = 262) over a 20-year period according to a robust and stringent "super-elite" criteria. Results revealed the RAE (Q1) when all disciplines were combined. Upon closer examination, this effect was also observed for the batting and spin bowling disciplines, whereas no RAE was found for the pace bowling discipline. Study 2 investigated RAEs in super-elite rugby union players (N = 691) over a 20 year period. Results revealed the RAE for backs (Q1) and a reversal of the traditional RAE (Q4) for forwards, and when all rugby union positions were combined. These findings provide new evidence of RAEs at the super-elite level and present both inter and intra sports differences. Potential explanations for these findings are explored, owing to the survival and evolution of the fittest concepts, and the implications for future research and applied practice are presented.

  15. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites (United States)

    Cao, Feina

    Shape memory polymers are smart materials which can remember their original shapes. However, the low recovery stress and low mechanical strength limit the commercial applications of shape memory polymers. In this study, nanoclays were introduced to shape memory polyurethanes (SMPU) to augment these properties by enhance the network of SMPU. Several factors which influence the shape recovery stress were evaluated, including the nature of polymer chain by using different monomers, type of clay particles, extent of filler dispersion, clay content and deformation conditions. It was found that only reactive clay particles were well dispersed into polyurethane matrix by the tethering between --CH2CH 2OH functional groups in clay surfactants and polyurethane chains. Two different shape memory polyurethanes (Systems I & II) prepared by bulk polymerization were compared. The shape memory effect of System I was triggered by melting of the soft segment crystals, while that of System II was by glass transition of the soft segments. It was seen that the reactive clay particles dispersed well in both polyurethane matrices and augmented the recovery stress, e.g., 20% increase with 1 wt % nanoclay in System I and 40% increase with 5 wt % nanoclay in System II were observed. In System I, clay particles interfered with soft segment crystallization, and promoted phase mixing between the hard and soft segments, thus affecting the fixity and recovery ratio. Nevertheless, the soft segment crystallinity was still enough and in some cases increased due to stretching to exhibit excellent shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. The higher loading of clay particles accelerated the stress relaxation, resulting in reduction of recovery stress. In System II, no significant effect of clay particles in phase separation was observed, so there was no influence of clay on shape fixity and recovery ratio. The recovery stress increased with reactive nanoclay content. It was also found that the recovery

  16. Origin of fast ion diffusion in super-ionic conductors (United States)

    He, Xingfeng; Zhu, Yizhou; Mo, Yifei


    Super-ionic conductor materials have great potential to enable novel technologies in energy storage and conversion. However, it is not yet understood why only a few materials can deliver exceptionally higher ionic conductivity than typical solids or how one can design fast ion conductors following simple principles. Using ab initio modelling, here we show that fast diffusion in super-ionic conductors does not occur through isolated ion hopping as is typical in solids, but instead proceeds through concerted migrations of multiple ions with low energy barriers. Furthermore, we elucidate that the low energy barriers of the concerted ionic diffusion are a result of unique mobile ion configurations and strong mobile ion interactions in super-ionic conductors. Our results provide a general framework and universal strategy to design solid materials with fast ionic diffusion.

  17. The friction property of super-hydrophobic cotton textiles (United States)

    Su, Changhong; Li, Jun


    Two kinds of super-hydrophobic cotton textiles were prepared via dip-coating cotton textiles with nano-silica suspensions, and the cotton textiles exhibits high contact angle more than 160° and low sliding angle lower than 4°. A friction method was used to evaluate the durability of the as-prepared super-hydrophobic cotton textiles, the results shows that one of the as-prepared super-hydrophobic cottons exhibits better stability property against friction, and its contact angle remained higher than 150° and sliding angle remained lower than 15° after 1000 times friction. SEM analysis shows the reduction of hydrophobic property was resulted from the damage of surface structure during friction cycle.

  18. Nonlinear super-resolution nano-optics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jingsong


    This book covers many advances in the subjects of nano-optics and nano photonics. The author describes the principle and technical schematics of common methods for breaking through the optical diffraction limit and focuses on realizing optical super-resolution with nonlinear effects of thin film materials. The applications of nonlinear optical super-resolution effects in nano-data storage, nanolithography, and nano-imaging are also presented. This book is useful to graduate students majoring in optics and nano science and also serves as a reference book for academic researchers, engineers, technical professionals in the fields of super-resolution optics and laser techniques, nano-optics and nano photonics, nano-data storage, nano imaging, micro/nanofabrication and nanolithography and nonlinear optics.

  19. CO2 emissions from Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Bagger, Anne


    CO2 emission from the construction of buildings is seldom taken into account because focus is primarily on building operation. New technologies have therefore mainly been developed to reduce the energy consumption connected to operation. Super-light technology is a new structural principle giving...... rise to a substantial reduction of the CO2 emission in the construction phase. The present paper describes how the CO2 emission is reduced when using Super-light technology instead of traditional structural components. Estimations of the CO2 emissions from a number of projects using various...... construction methods suggest that building with Super-light structures may cut the CO2 emission in half, compared to traditional concrete structures, and reduce it to 25% compared to traditional steel structures....

  20. Super-resolution Microscopy in Plant Cell Imaging. (United States)

    Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Šamaj, Jozef


    Although the development of super-resolution microscopy methods dates back to 1994, relevant applications in plant cell imaging only started to emerge in 2010. Since then, the principal super-resolution methods, including structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), have been implemented in plant cell research. However, progress has been limited due to the challenging properties of plant material. Here we summarize the basic principles of existing super-resolution methods and provide examples of applications in plant science. The limitations imposed by the nature of plant material are reviewed and the potential for future applications in plant cell imaging is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. GF-4 Images Super Resolution Reconstruction Based on POCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Lina


    Full Text Available The super resolution reconstruction of GF-4 is made by projection on convex sets (POCS. Papoulis-Gerchberg is used to construct reference frame which can reduce iteration and improve algorithm efficiency.Vandewalle is used to estimate motion parameter which is benefit to block process. Tested and analyzed by real GF-4 series images, it shows that sharpness of super resolution result is positive correlatie to frame amount, and signal to noise ratio (SNR is negative correlate to frame amount. After processing by 5 frames, information entropy (IE changes little; sharpness (average gradient increases from 7.803 to 14.386; SNR reduces a little, from 3.411 to 3.336. The experiment shows that after super resolution reconstruction, sharpness and detail information of results can be greatly improved.

  2. Super-virtual refraction interferometry: an engineering field data example

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.


    The theory of super-virtual refraction interferometry (SVI) was recently developed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of far-offset traces in refraction surveys. This enhancement of the SNR is proportional to √N and can be as high as N if an iterative procedure is used. Here N is the number of post-critical shot positions that coincides with the receiver locations. We now demonstrate the SNR enhancement of super-virtual refraction traces for one engineering-scale synthetic data and two field seismic data sets. The field data are collected over a normal fault in Saudi Arabia. Results show that both the SNR of the super-virtual data set and the number of reliable first-arrival traveltime picks are significantly increased. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  3. Single Image Super-resolution using Deformable Patches (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Yanning; Yuille, Alan L.


    We proposed a deformable patches based method for single image super-resolution. By the concept of deformation, a patch is not regarded as a fixed vector but a flexible deformation flow. Via deformable patches, the dictionary can cover more patterns that do not appear, thus becoming more expressive. We present the energy function with slow, smooth and flexible prior for deformation model. During example-based super-resolution, we develop the deformation similarity based on the minimized energy function for basic patch matching. For robustness, we utilize multiple deformed patches combination for the final reconstruction. Experiments evaluate the deformation effectiveness and super-resolution performance, showing that the deformable patches help improve the representation accuracy and perform better than the state-of-art methods. PMID:25473254

  4. Super-FRS Target Area Remote Handling: Scenario and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Orona


    Full Text Available The Super-FRS, Superconducting Fragment Separator, is a unique machine that presents several challenging technical problems. One of these is regarding how to conduct maintenance in the target area where high levels of radiation will be generated and human access is forbidden. To address this problem the use of a remote maintenance system is foreseen. The objective of this paper is to develop a systems engineering (SE research and development (R&D approach suitable to develop the Super-FRS Target Area Remote Maintenance Systems (TARMS and the RH design adaptation of the components in the target area. The Super-FRS target area is described in detail in order to introduce the need for a remote maintenance system. Components in the target area are classified by adopting ITER RH maintenance classification. The general scenario of remote handling and the current target area remote maintenance system are described. Finally, the proposed systems engineering approach is presented.

  5. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.B., E-mail:; Alexander, C.W.; Boll, R.A.; Burns, J.D.; Ezold, J.G.; Felker, L.K.; Hogle, S.L.; Rykaczewski, K.P.


    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of {sup 48}Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including {sup 242}Pu, {sup 244}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 248}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 249}Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including {sup 249}Bk, {sup 251}Cf, and {sup 254}Es are described.

  6. SOWFA + Super Controller User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; Churchfield, M.; Lee, S.; Johnson, K.; Michalakes, J.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Moriarty, P.


    SOWFA + Super Controller is a modification of the NREL's SOWFA tool which allows for a user to apply multiturbine or centralized wind plant control algorithms within the high-fidelity SOWFA simulation environment. The tool is currently a branch of the main SOWFA program, but will one day will be merged into a single version. This manual introduces the tool and provides examples such that a usercan implement their own super controller and set up and run simulations. The manual only discusses enough about SOWFA itself to allow for the customization of controllers and running of simulations, and details of SOWFA itself are reported elsewhere Churchfield and Lee (2013); Churchfield et al. (2012). SOWFA + Super Controller, and this manual, are in alpha mode.

  7. An overview of SuperLU: Algorithms, implementation, and userinterface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoye S.


    We give an overview of the algorithms, design philosophy,and implementation techniques in the software SuperLU, for solving sparseunsymmetric linear systems. In particular, we highlight the differencesbetween the sequential SuperLU (including its multithreaded extension)and parallel SuperLU_DIST. These include the numerical pivoting strategy,the ordering strategy for preserving sparsity, the ordering in which theupdating tasks are performed, the numerical kernel, and theparallelization strategy. Because of the scalability concern, theparallel code is drastically different from the sequential one. Wedescribe the user interfaces ofthe libraries, and illustrate how to usethe libraries most efficiently depending on some matrix characteristics.Finally, we give some examples of how the solver has been used inlarge-scale scientific applications, and the performance.

  8. Shaping the Global Environment (United States)


    SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL MICHAEL D. ELLERBE United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Michael D. Ellerbe United States Army Colonel Jef Troxel Project Advisor The views expressed in this...Distribution is unlimited. ii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Michael D. Ellerbe TITLE: SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April

  9. On Characterizing Particle Shape (United States)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon


    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  10. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian


    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....

  11. Probing LINEAR Collider Final Focus Systems in SuperKEKB

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Paul Conrad Vaagen


    A challenge for future linear collider final focus systems is the large chromaticity produced by the final quadrupoles. SuperKEKB will be correcting high levels of chromaticity using the traditional scheme which has been also proposed for the CLIC FFS. We present early simulation results indicating that lowering β*у in the SuperKEKB Low Energy Ring might be possible given on-axis injection and low bunch current, opening the possibility of testing chromaticity correction beyond FFTB level, similar to ILC and approaching that of CLIC. CLIC – Note – 1077

  12. Super (a,d-EAT labeling of subdivided stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javaid


    Full Text Available Kotzig and Rosa conjectured that every tree admits an edge-magic total labeling. Enomoto et al. proposed the conjecture that every tree is a super (a,0-edge-antimagic total graph. In this paper, we formulate a super (a,d-edge-antimagic total labeling on the subdivided star T(n,n,n+4,n+4,n5,n6...,nr for d∈{0,1,2}, where r≥5, np=2p−4(n+3+1, 5≤p≤r and n≥3 is odd.

  13. Maritime super Wi-Fi coverage based on TVWS (United States)

    Ren, Jia; Chen, Baodan; Zhang, Yonghui; Huang, Fang


    After analyzing the occupancy and characteristics of television white space (TVWS), this paper proposes wireless broadband networking by using super Wi-Fi technology in maritime environment operating on TVWS. A sea surface channel model is developed for predicting maritime network coverage of super Wi-Fi technology. This channel model is based on Irregular Terrain Methodology (ITM) model with revised parameters and dual-path propagation effect. The simulations demonstrated that the sea surface channel model can accurately reflect the transmission loss of radio wave in TVWS.

  14. On Super Edge-Antimagic Total Labeling Of Subdivided Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Muhammad


    Full Text Available In 1980, Enomoto et al. proposed the conjecture that every tree is a super (a, 0-edge-antimagic total graph. In this paper, we give a partial sup- port for the correctness of this conjecture by formulating some super (a, d- edge-antimagic total labelings on a subclass of subdivided stars denoted by T(n, n + 1, 2n + 1, 4n + 2, n5, n6, . . . , nr for different values of the edge- antimagic labeling parameter d, where n ≥ 3 is odd, nm = 2m−4(4n+1+1, r ≥ 5 and 5 ≤ m ≤ r.

  15. A Blind Pilot: Who is a Super-Luminal Observer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nature of a hypothetical super-luminal observer who, as well as a real (sub-light speed observer, perceives the world by light waves. This consideration is due to that fact that the theory of relativity permits different frames of reference, including light-like and super-luminal reference frames. In analogy with a blind pilot on board a supersonic jet aeroplane (or missile, perceived by blind people, it is concluded that the light barrier is observed in the framework of only the light signal exchange experiment.

  16. Super-resolution of facial images in forensics scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satiro, Joao; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Correia, Paulo


    Forensics facial images are usually provided by surveillance cameras and are therefore of poor quality and resolution. Simple upsampling algorithms can not produce artifact-free higher resolution images from such low-resolution (LR) images. To deal with that, reconstruction-based super-resolution......Forensics facial images are usually provided by surveillance cameras and are therefore of poor quality and resolution. Simple upsampling algorithms can not produce artifact-free higher resolution images from such low-resolution (LR) images. To deal with that, reconstruction-based super...

  17. Thermal power blocks with ultra-super-critical steam parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aličić Merim M.


    Full Text Available New generation of thermal power plants are required to have increased utilization rates, in addition to reduced emissions of pollutants, in order to reach optimal solutions, from both technical and economic point of view. One way to achieve greater utilization efficiency is operation of the plant at super critical (SC or ultra super critical steam parameters (USC. However, achieving high parameters depends on use of new materials, which have better properties at high temperatures and pressures, use of new welding technologies and by solving the problem of corrosion. The paper gives an overview of some of the plants with these parameters.

  18. Super-resolution microscopy and its applications in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuecen Wang


    Full Text Available Optical microscopy promises researchers to see most tiny substances directly. However, the resolution of conventional microscopy is restricted by the diffraction limit. This makes it a challenge to observe subcellular processes happened in nanoscale. The development of super-resolution microscopy provides a solution to this challenge. Here, we briefly review several commonly used super-resolution techniques, explicating their basic principles and applications in biological science, especially in neuroscience. In addition, characteristics and limitations of each technique are compared to provide a guidance for biologists to choose the most suitable tool.

  19. Supernova relic neutrino search at super-Kamiokande


    Bays, K.; Labarga, L.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, .


    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UAM A new Super-Kamiokande search for supernova relic neutrinos was conducted using 2853 live days of data. Sensitivity is now greatly improved compared to the 2003 Super-Kamiokande result, which placed a flux limit near many theoretical predictions. This more detailed analysis includes a variety of impr...

  20. Evaluation of super-link system theory for spinal cord injury patients using participatory action research in a rehabilitation hospital. (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Yu; Wu, Tzu-Jung; Cheng, Mei-Li; Sung, Hsi-Hui


    The purpose of this study was to integrate and evaluate the spinal cord injury rehabilitation nursing theory named Super-Link System Theory using participatory action research. Data were collected from October 2007 to September 2008 in a rehabilitation hospital by means of interviews, participant observations, documentary resources, case conferences and reports, and participants' self-reflective inquiries. The Super-Link System Theory was introduced to 31 rehabilitation nurses. The nurses selected a key reference group including the researcher to facilitate the participatory action research process to implement and evaluate the theory. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings shows that several key concepts were clarified and specific nursing interventions were identified. Furthermore, an integrated link system from the hospital to the community through both rehabilitation nurses and discharge planners was established. The study demonstrated an evidence base for an evolving theory of care, and empowered nurses to make sustainable changes to their practice. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  1. Live-cell super-resolution imaging of intrinsically fast moving flagellates (United States)

    Glogger, M.; Stichler, S.; Subota, I.; Bertlein, S.; Spindler, M.-C.; Teßmar, J.; Groll, J.; Engstler, M.; Fenz, S. F.


    Recent developments in super-resolution microscopy make it possible to resolve structures in biological cells at a spatial resolution of a few nm and observe dynamical processes with a temporal resolution of ms to μs. However, the optimal structural resolution requires repeated illumination cycles and is thus limited to chemically fixed cells. For live cell applications substantial improvement over classical Abbe-limited imaging can already be obtained in adherent or slow moving cells. Nonetheless, a large group of cells are fast moving and thus could not yet be addressed with live cell super-resolution microscopy. These include flagellate pathogens like African trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. Here, we present an embedding method based on a in situ forming cytocompatible UV-crosslinked hydrogel. The fast cross-linking hydrogel immobilizes trypanosomes efficiently to allow microscopy on the nanoscale. We characterized both the trypanosomes and the hydrogel with respect to their autofluorescence properties and found them suitable for single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (SMFM). As a proof of principle, SMFM was applied to super-resolve a structure inside the living trypanosome. We present an image of a flagellar axoneme component recorded by using the intrinsic blinking behavior of eYFP. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J Phys D. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Susanne Fenz was selected by the Editorial Board of J Phys D as an Emerging Talent/Leader.

  2. Hyperlenses and metalenses for far-field super-resolution imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Dylan; Liu, Zhaowei


    .... Hyperlenses project super-resolution information to the far field through a magnification mechanism, whereas metalenses not only super-resolve subwavelength details but also enable optical Fourier transforms...

  3. 75 FR 22543 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. Model L 23 Super Blanik Gliders (United States)


    ... a.s. Model L 23 Super Blanik Gliders AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... 2010-08-01, Amendment 39-16256. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Model L 23 Super Blanik Gliders...

  4. Butterfly Learning and the Diversification of Plant Leaf Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dalbosco Dell'aglio


    Full Text Available Visual cues are important for insects to find flowers and host plants. It has been proposed that the diversity of leaf shape in Passiflora vines could be a result of negative frequency dependent selection driven by visual searching behavior among their butterfly herbivores. Here we tested the hypothesis that Heliconius butterflies use leaf shape as a cue to initiate approach towards a host plant. We first tested for the ability to recognize shapes using a food reward conditioning experiment. Butterflies showed an innate preference for flowers with three and five petals. However, they could be trained to increase the frequency of visits to a non-preferred flower with two petals, indicating an ability to learn to associate shape with a reward. Next we investigated shape learning specifically in the context of oviposition by conditioning females to lay eggs on two shoots associated with different artificial leaf shapes: their own host plant, Passiflora biflora, and a lanceolate non-biflora leaf shape. The conditioning treatment had a significant effect on the approach of butterflies to the two leaf shapes, consistent with a role for shape learning in oviposition behavior. This study is the first to show that Heliconius butterflies use shape as a cue for feeding and oviposition, and can learn shape preference for both flowers and leaves. This demonstrates the potential for Heliconius to drive negative frequency dependent selection on the leaf shape of their Passiflora host plants.

  5. Remodelling of cortical actin where lytic granules dock at natural killer cell immune synapses revealed by super-resolution microscopy. (United States)

    Brown, Alice C N; Oddos, Stephane; Dobbie, Ian M; Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Parton, Richard M; Eissmann, Philipp; Neil, Mark A A; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul M W; Davis, Ilan; Davis, Daniel M


    Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that secrete lytic granules to directly kill virus-infected or transformed cells across an immune synapse. However, a major gap in understanding this process is in establishing how lytic granules pass through the mesh of cortical actin known to underlie the NK cell membrane. Research has been hampered by the resolution of conventional light microscopy, which is too low to resolve cortical actin during lytic granule secretion. Here we use two high-resolution imaging techniques to probe the synaptic organisation of NK cell receptors and filamentous (F)-actin. A combination of optical tweezers and live cell confocal microscopy reveals that microclusters of NKG2D assemble into a ring-shaped structure at the centre of intercellular synapses, where Vav1 and Grb2 also accumulate. Within this ring-shaped organisation of NK cell proteins, lytic granules accumulate for secretion. Using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) to gain super-resolution of ~100 nm, cortical actin was detected in a central region of the NK cell synapse irrespective of whether activating or inhibitory signals dominate. Strikingly, the periodicity of the cortical actin mesh increased in specific domains at the synapse when the NK cell was activated. Two-colour super-resolution imaging revealed that lytic granules docked precisely in these domains which were also proximal to where the microtubule-organising centre (MTOC) polarised. Together, these data demonstrate that remodelling of the cortical actin mesh occurs at the central region of the cytolytic NK cell immune synapse. This is likely to occur for other types of cell secretion and also emphasises the importance of emerging super-resolution imaging technology for revealing new biology.

  6. Remodelling of cortical actin where lytic granules dock at natural killer cell immune synapses revealed by super-resolution microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice C N Brown


    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells are innate immune cells that secrete lytic granules to directly kill virus-infected or transformed cells across an immune synapse. However, a major gap in understanding this process is in establishing how lytic granules pass through the mesh of cortical actin known to underlie the NK cell membrane. Research has been hampered by the resolution of conventional light microscopy, which is too low to resolve cortical actin during lytic granule secretion. Here we use two high-resolution imaging techniques to probe the synaptic organisation of NK cell receptors and filamentous (F-actin. A combination of optical tweezers and live cell confocal microscopy reveals that microclusters of NKG2D assemble into a ring-shaped structure at the centre of intercellular synapses, where Vav1 and Grb2 also accumulate. Within this ring-shaped organisation of NK cell proteins, lytic granules accumulate for secretion. Using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM to gain super-resolution of ~100 nm, cortical actin was detected in a central region of the NK cell synapse irrespective of whether activating or inhibitory signals dominate. Strikingly, the periodicity of the cortical actin mesh increased in specific domains at the synapse when the NK cell was activated. Two-colour super-resolution imaging revealed that lytic granules docked precisely in these domains which were also proximal to where the microtubule-organising centre (MTOC polarised. Together, these data demonstrate that remodelling of the cortical actin mesh occurs at the central region of the cytolytic NK cell immune synapse. This is likely to occur for other types of cell secretion and also emphasises the importance of emerging super-resolution imaging technology for revealing new biology.

  7. Free vibration of super-graphene carbon nanotube networks via a beam element based coarse-grained method (United States)

    Gu, Ruifeng; Wang, Lifeng; He, Xiaoqiao


    A new beam element based coarse-grained model is developed to investigate efficiently the mechanical behavior of a large system of super-graphene carbon nanotube (SGCNT) networks with all boundaries clamped supported. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the SGCNT networks made of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different diameters and lengths are obtained via the proposed coarse-grained model. The applicability of the coarse-grained model for the SGCNT networks is verified by comparison with the molecular structural mechanics model. The natural frequencies and associated mode shapes obtained via the coarse-grained model agree well with the results obtained from the molecular structural mechanics method, indicating that the coarse-grained model developed in this study can be applied for the dynamic prediction of the SGCNT networks.

  8. Evidence of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes Observed by SuperDARN SANAE HF Radar in Antarctica


    Olakunle Ogunjobi; Venkataraman Sivakumar; Judy Ann Elizabeth Stephenson; and William Tafon Sivla


    We report on the polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) occurrence probability over SANAE (South African National Antarctic Expedition) IV, for the first time. A matching coincidence method is described and implemented for PMSE extraction from SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) HF radar. Several SuperDARN-PMSE characteristics are studied during the summer period from years 2005 - 2007. The seasonal and interannual SuperDARN-PMSE variations in relation to the mesospheric neutral winds...

  9. Revisiting shape selectivity in liquid chromatography for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - six-ring and seven-ring Cata-condensed PAH isomers of molecular mass 328 Da and 378 Da. (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Sander, Lane C; Wilson, Walter B; Wise, Stephen A


    The relationship of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) retention on a polymeric C 18 stationary phase and the shape of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated for three-ring to seven-ring cata-condensed isomers. We report the first RPLC separation for six-ring and seven-ring cata-condensed PAH isomers. Correlations of LC retention and shape parameters (length-to-breath ratio, L/B and thickness, T) were investigated for 2 three-ring isomers (molecular mass 178 Da), 5 four-ring isomers (molecular mass 228 Da), 11 five-ring isomers (molecular mass 278 Da), 17 six-ring isomers (molecular mass 328 Da), and 20 seven-ring isomers (molecular mass 378 Da). Significant linear correlations were found for all isomer groups (r = 0.71 to 0.94). Nonplanarity of the PAH isomers was found to influence retention (i.e., nonplanar isomers eluting earlier than expected based on L/B) and linear correlations of retention vs. T for isomer groups containing nonplanar isomers were significant (r = 0.71 to 0.86). Graphical abstract.

  10. The Dynamics of Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Henrique


    This thesis consists of two parts, connected by one central theme: the dynamics of the "shape of space". The first part of the thesis concerns the construction of a theory of gravity dynamically equivalent to general relativity (GR) in 3+1 form (ADM). What is special about this theory is that it does not possess foliation invariance, as does ADM. It replaces that "symmetry" by another: local conformal invariance. In so doing it more accurately reflects a theory of the "shape of space", giving us reason to call it \\emph{shape dynamics} (SD). In the first part we will try to present some of the highlights of results so far, and indicate what we can and cannot do with shape dynamics. Because this is a young, rapidly moving field, we have necessarily left out some interesting new results which are not yet in print and were developed alongside the writing of the thesis. The second part of the thesis will develop a gauge theory for "shape of space"--theories. To be more precise, if one admits that the physically re...

  11. Shape memory polymer medical device (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA


    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  12. Ryoji Ikeda (unistus) supersümmeetriast = Ryoji Ikeda's (dream of) supersymmetry / Andi Hektor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hektor, Andi, 1975-


    Jaapani päritolu kunstnikust Ryoji Ikedast ja tema audiovisuaalsest installatsioonist "supersümmeetria". Ka CERN-i kunstiresidentuurist Arts@CERN, kus Ikeda aastatel 2014-2015 "supersümmeetria" lõplikult välja töötas. Installatsioon "supersümmeetria" oli 11.12.2015 - 28.02.2016 eksponeeritud Kumus

  13. 78 FR 22814 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix... Miami Beach, Florida during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The Miami Super Boat Grand Prix will consist of a series of high-speed boat races scheduled to take place from July 19 through July 21, 2013...

  14. 76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix... during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The Miami Super Boat Grand Prix will consist of a series of high-speed boat races. The event is scheduled to take place on Sunday, June 5, 2011. These special local...

  15. Want to Teach about SuperPACs? What We Can Learn from Stephen Colbert (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy


    The emergence of the SuperPACs in American politics is a major issue in the current election. SuperPACs, and the media campaigns they fund, also present a major challenge for media and democratic education. This article explores the issues surrounding SuperPACs and the rise of media in elections and politics in general, and presents some starting…

  16. 75 FR 17295 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. Model L 23 Super Blanik Gliders (United States)


    ... a.s. Model L 23 Super Blanik Gliders AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Model L 23 Super Blanik gliders. This condition, if not corrected, could result in no longer retaining.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to Models L 23 Super Blanik gliders, all serial numbers, certificated in any...

  17. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  18. Measuring the performance of super-resolution reconstruction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Bijl, P.


    For many military operations situational awareness is of great importance. This situational awareness and related tasks such as Target Acquisition can be acquired using cameras, of which the resolution is an important characteristic. Super resolution reconstruction algorithms can be used to improve

  19. Super-resolution of faces using the epipolar constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, R.J.M. den; Lange, D.D.J. de; Schutte, K.


    In this paper we present a super-resolution scheme specifically designed for faces. First, a face detector is used to find faces in a video frame, after which an optical flow algorithm is applied to track feature points on the faces. Given the set of flow vectors corresponding to a single face, we

  20. Synthesis and characterization of super-microporous material with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Super-microporouos silicon material with high hydrothermal stability denoted as MCM-41-T has been prepared from mesoporous MCM-41 by high temperature treatment. The structural and chemical property of MCM-41-T has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 ...

  1. Improved Interpolation Kernels for Super-resolution Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Pejman; Orlova, Olga; Tamberg, Gert


    Super resolution (SR) algorithms are widely used in forensics investigations to enhance the resolution of images captured by surveillance cameras. Such algorithms usually use a common interpolation algorithm to generate an initial guess for the desired high resolution (HR) image. This initial guess...

  2. Leading in the Age of Super-Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Upton, David


    An essay about super-transparency among organizations is presented. It states that the trend is influenced by the social media and increased flood of data. Also mentioned are best practices for managers to meet expectations which include examining assumptions to keep information contained...

  3. Airborne and impact sound transmission in super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas


    -aggregate concrete. A super-light deck element is developed. It is intended to be lighter than traditional deck structures without compromising the acoustic performance. It is primarily the airborne sound insulation, which is of interest as the requirements for the impact sound insulation to a higher degree can...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande


    Full Text Available Image super-resolution, a process to enhance image resolution, has important applications in biometrics, satellite imaging, high definition television, medical imaging, etc. The long range captured iris identification systems often suffer from low resolution and meager focus of the captured iris images. These degrade the iris recognition performance. This paper proposes enhanced iterated back projection (EIBP method to super resolute the long range captured iris polar images. The performance of proposed method is tested and analyzed on CASIA long range iris database by comparing peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and structural similarity index (SSIM with state-of-the-art super resolution (SR algorithms. It is further analyzed by increasing the up-sampling factor. Performance analysis shows that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art algorithms, the peak signal-to-noise ratio improved about 0.1-1.5 dB. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is well suited to super resolve the iris polar images captured at a long distance

  5. Children's Understanding of Human and Super-Natural Mind (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris


    Barrett, Richert, and Driesenga [Barrett, J. L., Richert, R. A., & Driesenga, A. (2001). "God's beliefs versus mother's: The development of nonhuman agents concepts." "Child Development," 72(1), 50-65] have suggested that children are able to conceptualize the representational properties held by certain super-natural entities, such as God, before…

  6. Generation of super-resolution stills from video

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B


    Full Text Available The real-time super-resolution technique discussed in this paper increases the effective pixel density of an image sensor by combining consecutive image frames from a video. In surveillance, the higher pixel density lowers the Nyquist rate...

  7. Picking up the pieces of Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Multimedia

    Lee, T


    On Nov 12th as the tank of the SuperK detector was being refilled after routine maintenance, a shock wave calculated at 100 times greater than atmospheric pressure was triggered by the implosion of one weakened photomultiplier tube. In only five seconds the resulting chain reaction destroyed 6,665 PMTs, wrecking the detector and seriously delaying neutrino research.

  8. Man and SuperNature. Lecture 12, September 27, 1946 (United States)

    Montessori, Maria


    "Man and SuperNature" is a lyrical chapter in the 1946 London course following the emergence of Cosmic Education in Kodaikanal, India. Montessori contrasts the adaptation required of animals for their survival to conscious human adaptation. Animals exist and adapt to nature, but man can alter nature and change the environment.…

  9. Super-iron Nanoparticles with Facile Cathodic Charge Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Farmand; D Jiang; B Wang; S Ghosh; D Ramaker; S Licht


    Super-irons contain the + 6 valence state of iron. One advantage of this is that it provides a multiple electron opportunity to store additional battery charge. A decrease of particle size from the micrometer to the nanometer domain provides a higher surface area to volume ratio, and opportunity to facilitate charge transfer, and improve the power, voltage and depth of discharge of cathodes made from such salts. However, super-iron salts are fragile, readily reduced to the ferric state, with both heat and contact with water, and little is known of the resultant passivating and non-passivating ferric oxide products. A pathway to decrease the super-iron particle size to the nano-domain is introduced, which overcomes this fragility, and retains the battery capacity advantage of their Fe(VI) valence state. Time and power controlled mechanosynthesis, through less aggressive, dry ball milling, leads to facile charge transfer of super-iron nanoparticles. Ex-situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is used to explore the oxidation state and structure of these iron oxides during discharge and shows the significant change in stability of the ferrate structure to lower oxidation state when the particle size is in the nano-domain.

  10. A Recurrent Nova Super-Remnant in the Andromeda Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darnley, M. J.; Hounsell, R.; O'Brien, T. J.


    Here we report that the most rapidly recurring nova, M31N 2008-12a, which erupts annually, is surrounded by a "nova super-remnant" which demonstrates that M31N 2008-12a has erupted with high frequency for millions of years....

  11. Division algebras and extended super KdVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail:


    The division algebras R, C, H, O are used to construct and analyze the N = 1, 2, 4, 8 supersymmetric extensions of the KdV hamiltonian equation. In particular a global N = 8 super-KdV system is introduced and shown to admit a Poisson bracket structure given by the 'Non-Associate N = 8 Superconformal Algebra'. (author)

  12. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithvi Raj Jelia


    Nov 11, 2017 ... Alternatively, geometries of natural super-hydrophobic surfaces are often imitated to design textured surfaces. Knowing the ... The proposed approach is sufficiently general that its application can be extended to design other textured surfaces. Keywords. .... labТ software package. Further, manufacturing ...

  13. Super-resolution by pupil plane phase filtering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... Several new paradigms for super-resolution in optical systems use 'a posteriori' digital image processing. In these ventures the three-dimensional point spread function (PSF) of the lens plays a key role in image acquisition. A straightforward tailoring of the PSF can be performed by appropriate pupil plane ...

  14. Pulsed pump: Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 6. Pulsed ... Pulse pump; thermal effects; thermal lensing; phase shift; diode-pumped solid state laser; super-Gaussian pump profile. Abstract. Solid state laser (SSL) powers can be realistically scaled when pumped by a real, efficient and multimode pulse.

  15. SuperSeaCatid otsivad uut omanikku / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek


    Firma Sea Containers on rahahädas müünud Silja Line'i Tallinkile 410 miljoni krooni eest Tallinki aktsiaid ja nüüd otsib ostjat kahele Tallinna ja Helsingi vahel sõitvale SuperSeaCati laevale. Vt. samas: Tallinki aktsia tegi käiberekordi

  16. Vergelijking tussen Convex en Alliant mini-super systemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren JCH; Sauter FJ


    In dit rapport wordt verslag gedaan van werkbezoeken aan de leveranciers van Convex en van Alliant computers. Gedurende deze werkbezoeken werd getracht zogenaamde mini-super systemen te vergelijken, voor wat betreft gebruikersvriendelijkheid en prestatie, i.v.m. mogelijke aanschaf daarvan bij het

  17. Computer Mapping Super Tuesday Results in the South. (United States)

    Martin, David L.

    This paper describes how the computer program "Elections," was used to trace voting patterns during Super Tuesday, the U.S. presidential primary elections held on March 5, 1988. The voting results were entered into the computer as the primary returns were reported on national television. The computer mapping provided an improved means…

  18. Spatiotemporal Facial Super-Pixels for Pain Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtoft, Dennis Holm; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    show that by employing super-pixels we can divide the face into three regions, in a way that only one of these regions (about one third of the face) contributes to the pain estimation and the other two regions can be discarded. The experimental results on the UNBC- McMaster database show...

  19. Super-resolution techniques for minimally invasive surgery


    De Smet, Vincent; Namboodiri, Vinay; Van Gool, Luc


    De Smet V., Namboodiri V.P., Van Gool L., ''Super-resolution techniques for minimally invasive surgery'', 6th MICCAI workshop on augmented environments for computer assisted interventions - AE-CAI 2011, pp. 41-50, September 22, 2011, Toronto, Canada.

  20. Will the XQ "Super Schools" Live Up to Their Name? (United States)

    Russo, Alexander


    Halfway through September 2016--roughly a year after the contest was launched--"XQ: The Super School Project" announced its 10 high school design-team winners at a "Facebook Live" event in Washington, D.C. Originally intended to result in just five winners, the XQ project was open to anyone who thought that they could…