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Sample records for shale processing plant

  1. Shale processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, W H

    1928-05-29

    The process of treating bituminiferous solid materials such as shale or the like to obtain valuable products therefrom, which comprises digesting a mixture of such material in comminuted condition with a suitable digestion liquid, such as an oil, recovering products vaporized in the digestion, and separating residual solid matter from the digestion liquid by centrifuging.

  2. Process for extracting oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process is described for recovering bituminous material from oil shale, characterized in that the oil shale is extracted with wood spirits oil (byproduct of woodspirit rectification), if necessary in admixture with other solvents in the cold or the hot.

  3. Process of briquetting fine shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, J

    1943-05-05

    A process is described for the preparation of briquetts of fine bituminous shale, so-called Mansfield copper shale, without addition of binding material, characterized in that the fine shale is warmed to about 100/sup 0/C and concurrently briquetted in a high-pressure rolling press or piece press under a pressure of 300 to 800 kg/cm/sup 2/.

  4. Process for oil shale retorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  5. Process of recovering shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-01-17

    A process is disclosed for recovering oil from shale rock by means of channels cut in the shale deposit, to which heat is carried for warming the shale mass and which are separated from the fume channels formed in the shale by parts of the shale rock, characterized in that heating elements are put down in the heating channels, which occupy less cross section than these channels, and in the so-formed space between the channel wall and the heating element a filling is placed, which facilitates heat transfer between the heating element and the shale and simultaneously prevents a streaming of the oily product gasified out of the shale from working into the heating element and stopping it.

  6. Process for retorting shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-03-19

    The method of retorting oil shale to recover valuable liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons consists of heating the oil shale in a retorting zone to a temperature sufficient to convert its kerogenic constituents to normally liquid and normally gaseous hydrocarbons by contact with hot gas previously recovered from shale, cooling the gases and vapors effluent from the retorting zone by direct countercurrent contact with fresh shale to condense the normally liquid constituents of the gases and vapors, separating the fixed gas from the liquid product, heating the fixed gas, and returning it to the retorting zone to contact further quantities of shale.

  7. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  8. Process for treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process for treating oil shale is characterized in that the shale is first finely ground, then heated in the presence of steam in a high-pressure retort at 1 to 50 atmospheres pressure at a temperature of 200/sup 0/ to 450/sup 0/C and then with large amounts of water with or without materials forming emulsions with water or with oil. Solution medium suitable for bitumen or paraffin is beaten up in a rapid hammer mill until all or most all of the oil or bitumen is emulsified. The emulsion is separated by filter-pressing and centrifuging from the solid shale residue and the oil or bitumen is again separated from the emulsion medium by heating, acidulating, standing, or centrifuging, and then in known ways is further separated, refined, and worked up.

  9. Process of distilling bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, M

    1859-05-19

    This new process consists of placing at the end of a tube or the end of one or more retorts, an aspirating pump and compressor or a blower with two valves doing the same work or, better yet, a fan for sucking the vapor from the shale as it is formed in order to prevent its accumulating in the retorts and being decomposed. A second tube, pierced with little holes, placed in series with the pump, blower, or fan, acts as a vessel or receiver for the water. The vapors from the shale are compressed by the aspirator in the receiver for the water and condensed completely, without loss of gas and disinfect themselves for the most part.

  10. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-01-01

    This report has been divided into three volumes. Volume I describes the MRI beneficiation work. In addition, Volume I presents the results of joint beneficiation-hydroretorting studies and provides an economic analysis of the combined beneficiation-hydroretorting approach for processing Eastern oil shales. Volume II presents detailed results of hydroretorting tests made by HYCRUDE/IGT on raw and beneficiated oil shales prepared by MRI. Volume III comprises detailed engineering design drawings and supporting data developed by the Roberts and Schaefer Company, Engineers and Contractors, Salt Lake City, Utah, in support of the capital and operating costs for a conceptual beneficiation plant processing an Alabama oil shale.

  11. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  12. Oil shales and the nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpinella, C.A.

    1974-01-01

    Two of the primary energy sources most dited as alternatives to the traditional fossil fuels are oil shales and nuclear energy. Several proposed processes for the extraction and utilization of oil and gas from shale are given. Possible efficient ways in which nuclear heat may be used in these processes are discussed [pt

  13. Process for recovering oil from shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-20

    A process is described for recovering oil from oil-shale and the like, by the direct action of the hot gases obtained by burning the carbonized shale residue. It is immediately carried out in separate adjacent chambers, through which the feed goes from one to the other intermittently, from the upper to the lower.

  14. Scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1991-01-01

    The experiences in oil shale processing in three large countries, China, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. have demonstrated, that the relative scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units is related to the scale up factor. On the background of large programmes for developing the oil shale industry branch, i.e. the $30 billion investments in colorado and Utah or 50 million t/year oil shale processing in Estonia and Leningrad Region planned in the late seventies, the absolute scope of the scale up risk of developing single retorting plants, seems to be justified. But under the conditions of low crude oil prices, when the large-scale development of oil shale processing industry is stopped, the absolute scope of the scale up risk is to be divided between a small number of units. Therefore, it is reasonable to build the new commercial oil shale processing plants with a minimum scale up risk. For example, in Estonia a new oil shale processing plant with gas combustion retorts projected to start in the early nineties will be equipped with four units of 1500 t/day enriched oil shale throughput each, designed with scale up factor M=1.5 and with a minimum scale up risk, only r=2.5-4.5%. The oil shale retorting unit for the PAMA plant in Israel [1] is planned to develop in three steps, also with minimum scale up risk: feasibility studies in Colorado with Israel's shale at Paraho 250 t/day retort and other tests, demonstration retort of 700 t/day and M=2.8 in Israel, and commercial retorts in the early nineties with the capacity of about 1000 t/day with M=1.4. The scale up risk of the PAMA project r=2-4% is approximately the same as that in Estonia. the knowledge of the scope of the scale up risk of developing oil shale processing retorts assists on the calculation of production costs in erecting new units. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Process for desulfurizing shale oil, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escherich, F

    1922-12-17

    A process is described for the desulfurizing of shale oil or tar, with recovery of valuable oils and hydrocarbons, characterized in that the raw material is heated in an autoclave to a pressure of 100 atmospheres or more.

  16. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  17. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  18. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Conceptual design and techno-economic evaluation of efficient oil shale refinery processes ingratiated with oil and gas products upgradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three integrated oil shale refinery processes are proposed. • Techno-economic performance of three proposed processes is conducted and compared. • Competitiveness of the three proposed processes is investigated at different scenarios. • A development direction for oil shale refinery industry is suggested. - Abstract: Compared with the petrochemical industry, oil shale refinery industry is still relatively backward and has many shortcomings, such as poor quality of shale oil, inefficient utilization of retorting gas, and the unsatisfactory economic performance. In the situation of the low oil price, many oil shale refinery plants are forced to stop or cut production. Thus, oil shale industry is facing a severe problem. How to relieve monetary loss or turn it into profits? This paper proposes three integrated oil shale refinery processes: an integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas, an integrated with hydrogenation of shale oil, and an integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation. The techno-economic performance of the three different processes is conducted and compared with that of a conventional oil shale process. Results show the exergy destruction ratio of the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is the least, 41.6%, followed by the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation, 45.9%. Furthermore, these two proposed processes have the best economic performance. Especially they can turn losses of the conventional oil shale process into profits at the situation of low oil price. The oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is recommended to the oil shale plants which use the oil shale with oil content lower than 12.9%, while the plants using oil shale with oil content higher than 12.9% are better to select the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation.

  20. Process for carbonizing coal, shale, wood, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthaei, K

    1924-05-08

    A process for carbonization of coal, shale, and wood, for recovering low temperature tar and other products in a rotary retort is described. The material to be carbonized is brought directly in contact with the heating medium, that is characterized in that the heating medium streams through the retort crosswise to the longitudinal axis. The temperature of this medium in the single retort segments can be regulated.

  1. Emission from Estonian oil shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunela, L.; Haesaenen, E.; Kinnunen, V.; Larjava, K.; Mehtonen, A.; Salmikangas, T.; Leskelae, J.; Loosaar, J.

    1995-01-01

    Flue gas emissions from pulverized oil shale fired boilers of Estonian and Baltic power plants have been studied. The concentrations of NO x , CO, C x H y , HCI, Hf and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gases have been found to be relatively low and acceptable according to German emission limits, for instance. Desulphurization degree of flue gases by SO 2 absorption with ash has been found to vary defending on boiler type and operation conditions. In spite of significant sulphur capture (average values for different boilers in the range between 68 and 77 % of the initial sulphur content of the fuel), SO 2 concentrations in flue gases remain still very high (up to 2600 mg/m 3 , 10% O 2 ). Very high concentrations of particles, especially at Estonian Power Plant (up o 6250 mg/m 3 , 10 % 0 2 ) have been detected. Heavy metal emissions were too high by the reason of particle control insufficiency as well. Yearly emission estimates of this study support the former Estonian ones within the range of 10-15 %. (author)

  2. Carbonization process for bituminous shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1917-11-08

    A process for uninterrupted carbonization with possibly greater yield of primary products and subsequent burning of the bituminous shale and other material with preponderantly inorganic constituents through direct flushing-through of the gases is characterized by a rustless shaft furnace wider at the bottom with lower inlets for air through the hot residue and air or gas inlets into the burning zone for the purpose of levelling the burning zone on one hand and regulating it in a determined cross section, and on the other hand to make possible ready determination of the temperature of the burning zone, the requisite means (vapor, wet or dry-air, air-hot gas mixture) going into the shaftcasing in the cross section in which the burning zone should be regulated, through an annular movable and double-sided coolable slit.

  3. Thermally-driven Coupled THM Processes in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature changes can trigger strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes in shales that are important to a number of subsurface energy applications, including geologic nuclear waste disposal and hydrocarbon extraction. These coupled processes include (1) direct pore-volume couplings, by thermal expansion of trapped pore-fluid that triggers instantaneous two-way couplings between pore fluid pressure and mechanical deformation, and (2) indirect couplings in terms of property changes, such as changes in mechanical stiffness, strength, and permeability. Direct pore-volume couplings have been studied in situ during borehole heating experiments in shale (or clay stone) formations at Mont Terri and Bure underground research laboratories in Switzerland and France. Typically, the temperature changes are accompanied with a rapid increase in pore pressure followed by a slower decrease towards initial (pre-heating) pore pressure. Coupled THM modeling of these heater tests shows that the pore pressure increases because the thermal expansion coefficient of the fluid is much higher than that of the porous clay stone. Such thermal pressurization induces fluid flow away from the pressurized area towards areas of lower pressure. The rate of pressure increase and magnitude of peak pressure depends on the rate of heating, pore-compressibility, and permeability of the shale. Modeling as well as laboratory experiments have shown that if the pore pressure increase is sufficiently large it could lead to fracturing of the shale or shear slip along pre-existing bedding planes. Another set of data and observations have been collected associated with studies related to concentrated heating and cooling of oil-shales and shale-gas formations. Heating may be used to enhance production from tight oil-shale, whereas thermal stimulation has been attempted for enhanced shale-gas extraction. Laboratory experiments on shale have shown that strength and elastic deformation

  4. Process for distilling shales, peats, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felizat, G

    1922-01-09

    The invention has for its object: a process for the distillation of shales, peats, and analogous products characterized by injecting across the substance a very rapid stream of superheated steam under pressure in order to effect a rapid removal of the products of distillation, to lower also the temperature at which it distills, to equalize the temperature throughout the mass, to hydrogenate the heavy hydrocarbons. An apparatus is put into operation characterized by the combination of a retort receiving the material to be distilled with a superheater for the steam, the combustion products which escape from the hearth of the superheater going to encircle the retort while the steam which comes off the superheater traverses this retort, the pressure of the steam being regulated by a convenient regulator; the products of the distillation result from the simultaneous action of the hot gases and steam on the contents of the retort being, on the other hand, separated at the outlet of this retort by means of cooling in a gas separator, a condenser, and part of the gas after being separated serving to heat the mentioned superheater.

  5. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  6. Closed Process of Shale Oil Recovery from Circulating Washing Water by Hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional oil recovery system in the Fushun oil shale retorting plant has a low oil recovery rate. A large quantity of fresh water is used in the system, thereby consuming a considerable amount of water and energy, as well as polluting the environment. This study aims to develop a closed process of shale oil recovery from the circulating washing water for the Fushun oil shale retorting plant. The process would increase oil yield and result in clean production. In this process, oil/water hydrocyclone groups were applied to decrease the oil content in circulating water and to simultaneously increase oil yield. The oil sludge was removed by the solid/liquid hydrocyclone groups effectively, thereby proving the smooth operation of the devices and pipes. As a result, the oil recovery rate has increased by 5.3 %, which corresponds to 230 tonnes a month.

  7. Process of distillation of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, A L

    1968-08-16

    In an oil-shale distillation apparatus with a single retort, in which separate zones of preheating, distillation, combustion, and cooling are maintained, the operation is conducted at a presssure higher than the atmospheric pressure, preferably at a gage pressure between about 0.35 and 7.0 bars. This permits increasing the capacity of the installation.

  8. Oil shale activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.; Jialin, Q.

    1991-01-01

    China has abundant oil shale resources, of the Early Silurian to Neogene age, the most important being the Tertiary period. The proved oil shale reserves in Fushun amount to 3.6 billion t, in Maoming 4.1 billion t. In Fushun, oil shale is produced by open-pit mining as a byproduct of coal, in Maoming it is also mined in open pits, but without coal. In China, scale oil has been produced from oil shale for 60 years. Annual production of crude shale oil amounts to about 200 000 t. The production costs of shale oil are lower than the price of crude petroleum on the world market. China has accumulated the experience and technologies of oil shale retorting. The Fushun type retort has been elaborated, in which the latent and sensible heat of shale coke is well utilized. But the capacity of such retort is relatively small, therefore it is suitable for use in small or medium oil plants. China has a policy of steadily developing shale oil industry. China is conducting oil shale research and developing oil shale processing technology. Much attention is being pay ed to the comprehensive utilization of oil shale, shale oil, and to environmental problems. In China, oil shale is mostly used for producing shale by retorting, attention will also be paid to direct combustion for power generation. Great achievements in oil shale research have been made in the eighties, and there will be a further development in the nineties. (author), 12 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Chemical process for improved oil recovery from Bakken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuler, Patrick; Tang, Hongxin; Lu, Zayne [ChemEOR Inc (United States); Tang, Youngchun [Power Environmental Energy Research Institute (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the new chemically-improved oil recovery process (IOR) process for Bakken formation reservoirs. A custom surfactant agent can be used in standard hydraulic fracturing treatments in the Bakken to increase oil recovery. The rock formation consists of three members: the lower shale, middle dolostone and the upper shale. The dolostone was deposited as a coastal carbonate during shallower water and the shales were deposited in a relatively deep marine condition. With the widespread advent of horizontal well drilling and large-volume hydraulic fracturing treatments, production from the Bakken has become very active. The experimental results exhibited that specialized surfactant formulations will interact with this mixed oil-wet low permeability middle member to produce more oil. It was also observed that oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition was fast and significant. The best surfactant found in this study is compatible with a common fracture fluid system.

  10. Oil shale mining and processing impact on landscapes in north-east Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi; Liblik, Valdo

    1998-01-01

    As the world's largest commercial oil shale reserve, the Estonian Oil Shale Deposit has been exploited since 1916. As a result of mining, storing of solid wastes from the oil shale separation, combustion in the power plants and its thermal processing, the landscape in northeastern Estonia has been essentially changed and the man-made landforms have developed: the new microreliefs of natural and artificial structure are formed, as well as 'mountainous' and hilly reliefs in the form of waste heaps, ash plateaus, coke-ash dumps etc. Deformed (stable) and undeformed (unstable) areas from underground mining currently cover about 220km 2 . About 90km 2 (80%) of the area damaged by open pits are recultivated and reformed as forested and agricultural (grassland) areas. The total area occupied by solid waste has reached up to 26km 2 . New technogenic landscape units, i.e. made by technical means, will essentially influence the environment

  11. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-01-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11–12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO 2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the 238 U ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and 232 Th ( 232 Th, 228 Ra) family radionuclides as well as 40 K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides in

  12. Process of preparing artificial stone from oil-shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-02-10

    A process for the preparation of artificial stone from oil-shale slag is characterized by the fact that the coarse part of the ground slag before working into artificial stone is saturated with water and serves as filler, while the fine part is milled to dust and forms the binding material.

  13. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: shale oil recovery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The US has large shale oil energy resources, and many companies have undertaken considerable effort to develop economical means to extract this oil within environmental constraints. The recoverable shale oil reserves in the US amount to 160 x 10 9 m 3 (1000 x 10 9 bbl) and are second in quantity only to coal. This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to a shale oil recovery process. Since the highest potential shale oil reserves lie in th Piceance Basin of Western Colorado, the study centers on exploiting shale oil in this region

  14. Process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1918-08-23

    A process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous minerals in rotary retorts heated from outside and flushed with water vapor or other oxygen-free gases is characterized by the fact that all kinds of minerals are carbonized, and that during the carbonization process the temperature of the superheated steam or gases is about 50/sup 0/ C higher than the temperature of the carbonized mineral.

  15. Carbonization process for peat, wood, shale, and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1924-10-21

    A carbonization process for peat, wood, shale and the like, in intermittently operating shaft furnaces with leading in of hot gases through the charge from over to under, is characterized in that the charge is brought in for a carbonization action in single layers in such time intervals under the same distances of heating gas paths, that every fresh layer is brought first only to about 200/sup 0/ C, then to the highest layer where the carbonization is carried out completely.

  16. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  17. Chattanooga shale: uranium recovery by in situ processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    The increasing demand for uranium as reactor fuel requires the addition of sizable new domestic reserves. One of the largest potential sources of low-grade uranium ore is the Chattanooga shale--a formation in Tennessee and neighboring states that has not been mined conventionally because it is expensive and environmentally disadvantageous to do so. An in situ process, on the other hand, might be used to extract uranium from this formation without the attendant problems of conventional mining. We have suggested developing such a process, in which fracturing, retorting, and pressure leaching might be used to extract the uranium. The potential advantages of such a process are that capital investment would be reduced, handling and disposing of the ore would be avoided, and leaching reagents would be self-generated from air and water. If successful, the cost reductions from these factors could make the uranium produced competitive with that from other sources, and substantially increase domestic reserves. A technical program to evaluate the processing problems has been outlined and a conceptual model of the extraction process has been developed. Preliminary cost estimates have been made, although it is recognized that their validity depends on how successfully the various processing steps are carried out. In view of the preliminary nature of this survey (and our growing need for uranium), we have urged a more detailed study on the feasibility of in situ methods for extracting uranium from the Chattanooga shale

  18. Wet separation processes as method to separate limestone and oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurme, Martin; Karu, Veiko

    2015-04-01

    Biggest oil shale industry is located in Estonia. Oil shale usage is mainly for electricity generation, shale oil generation and cement production. All these processes need certain quality oil shale. Oil shale seam have interlayer limestone layers. To use oil shale in production, it is needed to separate oil shale and limestone. A key challenge is find separation process when we can get the best quality for all product types. In oil shale separation typically has been used heavy media separation process. There are tested also different types of separation processes before: wet separation, pneumatic separation. Now oil shale industry moves more to oil production and this needs innovation methods for separation to ensure fuel quality and the changes in quality. The pilot unit test with Allmineral ALLJIG have pointed out that the suitable new innovation way for oil shale separation can be wet separation with gravity, where material by pulsating water forming layers of grains according to their density and subsequently separates the heavy material (limestone) from the stratified material (oil shale)bed. Main aim of this research is to find the suitable separation process for oil shale, that the products have highest quality. The expected results can be used also for developing separation processes for phosphorite rock or all others, where traditional separation processes doesn't work property. This research is part of the study Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  19. Process for complete conversion of coal oils, shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P

    1911-07-08

    A process is described for complete conversion of mineral coal oil, shale oil, and other similar oils in pitch, characterized by these oils being mixed with a nonvolatile substance with a boiling point on the average higher than the boiling point of the oil to be treated, and then being heated under pressure with the introduction of air, whereby the heating is interrupted if necessary on account of the known exothermic reaction and the conversion of the oil in the pitch or its distillation can be carried out without further heating.

  20. Process of producing fuels from slates or bituminous shales. [distillation at incandescent heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenbauer, M

    1902-07-31

    A process of producing a fuel from slates or bituminous shales by saturating or impregnating them after preliminary distillation with the vapors of tars, resins, oils, etc., is given. The process is characterized by the bituminous shale being submitted in the form of fragments to distillation at incandescent heat to make the shale porous and able to absorb the vapors of the substances already mentioned.

  1. Utilization of oil shale in power plants and environmental protection; Polevkivienergeetika ja keskkonna saastumine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia)

    1994-04-01

    Estonia n oil shale was first used as a power fuel in 1924 at the Tallinn Power Plant. The first pulverized oil-shale-fired steam boilers were used in the end of forties. A new period in the utilization of the Estonia n oil shale began in the years of 1959-1960, when the first power units were applied at the Baltic Thermal Power Plant. The project capacity of the plant was 1600 MW. In the 1973 the Estonia n thermal Power Plant was put into operation with the capacity of 1610 MW. The output of the electric power generated by oil.shale power plants in 1989, was 17.4 TWh; the maximum output was achieved in 1979 - 19.1 TWh. In 1989, the amount of the Estonia n oil shale consumed to generate electric power was equal to 22.3{center_dot}10{sup 6}t. On burning oil shale the main atmospheric pollutants are the following: nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and fly ash. The concentration of nitrogen oxide in the oil-shale flue gas leaving the chimney, expressed as nitrogen dioxide by an excess air factor 1.5, is in the range of 0.15-0.20 g/m{sup 3.} The total emission of nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere is approximately 15-20 thousand ton per year. the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the oil-shale flue gas leaving the boiler by an excess air factor 1.5 in the range of 1.0-1.8 g/m{sup 3.} the total emission of sulphur dioxide into atmosphere is in range of 140-160 thousand per year. As the oil-shale ash contains a large amount of the components capable of combining with sulphur in furnace and in boiler gas passes, the sulphur binding effect from ash is high, and it is in the range of 0.75-0.85. The boilers in oil-shale power plants are equipped with two-stage ash separation systems: cyclone and electrostatic al precipitators. The fly ash concentration in oil shale flue gas after electrostatic al precipitators by excess air factor 1.5 is 1-2 g/m{sup 3.} (author).

  2. Production of portland cement using Moroccan oil shale and comparative study between conventional cement plant and cement plant using oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumbouya, M.; Kacemi, K.E.; Kitane, S.

    2012-01-01

    Like the use of coal ash from power plants as an addition to cement, oil shale are used for cement production on an industrial scale in Estonia, China, USA and Germany. Oil shale can be utilized in manufacturing the cement. In addition to the utilization of these by-products after combustion, it can also reduce the required temperature for the clinkering reactions during the production of Portland clinker. We performed a study on the Moroccan oil shale to maximize the use of oil shale ash in the manufacturing of Portland cement. We found that Moroccan oil shale ash can be used up to 30% with 70% Portland clinker without altering its principle properties. The corresponding temperature required to generate the required liquid for the clinkering reactions as well as the essential ingredients for clinker was found to be around 850 to 1000 deg. C. The operating temperatures for this optimized blend ratio were found to 1000 deg. C. The resulting Portland clinker from this ratio will need further testing in accordance with international standards for Portland cement to examine properties like strength and setting time. (author)

  3. Studies on the utilization of PETROSIX process pyrolysed oil shale for pozzolans production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, M C; Souza Santos, P de; Schmal, M

    1984-08-01

    It was studied the possibility of utilization the PETROSIX Process pyrolised oil-shale as a raw material in the production of cementing materials emphasizing its use as pozzolan. Analysis of X-ray diffraction and spectrophotometry were used to determine the pozzolanic characteristics of the pyrolysed oil-shale. (Author).

  4. The deep processing of oil residues conjunction with shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Maloletnev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the development of a new process of thermal cracking of tar oil as a slurry with crushed oil shale to obtain components of motor fuels. The results suggest doubtless advantages of the process before the industrial of thermo cracking, since the single-stage processing of raw materials in relatively in the mild conditions (5 MPa, 425ºC, volumetric feed rate 1.0 h-1 is achieved deep destruction of tar oil (the yield petrol fraction with a bp amounts to up to 180ºC - ~12 mass % of middle distillates with a bp 180-360ºC – 43-44 mass %, of raw material for catalytic cracking of a bp 360-520ºC – ~15-16%, based on the initial tar oil. Formed like coke products and raw materials contained in V and Ni is postponed on the mineral part of slate and removed from the reaction zone with the liquid products of the process.

  5. Utilization of a HTR type reactor as a heat source for the processing of pyrobituminous shale by the Petrosix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessine, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Some thermodynamics aspects of a system resulting from the coupling of a THTR nuclear power plant type (Thorium High Temperature Reactor) and a commercial shale oil processing plant are studied. The coupling is basically characterized by the application of all available energy from the nuclear reactor to the shale oil processing. The nuclear reactor employed is a PR-3000, with 2980,8 MW sub(t), developed in the Federal Republic of Germany for process heat applications (coal and steam reforming to produce reducers and products similar to the derivates of petroleum). The commercial shale oil plant considered (U.C.X.) uses the Petrosix process developed by the Superintendencia da Industrializacao do Xisto (S.I.X.) of Petrobras. Some flow diagrams are proposed for the coupling between the basic cycle of PR-3000 reactor with hot gas cycle of U.C.X. For a pre-determined flow diagram and boundary conditions, the thermodynamic parameters that lead to a maximum efficiency of the system are established. Also the main steam cycle parameters of PR-3000 reactor are determined, including those for the main heat exchanger, whose data are similar to the corresponding steam and coal reforming system used in process heat application of the PR-3000 [pt

  6. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  7. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 x 3.0 x 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models

  8. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil-shale-retorting process. Fourth annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L. (ed.)

    1981-03-01

    The Geokinetics in situ shale oil project is a cooperative venture between Geokinetics Inc. and the US Department of Energy. The objective is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is being conducted at a field site, Kamp Kerogen, located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. This Fourth Annual Report covers work completed during the calendar year 1980. During 1980 one full-size retort was blasted. Two retorts, blasted the previous year, were burned. A total of 4891 barrels of oil was produced during the year.

  9. Process for treating bituminous coal, lignite, peat, and shale, and products obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabelitz, E J

    1951-06-27

    A process is described comprising leaching bituminous coal, lignite, peat, or shale by immersing said material in ethylene dichloride for a period of time sufficient to remove the ethylene dichloride-soluble constituents, separating the treated material from the ethylene dichloride solution and recovering from the solution the soluble constituents of the material dissolved in the solution. Soluble constituents include oils and waxes.

  10. Process of extraction in liquid way, of the bitumen from asphaltic and bituminous rocks, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freda, L

    1936-06-04

    A process is described for liquid extraction of the bitumen in asphaltic and bituminous rocks, shales, and the like. The substances impregnated with bitumen are suitably treated for the extraction of pitch with any given solvent derived from ethylene, in a series of apparatuses fixed and rotary at atmospheric pressure or in vacuum with vapor and hot air.

  11. Ranstad - A new uranium-processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, A [AB Atomenergi, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1967-06-15

    A short outline is given of the decisions concerning the erection and operation of the Ranstad mill which was recently taken into operation. It is followed by a brief description of the geological conditions and the planning of the mining system, plant location, and the factory. The main part of the paper describes processes and equipment of the plant which has a capacity to treat approx. 850 000 tons of low-grade ore (alum shale) per year. The operational experience so far is also reviewed. The economy of uranium production at Ranstad is discussed and some development possibilities are indicated. (author)

  12. Chemical composition of anthropogenic particles on needles collected close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, O.

    1995-01-01

    Within the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, north-eastern Estonia is among the most polluted areas. Emissions from the oil-shale power plants produce air pollution problems both locally and on a larger scale. In the atmosphere, pollutants mix and convert. Consequently, the particles deposited due to the use of oil-shale can have various chemical compositions. From the point of view of air chemistry, ecological effects and air pollution modelling, knowledge of the chemical composition of the deposited particles can be of great value. The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of single anthropogenic particles occurring on needle surfaces in north-eastern Estonia and Southern Finland close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants. For the purpose, scanning electron microscopical microanalysis was used

  13. Migration and Enrichment of Arsenic in the Rock-Soil-Crop Plant System in Areas Covered with Black Shale, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Min Yi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Okchon black shale, which is part of the Guryongsan Formation or the Changri Formation of Cambro-Ordovician age in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched with potentially toxic elements such as U, V, Mo, As, Se, Cd, and Zn. In this study, the Dukpyung and the Chubu areas were selected to investigate the migration and enrichment of As and other toxic elements in soils and crop plants in areas covered with black shale. Rock and soil samples digested in 4-acid solution (HCl+HNO3+HF+HClO4 were analyzed for As and other heavy metals by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, and plant samples by INAA. Mean concentration of As in Okchon black shale is higher than those of both world average values of shale and black shale. Especially high concentration of 23.2 mg As kg-1 is found in black shale from the Dukpyung area. Mean concentration of As is highly elevated in agricultural soils from the Dukpyung (28.2 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (32.6 mg kg-1. As is highly elevated in rice leaves from the Dukpyung (1.14 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (1.35 mg kg-1. The biological absorption coefficient (BAC of As in plant species decreases in the order of rice leaves > corn leaves > red pepper = soybean leaves = sesame leaves > corn stalks > corn grains. This indicates that leafy plants tend to accumulate As from soil to a greater degree than cereal products such as grains.

  14. Enrichment of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in ash samples from oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozden, B. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics/Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Estonia); Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu,Institute of Physics (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Energy production in Estonia is largely dependent on the oil shale industry. Oil shale is a fossil fuel typically characterized by relatively high mineral composition, modest organic fraction (varying between 10 and 65%), high ash content (usually 45% to 50%), and average lower heating value of 8.4 MJ/kg{sup -1}. Oil shale-fired power plants account for 85% of Estonian electricity production and produce up to 6 million tons of oil shale ash annually. This ash contains elevated amounts of natural radionuclides (from the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K), which were bound to oil shale during its formation. These radionuclides become enriched in ash fractions during the combustion process and are partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. Oil shale-fired electricity production is foreseen to remain a dominant trend in Estonia, suggesting that the radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere will continue in the future. The natural radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, with half-lives of 138 days and 22.3 years respectively, originate from the radioactive decay of radionuclides of {sup 238}U series present in the earth's crust. These radionuclides are also built up artificially in the environment due to waste discharge from phosphate, oil, and gas industries, combustion of fossil fuels and other energy production as technically enhanced natural radionuclides. There are few studies on oil shale power plants influence on the levels of natural radioactivity in the surrounding areas. Realo, et al. reported that the annual doses from fly ash depositions over a 30 year period are in the range 90 - 200 μSv a{sup -1}. A study previously initiated by the University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (IPh) evaluated enrichment in the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in ash samples collected from Eesti Power Plant's circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. According

  15. Colliery shale: raw material for the manufacture of new lightweight building materials. In New coal upgrading processes. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, P; Chauvin, R

    1979-01-01

    Research undertaken in France on the upgrading of colliery shale has made it possible to extend the range of markets available for these products and to promote their utilization either in the untreated state or after processing. In the more specific field of lightweight building materials, our research has culminated in the development of manufacturing processes for aggregates and expanded nodular sands. The 100 mat3/day factory stage in the case of aggregates and the pilot plant (capacity several hundred kg/h) stage in the case of sands has been reached. However, the overall picture of slack demand for lightweight aggregates on the French market is little incentive for the rapid industrial development of manufacture of these materials.

  16. On possibilities to decrease influence of oxidation processes on oil yield at oil shale retorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yefimov, V.; Loeoeper, R.; Doilov, S.; Kundel, H.

    1993-01-01

    At the present technical level retorting is carried out so that an increase in specific air consumption results in an increase of oxygen ingress into the semi coking shaft. At the same time a direct relationship between the degree of volatiles pyrolysis and specific air consumption was observed. This regularity enables to assume that within the reaction volume there occurs most likely the thermo oxidative pyrolysis of volatile products, not the oxidation of oil shale as it is considered traditionally. The main source of oxygen ingress ed into the semi coking shaft at processing oil shale in retorts is the process of spent shale. This process is not fully elaborated for utilization in commercial scale and can not be arranged so that the ingress of oxygen into the smacking chamber could be eliminated. In case of a slower semi coke gasification process and reduced specific air consumption for gasification the absolute amount of oxygen ingress ed into the semi coking shaft also decreases. One of the efficient methods to decrease specific air consumption is to build furnaces into the semi coking chamber to obtain additional amount of heat carrier by combusting generator gas. The maximum effect is reached when steam-and-air blow is completely replaced by recycle gas: specific air consumption is reduced whereas recycle gas is deoxygenated in the cooling zone while passing through spent shale bed which has the temperature of about 500 deg C. Another possible source of oxygen to the semi coking shaft with heat carrier is production of flue gases by combusting recycle gas in burners built in retorts. We consider the recycle gas employed upon processing oil shale in retorts hardly to be an appreciable source of the oxygen ingress into the semi coking shaft. Additional amounts of residual oxygen containing in recycle gas fed into both cooling zone and furnaces are practically totally consumed at gas combusting and passing across the bed of semi coke heated up to approximately

  17. A Systematic Procedure to Describe Shale Gas Permeability Evolution during the Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B.; Tsau, J. S.; Barati, R.

    2017-12-01

    Gas flow behavior in shales is complex due to the multi-physics nature of the process. Pore size reduces as the in-situ stress increases during the production process, which will reduce intrinsic permeability of the porous media. Slip flow/pore diffusion enhances gas apparent permeability, especially under low reservoir pressures. Adsorption not only increases original gas in place but also influences gas flow behavior because of the adsorption layer. Surface diffusion between free gas and adsorption phase enhances gas permeability. Pore size reduction and the adsorption layer both have complex impacts on gas apparent permeability and non-Darcy flow might be a major component in nanopores. Previously published literature is generally incomplete in terms of coupling of all these four physics with fluid flow during gas production. This work proposes a methodology to simultaneously take them into account to describe a permeability evolution process. Our results show that to fully describe shale gas permeability evolution during gas production, three sets of experimental data are needed initially: 1) intrinsic permeability under different in-situ stress, 2) adsorption isotherm under reservoir conditions and 3) surface diffusivity measurement by the pulse-decay method. Geomechanical effects, slip flow/pore diffusion, adsorption layer and surface diffusion all play roles affecting gas permeability. Neglecting any of them might lead to misleading results. The increasing in-situ stress during shale gas production is unfavorable to shale gas flow process. Slip flow/pore diffusion is important for gas permeability under low pressures in the tight porous media. They might overwhelm the geomechanical effect and enhance gas permeability at low pressures. Adsorption layer reduces the gas permeability by reducing the effective pore size, but the effect is limited. Surface diffusion increases gas permeability more under lower pressures. The total gas apparent permeability might

  18. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  19. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  20. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  1. Experimental study of CO2 effect on shale mechanical properties in the processes of complete strain-stress and post-failure tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Ji, J.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    CO2 enhanced shale gas recovery has proved to be one of the most efficient methods to extract shale gas, and represent a mutually beneficial approach to mitigate greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere. During the processes of most CO2 enhanced shale gas recovery, liquid CO2 is injected into reservoirs, fracturing the shale, making competitive adsorption with shale gas and displacing the shale gas at multi-scale to the production well. Hydraulic and mechanical coupling actions between the shale and fluid media are expected to play important roles in affecting fracture propagation, CO2 adsorption and shale gas desorption, multi-scale fluid flow, plume development, and CO2 storage. In this study, four reservoir shale samples were selected to carry out triaxial compression experiments of complete strain-stress and post failure tests. Two fluid media, CO2 and N2, were used to flow through the samples and produce the pore pressure. All of the above four compression experiments were conducted under the same confining and pore pressures, and loaded the axial pressure with the same loading path. Permeability, strain-stress, and pore volumetric change were measured and recorded over time. The results show that, compared to N2, CO2 appeared to lower the peak strength and elastic modulus of shale samples, and increase the permeability up two to six orders of magnitudes after the sample failure. Furthermore, the shale samples were dilated by CO2 much more than N2, and retained the volume of CO2 2.6 times more than N2. Results from this study indicate that the CO2 can embrittle the shale formation so as to form fracture net easily to enhance the shale gas recovery. Meanwhile, part of the remaining CO2 might be adsorbed on the surface of shale matrix and the rest of the CO2 be in the pore and fracture spaces, implying that CO2 can be effectively geo-stored in the shale formation.

  2. Process of heat-treating fuels of a bituminous nature, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1927-11-25

    A process is described of heat treating any kind of material of a bituminous nature usable as fuel, like shale, mineral coal, peat, etc., whereby the fuel undergoes in a retort or the like a distillation for recovering from it the total amount or the greatest part of gaseous or vaporous distillation products. The warm distillation residue is burned, characterized by the retorts, containing the fuel going through, being wholly or partly surrounded by materials to be heated. These materials and the warm distillation residue resulting from the distillation during the burning are moved forward independently one of the other.

  3. Process for carbonizing hard-to-heat bituminous material like shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K

    1921-11-29

    A process is described for carbonizing bituminous material, like shale, with the production of sufficient heat for carbonization by burning a part of the bitumen itself by means of a gas stream going in a circuit, to which oxygen in regulated amounts is admitted. It is characterized by the fact that the gas stream already cooled for detarring before its re-entrance into the carbonization chamber is mixed in the inlet channels with an amount of oxygen (air or other free oxygen containing gases), that without sintering or melting of the residue it is burned and the carbonization is carried out evenly.

  4. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1946-08-29

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors from the zone, mixing fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same, whereby the fresh shale is preheated, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the mixture and withdrawing preheated shale from the mixture and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  5. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 x 3.0 x 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells

  6. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Reeves, T.L.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-11-01

    The scope of the original research program and of its continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large-scale testing sufficient to describe commercial-scale embankment behavior. The large-scale testing was accomplished by constructing five lysimeters, each 7.3x3.0x3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process (Schmalfield 1975). Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was placed in the lysimeter cells. This report discusses and summarizes results from scientific efforts conducted between October 1991 and September 1992 for Fiscal Year 1992

  7. Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m−2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the

  8. Is Estonian oil shale beneficial in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno

    1998-01-01

    subsidization of oil processing is normal for the state as for an owner of all oil shale industry. Electricity is relatively cheap and the mining company has a possibility for producing concentrated oil shale for processing as a by-product. Particularly the mining company is interested in cash flow and agrees with cheaper trade oil shale concentrates than cost price. The motivation of subsidization on the State level is that the power company can not produce more electricity than it can trade at present, but the oil plant is able to trade all produced shale oil, including export. It is obvious that in the case of privatisation, the subsidisation of oil processing will cease. The power industry is utilising the largest part of the oil shale energy, but is delivering only 11-12% of the oil shale bed energy to the filial consumer. The reason is great losses in generation and distribution of electricity. The oil processing industry is also only delivering a low 10 per cent of the oil shale deposit energy, but oil is not as high quality of an energy form as electricity. A revision has been made of oil shale reserves according to market economy conditions. The bases for the prognosis is the electricity demand projection and the presumption that energy utilisation per gross domestic product must decrease significantly. One takes the energy rating of 35 G J per m 2 (about 10 MWh per m 2 ) as a critical value for a mine able bed. Mining fields have the energy rating from 36.5 to 46.3 G J per m 2 , with an average of 42.2 G J per m 2

  9. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  10. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  11. Processing needs and methodology for wastewaters from the conversion of coal, oil shale, and biomass to synfuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The workshop identifies needs to be met by processing technology for wastewaters, and evaluates the suitability, approximate costs, and problems associated with current technology. Participation was confined to DOE Environmental Control Technology contractors to pull together and integrate past wastewater-related activities, to assess the status of synfuel wastewater treatability and process options, and to abet technology transfer. Particular attention was paid to probable or possible environmental restrictions which cannot be economically met by present technology. Primary emphasis was focussed upon process-condensate waters from coal-conversion and shale-retorting processes. Due to limited data base and time, the workshop did not deal with transients, upsets, trade-offs and system optimization, or with solids disposal. The report is divided into sections that, respectively, survey the water usage and effluent situation (II); identify the probable and possible water-treatment goals anticipated at the time when large-scale plants will be constructed (III); assess the capabilities, costs and shortcomings of present technology (IV); explore particularly severe environmental-control problems (V); give overall conclusions from the Workshop and recommendations for future research and study (VI); and, finally, present Status Reports of current work from participants in the Workshop (VII).

  12. Transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) is a remotely operated, hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. The heart of TRU is a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells housed in a two-story building. Each cell, with its 54-inch-thick walls of a special high-density concrete, has enough shielding to stop the neutrons and gamma radiation from 1 gram of 252/sub Cf/ and associated fission products. Four cells contain chemical processing equipment, three contain equipment for the preparation and inspection of HFIR targets, and two cells are used for analytical chemistry operations. In addition, there are eight laboratories used for process development, for part of the process-control analyses, and for product finishing operations. Although the Transuranium Processing Plant was built for the purpose of recovering transuranium elements from targets irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), it is also a highly versatile facility which has extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment. Thus, it was a relatively simple matter to install a Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) in one of the TRU chemical processing cells for use in the evaluation and demonstration of solvent extraction flowsheets for the recovery of fissile and fertile materials from irradiated reactor fuels. The equipment in the SETF has been designed for process development and demonstrations and the particular type of mixer-settler contactors was chosen because it is easy to observe and sample

  13. Oil shale technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail

  14. Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

  15. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1948-08-03

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described, which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors containing shale fines from the zone, mixing sufficient fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same and to cause condensation of the higher boiling constituents thereof, charging the mixture of vapors, condensate, and cold shale to a separation zone where the shale is maintained in a fluidized condition by the upward movement of the hydrocarbon vapors, withdrawing condensate from the separation zone and recycling a portion of the condensate to the top of the separation zone where it flows countercurrent to the vapors passing therethrough and causes shale fines to be removed from the vapors by the scrubbing action of the condensate, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the separation zone, withdrawing preheated shale from the separation zone and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  16. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  17. Shale gas. Shale gas formation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Francois; Artru, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    A first article recalls the origin of shale gases and technological breakthroughs which allowed their exploitation, describes the development of shale gas exploitation in the USA during the 2000's and the consequences for the gas and electricity markets, and discusses the various environmental impacts (risks of pollution of aquifers, risks of induced seismicity, use and processing of drilling and production waters). The second article describes the formation of shale gas: presence of organic matter in sediments, early evolution with the biogenic gas, burrowing, diagenesis and oil formation, thermal generation of gas (condensates and methane). The author indicates the location of gas within the rock, and the main sites of shale oils and shale gases in the World. In the next part, the author describes the various phases of shale gas extraction: exploration, oriented drillings, well preparation for hydraulic fracturing, fracturing, processing of fracturing fluids, flow-back, gas production and transport, aquifer protection. He finally gives a brief overview of technical evolution and of shale gas economy

  18. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia – The impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-01-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated – two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the 238 U ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and 232 Th ( 232 Th, 228 Ra) family radionuclides and for 40 K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ( 210 Pb and 40 K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, 226 Ra and 228 Ra. A part of 226 Ra input activity, unlike 228 Ra, was undetectable in the solid

  19. Senate hearings whet interest in oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remirez, R

    1967-06-05

    Recent oil shale hearings by the U.S. Senate disclosed the proposed leasing rules for federal oil-shale lands. In addition, Oil Shale Corp. announced that the first commercial shale-oil processing plant would be on stream in 1970. Both these announcements are expected to create a stronger interest in what is possibly the greatest untapped natural wealth in the U.S. According to the leasing rules, development leases would involve the following phases: (1) the contractor would have a 10-yr limit to conduct a research and development program on the leased territory; and (2) upon completion of a successful research program, the Interior Department will make available to lease at least enough land to sustain commercial operation. The terms that applicants will have to meet are included in this report. At the Senate hearing, discussions ranged from opinions indicating that development of oil shale recovery was not immediately necessary to opinions urging rapid development. This report is concluded with a state-of-the-art review of some of the oil shale recovery processes.

  20. Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Modeling of Water Leak-Off Process during Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The water leak-off during hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs is a complicated transport behavior involving thermal (T, hydrodynamic (H, mechanical (M and chemical (C processes. Although many leak-off models have been published, none of the models fully coupled the transient fluid flow modeling with heat transfer, chemical-potential equilibrium and natural-fracture dilation phenomena. In this paper, a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC model based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, thermo-poroelastic rock mechanics, and non-isothermal chemical-potential equations is presented to simulate the water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The THMC model takes into account a triple-porosity medium, which includes hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and shale matrix. The leak-off simulation with the THMC model involves all the important processes in this triple-porosity medium, including: (1 water transport driven by hydraulic, capillary, chemical and thermal osmotic convections; (2 gas transport induced by both hydraulic pressure driven convection and adsorption; (3 heat transport driven by thermal convection and conduction; and (4 natural-fracture dilation considered as a thermo-poroelastic rock deformation. The fluid and heat transport, coupled with rock deformation, are described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The semi-implicit finite-difference algorithm is proposed to solve these equations. The evolution of pressure, temperature, saturation and salinity profiles of hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and matrix is calculated, revealing the multi-field coupled water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The influences of hydraulic pressure, natural-fracture dilation, chemical osmosis and thermal osmosis on water leak-off are investigated. Results from this study are expected to provide a better understanding of the

  1. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  2. Metal dispersion in groundwater in an area with natural and processed black shale - Nationwide perspective and comparison with acid sulfate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergren, Ulf; Astroem, Mats E.; Falk, Helena; Bergbaeck, Bo

    2009-01-01

    Black shale is often rich in sulfides and trace elements, and is thus a potential environmental threat in a manner similar to acid sulfate soils and active or abandoned sulfide mines. This study aims at characterising how exposed and processed (mined and burnt) black shale (alum shale) in Degerhamn, SE Sweden, affects the chemistry (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Si, Na, Sr, S, U, V and Zn) of the groundwater. There were large variations in groundwater chemistry between nearby sampling points, while the temporal variations generally were small. Acidic groundwater (around pH 4), found in deposits of burnt and carbonate-poor shale where the conditions for sulfide oxidation were favourable, was strongly elevated in Al, U and several chalcophilic metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn). Cadmium and U were also, together with Mo, abundant in many of the near-neutral waters, both in the non-mined black shale bedrock and in the deposits of burnt shale. An extrapolation to a national level suggests that the dispersion of Ni from naturally occurring black shale is similar to that from anthropogenic point sources, while for Cd and As it is assessed to be approximately one tenth of that from point sources. The processed shale was, however, a much larger source of metals than the black shale bedrock itself, showing this material's potential as a massive supplier of metals to the aquatic environment. A comparison of waters in contact with the processed Cambrian-Ordovician black shale in Degerhamn and acid sulfate soils of the region shows that these two sulfide-bearing materials, in many respects very different, delivers basically the same suite of trace elements to the aquatic environment. This has implications for environmental planning and protection in areas where these types of materials exist

  3. Yield and characteristics of shale oil from the retorting of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Mengting; Wang, Sha; Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The whole formation process of shale oil might be divided into four stages. • Higher ash/shale mass ratio intensified the cracking and coking of shale oil. • Ash/shale ratio of 1:2 was recommended for oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as solid heat carrier. - Abstract: For exploring and optimizing the oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as a solid heat carrier, retorting experiments of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures were conducted in a lab-scale retorting reactor to investigate the effects of fine oil-shale ash on shale oil. Oil shale samples were obtained from Dachengzi Mine, China, and mixed with fine oil-shale ash in the ash/shale mass ratios of 0:1, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1. The experimental retorting temperature was enhanced from room temperature to 520 °C and the average heating rate was 12 °C min −1 . It was found that, with the increase of the oil-shale ash fraction, the shale oil yield first increased and then decreased obviously, whereas the gas yield appeared conversely. Shale oil was analyzed for the elemental analysis, presenting its atomic H/C ratio of 1.78–1.87. Further, extraction and simulated distillation of shale oil were also conducted to explore the quality of shale oil. As a result, the ash/shale mixing mass ratio of 1:2 was recommended only for the consideration of increasing the yield and quality of shale oil

  4. Assessment and control of water contamination associated with shale oil extraction and processing. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E.J.; Henicksman, A.V.; Fox, J.P.; O' Rourke, J.A.; Wagner, P.

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory's research on assessment and control of water contamination associated with oil shale operations is directed toward the identification of potential water contamination problems and the evaluation of alternative control strategies for controlling contaminants released into the surface and underground water systems from oil-shale-related sources. Laboratory assessment activities have focused on the mineralogy, trace element concentrations in solids, and leaching characteristics of raw and spent shales from field operations and laboratory-generated spent shales. This report details the chemical, mineralogic, and solution behavior of major, minor, and trace elements in a variety of shale materials (spent shales from Occidental retort 3E at Logan Wash, raw shale from the Colony mine, and laboratory heat-treated shales generated from Colony mine raw shale). Control technology research activities have focused on the definition of control technology requirements based on assessment activities and the laboratory evaluation of alternative control strategies for mitigation of identified problems. Based on results obtained with Logan Wash materials, it appears that the overall impact of in situ processing on groundwater quality (leaching and aquifer bridging) may be less significant than previously believed. Most elements leached from MIS spent shales are already elevated in most groundwaters. Analysis indicates that solubility controls by major cations and anions will aid in mitigating water quality impacts. The exceptions include the trace elements vanadium, lead, and selenium. With respect to in situ retort leaching, process control and multistaged counterflow leaching are evaluated as alternative control strategies for mitigation of quality impacts. The results of these analyses are presented in this report.

  5. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  6. Modeling and techno-economic analysis of shale-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid fuels processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu; Xiao, Honghua; Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Gao, Li

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the conflict between oil supply and demand, Chinese government has accelerated exploration and exploitation of alternative oil productions. STL (Shale-to-liquid) processes and CTL (coal-to-liquid) processes are promising choices to supply oil. However, few analyses have been made on their energy efficiency and economic performance. This paper conducts a detailed analysis of a STL process and a CTL process based on mathematical modeling and simulation. Analysis shows that low efficiency of the STL process is due to low oil yield of the Fushun-type retorting technology. For the CTL process, the utility system provides near to 34% energy consumption of the total. This is because that CTL technologies are in early development and no heat integration between units is implemented. Economic analysis reveals that the total capital investment of the CTL process is higher than that of the STL process. The production cost of the CTL process is right on the same level as that of the STL process. For better techno-economic performance, it is suggested to develop a new retorting technology of high oil yield for the STL process. The remaining retorting gas should be converted to hydrogen and then used for shale oil hydrogenation. For the CTL process, developing an appropriate heat network is an efficient way to apply heat integration. In addition, the CTL process is intended to be integrated with hydrogen rich gas to adjust H_2/CO for better resource utilization. - Highlights: • Aspen Plus software is used for modeling and simulation of a shale-to-liquid (STL) and a coal-to-liquid (CTL) processes. • Techno-economic analysis of STL and CTL processes is conducted. • Suggestions are given for improving energy efficiency and economic performance of STL and CTL processes.

  7. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallner, L.; Sepp, K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  8. Process of desulfurizing dephenolating, and cracking raw pitch obtained by dry distilling lignite, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1932-12-21

    A process is described of desulfurizing, dephenelating, and cracking the dry pitch obtained by dry distillation of lignite, bituminous shale, asphaltic rocks, and peat and fossil coals, that is characterized by the raw material being distilled in a retort together with calcium oxide, the vapors escaping from the still being compelled to pass through a catalyst tube containing calcium oxide mixed with other metallic oxide, the catalyst being helped by suitable heating to a temperature higher than that of the retort mentioned. For the purpose of lessening the quantity of phenolic groups contained in the raw tar to eliminate a great part of the sulfur belonging to the thiophenols and hydrogen sulfide without removing the organic radical to which they are attached, to accomplish a pyrogenic dissociation at the temperature of distillation of the pitch by means of using bone acid (phosphoric) to obtain a greater yield of light hydrocarbon from heavy hydrocarbons. Another purpose is the elimination of sulfur and thiophene and whatever neutral sulfur is contained in the primary pitch, by means of iron sulfate and copper in the anhydrous state or by means of other sulfates whose metals have the ability to form sulfides with sulfur.

  9. Migration through soil of organic solutes in an oil-shale process water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Stuber, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    The migration through soil of organic solutes in an oil-shale process water (retort water) was studied by using soil columns and analyzing leachates for various organic constituents. Retort water extracted significant quantities of organic anions leached from ammonium-saturated-soil organic matter, and a distilled-water rinse, which followed retort-water leaching, released additional organic acids from the soil. After being corrected for organic constitutents extracted from soil by retort water, dissolved-organic-carbon fractionation analyses of effluent fractions showed that the order of increasing affinity of six organic compound classes for the soil was as follows: hydrophilic neutrals nearly equal to hydrophilic acids, followed by the sequence of hydrophobic acids, hydrophilic bases, hydrophobic bases, and hydrophobic neutrals. Liquid-chromatographic analysis of the aromatic amines in the hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-base fractions showed that the relative order of the rates of migration through the soil column was the same as the order of migration on a reversed-phase, octadecylsilica liquid-chromatographic column.

  10. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  11. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justice, P M

    1917-09-19

    Light paraffin oils and other oils for motors are obtained from shale, and benzene, toluene, and solvent naphtha are obtained from coal by a process in which the coal or shale is preferably powered to pass through a mesh of 64 to the inch and is heated with a mixture of finely ground carbonate or the like which under the action of heat gives off carbonic acid, and with small iron scrap or its equivalent which is adapted to increase the volume of hydrocarbons evolved. The temperature of the retort is maintained between 175 and 800/sup 0/C., and after all the vapors are given off at the higher temperature a fine jet of water may be injected into the retort and the temperature increased. The produced oil is condensed and purified by fractional distillation, and the gas formed is stored after passing it through a tower packed with coke saturated with a non-volatile oil with recovery of an oil of light specific gravity which is condensed in the tower. The residuum from the still in which the produced oil is fractionated may be treated with carbonate and iron, as in the first stage of the process, and the distillate therefrom passed to a second retort containing manganese dioxide and iron scrap preferably in the proportion of one part or two. The mixture, e.g., one containing shale or oil with six to thirteen percent of oxygen, to which is added three to eight per cent of carbonate, and from one and a half to four per cent of scrap iron, is conveyed by belts and an overhead skip to a hopper of a retort in a furnace heated by burners supplied with producer gas. The retort is fitted with a detachable lid and the vapors formed are led by a pipe to a vertical water-cooled condenser with a drain-cock which leads the condensed oils to a tank, from which a pipe leads to a packed tower for removing light oils and from which the gas passes to a holder.

  12. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  13. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  14. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  15. Study of the process of multistage leaching of alum shale's sulphate d ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maremae, E.; Ruendal, L.; Ahelik, V.

    1991-01-01

    The scheme of the process was worked out on the basis of small (the weight of starting ashes 1 kg) and big (76.2 kg) laboratory tests with the result of getting aluminium potassium sulphate (alum) as a commercial product, and a technological solution with increased content of metals (Ti, Mo, V, U, etc.). Ashes received by means of Toolse deposit (Estonia) alum-shale fluidized-bed ashing at 800 o C, were used as basic material. The ashes were sulphate d in combustion tubes provided with electric heater using sulphate roasting process: the ashes were mixed with 75% H 2 SO 4 with the ratio S : L = 4 : 3 to get a homogeneous paste which was calcinated in the tube at 250-300 o C for 30 min. The calcinated paste (clinker) was treated with boiling water. The leaching experiments were carried out with various S : L ratios; in small test - in 2-litre bulbs, equipped with a stirring-rod, reflux condenser and thermometer, in the pulp at boiling temperature (101 o C). The hot leaching pulp was filtered under pressure using forcing filters. The final solutions were cooled and treated in order to receive alum. Under the conditions of a discontinuous process, the yield of raw alum (content of Fe 2 O 3 ∼1%) made up 240-270 kg/t of the starting ashes, both at the expense of the ashes' own potassium and at the expense of the potassium added from outside. The standard alum with regard to the content of iron admixture was obtained after repeated recrystallization of the raw alum. After the separation of alum, the solutions with the specific weight of 1.4-1.5 t/m 3 , and with the following average metal and sulphuric acid content in the solutions of the small and big tests were obtained: Ti 4.8 and 8.3; Mo 0.4 and 0.8; V 1.0 and 1.9; U 0.2 and 0.5; Fe 66 and 90; Al 18 and 20; K 1.9 and 3.4; H 2 SO 4 117 and 123 g/l, respectively. The extraction of metals into the solution in small and big tests was as follows: ti 71 and 64, Mo 73 and 66, V94 and 86, U 91 and 77, Fe 69 and 60, Al 45

  16. MRPP: multiregion processing plant code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, C.W.; McNeese, L.E.

    1976-09-01

    The report describes the machine solution of a large number (approximately 52,000) of simultaneous linear algebraic equations in which the unknowns are the concentrations of nuclides in the fuel salt of a fluid-fueled reactor (MSBR) having a continuous fuel processing plant. Most of the equations define concentrations at various points in the processing plant. The code allows as input a generalized description of a processing plant flowsheet; it also performs the iterative adjustment of flowsheet parameters for determination of concentrations throughout the flowsheet, and the associated effect of the specified processing mode on the overall reactor operation

  17. The Process of Risk Management for a Project to Extract Shale Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2014-07-01

    There is no human activity without risk. Accordingly, so neither is the extraction of shale gas. In fact this technology has a risk level similar to any other type of industrial activity and particularly those related to oil and gas industry. It is important to highlight the need to properly address these risks, among other reasons, for its influence on public acceptance of this technology, a key element for the commercial scale implementation. At present, risk management is a generally accepted tool for decision making and control of the risks that come from a wide variety of both industrial and not industrial human activities. It is an important element for the implementation of a large number of safety regulations, corporate policies and good industry practice . Thus, for example, chemical and petroleum, nuclear industries, aviation and aerospace or waste management make use of risk management as a central tool to identification the risks, to establish the importance and ranking of the estimated risks, to estimate the cost/benefit ratio in reducing these risks, and to carry out political and institutional processes to manage them. Risk management provides a broad framework to aid decision-making through the identification, analysis, and evaluation and control of risks, including, of course, those for health and safety. A key aspect is the need to ensure the identification of all significant risks, from which it may take appropriate measures (risk analysis). An unidentified risk allows or evaluation or its monitoring, reduction, acceptance or cancellation. After the analysis stage it may be considered for assessment, that is, the risk quantification, to classify them (acceptable, unacceptable, etc. risk). These actions are determined based on a balance between risk control strategies, their effectiveness and cost, and the needs, problems and concerns of those who may be affected, or stake holders, an essential element in the strategic planning of any activity or

  18. The Process of Risk Management for a Project to Extract Shale Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2014-01-01

    There is no human activity without risk. Accordingly, so neither is the extraction of shale gas. In fact this technology has a risk level similar to any other type of industrial activity and particularly those related to oil and gas industry. It is important to highlight the need to properly address these risks, among other reasons, for its influence on public acceptance of this technology, a key element for the commercial scale implementation. At present, risk management is a generally accepted tool for decision making and control of the risks that come from a wide variety of both industrial and not industrial human activities. It is an important element for the implementation of a large number of safety regulations, corporate policies and good industry practice . Thus, for example, chemical and petroleum, nuclear industries, aviation and aerospace or waste management make use of risk management as a central tool to identification the risks, to establish the importance and ranking of the estimated risks, to estimate the cost/benefit ratio in reducing these risks, and to carry out political and institutional processes to manage them. Risk management provides a broad framework to aid decision-making through the identification, analysis, and evaluation and control of risks, including, of course, those for health and safety. A key aspect is the need to ensure the identification of all significant risks, from which it may take appropriate measures (risk analysis). An unidentified risk allows or evaluation or its monitoring, reduction, acceptance or cancellation. After the analysis stage it may be considered for assessment, that is, the risk quantification, to classify them (acceptable, unacceptable, etc. risk). These actions are determined based on a balance between risk control strategies, their effectiveness and cost, and the needs, problems and concerns of those who may be affected, or stake holders, an essential element in the strategic planning of any activity or

  19. Liberation play : technology and prices help release shale gas from unconventional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    2006-01-01

    Shale gas production is set to increase in Canada. The British Columbia (BC) Oil and Gas Commission has approved more than 20 blocks of potential shale lands as experimental scheme areas targeting Cretaceous-age and Devonian-age shales. The BC government is currently working on a royalty scheme to benefit shale gas producers by allowing them to defer the bulk of the royalty collection until projects have reached a certain economic payout point. Interest in unconventional gas has spawned activity in previously unexplored areas of BC. Coals and shales are currently being evaluated near the community of Hudson's Hope, which has an estimated 1.8 tcf of shale gas. Canadian Spirit Resources Inc., who have leased the land, are now focusing on optimizing production processes to improve the economics of shale gas recovery. In Saskatchewan, shale gas exploration is occurring in the central region of the province, far from existing oil and gas production. PanTerra Resources Corp. has recently drilled 16 wells on its Foam Lake project, and detailed core and log analyses are being conducted to improve the understanding of the lithology and rock fabric and allow the company to design completion and stimulation programs. Stealth Ventures Ltd. is concentrating on developing the tight, biogenic Colorado Shale, which extends from Manitoba to the foothills of Alberta. Because of the shallow depths, the initial drilling costs are lower for biogenic gas than for thermogenic gas. Success will depend on the right drilling and completion methods. Junior explorers are also exploring for shale gas in an area straddling the St. Lawrence River between Quebec City and Montreal. Several large companies are examining the economic potential of shale gas production throughout North America. It was concluded that oil and gas operators are becoming more confident that domestic shale gas resources will be cheaper in future than imported liquefied natural gas (LNG), which requires special ships

  20. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Final report, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    A study is described on the hydrological and geotechnical behavior of an oil shale solid waste. The objective was to obtain information which can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil shale solid waste disposal in the Green River Basin. The spent shale used in this study was combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. Laboratory bench-scale testing included index properties, such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits, and tests for engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Large-scale tests were conducted on model spent shale waste embankments to evaluate hydrological response, including infiltration, runoff, and seepage. Large-scale tests were conducted at a field site in western Colorado and in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL)at the University of Wyoming. The ESL tests allowed the investigators to control rainfall and temperature, providing information on the hydrological response of spent shale under simulated severe climatic conditions. All experimental methods, materials, facilities, and instrumentation are described in detail, and results are given and discussed. 34 refs.

  1. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-02-06

    The yield of oil obtained by distilling shale is increased by first soaking the shale with about 10 percent of its volume of a liquid hydrocarbon for a period of 24 hours or longer. Distillation is carried on up to a temperature of about 220/sup 0/C., and a further 10 percent of hydrocarbon is then added and the distillation continued up to a temperature of about 400/sup 0/C.

  2. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  3. Process and apparatus for the distillation of shale and other bituminous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, H

    1883-01-14

    The upper part of a vertical retort used for distillation is made of fire-resisting material, and the lower part of iron. The firing is carried out on the grate, so that the gases play over and under the retorts. The distillation products are carried off through a condenser. For raising the heat in the retorts and for increasing the yield of distillation proudcts the lower part of the exhausted shale is removed from the retort and it is filled up again. The exhaust gases serve to warm up the air for combustion.

  4. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  5. Oil shale utilization in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, A.

    1993-01-01

    Geological surveys have confirmed the existence of substantial Israeli oil shale reserves. The proven reserves contain approximately 12 billion tons of available ores, and the potential is deemed to be much higher. Economic studies conducted by PAMA indicate promising potential for power generation via Israel oil shale combustion. Electric power from oil shale appears competitive with power generated from coal fired power plants located along the coast. PAMA's demonstration power plant has been in operation since the end of 1989. Based on the successful results of the first year of operation, PAMA and IEC are now engaged in the pre-project program for a 1000 MW commercial oil shale fired power plant, based on eight 120 MW units; the first unit is scheduled to begin operation in 1996

  6. Recovering valuable shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, C

    1922-09-26

    A process is described for the recovery of valuable shale oils or tars, characterized in that the oil shale is heated to about 300/sup 0/C or a temperature not exceeding this essentially and then is treated with a solvent with utilization of this heat.

  7. Mass Customization of process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes how F.L.Smidth A/S, a manufacturer of large processing plants for cement production, has applied the principles of mass customisation in the area of highly complex, custom engineered products. The company has based its sales process on a configuration system to achieve...

  8. Obtaining shale distillate free from sulphur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-09-14

    A process whereby, from sulfur-containing shale, products free from sulfur may be obtained, consisting of mixing with the finely ground shale a portion of iron salts containing sufficient metal to unite with all the sulfur in the shale and form sulfide therewith, grinding the mixture to a fine state of subdivision and subsequently subjecting it to destructive distillation.

  9. A novel polygeneration process to co-produce ethylene and electricity from shale gas with zero CO2 emissions via methane oxidative coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khojasteh Salkuyeh, Yaser; Adams, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of an ethylene plant from shale gases with zero CO 2 emissions. • Oxidative coupling of methane is used for the conversion of gas to ethylene. • Polygeneration strategy is used to improve the profitability of plant. - Abstract: A techno-economic analysis of a novel process to co-produce ethylene and electricity using a recently developed methane oxidative coupling catalyst is presented. Several design variants are considered, featuring the use of traditional gas turbines, chemical looping combustion, and 100% carbon dioxide capture. Mass and energy balance simulations were carried out using Aspen Plus simulations, and particle swarm optimization was used to determine the optimal process design under a variety of market scenarios. A custom model for the gas turbine section was used to ensure that the negative impacts of various cooling strategies were factored into the analysis. The results show that by synergistically co-producing power and ethylene using this catalyst, ethylene can be produced at costs close to traditional steam cracking methods with nearly zero carbon dioxide emissions, even when factoring in the relatively poor conversion and selectivity of the chosen catalyst

  10. Oil shale : could Shell's experimental oil shale technology be adapted to Alberta's bitumen carbonates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2006-07-01

    Although Shell has been trying to develop technologies to economically extract oil from shale containing kerogen for the last 25 years, the volume of oil Shell produced from its Mahogany Research Project in Colorado has added up to less than 2500 bbls in total, and the company has recently devoted $400 million to purchase leases on carbonate reservoirs in Alberta. This article examined whether or not the technologies developed by Shell for oil shales could be used to profitably extract bitumen from carbonates. Extracting bitumen from carbonates may be easier than producing oil from shale, as the resource in carbonates is already oil, whereas the oil in oil shale is actually kerogen, which needs to be chemically cracked at extremely high temperatures. Although the technical feasibility of an in situ cracking process has been proven, work remains to be done before Shell can invest in a commercial-scale oil shale project. Challenges to oil shale production include preventing groundwater from entering target zones and keeping produced fluids out of the groundwater. However, a freeze wall test has recently been designed where chilled liquid is circulated through a closed-loop pipe system to freeze formation water, sealing off an area about the size of a football field from the surrounding strata. The energy requirements of the process that Shell is testing to produce shale oil in Colorado remain unprofitably high, as higher temperatures are necessary for thermal cracking. Shell has yet to make a decision as to what energy sources it will use to make the production process economically viable. An energy conservation group in Colorado has claimed that production of 100,000 bbls of shale oil would require the largest power plant in Colorado history. 2 figs.

  11. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, L

    1922-07-21

    In the distillation of shale and similar materials the shale is ground and briquetted and the briquettes are placed in a retort so that air passages are left between them, after which they are uniformly and slowly heated to at least 700/sup 0/C, the air passages facilitating the escape of the oil vapors, and the slow heating preventing fusion of the flux forming constituents. After the bitumen has been driven off, air is passed into the retort and heating continued to about 1050/sup 0/C, the result being a porous product suitable for insulating purposes or as a substitute for kieselguhr. The ground shale may be mixed prior to distillation with peat, sawdust, or the like, and with substances which yield acids, such as chlorides, more particularly magnesium chloride, the acids acting on the bitumen.

  12. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether retorted shale additions would significantly affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation. Results indicate that small additions of the shale may stimulate plant growth but with higher concentrations plants are stressed, resulting in a decreased biomass and a compensatory effect of an increased number of nodules and N/sub 2/ fixation potential. (JMT)

  13. Origin of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham-Craig, E H

    1915-01-01

    Kerogen was believed to be formed by the inspissation of petroleum. During this process nitrogen and sulfur compounds were concentrated in the most inspissated or weathered products. At a certain stage, reached gradually, the organic matter became insoluble in carbon-disulfide and ceased to be a bitumen. Oil shale was formed by the power of certain clays or shales to absorb inspissated petroleum, particularly unsaturated hydrocarbons. This adsorption apparently depended on the colloid content of the argillaceous rock. This rock retained these impregnated petroleum residues long after porous sandstones in the vicinity had lost all traces of petroleum by weathering and leaching.

  14. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomini, V V

    1938-06-07

    To produce valuable oils from shale by continuous distillation it is preheated by a heated fluid and introduced into a distilling retort from which the oil vapours and spent material are separately removed and the vapours condensed to recover the oil. The shale is preheated to 400 to 500/sup 0/F in the hopper by combustion gases from a flue and is fed in measured quantities to a surge drum, a loading chamber and surge drum, the latter two being connected to a steam pipe which equalises the pressure thereon. The material passes by two screw conveyors to a retort with deflector bars to scatter the material so that lean hot cycling gas flowing through a pipe is spread out as it makes its way upwardly through the shale and heats the oil so that it is driven off as vapour, collected in the lean gas and carried off through an outlet pipe. A measuring valve is provided at the bottom of a retort and cutter knives cut the spent shale and distribute cooling water thereto. The gases travel through heat exchangers and a condenser to an accumulator where the cycling gas is separated from the vapours, passed to compression, and preheated in a gas exchanger and spiral coils before it is returned to the retort. The oil passes to a storage tank by way of a unit tank in which oil vapours are recovered. Water is collected by a pipe in the tank bottom and returned by shaft to a retort.

  15. Preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale or oil-shale residue is characterized in that, the oil-shale or shale-coke together with a slight amount of marl is burned under sintering conditions and the residue obtained is ground to a fine dust.

  16. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  17. Water processing in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, K.

    1984-01-01

    Surface water can be treated to a high degree of efficiency by means of new compact processes. The quantity of chemicals to be dosed can easily be adjusted to the raw water composition by intentional energy supply via agitators. In-line coagulations is a new filtration process for reducing organic substances as well as colloids present in surface water. The content of organic substances can be monitored by measuring the plugging index. Advanced ion-exchanger processes (fluidised-bed, compound fluidised-bed and continuously operating ion exchanger plants) allow the required quantity of chemicals as well as the plant's own water consumption to be reduced, thus minimising the adverse effect on the environment. The reverse-osmosis process is becoming more and more significant due to the low adverse effect on the environment and the given possibilities of automation. As not only ionogenic substances but also organic matter are removed by reverse osmosis, this process is particularly suited for treating surface water to be used as boiler feed water. The process of vacuum degassing has become significant for the cold removal of oxygen. (orig.) [de

  18. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm 3 , weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  19. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin, E-mail: leeam@dlut.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  20. Scenarios for shale oil, syncrude and electricity production in Estonia in the interim 1995-2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is based on the author's pre-feasibility studies of oil shale utilization in oil production, electricity generation and cement industry. The electricity generation has been calculated on the basis of 1.4 and 1.6 GW oil shale power plants with pulverized fuel combustion today. The three scenarios OILMIN, OILMED and OILMAX differ by annual oil production and different investment costs. The investments in the oil shale processing industry seem to be more profitable than those in electricity generation. It is also important to take into account that the very high sensitivity of oil market to geopolitical aspects of resources and to sudden crises, makes the crude price a stochastic parameter, which loses its indicative character for long term economic choice. Therefore it will be very important to have the electric power plants with flexible combined oil shale and coal combustion. 4 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs

  1. Improvements in the distillation of shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noad, J

    1912-09-20

    A process for treating shale and other bituminous substances containing sulfur and obtaining desulfurized products of distillation consisting in the consecutive steps of crushing the shale, mixing a suitable liquid with the shale granules, mixing slaked lime with the liquid coated shale granules, and gradually feeding the lime coated shale granules into a retort presenting a series of ledges or the like and working the shale granules down from ledge to ledge so that they are continuously agitated while being heated, the volatile constituents escaping through the lime coating and being conducted away from the upper part of the retort to suitable condensing apparatus, and the sulfur being arrested by the lime coating and together with the exhausted shale and other impurities being discharged from the lower part of the retort.

  2. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Retardation effect of nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics on shale oil catalytic cracking processing and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Bin; Li, Shaojie; Yang, Chaohe; Chen, Xiaobo

    Untreated shale oil, shale oil treated with HCl aqueous solution and shale oil treated with HCl and furfural were used to do comparative experiments in fixed bed reactors. Nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics extracted by HCl and furfural were characterized by electrospray ionization Fourier transform cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, respectively. Compared with untreated shale oil, the conversion and yield of liquid products increased considerably after removing basic nitrogen compounds by HCl extraction. Furthermore, after removing nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics by both HCl and furfural, the conversion and yield of liquid products further increased. In addition, N 1 class species are predominant in both basic and non-basic nitrogen compounds, and they are probably indole, carbazole, cycloalkyl-carbazole, pyridine and cycloalkyl-pyridine. As for the condensed aromatics, most of them possess aromatic rings with two to three rings and zero to four carbon atom.

  4. Stabilization of gasoline from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, L

    1929-03-14

    A process is described of stabilizing gasoline from shale, consisting in treating by agitating the gasoline freshly distilled from shale oil with 1.5 percent of its weight of sulfuric acid diluted to more than 10 times its volume, after which separating the pyridine, then treating by agitating with sulfuric acid which treatment separates the unsaturated hydrocarbons and finally treating by agitating with 1.5 percent of its weight of saturated caustic soda solution and washing with water.

  5. Shale treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-03-03

    The charge of shale, coal, or the like, is placed in a cartridge which is inserted in a metal cylinder gas and/or steam heated to a temperature of between 300 to 500/sup 0/C is admitted through pipe and passes through two perforations through the charge which is held at a pressure of about .1 to 2 pounds per square inch and an out pipe together with evolved gases and vapours. A lid is clamped in position over the cartridge by means of an eye bolt and a nut.

  6. Method and arrangement of distillation of shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1920-03-29

    A method is given of distilling shale and other bituminous materials utilizing the heat from the combustion of the residue, possibly with additional heat from other fuels. It is characterized by the shale, which is arranged in layers, being first submitted to a process of distillation utilizing the heat mentioned, and at the same time recovering the products of distillation, and second the shale being burned without disturbing the layers to any appreciable extent. The patent has 16 more claims.

  7. Preparation of cement from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1922-08-24

    A process for preparing cement from oil shale is described. The simultaneous recovery of shale oil by heating the oil shale formed into briquets with finely ground lime or limestone in a stream of hot gases is characterized by the fact that live steam or fine drops of water as preserving and carbonization means is introduced into the furnace, at the place, where the temperature of the briquet reaches about 500 to 600/sup 0/ C.

  8. ORNL process waste treatment plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant removes low levels of radionuclides (primarily Cs-137 and Sr-90) from process waste water prior to discharge. The previous plant operation used a scavenging precipitaton - ion exchange process which produced a radioactive sludge. In order to eliminate the environmental problems associated with sludge disposal, the plant is being converted to a new ion exchange process without the precipitation process

  9. Shale retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, P C

    1936-07-22

    A vertical distillation retort with an enclosed annular heating chamber has enclosed therein tiered compartments spaced apart by chambers into which burners deliver heating gases which pass via ports to the chamber and thence to the atmosphere. Shale is delivered by means of an air tight chute to the uppermost compartment and is spread therein and passed downwardly from compartment to compartment through ports, finally passing from the retort through an airtight chute, by means of scrapers rotatably mounted on a hollow shaft through which noncondensible gases are delivered to the distilling material via jets. The gaseous products of distillation are educted through ports and a manifold, which is also in communication with the head of the retort through the delivery pipe.

  10. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, J; Armour, H

    1889-05-07

    The invention relates to retorts and accessory apparatus for distilling shale or other oil-yielding minerals. A series of long vertical retorts, composed of fire-brick or similar refractory material, are arranged in two rows in a bench, being divided into groups of four by transverse vertical partitions. The retorts are surmounted by metal casings or hoppers into which the fresh mineral is charged, and from which the distillate passes off through lateral pipes. Any uncondensed gases from the retorts may be passed into the flues surrounding them by the pipe and burned. The products of combustion from a furnace pass through a series of horizontal flues, being compelled to pass completely round each retort before entering the flue above. The products from two or more sets pass from the upper flues into flues running along the top of the bench, and return through a central flue to the chimney.

  11. Processes for manufacture of products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a process for inhibiting browning of plant material comprising adding a chelating agent to a disrupted plant material and adjusting the pH to a value of 2.0 to 4.5. Processes for manufacture of soluble and insoluble products from a plant material are also disclosed. Soluble...

  12. Ionic Liquid Design and Process Simulation for Decarbonization of Shale Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xinyan; Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    suitable ILs based on the COSMO-RS (conductor-like screening model for real solvents) model, an absorption mechanism, and experimental data. Besides the Henry's constant, the viscosity and toxicity of ILs should also be taken into consideration for an industrial decarbonization process. Furthermore......, process simulation was performed to evaluate the new IL-based decarbonization technology. Considering CO2 solubility, CO2/CH4 selectivity and toxicity and viscosity of ILs, [bmim][NTf2] has been screened to be the potential solvent among 90 classes of ILs. Based on reliable experimental data, a rigorous...

  13. Process from removing benzine, toluene, etc. , from petroleum residues, coal tar, and shale tar, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawaty, F

    1888-08-11

    A process is described for the preparation of ligroin and its homologs as well as naphthalene and anthracene consisting in leading superheated water vapor into a mixture of petroleum residues (or mineral coal tar, etc.) heated to about 400/sup 0/C with cellulosic substances as sage shreds, sea grass, or straw, with addition of caustic alkali.

  14. Relation of peat to oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, S

    1924-01-01

    Samples of oil shale from the Green River formation and from Elko (Nev.), Brazil, Austria, and South Africa were examined, and several varieties of shale were found. Green River oil shale represents three of the more common types plus one less common type. These were: contorted shale with a velvety appearance, thin paper shale resembling the curled-up leaves of a book, massive black shale resembling a piece of rubber, and a less common type, which showed the bedding planes very clearly. The Elko (Nev.) shale was a light buff color; the shale from Brazil resembled a piece of petrified peat. When the shales were cut very thin, their colors ranged from yellow to reddish-brown. The composition, as seen under the microscope, was of well-preserved plant material such as spores, pollen grains, fragments of cell tissues, algae, fungi, bacteria, macerated organic residue, small pieces of resin, animal fossils, and translucent bodies. Oil shale was produced from organic material that accumulated in peat bogs, marshes, or swamps in fresh or salt waters. The organic matter was decomposed by bacterial action. Certain parts of the plants decayed more readily than others. Before lithification occurred, a chemical action took place that changed the softer tissues of the plant debris into a gel. This collodial matter penetrated and surrounded the more resistant fragments and preserved them from further decay. Certain bog waters contain a high percentage of humic acids in solution or collodial suspension and produce insoluble humates when neutralized. These humates are probably the so-called kerogen bodies.

  15. Nuclear heat source design for an advanced HTGR process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; O'Hanlon, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    A high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with a chemical process facility could produce synthetic fuels (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, methanol, hydrogen, etc.) in the long term using low-grade carbon sources (e.g., coal, oil shale, etc.). The ultimate high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant is being studied for nuclear process heat. This paper discusses a process heat plant with a 2240-MW(t) nuclear heat source, a reactor outlet temperature of 950 0 C, and a direct reforming process. The nuclear heat source outputs principally hydrogen-rich synthesis gas that can be used as a feedstock for synthetic fuel production. This paper emphasizes the design of the nuclear heat source and discusses the major components and a deployment strategy to realize an advanced HTGR process heat plant concept

  16. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    Although a soil-shale mixture was employed as the growth medium in this experiment, the results presentd are applicable to the proposed method of disposal mentioned earlier. Under field conditions, when covering the retorted shale with topsoil, some mixing of these materials might occur in the plant root region. In addition, it has been demonstrated that buried shale negatively affects enzyme activities in overburden surface soil. The occurrence of either of those events could affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation in a manner similar to that reported in this paper. Researchers conclude that due to the varied effects of retorted shale on the legumes tested, further evaluation of other legumes may be necessary. Additional research would be required to determine which legumes have potential use for reclamation of retorted shale.

  17. The Devonian Marcellus Shale and Millboro Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Chermak, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources in the United States builds upon many decades of research, which included resource assessment and the development of well completion and extraction technology. The Eastern Gas Shales Project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the 1980s, investigated the gas potential of organic-rich, Devonian black shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. One of these eastern shales is the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, which has been extensively developed for natural gas and natural gas liquids since 2007. The Marcellus is one of the basal units in a thick Devonian shale sedimentary sequence in the Appalachian basin. The Marcellus rests on the Onondaga Limestone throughout most of the basin, or on the time-equivalent Needmore Shale in the southeastern parts of the basin. Another basal unit, the Huntersville Chert, underlies the Marcellus in the southern part of the basin. The Devonian section is compressed to the south, and the Marcellus Shale, along with several overlying units, grades into the age-equivalent Millboro Shale in Virginia. The Marcellus-Millboro interval is far from a uniform slab of black rock. This field trip will examine a number of natural and engineered exposures in the vicinity of the West Virginia–Virginia state line, where participants will have the opportunity to view a variety of sedimentary facies within the shale itself, sedimentary structures, tectonic structures, fossils, overlying and underlying formations, volcaniclastic ash beds, and to view a basaltic intrusion.

  18. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  19. Intelligent fracture creation for shale gas development

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.

    2011-05-14

    Shale gas represents a major fraction of the proven reserves of natural gas in the United States and a collection of other countries. Higher gas prices and the need for cleaner fuels provides motivation for commercializing shale gas deposits even though the cost is substantially higher than traditional gas deposits. Recent advances in horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing, which dramatically lower costs of developing shale gas fields, are key to renewed interest in shale gas deposits. Hydraulically induced fractures are quite complex in shale gas reservoirs. Massive, multistage, multiple cluster treatments lead to fractures that interact with existing fractures (whether natural or induced earlier). A dynamic approach to the fracturing process so that the resulting network of reservoirs is known during the drilling and fracturing process is economically enticing. The process needs to be automatic and done in faster than real-time in order to be useful to the drilling crews.

  20. Preparing hydraulic cement from oil-shale slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-19

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cementing material from oil shale or oil-shale slag according to Patent 411,584 is characterized by the fact that the oil-shale slag is added to burnt marl, blast-furnace slag, and the like, whereupon the mixture is milled to dust in the known way.

  1. Extraction of hydrocarbon products from shales and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, V Z

    1918-05-17

    A process is disclosed of extracting hydrocarbon oil matter from petroleum-bearing shales and coals which comprises subjecting a mass of such shale or coal, before distillation to the solvent action of material containing an acid, permitting the solvent material to pass through the mass of shale or coal, and recovering the combined solvent and extracted matter.

  2. Chemical process engineering in the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bigelow, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Since operation of the Transuranium Processing Plant began, process changes have been made to counteract problems caused by equipment corrosion, to satisfy new processing requirements, and to utilize improved processes. The new processes, equipment, and techniques have been incorporated into a sequence of steps which satisfies all required processing functions

  3. Remedial processing of oil shale fly ash (OSFA) and its value-added conversion into glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes such as sewage sludge, coal fly ash and slag have been recycled into various products such as sintered bricks, ceramics and cement concrete. Application of these recycling approaches is much better and greener than conventional landfills since it can solve the problems of storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for construction materials to protect the environment. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to recycle oil shale fly ash (OSFA), a by-product obtained from the extracting of shale oil in the oil shale industry, into a value-added glass-ceramic material via melting and sintering method. The influence of basicity (CaO/SiO2 ratio) by adding calcium oxide on the performance of glass-ceramics was studied in terms of phase transformation, mechanical properties, chemical resistances and heavy metals leaching tests. Crystallization kinetics results showed that the increase of basicity reduced the activation energies of crystallization but did not change the crystallization mechanism. When increasing the basicity from 0.2 to 0.5, the densification of sintering body was enhanced due to the promotion of viscous flow of glass powders, and therefore the compression strength and bending strength of glass-ceramics were increased. Heavy metals leaching results indicated that the produced OSFA-based glass-ceramics could be taken as non-hazardous materials. The maximum mechanical properties of compression strength of 186 ± 3 MPa, bending strength of 78 ± 6 MPa, good chemical resistances and low heavy metals leaching concentrations showed that it could be used as a substitute material for construction applications. The proposed approach will be one of the potential sustainable solutions in reducing the storage of oil shale fly ash as well as converting it into a value-added product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Desulfurization of Jordanian oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jdayil, B. M.

    1990-01-01

    Oxy desulfurization process and caustic treatment were applied in this work to remove sulfur from Jordanian oil shale. The oxy desulfurization process has been studied in a batch process using a high pressure autoclave, with constant stirring speed, and oxygen and water were used as desulfurizing reagents. Temperature, oxygen pressure, batch time, and particle size were found to be important process variables, while solid/liquid ratio was found to have no significant effect on the desulfurization process. The response of different types of oil shale to this process varied, and the effect of the process variables on the removal of total sulfur, pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon were studied. An optimum condition for oxy desulfurization of El-Lajjun oil shale, which gave maximum sulfur removal with low loss of carbon, was determined from the results of this work. The continuous reaction model was found to be valid, and the rate of oxidation for El-Lajjun oil shale was of the first order with respect to total sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon. For pyritic sulfur oxidation, the shrinking core model was found to hold and the rate of reaction controlled by diffusion through product ash layer. An activation energy of total sulfur, organic sulfur, pyritic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon oxidation was calculated for the temperature range of 130 -190 degrees celsius. In caustic treatment process, aqueous sodium hydroxide at 160 degrees celsius was used to remove the sulfur from El-Lajjun oil shale. The variables tested (sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time) were found to have a significant effect. The carbon losses in this process were less than in the oxy desulfurization process. 51 refs., 64 figs., 121 tabs. (A.M.H.)

  5. Impact of Oxidative Dissolution on Black Shale Fracturing: Implication for Shale Fracturing Treatment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, L.; Chen, Q.; Kang, Y.; Cheng, Q.; Sheng, J.

    2017-12-01

    Black shales contain a large amount of environment-sensitive compositions, e.g., clay minerals, carbonate, siderite, pyrite, and organic matter. There have been numerous studies on the black shales compositional and pore structure changes caused by oxic environments. However, most of the studies did not focus on their ability to facilitate shale fracturing. To test the redox-sensitive aspects of shale fracturing and its potentially favorable effects on hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs, the induced microfractures of Longmaxi black shales exposed to deionized water, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen peroxide at room-temperature for 240 hours were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CT-scanning in this paper. Mineral composition, acoustic emission, swelling, and zeta potential of the untreated and oxidative treatment shale samples were also recorded to decipher the coupled physical and chemical effects of oxidizing environments on shale fracturing processes. Results show that pervasive microfractures (Fig.1) with apertures ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of microns formed in response to oxidative dissolution by hydrogen peroxide, whereas no new microfracture was observed after the exposure to deionized water and hydrochloric acid. The trajectory of these oxidation-induced microfractures was controlled by the distribution of phyllosilicate framework and flaky or stringy organic matter in shale. The experiments reported in this paper indicate that black shales present the least resistance to crack initiation and subcritical slow propagation in hydrogen peroxide, a process we refer to as oxidation-sensitive fracturing, which are closely related to the expansive stress of clay minerals, dissolution of redox-sensitive compositions, destruction of phyllosilicate framework, and the much lower zeta potential of hydrogen peroxide solution-shale system. It could mean that the injection of fracturing water with strong oxidizing aqueous solution may

  6. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant

  7. Model feedstock supply processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bautin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of raw providing the processing enterprises entering into vertically integrated structure on production and processing of dairy raw materials, differing by an orientation on achievement of cumulative effect by the integrated structure acting as criterion function which maximizing is reached by optimization of capacities, volumes of deliveries of raw materials and its qualitative characteristics, costs of industrial processing of raw materials and demand for dairy production is developed.

  8. Hydrologic-information needs for oil-shale development, northwestern Colorado. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, O.J. (comp.)

    1982-04-01

    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large reserves of oil shale. Expected development of oil shale will affect the regional hydrologic systems because most oil-shale mines will require drainage; industrial requirements for water may be large; and oil-shale mines, wastes, and retorts may affect the quantity and quality of surface water and ground water. In addition, the oil-shale industry may discharge particles and gases to the atmosphere that could alter the quality of high-altitude lakes and surface-water reservoirs. Hydrologic data need to be collected in order to plan for oil-shale development and to estimate the effects of development. Test-well drilling and aquifer testing are needed to provide a better understanding of the local and regional flow system, to furnish additional data for a model that simulates mine drainage, and to explore for water supplies in aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. Much of the ground water in the bedrock aquifers discharges through springs, and a systematic study of the springs will help to predict the effects of mine drainage on spring discharge and quality. Surface runoff, dissolved and suspended loads in streams, and the aquatic environment in streams would be highly susceptible to the disruptions in the land surface and will require additional study in order to estimate the effects of development. A water-quality assessment is proposed for the White River basin because it is a possible source of water and a region likely to be affected by development. The effects of emissions to the atmosphere from oil-shale plants require study because these emissions may affect the quality of water in lakes downwind. Spoil piles of retorted oil shale may be very large and require study to anticipate any problems caused by leaching and erosion. Processing wastes resulting from in-situ retorts and other waste materials need to be studied in greater detail. 71 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Production of oil from Israeli oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil shale can be utilized in two-ways: direct combustion to generate steam and power or retorting to produce oil or gas. PAMA has been developing both direct combustion and retorting processes. Its main effort is in the combustion. An oil shale fired steam boiler was erected in the Rotem industrial complex for demonstration purposes. PAMA has also been looking into two alternative retorting concepts - slow heating of coarse particles and fast heating of fine particles. The present paper provides operating data of oil shale processing in the following scheme: (a) retorting in moving bed, pilot and bench scale units, and (b) retorting in a fluidized bed, bench scale units. (author)

  10. Investigation of the dielectric properties of shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martemyanov, Sergey M.

    2011-01-01

    The article is dedicated to investigation of the dielectric properties of oil shale. Investigations for samples prepared from shale mined at the deposit in Jilin Province in China were done. The temperature and frequency dependences of rock characteristics needed to calculate the processes of their thermal processing are investigated. Frequency dependences for the relative dielectric constant and dissipation factor of rock in the frequency range from 0,1 Hz to 1 MHz are investigated. The temperature dependences for rock resistance, dielectric capacitance and dissipation factor in the temperature range from 20 to 600°C are studied. Key words: shale, dielectric properties, relative dielectric constant, dissipation factor, temperature dependence, frequency dependence

  11. Distilling shale and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, H; Young, G

    1923-01-09

    In a process of recovering oil from shale or coal the material is ground and may be subjected to a cleaning or concentrating process of the kind described in Specification 153,663 after which it is distilled in a furnace as described in Specification 13,625/09 the sections of the furnace forming different temperature zones, and the rate of the passage of the material is regulated so that distillation is complete with respect to the temperature of each zone, the whole distillation being accomplished in successive stages. The vapors are taken off at each zone and superheated steam may be passed into the furnace at suitable points and the distillation terminated at any stage of the process.

  12. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A

    2012-01-01

    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  13. Dose Assurance in Radiation Processing Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Chadwick, K.H.; Nam, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed...... at the radiation processing plant can be obtained through the mediation of an international organization, and the IAEA is now implementing a dose assurance service for industrial radiation processing....

  14. Carbide process picked for Chinese polyethylene plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Union Carbide (Danbury, CT) is set to sign up its eighth polyethylene (PE) license in China. The company has been selected to supply its Unipol technology to Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. (JCIC) for a 100,000-m.t./year linear low-density PE (LLDPE) plant at Jilin. The plant will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex, based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene unit awarded to a consortium made up of Samsung Engineering (Seoul) and Linde. A 10,000-m.t./year butene-1 unit will also be built. Toyo Engineering, Snamprogetti, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Linde are competing for the contract to supply the LLDPE plant. The signing is expected this spring. Two contenders are vying to supply an 80,000-m.t./year phenol plant for JCIC. They are Mitsui Engineering, offering the Mitsui Petrochemical process, and Chisso, with UOP technology. Four Unipol process PE plants are under construction in China and three are in operation. At Guangzhou, Toyo Engineering is building a 100,000-m.t./year plant, due onstream in 1995, while Snamprogetti is to finish construction of two plants in the same year at Zhonguyan (120,000 m.t./year) and at Maoming (140,000 m.t./year). The Daquing Design Institute is responsible for the engineering of a 60,000-m.t./year Unipol process PE plant, expected onstream early in 1995. Existing Unipol process PE plants are located in Qilu (60,000 m.t./year LLDPE and 120,000 m.t./year HDPE) and at Taching (60,000 m.t./year HDPE)

  15. The influence of shale gas on steamcracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupieper, A. [Linde Engineering Dresden GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    US shale gas reserves with more than 860 TCF (Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration study World Shale Gas Resources) account for 2 of the global largest reserves after China. In 7 areas of the US, these reserves are systematically explored, providing a significant amount of cheap natural gas source for decades. The ethane share, carried by such shale gas, can reach up to 16%. Ethane has been already in the past 2 most important feedstock for Steamcrackers, being the backbone of the Petrochemical Industry. Due to availability of vast shale gas, the US steamcracker industry is facing a shift from naphtha to shale gas ethane, as the margin of Ethylene produced from shale gas ethane is significantly larger than that of naphtha based Ethylene (app. + 630 USD/t Ethylene). As a consequence shale gas is ''the magic bullet'' incinerating investments into Steamcrackers and downstream plants for U.S petrochemical industry. Steamcracker Projects with an additional ethylene production capacity of more than 17 million tons/a by 2020 are announced or already under construction. Investments into downstream plants refining the C2 derivatives will follow or are already in planning/engineering phase. But the US market cannot absorb all related products, causing a significant export exposure, which will influence global trade flows for C2 derivatives and affect prices. This article presents the impact of shale gas ethane cracking on: - Trade flow of C2 derivatives; - By-product deficits; - Alternate C3+ derivative production routes; - Challenges related to engineering requirements and project execution for Steamcracker projects. (orig.)

  16. Distillation of bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, M

    1875-02-16

    The retort with its accessories constitutes a distillation apparatus for shale composed of a cylindrical, vertical, fixed, tubular, and of ring form metal retort. Also it is comprised of a special hearth of large dimensions in the form of a circular pocket receiving from the retort as heating agent the distilled shale and emitting by radiation the heat that makes the distillation apparatus for the shale act.

  17. Thermal Effects by Firing Oil Shale Fuel in CFB Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshumayev, D.; Ots, A.; Parve, T.; Pihu, T.; Plamus, K.; Prikk, A.

    It is well known that during firing of oil shale fuel the amount of heat released during its combustion per kg of fuel is significantly affected by the endothermic and exothermic processes taking place in mineral matter. These thermal effects are calcite and dolomite decomposing, marcasite FeS2 oxidising, CaO sulphation and formation of the new minerals. The given paper deals with the experimental study of the influence of these thermal effects of oil shale fuel having different heating value on total amount of heat released during combustion in calorimetric bomb, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and pulverized-firing boiler (PFB). The large-scale (250 MWth) experiments were performed in the K11-1 CFB boiler of the Balti Power Plant. During experiments low heating value of a fuel varied within the range 8.5-11 MJ/kg. At the end some conclusions were drawn.

  18. Energy security of supply and oil shale resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Jordan must utilize its huge oil shale deposits in order to increase domestic security of energy supply and benefit financially. Utilization processes will require large scale financial expenditures, beyond Jordan's means. Therefore, the BOT scheme seems to be the perfects solution. Since oil shale retorting technology will produce oil which can be traded to generate valuable foreign exchange revenues, it is more advantageous than direct burning technology which produces electricity limited to local consumption regardless of economics. Under the BOT scheme, the incentive, for the foreign sponsor is to return his investment via quantities of oil; for Jordan the aim is to meet local energy demand and acquire the plant infrastructure in the long term. Recent events in the more traditional oil fields of the region make such a project in Jordan more attractive. (author) 3 tabs. 2 figs

  19. Barnett shale completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, G. [BJ Services, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fractured shales yield oil and gas in various basins across the United States. A map indicating these fractured shale source-reservoir systems in the United States was presented along with the numerous similarities and differences that exist among these systems. Hydrocarbons in the organic rich black shale come from the bacterial decomposition of organic matter, primary thermogenic decomposition of organic matter or secondary thermogenic cracking of oil. The shale may be the reservoir or other horizons may be the primary or secondary reservoir. The reservoir has induced micro fractures or tectonic fractures. This paper described the well completions in the Barnett Shale in north Texas with reference to major players, reservoir properties, mineralogy, fluid sensitivity, previous treatments, design criteria and production examples. The Barnett Shale is an organic, black shale with thickness ranging from 100 to 1000 feet. The total organic carbon (TOC) averages 4.5 per cent. The unit has undergone high rate frac treatments. A review of the vertical wells in the Barnett Shale was presented along with the fracture treatment schedule and technology changes. A discussion of refracturing opportunities and proppant settling and transport revealed that additional proppant increases fluid recovery and enhances production. Compatible scale inhibitors and biocides can be beneficial. Horizontal completions in the Barnett Shale have shown better results than vertical wells, as demonstrated in a production comparison of 3 major horizontal wells in the basin. tabs., figs.

  20. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  1. Combustible shales of the U. S. S. R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobryanskii, A F

    1947-01-01

    Without exception, the geological character of all known oil shales (including sapropelic shales) indicates an aqueous origin for these minerals. The initial organic material of shales has accumulated in every geological period from Cambrian to the present time. Algae, amoeba, rhizopoda, multicellular organisms, and highly organized animals and plants were the forerunners of an intermediate decomposition product referred to as ''pelogen.'' After deposition, pelogen is transformed into sapropels under the influence of anerobic conditions. The composition of sapropel depends upon the percentage of humic acids, lignins, bitumens, albumin, and similar materials that were present in the pelogen. Wax and solid hydrocarbons do not contribute significantly to the process of conversion. Factors that affect the composition of the sapropel are prevalence of plant or animal matter, age of the sapropel, and depth of burial. The basic reaction involved in the change from pelogen to sapropel consisted of an increase in carbon and hydrogen content and a decrease in oxygen content. During this change, hydroxyl groups were removed in the form of water, carboxyl in the form of carbon dioxide gas, and ethereal oxygen in the form of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  2. Basic TRUEX process for Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Dow, J.A.; Farley, S.E.; Nunez, L.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-08-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (Pu, Am) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. The process was designed so that it is relatively insensitive to changes in process feed concentrations and flow rates. Related issues are considered, including solvent losses, feed analysis requirements, safety, and interaction with an evaporator system for nitric acid recycle

  3. Hydrogenation of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedwell, A J; Clark, E D; Miebach, F W

    1935-09-28

    A process for the distillation, cracking, and hydrogenation of shale or other carbonaceous material consists in first distilling the material to produce hydrocarbon oils. Steam is introduced and is passed downwardly with hydrocarbon vapors from the upper portion of the retort where the temperature is maintained between 400/sup 0/C and 450/sup 0/C over the spent carbonaceous materials. The material is drawn off at the bottom of the retort which is maintained at a temperature ranging from 600/sup 0/C to 800/sup 0/C whereby the hydrocarbon vapors are cracked in the pressure of nascent hydrogen obtained by the action of the introduced steam on the spent material. The cracked gases and undecomposed steam are passed through a catalyst tower containing iron-magnesium oxides resulting in the formation of light volatile oils.

  4. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  5. Sweet spot identification and smart development -An integrated reservoir characterization study of a posidonia shale of a posidonia shale outcrop analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.; Zijp, M.H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  6. Origin of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, W G

    1923-01-01

    The theory by Jones was questioned. Oil shales do not contain partly decomposed vegetable matter, and, where particles of vegetation are identified, they do not prove that kerogen was formed in its place. Some shales do contain free oil that can be extracted with solvents.

  7. Chemical aspects of shale and shale oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackford, J E

    1922-01-01

    To prove that the kerogen in oil shale is a form of bitumen, several experiments were made with oil shale and a heavy asphaltic oil mixed with fuller's earth. When distilled, both the oil shale and asphalt-impregnated fuller's earth yielded paraffin oil, wax, and hydrogen sulfide (if sulfur was present). Both yielded ammonia if nitrogen was present. The organic material in each was partly isolated by extraction with pyridine and appeared to be the same. Oil shale is a marl that was saturated with oil or through which oil has passed or filtered. The insolubilities of its organic compounds are due to a slightly elevated temperature for a prolonged period and to the retaining effect exerted by the finely divided marl. The marl exerted a selective action on the oil and absorbed the asphaltum, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds from the oil. The class of oil evolved from a shale depended on the nature of the original compounds absorbed. Asphaltenes obtained from crude oil by precipitation with ethyl ether produced distillation products of water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, oil, wax, and a carbonaceous residue. Water was formed by decomposition of oxyasphaltenes and hydrogen sulfide by decomposition of thioasphaltenes. Ammonia was evolved during decomposition if lime was present, but if there was not sufficient free lime present, pyridine and pyrrole derivatives were redistilled as such. The oil and wax that resulted from the dry distillation were true decomposition products and equaled about 60 weight-percent of the asphaltenes. The oil and wax content of the mixture varied between 8 and 10 percent. The carbonaceous residue, which represented approximately 40 percent of the original asphaltene, was a decomposition product of the asphaltenes. Geologic comparisons of oil-shale deposits and oil-well fields were also made.

  8. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  9. Weld Bead Geometry of Ni-Based Alloy Deposited by PTA Process for Pipe Conduction of Shale Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarria-Figueroa, C.; García-Vázquez, F.; Ruiz-Mondragón, J.; Hernández-García, H. M.; González-González, D.; Vargas, A.

    The transportation of shale gas has the problem that the piping used for the extraction does not resist the erosion generated by the amount of solids causing cracks over the surface and it is necessary to extend the life of the pipelines. Plasma transferred arc (PTA) welded coatings are used to improve the surface properties of mechanical parts. Therefore, in this paper is studied the use of Ni-based filler metal as weld bead deposits on A36 steel substrates by PTA. In order to determine the suitable conditions to ensure coating quality on the substrate a design of experiments (DOE) was determined. Welding current, feed rate, and travel speed were used as input parameters and the dilution percentage as the response variable. The composition and properties of hardfacing or overlay deposited are strongly influenced by the dilution obtained. Control of dilution is important, where typically low dilution is desirable. When the dilution is low, the final deposit composition will be closer to that of the filler metal, and the wear and corrosion resistance of the hardfacing will also be maintained. To evaluate the features on the weld beads/substrate interface a microstructural characterization was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and to evaluate the mechanical properties was carried out hardness test.

  10. Elevated Atmospheric Levels of Benzene and Benzene-Related Compounds from Unconventional Shale Extraction and Processing: Human Health Concern for Residential Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Orimoloye, Helen T

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of natural gas (NG) extraction across the United States (U.S.) raises concern for potential exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Benzene, a HAP and a primary chemical of concern due to its classification as a known human carcinogen, is present in petroleum-rich geologic formations and is formed during the combustion of bypass NG. It is a component in solvents, paraffin breakers, and fuels used in NG extraction and processing (E&P). The objectives of this study are to confirm the presence of benzene and benzene-related compounds (benzene[s]) in residential areas, where unconventional shale E&P is occurring, and to determine if benzene[s] exists in elevated atmospheric concentrations when compared to national background levels. Ambient air sampling was conducted in six counties in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex with passive samples collected in evacuated 6-L Summa canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with sampling performed at variable distances from the facility fence line. Elevated concentrations of benzene[s] in the atmosphere were identified when compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program. The 24-hour benzene concentrations ranged from 0.6 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 592 ppbv, with 1-hour concentrations from 2.94 ppbv to 2,900.20 ppbv. Benzene is a known human carcinogen capable of multisystem health effects. Exposure to benzene is correlated with bone marrow and blood-forming organ damage and immune system depression. Sensitive populations (children, pregnant women, elderly, immunocompromised) and occupational workers are at increased risk for adverse health effects from elevated atmospheric levels of benzene[s] in residential areas with unconventional shale E&P.

  11. Recovering bituminous matter from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H D

    1922-08-29

    A process is described for obtaining valuable hydro-carbons from bituminous solids such as shale and the like, which comprises digesting a mixture of such a bituminous solid with a hydro-carbon liquid, the digestion being conducted at temperature high enough to effectively liquefy heavy bituminous matter contained in the solid but insufficiently high to effect substantial distillation of heavy bituminous matter, separating a resultant liquid mixture of hydrocarbons from the residue of such bituminous solid and refining the liquid mixture.

  12. Developments in production of synthetic fuels out of Estonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, Indrek

    2010-09-15

    Estonia is still the world leader in utilization of oil shale. Enefit has cooperated with Outotec to develop a new generation of solid heat carrier technology - Enefit280, which is more efficient, environmentally friendlier and has higher unit capacity. Breakeven price of oil produced in Enefit280 process is competitive with conventional oils. The new technology has advantages that allow easy adaptation to other oil shales around the world. Hydrotreated shale oil liquids have similar properties to crude oil cuts. Design for a shale oil hydrotreater unit can use process concepts, hardware components, and catalysts commercially proven in petroleum refining services.

  13. Waste processing system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Tezuka, Fuminobu; Maesawa, Yukishige; Irie, Hiromitsu; Daibu, Etsuji.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a waste processing system of a nuclear power plant, which can reduce the volume of a large amount of plastics without burying them. Among burnable wastes and plastic wastes to be discarded in the power plant located on the sea side, the plastic wastes are heated and converted into oils, and the burnable wastes are burnt using the oils as a fuel. The system is based on the finding that the presence of Na 2 O, K 2 O contained in the wastes catalytically improves the efficiency of thermal decomposition in a heating atmosphere, in the method of heating plastics and converting them into oils. (T.M.)

  14. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M A; Dennis, M W; Craig, D K

    1989-12-01

    In anticipation of the commercialization of its shale oil retorting and upgrading process, Unocal Corp. conducted a testing program aimed at better defining potential health impacts of a shale industry. Acute toxicity studies using rats and rabbits compared the effects of naphtha, Jet-A, JP-4, diesel and "residual" distillate fractions of both petroleum derived crude oils and hydrotreated shale oil. No differences in the acute oral (greater than 5 g/kg LD50) and dermal (greater than 2 g/kg LD50) toxicities were noted between the shale and petroleum derived distillates and none of the samples were more than mildly irritating to the eyes. Shale and petroleum products caused similar degrees of mild to moderate skin irritation. None of the materials produced sensitization reactions. The LC50 after acute inhalation exposure to Jet-A, shale naphtha, (greater than 5 mg/L) and JP-4 distillate fractions of petroleum and shale oils was greater than 5 mg/L. The LC50 of petroleum naphtha (greater than 4.8 mg/L) and raw shale oil (greater than 3.95 mg/L) also indicated low toxicity. Results demonstrate that shale oil products are of low acute toxicity, mild to moderately irritating and similar to their petroleum counterparts. The results further demonstrate that hydrotreatment reduces the irritancy of raw shale oil.

  15. A review on technologies for oil shale surface retort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.; Yang, S.A.; Ren, N.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the shortage of oil resources and the continuous increase in oil prices, oil shale has seized much more attention. Oil shale is a kind of important unconventional oil and gas resources. Oil shale resources are plentiful according to the proven reserves in places. And shale oil is far richer than crude oil in the world. Technology processing can be divided into two categories: surface retorting and in-situ technology. The process and equipment of surface retorting are more mature, and are still up to now, the main way to produce shale oil from oil shale. According to the variations of the particle size, the surface retorting technologies of oil shale can be notified and classified into two categories such as lump shale process and particulate shale process. The lump shale processes introduced in this article include the Fushun retorting technology, the Kiviter technology and the Petrosix technology; the particulate processes include the Gloter technology, the LR technology, the Tosco-II technology, the ATP (Alberta Taciuk Process) technology and the Enefit-280 technology. After the thorough comparison of these technologies, we can notice that, this article aim is to show off that : the particulate process that is environmentally friendly, with its low cost and high economic returns characteristics, will be the major development trend; Combined technologies of surface retorting technology and other oil producing technology should be developed; the comprehensive utilization of oil shale should be considered during the development of surface retorting technology, meanwhile the process should be harmless to the environment. (author)

  16. Burning Poseidonian shale ash for production of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1919-10-28

    A process is described for the burning of shale coke obtained by the deoiling of Poseidonian or the usual kind of shale for the preparation of brick, mortar, or cement, characterized in that the shale coke is thrown on a pile and completely covered with burnt material, so that the gases drawn through this cover will be sufficiently choked to hold the feed at a high temperature as long as possible.

  17. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  18. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  19. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otazo, J; Fernandez, R

    2000-01-01

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  20. Liquid oil production from shale gas condensate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, James J.

    2018-04-03

    A process of producing liquid oil from shale gas condensate reservoirs and, more particularly, to increase liquid oil production by huff-n-puff in shale gas condensate reservoirs. The process includes performing a huff-n-puff gas injection mode and flowing the bottom-hole pressure lower than the dew point pressure.

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 10 years of research, development, and testing, the US Department of Energy is building a new facility which will prepare high-level radioactive waste for permanent disposal. The Defense Waste Processing Facility, known as the DWPF, will be the first production-scale facility of its kind in the United States. In the DWPF, high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Savannah River Plant will be processed into a solid form, borosilicate glass, suitable for permanent off-site geologic disposal. With construction beginning in the fall of 1983, the DWPT is scheduled to be operational in 1989. By 2005, the DWPF will have immobilized the backlog of high-level waste which has been accumulating in storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant since 1954. Canisters of the immobilized waste will then be ready for permanent disposal deep under the ground, safely isolated from the environment

  2. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Posidonia Shale outcrop analogue: From serendipity to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  3. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  4. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  5. AIRBORNE MICROORGANISMS IN BROILER PROCESSING PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOTULA, A W; KINNER, J A

    1964-05-01

    Concentrations of total aerobic bacteria, molds, yeasts, coliforms, enterococci, and psychrophiles were determined in the air of two poultry processing plants with Andersen samplers and a mobile power supply. Total aerobic bacterial counts were highest in the dressing room, with diminishing numbers in the shackling, eviscerating, and holding rooms, when sampling was carried out during plant operation. The average counts per ft(3) of air in these four rooms were 2,200; 560; 230; and 62, respectively. (Each value is the average of 36 observations.) The number of organisms increased in the shackling and dressing rooms once processing was begun. Average total aerobic bacterial counts increased from 70 to 870 to 3,000 in the shackling room and from 310 to 4,900 to 7,000 in the dressing room when sampling was carried out at 5:00 am (before plant operations), 9:00 am, and 2:00 pm, respectively. (Each value is the mean of 12 observations.) Airborne molds might originate from a source other than the poultry being processed.

  6. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  7. Biorefinery plant design, engineering and process optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Before new biorefinery systems can be implemented, or the modification of existing single product biomass processing units into biorefineries can be carried out, proper planning of the intended biorefinery scheme must be performed initially. This chapter outlines design and synthesis approaches...... applicable for the planning and upgrading of intended biorefinery systems, and includes discussions on the operation of an existing lignocellulosic-based biorefinery platform. Furthermore, technical considerations and tools (i.e., process analytical tools) which could be applied to optimise the operations...... of existing and potential biorefinery plants are elucidated....

  8. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  9. Improvements in shale retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, A C

    1915-05-01

    This invention has reference to shale retorts and particularly related to the discharge of the spent material from the bottom of retorts or gas producers for the destructive distillation of shale, coal or other bituminous substances. It consists in the combination of a blade and means for rocking the same, a bottom piece or table, holes or slots in the same, a passage in the front brick-work of the retort, and a hopper with discharge doors.

  10. Investigating GHGs and VOCs emissions from a shale gas industry in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, L.; Weger, L.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    The shale gas and shale oil production boom experienced in the US led the country to a significant reduction of foreign fuel imports and an increase in domestic energy security. Several European countries are considering to extract domestic shale gas reserves that might serve as a bridge in the transition to renewables. Nevertheless, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact local and regional air quality and climate. Results from numerous studies investigating greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from shale oil and shale gas extraction in North America can help in estimating the impact of such industrial activity elsewhere, when local regulations are taken into consideration. In order to investigate the extent of emissions and their distribution from a potential shale gas industry in Germany and the United Kingdom, we develop three drilling scenarios compatible with desired national gas outputs based on available geological information on potential productivity ranges of the reservoirs. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to wells under development, as well as to producing wells (from activities at the well site up until processing plants) to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different shale gas development pathways: 1) implementation of "high-technology" devices and recovery practices (low emissions); 2) implementation of "low-technology" devices and recovery practices (high emissions), and 3) intermediate scenarios reflecting assumptions on local and national settings, or extremely high emission events (e.g. super-emitters); all with high and low boundaries of confidence driven by uncertainties. A comparison of these unconventional gas production scenarios to conventional natural gas production in Germany and the United Kingdom is also planned. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to

  11. Distillation of shale and other bituminous substances. [shale granules wetted, mixed with lime, heated; sulfur recovered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noad, J

    1912-09-23

    A process is described for the treatment of shale and other bituminous substances containing sulfur and recovering desulfurized distillates. The process consists of first grinding the shale and mixing the granules obtained with a convenient liquid. The shale granules coated or covered with liquid and mixed with slacked lime are fed into a retort with a series of steps or their equivalent, made to descend, step by step, in such manner that they are continually agitated and heated. The volatile constituents escape through the coating or sheath of lime and are carried away at the upper part of the retort to a convenient condensing apparatus, the sulfur being retained by the sheath of lime and is discharged at the bottom of the retort with the spent shale and other impurities.

  12. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  13. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, H C; Sohns, H W; Dinneen, G U [Laramie Petroleum Research Center, Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  14. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, H.C.; Sohns, H.W.; Dinneen, G.U.

    1970-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  15. Concentration and distribution of elements in plants and soils near phosphate processing factories, Pocatello, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    The processing of phosphatic shale near Pocatello, Idaho has a direct influence on the element content of local vegetation and soil. Samples of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. tridentata) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) show important negative relations between the concentration of certain elements (Cd, Cr, F, Ni, P, Se, U, V, and Zn) and distance from phosphate processing factories. Plant tissues within 3 km of the processing factories contain unusually high amounts of these elements except Ni and Se. Important negative relations with distance were also found for certain elements (Be, F, Fe, K, Li, Pb, Rb, Th, and Zn) in A-horizon soil. Amounts of seven elements (Be, F, Li, Pb, Rb, Th, and Zn) being contributed to the upper 5 cm of the soil by phosphate processing, as well as two additional elements (U and V) suspected as being contributed to soil, were estimated, with F showing the greatest increase (about 300 kg/ha) added to soils as far as 4 km downwind from the factories. The greatest number of important relations for both plants and soils was found downwind (northeast) of the processing factories

  16. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    This study examines the potential for separating, upgrading and marketing sodium mineral co-products together with shale oil production. The co-products investigated are soda ash and alumina which are derived from the minerals nahcolite and dawsonite. Five cases were selected to reflect the variance in mineral and shale oil content in the identified resource. In the five cases examined, oil content of the shale was varied from 20 to 30 gallons per ton. Two sizes of facilities were analyzed for each resource case to determine economies of scale between a 15,000 barrel per day demonstration unit and a 50,000 barrel per day full sized plant. Three separate pieces of analysis were conducted in this study: analysis of manufacturing costs for shale oil and co-products; projection of potential world markets for alumina, soda ash, and nahcolite; and determination of economic viability and market potential for shale co-products.

  17. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil, extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  18. New nuclear plant design and licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes latest developments in the nuclear power reactor technology with emphasis on three areas: (1) the US technology of advanced passive light water reactors (AP600 and S BWR), (2) regulatory processes that certify their safety, and (3) current engineering concerns. The goal is to provide and insight of how the government's regulatory agency guarantees public safety by looking into how new passive safety features were designed and tested by vendors and how they were re-evaluated and retested by the US NRC. The paper then discusses the US 1989 nuclear licensing reform (10 CFR Part 52) whose objectives are to promote the standardization of nuclear power plants and provide for the early and definitive resolution of site and design issues before plants are built. The new licensing process avoids the unpredictability nd escalated construction cost under the old licensing process. Finally, the paper summarizes engineering concerns found in current light water reactors that may not go away in the new design. The concerns are related the material and water chemistry technology in dealing with corrosion problems in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems (PWRs and BWRs). These engineering concerns include core shroud cracking (BWRs), jet pump hold-down beam cracking (BWRs), steam generator tube stress corrosion cracking (PWR)

  19. Energy optimization of integrated process plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandvig Nielsen, J

    1996-10-01

    A general approach for viewing the process synthesis as an evolutionary process is proposed. Each step is taken according to the present level of information and knowledge. This is formulated in a Process Synthesis Cycle. Initially the synthesis is conducted at a high abstraction level maximizing use of heuristics (prior experience, rules of thumbs etc). When further knowledge and information are available, heuristics will gradually be replaced by exact problem formulations. The principles in the Process Synthesis Cycle, is used to develop a general procedure for energy synthesis, based on available tools. The procedure is based on efficient use of process simulators with integrated Pinch capabilities (energy targeting). The proposed general procedure is tailored to three specific problems (Humid Air Turbine power plant synthesis, Nitric Acid process synthesis and Sulphuric Acid synthesis). Using the procedure reduces the problem dimension considerable and thus allows for faster evaluation of more alternatives. At more detailed level a new framework for the Heat Exchanger Network synthesis problem is proposed. The new framework is object oriented based on a general functional description of all elements potentially present in the heat exchanger network (streams, exchangers, pumps, furnaces etc.). (LN) 116 refs.

  20. Broadening the debate on shale gas : guidelines for decision-making based on the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waes, van A.H.M.; Vries, de A.; Est, van Q.C.; Brom, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the debate on shale gas in the Netherlands. In the political decision-making process relating to shale gas, the national government has highlighted the importance of clarifying the opportunities and risks related to shale gas extraction, and the question of whether this is

  1. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  2. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  3. Data processing software for purex plant process control laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansara, V.P.; Achuthan, P.V.; Sridhar, S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    A software has been developed at the Fuel Reprocessing Division, Trombay to meet the data processing needs of the Control Laboratory of a reprocessing plant. During the normal plant operations contents of over one hundred process tanks have to be sampled and analysed for regular monitoring. In order to speed up the computation and the reporting of results as well as to obtain the process performance data over a period of time a software has been developed. The package has been sucessfully demonstrated and implemented at the Plutonium Plant, Trombay. This has been in continuous use since May 1987 with highly satisfactory performance. The software is a totally menu-driven package which can be used by the laboratory analysts with a few hours of training. The features include data validation involving source tank identification, the nature of the sample, the range of expected results, any duplication in sample numbering etc. Audio indication of deviations from the expected input or output values are given with an option to override in case of abnormal samples. The progress of analysis can be obtained for a given sample at any given time. Incorporated in the software is the help menu for quick reference of analytical protocol to be followed for a given tank/method. The computations for the determinations are carried out after obtaining input values on a screen-form. Th e results can be displayed on the monitor or obtained in the form of a hard copy i n any desired format. (author). 17 figs., 2 refs

  4. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...... in the flue gases of the studied oil shale plant contribute, however, to clearly higher total trace metal emission levels compared to modern coal fired power plants. Although the old electrostatic precipitators in the plant have been partly replaced by state-of-the-art electrostatic precipitators...... a two-fraction particle sampling and subsequent absorption of the gaseous fraction. The analyses were principally performed with ICP-MS techniques. The trace metal contents of Estonian oil shale were found to be in the same order of magnitude as of coal on average. The high total particle concentrations...

  5. Apparatus for treating bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-11-24

    A method is given of transforming finely crushed bituminous shale, for instance of maximum particle size of about 5 mm, into balls, nodules, or similar shapes, in which the shale to be treated is passed in the form of lumps through a rotary drum. The finely crushed shale with a higher content of moisture is brought into contact with finely crushed shale of a lower content of moisture, and thereby serves as kernel material during the formation of the nodules or similar shapes.

  6. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  7. Oil shale highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The low prices of crude oil have continued to retard the commercial development of oil shale and other syn fuels. Although research funds are more difficult to find, some R and D work by industry, academia, and governmental agencies continues in the United States and in other parts of the world. Improvements in retorting technology, upgrading oil-shale feedstock, and developing high-value niche-market products from shale oil are three notable areas of research that have been prominent for the past several years. Although the future prices of conventional crude cannot be predicted, it seems evident that diminishing supplies and a burgeoning world population will force us to turn to alternate fossil fuels as well as to cleaner sources of non-fossil energy. (author)

  8. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  9. Shale gas - Risks and stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book aims at exploring all aspects of the shale gas issue: geological data, environmental impacts, financial aspects and economical impacts of shale gas exploitation. It compares the available information with the field reality and defeats the dogmatic mirages. The research and compilation work carried out by the author make this book a reference in the domain of shale gas exploitation

  10. Treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolbear, S H

    1921-01-04

    Oil shale is treated for the separation of the valuable organic compounds, with a view to economy in subsequent destructive distillation, by grinding to powder, mixing with water to form a pulp, adding a small quantity of an oil liquid and aerating the mixture to form a froth containing the organic compounds. If the powdered shale contains sufficient free oil, the addition of oil to the pulp may be dispensed with. In some cases an electrolyte such as sulfuric acid may be added to the pulp.

  11. Treating bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginet, J H

    1921-03-09

    Apparatus for the treatment of bituminous shales is described wherein a number of separate compartments are arranged in alignment and communicate with each other near the bottom thereof, each of the compartments being provided with outlets for the gases evolved therein, while agitators are arranged in each of the compartments, each agitator being composed of a number of shovels which sweep up the comminuted shale at their forward end and discharge it at their rearward end into the path of the next adjacent agitator.

  12. Improving horizontal completions on heterogeneous tight shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Rivera, Roberto; Deenadayalu, Chaitanya; Chertov, Maxim; Novalo Hartanto, Ricardo; Gathogo, Patrick [Schlumberger (United States); Kunjir, Rahul [University of Utah (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the two formation characteristics conducive to economic well production is important when tight shale formation characterization and completion design are being considered. This paper presents the basic understanding required to improve the efficiency of horizontal completions in oil and gas producing shales. Guidelines are defined for effective perforation and fracturing to improve the efficiency and sustainability of horizontal completions using extensive laboratory characterization of mechanical properties on core, core/log integration and continuous mapping of these properties by logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods. The objective is to improve completion design efficiency. This is accomplished by suitable selection of perforation intervals based on an understanding of the relevant physical processes and rock characterization. Conditions at two reservoir regions, the near-wellbore and the far-wellbore, are outlined and are essential to completion design. From the study, it can be concluded that tight shales are strongly anisotropic and cannot be approximated using isotropic models.

  13. Method of concentrating oil shale by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, M

    1941-01-28

    A method is described of concentrating oil shale by flotation. It is characterized by grinding the shale to a grain size which, roughly speaking, is less than 0.06 mm. and more conveniently should be less than 0.05 mm., and followed by flotation. During the process the brown foam formed is separated as concentrate, while the black-brown to all-black foam is separated as a middle product, ground fine again, and thereafter floated once more. The patent contains five additional claims.

  14. Laboratory weathering of combusted oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of three combusted oil shales (two Green River Formation and one New Albany) in a laboratory weathering environment using the humidity cell technique. The mineralogy of the combusted western oil shales (Green River Formation) is process dependent. In general, processing resulted in the formation of anhydrite, lime, periclase, and hematite. During the initial stages of weathering, lime, periclase, and hematite. During the initial stages of weathering, lime, periclase, and anhydrite dissolve and ettringite precipitates. The initial leachates are highly alkaline, saline, and dominated by Na, hydroxide, and SO 4 . As weathering continues, ettringite precipitates. The initial leachates are highly alkaline, saline, and dominated by Na, hydroxide, and SO 4 . As weathering continues, ettringite dissolves, gypsum and calcite precipitate, and the leachates are dominated by Mg, SO 4 , and CO 3 . Leachate pH is rapidly reduced to between 8.5 and 9 with leaching. The combusted eastern oil shale (New Albany) is composed of quartz, illite, hematite, and orthoclase. Weathering results in the precipitation of gypsum. The combusted eastern oil shale did not display a potential to produce acid drainage. Leachate chemistry was dominated by Ca and SO 4 . Element concentrations continually decreased with weathering. IN a western disposal environment receiving minimal atmospheric precipitation, spent oil shale will remain in the initial stages of weathering, and highly alkaline and saline conditions will dominate leachate chemistry. In an eastern disposal environment, soluble salts will be rapidly removed from the spent oil shale to potentially affect the surrounding environment

  15. Enhancing Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Plant Processes Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen L.; Lotter, Christine; Fann, Xumei; Taylor, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Researchers examined how an inquiry-based instructional treatment emphasizing interrelated plant processes influenced 210 elementary pre-service teachers' (PTs) conceptions of three plant processes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and transpiration, and the interrelated nature of these processes. The instructional treatment required PTs to predict the fate of a healthy plant in a sealed terrarium (Plant-in-a-Jar), justify their predictions, observe the plant over a 5-week period, and complete guided inquiry activities centered on one of the targeted plant processes each week. Data sources included PTs' pre- and post-predictions with accompanying justifications, course artifacts such as weekly terrarium observations and science journal entries, and group models of the interrelated plant processes occurring within the sealed terraria. A subset of 33 volunteer PTs also completed interviews the week the Plant-in-a-Jar scenario was introduced and approximately 4 months after the instructional intervention ended. Pre- and post-predictions from all PTs as well as interview responses from the subgroup of PTs, were coded into categories based on key plant processes emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards. Study findings revealed that PTs developed more accurate conceptions of plant processes and their interrelated nature as a result of the instructional intervention. Primary patterns of change in PTs' plant process conceptions included development of more accurate conceptions of how water is used by plants, more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis features, and more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration as transformative processes.

  16. Apparatus for decomposing shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislain, M

    1865-06-20

    The apparatus is designed to fulfill the three following conditions: (1) complete extraction of the mineral oil, by avoiding partial decomposition; (2) purification of the said oil from products formed in the decomposition of the shale; (3) breaking down of the said oil into more products of different density. The separation of the heavy and bituminous products is claimed.

  17. Development of Shale Gas Supply Chain Network under Market Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Chebeir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of energy has turned the shale gas and shale oil into one of the most promising sources of energy in the United States. In this article, a model is proposed to address the long-term planning problem of the shale gas supply chain under uncertain conditions. A two-stage stochastic programming model is proposed to describe and optimize the shale gas supply chain network. Inherent uncertainty in final products’ prices, such as natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL, is treated through the utilization of a scenario-based method. A binomial option pricing model is utilized to approximate the stochastic process through the generation of scenario trees. The aim of the proposed model is to generate an appropriate and realistic supply chain network configuration as well as scheduling of different operations throughout the planning horizon of a shale gas development project.

  18. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Mechanisms in Formation of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Formation from Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction and Processing Operations and Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the production of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride. This study identifies multiple mechanisms by which CS2 contributes to the formation of CO2 in the atmosphere. CS2 and other associated sulfide compounds were found by this study to be present in emissions from unconventional shale gas extraction and processing (E&P) operations. The breakdown products of CS2; carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are indirect greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The heat-trapping nature of CO2 has been found to increase the surface temperature, resulting in regional and global climate change. The purpose of this study is to identify five mechanisms by which CS2 and the breakdown products of CS2 contribute to atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The five mechanisms of CO2 formation are as follows: Chemical Interaction of CS2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) present in natural gas at high temperatures, resulting in CO2 formation;Combustion of CS2 in the presence of oxygen producing SO2 and CO2;Photolysis of CS2 leading to the formation of COS, CO, and SO2, which are indirect contributors to CO2 formation;One-step hydrolysis of CS2, producing reactive intermediates and ultimately forming H2S and CO2;Two-step hydrolysis of CS2 forming the reactive COS intermediate that reacts with an additional water molecule, ultimately forming H2S and CO2. CS2 and COS additionally are implicated in the formation of SO2 in the stratosphere and/or troposphere. SO2 is an indirect contributor to CO2 formation and is implicated in global climate change.

  19. Shale Gas in Europe: pragmatic perspectives and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, A.; Horsfield, B.; Kapp, I.

    2012-10-01

    Natural gas will continue to play a key role in the EU's energy mix in the coming years, with unconventional gas' role increasing in importance as new resources are exploited worldwide. As far as Europe's own shale gas resources are concerned, it is especially the public's perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. Both the pros and cons need to be discussed based on factual argument rather than speculation. Research organizations such as ours (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences) have an active and defining role to play in remedying this deficiency. As far as science and technology developments are concerned, the project "Gas Shales in Europe" (GASH) and the shale gas activities of "GeoEnergie" (GeoEn) are the first major initiatives in Europe focused on shale gas. Basic and applied geoscientific research is conducted to understand the fundamental nature and interdependencies of the processes leading to shale gas formation. When it comes to knowledge transfer, the perceived and real risks associated with shale gas exploitation need immediate evaluation in Europe using scientific analysis. To proactively target these issues, the GFZ and partners are launching the European sustainable Operating Practices (E-SOP) Initiative for Unconventional Resources. The web-based Shale Gas Information Platform (SHIP) brings these issues into the public domain.

  20. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-08-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world's energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1-T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale.

  1. Shale Gas in Europe: pragmatic perspectives and actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsfield B.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas will continue to play a key role in the EU’s energy mix in the coming years, with unconventional gas’ role increasing in importance as new resources are exploited worldwide. As far as Europe’s own shale gas resources are concerned, it is especially the public’s perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. Both the pros and cons need to be discussed based on factual argument rather than speculation. Research organizations such as ours (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences have an active and defining role to play in remedying this deficiency. As far as science and technology developments are concerned, the project “Gas Shales in Europe” (GASH and the shale gas activities of “GeoEnergie” (GeoEn are the first major initiatives in Europe focused on shale gas. Basic and applied geoscientific research is conducted to understand the fundamental nature and interdependencies of the processes leading to shale gas formation. When it comes to knowledge transfer, the perceived and real risks associated with shale gas exploitation need immediate evaluation in Europe using scientific analysis. To proactively target these issues, the GFZ and partners are launching the European sustainable Operating Practices (E-SOP Initiative for Unconventional Resources. The web-based Shale Gas Information Platform (SHIP brings these issues into the public domain.

  2. Maceral and geochemical characteristics of oil shale 2 from the Huangxian Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Lin, Mingyue; Li, Haimei; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Shifeng; Jin, Kankun [Hebei Architectural Science and Technology Inst., Handan, Hebei (China)

    2001-07-01

    Five samples of Oil Shale 2 from the Huangxian Basin have been analysed by coal petrographic and geochemical methods in order to study its formation environment. Higher alginite ratios and hopanes in Oil Shale 2 indicate a lower plants and anoxic environment. Two ternary diagrams of 'facies diagnostic' macerals and biomarkers were used to interpret the depositional environments of organic matter in Oil Shale 2. In both diagrams, Oil Shale 2 plots in a lower plant zone, and was deposited in a deeper water environment. (Author)

  3. Nuclear fuel re-processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yuko; Honda, Takashi; Shoji, Saburo; Kobayashi, Shiro; Furuya, Yasumasa

    1989-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel re-processing plant, high Si series stainless steels not always have sufficient corrosion resistance in a solution containing only nitric acid at medium or high concentration. Further, a method of blowing NOx gases may possibly promote the corrosion of equipment constituent materials remarkably. In view of the above, the corrosion promoting effect of nuclear fission products is suppressed without depositing corrosive metal ions as metals in the nitric acid solution. That is, a reducing atmosphere is formed by generating NOx by electrolytic reduction thereby preventing increase in the surface potential of stainless steels. Further, an anode is disposed in the nitric acid solution containing oxidative metal ions to establish an electrical conduction and separate them by way of partition membranes and a constant potential or constant current is applied while maintaining an ionic state so as not to deposit metals. Thus, equipments of re-processing facility can be protected from corrosion with no particular treatment for wastes as radioactive materials. (K.M.)

  4. Electromagnetic De-Shaling of Coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.; Mesina, M.B.; Kuilman, W.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency with which an electromagnetic sensor array is able to distinguish density and ash content of coal and shale mixtures was determined experimentally. The investigated sensor was originally designed for automatic metal detection and sorting in industrial glass recycle processing, where

  5. Method of treating oil-bearing shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, N H

    1926-04-14

    The process is given for treating shale or other oil-bearing mineral which consists of the application of dry heat to render the oil soluble and subjects the product of the heat treatment to an operation to extract the soluble oils.

  6. Evaluation of waste disposal by shale fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.

    1976-02-01

    The shale fracturing process is evaluated as a means for permanent disposal of radioactive intermediate level liquid waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The estimated capital operating and development costs of a proposed disposal facility are compared with equivalent estimated costs for alternative methods of waste fixation

  7. Shale oil specialty markets: Screening survey for United States applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    EG and G requested J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc. to carry out an initial screening study on the possibilities for producing specialty chemicals from oil shale. Raw shale oil is not an acceptable feedstock to refineries and there are not enough user of heavy fuel oil in the western oil shale region to provide a dependable market. The only alternatives are to hydrotreat the oil, or else ship it long distances to a larger market area. Either of these alternatives results in a cost penalty of several dollars per barrel. Instead of attempting to enter the large-volume petroleum products market, it was hypothesized that a small shale oil facility might be able to produce specialty chemicals with a high enough average value to absorb the high costs of shipping small quantities to distant markets and still provide a higher netback to the plant site than sales to the conventional petroleum products market. This approach, rather than attempting to refine shale oil or to modify its characteristics to satisfy the specifications for petroleum feedstocks or products, focuses instead on those particular characteristics which distinguish shale oil from petroleum, and attempts to identify applications which would justify a premium value for those distinctive characteristics. Because byproducts or specialty chemicals production has been a prominent feature of oil shale industries which have flourished for periods of time in various countries, a brief review of those industries provides a starting point for this study. 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. New plant improves radwaste processing at the Tokai-2 BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    New plant for radiowaste processing at the Tokaj-2 NPP, put in operation in September, 1986, is described. The plant includes five systems providing processing of drianage water, solid waste combustion, decrease of volume and solidification of concentrated wastes, waste storage and flushing water processing. Pressed tablets represent the final product of the waste processing. New plant enables to reduce sufficiently the volume of radioactive wastes

  9. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerrfeld, R.; Kraut-Giesen, G.

    1982-01-01

    1. Goals: Verification of owner's interests during experimental and engineering phase of nuclear coal gasification. 2. Method: 2.1 Witnessing and evaluating of experimental results from running test facilities. 2.2 Influencing experimental program. 2.3 Participation in important meetings of PNP-project. 3. Results: From present point of view the realization of nuclear coal gasification with a nuclear high temperature reactor (HTR) in accordance with the present technical status as well as meeting the existing safety regulations seems to be feasable. R+D-work will be needed for affirmation of design. The gasification of hard coal basing on the allothermal principal has proved to be possible. The examination of the gasifier on a pilot scale is not yet done. The design work for the pilot plant should be started immediately, particularly keeping in mind the decision for erection of PNP in 1990. The calculation of production costs in comparison to autothermal gasification processes is promising better economics, if uncertainties of investment calculation are deemed to be neglectable. (orig.) [de

  10. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  11. Phanerozoic environments of black shale deposition and the Wilson Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabucho-Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. In recent years, much has been done to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic and of the environmental variables that result in their deposition. However, the interpretation of ancient black shale depositional environments is dominated by an oversimplistic set of three depositional models that do not capture their complexity and dynamics. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are an oversimplification of the variety of black shale depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of environments of black shale deposition and the position of black shales in the basin infill sequence strongly depend on basin evolution, which controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited. The nature of the black shales that are deposited, i.e. lithology and type of organic matter, also depends on basin evolution and palaeogeography. We propose that in studies of black shales more attention should be given to the sedimentary processes that have led to their formation and to the interpretation of their sedimentary environments.

  12. Black shales and naftogenesis. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudovich, Yu.E.; Ketris, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A genetic relation between petroleum plus hydrocarbon gases and bio organic authigenic matter has been well established. As black shales are enriched in organic matter they may serve as potential petroleum beds on the depths suitable for petroleum generation (2-5 km). The calculations made by petroleum geologists showed that hydrocarbon amounts generated by black shales made up to one fifth of the initial organic matter at the end of MK-2 stage of catagenesis. Consequently, black shales may serve as the main oil producers in many sedimentary basins. Petroleum generation in black shales has some peculiarities. Abundant masses of organic matter generate huge amounts of hydrocarbon gases which in turn produce anomalous high bed pressures followed by pulse cavitation effect. Bed pressures 1.5 times higher than normal lithostatic pressure have been detected in oil-bearing black shales of the Cis-Caucasus on the depth of 2.0-2.5 km, along with very high (6 degrees per 100 m) geothermal gradient. According to Stavropol oil geologists, there occurs an effect of rock-by-fluid-destruction after fluid pressure has greatly exceeded the lithostatic pressure. Stress tensions discharge by impulses and cracks may appear with a rate of 0.3-0.7 of the sound speed. Cavitation of gaseous bubbles is produced by sharp crack extension. Such cavitation accounts for impact waves and increased local pressure and temperature. Such an increase, in turn, fastens petroleum generation and new rock cracking. The effect of over-pressed rocks associated with black shales may serve as a process indicator. That is why the geophysical methods detect enhanced specific gravity and decreased porosity zones in such black shales. Cracks and petroleum accumulation occur on the flanks of such zones of rock-by-fluid-destruction. Some black shales may be petroleum-productive due to enhanced uranium content. There exist ideas about uranium-derived heat or radiolytic effects on the petroleum generation. Such

  13. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  14. Preparing hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue is characterized in that, as flux is used, rich-in-lime poor-in-sulfur portland-cement clinker, by which the usual gypsum addition, is avoided.

  15. Information interfaces for process plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, M.

    1984-02-01

    The paper describes a systematic approach to the design of information interfaces for operator support in diagnosing complex systems faults. The need of interpreting primary measured plant variables within the framework of different system representations organized into an abstraction hierarchy is identified from an analysis of the problem of diagnosing complex systems. A formalized approach to the modelling of production systems, called Multilevel Flow Modelling, is described. A MFM model specifies plant control requirements and the associated need for plant information and provide a consistent context for the interpretation of real time plant signals in diagnosis of malfunctions. The use of MFM models as a basis for functional design of the plant instrumentation system is outlined, and the use of knowledge Based (Expert) Systems for the design of man-machine interfaces is mentioned. Such systems would allow an active user participation in diagnosis and thus provide the basis for cooperative problem solving. 14 refs. (author)

  16. Shale gas - uncertain destiny?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines that, even if it would be allowed, the exploitation of shale gas in France would need ten years to start, and no one can say what would be our needs then and what would be the situation of the gas market at that time. Even if the government decided to forbid hydraulic fracturing, there could be some opportunity for experimentation with a search for alternative technology. The article notices that risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and extraction of non conventional hydrocarbons, i.e. water pollution and consumption and land use, are variously perceived in different European countries (Germany, Romania, Poland) where important American actors are present (Chevron, Exxon) to exploit shale gases. In the USA, the economic profitability seems in fact to rapidly decrease

  17. Enhancing Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Plant Processes Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen L.; Lotter, Christine; Fann, Xumei; Taylor, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Researchers examined how an inquiry-based instructional treatment emphasizing interrelated plant processes influenced 210 elementary pre-service teachers' (PTs) conceptions of three plant processes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and transpiration, and the interrelated nature of these processes. The instructional treatment required PTs to…

  18. Suggestions on the development strategy of shale gas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the aspects of shale gas resource condition, main exploration and development progress, important breakthrough in key technologies and equipment, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed current situation of shale gas development in China and pointed out five big challenges such as misunderstandings, lower implementation degree and higher economic uncertainty of shale gas resource, and still no breakthrough in exploration and development core technologies and equipment for shale gas buried depth more than 3500 m, higher cost and other non-technical factors that restrict the development pace. Aiming at the above challenges, we put forward five suggestions to promote the shale gas development in China: (1 Make strategies and set goals according to our national conditions and exploration and development stages. That is, make sure to realize shale gas annual production of 20 × 109 m3, and strives to reach 30 × 109 m3. (2 Attach importance to the research of accumulation and enrichment geological theory and exploration & development key engineering technologies for lower production and lower pressure marine shale gas reservoir, and at the same time orderly promote the construction of non-marine shale gas exploration & development demonstration areas. (3 The government should introduce further policies and set special innovation funds to support the companies to carry out research and development of related technologies and equipment, especially to strengthen the research and development of technology, equipment and process for shale gas bellow 3500 m in order to achieve breakthrough in deep shale gas. (4 Continue to promote the geological theory, innovation in technology and management, and strengthen cost control on drilling, fracturing and the whole process in order to realize efficient, economic and scale development of China's shale gas. (5 Reform the mining rights management system, establish information platform of shale

  19. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G A

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  20. Control system for technological processes in tritium processing plants with process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retevoi, Carmen Maria; Stefan, Iuliana; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Stefan, Liviu; Bucur, Ciprian

    2005-01-01

    Integration of a large variety of installations and equipment into a unitary system for controlling the technological process in tritium processing nuclear facilities appears to be a rather complex approach particularly when experimental or new technologies are developed. Ensuring a high degree of versatility allowing easy modifications in configurations and process parameters is a major requirement imposed on experimental installations. The large amount of data which must be processed, stored and easily accessed for subsequent analyses imposes development of a large information network based on a highly integrated system containing the acquisition, control and technological process analysis data as well as data base system. On such a basis integrated systems of computation and control able to conduct the technological process could be developed as well protection systems for cases of failures or break down. The integrated system responds to the control and security requirements in case of emergency and of the technological processes specific to the industry that processes radioactive or toxic substances with severe consequences in case of technological failure as in the case of tritium processing nuclear plant. In order to lower the risk technological failure of these processes an integrated software, data base and process analysis system are developed, which, based on identification algorithm of the important parameters for protection and security systems, will display the process evolution trend. The system was checked on a existing plant that includes a removal tritium unit, finally used in a nuclear power plant, by simulating the failure events as well as the process. The system will also include a complete data base monitoring all the parameters and a process analysis software for the main modules of the tritium processing plant, namely, isotope separation, catalytic purification and cryogenic distillation

  1. Electronic data processing codes for California wildland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merton J. Reed; W. Robert Powell; Bur S. Bal

    1963-01-01

    Systematized codes for plant names are helpful to a wide variety of workers who must record the identity of plants in the field. We have developed such codes for a majority of the vascular plants encountered on California wildlands and have published the codes in pocket size, using photo-reductions of the output from data processing machines. A limited number of the...

  2. Future strategies for oil shale development as a new indigenous energy resource in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O.; Tarawneh, T.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous oil shale deposits could satisfy Jordan's demand for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity for many centuries. Markets also exist for raw and retorted oil shale, spent shale, and for sulfur recovered during the upgrading and refining of crude shale oil. Although the potential benefits of oil shale development are substantial, complex and expensive facilities would be required, and these have serious economic, environmental, and social implications for the Kingdom and its people. In January 2006, the United States Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) awarded a grant to the Jordanian Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation to support the analysis of current oil shale processing technologies and the application of international expertise to the development of a oil shale industry in Jordan. The goal of the technical assistance project was to help the Government of Jordan (GoJ) establish short and long-term strategies for oil shale development and to facilitate the commercial production of shale oil in the country. This paper discusses the results of the project. The Kingdom's current energy situation and its previous work on oil shale are summarized, and the incentives and restraints on oil shale commercialization are described. Impediments to development are identified, and possible governmental responses are assessed. (author)

  3. Organic material of the Messel oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, B.; Littke, R.

    1986-05-01

    According to chemism, the Messel oil shales belong to the Kerogen type II, formed by algae with additions of huminite detritus, i.e. residues of higher plants. This has been confirmed by the organo-petrographic studies reported. The oil shale deposits are characterised by their content of organic materials, the occurrence of a cream-coloured inertinite maceral, and of siderite. Hence, two facies can be clearly discriminated, the lower one containing relatively much organic material and the cream-coloured inertinite, but no siderite, and the upper facies exhibiting just the opposite. As the detritus is finely grained and quite uniform in content of huminite and silicate material, and only few spores and pollen have been found, there is reason to assume that the two facies represent sediments formed far from the border of the lake.

  4. An Integrated Approach to Water-Energy Nexus in Shale-Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhil Y. Al-Aboosi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas production is associated with significant usage of fresh water and discharge of wastewater. Consequently, there is a necessity to create proper management strategies for water resources in shale gas production and to integrate conventional energy sources (e.g., shale gas with renewables (e.g., solar energy. The objective of this study is to develop a design framework for integrating water and energy systems including multiple energy sources, the cogeneration process and desalination technologies in treating wastewater and providing fresh water for shale gas production. Solar energy is included to provide thermal power directly to a multi-effect distillation plant (MED exclusively (to be more feasible economically or indirect supply through a thermal energy storage system. Thus, MED is driven by direct or indirect solar energy and excess or direct cogeneration process heat. The proposed thermal energy storage along with the fossil fuel boiler will allow for the dual-purpose system to operate at steady-state by managing the dynamic variability of solar energy. Additionally, electric production is considered to supply a reverse osmosis plant (RO without connecting to the local electric grid. A multi-period mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP is developed and applied to discretize the operation period to track the diurnal fluctuations of solar energy. The solution of the optimization program determines the optimal mix of solar energy, thermal storage and fossil fuel to attain the maximum annual profit of the entire system. A case study is solved for water treatment and energy management for Eagle Ford Basin in Texas.

  5. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D.; Williams, P.T.

    1998-01-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e. the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oil shale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  6. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Williams, P.T. [Leeds University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1998-02-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e. the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oil shale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  7. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  8. Oil shale (in memoriam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Marek

    2000-01-01

    Plans for the continued use of oil shale may lead the development of this country into an impasse. To this day no plans have been made for transition from the use of energy based on fossil fuels to that based on renewable resources. Without having any clear strategic plan politicians have been comforting both themselves and the population with promises to tackle the problem when the right time comes. Today the only enterprise whose cash flows and capital would really make it possible to reform the power industry is the firm Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy). However, its sole present shareholder - the state - prefers the sale of the firm's shares to carrying out a radical reform. At the same time, local consumers are likely to rather be willing to pay for the expensive electric energy produced from renewable resources than for that produced from fossil fuels, the price of which will also remain high due to the pollution tax. Practically it is impossible to buy a globally balanced environment for money - pollution taxes are but punitive mechanisms. The investments made into the oil-shale industry will also reinforce the cultural distance of North-East Estonia from the rest of Estonia - the uniform and prevalently Russian-speaking industrial area will be preserved as long as capital will continue to flow into the oil shale industry concentrated there. The way out would be for industries to make wider use of ecological and ecosystemic technologies and for the state to enforce ecologically balanced economic and social policies. (author)

  9. Energy Return on Investment (EROI of Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. O’Connor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two methods of processing synthetic crude from organic marlstone in demonstration or small-scale commercial status in the U.S. are in situ extraction and surface retorting. The considerable uncertainty surrounding the technological characterization, resource characterization, and choice of the system boundary for oil shale operations indicate that oil shale is only a minor net energy producer if one includes internal energy (energy in the shale that is used during the process as an energy cost. The energy return on investment (EROI for either of these methods is roughly 1.5:1 for the final fuel product. The inclusions or omission of internal energy is a critical question. If only external energy (energy diverted from the economy to produce the fuel is considered, EROI appears to be much higher. In comparison, fuels produced from conventional petroleum show overall EROI of approximately 4.5:1. “At the wellhead” EROI is approximately 2:1 for shale oil (again, considering internal energy and 20:1 for petroleum. The low EROI for oil shale leads to a significant release of greenhouse gases. The large quantities of energy needed to process oil shale, combined with the thermochemistry of the retorting process, produce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Oil shale unambiguously emits more greenhouse gases than conventional liquid fuels from crude oil feedstocks by a factor of 1.2 to 1.75. Much of the discussion regarding the EROI for oil shale should be regarded as preliminary or speculative due to the very small number of operating facilities that can be assessed.

  10. Distilling shale and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, H T.P.

    1922-02-23

    In distilling shale or like bituminous fuels by internal heating with hot gas obtained by the gasifying of the shale residues with air or steam or a mixture of these, the amount and temperature of the gaseous distilling medium is regulated between the gasifying and the distilling chambers, by the introduction of cold gas or air.

  11. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  12. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  13. Proceedings: Distributed digital systems, plant process computers, and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    These are the proceedings of a workshop on Distributed Digital Systems, Plant Process Computers, and Networks held in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 16--18, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The workshop was attended by more than 100 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering service organizations, and government agencies. The workshop consisted of three days of presentations, exhibitions, a panel discussion and attendee interactions. Original plant process computers at the nuclear power plants are becoming obsolete resulting in increasing difficulties in their effectiveness to support plant operations and maintenance. Some utilities have already replaced their plant process computers by more powerful modern computers while many other utilities intend to replace their aging plant process computers in the future. Information on recent and planned implementations are presented. Choosing an appropriate communications and computing network architecture facilitates integrating new systems and provides functional modularity for both hardware and software. Control room improvements such as CRT-based distributed monitoring and control, as well as digital decision and diagnostic aids, can improve plant operations. Commercially available digital products connected to the plant communications system are now readily available to provide distributed processing where needed. Plant operations, maintenance activities, and engineering analyses can be supported in a cost-effective manner. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  14. Organic substances of bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, V A; Pronina, M V

    1944-01-01

    Samples of Gdov (Estonia) and Volga (Russia) oil shales were oxidized by alkaline permanganate to study the distribution of carbon and the composition of the resulting oxidation products. Gdov shale was rather stable to oxidation and, after 42 hours 61.2 percent of the organic material remained unoxidized. Five hundred hours were required for complete oxidation, and the oxidation products consisted of CO/sub 2/, acetic, oxalic, and succinic acids. The oxidation products from Volga shale consisted of CO/sub 2/, acetic, oxalic, succinic, adipic, phthalic, benzenetricarboxylic, benzenetetracarboxylic, and benzenepentacarboxylic acids. The results indicated that Gdov shale is free of humic substances and is of sapropelic origin, while Volga shale is of sapropelic-humic origin.

  15. Plant Cytokinesis: Terminology for Structures and Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smertenko, A.; Assaad, F.F.; Baluška, F.; Bezanilla, M.; Buschmann, B.; Drakakaki, G.; Hauser, M.T.; Janson, M.; Mineyuki, Y.; Moore, I.; Mueller, S.; Murata, T.; Otegui, M.S.; Panteris, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Schmit, A. C.; Šamaj, J.; Samuels, L.; Staehelin, L. A.; Van Damme, D.; Wasteneys, G.; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2017), s. 885-894 ISSN 0962-8924 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : cell plate formation * microtubule-associated protein * dividing root- cell s * preprophase-band formation * cortical division zone * trans-golgi network * physcomitrella-patens * arabidopsis-thaliana * somatic cytokinesis * tobacco by-2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 15.333, year: 2016

  16. Process Information System - Nuclear Power Plant Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, D.; Barbic, B.; Linke, B.; Colak, I.

    1998-01-01

    Original NEK design was using several Process Computer Systems (PCS) for both process control and process supervision. PCS were built by different manufacturers around different hardware and software platforms. Operational experience and new regulatory requirements imposed new technical and functional requirements on the PCS. Requirements such as: - Acquisition of new signals from the technological processes and environment - Implementation of new application programs - Significant improvement of MMI (Man Machine Interface) - Process data transfer to other than Main Control Room (MCR) locations - Process data archiving and capability to retrieve same data for future analysis were impossible to be implemented within old systems. In order to satisfy new requirements, NEK has decided to build new Process Information System (PIS). During the design and construction of the PIS Project Phase I, in addition to the main foreign contractor, there was significant participation of local architect engineering and construction companies. This paper presents experience of NEK and local partners. (author)

  17. Scoping of fusion-driven retorting of oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1979-11-01

    In the time frame beyond 2005, fusion reactors are likely to make their first appearance when the oil shale industry will probably be operating with 20% of the production derived from surface retorts operating on deep mined shale from in situ retorts and 80% from shale retorted within these in situ retorts using relatively fine shale uniformly rubblized by expensive mining methods. A process was developed where fusion reactors supply a 600 0 C mixture of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor to both surface and in situ retorts. The in situ production is accomplished by inert gas retorting, without oxygen, avoiding the burning of oil released from the larger shale particles produced in a simpler mining method. These fusion reactor-heated gases retort the oil from four 50x50x200m in-situ rubble beds at high rate of 40m/d and high yield (i.e., 95% F.A.), which provided high return on investment around 20% for the syncrude selling at $20/bbl, or 30% if sold as $30/bbl for heating oil. The bed of 600 0 C retorted shale, or char, left behind was then burned by the admission of ambient air in order to recover all of the possible energy from the shale resource. The hot combustion gases, mostly nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are then heat-exchanged with fusion reactor blanket coolant flow to be sequentially introduced into the next rubble bed ready for retorting. The advantages of this fusion-driven retorting process concept are a cheaper mining method, high yield and higher production rate system, processing with shale grades down to 50 l/mg (12 gpt), improved resource recovery by complete char utilization and low energy losses by leaving behind a cold, spent bed

  18. Treatment of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H L

    1922-07-04

    To distill oil shale in lump form, it is fed as a continuous charge through an axially rotating externally heated retorting chamber, where the exposed surfaces of the lumps are gradually decomposed by destructive distillation, and light physical shocks are continuously administered to them, due to their tumbling-over motion and their contact with the ribs, to knock off the decomposing surfaces and present fresh surfaces for distillation. The vapors are withdrawn through a conduit, and the partially distilled lumps are fed through a shoot into a plurality of rotating externally heated retorts, similar in character to the first retort, from whence the vapors pass through a conduit to condensing apparatus, from which the permanent gases are withdrawn, and used for fuel in the distillation zone, while the residue is discharged into a water well. An auxiliary heating conduit, having a burner discharging into it, may be employed, while in some cases steam may be used if required. In two modifications, different arrangements of the retorts are shown, as well as means within the retorts for breaking up the lumps of shale.

  19. Distillation of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J

    1877-01-05

    The retort consists of a trough fitted with a hood, the edges of which hood dip into a channel of water formed round the sides of the trough, and thereby seal the retort. The shale is introduced at one end of the hood through a double-valved inlet hopper, and is moved along the retort by transverse scrapers or paddles. At the other end it falls through a double-valved outlet upon a set of firebars which carry it along under the retort, where either alone or in admixture with other fuel it is used for heating the vessel. The vapors from the shale pass off through pipes in the hood, or an inverted channel may be formed along the center of the hood for collecting the vapors from different parts of the vessel. The scrapers are worked by rocking shafts supported on bearings in the edges of the trough, and are made to feather when moving in a direction from the discharged end. Levers from the rocking shafts project down into the water channel, where they are connected with horizontal bars made to reciprocate longitudinally by suitable means, thus working the scrapers without using stuffing-boxes. Rotating scrapers may be substituted for the reciprocating ones.

  20. Combustion of Jordanian oil shale using circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, M.; Al-Azzam, S.

    1998-11-01

    this study re[resents design and manufacturing of a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed (C.F.B) to burn low grade fuel such as Jordanian oil shale. Hydrodynamic properties of C.F.B. were studied like minimum fluidization velocity, circulation flux and carryover rate. a hot run was firstly conducted by the combustion of L.P.G. to start up the combustion process. It proceeds until reaching the minimum burning temperature of oil shale particles, at which time the LPG supply was gradually reduced and oil shale feeding started. soon after reaching a self sustainable condition of oil shale particles, the LPG supply was cut off. The main combustion variables were investigated such as air to fuel ratios, temperature profiles across the bed, exhaust gas analysis and combustion efficiency. a combustion intensity of 859 kg/hr.m 2 and combustion efficiency of 96% were achieved. (authors). 19 refs., 9 tab., 18 fig

  1. Future of robots in nuclear plants and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.J.; Byrd, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The role of robotics at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory is reviewed. The site's remote process areas are described briefly, and existing remote handling equipment and robots are discussed. Three technology areas under development and relating to process automation are reviewed. These are: inspection systems to detect and evaluate process problems or to determine equipment integrity, process monitoring systems to analyze plant operations and to supply information in the event of an unusual occurrence, and remote manipulator systems and controls to handle instruments and tools. A technique is presented for employing future intelligent robots through process networks. These networks will represent the integration of robotic technology with dedicated process knowledge bases

  2. Nuclear reactor plant for production process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1979-01-01

    The high temperature reactor is suitable as a heat source for carrying out endothermal chemical processes. A heat exchanger is required for separating the reactor coolant gases and the process medium. The heat of the reactor is transferred at a temperature lower than the process temperature to a secondary gas and is compressed to give the required temperature. The compression energy is obtained from the same reactor. (RW) [de

  3. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. Organizational processes and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landy, F.J.; Jacobs, R.R.; Mathieu, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the effects organizational factors have on the risk associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. The described research project addresses three methods for identifying the organizational factors that impact safety. The first method consists of an elaborate theory-based protocol dealing with decision making procedures, interdepartmental coordination of activities, and communications. The second, known as goals/means/measures protocol, deals with identifying safey related goals. The third method is known as behaviorally anchored rating scale development. The paper discusses the importance of the convergence of these three methods to identify organizational factors essential to reactor safety

  5. Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

    1986-10-01

    Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed

  6. Use for refuse of shale carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1917-09-25

    A process is disclosed for using the refuse from the carbonization of bituminous shales in the preparation of light building material, characterized in that the pulverized material is mixed wet with a light filler, formed in a mold, and burned with or without the addition of clay or with the addition of binding and preserving material, preparing the mold from the pulverized material in the cold.

  7. Isothermal decomposition of Baltic oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, A Ya

    1955-01-01

    Heating oil shale at 300/sup 0/ to 440/sup 0/C yields a primary tar. Longer heating, regardless of temperature, results in the formation of heavier tar fractions. Higher temperatures tend to increase the middle and high-boiling fractions and to increase the concentration of unsaturated hydrocarbons at the expense of saturated hydrocarbons. Phenols appear, even at lower heating temperatures, indicating that aromatic structures are present or generated during the process.

  8. Method of utilization of alum shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlerus, C G

    1908-07-04

    A procedure - by means of reducing smelting of bituminous alum shales in a closed furnace process with or without the use of additional fuel and without adding lime or other slag-forming material - to utilize the hydrocarbons and tar oils formed, and likewise the alkali, nitrogen, and sulfur compositions is given. This is accomplished by making these products follow the furnace gases, and later separating them from the gases by cooling for condensation. The patent contains one more claim.

  9. Nuclear plant needs for new process instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.; Belew, M.

    1991-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is initiating projects to investigate new sensor designs for pressure and hydrogen measurements. The intent is to develop new sensors that are highly accurate with inherently low-maintenance requirements. Criteria have been developed, with utility review and input, for evaluating pressure sensor technology. The first phase will evaluate all pressure-sensing concepts, including new techniques such as fiber optics, digital silicon, reductance, acoustics, and others (exploratory research). Concepts that appear most attractive for meeting the utility criteria will be extended. The second phase would be conceptual development, laboratory testing, market surveys, manufacturing assessments, plant implementation assessments, and a cost/benefits assessment. Assuming positive results from phase 2, phase 3 would be prototype sensor development and host plant testing. Phase 4 (funded outside EPRI) would be qualification testing. Hydrogen sensor assessment studies are under way to determine the need for improved hydrogen sensor designs. If the results of the assessment indicate a need, a project to develop improved hydrogen sensors utilizing a similar multiphase approach will also be initiated

  10. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grismer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, wineries in the western United States and sugarcane processing for ethanol in Central and South America have experienced problems related to the treatment and disposal of process wastewater. Both winery and sugarcane (molasses wastewaters are characterized by large organic loadings that change seasonally and are detrimental to aquatic life. We examined the role of plants for treating these wastewaters in constructed wetlands. In the greenhouse, subsurface-flow flumes with volcanic rock substrates and plants steadily removed approximately 80% of organic-loading oxygen demand from sugarcane process wastewater after about 3 weeks of plant growth; unplanted flumes removed about 30% less. In field studies at two operational wineries, we evaluated the performance of similar-sized, paired, subsurface constructed wetlands with and without plants; while both removed most of the oxygen demand, removal rates in the planted system were slightly greater and significantly different from those of the unplanted system under field conditions.

  11. Gas production in the Barnett Shale obeys a simple scaling theory

    OpenAIRE

    Patzek, Tad W.; Male, Frank; Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ten years ago, US natural gas cost 50% more than that from Russia. Now, it is threefold less. US gas prices plummeted because of the shale gas revolution. However, a key question remains: At what rate will the new hydrofractured horizontal wells in shales continue to produce gas? We analyze the simplest model of gas production consistent with basic physics of the extraction process. Its exact solution produces a nearly universal scaling law for gas wells in each shale play, where production f...

  12. Prospect of shale gas recovery enhancement by oxidation-induced rock burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun You

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By horizontal well multi-staged fracturing technology, shale rocks can be broken to form fracture networks via hydraulic force and increase the production rate of shale gas wells. Nonetheless, the fracturing stimulation effect may be offset by the water phase trapping damage caused by water retention. In this paper, a technique in transferring the negative factor of fracturing fluid retention into a positive factor of changing the gas existence state and facilitating shale cracking was discussed using the easy oxidation characteristics of organic matter, pyrite and other minerals in shale rocks. Furthermore, the prospect of this technique in tackling the challenges of large retention volume of hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale gas reservoirs, high reservoir damage risks, sharp production decline rate of gas wells and low gas recovery, was analyzed. The organic matter and pyrite in shale rocks can produce a large number of dissolved pores and seams to improve the gas deliverability of the matrix pore throats to the fracture systems. Meanwhile, in the oxidation process, released heat and increased pore pressure will make shale rock burst, inducing expansion and extension of shale micro-fractures, increasing the drainage area and shortening the gas flowing path in matrix, and ultimately, removing reservoir damage and improving gas recovery. To sum up, the technique discussed in the paper can be used to “break” shale rocks via hydraulic force and to “burst” shale rocks via chemical oxidation by adding oxidizing fluid to the hydraulic fracturing fluid. It can thus be concluded that this method can be a favorable supplementation for the conventional hydraulic fracturing of shale gas reservoirs. It has a broad application future in terms of reducing costs and increasing profits, maintaining plateau shale gas production and improving shale gas recovery.

  13. Coal Preparation and Processing Plants New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NSPS regulation for coal preparation and processing plants by reading the rule summary, the rule history, the code of federal regulation text, the federal register, and additional docket documents

  14. Subsidence prediction in Estonia's oil shale mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastarus, J.R.; Toomik, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analysis the stability of the mining blocks in Estonian oil shale mines, where the room-and-pillar mining system is used. The pillars are arranged in a singular grid. The oil shale bed is embedded at the depth of 40-75 m. The processes in overburden rocks and pillars have caused the subsidence of the ground surface. The conditional thickness and sliding rectangle methods performed calculations. The results are presented by conditional thickness contours. Error does not exceed 4%. Model allows determining the parameters of spontaneous collapse of the pillars and surface subsidence. The surface subsidence parameters will be determined by conventional calculation scheme. Proposed method suits for stability analysis, failure prognosis and monitoring. 8 refs

  15. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  16. Distilling oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, R H

    1923-04-18

    In the fractional distillation of oils from oil shale and similar materials the charge is passed continuously through a vertical retort heated externally by hot combustion gases in flues and internally by the passage of these gases through flues passing through the retort so that zones of increasing temperature are maintained. A vapor trap is provided in each zone having an exit pipe leading through a dust trap to a condenser. The bottoms of the conical vapor traps are provided with annular passages perforated to permit of steam being sprayed into the charge to form screens which prevent the vapors in different zones from mingling, and steam may also be introduced through perforations in an annular steam box. Dampers are provided to control the passage of the heating gases through the flues independently.

  17. Distillation of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, E L

    1923-09-04

    To retort shale, lignite, coal, or the like for the recovery of gas and oils or spirits, it is fed through a hopper and then passed in a thin film through the space between the casing and outer shell by means of louvres which with the shell and the outer shell are reciprocated vertically. The top of the shell connected by brackets and lifting joists are pivoted to an eccentric driven by a shaft. The spent material passes through openings in the fixed base casting and openings in a moving ring which is rotated by a pawl and ratchet gear actuated by the reciprocation of the shell. The openings are opposite one another at the commencement of the downward movement of the louvres and shell and closed when the louvres are right down and on their upward movement.

  18. Distilling coal, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussey, C C

    1916-07-17

    In the extraction of vovolatile ingredients from coal, shale, lignite, and other hydrocarbonaceous materials by passing through the material a heating-agent produced by burning at the base of the charge a portion of the material from which the volatile ingredients have been extracted, the temperature of the heating agent is maintained constant by continuously removing the residue from the bottom of the apparatus. The temperature employed is 800/sup 0/F or slightly less, so as to avoid any breaking-down action. As shown the retort is flared downwardly, and is provided at the base with a fireplace, which is in communication with the interior of the retort through flues fitted with screens and dampers. Beneath the bottom of the retort is mounted a movable grate carried on endless sprocket chains, which are preferably set so that the grate inclines downwardly towards the coke, etc.

  19. Recovering oil from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahey, T; Wilson, H

    1920-11-13

    To recover oil free from inorganic impurities and water, and utilize the oil vapor and tarry matter for the production of heat, shale is heated in a retort at a temperature of not less than 120/sup 0/C. The vapors pass by a pipe into a water jacketed condenser from which the condensate and gas pass through a pipe into a chamber and then by a pipe to a setting chamber from where the light oils are decanted through a pipe into a tank. The heavy oil is siphoned through a pipe into a tank, while the gas passes through a pipe into a scrubber and then into a drier, exhauster and pipe to the flue and ports, above the fire-bars, into the retort. Air is introduced through a pipe, flue, and ports.

  20. Screen-based process control in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.; Arnoldt, C.; Hessler, C.

    1993-01-01

    Requirements, development and conceptual design of a screen-based control room for nuclear power plants are outlined. The control room consists of three or four equally equipped operator workstations comprising screens for process information and manual process control. A plant overview will assist the coordination among the operators. A safety classified backup system (safety control area) is provided to cover postulated failures of the control means. Some aspects of ergonomical validation and of future development trends are discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Neutron activation determination of rhenium in shales shales and molybdenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, E.I.; Radinovich, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the technique for neutron activation determination of rhenium in shales and molybdenites with its radiochemical extraction separation by methyl-ethyl ketone. The sensitivity of the analysis is 5x10 -7 %. Experimental checking of the developed technique in reference to the analysis of shales and molybdenites was carried out. Estimated is the possibility of application of X-ray gamma-spectrometer to instrumental determination of rhenium in molybdenites

  2. Egg processing plant sanitation, SSOPs, and GMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The basis of food safety programs in processing facilities is prerequisite programs such as sanitation and good manufacturing practices. Thoughtful, thorough, and complete sanitation programs are necessary to enhance the food safety of products and reduce the likelihood of foodborne illness. Egg p...

  3. Safeguards planning in a plant design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The safeguards efforts for the partitioning fuel cycle are considered. Included in the discussion are the organization of the safeguards study, the development of safeguards criteria, the expression of these criteria as requirements for facility design, and some preliminary details of the implementation of these requirements in facility and process layout

  4. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  5. Prospects for the exploitation of Jordan oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O; Probert, S.D.; Badr, O.

    1997-01-01

    Oil shale is the major indigenous fossil-fuel in Jordan: its predicted reserves, of about 5·10 1 0 tonnes, should be sufficient to satisfy Jordan's energy requirements for several centuries. Jordanian oil shale has, on an average, a gross calorific value of between 5 and 7 MJ/kg, an oil yield of ∼ 10 %, and a sulfur content of approximately 3 % by weight of the raw shale (i.e. 7 to 9 % of the organic matter content). Using the oil shale as the input fuel, a multipurpose production process (i.e. retorting, electricity generation, thermal water-desalination, chemicals production as well as mineral extraction) could achieve high utilisation-factors of both its chemical and energy potentials. In the long-term, oil shale is the only indigenous energy resource that could reduce Jordan's dependence on imported crude oil and hence ease the pressure on the national economy. The conversion of oil shale into a liquid or gaseous fuel and raw materials will be of decisive importance in attempts to secure the future of energy supplies. So national efforts devoted to the exploration for, and harnessing more economically, this energy resource, while limiting the associated adverse environmental impacts, should be accelerated. (author)

  6. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky: II. Redistribution of minor and trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    During weathering, elements enriched in black shale are dispersed in the environment by aqueous and mechanical transport. Here a unique evaluation of the differential release, transport, and fate of Fe and 15 trace elements during progressive weathering of the Devonian New Albany Shale in Kentucky is presented. Results of chemical analyses along a weathering profile (unweathered through progressively weathered shale to soil) describe the chemically distinct pathways of the trace elements and the rate that elements are transferred into the broader, local environment. Trace elements enriched in the unweathered shale are in massive or framboidal pyrite, minor sphalerite, CuS and NiS phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These phases are subject to varying degrees and rates of alteration along the profile. Cadmium, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn are removed from weathered shale during sulfide-mineral oxidation and transported primarily in aqueous solution. The aqueous fluxes for these trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Cd) to 44 g/ha/a (Mn). When hydrologic and climatic conditions are favorable, solutions seep to surface exposures, evaporate, and form Fe-sulfate efflorescent salts rich in these elements. Elements that remain dissolved in the low pH (pH. Neutralization of the weathering solution in local streams results in elements being adsorbed and precipitated onto sediment surfaces, resulting in trace element anomalies. Other elements are strongly adsorbed or structurally bound to solid phases during weathering. Copper and U initially are concentrated in weathering solutions, but become fixed to modern plant litter in soil formed on New Albany Shale. Molybdenum, Pb, Sb, and Se are released from sulfide minerals and organic matter by oxidation and accumulate in Fe-oxyhydroxide clay coatings that concentrate in surface soil during illuviation. Chromium, Ti, and V are strongly correlated with clay abundance and considered to be in the structure of illitic clay. Illite

  7. Overpressure generation by load transfer following shale framework weakening due to smectite diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahann, R.W.; Swarbrick, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basin model studies which have addressed the importance of smectite conversion to illite as a source of overpressure in the Gulf of Mexico have principally relied on a single-shale compaction model and treated the smectite reaction as only a fluid-source term. Recent fluid pressure interpretation and shale petrology studies indicate that conversion of bound water to mobile water, dissolution of load-bearing grains, and increased preferred orientation change the compaction properties of the shale. This results in substantial changes in effective stress and fluid pressure. The resulting fluid pressure can be 1500-3000psi higher than pressures interpreted from models based on shallow compaction trends. Shale diagenesis changes the mineralogy, volume, and orientation of the load-bearing grains in the shale as well as the volume of bound water. This process creates a weaker (more compactable) grain framework. When these changes occur without fluid export from the shale, some of the stress is transferred from the grains onto the fluid. Observed relationships between shale density and calculated effective stress in Gulf of Mexico shelf wells confirm these changes in shale properties with depth. Further, the density-effective stress changes cannot be explained by fluid-expansion or fluid-source processes or by prediagenesis compaction, but are consistent with a dynamic diagenetic modification of the shale mineralogy, texture, and compaction properties during burial. These findings support the incorporation of diagenetic modification of compaction properties as part of the fluid pressure interpretation process. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Industrial applications for remote operation in a processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermier, J.; Le Guennec, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the first part of this article, J. Hermier covers the use of remote handling equipment in the UP2-400 plant at La Hague near Cherbourg, in which for the most part master/slave mechanism remote handling units are used with a number of these employed in daily processing operations. As regards this subject, it is useful to remember that, at the time of the designing of this plant (UP2-400), this was the only equipment available on the market with remote-controlled remote handling equipment. In the second part, before speaking about the development of remote operation equipment in the plants now under construction and attempting to project what might be the remote operation role in future plants, R. Le Guennec reviews the problems faced by engineering in designing industrial-sized processing plants and, consequently, the motivations of engineering when faced with a choice between several possible solutions [fr

  9. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  10. Nuclear pre-mRNA processing in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.S.N. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Biology and Program in Molecular Plant Biology; Golovkin, M. (eds.) [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2008-07-01

    This volume of CTMI, entitled Nuclear premRNA Processing in Plants, with 16 chapters from leading scientists in this area, summarizes recent advances in nuclear pre-mRNA processing and its role in plant growth and development. It provides researchers in the field, as well as those in related areas, with an up-to-date and comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the current status and future potential of this research in understanding plant biology. The first four chapters focus on spliceosome composition, genome-wide alternative splicing, and splice site requirements for U1 and U12 introns using computational and empirical approaches. Analysis of sequenced plant genomes has revealed that 80% of all protein-coding nuclear genes contain one or more introns. The lack of an in vitro plant splicing system has made it difficult to identify general and plant-specific components of splicing machinery in plants. The next three chapters focus on serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of highly conserved proteins, which are known to play key roles in constitutive and regulated splicing of pre-mRNA and other aspects of RNA metabolism in metazoans. These proteins engage both in RNA binding and protein.protein interactions and function as splicing regulators at multiple stages of spliceosome assembly. This family of proteins has expanded considerably in plants with several plant-specific SR proteins. Several serendipitous discoveries made using forward genetics are indicating that RNA metabolism (alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, mRNA transport) plays an important role in many aspects of plant growth and development and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The next seven chapters focus on these aspects of RNA metabolism. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates a number of physiological processes during plant growth and development. The next chapter or A.B. Rose discusses the ways introns affect gene expression both positively and

  11. Nuclear pre-mRNA processing in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Golovkin, M.

    2008-01-01

    This volume of CTMI, entitled Nuclear premRNA Processing in Plants, with 16 chapters from leading scientists in this area, summarizes recent advances in nuclear pre-mRNA processing and its role in plant growth and development. It provides researchers in the field, as well as those in related areas, with an up-to-date and comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the current status and future potential of this research in understanding plant biology. The first four chapters focus on spliceosome composition, genome-wide alternative splicing, and splice site requirements for U1 and U12 introns using computational and empirical approaches. Analysis of sequenced plant genomes has revealed that 80% of all protein-coding nuclear genes contain one or more introns. The lack of an in vitro plant splicing system has made it difficult to identify general and plant-specific components of splicing machinery in plants. The next three chapters focus on serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of highly conserved proteins, which are known to play key roles in constitutive and regulated splicing of pre-mRNA and other aspects of RNA metabolism in metazoans. These proteins engage both in RNA binding and protein.protein interactions and function as splicing regulators at multiple stages of spliceosome assembly. This family of proteins has expanded considerably in plants with several plant-specific SR proteins. Several serendipitous discoveries made using forward genetics are indicating that RNA metabolism (alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, mRNA transport) plays an important role in many aspects of plant growth and development and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The next seven chapters focus on these aspects of RNA metabolism. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates a number of physiological processes during plant growth and development. The next chapter or A.B. Rose discusses the ways introns affect gene expression both positively and

  12. The state of the forest ecosystem in an area of oil shale mining and processing. 2. Morphological characteristics of Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ots, K.; Rauk, J.; Mandre, M.

    2000-01-01

    Air pollutants (oil shale fly ash, gases, organic compounds) emitted by the oil shale industry in Kohtla-Jaerve, North-East Estonia, have caused changes in the soil (pH = 4.7-7.4), subsoil water (pH = 5.9-7.2), rainwater (pH = 7.0-7. 1) and snow melt (pH = 7.3-8.7) compared with an unpolluted control area in Lahemaa National Park (soil pH = 3.6, subsoil water pH = 5. 1, rainwater pH = 6.9 and snow melt pH = 6.8). Compared with the period before 1990 the pollution load on the area investigated has fallen drastically; however, this has not resulted in an essential improvement in growth conditions of trees. Morphological analysis of 80-year-old Norway spruces growing on sampling plots (six) in the polluted area and in the control area showed that air pollution has had temporally (1989-1990, 1994-1996) and spatially variable effect on the parameters characterising the state of trees: length growth, weight and dry matter content of needles and shoots, number and density of needles on shoots, radial increment of trees. The length growth of needles and shoots proved to be one of the most suitable parameters indicating the influence of air pollution, although not in all sample plots investigated. The results for fresh and dry weight of needles revealed great differences between sampling plots. The biomass of shoots was notably greater in the immediate vicinity of Kohtla-Jaerve than in the control area. The spruces whose shoots showed inhibited length growth had greater density of needles on shoots with difference from the control being up to 16 Olo. The effect on the radial increment of Norway spruces was especially strong in the immediate vicinity of pollution sources (<2 km) but it fell rapidly with distance from them. (author)

  13. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  14. Process and plant for manipulating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatz, H.; Rittscher, D.

    1979-01-01

    To prepare waste for engineered storage, it is vitrified or calcined (pelleted) into solid pieces in a hot cell. Subsequently the pieces are filled into a radiation protection container made of spherulite cast iron, in which there is a liquid metal. The pieces are embedded in this metal matrix. During the embedding process, the radiation protection container may be heated externally or internally (lost heat device). (DG) [de

  15. Alarm processing system using AI techniques for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1990-01-01

    An alarm processing system (APS) has been developed using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The alarms of nuclear power plants (NPP's) are classified into the generalized and special alarms. The generalized alarms are also classified into the global and local alarms. For each type of alarms, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The local processing are based on 'model-based reasoning.' The global and special alarms are processed by using the general cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to the plant state and the consistencies between them

  16. AI-based alarm processing for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, N.J.; Kim, I.S.; Hwang, I.K.; Lee, D.Y.; Ham, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time expert system is implemented using artificial intelligence and object-oriented technology for alarm processing and presentation in a nuclear power plant. The knowledge base is constructed based on some schemes to process and display alarms to the plant operators. The activated alarms are dynamically prioritized by the reasoning rules, and then, presented on the process mimic overview and by some other means. To demonstrate the proposed system, the alarm processing and presentation is carried out in a simulated environment of the TMI-2 accident

  17. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  18. Shale gas: the water myth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, Kerry [Dillon Consulting Limited (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, due to the depletion of traditional fossil fuel resources and the rising price of energy, production from unconventional gas activities has increased. Large shale gas plays are available in Quebec but environmental concerns, mainly in terms of water resources, have been raised. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the impact of shale gas exploitation on water resources. It is shown herein that shale gas water use is not significant, the water use of 250 wells represents only 0.3% of the Quebec pulp and paper industry's water use, or 0.0004% of the flow of the St Lawrence. It is also shown that the environmental risk associated with fracking and drilling activities is low. This paper demonstrated that as long as industry practices conform to a well-designed regulatory framework, shale gas development in Quebec will have a low impact on water resources and the environment.

  19. BLM Colorado Oil Shale Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ file Format –This data set contains the Oil Shale Leases for the State of Colorado, derived from Legal Land Descriptions (LLD) contained in the US Bureau of Land...

  20. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  1. Stuart oil shale project stage two: executive summary: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The project is an oil shale open pit mine and processing operation that is currently being commissioned 15 km north of Gladstone, Queensland, Australia, and is owned as a joint venture by Southern Pacific Petroleum N.L., Central Pacific Minerals N.L, and Suncor Energy Inc., a leading Canadian company that is an integrated energy company. The results of a comprehensive investigation are included of the potential environmental impacts of the project, and which are described in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). In stage two, there is included the existing mine expansion as well as the construction of an additional process plant based around a larger commercial scale ATP oil shale processing plant. The new stage two operation will be developed next to and integral with services and infrastructure provided for stage one. Described are: the assessment process, regulatory framework and the project area, the needs for an alternative to the project, the proposal itself, the existing natural, social and economic impacts, and the environmental impacts as well as plans for their mitigation. In appendices there are included a draft environmental management overview strategy and an environmental management plan. The elements covered in the report by section are: background, need for the project, the proponent, legislation and approvals, project description, environmental issues and impact management

  2. Laboratory characterization of shale pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Listiyowati, Lina

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the potential of shale gas reservoir, one needs to understand the characteristics of pore structures. Characterization of shale gas reservoir microstructure is still a challenge due to ultra-fine grained micro-fabric and micro level heterogeneity of these sedimentary rocks. The sample used in the analysis is a small portion of any reservoir. Thus, each measurement technique has a different result. It raises the question which methods are suitable for characterizing pore shale. The goal of this paper is to summarize some of the microstructure analysis tools of shale rock to get near-real results. The two analyzing pore structure methods are indirect measurement (MIP, He, NMR, LTNA) and direct observation (SEM, TEM, Xray CT). Shale rocks have a high heterogeneity; thus, it needs multiscale quantification techniques to understand their pore structures. To describe the complex pore system of shale, several measurement techniques are needed to characterize the surface area and pore size distribution (LTNA, MIP), shapes, size and distribution of pore (FIB-SEM, TEM, Xray CT), and total porosity (He pycnometer, NMR). The choice of techniques and methods should take into account the purpose of the analysis and also the time and budget.

  3. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  4. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  5. Financial Benefits of Process Data Reconciliation in Power Generating Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Process Data Reconciliation (PDR) is a certified method that calculates the most likely values considering process measurement uncertainties and closing all energy- and material balances where all inter-dependencies within the entire plant process are fulfilled in a covariance matrix. There are three main factors that generate the financial benefits for the user of reconciled data, depending on the type of plant and base/peak load behaviour: Increased efficiency / maximized output, Time advantage in retrieving 'lost' megawatts, Reduction of maintenance costs. (author)

  6. Chemical process and plant design bibliography 1959-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book is concerned specifically with chemical process in formation and plant equipment design data. It is a source for chemical engineers, students and academics involved in process and design evaluation. Over 500 chemical categories are included, from Acetaldehyde to zirconium Dioxide, with cross-referencing within the book to appropriate associated chemicals

  7. Process simulation of heavy water plants - a powerful analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.

    1978-10-01

    The commercially conscious designs of Canadian GS (Girdler-Sulphide) have proved sensitive to process conditions. That, combined with the large scale of our units, has meant that computer simulation of their behaviour has been a natural and profitable development. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has developed a family of steady state simulations to describe all of the Canadian plants. Modelling of plant conditions has demonstrated that the simulation description is very precise and it has become an integral part of the industry's assessments of both plant operation and decisions on capital expenditures. The simulation technique has also found extensive use in detailed designing of both the rehabilitated Glace Bay and the new La Prade plants. It has opened new insights into plant design and uncovered a radical and significant flowsheet change for future designs as well as many less dramatic but valuable lesser changes. (author)

  8. Multilevel flow modelling of process plant for diagnosis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, M.

    1982-08-01

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as basic for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator. (author)

  9. Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure...... of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant...... operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as a basis for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator....

  10. Process of preparing hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1919-12-11

    A process of preparing hydraulic cement from oil shale or shale coke is characterized in that the oil shale or shale coke after the distillation is burned long and hot to liberate the usual amount of carbonic acid and then is fine ground to obtain a slow hardening hydraulic cement.

  11. Vacuolar processing enzyme: an executor of plant cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Nakaune, Satoru; Kuroyanagi, Miwa; Nishimura, Mikio

    2005-08-01

    Apoptotic cell death in animals is regulated by cysteine proteinases called caspases. Recently, vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) was identified as a plant caspase. VPE deficiency prevents cell death during hypersensitive response and cell death of limited cell layers at the early stage of embryogenesis. Because plants do not have macrophages, dying cells must degrade their materials by themselves. VPE plays an essential role in the regulation of the lytic system of plants during the processes of defense and development. VPE is localized in the vacuoles, unlike animal caspases, which are localized in the cytosol. Thus, plants might have evolved a regulated cellular suicide strategy that, unlike animal apoptosis, is mediated by VPE and the vacuoles.

  12. Rehabilitation potential and practices of Colorado oil shale lands. Progress report, June 1, 1978--May 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.W.

    1979-03-01

    The following document is a third-year progress report for the period June 1, 1978 to May 31, 1979. The overall objective of the project is to study the effects of seeding techniques, species mixtures, fertilizer, ecotypes, improved plant materials, mycorrhizal fungi, and soil microorganisms on the initial and final stages of reclamation obtained through seeding and subsequent succession on disturbed oil shale lands. Plant growth medias that are being used in field-established test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Because of the long-term nature of successional and ecologically oriented studies the project is just beginning to generate significant publications. Several of the studies associated with the project have some phases being conducted principally in the laboratories and greenhouses at Colorado State Univerisity. The majority of the research, however, is being conducted on a 20 hectare Intensive Study Site located near the focal points of oil shale activity in the Piceance Basin. The site is at an elevation of 2,042 m, receives approximately 30 to 55 cm of precipitation annually, and encompasses the plant communities most typical of the Piceance Basin. Most of the information contained in this report originated from the monitoring and sampling of research plots established in either the fall of 1976 or 1977. Therefore, data that have been obtained from the Intensive Study Site represent only first- or second-year results. However, many trends have been identified in thesuccessional process and the soil microorganisms and mycorrhizal studies continue to contribute significant information to the overall results. The phytosociological study has progressed to a point where field sampling is complete and the application and publication of this materials will be forthcoming in 1979.

  13. The Relation of Design Parameters, Plant Capacity and Processing Costs in Cobalt-60 Sterilization Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.G.

    1967-01-01

    The paper describes the main features of three basic types of cobalt-60 sterilization plants which have been designed to provide a complete range of capacities for radiosterilization of medical products. The smallest plant has a capacity of up to 50 000 cubic feet of medical products a year, the intermediate size plant has a capacity of up to 500 000 cubic feet a year, and the largest plant has a capacity in excess of 1000 000 cubic feet a year. The relations between capital costs, rate of production, efficiency and unit processing costs for each type of plant are discussed. The method of selecting the best type of plant for a particular need will also be outlined. (author)

  14. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigo, M.J.; Sousa, M.B.; Sapata, M.M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L.; Botelho, M.L.; Veloso, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), mint (Mentha spicata L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress (Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D 10 values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed (≥2 log). Based on the determined D 10 , the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10 5 E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  15. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, M.J. [Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos, L-INIA, Quinta do Marques, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal)], E-mail: mjptrigo@gmail.com; Sousa, M.B.; Sapata, M.M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L. [Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos, L-INIA, Quinta do Marques, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Botelho, M.L. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2696 Sacavem (Portugal); Veloso, M.G. [Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria de Lisboa, Av. da Universidade Tecnica, Alto da Ajuda, 1300-477 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), mint (Mentha spicata L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress (Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D{sub 10} values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed ({>=}2 log). Based on the determined D{sub 10}, the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10{sup 5}E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  16. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, M. J.; Sousa, M. B.; Sapata, M. M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L.; Botelho, M. L.; Veloso, M. G.

    2009-07-01

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L .), mint ( Mentha spicata L.), parsley ( Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress ( Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D 10 values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed (⩾2 log). Based on the determined D10, the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10 5E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  17. Traces in the dark: sedimentary processes and facies gradients in the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven O.; Fishman, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Black, organic-rich rocks of the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, a world-class petroleum source rock in the Williston Basin of the United States and Canada, contain a diverse suite of mudstone lithofacies that were deposited in distinct facies belts. The succession consists of three discrete facies associations (FAs). These comprise: 1) siliceous mudstones; 2) quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones; and 3) macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones. These FAs were deposited in three facies belts that reflect proximal to distal relationships in this mudstone system. The macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones (FA 3) occur in the proximal facies belt and contain erosion surfaces, some with overlying conodont and phosphate–lithoclast lag deposits, mudstones with abundant millimeter-scale siltstone laminae showing irregular lateral thickness changes, and shell debris. In the medial facies belt, quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate, exhibiting sub-millimeter-thick siltstone layers with variable lateral thicknesses and localized mudstone ripples. In the distal siliceous mudstone facies belt, radiolarites, radiolarian-bearing mudstones, and quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate. Overall, total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between about 3 and 10 wt %, with a general proximal to distal decrease in TOC content. Abundant evidence of bioturbation exists in all FAs, and the lithological and TOC variations are paralleled by changes in burrowing style and trace-fossil abundance. While two horizontal traces and two types of fecal strings are recognized in the proximal facies belt, only a single horizontal trace fossil and one type of fecal string characterize mudstones in the distal facies belt. Radiolarites intercalated into the most distal mudstones are devoid of traces and fecal strings. Bedload transport processes, likely caused by storm-induced turbidity

  18. Radiological hazards assessment at mineral processing plants in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Shamsul Bahrin Ludin; Mohd Yusof Harun; Amran Kamaruddin; Abdul Hamid Latip; Mohd Azwar Hashim

    1994-01-01

    The estimated total dose due to radiation received by workers at the minerals processing plants in Malaysia based on area monitoring data. The dose was evaluated using three main parameters, namely exposures from external radiation, inhalation of airborne radioactive dusts and radon/thoron progenies. The study shows that workers at different location in the plants are potentially exposed to in excess of one tenth (1/10) and three tenth (3/10) of the annual dose limit. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of CO2 capture processes for power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Biyouki, Zeinab Amrollahi

    2014-01-01

    This thesis work presents an evaluation of various processes for reducing CO2 emissions from natural-gas-fired combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. The scope of the thesis is to focus mainly on post-combustion chemical absorption for NGCC. For the post-combustion capture plant, an important interface is the steam extraction from the steam turbine in order to supply the heat for solvent regeneration. The steam extraction imposes a power production penalty. The thesis includes analysis and compa...

  20. Nuclear power plant personnel training process management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjona Vazquez, Orison; Venegas Bernal, Maria del Carmen; Armeteros Lopez, Ana L.

    1996-01-01

    The system in charge the management of the training process personnel from a nuclear power plant was designed taking into account all the requirements stated in the training guide for nuclear power plant personnel and their evaluation, which were prepared by the IAEA in 1995 in order to implement the SAT in the training programs for nuclear plant personnel. In the preparations of formats and elements that shape the system, account has been taken of the views expressed in such a guide, in some other bibliography that was consulted, and in the authors own opinion mainly with regard to those issues which the guide does not go deeper into

  1. Pengaruh Proses Pelapukan Clay Shale terhadap Perubahan Parameter Rasio Disintegritas (DR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus M Alatas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research because of the frequent occurrence of the failure in the geotechnical design of clay shale caused by weathering. Disintegration ratio is a comparison of physical changes due to weathering at certain times of the initial conditions. Changes in physical properties due to clay shale weathering determined by the disintegration ratio (DR.Clay shale weathering will occur more quickly as a result of wetting and drying cycles when compared with the drying process. While due to the increased number of cycles of wetting at the same time, causing weathering on clay shale will be faster again. Until the 80th day of drying time, the magnitude DRof Semarang-Bawenclay shaleand Hambalang are the same, namely DR = 0.916 (completelly durable. However, due to wetting and drying cycles on day 32, samples of Semarang-Bawenclay shale is DR = 0.000 or non durable completelly, while on Hambalang clay shale in same day DR between 0.2117 to 0.3344. Generally Semarang-Bawen clay shale will be faster weathered than Hambalang clay shale. It is caused by the mineralogy content of Semarang-Bawen clay shale has dominated by Smectite, and Hambalangclay shalehas dominated mineral Kaolinite and Illlite.

  2. A contractor's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braide, W.M.; Fletcher, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. Ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant are described. Design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  3. A contractors's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braide, W.M.; Fletcher, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. This paper describes ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant. The design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  4. Investigating Rare Earth Element Systematics in the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Kim, J. H.; Verba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The lanthanide series of elements (the 14 rare earth elements, REEs) have similar chemical properties and respond to different chemical and physical processes in the natural environment by developing unique patterns in their concentration distribution when normalized to an average shale REE content. The interpretation of the REE content in a gas-bearing black shale deposited in a marine environment must therefore take into account the paleoredox conditions of deposition as well as any diagenetic remobilization and authigenic mineral formation. We analyzed 15 samples from a core of the Marcellus Shale (Whipkey ST1, Greene Co., PA) for REEs, TOC, gas-producing potential, trace metal content, and carbon isotopes of organic matter in order to determine the REE systematics of a black shale currently undergoing shale gas development. We also conducted a series of sequential leaching experiments targeting the phosphatic fractions in order to evaluate the dominant host phase of REEs in a black shale. Knowledge of the REE system in the Marcellus black shale will allow us to evaluate potential REE release and behavior during hydraulic fracturing operations. Total REE content of the Whipkey ST1 core ranged from 65-185 μg/g and we observed three distinct REE shale-normalized patterns: middle-REE enrichment (MREE/MREE* ~2) with heavy-REE enrichment (HREE/LREE ~1.8-2), flat patterns, and a linear enrichment towards the heavy-REE (HREE/LREE ~1.5-2.5). The MREE enrichment occurred in the high carbonate samples of the Stafford Member overlying the Marcellus Formation. The HREE enrichment occurred in the Union Springs Member of the Marcellus Formation, corresponding to a high TOC peak (TOC ~4.6-6.2 wt%) and moderate carbonate levels (CaCO3 ~4-53 wt%). Results from the sequential leaching experiments suggest that the dominant host of the REEs is the organic fraction of the black shale and that the detrital and authigenic fractions have characteristic MREE enrichments. We present our

  5. Continuous precipitation of uranium peroxide in process pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinelato, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study on uranium peroxide precipitation has been carried out with the objective to evaluate the influence of the main process parameters with a technological approach. The uraniferous solution used was obtained from the hydrometallurgical processing of an ore from Itataia - CE. Studies were developed in two distinct experimental stages. In the first stage, the precipitation was investigated by means of laboratory batch tests and, in the second stage, by means of continuous operation in a process pilot plant. (author)

  6. Biological marker compounds as indicators of the depositional history of the Maoming oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brassell, S.C.; Eglinton, G.; Mo, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Eocene Maoming oil shale from Guangdong Province occurs as a laterally uniform stratigraphic section, typically 20-25 m thick, from which the aliphatic hydrocarbon constituents of six representative samples were investigated using GC and C-GC-MS. The sediments evaluated included the basal lignite, a vitrinite lens from the overlying claystone, and four intervals from the massive oil shale bed. As expected, the lignite and vitrinite differ markedly from the oil shales. The lignite is dominated by bacterial hopanoids and components of higher plant origin, including C/sub 29/ steroids and triterpenoids such as oleanenes. Visually, the oil shale samples show corroded and degraded phytoclasts, spores, wispy particles of fluorescent organic material attributable to dinoflagellates and, especially in the uppermost sample, colonial algal bodies. The distributions of biological markers in the oil shales show many features in common, notably a dominance of dinoflagellate-derived 4-methylsteroids, and a significant proportion of higher-plant derived n-alkanes with marked odd-over-even carbon number predominance. Overall, they exhibit several features that resemble characteristics of the Messel shale. The hydrocarbons of the lowest shale horizon suggest that there may have been a gradual transition between deposition of the original peat and the subsequent oil shales. The aliphatic hydrocarbons of the uppermost shale are dominated by a number of C/sub 31/ and C/sub 33/ botryococcane homologues and other unusual branched alkanes possibly derived from green algae. All of the samples are immature. Overall, molecular and microscopic examination of the stratigraphic succession of the Maoming oil shale suggests a shallow, lacustrine environment within which peats were deposited. This lake subsequently deepened to support abundant algal populations, especially dinoflagellates, culminating in a dominance of botryococcoid algae.

  7. Seismic prediction of sweet spots in the Da'anzhai shale play, Yuanba area, the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Changzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Burial depth, thickness, total organic carbon (TOC content, brittleness and fracture development of shale reservoirs are the main geologic indexes in the evaluation of sweet spots in shale gas plays. Taking the 2nd interval of Da'anzhai shale of the Lower Jurassic as the study object, a set of techniques in seismic prediction of sweet spots were developed based on special processing of seismic data and comprehensive analysis of various data based on these geologic indexes. First, logging and seismic responses of high quality shales were found out through fine calibration of shale reservoir location with seismogram, which was combined with seismic facies analysis to define the macroscopic distribution of the shale. Then, seismic impedance inversion and GR inversion were used to identify shale from limestone and sandstone. Based on statistical analysis of sensitive parameters such as TOC, the uranium log inversion technique was used to quantitatively predict TOC of a shale reservoir and the thickness of a high quality shale reservoir. After that, fracture prediction technique was employed to predict play fairways. Finally, the pre-stack joint P-wave and S-wave impedance inversion technique was adopted to identify shales with high brittleness suitable for hydraulic fracturing. These seismic prediction techniques have been applied in sorting out sweet spots in the 2nd interval of the Da'anzhai shale play of the Yuanba area, and the results provided a sound basis for the optimization of horizontal well placement and hydraulic fracturing.

  8. Predicted costs of environmental controls for a commercial oil shale industry. Volume 1. An engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevens, T.D.; Culbertson, W.J. Jr.; Wallace, J.R.; Taylor, G.C.; Jovanovich, A.P.; Prien, C.H.; Hicks, R.E.; Probstein, R.F.; Domahidy, G.

    1979-07-01

    The pollution control costs for a commercial oil shale industry were determined in a joint effort by Denver Research Institute, Water Purification Associates of Cambridge, and Stone and Webster Engineering of Boston and Denver. Four commercial oil shale processes were considered. The results in terms of cost per barrel of syncrude oil are predicted to be as follows: Paraho Process, $0.67 to $1.01; TOSCO II Process, $1.43 to $1.91; MIS Process, $2.02 to $3.03; and MIS/Lurgi-Ruhrgas Process, $1.68 to $2.43. Alternative pollution control equipment and integrated pollution control strategies were considered and optimal systems selected for each full-scale plant. A detailed inventory of equipment (along with the rationale for selection), a detailed description of control strategies, itemized costs and predicted emission levels are presented for each process. Capital and operating cost data are converted to a cost per barrel basis using detailed economic evaluation procedures. Ranges of cost are determined using a subjective self-assessment of uncertainty approach. An accepted methodology for probability encoding was used, and cost ranges are presented as subjective probability distributions. Volume I presents the detailed engineering results. Volume II presents the detailed analysis of uncertainty in the predicted costs.

  9. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  10. Growth of Radiation Processing Plant, Vashi - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ranjeet

    2014-01-01

    Radiation Processing Plant, Vashi (RPP) is the first commercial scale Gamma Irradiator for food processing in India. The facility was commissioned on 1 st January 2000 with the mandate of showcasing commercial viability of food processing using gamma radiation. Some of the food products that are processed at RPP, Vashi include dehydrated onion powder, coriander, turmeric, black pepper, cumin, pet food and dried seafood items. RPP, Vashi is the largest radiation processor of food products in the country. More than 95% of the quantity processed is exported to various countries generating millions of foreign exchange annually

  11. Materials control and accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, G.E.; Britschgi, J.J.; Spraktes, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The ICPP high enriched uranium recovery process has historically been operated as a single Material Balance Area (MBA), with input and output measurement capabilities. Safeguards initiated changes in the last five years have resulted in significant materials control and accountability improvements. Those changes include semi-automation of process accountability measurement, data collection and recording; definition of Sub-MBAs; standard plant cleanouts; and, bimonthly inventory estimates. Process monitoring capabilities are also being installed to provide independent operational procedural compliance verification, process anomaly detection, and enhanced materials traceability. Development of a sensitivity analysis approach to defining process measurement requirements is in progress

  12. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  13. Solid municipal waste processing plants: Cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper performs cost benefit analyses on three solid municipal waste processing alternatives with plants of diverse daily outputs. The different processing schemes include: selected wastes incineration with the production of refuse derived fuels; selected wastes incineration with the production of refuse derived fuels and compost; pyrolysis with energy recovery in the form of electric power. The plant daily outputs range from 100 to 300 tonnes for the refuse derived fuel alternatives, and from 200 to 800 tonnes for the pyrolysis/power generation scheme. The cost analyses consider investment periods of fifteen years in duration and interest rates of 5%

  14. Floating natural gas processing plants. Technical ideal or feasible technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, H

    1977-04-01

    Realizability of floating natural gas processing plants is decisively influenced by the economy of the system. Illustrated by the example of the natural gas product LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), a model cost calculation is carried out. It is demonstrated that the increase in the price level during the 1973/1974 energy crisis is an important factor for the realiability in terms of economy of such complicated technical systems. Another aspect which the model calculation revealed is that the economy of floating natural gas processing plants and storage systems can only be estimated in connection with other system components.

  15. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at documented in the range 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed

  16. TENORM radiological survey of Utica and Marcellus Shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Leong; O’Connor, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive on-site radiological survey of processed sludge drilled materials extracted from the oil and gas production activities in the Utica and Marcellus Shale in Ohio has been conducted with a shielded isotopic identifier incorporating an advanced patented algorithmic processor to measure low-activity levels in compliance with environmental standards. - highlights: • First on-site radiological survey of processed shale sludge from oil and gas fields. • Mobile spectroscopic radiation inspection system with shielding for low-activity measurements. • Quantification of Ra-226 and Ra-228 radionuclides contamination in soil samples

  17. Plant operator performance evaluation based on cognitive process analysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Fukuda, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to clarify plant operators' cognitive processes that has been performed, to improve the man-machine interface which supports their diagnoses and decisions. The cognitive processes under abnormal conditions were evaluated by protocol analyses interviews, etc. in the experiment using a plant training simulator. A cognitive process model is represented by a stochastic network, based on Rasmussen's decision making model. Each node of the network corresponds to an element of the cognitive process, such as observation, interpretation, execution, etc. Some observations were obtained as follows, by comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with the experiment results: A process to reconfirm the plant parameters after execution of a task and feedback paths from this process to the observation and the task definition of next task were observed. The feedback probability average and standard deviation should be determined for each incident type to explain correctly the individual differences in the cognitive processes. The tendency for the operator's cognitive level to change from skill-based to knowledge-based via rule-based behavior was observed during the feedback process

  18. GRI's Devonian Shales Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, F.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the key observations and conclusions from the Gas Research Institute's (GRI's) Comprehensive Study Well (CSW) research program conducted in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin. Initiated in 1987, the CSW program was a series of highly instrumented study wells drilled in cooperation with industry partners. Seven wells were drilled as part of the program. Extensive data sets were collected and special experiments were run on the CSW's in addition to the operator's normal operations, with the objectives of identifying geologic production controls, refining formation evaluation tools, and improving reservoir description and stimulation practices in the Devonian Shales. This paper highlights the key results from the research conducted in the CSW program in the areas of geologic production controls, formation evaluation, stimulation and reservoir engineering, and field operations. The development of geologic, log analysis, and reservoir models for the Shales from the data gathered and analysis, and reservoir models for the Shales from the data gathered and analyzed during the research is discussed. In addition, on the basis of what was learned in the CSW program, GRI's plans for new research in the Devonian Shales are described

  19. Distillation of shale in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Ganahl, C F

    1922-07-04

    To distill buried shale or other carbon containing compounds in situ, a portion of the shale bed is rendered permeable to gases, and the temperature is raised to the point of distillation. An area in a shale bed is shattered by explosives, so that it is in a relatively finely divided form, and the tunnel is then blocked by a wall, and fuel and air are admitted through pipes until the temperature of the shale is raised to such a point that a portion of the released hydrocarbons will burn. When distillation of the shattered area takes place and the lighter products pass upwardly through uptakes to condensers and scrubbers, liquid oil passes to a tank and gas to a gasometer while heavy unvaporized products in the distillation zone collect in a drain, flow into a sump, and are drawn off through a pipe to a storage tank. In two modifications, methods of working are set out in cases where the shale lies beneath a substantially level surface.

  20. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  1. Study of CO2 capture processes in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, J.M.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO 2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post-combustion CO 2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture by methanol and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO 2 . These processes were evaluated using the process software Aspen PlusTM to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. With regard to post-combustion, an aqueous solution based on a mixture of amines (N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA)) was developed. Measurements of absorption were carried out between 298 and 333 K in a Lewis cell. CO 2 partial pressure at equilibrium, characteristic of the CO 2 solubility in the solvent, was determined up to 393 K. The solvent performances were compared with respect to more conventional solvents such as MDEA and monoethanolamine (MEA). For oxy-fuel combustion, a recovery process, based on a cryogenic separation of the components of the flue gas, was developed and applied to power plants. The study showed that O 2 purity acts on the CO 2 concentration in the flue gas and thus on the performances of the recovery process. The last option is natural gas reforming with CO 2 pre-combustion capture. Several configurations were assessed: air reforming and oxygen reforming, reforming pressure and dilution of the synthesis gas. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents. (author)

  2. Intelligent fracture creation for shale gas development

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.; Qin, Guan; Collier, Nathan; Gong, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas represents a major fraction of the proven reserves of natural gas in the United States and a collection of other countries. Higher gas prices and the need for cleaner fuels provides motivation for commercializing shale gas deposits even

  3. Maturation processes and structures of small secreted peptides in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eTabata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, small secreted peptides have proven to be essential for various aspects of plant growth and development, including the maintenance of certain stem cell populations. Most small secreted peptides identified in plants to date are recognised by membrane-localized receptor kinases, the largest family of receptor proteins in the plant genome. This peptide-receptor interaction is essential for initiating intracellular signalling cascades. Small secreted peptides often undergo post-translational modifications and proteolytic processing to generate the mature peptides. Recent studies suggest that, in contrast to the situation in mammals, the proteolytic processing of plant peptides involves a number of complex steps. Furthermore, NMR-based structural analysis demonstrated that post-translational modifications induce the conformational changes needed for full activity. In this mini review, we summarise recent advances in our understanding of how small secreted peptides are modified and processed into biologically active peptides and describe the mature structures of small secreted peptides in plants.

  4. Process plant alarm diagnosis using synthesised fault tree knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenchard, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer based tools, to assist process plant operators in their task of fault/alarm diagnosis, has received much attention over the last twenty five years. More recently, with the emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, the research activity in this subject area has heightened. As a result, there are a great variety of fault diagnosis methodologies, using many different approaches to represent the fault propagation behaviour of process plant. These range in complexity from steady state quantitative models to more abstract definitions of the relationships between process alarms. Unfortunately, very few of the techniques have been tried and tested on process plant and even fewer have been judged to be commercial successes. One of the outstanding problems still remains the time and effort required to understand and model the fault propagation behaviour of each considered process. This thesis describes the development of an experimental knowledge based system (KBS) to diagnose process plant faults, as indicated by process variable alarms. In an attempt to minimise the modelling effort, the KBS has been designed to infer diagnoses using a fault tree representation of the process behaviour, generated using an existing fault tree synthesis package (FAULTFINDER). The process is described to FAULTFINDER as a configuration of unit models, derived from a standard model library or by tailoring existing models. The resultant alarm diagnosis methodology appears to work well for hard (non-rectifying) faults, but is likely to be less robust when attempting to diagnose intermittent faults and transient behaviour. The synthesised fault trees were found to contain the bulk of the information required for the diagnostic task, however, this needed to be augmented with extra information in certain circumstances. (author)

  5. Shale gas exploitation: Status, problems and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years, great progress has been made in shale gas exploitation, which has become the most driving force for global gas output growth. Hydrocarbon extraction from shale helps drive the USA on the road to energy independence. Besides, shale oil & gas production has been kept in a sustained growth by continuous improvement in drilling efficiency and well productivity in the case of tumbling oil prices and rig counts. Shale gas reserves and production have been in a rapid growth in China owing to the Lower Paleozoic Wufeng and Longmaxi shale gas exploitation in the Sichuan Basin, which has become an important sector for the future increment of gas reserves and output in China. However, substantial progress has been made neither in non-marine shale gas exploitation as previously expected nor in the broad complicated tectonic areas in South China for which a considerable investment was made. Analysis of the basic situation and issues in domestic shale gas development shows that shale gas exploitation prospects are constrained by many problems in terms of resources endowment, horizontal well fracturing technology, etc. especially in non-marine shale deposits and complicated tectonic areas in South China where hot shales are widely distributed but geological structures are found severely deformed and over matured. Discussion on the prospects shows that the sustained and steady growth in shale gas reserves and production capacity in the coming years lies in the discovery and supersession of new shale plays in addition to Wufeng and Longmaxi shale plays, and that a technological breakthrough in ultra-high-pressure and ultra-deep (over 3500 m buried in the Sichuan Basin marine shale gas exploitation is the key and hope. Keywords: Shale gas, Exploitation, Marine facies, Hot shale, Resource endowment, Sichuan Basin, South China, Complicated tectonic area, Gas play

  6. Chemical process measurements in PWR-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, E.

    1978-01-01

    In order to achieve high levels of availability of nuclear power plants equipped with pressurized water reactors, strict standards have to be applied to the purity of coolant and of other media. Chemical process measurements can meet these requirements only if programmes are established giving maximum information with minimum expenditure and if these programmes are realized with effective analytical methods. Analysis programmes known from literature are proved for their usefulness, and hints are given for establishing rational programmes. Analytical techniques are compared with each other taking into consideration both methods which have already been introduced into nuclear power plant practice and methods not yet generally used in practice, such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, etc. Finally, based on the state of the art of chemical process measurements in nuclear power plants, the trends of future development are pointed out. (author)

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities

  8. Oil. The revenge of shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    This article comments the evolutions noticed during these past years as the USA started to exploit non conventional hydrocarbons (shale gas and oil), and thus reduced their supplies from the Middle East. In reaction, OPEC members provoked a massive oil price decrease. If shale oil exploitation in the USA has slowed down for a while, it starts again: the number of platforms and production are increasing. Moreover, the profitability threshold is strongly decreasing. Argentina and China are also developing this sector, and Great-Britain and South-Africa are about to start projects. The article outlines that, even though France decided not to exploit shale gas and oil, French industries are present on this market and technology. In an interview, a representative of the French sector of non conventional hydrocarbons comments these evolutions as well as the French decision and its possible evolutions

  9. Life cycle water consumption for shale gas and conventional natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie E; Horner, Robert M; Harto, Christopher B

    2013-10-15

    Shale gas production represents a large potential source of natural gas for the nation. The scale and rapid growth in shale gas development underscore the need to better understand its environmental implications, including water consumption. This study estimates the water consumed over the life cycle of conventional and shale gas production, accounting for the different stages of production and for flowback water reuse (in the case of shale gas). This study finds that shale gas consumes more water over its life cycle (13-37 L/GJ) than conventional natural gas consumes (9.3-9.6 L/GJ). However, when used as a transportation fuel, shale gas consumes significantly less water than other transportation fuels. When used for electricity generation, the combustion of shale gas adds incrementally to the overall water consumption compared to conventional natural gas. The impact of fuel production, however, is small relative to that of power plant operations. The type of power plant where the natural gas is utilized is far more important than the source of the natural gas.

  10. Advanced Purex process for the new French reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Ledermann, P.; Pradel, P.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the main process innovations of the new Cogema reprocessing plants of La Hague (UP3 and UP2 800). Major improvements of process like the use of rotary dissolvers and annular columns, and also entirely new processes like solvent distillation and plutonium oxidizing dissolution, yield an advanced Purex process. The results of these innovations are significant improvements for throughput, end-products purification performances and waste minimization. They contribute also to limit personnel exposure. The main results of the first three years of operation are described. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  11. Application of high-precision 3D seismic technology to shale gas exploration: A case study of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuqing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation pattern of the marine shale gas in South China is different from that in North America. The former has generally thin reservoirs and complex preservation conditions, so it is difficult to make a fine description of the structural features of shale formations and to reflect accurately the distribution pattern of high-quality shale by using the conventional 2D and 3D seismic exploration technology, which has an adverse effect on the successful deployment of horizontal wells. In view of this, high-precision 3D seismic prospecting focusing on lithological survey was implemented to make an accurate description of the distribution of shale gas sweet spots so that commercial shale gas production can be obtained. Therefore, due to the complex seismic geological condition of Jiaoshiba area in Fuling, SE Sichuan Basin, the observation system of high-precision 3D seismic acquisition should have such features as wide-azimuth angles, small trace intervals, high folds, uniform vertical and horizontal coverage and long spread to meet the needs of the shale gas exploration in terms of structural interpretation, lithological interpretation and fracture prediction. Based on this idea, the first implemented high-precision 3D seismic exploration project in Jiaoshiba area played an important role in the discovery of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field. Considering that the high-quality marine shale in the Sichuan Basin shows the characteristics of multi-layer development from the Silurian system to the Cambrian system, the strategy of shale gas stereoscopic exploration should be implemented to fully obtain the oil and gas information of the shallow, medium and deep strata from the high-precision 3D seismic data, and ultimately to expand the prospecting achievements in an all-round way to balance the high upstream exploration cost, and to continue to push the efficient shale gas exploration and development process in China.

  12. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemian, H M

    2006-01-01

    Compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. This book focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time.

  13. Radiosterilization process control in plants using electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam parameters deciding the irradiation dose in radiosterilization plants should be continuously controlled during the process. Dosimetric procedure suitable to irradiated material and dose range should be chosen. The practical advice and directions in this subject have been done. 7 refs

  14. Simulation of Plant Physiological Process Using Fuzzy Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1991-01-01

    Qualitative modelling can help us understand and project effects of multiple stresses on trees. It is not practical to collect and correlate empirical data for all combinations of plant/environments and human/climate stresses, especially for mature trees in natural settings. Therefore, a mechanistic model was developed to describe ecophysiological processes. This model...

  15. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  16. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2018-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  17. Secondary cleanup of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Solvent from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc.) has been tested to determine the ability of activated alumina to remove secondary degradation products - those degradation products which are not removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate

  18. Yield analysis at a poultry processing plant in Harare, Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to establish the yield of parts or organs of chickens brought for slaughter at a poultry processing plant in Harare. Results of the study will furnish management and other poultry farmers with information that will enable them to identify yield losses and sustainable ways of minimizing resultant ...

  19. Heat Integration and Renewable Energy in Meat Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, Tracey Anne

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to optimise energy efficiency at meat processing plants and minimise their carbon footprint, as a way of reducing operating costs and minimising the potential negative impacts of a carbon price on the red meat industry. In the context of the export meat industry, there is continual competition with the live export trade. Therefore, there is a risk that a carbon price could increase the live export trade over domestic processing of meat, thereby exporti...

  20. Three essential management processes of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Tunfeng

    2010-01-01

    The paper takes the operation and management of Qinshan NPP Phase II as an example, focusing on the implementation of the essential process from the following three aspects the NPP production organization, training, examination and authorization for safety-related personnel, and financing budge management. A better understanding and implementation of the essential process will enable nuclear power plants to effectively control the nuclear safety from the most fundamental managerial level. (author)

  1. Dressing coals, shales, and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, H

    1938-12-28

    A process for dressing coals, shales, and like carbonaceous substances with the use of floating and sinking phenomena caused by differences in the specific gravities of the substances to be separated in the dressing operation is characterized by the use as the dressing medium of an aqueous suspension of clay and finely ground pyrite or iron ore cinder, or finely ground easily pulverizable iron ore, such as earthy or granular limonite. The aqueous suspension has a low viscosity and a specific gravity between 1.35 and 1.70.

  2. Wellbore stability in shales considering chemo-poroelastic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B.; Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    Under compaction and low geothermal gradients are deep water characteristics. Both under compaction and low geothermal gradients generate considerable thickness of smectite-rich shales. These rocks are the major source of wellbore stability problems, because they are susceptible to adverse physico-chemical reactions when in contact with inadequate drilling fluids. Due shales are low permeability rocks diffusion processes dominate the changes of pore pressure around wellbore. Diffusion of fluids, ions and temperature occurs in shales during drilling and demand a fully coupled modelling taking account these factors. Despite temperature importance, in this paper wellbore stability in shales is analyzed through a model that considers only the coupling between poroelastic and physico-chemical effects. The coupled equations are solved analytically and have been implemented in a computational simulator with user-friendly interface. Time-dependent simulations of wellbore stability in shales are presented for a typical deep water scenario. The results show that physico-chemical effects change pore pressure around wellbore and have high impact on the wellbore stability. (author)

  3. Coupled Fracture and Flow in Shale in Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Production of hydrocarbon from shale requires creation and maintenance of fracture permeability in an otherwise impermeable shale matrix. In this study, we use a combination of triaxial coreflood experiments and x-ray tomography characterization to investigate the fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale at in situ reservoir conditions (25-50 oC and 35-120 bars). Initially impermeable shale core was placed between flat anvils (compression) or between split anvils (pure shear) and loaded until failure in the triaxial device. Permeability was monitored continuously during this process. Significant deformation (>1%) was required to generate a transmissive fracture system. Permeability generally peaked at the point of a distinct failure event and then dropped by a factor of 2-6 when the system returned to hydrostatic failure. Permeability was very small in compression experiments (fashion as pressure increased. We also observed that permeability decreased with increasing fluid flow rate indicating that flow did not follow Darcy's Law, possibly due to non-laminar flow conditions, and conformed to Forscheimer's law. The coupled deformation and flow behavior of Utica shale, particularly the large deformation required to initiate flow, indicates the probable importance of activation of existing fractures in hydraulic fracturing and that these fractures can have adequate permeability for the production of hydrocarbon.

  4. The Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale in southern Germany: results of a shale gas analogue study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Steffen; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The shale gas potential of Germany was recently assessed by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (2012 NiKo-Project) and is - in respect of the general natural gas occurrence in Germany - regarded as a good alternative hydrocarbon source. The Posidonia Shale in northern and southern Germany is one of the evaluated rock formation and easily accessible in outcrops in the Swabian Alps (southern Germany). The area of interest in this work is located in such an outcrop that is actively used for open pit mining next to the town of Dotternhausen, 70 km southwest of Stuttgart. 31 samples from the quarry of Dotternhausen were analyzed in order to characterize the immature Posidonia Shale (Lower Toarcian, Lias ɛ) of southern Germany as a gas shale precursor. Methods included are Rock Eval, Open Pyrolysis GC, SEM, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, XRD, and other. The samples of Dotternhausen contain exclusively type II kerogen. The majority of the organic matter is structureless and occurs in the argillaceous-calcareous matrix. Structured organic matter appears predominantly as alginite, in particular the algae "tasmanite" is noticeable. The TOC content ranges up to 16 wt% with a high bitumen content. The mineral content characterizes the Posidonia Shale as a marlstone or mudstone with varying clay-calcite ratios. The quartz and pyrite content reaches up to 20 wt% and 9 wt%, respectively. The rock fabric is characterized by a fine grained and laminated matrix. The mean porosity lies between 4 and 12 %. Fractures other than those introduced by sample preparation were not observed. The Posidonia Shale is predicted to have an excellent source rock potential and will generate intermediate, P-N-A low wax oil when exposed to higher P-T-conditions ("oil kitchen"). Contact surfaces between the kerogen and matrix will be vulnerable to pressure induced fracturing caused by hydrocarbon formation. Additional porosity will be formed during maturation due to the

  5. New Process Controls for the Hera Cryogenic Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckmann, T.; Clausen, M.; Gerke, Chr.; Prüß, K.; Schoeneburg, B.; Urbschat, P.

    2010-04-01

    The cryogenic plant built for the HERA accelerator at DESY in Hamburg (Germany) is now in operation for more than two decades. The commercial process control system for the cryogenic plant is in operation for the same time period. Ever since the operator stations, the control network and the CPU boards in the process controllers went through several upgrade stages. Only the centralized Input/Output system was kept unchanged. Many components have been running beyond the expected lifetime. The control system for one at the three parts of the cryogenic plant has been replaced recently by a distributed I/O system. The I/O nodes are connected to several Profibus-DP field busses. Profibus provides the infrastructure to attach intelligent sensors and actuators directly to the process controllers which run the open source process control software EPICS. This paper describes the modification process on all levels from cabling through I/O configuration, the process control software up to the operator displays.

  6. Maquoketa Shale Caprock Integrity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The Knox Project objective is to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambrian-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon Sandstone (St. Peter Sandstone and Potosi Dolomite) as potential targets for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins. The suitability of the St. Peter Sandstone and Potosi Dolomite to serve as reservoirs for CO2 sequestration is discussed in separate reports. In this report the data gathered from the Knox project, the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) and Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration project (IL-ICCS) are used to make some conclusions about the suitability of the Maquoketa shale as a confining layer for CO2 sequestration. These conclusions are then upscaled to basin-wide inferences based on regional knowledge. Data and interpretations (stratigraphic, petrophysical, fractures, geochemical, risk, seismic) applicable to the Maquoketa Shale from the above mentioned projects was inventoried and summarized. Based on the analysis of these data and interpretations, the Maquoketa Shale is considered to be an effective caprock for a CO2 injection project in either the Potosi Dolomite or St. Peter Sandstone because it has a suitable thickness (~200ft. ~61m), advantageous petrophysical properties (low effective porosity and low permeability), favorable geomechanical properties, an absence of observable fractures and is regionally extensive. Because it is unlikely that CO2 would migrate upward through the Maquoketa Shale, CO2, impact to above lying fresh water aquifers is unlikely. Furthermore, the observations indicate that CO2 injected into the St. Peter Sandstone or Potosi Dolomite may never even migrate up into the Maquoketa Shale at a high enough concentrations or pressure to threaten the integrity of the caprock. Site specific conclusions were reached by unifying the data and conclusions from the IBDP, ICCS and the Knox projects. In the Illinois Basin, as one looks further away from

  7. Origin of Scottish oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conacher, H R.J.

    1916-12-01

    Oil shales contain two distinct types of organic material, one is comparable to the woody material in coal and the other consists of yellow bodies. When distilled, the latter yields the liquid product typical of oil shale, whereas the woody material produces large amounts of ammonia. The yellow bodies have been described by various investigators as fossil algae, spores, or dried-up globules of petroleum. In this study it was concluded that the yellow bodies were fragments of resins set free by the decay and oxidation of the vegetable matter with which they were originally associated.

  8. All part of the process[3D plant modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, D.

    2002-12-01

    The second coming of EPIC contracts, a renewed emphasis on life-of-field costs for offshore developments, and the deepwater FPSO market's fast approaching construction boom are together demanding fresh thinking - and software systems - from 3D plant modelling and information specialists. Based on its own calculations, Intergraph's Process, Power and Offshore (PPO) division states that it holds down some 35-40% of the market for 3D plant modelling and information management in the offshore oil and gas industry. This article reviews their success, how they have to preserve their hard won share of the market, due to the changeable nature of that market, marked recently by the fundamental shifts in EPIC contract structure, life-of-field costs focuses, and, not least, the rise of FPSO-driven production concepts. Intergraph PPO's integrated product portfolio, which brings together plant design modelling systems and plant information management systems, was founded on its SmartPlant Foundation data warehouse hub. It has maintained its project data integrity o some of the largest and most complex offshore developments, including Phillips Petroleum's Bayu-Undan and Statoil Asgard fields. Some 70% of Intergraph PPO's clients have been contractors, and while the company aims to continue to build on the strength of these relationships, it also recognises that growing its client base of owner-operators will create some 'real synergies' in the process.

  9. Vulnerability analysis of process plants subject to domino effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik; Abbassi, Rouzbeh; Khan, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    In the context of domino effects, vulnerability analysis of chemical and process plants aims to identify and protect installations which are relatively more susceptible to damage and thus contribute more to the initiation or propagation of domino effects. In the present study, we have developed a methodology based on graph theory for domino vulnerability analysis of hazardous installations within process plants, where owning to the large number of installations or complex interdependencies, the application of sophisticated reasoning approaches such as Bayesian network is limited. We have taken advantage of a hypothetical chemical storage plant to develop the methodology and validated the results using a dynamic Bayesian network approach. The efficacy and out-performance of the developed methodology have been demonstrated via a real-life complex case study. - Highlights: • Graph theory is a reliable tool for vulnerability analysis of chemical plants as to domino effects. • All-closeness centrality score can be used to identify most vulnerable installations. • As for complex chemical plants, the methodology outperforms Bayesian network.

  10. Effects of feed process variables on Hanford Vitrification Plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Peterson, M.E.; Wagner, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of nuclear defense activities, high-level liquid radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site for over 40 yr. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being proposed to immobilize these wastes in a waste form suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. Prior to vitrification, the waste will undergo several conditioning steps before being fed to the melter. The effect of certain process variables on the resultant waste slurry properties must be known to assure processability of the waste slurry during feed preparation. Of particular interest are the rheological properties, which include the yield stress and apparent viscosity. Identification of the rheological properties of the slurry is required to adequately design the process equipment used for feed preparation (agitators, mixing tanks, concentrators, etc.). Knowledge of the slurry rheological properties is also necessary to establish processing conditions and operational limits for maximum plant efficiency and reliability. A multivariable study was performed on simulated HWVP feed to identify the feed process variables that have a significant impact on rheology during processing. Two process variables were evaluated in this study: (a) the amount of formic acid added to the feed and (b) the degree of shear encountered by the feed during processing. The feed was physically and rheologically characterized at various stages during feed processing

  11. Concept of a cognitive-numeric plant and process modelizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterkind, D.

    1990-01-01

    To achieve automatic modeling of plant distrubances and failure limitation procedures, first the system's hardware and the present media (water, steam, coolant fluid) are formalized into fully computable matrices, called topographies. Secondly a microscopic cellular automation model, using lattice gases and state transition rules, is combined with a semi - microscopic cellular process model and with a macroscopic model, too. In doing this, at semi-microscopic level there are acting a cellular data compressor, a feature detection device and the Intelligent Physical Element's process dynamics. At macroscopic level the Walking Process Elements, a process evolving module, a test-and-manage device and abstracting process net are involved. Additionally, a diagnosis-coordinating and a counter measurements coordinating device are used. In order to automatically get process insights, object transformations, elementary process functions and associative methods are used. Developments of optoelectronic hardware language components are under consideration

  12. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level

  13. Radioactive waste processing method for a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Kuriyama, O

    1976-06-04

    Object is to subject radioactive liquid waste in a nuclear power plant to reverse permeation process after which it is vaporized and concentrated thereby decreasing the quantity of foam to be used to achieve effective concentration of the liquid waste. Liquid waste containing a radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant is first applied with pressure in excess of osmotic pressure by a reverse permeation device and is separated into clean water and concentrated liquid by semi-permeable membrane. Next, the thus reverse-permeated and concentrated waste is fed to an evaporator which control foaming by the foam and then further reconcentrated for purification of the liquid waste.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, J C; Chandratilleke, T T

    1987-01-01

    Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.

  15. Research on plant of metal fuel fabrication using casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Yasuhide; Mori, Yukihide

    2003-12-01

    This document presents the plant concept of metal fuel fabrication system (38tHM/y) using casting process in electrolytic recycle, which based on recent studies of its equipment design and quality control system. And we estimate the cost of its construction and operation, including costs of maintenance, consumed hardware and management of waste. The content of this work is as follows. (1) Designing of fuel fabrication equipment: We make material flow diagrams of the fuel fabrication plant and rough designs of the injection casting furnace, demolder and inspection equipment. (2) Designing of resolution system of liquid waste, which comes from analytical process facility. Increased analytical items, we rearrange analytical process facility, estimate its chemicals and amount of waste. (3) Arrangement of equipments: We made a arrangement diagram of the metal fuel fabrication equipments in cells. (4) Estimation of cost data: We estimated cost to construct the facility and to operate it. (author)

  16. Plant uprooting by flow as a fatigue mechanical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, Paolo; Edmaier, Katharina; Crouzy, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    In river corridors, plant uprooting by flow mostly occurs as a delayed process where flow erosion first causes root exposure until residual anchoring balances hydrodynamic forces on the part of the plant that is exposed to the stream. Because a given plant exposure time to the action of the stream is needed before uprooting occurs (time-to-uprooting), this uprooting mechanism has been denominated Type II, in contrast to Type I, which mostly affect early stage seedlings and is rather instantaneous. In this work, we propose a stochastic framework that describes a (deterministic) mechanical fatigue process perturbed by a (stochastic) process noise, where collapse occurs after a given exposure time. We test the model using the experimental data of Edmaier (2014) and Edmaier et al. (submitted), who investigated vegetation uprooting by flow in the limit of low plant stem-to-sediment size ratio by inducing parallel riverbed erosion within an experimental flume. We first identify the proper timescale and lengthscale for rescaling the model. Then, we show that it describes well all the empirical cumulative distribution functions (cdf) of time-to-uprooting obtained under constant riverbed erosion rate and assuming additive gaussian process noise. By this mean, we explore the level of determinism and stochasticity affecting the time-to-uprooting for Avena sativa in relation to root anchoring and flow drag forces. We eventually ascribe the overall dynamics of the Type II uprooting mechanism to the memory of the plant-soil system that is stored by root anchoring, and discuss related implications thereof. References Edmaier, K., Uprooting mechansims of juvenile vegetation by flow erosion, Ph.D. thesis, EPFL, 2014. Edmaier, K., Crouzy, B. and P. Perona. Experimental characterization of vegetation uprooting by flow. J. of Geophys. Res. - Biogeosci., submitted

  17. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (pnettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL

  18. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  19. Process analysis in a THTR trial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodda, B.G.; Filss, P.; Kirchner, H.; Kroth, K.; Lammertz, H.; Schaedlich, W.; Brocke, W.; Buerger, K.; Halling, H.; Watzlawik, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    The demands on an analytical control system for a THTR trial reprocessing plant are specified. In a rather detailed example, a typical sampling, sample monitoring and measuring process is described. Analytical control is partly automated. Data acquisition and evaluation by computer are described for some important, largely automated processes. Sample management and recording of in-line and off-line data are carried out by a data processing system. Some important experiments on sample taking, sample transport and on special analysis are described. (RB) [de

  20. Empirical evaluation of the Process Overview Measure for assessing situation awareness in process plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2016-03-01

    The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure developed to assess operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants. A companion paper describes how the measure has been developed according to process plant properties and operator cognitive work. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability in two full-scope simulator experiments investigating dramatically different operational concepts. Practicality was assessed based on qualitative feedback of participants and researchers. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated sensitivity and validity by revealing significant effects of experimental manipulations that corroborated with other empirical results. The measure also demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and practicality for measuring SA in full-scope simulator settings based on data collected on process experts. Thus, full-scope simulator studies can employ the Process Overview Measure to reveal the impact of new control room technology and operational concepts on monitoring process plants. Practitioner Summary: The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure that demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability for assessing operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants in representative settings.

  1. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  2. Mechanical Characterization of Mancos Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A series of tests on Mancos shale have been undertaken to determine the failure surface and to characterize anisotropy. This work supports additional studies which are being performed on the same block of shale; fracture toughness, permeability, and chemical analysis. Mechanical tests are being conducted after specimens were conditioned for at least two weeks at 70% constant relative humidity conditions. Specimens are tested under drained conditions, with the constant relative humidity condition maintained on the downstream side of the specimen. The upstream is sealed. Anisotropy is determined through testing specimens that have been cored parallel and perpendicular to the bedding plane. Preliminary results show that when loaded parallel to bedding the shale is roughly 50% weaker. Test are run under constant mean stress conditions when possible (excepting indirect tension, unconfined compression, and hydrostatic). Tests are run in hydrostatic compaction to the desired mean stress, then differential stress is applied axially in displacement control to failure. The constant mean stress condition is maintained by decreasing the confining pressure by half of the increase in the axial stress. Results will be compared to typical failure criteria to investigate the effectiveness of capturing the behavior of the shale with traditional failure theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6107 A.

  3. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Williams, P.T. [Leeds University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1998-03-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e., the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oilshale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  4. Analysis and characterization of trace elements in shale oil and shale oil products by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Master's thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.

    1978-12-01

    Trace elements and their mobilization constitute an important consideration in the development of new fossil fuel technologies. Shale oil produced by in situ retorting of oil shale is an alternative fossil energy source. This study deals with the analysis of trace elements in various shale oil products using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). INAA offers several advantages for those elements for which it is applicable. The greatest advantage is the lack of sample preparation prior to analysis, which greatly simplifies the process and prevents sample contamination. The elements for which analyses are reported in this study are aluminum, antimony, arsenic, bromine, cerium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, iodine, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfur, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc

  5. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  6. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  7. Study on Shale Adsorption Equation Based on Monolayer Adsorption, Multilayer Adsorption, and Capillary Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas is an effective gas resource all over the world. The evaluation of pore structure plays a critical role in exploring shale gas efficiently. Nitrogen adsorption experiment is one of the significant approaches to analyze pore size structure of shale. Shale is extremely heterogeneous due to component diversity and structure complexity. Therefore, adsorption isotherms for homogeneous adsorbents and empirical isotherms may not apply to shale. The shape of adsorption-desorption curve indicates that nitrogen adsorption on shale includes monolayer adsorption, multilayer adsorption, and capillary condensation. Usually, Langmuir isotherm is a monolayer adsorption model for ideal interfaces; BET (Brunauer, Emmett, Teller adsorption isotherm is a multilayer adsorption model based on specific assumptions; Freundlich isotherm is an empirical equation widely applied in liquid phase adsorption. In this study, a new nitrogen adsorption isotherm is applied to simultaneously depict monolayer adsorption, multilayer adsorption, and capillary condensation, which provides more real and accurate representation of nitrogen adsorption on shale. In addition, parameters are discussed in relation to heat of adsorption which is relevant to the shape of the adsorption isotherm curve. The curve fitting results indicate that our new nitrogen adsorption isotherm can appropriately describe the whole process of nitrogen adsorption on shale.

  8. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Kosmal, W.; Malec-Czechowska, K.; Maciszewski, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plants is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  10. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.M.; Harris, G.J.; Daughton, C.G.

    1984-03-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process wastewaters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogen heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment procsses designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential.

  11. Anvil Points oil shale tailings management in Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, R.; Galli LaBerge, C.; McClurg, J. [Ecology and Environment Inc., Lancaster, NY (United States); Walsh Integrated, Lachine, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation summarized the oil shale tailings management program used at the Anvil Points mining site in Colorado. Decommissioning and reclamation of the site occurred between 1984 and 1986. The geology of the region is comprised of Tertiary bedrock sedimentary formations and Quaternary formations on the surface. Oil shales mined at the facility are from the Eocene Green River formation. While the site lies within big game winter ranges, the areas around the shale pile supports are not a significant nesting or feeding habitat for wildlife. No sensitive plants are located on the waste shale pile. The program currently includes revegetation test plots and the reclamation of an area where heating oil storage tanks were located. The dumping area is currently being monitored, and geophysical surveys are being conducted. Documents produced by mining activities are also being reviewed. Results of the study to date have indicated the presence of asbestos-containing materials, significant physical hazards, and significant cultural resources. An engineering evaluation and cost analysis has demonstrated that arsenic, beryllium, and iron exceed established soil screening levels. It was concluded that off-site removal actions will be conducted to prevent or reduce human exposure to the metals of concern. tabs., figs.

  12. Saltstone processing startup at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.; Langton, C.A.; Sturm, H.F.; Hooker, R.L.; Occhipinti, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    High-level nuclear wastes are stored in large underground tanks at the Savannah River Plant. Processing of this waste in preparation for ultimate disposal will begin in 1988. The waste will be processed to separate the high-level radioactive fraction from the low-level radioactive fraction. The separation will be made in existing waste tanks by a process combining precipitation, adsorption, and filtration. The high-level fraction will be vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for permanent disposal in a federal repository. The low-level fraction (decontaminated salt solution) will be mixed with a cementitious slag-flyash blend. The resulting wasteform, saltstone, will be disposed of onsite by emplacement in an engineered facility. Waste properties, disposal facility details, and wasteform characteristics are discussed. In particular, details of saltstone processing, focusing on experience obtained from facility startup, are presented

  13. Report of the study grou: Data Processing in Reprocessing Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    A study group to examine Data Processing in Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plants was created at the request of the Head of Productions and entrusted to the Director of the La Hague Centre. The groupe was made up of engineers working in different fields: piloting, architecture, building outfits, services etc. To begin with the group examined the solutions proposed by the La Hague Centre for the replacement of data processing units in service at the time but too old and unreliable to meet the safety rules laid down. Secondly, as a contribution towards France's heritage in the fuel reprocessing field, the group investigated systems and configurations for possible application to the equipment of future plants. The results of these studies were submitted in January 1974 [fr

  14. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The resurgence of the nuclear power industry at a time when the nuclear plant I and C workforce is diminishing due to aging and retirements has been the motivation for writing this book. This book compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. It focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time. In spite of great advances in electronics, computers, and measurement technologies, important process parameters such as temperature and pressure are still measured with conventional sensing techniques found in RTDs, thermocouples, and conventional pressure and differential pressure sensors. Furthermore, no improved technology providing comparable performance is currently on the horizon. Therefore, it is important to understand how these sensors function and the testing techniques for verifying their performance. This book is intended to help provide this understanding. (orig.)

  15. Job training planning and design for process plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirstad, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented by which process plant operators for nuclear power plants are trained in Sweden. It works by a top-down method of systems analysis which can be integrated into the analysis, specification, and design of the process automation system. The training methods can also be adapted to existing automation systems and operating schedules. The author's method is based on the principle that training programs should be based on job requirements, e.g. operator tasks in common, less frequent, and rare operating conditions. Procedures have been tested for the following steps: Job analysis, analysis of knowledge and experience required, analysis of operator training requirements, set-up and organisation of the training programme, achievement control, evaluation of the training programme.

  16. Job training planning and design for process plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented by which process plant operators for nuclear power plants are trained in Sweden. It works by a top-down method of systems analysis which can be integrated into the analysis, specification, and design of the process automation system. The training methods can also be adapted to existing automation systems and operating schedules. The author's method is based on the principle that training programs should be based on job requirements, e.g. operator tasks in common, less frequent, and rare operating conditions. Procedures have been tested for the following steps: Job analysis, analysis of knowledge and experience required, analysis of operator training requirements, set-up and organisation of the training programme, achievement control, evaluation of the training programme. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Process control of an HTGR fuel reprocessing cold pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1976-10-01

    Development of engineering-scale systems for a large-scale HTGR fuel reprocessing demonstration facility is currently underway in a cold pilot plant. These systems include two fluidized-bed burners, which remove the graphite (carbon) matrix from the crushed HTGR fuel by high temperature (900 0 C) oxidation. The burners are controlled by a digital process controller with an all analog input/output interface which has been in use since March, 1976. The advantages of such a control system to a pilot plant operation can be summarized as follows: (1) Control loop functions and configurations can be changed easily; (2) control constants, alarm limits, output limits, and scaling constants can be changed easily; (3) calculation of data and/or interface with a computerized information retrieval system during operation are available; (4) diagnosis of process control problems is facilitated; and (5) control panel/room space is saved

  18. Method of distillation of alum shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, G H

    1920-02-03

    A method is given of distilling alum shale by means of preheated gases obtained from the process of distillation in which the gases are circulating within a system consisting of the retort, the condensation apparatus, and generator, each separate. It is characterized by leading the gases produced during the distillation through a condensation apparatus for separation of the condensable products, such as oil, benzene, ammonia, and sulfur, and the noncondensable gases are conveyed through one or more heated generators that have been charged with residue from the process of distillation (any superfluous amount of gas formed during the process being released). The heated gases are thereupon passed to the retort for completion of the distillation process.

  19. Kinetics and equilibrium modeling of uranium(VI) sorption by bituminous shale from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortaboy, Sinem; Atun, Gülten

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil shales are sedimentary rocks containing a polymeric matter in a mineral matrix. • Sorption potential of bituminous shale (BS) for uranium recovery was investigated. • U(VI) sorption increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. • Kinetic data were analyzed based on single and two resistance diffusion models. • The results fit well to the McKay equation assuming film and intraparticle diffusion. - Abstract: Sorption of U(VI) onto a bituminous shale (BS) from a nuclear power plant project site in Black Sea region was investigated for potential risk assessment when it releases into the environment with contaminated ground and surface water. The sorption characteristics of the BS for U(VI) recovery were evaluated as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and temperature. Kinetic results fit better with pseudo-second-order model rather than pseudo-first-order. The possibility of diffusion process was analyzed based on Weber–Morris intra-particle diffusion model. The McKay equation assuming film- and intraparticle diffusion better predicted the data than the Vermeulen approximation presuming surface diffusion. Equilibrium sorption data were modeled according to the Langmuir, Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) and Freundlich isotherm equations. Sorption capacity increased from 0.10 to 0.15 mmol g −1 in 298–318 K temperature range. FT-IR analysis and pH dependent sorption studies conducted in hydroxide and carbonate media revealed that U(VI) species were sorbed in uranyl and its hydroxo forms on the BS. Desorption studies showed that U(VI) leaching with Black Sea water was negligible from the loaded BS. The activation parameters (E a , ΔH ∗ and ΔG ∗ ) estimated from diffusion coefficients indicated the presence of an energy barrier in the sorption system. However, thermodynamic functions derived from sorption equilibrium constants showed that overall sorption process was spontaneous in nature

  20. Integration of drinking water treatment plant process models and emulated process automation software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to limit the risks of fully automated operation of drinking water treatment plants and to improve their operation by using an integrated system of process models and emulated process automation software. This thesis contains the design of such an integrated system.

  1. Gas stripping and recirculation process in heavy water separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzer, D.B.; Thayer, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is stripped from hot effluent, in a heavy water separation plant of the dual temperature isotope separation type, by taking liquid effluent from the hot tower before passage through the humidifier, passing the liquid through one or more throttle devices to flash-off the H 2 S gas content, and feeding the gas into an absorption tower containing incoming feed water, for recycling of the gas through the process

  2. Safety implications of computerized process control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    Modern nuclear power plants are making increasing use of computerized process control because of the number of potential benefits that accrue. This practice not only applies to new plants but also to those in operation. Here, the replacement of both conventional process control systems and outdated computerized systems is seen to be of benefit. Whilst this contribution is obviously of great importance to the viability of nuclear electricity generation, it must be recognized that there are major safety concerns in taking this route. However, there is the potential for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants if the full power of microcomputers and the associated electronics is applied correctly through well designed, engineered, installed and maintained systems. It is essential that areas where safety can be improved be identified and that the pitfalls are clearly marked so that they can be avoided. The deliberations of this Technical Committee Meeting are a step on the road to this goal of improved safety through computerized process control. This report also contains the papers presented at the technical committee meeting by participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 15 presentations. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Increasing operational efficiency in a radioactive waste processing plant - 16100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T.W.; Watson, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    The solid waste plant at Harwell in Oxfordshire, contains a purpose built facility to input, assay, visually inspect and sort remote handled intermediate level radioactive waste (RHILW). The facility includes a suite of remote handling cells, known as the head-end cells (HEC), which waste must pass through in order to be repackaged. Some newly created waste from decommissioning works on site passes through the cells, but the vast majority of waste for processing is historical waste, stored in below ground tube stores. Existing containers are not suitable for long term storage, many are already badly corroded, so the waste must be efficiently processed and repackaged in order to achieve passive safety. The Harwell site is currently being decommissioned and the land is being restored. The site is being progressively de-licensed, and redeveloped as a business park, which can only be completed when all the nuclear liabilities have been removed. The recovery and processing of old waste in the solid waste plant is a key project linked to de-licensing of a section of the site. Increasing the operational efficiency of the waste processing plant could shorten the time needed to clear the site and has the potential to save money for the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The waste processing facility was constructed in the mid 1990's, and commissioned in 1999. Since operations began, the yearly throughput of the cells has increased significantly every year. To achieve targets set out in the lifetime plan (LTP) for the site, throughput must continue to increase. The operations department has measured the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) of the process for the last few years, and has used continuous improvement techniques to decrease the average cycle time. Philosophies from operational management practices such as 'lean' and 'kaizen' have been employed successfully to drive out losses and increase plant efficiency. This paper will describe how the solid waste plant

  4. Mining of the uraniferous shales of Saelices el Chico (Salamanca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J.R.; Membrillera, J.R.; Criado, M.; Gomez Jaen, J.P.; Artieda, J.; Grande, L.

    1980-01-01

    In July 1974 ENUSA (the National Uranium Company) started mining operations in the FE-1 deposit in the municipal district of Saelices el Chico, Salamanca province. This is a deposit of the Stockwork type and is embedded in Cambrian shales of a distinct degree of metamorphism. The primary mineralization is found filling fissures and fractures of only slight longitudinal development. The secondary minerals were deposited in the zones affected by the hydrostatic level. The investigation of the deposit was carried out by the Spanish Nuclear Energy Board (JEN). In its final phases it consisted of a control drilling campaign and a wagon-drill campaign. The deposit was evaluated by the zone-of-influence method in accordance with the control drillings and the wagon drillings. The overall rate of production was 1,200,000 t per annum, of which 200,000 t were ore with a U 2 O 8 content of 0.08%. The output of the processing plant was 130 t U 3 O 8 . In 1976 ENUSA undertook a mining project of much greater scope in consequence of the decision to expand the ore processing plant (objective of the Quercus project). The annual output of the plant in question will be 600 t U 3 O 8 . For this the production of ore will be increased to 825,000 t/a (average grade 0.075%) and the total amount removed will be 9 million tonnes per annum. Account is taken of the whole of the FE deposit, which includes FE-1 and FE-3 and their respective extensions. The evaluation of the deposit was made both on the basis of the results of the control- and wagon-drillings and by the Kriging statistical method. (author)

  5. Future trends in power plant process computer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettloff, K.

    1975-01-01

    The development of new concepts of the process computer technique has advanced in great steps. The steps are in the three sections: hardware, software, application concept. New computers with a new periphery such as, e.g., colour layer equipment, have been developed in hardware. In software, a decisive step in the sector 'automation software' has been made. Through these components, a step forwards has also been made in the question of incorporating the process computer in the structure of the whole power plant control technique. (orig./LH) [de

  6. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP) - operation of the pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruengel, N.; Dehms, G.; Fiedler, P.; Gerigk, H.P.; Ruddeck, W.; Schrader, L.; Schumacher, H.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG developed the process of hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed for generation of SNG. On basis of test results obtained in a semi-technical pilot plant of a through-put of 250 kg/h dried coal a large pilot plant was erected processing 10 t/h dried brown coal. This plant was on stream for about 14700 h, of which about 7800 h were with gasifier operation; during this time about 38000 t of dried brown coal of the Rhenish district were processed containing 4 to 25% of ash. At pressures of 60 to 120 bar and temperatures of 800 to 935 0 C carbon conversion rates up to 81 percent and methane amounts of 5000 m 3 (STP)/h were reached. The decisive parameter for methane generation was the hydrogen/coal-ratio. Even at high moisture contents, usually diminishing the methane yield from the coal essentially, by high hydrogen/coal-ratios high methane yields could be obtained. The gasifier itself caused no troubles during the total time operation. Difficulties with the original design of the residual char cooler could be overcome by change-over from water injection to liquid carbon dioxide. The design of the heat recovery system proved well. Alltogether so the size increasement of the gasifier from the semi-technical to the large pilot plant as well as the harmonization of gas generation and gas refining was proved. (orig.) With 20 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs [de

  7. Biogenic gas in the Cambrian-Ordovcian Alum Shale (Denmark and Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M.; Wirth, R.; Biermann, S.; Arning, E.T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Krueger, M.; Straaten, N. [BGR Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Schovsbo, N.H. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland - GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Crabtree, Stephen [Gripen Gas (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Shale gas is mainly produced from thermally mature black shales. However, biogenic methane also represents a resource which is often underestimated. Today biogenic methane is being produced from the Upper Devonian Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin which was the most successfully exploited shale gas system during the 1990-2000 decade in the U.S.A. before significant gas production from the Barnett Shale started (Curtis et al., 2008). The Cambro-Ordovician Alum Shale in northern Europe has thermal maturities ranging from overmature in southern areas (Denmark and southern Sweden) to immature conditions (central Sweden). Biogenic methane is recorded during drilling in central Sweden. The immature Alum Shale in central Sweden has total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 20 wt%. The hydrogen index HI ranges from 380 to 560 mgHC/gTOC at very low oxygen index (OI) values of around 4 mg CO{sub 2}/gTOC, Tmax ranges between 420 - 430 C. The organic matter is highly porous. In general, the Alum Shale is a dense shale with intercalated sandy beds which may be dense due to carbonate cementation. Secondary porosity is created in some sandy beds due to feldspar dissolution and these beds serve as gas conduits. Methane production rates with shale as substrate in the laboratory are dependent on the kind of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial enrichment cultures used in the incubation experiments, ranging from 10-620 nmol/(g*d). In these experiments, the CO{sub 2} production rate was always higher than for methane. Like the northern part of North America, also Northern European has been covered by glaciers during the Pleistocene and similar geological processes may have developed leading to biogenic shale gas formation. For the Antrim Shale one hypothesis suggests that fresh waters, recharged from Pleistocene glaciation and modern precipitation, suppressed basinal brine salinity along the northern margins of the Michigan Basin to greater depths and thereby enhancing methanogenesis

  8. Environmental effects of disposal of intermediate-level wastes by shale fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.

    1978-01-01

    Shale fracturing is a process currently being used at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the permanent disposal of locally generated, intermediate-level waste solutions. In this process, the waste is mixed with a solids blend of cement and other additives; the resulting grout is then injected into an impermeable shale formation at a depth of 700 to 1000 ft. A few hours after completion of the injection, the grout sets and the radioactive waste are fixed in the shale formation. An analysis of environmental effects of normal operation and possible accident situations is discussed

  9. Coal conversion process by the United Power Plants of Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-08-01

    The coal conversion process used by the United Power Plants of Westphalia and its possible applications are described. In this process, the crushed and predried coal is degassed and partly gasified in a gas generator, during which time the sulfur present in the coal is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which together with the carbon dioxide is subsequently washed out and possibly utilized or marketed. The residual coke together with the ashes and tar is then sent to the melting chamber of the steam generator where the ashes are removed. After desulfurization, the purified gas is fed into an external circuit and/or to a gas turbine for electricity generation. The raw gas from the gas generator can be directly used as fuel in a conventional power plant. The calorific value of the purified gas varies from 3200 to 3500 kcal/cu m. The purified gas can be used as reducing agent, heating gas, as raw material for various chemical processes, or be conveyed via pipelines to remote areas for electricity generation. The conversion process has the advantages of increased economy of electricity generation with desulfurization, of additional gas generation, and, in long-term prospects, of the use of the waste heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for this process.

  10. Plant process computer system upgrades at the KSG simulator centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The human-machine interface (HMI) of a modern plant process computer system (PPC) differs significantly from that of older systems. Along with HMI changes, there are often improvements to system functionality such as alarm display and printing functions and transient data analysis capabilities. Therefore, the upgrade or replacement of a PPC in the reference plant will typically require an upgrade of the simulator (see Section 6.5.1 for additional information). Several options are available for this type of project including stimulation of a replica system,or emulation, or simulation of PPC functionality within the simulation environment. To simulate or emulate a PCC, detailed knowledge of hardware and software functionality is required. This is typically vendor proprietary information, which leads to licensing and other complications. One of the added benefits of stimulating the PPC system is that the simulator can be used as a test bed for functional testing (i.e. verification and validation) of the system prior to installation in the reference plant. Some of this testing may include validation of the process curve and system diagram displays. Over the past few years several German NPPs decided to modernize their plant process computer (PPC) systems. After the NPPs had selected the desired system to meet their requirements the question arose how to modernize the PPC systems on the corresponding simulators. Six German NPPs selected the same PPC system from the same vendor and it was desired to perform integral tests of the HMI on the simulators. In this case the vendor offered a stimulated variant of their system and it therefore made sense to choose that implementation method for upgrade of the corresponding simulators. The first simulator PPC modernization project can be considered as a prototype project for the follow-on projects. In general, from the simulator project execution perspective the implementation of several stimulated PPC systems of the same type

  11. Packaging of radioactive sludges at the Saclay effluent processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, Pierre; Mestre, Emile; Bourdrez, Jean; Leconnetable, Jean

    1964-10-01

    The authors describe technical and technological aspects of the packaging workshop for radioactive sludges produced by processes of co-precipitation of Saclay effluents. This facility is an achievement of studies which aimed at improving working conditions for the plant staff. This workshop implements a process of solidification of filtered sludge by mixing with a hydraulic binding agent. After some generalities on the decontamination process applied to effluents produced by the Saclay research centre, the authors present and describe the adopted process, propose a physical description of the facility: building, chemical engineering equipment (filtration, packaging, and handling). They describe facility operation: introduction of a block into the cell, block filling, output of a packaged container. They briefly discuss the first results of facility exploitation [fr

  12. Low-level radioactive waste processing at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Solid Radwaste Processing Source Book is presented as a supplement to the Liquid Radwaste Source Book released in 1990 and updated in 1991. The publication is the result of an industry-wide survey, and is intended as a resource for technical and managerial decisions involving of the processing of solid radioactive waste including ''wet'' and ''dry'' active waste as found at both Pressurized and Boiling Water Reactor sites. In addition to information on processes, vendors, volumes, and in-plant management activities, technology under consideration for future use and computer applications are listed. Together with key personnel and contact information contained in the Liquid Source Books, the collected data will be of great use when seeking specific, unbiased experience on which to base decisions related to so processing, disposal policy, or potential economic and regulatory impact

  13. Plant life management processes and practices for heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.-S.; Cleveland, J.; Clark, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    responsibility for achievement of specific SSC lifetime. This paper discusses an overview of PLiM programs and considerations. This includes key objectives of such programs, regulatory considerations, asset management perspectives, integration of methodologies into current programs, organizational and technology infrastructure considerations, importance of effective plant data management and finally, benefits and costs. This paper is summary of the IAEA technical documents on 'Guidelines on Plant Life Management Processes and Practices for Heavy Water Reactors'. (author)

  14. Model-based reasoning and the control of process plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaelisuo, Heikki

    1993-02-01

    In addition to feedback control, safe and economic operation of industrial process plants requires discrete-event type logic control like for example automatic control sequences, interlocks, etc. A lot of complex routine reasoning is involved in the design and verification and validation (VandV) of such automatics. Similar reasoning tasks are encountered during plant operation in action planning and fault diagnosis. The low-level part of the required problem solving is so straightforward that it could be accomplished by a computer if only there were plant models which allow versatile mechanised reasoning. Such plant models and corresponding inference algorithms are the main subject of this report. Deep knowledge and qualitative modelling play an essential role in this work. Deep knowledge refers to mechanised reasoning based on the first principles of the phenomena in the problem domain. Qualitative modelling refers to knowledge representation formalism and related reasoning methods which allow solving problems on an abstraction level higher than for example traditional simulation and optimisation. Prolog is a commonly used platform for artificial intelligence (Al) applications. Constraint logic languages like CLP(R) and Prolog-III extend the scope of logic programming to numeric problem solving. In addition they allow a programming style which often reduces the computational complexity significantly. An approach to model-based reasoning implemented in constraint logic programming language CLP(R) is presented. The approach is based on some of the principles of QSIM, an algorithm for qualitative simulation. It is discussed how model-based reasoning can be applied in the design and VandV of plant automatics and in action planning during plant operation. A prototype tool called ISIR is discussed and some initial results obtained during the development of the tool are presented. The results presented originate from preliminary test results of the prototype obtained

  15. Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1989-08-01

    The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Concept of a HTR modular plant for generation of process heat in a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This final report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on behalf of Buna AG and Leunawerke AG. With regard to the individual situations the study investigated the conditions for modular HTR-2 reactors to cover on-site process heat and electric power demands. HTR-2 reactor erection and operation were analyzed for their economic efficiency compared with fossil-fuel power plants. Considering the prospective product lines, the technical and economic conditions were developed in close cooperation with Buna AG and Leunawerke AG. The study focused on the technical integration of modular HTR reactors into plants with regard to safety concepts, on planning, acceptance and erection concepts which largely exclude uncalculable scheduling and financial risks, and on comparative economic analyses with regard to fossil-fuel power plants. (orig.) [de

  17. STUDY OF PLANT-WIDE CONTROL IMPLEMENTATION IN PRODUCTION PROCESS OF GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHERIN INDRIAWATI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plant-wide control system to optimize electricity production in geothermal power plant is proposed in this research. The objective is to overcome the deficiency due to changes in the characteristics of production well and fluctuation in electricity demand load. The proposed plant-wide control system has two main tasks; to maintain production process at optimum value and to increase efficiency. The pressure in separator and condenser is maintained at the respective set points under electrical load fluctuations in order to ensure optimum efficiency. The control system also reduce the usage of auxialiary electrical power and increase efficiency. The task was performed by controlling inlet cooling water temperatures to the condenser. It was concluded that the proposed control structure was able to increase efficiency and maintain production.

  18. Hydrogenation of Estonian oil shale and shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogerman, P N; Kopwillem, J

    1932-01-01

    Kukersite was heated in an atmosphere of hydrogen, nitrogen, or water in three series of experiments. Shale samples were heated at 370/sup 0/ to 410/sup 0/C for 2 to 3/sup 1///sub 2/ hours in the presence of 106 to 287 kg/sq cm pressure of water, nitrogen, or hydrogen. In some experiments 5 percent of iron oxide was added to the shale. The amount of kerogen liquefied by hydrogenation was not greater than the amount of liquid products obtained by ordinary distillation. On hydrogenation, kukersite absorbed 1.8 weight-percent of hydrogen. Almost no hydrogenation took place below the decomposition point of kerogen, and the lighter decomposition products were mainly hydrogenated. Hydrogenation of the shale prevented coke formation. Heating kukersite or its crude oil at temperatures of 400/sup 0/ to 410/sup 0/C under 250 kg/sq cm hydrogen pressure produced paraffinic and naphthenic oils of lower boiling points. At higher temperatures and after long-continued heating, the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons was observed.

  19. Development of an experimental approach to study coupled soil-plant-atmosphere processes using plant analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, Andrew C.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Heck, Katharina; Helmig, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere, soils, and vegetation near the land-atmosphere interface are in a state of continuous dynamic interaction via a myriad of complex interrelated feedback processes which collectively, remain poorly understood. Studying the fundamental nature and dynamics of such processes in atmospheric, ecological, and/or hydrological contexts in the field setting presents many challenges; current experimental approaches are an important factor given a general lack of control and high measurement uncertainty. In an effort to address these issues and reduce overall complexity, new experimental design considerations (two-dimensional intermediate-scale coupled wind tunnel-synthetic aquifer testing using synthetic plants) for studying soil-plant-atmosphere continuum soil moisture dynamics are introduced and tested in this study. Validation of these experimental considerations, particularly the adoption of synthetic plants, is required prior to their application in future research. A comparison of three experiments with bare soil surfaces or transplanted with a Stargazer lily/limestone block was used to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approaches. Results demonstrate that coupled wind tunnel-porous media experimentation, used to simulate field conditions, reduces complexity, and enhances control while allowing fine spatial-temporal resolution measurements to be made using state-of-the-art technologies. Synthetic plants further help reduce system complexity (e.g., airflow) while preserving the basic hydrodynamic functions of plants (e.g., water uptake and transpiration). The trends and distributions of key measured atmospheric and subsurface spatial and temporal variables (e.g., soil moisture, relative humidity, temperature, air velocity) were comparable, showing that synthetic plants can be used as simple, idealized, nonbiological analogs for living vegetation in fundamental hydrodynamic studies.

  20. Sustained qualification process for full scope nuclear power plant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirson, J.; Stubbe, E.; Vanhoenacker, L.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decade, simulator training for all nuclear power plant operators has evolved into a vital requirement. To assure a correct training, the simulator qualification process is an important issue not only for the initial validation but also following major simulator updates, which are necessary during the lifetime of the simulator. In order to avoid degradation of the simulator validated software, the modifications have to be introduced according to a rigorous methodology and a practical requalification process has to be applied. Such methodology has to be enforced at every phase of the simulator construction or updating process from plant data package constitution, over simulator software development to simulator response qualification. The initial qualification and requalification process is based on the 3 levels identified by the ANSI/ANS 3-5 standard for steady-state, operational transients and accident conditions. For the initial certification of the full scope simulators in Belgium, a practical qualification methodology has been applied, which has been adapted into a set of non regression tests for the requalification after major simulator updates. (orig.) (4 refs., 3 figs.)

  1. NEURO-FUZZY MODELLING OF BLENDING PROCESS IN CEMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Olarotimi Araromi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of a cement plant depends largely on the efficient operation of the blending stage, therefore, there is a need to control the process at the blending stage in order to maintain the chemical composition of the raw mix near or at the desired value with minimum variance despite variation in the raw material composition. In this work, neuro-fuzzy model is developed for a dynamic behaviour of the system to predict the total carbonate content in the raw mix at different clay feed rates. The data used for parameter estimation and model validation was obtained from one of the cement plants in Nigeria. The data was pre-processed to remove outliers and filtered using smoothening technique in order to reveal its dynamic nature. Autoregressive exogenous (ARX model was developed for comparison purpose. ARX model gave high root mean square error (RMSE of 5.408 and 4.0199 for training and validation respectively. Poor fit resulting from ARX model is an indication of nonlinear nature of the process. However, both visual and statistical analyses on neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS model gave a far better result. RMSE of training and validation are 0.28167 and 0.7436 respectively, and the sum of square error (SSE and R-square are 39.6692 and 0.9969 respectively. All these are an indication of good performance of ANFIS model. This model can be used for control design of the process.

  2. Remote sampling of process fluids in radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengar, P.B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Ozarde, P. D.; Rana, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Sampling of process fluids, continuous or periodic, is an essential requirement in any chemical process plant, so as to keep a control on process variables. In a radiochemical plant the task of taking and conveying the samples is a very tricky affair. This is due to the fact that neither the vessels/equipment containing radioactive effluents can be approached for manual sampling nor sampled fluids can be handled directly. The problems become more accute with higher levels of radioactivity. As such, inovative systems have to be devised to obtain and handle the raioactive samples employing remote operations. The remote sampling system developed in this Division has some of the unique features such as taking only requisite amount of samples in microlitre range, practically maintenance free design, avoidence of excess radioactive fluids coming out of process systems, etc. The paper describes in detail the design of remote sampling system and compares the same with existing systems. The design efforts are towards simplicity in operation, obtaining homogenised representative samples and highly economical on man-rem expenditure. The performance of a prototype system has also been evaluated. (author). 3 refs

  3. Application of alkaline leaching to the extraction of uranium from shale of the Vosges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouret, P.; Pottier, P.; Le Bris, J.

    1958-01-01

    Description of chemical treatment of Vosges shales to obtain uranium by alkaline leaching. Mineralogy aspects of ore, physical and chemical conditions of leaching, solid/liquid separation, uranium recovery by either ion exchange process or electrolytic precipitation. (author) [fr

  4. Iodine-129 in aquatic organisms near nuclear fuels processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.G.

    1975-04-01

    Concentrations of 129 I in two aquatic habitats near nuclear fuel processing plants were highest in algae and crustaceans. These two forms may be useful in future monitoring of 129 I. There is some indication of an increase in atom ratios and specific activity in aquatic organisms over that in water and sediments. Additional measurements should be made to verify this conclusion. Efforts should continue to measure the possible long term build-up of 129 I in aquatic environments receiving effluents from fuels reprocessing plants. Even at very low rates of release to the environment, the long physical half-life of 129 I creates the potential for build-up of this nuclide to significant levels. (U.S.)

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant - the project and process systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, L.D.; Miller, W.C.; Smith, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project is scheduled to start construction on the Hanford reservation in southeastern Washington State in 1991. The project will immobilize the liquid high-level defense waste stored there. The HWVP represents the third phase of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities that are focused on the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste, building on the experience of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River site, South Carolina, and of the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP), New York. This sequential approach to disposal of the country's commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste allows HWVP to make extensive use of lessons learned from the experience of its predecessors, using mature designs from the earlier facilities to achieve economies in design and construction costs while enhancing operational effectiveness

  6. Flow modelling of plant processes for fault diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praetorius, N.; Duncan, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Flow and its interruption or degradation is seen by many people in industry to be the essential problem in fault diagnonsis. It is this observation which has motivated the representation of a complex simulation of a process plant presented here. The display system we have developed represents the mass and energy flow functions of the plant and the relationship between such flow functions. In this report we shall mainly discuss how such representation seems to provide opportunities to design alarm systems as an integral part of the flow function representation itself and to solve two of the most intricate problems in diagnosis, namely the problem of symptom referral and the problem of confuseable faults. (author)

  7. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  8. An exploratory study of air emissions associated with shale gas development and production in the Barnett Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa; Grover, James P; Sattler, Melanie L

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding air emissions from shale gas extraction and production is critically important given production is occurring in highly urbanized areas across the United States. Objectives of this exploratory study were to collect ambient air samples in residential areas within 61 m (200 feet) of shale gas extraction/production and determine whether a "fingerprint" of chemicals can be associated with shale gas activity. Statistical analyses correlating fingerprint chemicals with methane, equipment, and processes of extraction/production were performed. Ambient air sampling in residential areas of shale gas extraction and production was conducted at six counties in the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex from 2008 to 2010. The 39 locations tested were identified by clients that requested monitoring. Seven sites were sampled on 2 days (typically months later in another season), and two sites were sampled on 3 days, resulting in 50 sets of monitoring data. Twenty-four-hour passive samples were collected using summa canisters. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometer analysis was used to identify organic compounds present. Methane was present in concentrations above laboratory detection limits in 49 out of 50 sampling data sets. Most of the areas investigated had atmospheric methane concentrations considerably higher than reported urban background concentrations (1.8-2.0 ppm(v)). Other chemical constituents were found to be correlated with presence of methane. A principal components analysis (PCA) identified multivariate patterns of concentrations that potentially constitute signatures of emissions from different phases of operation at natural gas sites. The first factor identified through the PCA proved most informative. Extreme negative values were strongly and statistically associated with the presence of compressors at sample sites. The seven chemicals strongly associated with this factor (o-xylene, ethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene, 1

  9. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  10. Problems in the wellbore integrity of a shale gas horizontal well and corresponding countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglan Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Changning–Weiyuan national shale gas demonstration area, SW Sichuan Basin, the wellbore integrity damage occurs in some shale gas wells and has direct effect on the gas production rate of single shale gas horizontal well. After statistics analysis was performed on the problems related with wellbore integrity, such as casing damage, casing running difficulty and cement sheath blow-by, the multi-factor coupling casing stress calculation and evaluation mode laws established. Then study was conducted on the influential mechanism of multi-factor coupling (temperature effect, casing bending and axial pressure on casing damage. The shale slip mechanism and its relationship with casing sheared formation were analyzed by using the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. Inversion analysis was performed on the main controlling factors of casing friction by using the developed casing hook load prediction and friction analysis software. And finally, based on the characteristics of shale gas horizontal wells, wellbore integrity control measures were proposed in terms of design and construction process, so as to improve the drilling quality (DQ. More specifically, shale gas well casing design calculation method and check standard were modified, well structure and full bore hole trajectory design were optimized, drilling quality was improved, cement properties were optimized and cement sealing integrity during fracturing process was checked. These research findings are significant in the design and management of future shale gas borehole integrity.

  11. A process to remove ammonia from PUREX plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Zirconium-clad nuclear fuel from the Hanford N-Reactor is reprocessed in the PUREX (Plutonium Uranium Extraction) Plant operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Comapny. Before dissolution, cladding is chemically removed from the fuel elements with a solution of ammonium fluoride-ammonium nitrate (AFAN). a solution batch with an ammonia equivalent of about 1,100 kg is added to each fuel batch of 10 metric tons. This paper reports on this decladding process, know as the 'Zirflex' process which produces waste streams containing ammonia and ammonium slats. Waste stream treatment, includes ammonia scrubbing, scrub solution evaporation, residual solids dissolution, and chemical neutralization. These processes produce secondary liquid and gaseous waste streams containing varying concentrations of ammonia and low-level concentrations of radionuclides. Until legislative restrictions were imposed in 1987, these secondary streams were released to the soil in a liquid disposal 'crib' and to the atmosphere

  12. Designing new nuclear chemical processing plants for safeguards accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    New nuclear chemical processing plants will be required to develop material accountability control limits from measurement error propagation analysis rather than historical inventory difference data as performed in the past. In order for measurement error propagation methods to be viable alternatives, process designers must ensure that two nondimensional accountability parameters are maintained below 0.1. These parameters are ratios between the material holdup increase and the variance in inventory difference measurement uncertainty. Measurement uncertainty data for use in error propagation analysis is generally available in the open literature or readily derived from instrument calibration data. However, nuclear material holdup data has not been adequately developed for use in the material accountability design process. Long duration development testing on isolated unit operations is required to generate this necessary information

  13. Technical-economic parameters of the new oil shale mining-chemical complex in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmiv, I.; Fraiman, J.

    2006-01-01

    The history of oil shale mining in Estonia has reached its century mark. Three oil shale branches have been formed and have been working on the basis of Estonian oil shale deposits: the mining industry (underground and surface extraction), the power industry (heat and electric energy generation), and the chemical industry (gas and synthetic oils). The authors attempted to summarize the experience of the activities of these branches and to make into a whole the results of their research developments in the past years, as well as to form a notion about perspectives of oil shale in Estonia. Variants of the mining-chemical oil shale complex production and trade patterns differed from used ones. Mining methods, thermal processing of oil shale, and solid, liquid, and gas waste recovery have been studied, analyzed, and worked out up to the present. Setting up a flexible trade structure within the framework of that complex is considered the main economic mechanism capable of balancing production costs of such a complex with its earnings, which could respond properly to any, even peak, fluctuations of the market for final products processed from oil shale. Data of the working 'Estonia' oil shale mine were used as the basis of the analysis and practical conclusions. Information on the mine being projected in the region of Ojamaa in the northeast of Estonia was taken as the data of the worthwhile supplier. Oil shale processing chemical complex is considered in two structural alternatives: in technological chain with the 'Estonia' mine (the first variant), and the projected mine of a new technical level (the second variant). (author)

  14. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toy, Lora [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO

  15. Shale oil. I. Genesis of oil shales and its relation to petroleum and other fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil-shale kerogen originated from resinous vegetation residues of past eras, whereas well petroleum was formed from oil shales by pressure and mild heat. Petroleum migrated to its present reservoir from neighboring oil-shale deposits, leaving a residue of black bituminous shales. The high carbon dioxide content of gases present in petroleum wells originated from kerogen, as it gives off carbon dioxide gas before producing soluble oil or bitumen.

  16. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  17. Digital Process Management Technology for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Young M.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2009-01-01

    PHILOSOPHIA, Inc. and Seoul National University have utilized the cutting edge Digital Process Management (DPM) technology for the good of Nuclear Power Plant in recent days. This work represent the overall benefits and the use of this new flow of technology which come into the spotlight. Before realizing the three dimensional (3D) technologies and applying it to real mechanical manufactures and constructions, majority of planning and designing works need huge time and cost even if the process is before the real work. Especially, for a massive construction such as power plant and harbor, without computer-aided technology currently we cannot imagine the whole process can be established easily. Computer-aided Design (CAD) is now main and common technology for manufacturing or construction. This technology lead the other virtual reality 3D technologies into the job site. As a member of these new technologies, DPM is utilized in high-tech and huge scale manufacturing and construction for the benefits of time and cost

  18. Plant senescence and proteolysis: two processes with one destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Santamaria, M Estrella; González-Melendi, Pablo; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Senescence-associated proteolysis in plants is a complex and controlled process, essential for mobilization of nutrients from old or stressed tissues, mainly leaves, to growing or sink organs. Protein breakdown in senescing leaves involves many plastidial and nuclear proteases, regulators, different subcellular locations and dynamic protein traffic to ensure the complete transformation of proteins of high molecular weight into transportable and useful hydrolysed products. Protease activities are strictly regulated by specific inhibitors and through the activation of zymogens to develop their proteolytic activity at the right place and at the proper time. All these events associated with senescence have deep effects on the relocation of nutrients and as a consequence, on grain quality and crop yield. Thus, it can be considered that nutrient recycling is the common destiny of two processes, plant senescence and, proteolysis. This review article covers the most recent findings about leaf senescence features mediated by abiotic and biotic stresses as well as the participants and steps required in this physiological process, paying special attention to C1A cysteine proteases, their specific inhibitors, known as cystatins, and their potential targets, particularly the chloroplastic proteins as source for nitrogen recycling.

  19. Processing of transuranic waste at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, B.A.; Gruber, L.M.; Mentrup, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been retrievably stored on concrete pads since early 1972. This waste is stored primarily in 55-gallon drums and large carbon steel boxes. Higher activity drums are placed in concrete culverts. In support of a National Program to consolidate and permanently dispose of this waste, a major project is planned at SRP to retrieve and process this waste. This project, the TRU Waste Facility (TWF), will provide equipment and processes to retrieve TRU waste from 20-year retrievable storage and prepare it for permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) geological repository in New Mexico. This project is an integral part of the SRP Long Range TRU Waste Management Program to reduce the amount of TRU waste stored at SRP. The TWF is designed to process 15,000 cubic feet of retrieved waste and 6200 cubic feet of newly generated waste each year of operation. This facility is designed to minimize direct personnel contact with the waste using state-of-the-art remotely operated equipment

  20. Quantifying porosity, compressibility and permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Frykman, Peter

    strain data. We found that Kozeny's modelled permeability fall in the same order of magnitude with measured permeability for shale rich in kaolinite but overestimates permeability by two to three orders of magnitudes for shale with high content of smectite. The empirical Yang and Aplin model gives good...... permeability estimate comparable to the measured one for shale rich in smectite. This is probably because Yang and Aplin model was calibrated in London clay which is rich in smectite....

  1. Defense waste processing facility project at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.G.; Maher, R.; Mellen, J.B.; Shafranek, L.F.; Stevens, W.R. III.

    1984-01-01

    The Du Pont Company is building for the Department of Energy a facility to vitrify high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactive wastes produced by defense activities at the site. At the present time engineering and design are 45% complete, the site has been cleared, and startup is expected in 1989. This paper will describe project status as well as features of the design. 9 figures

  2. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, A.K. [BARC-BTIR Complex, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Atomic Energy. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology

    2002-07-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  3. Digital image processing for radiography in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidt, H.; Rose, P.; Raabe, P.; Daum, W.

    1985-01-01

    With the help of digital processing of radiographic images from reactor-components it is possible to increase the security and objectiveness of the evaluation. Several examples of image processing procedures (contrast enhancement, density profiles, shading correction, digital filtering, superposition of images etc.) show the advantages for the visualization and evaluation of radiographs. Digital image processing can reduce some of the restrictions of radiography in nuclear power plants. In addition a higher degree of automation can be cost-saving and increase the quality of radiographic evaluation. The aim of the work performed was to to improve the readability of radiographs for the human observer. The main problem is lack of contrast and the presence of disturbing structures like weld seams. Digital image processing of film radiographs starts with the digitization of the image. Conventional systems use TV-cameras or scanners and provide a dynamic range of 1.5. to 3 density units, which are digitized to 256 grey levels. For the enhancement process it is necessary that the grey level range covers the density range of the important regions of the presented film. On the other hand the grey level coverage should not be wider than necessary to minimize the width of digitization steps. Poor digitization makes flaws and cracks invisible and spoils all further image processing

  4. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  5. Vacuolar processing enzyme in plant programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki eHatsugai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE is a cysteine proteinase originally identified as the proteinase responsible for the maturation and activation of vacuolar proteins in plants, and it is known to be an orthologue of animal asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP/VPE/legumain. VPE has been shown to exhibit enzymatic properties similar to that of caspase 1, which is a cysteine protease that mediates the programmed cell death (PCD pathway in animals. Although there is limited sequence identity between VPE and caspase 1, their predicted three-dimensional structures revealed that the essential amino-acid residues for these enzymes form similar pockets for the substrate peptide YVAD. In contrast to the cytosolic localization of caspases, VPE is localized in vacuoles. VPE provokes vacuolar rupture, initiating the proteolytic cascade leading to PCD in the plant immune response. It has become apparent that the VPE-dependent PCD pathway is involved not only in the immune response, but also in the responses to a variety of stress inducers and in the development of various tissues. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the contribution of VPE to plant PCD and its role in vacuole-mediated cell death, and it also compares VPE with the animal cell death executor caspase 1.

  6. Scaling root processes based on plant functional traits (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; McCormack, M. L.; Gaines, K.; Adams, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are great challenges to scaling root processes as variation across species and variation of a particular species over different spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. We have examined tree species variation using multispecies plantings, often referred to by ecologists as 'common gardens'. Choosing species with wide variation in growth rate, root morphology (diameter, branching intensity) and root chemistry (root N and Ca concentration), we found that variation in root lifespan was well correlated with plant functional traits across 12 species. There was also evidence that localized liquid N addition could increase root lifespan and localized water addition diminished root lifespan over untreated controls, with effects strongest in the species of finest root diameter. In an adjacent forest, we have also seen tree species variation in apparent depth of rooting using water isotopes. In particular species of wood anatomy that was ring porous (e.g. oaks) typically had the deepest rooting depth, whereas those that had either diffuse-porous sapwood (maples) or tracheid sapwood (pines) were shallower rooted. These differences in rooting depth were related to sap flux of trees during and immediately after periods of drought. The extent that the patterns observed in central Pennsylvania are modulated by environment or indicative of other plant species will be discussed.

  7. Intensifying drying process with creation of functional plant compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Petrova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The process of drying agricultural raw products is associated with loss of bioactive substances by the products exposed to heat, light, oxygen, or рН medium. It is reasonable to enhance the table beet processing technology in order to achieve maximum betanin conservation at lower energy consumption. Materials and methods. Table beets, rhubarbs, lemons, and tomatoes were dried at temperature of 50 to 100 ºС, air speed of 1.5 to 3.5 m/s, heat carrier water content of 7 to 15 g/kg, and layer thickness of 2 to 20 mm. The betanіn content was determined via absorption spectra, using the optical density value at 540 nm wavelength. A differential microcalorimeter was used for measuring evaporation heat consumption. Results and discussion.The effect of raw product pre-drying preparation was studied. With no preliminary preparation, the loss of betanin after drying reaches 66 %. The preliminary preparation technology we have developed includes boiling whole root crops with optimal selection of acid medium and allows us to reduce the betanin loss down to 6 %. Regretfully, the process requires large energy consumption. Low energy consumption pre-drying preparation method was developed for antioxidant raw products with thermal processing replaced by blending. The betanin loss, in this case, does not exceed 5 %. Optimal drying temperature of betanin-containing raw stock, after its preliminary processing, is 60 °С. It allows to keep up to 95 % of betanіn. Specific heat consumption for water evaporation out of the developed table beet based antioxidant plant compositions, with addition of rhubarb and lemon, is less by 4 to 5 % as compared to the initial components. Conclusions. Dependence of betanin loss in plant raw stock on the material temperature and composition components, in the course of their pre-drying preparation, was found. It was also found that water evaporation heat, for some antioxidant plant compositions developed, is less

  8. Shale gas - the story of a deception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical sheet presents a book which aims at informing citizen about the irreversible consequences of shale gas exploitation on the environment, and about the economical and social aspects of an exploitation of this energy on a large scale. The author highlights the technical and environmental problems raised by hydraulic fracturing, outlines the complexity of the regulatory, legal and administrative framework, discusses the arguments which support shale gas exploitation, and outlines the importance of and energy transition without shale gas. The author notably outlines the conflicts of interest which pervert the debate on shale gas, notably within the French National Assembly

  9. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  10. Improving sustainability of maize to ethanol processing by plant breeding and process optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Torres Salvador, A.F.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Trindade, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient management of plant resources is essential for a sustainable biobased economy. The biomass conversion efficiency and sustainability performance depend greatly on the choice of feedstock and the applied processing technology. The aim of this research was to enhance the biomass use of maize

  11. Shale gas boom in the US. Technology - economy - environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Renschhausen, Martin; Klippel, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    There is hardly any other issue that polarizes the energy policy discussion so far as the production of shale gas and shale oil by means of fracking processes. For the advocates, the expansion of unconventional gas and oil production offers the opportunity to intensify competition in the oil and gas markets, to lower prices and to reduce the dependence on uncertain deliveries of OPEC and Russia by increased domestic production. The critics, on the other hand, emphasize the environmental risks associated with fracking and see the extension of the fossil energy base as an obstacle to the climatically required transition to renewable energies. The German legislature emphasizes the environmental risks associated with fracking and has de facto forbidden fracking with the fracking law package of 24 June 2016. Internationally, the advantages and disadvantages of fracking are, however, assessed very differently, so that a further expansion of unconventional oil and gas production is to be expected. Fracking currently focuses almost entirely on the USA. Numerous studies investigate the potentials, the profitability of the different methods of production as well as the environmental effects. Therefore, American shale gas production offers an excellent viewpoint in order to estimate the technology, its economic efficiency and its consequences. This book evaluates the current studies and data and contributes to the assessment of the long-term energy-economic and climatological significance of shale gas production in the international context. [de

  12. Numerical Simulation of Natural Gas Flow in Anisotropic Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2015-11-09

    Shale gas resources have received great attention in the last decade due to the decline of the conventional gas resources. Unlike conventional gas reservoirs, the gas flow in shale formations involves complex processes with many mechanisms such as Knudsen diffusion, slip flow (Klinkenberg effect), gas adsorption and desorption, strong rock-fluid interaction, etc. Shale formations are characterized by the tiny porosity and extremely low-permeability such that the Darcy equation may no longer be valid. Therefore, the Darcy equation needs to be revised through the permeability factor by introducing the apparent permeability. With respect to the rock formations, several studies have shown the existence of anisotropy in shale reservoirs, which is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geological processes over long period of time. Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface rock formations plays a significant role in dictating the direction of fluid flow. The direction of fluid flow is not only dependent on the direction of pressure gradient, but it also depends on the principal directions of anisotropy. Therefore, it is very important to take into consideration anisotropy when modeling gas flow in shale reservoirs. In this work, the gas flow mechanisms as mentioned earlier together with anisotropy are incorporated into the dual-porosity dual-permeability model through the full-tensor apparent permeability. We employ the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) method to handle the full-tensor apparent permeability. We combine MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field approach, i.e., a newly developed technique that enables us to solve the global problem by breaking it into a multitude of local problems. This approach generates a set of predefined pressure fields in the solution domain in such a way that the undetermined coefficients are calculated from these pressure fields. In other words, the matrix of coefficients

  13. Numerical Simulation of Natural Gas Flow in Anisotropic Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; Elgassier, Mokhtar; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Shale gas resources have received great attention in the last decade due to the decline of the conventional gas resources. Unlike conventional gas reservoirs, the gas flow in shale formations involves complex processes with many mechanisms such as Knudsen diffusion, slip flow (Klinkenberg effect), gas adsorption and desorption, strong rock-fluid interaction, etc. Shale formations are characterized by the tiny porosity and extremely low-permeability such that the Darcy equation may no longer be valid. Therefore, the Darcy equation needs to be revised through the permeability factor by introducing the apparent permeability. With respect to the rock formations, several studies have shown the existence of anisotropy in shale reservoirs, which is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geological processes over long period of time. Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface rock formations plays a significant role in dictating the direction of fluid flow. The direction of fluid flow is not only dependent on the direction of pressure gradient, but it also depends on the principal directions of anisotropy. Therefore, it is very important to take into consideration anisotropy when modeling gas flow in shale reservoirs. In this work, the gas flow mechanisms as mentioned earlier together with anisotropy are incorporated into the dual-porosity dual-permeability model through the full-tensor apparent permeability. We employ the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) method to handle the full-tensor apparent permeability. We combine MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field approach, i.e., a newly developed technique that enables us to solve the global problem by breaking it into a multitude of local problems. This approach generates a set of predefined pressure fields in the solution domain in such a way that the undetermined coefficients are calculated from these pressure fields. In other words, the matrix of coefficients

  14. The use of shale ash in dry mix construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbe, L.; Setina, J.; Juhnevica, I.

    2017-10-01

    The research was made to determine the use of shale ash usage in dry mix construction materials by replacing part of cement amount. Cement mortar ZM produced by SIA Sakret and two types of shale ashes from Narva Power plant (cyclone ash and electrostatic precipitator ash) were used. Fresh mortar properties, hardened mortar bulk density, thermal conductivity (λ10, dry) (table value) were tested in mortar ZM samples and mortar samples in which 20% of the amount of cement was replaced by ash. Compressive strenght, frost resistance and resistance to sulphate salt solutions were checked. It was stated that the use of electrostatic precipitator ash had a little change of the material properties, but the cyclone ash significantly reduced the mechanical strength of the material.

  15. Biomarkers for environmental and occupational exposure to aromatic mutagens and carcinogens from emissions of oil shale petrochemistry. Report of the EC PECO programme, project CIPA-CT92-3016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carere, A.; Crebelli, R. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1998-03-01

    Oil shale processing for energy supply and further refining for petrochemistry is an important field of industry in Baltic countries. Estonia possesses the largest oil shale mines and oil shale processing plants of the world. Large scale oil shale extraction and processing lead to extensive environmental pollution and to the release of high levels of aromatic carcinogenic substances in processing plants. In the framework of the `PECO` programme, during 1993-1996, the European Commission funded a research project on biomarkers of environmental and occupational exposure in oil shale petrochemistry. The project gave the opportunity to develop and calibrate several biomarkers of exposure to aromatic carcinogens. The results obtained highlighted the role of blood benzene and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid and l-hydroxypyrene as sensitive biomarkers of occupational exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A new promising approach was developed for the analysis of benzene adducts in haemoglobin. This methodology, as well as the {sup 32}P-postlabelling analysis of nulky adducts in DNA of blood cells of oil shale workers, showed high sensitivity and potential utility in human biomonitoring. Molecular cytogenetic methods based on in situ hybridization showed an exposure related clastogenic, and possibly an eugenic, effect in oil shale workers, demonstrating the potential advantage of new molecular approaches in the cytogenetic surveillance of carcinogen exposure. [Italiano] Gli scisti bituminosi costituiscono una materia prima di importanza prioritaria per l`industria petrolchimica dei paesi baltici. In Estonia, l`estrazione su larga scala degli scisti bituminosi ha prodotto una situazione di degrado ambientale, aggravata dalla emissione di considerevoli quantita` di sostanze cancerogene durante la lavorazione degli scisti negli impianti petrolchimici. Nell`ambito del programma di ricerca `PECO`, nel 1993-1996, l`Unione Europea ha finanziato un progetto

  16. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP), reference phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladerer, R.; Schrader, L.

    1982-07-01

    The coal gasification processes using nuclear process heat being developed within the framwork of the PNP project, have the advantages of saving feed coal, improving efficiency, reducing emissions, and stabilizing energy costs. One major gasification process is the hydrogasification of coal for producing SNG or gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; this process can also be applied in a conventional route. The first steps to develop this process were planning, construction and operation of a semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed having an input of 100 kg C/h. Before the completion of the development phase (reference phase) describing here, several components were tested on part of which no operational experience had so far been gained; these were the newly developed devices, e.g. the inclined tube for feeding coal into the fluidized bed, and the raw gas/hydrogenation gas heat exchanger for utilizing the waste heat of the raw gas leaving the gasifier. Concept optimizing of the thoroughly tested equipment parts led to an improved operational behaviour. Between 1976 and 1980, the semi-technical pilot plant was operated for about 19,400 hours under test conditions, more than 7,400 hours of which it has worked under gasification conditions. During this time approx. 1,100 metric tons of dry brown coal and more than 13 metric tons of hard coal were gasified. The longest coherent operational phase under gasification conditions was 748 hours in which 85.4 metric tons of dry brown coal were gasified. Carbon gasification rates up to 82% and methane contents in the dry raw gas (free of N 2 ) up to 48 vol.% were obtained. A detailed evaluation of the test results provided information of the results obtained previously. For the completion of the test - primarily of long-term tests - the operation of the semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal is to be continued up to September 1982. (orig.) [de

  17. Public hearing process for nuclear power plants. Seminar report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    On June 26 and 27, 1978, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission conducted a seminar on the public hearing process for nuclear power plants. The seminar was intended to examine current practices regarding the conduct of public hearings and how these practices related to the statutory intent, to assess whether existing procedures are being followed, and to explore whether administrative or legal changes are warranted. The seminar format allowed exchanges of views among participants in the hearing process and was attended by members of the public, the General Accounting Office, Congressional staffs, NRC, and the nuclear industry. The report contains panel reports on scheduling of public hearings, procedures for Board notification, selection and training of panel members, hearing procedures, and Board functions

  18. Liquid radioactive waste processing system for pressurized water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Standard sets forth design, construction, and performance requirements, with due consideration for operation, of the Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing System for pressurized water reactor plants for design basis inputs. For the purpose of this Standard, the Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing System begins at the interfaces with the reactor coolant pressure boundary and the interface valve(s) in lines from other systems, or at those sumps and floor drains provided for liquid waste with the potential of containing radioactive material; and it terminates at the point of controlled discharge to the environment, at the point of interface with the waste solidification system, and at the point of recycle back to storage for reuse

  19. Molecular characterization and geological microenvironment of a microbial community inhabiting weathered receding shale cliffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Pybus, David; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Kelly, Laura; Petley, David; Rosser, Nick; Howard, Kieren; Mosselmans, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Shales play an important role in many earth system processes including coastal erosion, and they form the foundations of many engineering structures. The geobiology of the interior of pyrite-containing receding shale cliffs on the coast of northeast England was examined. The surface of the weathered shales was characterised by a thin layer of disordered authigenic iron oxyhydroxides and localised acicular, platy and aggregated gypsum, which was characterised by Raman spectroscopy, XAS and SEM. These chemical changes are likely to play an important role in causing rock weakening along fractures at the micron scale, which ultimately lead to coastal retreat at the larger scale. The surface of the shale hosts a novel, low-diversity microbial community. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, with phylotypes closely associating with Methylocella and other members of the γ-subdivision. The second largest phylogenetic group corresponded to Nitrospira. The archaeal 16S rRNA phylotypes were dominated by a single group of sequences that matched phylotypes reported from South African gold mines and possessed ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. Both the phylogenetic and the mineral data show that acidic microenvironments play an important role in shale weathering, but the shale has a higher microbial diversity than previously described pyritic acid mine drainage sites. The presence of a potentially biogeochemically active microbial population on the rock surface suggests that microorganisms may contribute to early events of shale degradation and coastal erosion.

  20. Liquid radioactive waste processing improvement of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nery, Renata Wolter dos Reis; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Monteiro, Jose Luiz Fontes

    2005-01-01

    The study evaluate an inorganic ion exchange to process the low level liquid radwaste of PWR nuclear plants, so that the level of the radioactivity in the effluents and the solid waste produced during the treatment of these liquid radwaste can be reduced. The work compares two types of ion exchange materials, a strong acid cation exchange resin, that is the material typically used to remove radionuclides from PWR nuclear plants wastes, and a mordenite zeolite. These exchange material were used to remove cesium from a synthetic effluent containing only this ion and another effluent containing cesium and cobalt. The breakthrough curves of the zeolite and resin using a fix bed reactor were compared. The results demonstrated that the zeolite is more efficient than the resin in removing cesium from a solution containing cesium and cobalt. The results also showed that a bed combining zeolite and resin can process more volume of an effluent containing cesium and cobalt than a bed resin alone. (author)

  1. Fissile material holdup monitoring in the PREPP [Process Experimental Pilot Plant] process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is an incineration system designed to thermally process mixed transuranic (TRU) waste and TRU contaminated low-level waste. The TRU isotopic composition is that of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) which necessitates that criticality prevention measures by incorporated into the plant design and operation. Criticality safety in the PREPP process is assured through the utilization of mass and moderation control in conjunction with favorable vessel geometries. The subject of this paper concerns the Pu mass holdup instrumentation system which is an integral part of the inprocess mass control strategy. Plant vessels and components requiring real-time mass holdup measurements were selected based on their evaluated potential for achieving physically credible Pu mass loadings and associated parameters which could lead to a criticality event. If the parameters requisite to a criticality occurrence could not physically be achieved under credible plant conditions, the particular location only required periodic portable holdup monitoring. Based on these analyses five real-time holdup monitoring locations were identified for criticality assurance purposes. An additional real-time instrument is part of the system but serves primarily in the capacity of providing operational support data. 1 fig

  2. Process Analysis in Chemical Plant by Means of Radioactive Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T.; Hamada, K.; Osada, K. [Showa Denko K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1967-06-15

    Following the movement of solids and fluids is important in chemical processes to determine mixing efficiency and residence time. Since it is necessary to follow many complex substances such as raw materials, intermediates and reactants in plant investigations, it is often necessary to ascertain whether the behaviour of the radioisotope tracer and the substance to be traced are identical. The most difficult problem is to determine the best method of labelling, a factor which is a substantial key to the success of an experiment. Usually, there are three labelling techniques: radioisotope labelling, pre-.activation of the material and post-activation of the material. This paper deals with practical examples of the double-tracer technique, a combination of conventional radioisotope labelling and post-activation methods by means of activation analysis. In process analysis by means of tracers, a practical measurement method should also be devised and developed for each experiment. Phosphorus-32 and gold (non-radioactive) were used to measure retention time in a carbon-black plant. The radioisotope was pumped into a feed-stock pipe positioned before the reactor and samples were taken from each process of the plant, including the bag filter, mixer and product tank. After sampling from each step of the process, {sup 32}P in a semi-infinite powder sample was measured in situ by beta counting, and the gold was measured by gamma counting after activating the sample in a reactor. The experiment showed that both tracers had the same residence time, which was shorter than expected. Useful data were also obtained from the dispersion pattern of the material flow for future operation controls, including the time required to change from one grade of product to another. Practical tracer techniques to measure mixing characteristics in high-speed gas flows using {sup 85}Kr have been developed. A study of the measurement method was conducted by calculating the differential values of

  3. Low temperature distillation of coal, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-08-12

    A process is disclosed for the low temperature distillation of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, lignite, shale or the like, which comprises feeding or supplying the comminuted fuel in the form of a layer of shallow depth to drying and distilling zones in succession moving the fuel forward through the zones, submitting it to progressively increasing nonuniform heating therein by combustion gases supplied to the distillation zone and traveling thence to the drying zone, the gases heating the distillation zone indirectly and the drying zone both indirectly and then directly such that the fuel retains its solid discrete form during substantially the whole of its travel through the drying and distillation zones, subjecting the fuel for a portion of its travel to a zigzag ploughing and propelling movement on a heated sole, and increasing the heating so as to cause fusion of the fuel immediately prior to its discharge from the distillation zone.

  4. A Reactive Transport Model for Marcellus Shale Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Heidari, P.; Jin, L.; Williams, J.; Brantley, S.

    2017-12-01

    factors affecting chemical weathering of the Marcellus shale in the shallow subsurface. This study documents the utility of reactive transport modeling for complex subsurface processes. Such modelling could be extended to understand interactions between injected fluids and Marcellus shale gas reservoirs at higher temperature and pressure.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-06-01

    In today’s energy sector, it has been observed a revolutionary increase in shale gas recovery induced by reservoir fracking. So-called unconventional reservoirs became profitable after introducing a well stimulation technique. Some of the analysts expect that shale gas is going to expand worldwide energy supply. However, there is still a lack of an efficient as well as accurate modeling techniques, which can provide a good recovery and production estimates. Gas transports in shale reservoir is a complex process, consisting of slippage effect, gas diffusion along the wall, viscous flow due to the pressure gradient. Conventional industrial simulators are unable to model the flow as the flow doesn’t follow Darcy’s formulation. It is significant to build a unified model considering all given mechanisms for shale reservoir production study and analyze the importance of each mechanism in varied conditions. In this work, a unified mathematical model is proposed for shale gas reservoirs. The proposed model was build based on the dual porosity continuum media model; mass conservation equations for both matrix and fracture systems were build using the dusty gas model. In the matrix, gas desorption, Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow were taken into account. The model was also developed by implementing thermodynamic calculations to correct for the gas compressibility, or to obtain accurate treatment of the multicomponent gas. Previously, the model was built on the idealization of the gas, considering every molecule identical without any interaction. Moreover, the compositional variety of shale gas requires to consider impurities in the gas due to very high variety. Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to com- pute and correct for the gas density to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down

  6. A reactive transport model for Marcellus shale weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Peyman; Li, Li; Jin, Lixin; Williams, Jennifer Z.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2017-11-01

    fluids. An increase in the water infiltration rate enhanced weathering by removing dissolution products and maintaining far-from-equilibrium conditions. We conclude from these observations that availability of reactive surface area and transport of H2O and gases are the most important factors affecting rates of Marcellus shale weathering of the in the shallow subsurface. This weathering study documents the utility of reactive transport modeling for complex subsurface processes. Such modelling could be extended to understand interactions between injected fluids and Marcellus shale gas reservoirs at higher temperature, pressure, and salinity conditions.

  7. Indicative energy technology assessment of UK shale gas extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; O’Grady, Áine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • UK shale gas ‘fracking’ is at a very early stage with an uncertain size of resource. • Shale gas extraction might benefit UK fuel security, as well as jobs and growth. • Potentially harmful environmental ‘side-effects’ must be monitored and regulated. • Gas bills for UK household and industrial consumers are unlikely to fall sharply. • Costs & benefits of shale gas fracking are unevenly distributed between communities. - Abstract: There is at present much interest in unconventional sources of natural gas, especially in shale gas which is obtained by hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’. Boreholes are drilled and then lined with steel tubes so that a mixture of water and sand with small quantities of chemicals – the fracking fluid – can be pumped into them at very high pressure. The sand grains that wedge into the cracks induced in the shale rock by a ‘perforating gun’ then releases gas which returns up the tubes. In the United Kingdom (UK) exploratory drilling is at an early stage, with licences being issued to drill a limited number of test boreholes around the country. However, such activities are already meeting community resistance and controversy. Like all energy technologies it exhibits unwanted ‘side-effects’; these simply differ in their level of severity between the various options. Shale gas may make, for example, a contribution to attaining the UK’s statutory ‘greenhouse gas’ emissions targets, but only if appropriate and robust regulations are enforced. The benefits and disadvantages of shale gas fracking are therefore discussed in order to illustrate a ‘balance sheet’ approach. It is also argued that it is desirable to bring together experts from a range of disciplines in order to carry out energy technology assessments. That should draw on and interact with national and local stakeholders: ‘actors’ both large and small. Community engagement in a genuinely participative process – where the

  8. Improved liquid waste processing system of PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Kazuyasu

    1977-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has engaged in the improvement and enhancement of waste-processing facilities for PWR power stations, and recently established the improved processing system. With this system, it becomes possible to contain radioactive waste gas semi-permanently within plants and to recycle waste liquid after the treatment, thus to make the release of radioactive wastes practically zero. The improved system has the following features, namely the recycling system is adopted, drain is separated and each separated drain is treated by specialized process, the reboiler type evaporator and the reverse osmosis equipment are used, and the leakless construction is adopted for the equipments. The radioactive liquid wastes in PWR power stations are classified into coolant drain, drain from general equipments, chemical drain and cleaning water. The outline of the improved processing system and the newly developed equipments such as the reboiler type evaporator and the reverse osmosis equipment are explained. With the evaporator, the concentration rate of waste liquid can be raised to about three times, and foaming waste can be treated efficiently. The decontamination performance is excellent. The reverse osmosis treatment is stable and reliable method, and is useful for the treatment of cleaning water. It is also effective for concentrating treatment. The unmanned automatic operation is possible. (Kako, I.)

  9. Feed type based expert systems in mineral processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamsa-Jounela, S.-L.; Laine, S.; Laurila, H.

    1999-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence includes excellent tools for the control and supervision of industrial processes. Several thousand industrial applications have been reported worldwide. Recently, the designers of the AI systems have begun to hybridize the intelligent techniques, expert systems, fuzzy logic and neural networks, to enhance the capability of the AI systems. Expert systems have proved to be ideal candidates especially for the control of mineral processes. As successful case projects, expert system based on on-line classification of the feed type is described in this paper. The essential feature of this expert system is the classification of different feed types and their distinct control strategies at the plant. In addition to the classification, the expert system has a database containing information about how to handle the determined feed type. This self-learning database scans historical process data to suggest the best treatment for the ore type under processing. The system has been tested in two concentrators, the Outokumpu Finnmines Oy, Hitura mine and Outokumpu Chrome Oy, Kemi mine. (author)

  10. Wastewater management and Marcellus Shale gas development: trends, drivers, and planning implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Brian G; Bates, Josephine T; Bertoia, Lara R; Galford, Amy E; Yoxtheimer, David A; Riha, Susan J

    2013-05-15

    Extraction of natural gas from tight shale formations has been made possible by recent technological advances, including hydraulic fracturing with horizontal drilling. Global shale gas development is seen as a potential energy and geopolitical "game-changer." However, widespread concern exists with respect to possible environmental consequences of this development, particularly impacts on water resources. In the United States, where the most shale gas extraction has occurred, the Marcellus Shale is now the largest natural gas producing play. To date, over 6,000,000 m(3) of wastewater has been generated in the process of extracting natural gas from this shale in the state of Pennsylvania (PA) alone. Here we examine wastewater management practices and trends for this shale play through analysis of industry-reported, publicly available data collected from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Oil and Gas Reporting Website. We also analyze the tracking and transport of shale gas liquid waste streams originating in PA using a combination of web-based and GIS approaches. From 2008 to 2011 wastewater reuse increased, POTW use decreased, and data tracking became more complete, while the average distance traveled by wastewater decreased by over 30%. Likely factors influencing these trends include state regulations and policies, along with low natural gas prices. Regional differences in wastewater management are influenced by industrial treatment capacity, as well as proximity to injection disposal capacity. Using lessons from the Marcellus Shale, we suggest that nations, states, and regulatory agencies facing new unconventional shale development recognize that pace and scale of well drilling leads to commensurate wastewater management challenges. We also suggest they implement wastewater reporting and tracking systems, articulate a policy for adapting management to evolving data and development patterns, assess local and regional wastewater treatment

  11. Heterogeneity of shale documented by micro-FTIR and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2014-12-01

    In this study, four New Albany Shale Devonian and Mississippian samples, with vitrinite reflectance [Ro ] values ranging from 0.55% to 1.41%, were analyzed by micro-FTIR mapping of chemical and mineralogical properties. One additional postmature shale sample from the Haynesville Shale (Kimmeridgian, Ro = 3.0%) was included to test the limitation of the method for more mature substrates. Relative abundances of organic matter and mineral groups (carbonates, quartz and clays) were mapped across selected microscale regions based on characteristic infrared peaks and demonstrated to be consistent with corresponding bulk compositional percentages. Mapped distributions of organic matter provide information on the organic matter abundance and the connectivity of organic matter within the overall shale matrix. The pervasive distribution of organic matter mapped in the New Albany Shale sample MM4 is in agreement with this shale's high total organic carbon abundance relative to other samples. Mapped interconnectivity of organic matter domains in New Albany Shale samples is excellent in two early mature shale samples having Ro values from 0.55% to 0.65%, then dramatically decreases in a late mature sample having an intermediate Ro of 1.15% and finally increases again in the postmature sample, which has a Ro of 1.41%. Swanson permeabilities, derived from independent mercury intrusion capillary pressure porosimetry measurements, follow the same trend among the four New Albany Shale samples, suggesting that micro-FTIR, in combination with complementary porosimetric techniques, strengthens our understanding of porosity networks. In addition, image processing and analysis software (e.g. ImageJ) have the capability to quantify organic matter and total organic carbon - valuable parameters for highly mature rocks, because they cannot be analyzed by micro-FTIR owing to the weakness of the aliphatic carbon-hydrogen signal. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal

  12. How lithology and climate affect REE mobility and fractionation along a shale weathering transect of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Jin, L.; Dere, A. L.; White, T.; Mathur, R.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Shale weathering is an important process in global elemental cycles. Accompanied by the transformation of bedrock into regolith, many elements including rare earth elements (REE) are mobilized primarily by chemical weathering in the Critical Zone. Then, REE are subsequently transported from the vadose zone to streams, with eventual deposition in the oceans. REE have been identified as crucial and strategic natural resources; and discovery of new REE deposits will be facilitated by understanding global REE cycles. At present, the mechanisms and environmental factors controlling release, transport, and deposition of REE - the sources and sinks - at Earth's surface remain unclear. Here, we present a systematic study of soils, stream sediments, stream waters, soil water and bedrock in six small watersheds that are developed on shale bedrock in the eastern USA to constrain the mobility and fractionation of REE during early stages of chemical weathering. The selected watersheds are part of the shale transect established by the Susquehanna Shale Hills Observatory (SSHO) and are well suited to investigate weathering on shales of different compositions or within different climate regimes but on the same shale unit. Our REE study from SSHO, a small gray shale watershed in central Pennsylvania, shows that up to 65% of the REE (relative to parent bedrock) is depleted in the acidic and organic-rich soils due to chemical leaching. Both weathering soil profiles and natural waters show a preferential removal of middle REE (MREE: Sm to Dy) relative to light REE (La to Nd) and heavy REE (Ho to Lu) during shale weathering, due to preferential release of MREE from a phosphate phase (rhabdophane). Strong positive Ce anomalies observed in the regolith and stream sediments point to the fractionation and preferential precipitation of Ce as compared to other REE, in the generally oxidizing conditions of the surface environments. One watershed developed on the Marcellus black shale in

  13. The Architecture and Frictional Properties of Faults in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, N.; Imber, J.; Murray, R.; Holdsworth, R.

    2015-12-01

    The geometry of brittle fault zones in shale rocks, as well as their frictional properties at reservoir conditions, are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, these factors may control the very low recovery factors (25% for gas and 5% for oil) obtained during fracking operations. Extensional brittle fault zones (maximum displacement hydraulic breccias; and a slip zone up to 20 mm thick, composed of a fine-grained black gouge. Hydraulic breccias are located within dilational jogs with aperture of up to 20 cm. Brittle fracturing and cataclastic flow are the dominant deformation mechanisms in the fault core of shale faults. Velocity-step and slide-hold-slide experiments at sub-seismic slip rates (microns/s) were performed in a rotary shear apparatus under dry, water and brine-saturated conditions, for displacements of up to 46 cm. Both the protolith shale and the slip zone black gouge display shear localization, velocity strengthening behaviour and negative healing rates, suggesting that slow, stable sliding faulting should occur within the protolith rocks and slip zone gouges. Experiments at seismic speed (1.3 m/s), performed on the same materials under dry conditions, show that after initial friction values of 0.5-0.55, friction decreases to steady-state values of 0.1-0.15 within the first 10 mm of slip. Contrastingly, water/brine saturated gouge mixtures, exhibit almost instantaneous attainment of very low steady-state sliding friction (0.1), suggesting that seismic ruptures may efficiently propagate in the slip zone of fluid-saturated shale faults. Stable sliding in faults in shale can cause slow fault/fracture propagation, affecting the rate at which new fracture areas are created and, hence, limiting oil and gas production during reservoir stimulation. However, fluid saturated conditions can favour seismic slip propagation, with fast and efficient creation of new fracture areas. These processes are very effective at dilational jogs, where fluid circulation may

  14. A survey of process control computers at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is charged with the safe processing of spent nuclear fuel elements for the United States Department of Energy. The ICPP was originally constructed in the late 1950s and used state-of-the-art technology for process control at that time. The state of process control instrumentation at the ICPP has steadily improved to keep pace with emerging technology. Today, the ICPP is a college of emerging computer technology in process control with some systems as simple as standalone measurement computers while others are state-of-the-art distributed control systems controlling the operations in an entire facility within the plant. The ICPP has made maximal use of process computer technology aimed at increasing surety, safety, and efficiency of the process operations. Many benefits have been derived from the use of the computers for minimal costs, including decreased misoperations in the facility, and more benefits are expected in the future

  15. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  16. Mine design for producing 100,000 tons per day of uranium-bearing Chattanooga Shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Chattanooga Shale, underlying some 40,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, is considered to be a potentially large, low-grade source of uranium. The area in and near Dekalb County, Tennessee, appears to be the most likely site for commercial development. This paper deals with the mine design, mining procedures, equipment requirements, and operating maintenance costs for an underground mining complex capable of producing 100,000 tons of Chattanooga Shale per day for delivery to a beneficiation process

  17. Compaction Characteristics of Igumale Shale | Iorliam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the outcome of an investigation into the effect of different compactive energies on the compaction characteristics of Igumale shale, to ascertain its suitability as fill material in highway ... The study showed that Igumale shale is not suitable for use as base, subbase and filling materials in road construction.

  18. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V

    1918-04-22

    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  19. Thermophysical properties of Conasauga shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.

    1978-01-01

    Thermophysical-property characterizations of five Conasauga shale cores were determined at temperatures between 298 and 673 K. Methods of specimen fabrication for different tests were evaluated. Thermal-conductivity and thermal-expansion data were found to be dependent on the structure and orientation of the individual specimens. Thermal conductivities ranged between 2.8 and 1.0 W/m-K with a small negative temperature dependence. Thermal expansions were between 2 and 5 x 10 -3 over the temperature range for the group. Heat capacity varied with the composition. 17 figures, 3 tables

  20. Construction of Shale Gas Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapińska-Śliwa, Aneta; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Skrzypaszek, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes shale gas borehole axes trajectories (vertical, horizontal, multilateral). The methodology of trajectory design in a two-and three-dimensional space has been developed. The selection of the profile type of the trajectory axes of the directional borehole depends on the technical and technological possibilities of its implementation and the results of a comprehensive economic analysis of the availability and development of the field. The work assumes the possibility of a multivariate design of trajectories depending on the accepted (available or imposed) input data.

  1. Introduction to special section: China shale gas and shale oil plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu; Zeng, Hongliu; Zhang, Jinchuan; Fishman, Neil; Bai, Baojun; Xiao, Xianming; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Xinjing; Richards-McClung, Bryony; Cai, Dongsheng; Ma, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the success of shale gas and shale oil productions as a result of technological advances in horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing and nanoscale reservoir characterization have revolutionized the energy landscape in the United States. Resource assessment by the China Ministry of Land and Resources in 2010 and 2012 and by the U.S. Energy Information Administration in 2011 and 2013 indicates China’s shale gas resource is the largest in the world and shale oil resource in China is also potentially significant. Inspired by the success in the United States, China looks forward to replicating the U.S. experience to produce shale gas to power its economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. By 2014, China had drilled 400 wells targeting marine, lacustrine, and coastal swamp transitional shales spanning in age from the Precambrian to Cenozoic in the last five years. So far, China is the leading country outside of North America in the viable production of shale gas, with very promising prospects for shale gas and shale oil development, from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in Fuling in the southeastern Sichuan Basin. Geological investigations by government and academic institutions as well as exploration and production activities from industry indicate that the tectonic framework, depositional settings, and geomechanical properties of most of the Chinese shales are more complex than many of the producing marine shales in the United States. These differences limit the applicability of geologic analogues from North America for use in Chinese shale oil and gas resource assessments, exploration strategies, reservoir characterization, and determination of optimal hydraulic fracturing techniques. Understanding the unique features of the geology, shale oil and gas resource potential, and reservoir characteristics is crucial for sweet spot identification, hydraulic fracturing optimization, and reservoir performance prediction.

  2. Water hammer and cavitational hammer in process plant pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudlik, A.; Schoenfeld, S.B.H.; Hagemann, O.; Fahlenkamp, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fast acting valves are often applied for quick safety shut-down of pipelines for liquids and gases in the chemical and petrochemical industry as well as in power plants and state water supplies. The fast deceleration of the liquid leads to water hammer upstream the valve and to cavitational hammer downstream the fast closing valve. The valve characteristics given by manufacturers are usually measured at steady state flow conditions of the liquid. In comparison, the dynamic characteristics depend on the initial liquid velocity, valve closing velocity, the absolute pipe pressure and the pipe geometry. Fraunhofer UMSICHT conducts various test series examining valve dynamic characteristics in order of the dynamic analysis of pressure surges in fast closing processes. Therefore a test rig is used which consists of two pipelines of DN 50 and DN 100 with an approximate length of 230 m each. In this paper the results of performed pressure surge experiments with fast closing and opening valves will be compared to calculations of commercial software programs such as MONA, FLOWMASTER 2. Thus the calculation software for water supply, power plants oil and gas and chemical industry can be permanently improved. (orig.)

  3. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Different Methods of Predicting Permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Krogsbøll, Anette

    by two to five orders of magnitudes at lower vertical effective stress below 40 MPa as the content of clay minerals increases causing heterogeneity in shale material. Indirect permeability from consolidation can give maximum and minimum values of shale permeability needed in simulating fluid flow......Permeability is often very difficult to measure or predict in shale lithology. In this work we are determining shale permeability from consolidation tests data using Wissa et al., (1971) approach and comparing the results with predicted permeability from Kozeny’s model. Core and cuttings materials...... effective stress to 9 μD at high vertical effective stress of 100 MPa. The indirect permeability calculated from consolidation tests falls in the same magnitude at higher vertical effective stress, above 40 MPa, as that of the Kozeny model for shale samples with high non-clay content ≥ 70% but are higher...

  5. Lung cancer among workers at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookfair, D.L.; Beck, W.L.; Shy, C.; Lushbaugh, C.C.; Sowder, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the risk of dying from lung cancer among white males who received radiation to the lung as a result of inhaling uranium dust or the dust of uranium compounds. Cases and controls were chosen from a cohort of workers employed in a uranium processing plant during World War II. Cumulative radiation lung dose among study population members ranged from 0 to 75 rads. Relative risk was found to increase with increasing level of exposure even after controlling for age and smoking status, but only for those who were over the age of 45 when first exposed. A statistically significant excess in risk was found for men in this age group with a cumulative lung dose of 20 rads of more. These data suggest that older age groups may be more susceptible to radiation-induced lung cancer than younger age groups

  6. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1

  7. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  8. ICPP [Idaho Chemical Processing Plant] environmental monitoring report, CY-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, K.R.

    1989-08-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Engineering (EE) Section of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety (N and IS) Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The EE subsection completed a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1986. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP's implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no approved methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, currently used methods were submitted for the EPA approval. 33 figs., 14 tabs

  9. Mortality among female workers at a thorium-processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Lee, Tze-San.

    1994-01-01

    The mortality patterns among a cohort of 677 female workers at a thorium-processing plant are reported for the period from 1940 to 1982. Of the 677 women, 165 were reported dead; 459 were still alive; and 53 (7.8%) were lost to follow-up. The standardized mortality ratios from all causes (0.74), all cancers (0.53), and circulatory diseases (0.66) were significantly below those for the general US population. In this cohort, 5 deaths due to lung cancer and 1 death from leukemia were observed, with 4.53 and 1.69 deaths expected, respectively. No deaths from cancer of the liver, pancreas, or bone were observed. Poisson regression analysis was used for an internal comparison within the cohort. The results of the Poisson regression analysis showed no significant effect on mortality rates of all causes and cancers from the study factors, including job classification, duration of employment, and time since first employment

  10. Use of Brassica Plants in the Phytoremediation and Biofumigation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygłowska, Marzena; Piekarska, Anna; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, serious contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported. It is therefore a matter of urgency to develop a new and efficient technology for removing contaminants from soil. Another aspect to this problem is that environmental pollution decreases the biological quality of soil, which is why pesticides and fertilizers are being used in ever-larger quantities. The environmentally friendly solutions to these problems are phytoremediation, which is a technology that cleanses the soil of heavy metals, and biofumigation, a process that helps to protect crops using natural plant compounds. So far, these methods have only been used separately; however, research on a technology that combines them both using white cabbage has been carried out. PMID:22174630

  11. Safety aspects in a chemical exchange process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a chemical exchange process involving solid liquid exchange, studies have been undertaken to enrich 10 B isotope of boron using ion exchange chromatography in which a strong base anion exchange resin in hydroxyl form is equilibrated with boric acid solution in presence of mannitol (a complexing reagent to boric acid) to enhance the acidity and hence the isotopic exchange separation factor for 10 B = 11 B exchange reaction. Using the electrochemical techniques such as pH-metry and conductimetry, the choice of a suitable complexing reagent was made amongst ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dextrose and mannitol for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron and monitoring of band movements using these electrochemical techniques. The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. This process is an industrially viable process. The various safety aspects followed during operation of this plant are described in this paper. (author)

  12. Improving the environmental sustainability of a waste processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Tom [AREVA RMC, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Watson, Stuart [RSRL, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes how the level of environmental sustainability at the Solid Waste Processing plant at Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) Harwell was measured and improved. It provides reasons to improve environmental performance in an organisation, states best practice on how improvement should be conducted, and gives first-hand experience on how changes were implemented. In this paper sustainability is defined as 'meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. A baseline for environmental sustainability was created, by looking at multiple attributes. From this, a matrix was created to show how the baseline environmental performance compared to best practice, and a gap analysis was performed. Results from this analysis showed areas for potential systematic improvement, and actions were created. Nearly all actions were implemented within one year, and environmental sustainability improved significantly. Most improvements cost no money to implement, and the few that did had to pass criteria in a business case. Results from a company-wide survey showed that the vast majority of employees felt that environmental issues were important, and that they were willing to help improve performance. Environmental awareness training was given to everyone in the department, and individuals were given measurable improvement targets. A focus group was set up and met regularly to agree improvements and monitor results. Environmental performance was publicised regularly to highlight successes and seek further engagement and improvement. Improvement ideas were encouraged and managed in a transparent way which showed clear prioritisation and accountability. The culture of environmental improvement changed visibly and results at the end of the first year showed that electricity consumption had reduced by 12.5%, and gas consumption had reduced by 7.3%. In less than two years over UK Pound 60,000 was saved

  13. Improving the environmental sustainability of a waste processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Tom; Watson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how the level of environmental sustainability at the Solid Waste Processing plant at Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) Harwell was measured and improved. It provides reasons to improve environmental performance in an organisation, states best practice on how improvement should be conducted, and gives first-hand experience on how changes were implemented. In this paper sustainability is defined as 'meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. A baseline for environmental sustainability was created, by looking at multiple attributes. From this, a matrix was created to show how the baseline environmental performance compared to best practice, and a gap analysis was performed. Results from this analysis showed areas for potential systematic improvement, and actions were created. Nearly all actions were implemented within one year, and environmental sustainability improved significantly. Most improvements cost no money to implement, and the few that did had to pass criteria in a business case. Results from a company-wide survey showed that the vast majority of employees felt that environmental issues were important, and that they were willing to help improve performance. Environmental awareness training was given to everyone in the department, and individuals were given measurable improvement targets. A focus group was set up and met regularly to agree improvements and monitor results. Environmental performance was publicised regularly to highlight successes and seek further engagement and improvement. Improvement ideas were encouraged and managed in a transparent way which showed clear prioritisation and accountability. The culture of environmental improvement changed visibly and results at the end of the first year showed that electricity consumption had reduced by 12.5%, and gas consumption had reduced by 7.3%. In less than two years over UK Pound 60,000 was saved

  14. Salmonella spp. on chicken carcasses in processing plants in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczysław

    2002-09-01

    Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries.

  15. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Marcus; Gibson, Timothy M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Bui, Thi Hao; Carozza, David A.; Sperling, Erik A.; Poirier, André; Cox, Grant M.; Wing, Boswell A.

    2017-07-01

    Iron isotopes have been widely applied to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's surface environments. However, it is still unclear whether iron cycling in the water column or during diagenesis represents the major control on the iron isotope composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Interpretation of isotopic data in terms of oceanic redox conditions is only possible if water column processes dominate the isotopic composition, whereas redox interpretations are less straightforward if diagenetic iron cycling controls the isotopic composition. In the latter scenario, iron isotope data is more directly related to microbial processes such as dissimilatory iron reduction. Here we present bulk rock iron isotope data from late Proterozoic marine shales from Svalbard, northwestern Canada, and Siberia, to better understand the controls on iron isotope fractionation in late Proterozoic marine environments. Bulk shales span a δ 56Fe range from -0.45 ‰ to +1.04 ‰ . Although δ 56Fe values show significant variation within individual stratigraphic units, their mean value is closer to that of bulk crust and hydrothermal iron in samples post-dating the ca. 717-660 Ma Sturtian glaciation compared to older samples. After correcting for the highly reactive iron content in our samples based on iron speciation data, more than 90% of the calculated δ 56Fe compositions of highly reactive iron falls in the range from ca. -0.8 ‰ to +3 ‰ . An isotope mass-balance model indicates that diagenetic iron cycling can only change the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron by control the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron. Considering a long-term decrease in the isotopic composition of the iron source to the dissolved seawater Fe(II) reservoir to be unlikely, we offer two possible explanations for the Neoproterozoic δ 56Fe trend. First, a decreasing supply of Fe(II) to the ferrous seawater iron reservoir could have caused the reservoir to decrease in size

  16. Geology of the oil shales of Messel near Darmstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthess, G.

    1966-07-25

    The oil shale, with a thickness of nearly 190 m, represents the middle part of the strata of Messel. Freshly mined, it consists of about 40% water and about 25% organic matter. The rest are clay minerals, chiefly montmorillonite. Kaolinite, messelite, vivianite, pyrites, markasite, siderite, and gypsum occur in small quantities. The organic components are kerogens which are extraordinary rich in oxygen. They are tied adsorptively to montmorillonite. The bitumina are supposed to be chiefly derived from algae, in a smaller extent from fungi and pollen. Plants as well as the large ganoid fishes and the crocodiles indicate a tropical to subtropical climate and a larger extent of the former water system. The oil shales of Messel are preserved in a tectonic graben that is 1,000 m long and up to 700 m wide. This graben is divided into 3 depressions. Both depressions are close together in the south and diverge northward. The ground water lifted in the open mining shows high degrees of total hardness and unusual high sulfate and phosphate contents. These matters can be derived from the weathering events in the exposed oil shale. (133 refs.)

  17. Pre-engineering assessment of Enersolve Demonstration Project. Dairy processing plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-07-15

    This study involved evaluation of a dairy processing plant to demonstrate energy conservation potential and developing a strategy to realize energy savings through retrofitting and revamping. The cheese and whey making plant of Agropur Cooperative Agro-Alimentaire located in Quebec was selected as a representative Canadian dairy processing plant. The pre-engineering assessment included a review of existing facility at the plant and plant operation, identification of plant equipment or process steps where substantial economic benefits would result from retrofitting and revamping, and estimation of budgetary cost for the subsequent engineering, procurement, construction management and monitoring of the retrofitted equipment. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Improvements to a uranium solidification process by in-plant testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindfleisch, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    When a process is having operational or equipment problems, often there is not enough time or money available for an extensive pilot plant program. This is when in-plant testing becomes imperative. One such process at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to undergo such an in-plant testing program was the uranium product solidification (denitrator) system. The testing program took approximately six months of in-plant testing that would have required at least two years of pilot plant preparation and operation to obtain the same information. This paper describes the results of the testing program, and the equipment and procedural changes

  19. Is it really necessary to outlaw prospecting for shale hydrocarbons in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leteurtrois, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Gasland, a documentary by Josh Fox, an American film-maker, blames shale gas operations in the United States for all sorts of environmental sins. This caricature, talented but one-sided, has no scientific grounds. It has been a source of disinformation in France, where it has stoked public opinion to oppose extracting gas from shale. From Villeneuve-de-Berg in Ardeche through Larzac to Doue in Seine-et-Marne, thousands of persons have demonstrated against plans for prospecting for shale gas deposits. Fanned by the media and relayed by locally elected officials of all political suasions, this opposition resulted in three bills of law being introduced in parliament to forbid hydraulic fracturing, the only technique available at present for extracting hydrocarbons from shale. Emergency procedures for speeding up the legislative process led to a law being adopted on 13 July 2011

  20. Environmental implications of development of the Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary environmental feasibility analysis must address itself to some fixed prototype project description that encompasses a realistic spectrum of potential impacts. The analysis discussed has been based upon a synthesis of typical project designs that utilize large raw shale ore throughputs, and site-specific parameters tailored to the constraints introduced by the physical characteristics of the shale environment. The study has concentrated upon identifying the potential environmental impacts of one mining and processing complex. Elements of the environment that have emerged as those most sensitive to exploitation of the Chattanooga Shale resource are: water resources, air, and socioeconomic structure. The nature and extent of the impacts which may be exerted upon these elements by Chattanooga Shale development are described