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Sample records for sexual priming gender

  1. How sex puts you in gendered shoes: sexuality-priming leads to gender-based self-perception and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhammer, Tanja; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Scripts for sexual behavior dictate that women be submissive and tender and that men be assertive and dominant, reflecting the stereotypical view of women as communal and of men as agentic. Six experiments tested the hypothesis that exposure to sexuality cues causes men's and women's momentary self-perceptions and concomitant behavior to become more gender-typical. Using both pictorial and verbal prime materials that were presented both supraliminally and subliminally, we found that sex-priming strengthened gender-based self-perceptions (i.e., faster self-categorization as a woman or man; Study 1), heightened identification with one's own gender (Study 2), increased gender self-stereotyping (Study 3), and elicited greater submissiveness in women's behavior and greater assertiveness in men's behavior (Studies 4 and 5). These findings indicate that sex-priming causes self-perception and social behavior to become "attuned" to gender stereotypes. Study 6 demonstrated that these sex-priming effects can be eliminated by modern gender role primes. The potentially detrimental effects of sex-priming and possible countermeasures are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Prime time sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.

  3. Sexual Priming, Gender Stereotyping, and Likelihood to Sexually Harass: Examining the Cognitive Effects of Playing a Sexually-Explicit Video Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; Mahood, Chad; Linz, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the short-term cognitive effects of playing a sexually explicit video game with female "objectification" content on male players. Seventy-four male students from a university in California, U.S. participated in a laboratory experiment. They were randomly assigned to play either a sexually-explicit game or one of two control games. Participants' cognitive accessibility to sexual and sexually objectifying thoughts was measured in a lexical decision task. A likelihood-to-sexually-harass scale was also administered. Results show that playing a video game with the theme of female "objectification" may prime thoughts related to sex, encourage men to view women as sex objects, and lead to self-reported tendencies to behave inappropriately towards women in social situations.

  4. From Sexuality (Gender) to Gender (Sexuality): The Aims of Anti-Homophobia Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airton, Liz

    2009-01-01

    The tradition of anti-homophobia education is often characterized by the conflation of gender and sexuality in which oppression arising from gender non-normativity is subsumed within the sexuality-based concepts of homophobia and heterosexism. This paper presents the view that oppression arising from stringent gender normativity should instead be…

  5. Sexual Violence on Campus: Differences Across Gender and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Paquette, Geneviève; Bergeron, Manon; Dion, Jacinthe; Daigneault, Isabelle; Hébert, Martine; Ricci, Sandrine

    2018-06-01

    Sexual violence is a pervasive problem on university campuses. Although previous work has documented greater vulnerability for sexual violence among sexual and gender minority students, little is known about contextual variation in vulnerability to this kind of violence. The goals of the current study were (1) to identify vulnerability among sexual and gender minority students with regard to sexual violence, and (2) to explore if the context of this violence differs across sexual and gender minority status. Undergraduate students (ages 18-24) from six francophone universities in Quebec, Canada (N = 4,264) completed online questionnaires regarding their experience of sexual violence, as well as the context of these acts (e.g., the gender of the perpetrator, the status of the perpetrator, and the location of the violence). They also provided information regarding their sexual and gender minority status. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to assess for variation in experiencing sexual violence across sexual and gender minority status. Transgender/nonbinary students generally reported higher levels of sexual violence than their cisgender peers, while variation occurred with regard to vulnerability across sexual identity subgroups. Few differences in context were observed across sexual minority identity. Transgender/nonbinary students were significantly more likely to report sexual violence in athletic contexts and during volunteering activities compared to their cisgender peers. Findings highlight the higher levels of vulnerability for sexual violence among gender minority and some sexual minority university students. They also point to the contexts in which such violence occurs, suggesting specific strategies for prevention. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender Role Violations and the Sexual Double Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikman, Yuliana; Marks, Michael J; Young, Tara M; Zeiber, Jacqueline A

    2016-12-01

    The sexual double standard (SDS) suggests that women are evaluated negatively and men positively for engaging in similar sexual behaviors. According to social role theory, the SDS exists due to gender role structures. Consequently, perceived violations of women's sexual behavior are associated with the SDS. In addition to gender role violations of sexual behavior, two additional violations of gender roles exist: heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics. The current study aims to investigate whether the SDS persists for sexual orientation-violating and gender role characteristic-violating targets, and to examine which of the three gender role violations influence evaluations of others' sexual behavior. A U.S. sample of 483 participants evaluated target individuals who were either female or male, heterosexual/gay man or lesbian, feminine or masculine, and had 1 or 12 sexual partners. Results indicate that SDS persists for gender role-violating targets but is exhibited differently for targets violating heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics.

  7. College Sexual Assault and Campus Climate for Sexual- and Gender-Minority Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Rankin, Susan R

    2017-03-01

    Sexual- and gender-minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) undergraduate students are at greater risk for sexual assault victimization than their cisgender (i.e., nontransgender) heterosexual peers. However, few studies have examined how social environments affect sexual assault victimization among sexual- and gender-minority undergraduate students. Nevertheless, this research area was identified as a priority by the Institute of Medicine as well as President Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault. Therefore, we tested the association between college campuses' inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people and experiences of sexual assault victimization. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by sexual- and gender-minority undergraduate students ( N = 1,925) from higher education institutions in all 50 U.S. states in 2010. Our dependent variable was experiencing sexual assault victimization at college. Our primary independent variable was campus climate, measured with items assessing perceived inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people and witnessing sexual- or gender-minority harassment. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (accounting for the clustering of students within schools) to estimate the association between campus climate and experiencing sexual assault victimization. Overall, 5.2% of the sample reported ever being victims of sexual assault at college. Controlling for sexual orientation, gender identity, race/ethnicity, and year in school, greater perceived inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people on campus was associated with significantly lower odds of experiencing sexual assault victimization. Our study suggests that improving campus climate for sexual- and gender-minority individuals may reduce their prevalence of college sexual assault, which has potential implications for college practitioners and administrators as well as sexual assault

  8. Sexual preference, gender, and blame attributions in adolescent sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Austen, Kerry; Rogers, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between subjects. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their attributions toward both the victim and the perpetrator. Results revealed that male participants blamed the victim more than female participants when the victim was both gay and attacked by a male perpetrator. All participants, regardless of gender, made more positive judgements toward the female as opposed to male perpetrator. Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotypes and homophobia.

  9. Gender role, sexual orientation and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B

    2005-07-01

    There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.

  10. Sexual education, gender ideology, and youth sexual empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly; Kohfeldt, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Sexual education plays an essential role in preventing unplanned pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). School-based sexual education programs, in particular, may be well positioned to address social factors that are empirically linked to negative sexual health outcomes, such as traditional social norms surrounding gender and sexuality. However, youth are seldom granted access to sexual education programs that explicitly address these issues. This study presents findings from a pretest-posttest survey of a sexual education program that did. It was designed for eighth graders (N=95) in the context of a school-community collaboration. The study assessed the links between several components of sexual empowerment, including gender ideology, sexual knowledge, and contraceptive beliefs. Findings link participation in the sexual education program to more progressive attitudes toward girls and women, less agreement with hegemonic masculinity ideology, and increases in sexual health and resource knowledge. Structural equation models suggest that traditional attitudes toward women were significantly related to hegemonic masculinity ideology among both boys and girls, which was in turn negatively related to safer contraceptive beliefs.

  11. Beyond Sexual Orientation: Integrating Gender/Sex and Diverse Sexualities via Sexual Configurations Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M

    2015-07-01

    Sexual orientation typically describes people's sexual attractions or desires based on their sex relative to that of a target. Despite its utility, it has been critiqued in part because it fails to account for non-biological gender-related factors, partnered sexualities unrelated to gender or sex, or potential divergences between love and lust. In this article, I propose Sexual Configurations Theory (SCT) as a testable, empirically grounded framework for understanding diverse partnered sexualities, separate from solitary sexualities. I focus on and provide models of two parameters of partnered sexuality--gender/sex and partner number. SCT also delineates individual gender/sex. I discuss a sexual diversity lens as a way to study the particularities and generalities of diverse sexualities without privileging either. I also discuss how sexual identities, orientations, and statuses that are typically seen as misaligned or aligned are more meaningfully conceptualized as branched or co-incident. I map out some existing identities using SCT and detail its applied implications for health and counseling work. I highlight its importance for sexuality in terms of measurement and social neuroendocrinology, and the ways it may be useful for self-knowledge and feminist and queer empowerment and alliance building. I also make a case that SCT changes existing understandings and conceptualizations of sexuality in constructive and generative ways informed by both biology and culture, and that it is a potential starting point for sexual diversity studies and research.

  12. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...... psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished...

  13. Men's sex-dominance inhibition: do men automatically refrain from sexually dominant behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Amy K; Sanchez, Diana T

    2007-12-01

    Men receive conflicting messages about their sexual roles in heterosexual relationships. Men are socialized to initiate and direct sexual activities with women; yet societal norms also proscribe the sexual domination and coercion of women. The authors test these competing hypotheses by assessing whether men inhibit the link between sex and dominance. In Studies 1a and b, using a subliminal priming procedure embedded in a lexical decision task, the authors demonstrate that men automatically suppress the concept of dominance following exposure to subliminal sex primes relative to neutral primes. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors show that men who are less likely to perceive sexual assertiveness as necessary, to refrain from dominant sexual behavior, and who do not invest in masculine gender ideals are more likely to inhibit dominant thoughts following sex primes. Implications for theories of automatic cognitive networks and gender-based sexual roles are discussed.

  14. The Last Bastion of Sexual and Gender Prejudice? Sexualities, Race, Gender, Religiosity, and Spirituality in the Examination of Prejudice Toward Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Ryan T; Sumerau, J Edward

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has reported that many Americans hold prejudicial attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities. Most of this research analyzed attitudes toward target categories in isolation and not in relation to attitudes toward heterosexuals. In addition, most previous research has not examined attitudes of members of sexual and gender minority categories toward other categories. While some research has examined the influence of religiosity on attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities, none of these studies has examined religiosity while also examining the influence of spirituality. In this article we drew on insights from queer theory to examine attitudes toward heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, as well as individuals who practice polygamy, among college students. Three samples gathered over a four-year period (2009, 2011, 2013) at a private, nonsectarian, midsized urban university in the Southeastern United States were used. We found that heterosexuals had the most positive rating, followed in order of rating by gay/lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, and then those who practice polygamy. Regression analyses revealed gender and race were significant predictors of attitudes toward various sexual and gender categories. Holding a literalistic view of the Bible and self-identifying as more religious were related to more negative views toward sexual minorities, while self-identifying as more spiritual was related to more positive views.

  15. Gendering the Foundation: Teaching Sexuality Amid Sexual Danger and Gender Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2015-01-01

    How might Life Skills be conceptualised in the Foundation Phase of schooling when a tradition of feminist literature has revealed the regulation, denial and the silencing of both gender and sexuality in early childhood? This article presents one Grade 2 teacher's perspective of addressing sexuality education in an impoverished township primary…

  16. Sexual harassment among adolescents of different sexual orientations and gender identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D

    2014-02-01

    This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Straight but Not Narrow; Within-Gender Variation in the Gender-Specificity of Women's Sexual Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L; Bouchard, Katrina N; Timmers, Amanda D

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or "straight" women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men) and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women). It is therefore unclear if gender-nonspecific responding is found in both exclusively and predominantly androphilic women. The current studies investigated within-gender variability in the gender-specificity of women's sexual response. Two samples of women reporting concurrent andro/gynephilia viewed (Study 1, n = 29) or listened (Study 2, n = 30) to erotic stimuli varying by gender of sexual partner depicted while their genital and subjective sexual responses were assessed. Data were combined with larger datasets of predominantly gyne- and androphilic women (total N = 78 for both studies). In both studies, women reporting any degree of gynephilia, including those who self-identified as heterosexual, showed significantly greater genital response to female stimuli, similar to predominantly gynephilic women; gender-nonspecific genital response was observed for exclusively androphilic women only. Subjective sexual arousal patterns were more variable with respect to sexual attractions, likely reflecting stimulus intensity effects. Heterosexually-identified women are therefore not a homogenous group with respect to sexual responses to gender cues. Implications for within-gender variation in women's sexual orientation and sexual responses are discussed.

  18. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...... adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze differences in self-reported health outcomes between male and female victims and corresponding controls. Gender differences are found in the reported prevalence of sexual victimization. Significantly more females than males reported forced sexual...... experiences in both samples. Associations between sexual victimization and poor health outcomes are found for both genders. Comparable patterns of association for men and women are found on a number of variables, particularly those pertaining to risk behavior....

  19. Gender and the organization of sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefer, L; Kring, B

    1995-03-01

    Gender socialization seems important in every culture although the precise nature of gender categories and the specifics of gender roles differ across societies. Gender socialization produces in most people a compulsion to behave according to appropriate rules and expectations, and a grave anxiety about not being considered by others, or by themselves, truly male or female. Sexual performance is tightly tied to appropriate gender role behavior, and the need to conform to conventional scripts probably inhibits most people from expressing individual desires and interests. The gratification obtained from gender affirmation, however, may compensate for any lost erotic or intimate rewards. Our society is in the throes of major changes in gender roles, and many of the frequent public debates about sexual issues (e.g., impact of pornography, prevalence of sexual abuse and harassment, advisability of public sex education, propriety of homosexuals in the military) reflect insecurities about the effect of these new roles on sexual behavior. Present knowledge suggests that any change in gender roles is bound to have a major effect on sexual behavior, both within the life of an individual and within a society. Insecurities and adjustment difficulties are likely to remain normative, and to be part of the problems brought to every mental health clinician.

  20. Gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and same-sex sexual attraction and the acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, K.L.; Bos, H.M.W.; Merry, M.S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes

  1. Straight but Not Narrow; Within-Gender Variation in the Gender-Specificity of Women’s Sexual Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L.; Bouchard, Katrina N.; Timmers, Amanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or “straight” women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men) and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women). It is therefore unclear if gender-nonspecific responding is found in both exclusively and predominantly androphilic women. The current studies investigated within-gender variability in the gender-specificity of women’s sexual response. Two samples of women reporting concurrent andro/gynephilia viewed (Study 1, n = 29) or listened (Study 2, n = 30) to erotic stimuli varying by gender of sexual partner depicted while their genital and subjective sexual responses were assessed. Data were combined with larger datasets of predominantly gyne- and androphilic women (total N = 78 for both studies). In both studies, women reporting any degree of gynephilia, including those who self-identified as heterosexual, showed significantly greater genital response to female stimuli, similar to predominantly gynephilic women; gender-nonspecific genital response was observed for exclusively androphilic women only. Subjective sexual arousal patterns were more variable with respect to sexual attractions, likely reflecting stimulus intensity effects. Heterosexually-identified women are therefore not a homogenous group with respect to sexual responses to gender cues. Implications for within-gender variation in women’s sexual orientation and sexual responses are discussed. PMID:26629910

  2. Gender roles and sexual behavior among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, J C

    1998-08-01

    The associations between gender role orientation and high-risk sex behaviors were explored in a study of 400 sexually active women 16-24 years of age (mean, 20.4 years) recruited from two metropolitan family planning clinics in Queensland, Australia. Three dimensions of gender role orientation were examined: gender role personality traits, gender role attitudes, and gender role dating behavior. It was hypothesized that women with more nontraditional or "masculine" characteristics are more likely than those with traditional or "feminine" characteristics to engage in unsafe sexual behaviors. Only partial support was found for this hypothesis. Although a number of univariate relationships emerged, very few associations between sexual behavior and gender roles remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis indicated that women with two or more sexual partners in the year preceding the study were significantly more likely than those with 0-1 sex partners to have masculine personality traits and to be more liberal in their attitudes toward women in society. Nonuse of condoms with the most recent sexual partner was not significantly associated with the gender role variables; however, women who reported masculine dating behaviors were more likely to have used a condom with their most recent nonsteady sexual partner. Similarly, substance use before or during last sexual intercourse was associated with masculine traits when the partner was nonsteady but was not related to gender role orientation when the partner was steady. The association of "masculine" personality traits with multiple partners and substance use indicates that caution should be exercised in assuming that masculine gender role characteristics are beneficial for women in sexual situations.

  3. Sex, gender roles and sexual attitudes in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vega, Elena; Rico, Rosana; Fernández, Paula

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies usually refer to a greater repertoire of sexual behav-iors and a higher level of erotophilia in men than in women. The main goal of this work is to relate sex, gender roles and sexual attitudes to sexual behavior. 411 un-dergraduate students (218 women and 193 men) at theof University of Oviedo (Spain) completed the following instruments: the Bem Sex Roles Inventory to operationalize the variable gender, the Sexual Inventory which reflects sexual behaviors, and the Sexual Opinion Survey about sexual attitudes. 27% of the sample was typified as an-drogynous. There are were no differences in attitudes, either by sex (p= .50) or by gen-der (p= .77). Sexual behaviors depended on the degree of erotophilia (p= .000). the results suggest that, although regarding sex, the fact that women’s erotophilic attitudes have increased their erotophilic attitudes, although they refer to more conventional sexual behaviors than mens’s attitudes. With regard to gender, a tendency towards androgyny is observed, androgynous women and men report positive attitudes towards sexuality. Gender could act as a mediator of sexual behavior through the attitudinal component.

  4. The Double Standard at Sexual Debut: Gender, Sexual Behavior and Adolescent Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11–16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents’ own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for “making out” showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both “heavy” and “light” sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts. PMID:27833252

  5. Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.

  6. Gender Identity and Adversarial Sexual Beliefs as Predictors of Attitudes toward Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Audrey J.; Dietz-Uhler, Beth L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines impact of gender identity and adversarial sexual beliefs as predictors of attitudes toward sexual harassment for 52 female and 55 male college students. Adversarial beliefs and experience with sexual harassment predict less tolerant attitudes toward harassment for males, whereas strong gender group identity and experience with harassment…

  7. A prime a day keeps calories away: The effects of supraliminal priming on food consumption and the moderating role of gender and eating restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Randall K; Poor, Morgan; Dennis, Alan R; Bartelt, Valerie L

    2016-10-01

    The link between intentions and action in weight control is weaker than previously thought, so recent research has called for further investigation of ways to improve weight control that bypass conscious intentions. Priming has been shown to have effects on individual behavior in a variety of contexts by influencing subconscious cognition. This paper investigates the effects of semantic priming using healthy body image, goal-oriented words on food consumption. The moderating role of both restrained eating and gender is investigated. 161 participants were involved in an experiment using a novel version of a scrambled sentence priming game. The outcome measure was the number of kilocalories consumed, examined using a between subjects ANCOVA with priming, gender, restrained eating index, self-reported BMI, and two interaction terms (primingxgender, and primingxrestrained eating index). There was no main effect of priming but there was an interaction of priming with gender. Females consumed significantly fewer kilocalories after being exposed to priming words related to a healthy body image (i.e. "slim", "fit,") compared to females receiving the neutral prime, with a medium effect size (d = 0.58). The body image prime did not significantly affect food intake for males, nor did it have a differential effect on restrained eaters. This study shows that priming can be an effective method for influencing females to reduce food intake, regardless of whether they are restrained or unrestrained eaters. Future studies could investigate whether different priming words related to a male's healthy body image goal (i.e. "buff," "muscles," etc.) would similarly reduce food intake for males. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [Validation of a scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, R; Potard, C; Réveillère, C; Moltrecht, B

    2011-02-01

    conducted according to gender and age. There is no significant difference for "Going out with someone" between boys and girls. On the other hand, there is a difference between "Giving priority to love", which is more important for girls (Psexual relations", more important for boys (Psexual relations" (only for boys (psexuality in prime adolescence that presents good psychometric qualities. It was carried out on a larger and more representative sample of this period than the initial study, although essentially finding the same results as previously. Thus, the use of this scale, coupled or not with the individual analysis of the items which make it up, could allow us to understand sexuality in prime adolescence in three significant dimensions of psychosexual development, as well as regarding risky sexuality, i.e., an excessive interest in genital sexuality, behavioral involvement and precocious sexual relations or an absence of feelings. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2012-06-01

    Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.

  11. Sex Unleashes Your Tongue: Sexual Priming Motivates Self-Disclosure to a New Acquaintance and Interest in Future Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Gurit E; Mizrahi, Moran; Kaplan, Ayelet; Kadosh, Danielle; Kariv, Dana; Tabib, Danielle; Ziv, Daniella; Sadeh, Lihi; Burban, Daniella

    2017-05-01

    Research has demonstrated the contribution of sexual activity to the quality of ongoing relationships. Nevertheless, less attention has been given to how activation of the sexual system affects relationship-initiation processes. Three studies used complementary methodologies to examine the effect of sexual priming on self-disclosure, a relationship-promoting behavior. In Study 1, participants were subliminally exposed to sexual stimuli (vs. neutral stimuli), and then disclosed over Instant Messenger a personal event to an opposite-sex stranger. Results showed that merely thinking about sex, even without being aware of it, encouraged self-disclosure. Study 2 replicated these findings in relatively naturalistic conditions (live face-to-face interactions following supraliminal video priming). Study 3 extended these findings, indicating that sexual priming facilitated self-disclosure, which, in turn, increased interest in future interactions with the stranger. Together, these findings suggest that activation of the sexual system encourages the use of strategies that allow people to become closer to potential partners.

  12. Building Capacity for Feminist Research in Africa : Gender, Sexuality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Capacity for Feminist Research in Africa : Gender, Sexuality and Politics ... feminist work and gender theory, but be relatively new to issues of sexuality. ... long-term climate action to reduce social inequality, promote greater gender ...

  13. Gender differences in factors associated with sexual intercourse among Estonian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2011-06-01

    To examine factors associated with early sexual intercourse among 15 to 16-year-old adolescents by gender. The data were collected from a random sample of Estonian basic schools' ninth grade pupils in 1999 using self-completed questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression analysis for boys and girls was used to test for associations between sexual intercourse, and personal gender role-related attitudes, attitudes towards sexual intercourse, pubertal timing, smoking status and experience of drunkenness. Of the respondents, 14.6% of boys and 13.1% of girls had experienced sexual intercourse. Traditional gender role-related attitudes were associated with sexual intercourse among girls, but not among boys. Smoking and experience of drunkenness was strongly associated with sexual intercourse for both genders. Gender differences in the association between gender role-related attitudes and early sexual intercourse were observed among 15 to 16-year-olds in Estonia. Smoking and experience of drunkenness were strongly related to sexual intercourse for both genders.

  14. Analyzing Gender and Sexuality in Magazine Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This lesson plan is designed to help students become more aware of how advertisements play a role in shaping societal attitudes about gender and sexuality and how these messages effect their own beliefs. This lesson plan will outline how to effectively accomplish this goal in any course focusing on gender and/or sexuality.

  15. Sexual identity, partner gender, and sexual health among adolescent girls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Rachel G; Tornello, Samantha L; Younger, Brendan C; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2014-10-01

    We examined associations between adolescent girls' sexual identity and the gender of their sexual partners, on one hand, and their reports of sexual health behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, on the other. We analyzed weighted data from pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2005 and 2007) representative of 13 US jurisdictions, focusing on sexually experienced girls in 8th through 12th grade (weighted n=6879.56). We used logistic regression with hierarchical linear modeling to examine the strength of associations between reports about sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health. Sexual minority girls consistently reported riskier behaviors than did other girls. Lesbian girls' reports of risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) and negative reproductive health outcomes (e.g., pregnancy) were similar to those of bisexual girls. Partner gender and sexual identity were similarly strong predictors of all of the sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes we examined. Many sexual minority girls, whether categorized according to sexual identity or partner gender, are vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health risks. Attention to these risks is needed to help sexual minority girls receive necessary services.

  16. Sexual Identity, Partner Gender, and Sexual Health Among Adolescent Girls in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornello, Samantha L.; Younger, Brendan C.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between adolescent girls’ sexual identity and the gender of their sexual partners, on one hand, and their reports of sexual health behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, on the other. Methods. We analyzed weighted data from pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2005 and 2007) representative of 13 US jurisdictions, focusing on sexually experienced girls in 8th through 12th grade (weighted n = 6879.56). We used logistic regression with hierarchical linear modeling to examine the strength of associations between reports about sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health. Results. Sexual minority girls consistently reported riskier behaviors than did other girls. Lesbian girls’ reports of risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) and negative reproductive health outcomes (e.g., pregnancy) were similar to those of bisexual girls. Partner gender and sexual identity were similarly strong predictors of all of the sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes we examined. Conclusions. Many sexual minority girls, whether categorized according to sexual identity or partner gender, are vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health risks. Attention to these risks is needed to help sexual minority girls receive necessary services. PMID:25121821

  17. Can gender priming eliminate the effects of stereotype threat? The case of simple dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungwitz, Vivien; Sedlmeier, Peter; Schwarz, Marcus

    2018-05-31

    Mathematics and mental rotation are classic fields where it has been shown that priming women with their gender identity impedes performance. Whereas past research focused mainly on stereotype threat effects in women in a narrowly defined context, this study broadened the research focus: We primed 264 women and men equally with a male, a neutral, or a female prime before they had to solve a simple dynamic system task. As expected, female-primed women subsequently performed worst of all six groups. Solution rates were almost 14% higher for the women in the male-primed condition. Men performed better than women in all three priming conditions. However, this difference was reduced in the male-primed condition as women's performance had increased as anticipated. Unexpected was a decline in the male performance in the same condition. The study showed that gender priming had a significant effect on women in tasks involving simple dynamic systems. However, mathematical knowledge and area of occupation clearly were stronger predictors for both men and women. Priming alone cannot eliminate the effects of stereotype threat. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Cultural variations in the sexual marketplace: gender equality correlates with more sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Mendoza, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual economics theory assumes that heterosexual communities can be analyzed as marketplaces in which men offer women resources such as love, respect, money, and commitment in exchange for sex. In response to economic, political, and other disadvantages, women collectively restrict their sexuality to maintain a low supply relative to male demand, thereby ensuring a high price. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that sexual norms and practices would be more restrictive in countries marked by gender inequality than in countries where the genders were more equal. An international online sex survey (N>317,000) yielded four measures of sexual activity, and 37 nations' means on all four measures were correlated with independent (World Economic Forum) ratings of gender equality. Consistent with predictions, relatively high gender equality was associated with more casual sex, more sex partners per capita, younger ages for first sex, and greater tolerance/approval of premarital sex.

  19. Gender, Ethnicity, Religiosity, and Same-sex Sexual Attraction and the Acceptance of Same-sex Sexuality and Gender Non-conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Merry, Michael S.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403

  20. Aging, Gender and Sexuality in Brazilian Society

    OpenAIRE

    Guita Grin Debert

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1) to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2) to analyze the  ways  discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that  attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the...

  1. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants ( N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant 'target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)' interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general.

  2. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants (N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant ‘target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)’ interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general. PMID:28203216

  3. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM): Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal to non-mainstream vs mainstream SEM contents could be categorized across gender and sexual orientation, (ii) to compare levels of SEM-induced sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluated sexual interests and fantasies between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluations of sexual interests and sexual fantasies. Groups characterized by sexual arousal to non-mainstream SEM could be identified across gender and sexual orientation. These non-mainstream SEM groups reported more SEM use and higher average levels of sexual arousal across the 27 SEM themes assessed compared with mainstream SEM groups. Only few differences were found between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups in self-evaluative judgements of sexual interests, sexual fantasies, and sexual satisfaction. The internal validity and predictive accuracy of the NPAS was good across most user groups investigated. The findings suggest that in classified non-mainstream SEM groups, patterns of sexual arousal might be less fixated and category specific than previously assumed. Further, these groups are not more judgmental of their SEM-related sexual arousal patterns than groups characterized by patterns of sexual arousal to more mainstream SEM content. Moreover, accurate identification of non-mainstream SEM group membership is generally possible across gender and sexual orientation using the NPAS. Hald GM

  4. Sexual Minority Health and Health Risk Factors: Intersection Effects of Gender, Race, and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rethinking Gender and Sexuality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi Ghajarieh, Amir Biglar; Mozaheb, Mohammad Amin

    2012-01-01

    In this short article, the authors argues that gender and sexuality, considered different concepts in gender studies, are so intertwined that differentiating between the two may cause the exclusion of many gender identities in education regardless of being fit into the male or female spectrum. LGBT(Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) people…

  6. Gender variance in childhood and sexual orientation in adulthood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-11-01

    Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the prospective studies consisted of clinically referred children. In understanding the extent to which the association applies for the general population, prospective studies using random samples are needed. This prospective study examined the association between childhood gender variance, and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood in the general population. In 1983, we measured childhood gender variance, in 406 boys and 473 girls. In 2007, sexual orientation and gender discomfort were assessed. Childhood gender variance was measured with two items from the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18. Sexual orientation was measured for four parameters of sexual orientation (attraction, fantasy, behavior, and identity). Gender discomfort was assessed by four questions (unhappiness and/or uncertainty about one's gender, wish or desire to be of the other gender, and consideration of living in the role of the other gender). For both men and women, the presence of childhood gender variance was associated with homosexuality for all four parameters of sexual orientation, but not with bisexuality. The report of adulthood homosexuality was 8 to 15 times higher for participants with a history of gender variance (10.2% to 12.2%), compared to participants without a history of gender variance (1.2% to 1.7%). The presence of childhood gender variance was not significantly associated with gender discomfort in adulthood. This study clearly showed a significant association between childhood gender variance and a homosexual sexual orientation in adulthood in the general population. In contrast to the findings in clinically referred gender-variant children, the presence of a homosexual sexual orientation in

  7. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender

  8. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH

  9. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14-18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual

  10. Sexual and gender prejudice among adolescents and enacted stigma at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, K.L.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual and gender prejudice refer, respectively, to negative attitudes based on sexual orientation or gender identity or expression; enacted stigma is the behavioral expression of such attitudes. This thesis explored the possible antecedents and outcomes of enacted sexual and gender stigma in

  11. Staging gender and sexuality in experimental TV entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Wencke

    2008-01-01

    Via examples from recent Norwegian experimental TV shows, this article explores the function of "eye-catchers," parodic (hetero)sexualization, female masquerade and neo-masculinization as strategies for "repetitions with a difference" of traditional styles and motifs by female show hosts, as well as the queer gendering and sexualization of men and masculinities by their male counterparts. Both formats represent innovative renegotiations of gender and sexuality that illustrate the relationship between post-modernism and queer aesthetics.

  12. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.

  13. Where are the gender differences? Male priming boosts spatial skills in women

    OpenAIRE

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Sieverding, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The effects of gender stereotype activation by priming on performance in a spatial task were investigated among a mixed adult sample (including students) of 161 men and women (mean age=31.90) from Austria (Europe). They were assigned to one of four experimental groups according to gender and stereotype activation condition. After a male or female gender stereotype activating task, participants worked on a test assessing mental rotation (three-dimensional cube test, Gittler 1990...

  14. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.

  15. Black lesbian gender and sexual culture: celebration and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bianca D M

    2009-04-01

    Lesbian gender expression is a persistent theme in research and writing about lesbian culture. Yet little empirical research has examined the ways lesbian gender functions within the sexual culture of lesbian communities, particularly among lesbians of colour. This study was aimed at documenting and assessing the functions of lesbian gender among African American lesbians. Particular attention was paid to identifying core characteristics of sexual discourses, such as evidence of dominant and resistant sexual scripts and contradictions between messages about sex. This study took the form of a rapid ethnography of an African American lesbian community in the USA using focus groups, individual community leader interviews and participant observations at a weekly open mic event. Findings document how lesbian gender roles translated into distinct sexual roles and expectations that appear to both parallel and radically reject heterosexual norms for sex. The deep roots of the social pressure to date within these roles were also evident within observations at the open microphone events. While data highlighted the central role that lesbian gender roles play in this community, analyses also revealed a strong resistance to the dominance of this sexual cultural system.

  16. Explaining sexual harassment judgments: looking beyond gender of the rater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Maureen; Gutek, Barbara A; Stockdale, Margaret; Geer, Tracey M; Melançon, Renée

    2004-02-01

    In two decades of research on sexual harassment, one finding that appears repeatedly is that gender of the rater influences judgments about sexual harassment such that women are more likely than men to label behavior as sexual harassment. Yet, sexual harassment judgments are complex, particularly in situations that culminate in legal proceedings. And, this one variable, gender, may have been overemphasized to the exclusion of other situational and rater characteristic variables. Moreover, why do gender differences appear? As work by Wiener and his colleagues have done (R. L. Wiener et al., 2002; R. L. Wiener & L. Hurt, 2000; R. L. Wiener, L. Hurt, B. Russell, K. Mannen, & C. Gasper, 1997), this study attempts to look beyond gender to answer this question. In the studies reported here, raters (undergraduates and community adults), either read a written scenario or viewed a videotaped reenactment of a sexual harassment trial. The nature of the work environment was manipulated to see what, if any, effect the context would have on gender effects. Additionally, a number of rater characteristics beyond gender were measured, including ambivalent sexism attitudes of the raters, their judgments of complainant credibility, and self-referencing that might help explain rater judgments. Respondent gender, work environment, and community vs. student sample differences produced reliable differences in sexual harassment ratings in both the written and video trial versions of the study. The gender and sample differences in the sexual harassment ratings, however, are explained by a model which incorporates hostile sexism, perceptions of the complainants credibility, and raters' own ability to put themselves in the complainant's position (self-referencing).

  17. Gender-bias primes elicit queen-bee responses among senior policewomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Belle; Van Laar, Colette; Ellemers, Naomi; de Groot, Kim

    2011-10-01

    Queen bees are senior women in male-dominated organizations who have achieved success by emphasizing how they differ from other women. Although the behavior of queen bees tends to be seen as contributing to gender disparities in career outcomes, we argue that queen-bee behavior is actually a result of the gender bias and social identity threat that produce gender disparities in career outcomes. In the experiment reported here, we asked separate groups of senior policewomen to recall the presence or absence of gender bias during their careers, and we measured queen-bee responses (i.e., masculine self-descriptions, in-group distancing, and denying of discrimination). Such gender-bias priming increased queen-bee responses among policewomen with low gender identification, but policewomen with high gender identification responded with increased motivation to improve opportunities for other women. These results suggest that gender-biased work environments shape women's behavior by stimulating women with low gender identification to dissociate with other women and to display queen-bee responses as a way to achieve individual mobility.

  18. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Martin Hald, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Hald GM, Stulhofer A, Lange T, et al. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation. Sex Med 2018;6:30–38.

  19. Reclaiming Gender and Power in Sexual Violence Prevention in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-03-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.

  20. Affirm Gender and Sexual Diversity within the School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Bethy; Staley, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Schools tend to be unsafe, unsupportive places for LGBTQ youth. Generally, teachers and administrators are provided little professional development (professional development) focused on gender and sexual diversity. Efforts to provide educators with gender and sexual diversity-focused professional development are slowly expanding, but still too…

  1. Aging, Gender and Sexuality in Brazilian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Grin Debert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1 to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2 to analyze the  ways  discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that  attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the retiree associations that were studied, men had a tendency to assume they are not ‘old’ because their erectile function was still in good condition, and divorced or widowed women, in senior citizen associations, tend to regard themselves as happy due to having freed themselves from the sexual obligations imposed by marriage. In both cases, the dominant belief that there is a loss of sexual desire in old age was reproduced.

  2. "It Has No Color, It Has No Gender, It's Gender Bending": Gender and Sexuality Fluidity and Subversiveness in Drag Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Justine; Maloney, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    Gender identity is a key question for drag performers. Previous research has shown a lack of consensus about the subversiveness and gender fluidity of drag performers. This article examines the question: How does the relationship between performers and their audience affect the subversive nature and gender representation of drag performers in this study? Furthermore, is this relationship complicated by sexuality? This study uses ethnographic and interview methods, examining experiences of 10 drag performers. Findings indicate mutuality in the relationship between performers and audience. The recursiveness of this relationship provides a constant feedback to the performers in their effort to displace the audience's previously held notions. The performers have fluid understandings of gender and sexuality, often presenting multiple genders in and out of drag. Interactions between performers and their audience indicate their belief in gender fluidity; moreover, the drag performers themselves desire to be subversive and gender and sexually fluid.

  3. Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai

  4. Sexual orientation and gender: stereotypes and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M

    2005-12-01

    In this essay, I explore empirical research about the relationship between sexual orientation and gender. Both concepts have multiple meanings, which hinder an unequivocal understanding of the relationship between the two concepts. One of the first studies assumed to establish a relationship between male homosexuality and femininity was conducted by L. M. Terman and C. C. Miles (1936). The study actually gives a much more complicated picture of the relationship. Terman and Miles actually found two groups of homosexual men with, respectively, extremely high masculinity and extremely high femininity scores. Subsequently, various other studies examined the relationship between sexual orientation and gender, introducing the concept of androgyNY. While these studies were executed, major changes took place in the homosexual world, which have been characterized as the masculinization of culture. It is unclear how these changes relate to the masculine and feminine properties of the men involved. Various suggestions are made for further research on the relation between gender and sexual orientation.

  5. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania

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    Tumaini M. Nyamhanga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania

  6. Relationship between Gender Roles and Sexual Assertiveness in Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoude, Elham; Firoozi, Mahbobe; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Asgharipour, Neghar

    2016-10-01

    Evidence indicates that sexual assertiveness is one of the important factors affecting sexual satisfaction. According to some studies, traditional gender norms conflict with women's capability in expressing sexual desires. This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness in married women in Mashhad, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 women who referred to Mashhad health centers through convenient sampling in 2014-15. Data were collected using Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Hulbert index of sexual assertiveness. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Pearson and Spearman's correlation tests and linear Regression Analysis. The mean scores of sexual assertiveness was 54.93±13.20. According to the findings, there was non-significant correlation between Femininity and masculinity score with sexual assertiveness (P=0.069 and P=0.080 respectively). Linear regression analysis indicated that among the predictor variables, only Sexual function satisfaction was identified as the sexual assertiveness summary predictor variables (P=0.001). Based on the results, sexual assertiveness in married women does not comply with gender role, but it is related to Sexual function satisfaction. So, counseling psychologists need to consider this variable when designing intervention programs for modifying sexual assertiveness and find other variables that affect sexual assertiveness.

  7. Gender identity and sexual orientation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.

  8. Queering Constructs: Proposing a Dynamic Gender and Sexuality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education educators commonly understand social identities, including gender, to be fluid and dynamic. Lev's (2004) model of four components of sexual identity is commonly used to demonstrate the fluidity of sex, gender, and sexuality for individuals, but it does little to address the fixedness of those constructs. Through a multipronged…

  9. Neurobiology of Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E

    2017-12-06

    Sexual identity and sexual orientation are independent components of a person's sexual identity. These dimensions are most often in harmony with each other and with an individual's genital sex, but not always. This review discusses the relationship of sexual identity and sexual orientation to prenatal factors that act to shape the development of the brain and the expression of sexual behaviors in animals and humans. One major influence discussed relates to organizational effects that the early hormone environment exerts on both gender identity and sexual orientation. Evidence that gender identity and sexual orientation are masculinized by prenatal exposure to testosterone and feminized in it absence is drawn from basic research in animals, correlations of biometric indices of androgen exposure and studies of clinical conditions associated with disorders in sexual development. There are, however, important exceptions to this theory that have yet to be resolved. Family and twin studies indicate that genes play a role, but no specific candidate genes have been identified. Evidence that relates to the number of older brothers implicates maternal immune responses as a contributing factor for male sexual orientation. It remains speculative how these influences might relate to each other and interact with postnatal socialization. Nonetheless, despite the many challenges to research in this area, existing empirical evidence makes it clear that there is a significant biological contribution to the development of an individual's sexual identity and sexual orientation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. An Examination of Gender Role Identity, Sexual Self-Esteem, Sexual Coercion and Sexual Victimization in a University Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Theresa C.; Erickson, Chris D.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between gender role identity, sexual self-esteem and sexual coercion was examined through a questionnaire. Participants were 84 undergraduate students from a university in Washington, DC. Contrary to what has been found in the literature, there were weak relationships between sexual coercion and masculinity, and sexual coercion…

  11. Gender-role's attitude, perceived similarity, and sexual prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo

    2010-11-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.

  12. Perceptions of gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality in Thai women following diagnosis and treatment for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcharoen, Sureeporn; Suwan, Kobkaew; Jirojwong, Sansnee

    2005-05-10

    To describe patients' and their partners' perceptions of gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality before diagnosis of and after treatment for cervical cancer. Descriptive. Southern Thailand. 97 women with cervical cancer who received cancer treatment, including radiotherapy, and their partners. Structured interview methods were used to gather information relating to gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality. Gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality. Fifty-two percent of the women (n = 50) were diagnosed with stage II cervical cancer. The percentage of women who undertook various activities specific to gender roles before their diagnoses was higher than the percentage who undertook the same activities after treatment. An increased percentage of partners undertook the women's gender-role-specific activities after the women received cancer treatment compared with the percentage who did so before diagnosis. Little change in gender power relationships was reported. A high percentage of the couples reported changes in various aspects of their sexuality after cancer treatment compared with before diagnosis. Gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality changed for women with cervical cancer and their partners after the women completed cancer treatment. Open discussions among women with cervical cancer, their partners, and oncology nurses are necessary to identify culturally sensitive and appropriate solutions.

  13. Does attractiveness sell? Women's attitude toward a product as a function of model attractiveness, gender priming, and social comparison orientation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Dijkstra, Pieternel

    In the present experiment, 85 female undergraduate students were presented with an advertisement for chewing gum, featuring an attractive or a moderately attractive same-sex model. Participants were either primed on their gender or not. Results showed that gender-primed women were willing to pay

  14. Gender, sexuality, and violence in humanitarian crises

    OpenAIRE

    Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier Gender and Development approach and the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda, analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, gender often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs...

  15. Gender and sexuality in Norwegian development policy and practice : The introduction of sexual orientation and gender identity in Norwegian development cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Annika W.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 Norwegian policy makers have sought to include perspectives on sexual orientation and gender identity in development cooperation. The main objectives of this study has been - To explore how the government and people who work with development cooperation perceive the roles sexual orientation and gender identity may or may not have in development cooperation. - To critically analyse Norway¡¦s development cooperation - its aims, strategies and justification - and explore how sex...

  16. Power, Ethnic Origin, and Sexual Objectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Civile

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of primed power on sexual objectification of Caucasian and Asian men and women. As in previous studies, sexual objectification was assessed using an inversion paradigm with face–body compound stimuli. Previous work has shown that participants primed to power do not show the typical drop in recognition performance for inverted face–body compound stimuli, suggesting that they process these stimuli in terms of their individual features, in a manner akin to objects, and quite different from the way in which faces and bodies are normally processed (i.e., configurally. Caucasian male and female participants were primed to high or neutral-power before engaging in an old/new recognition task involving sexualized face–body compound images of Caucasian and Asian men and women. Participants primed to high-power showed a decreased inversion effect for Caucasian models of the opposite gender, but not for Asian models. Thus, power exerts different effects on this specific type of social perception, depending on the ethnic origin of the target. We discuss our results in the context of the extant literature on power and with reference to media stereotyping of Caucasians and Asians.

  17. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, Karel; de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.

  18. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities. PMID:29403098

  19. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Let's talk about sex: gender norms and sexual health in English schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Wooder, Kai; Blake, Simon

    2015-03-01

    The sexual health of young people in England is an urgent public health concern. While interventions to address young people's sexual health have focussed on knowledge, skills and contraception access, amazingly none in the UK has explicitly addressed the effects of the social hierarchies of gender and gendered behavioural ideals that shape young people's sexual expectations, attitudes and behaviour. The lack of attention to gender is a persistent gap in health research, practice and policy. A rigorous evaluation of such an intervention package would go some way to building an evidence base for challenging gender norms, which appear to be strongly associated with adverse sexual health outcomes.

  1. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  2. Depression and Sexual Orientation During Young Adulthood: Diversity Among Sexual Minority Subgroups and the Role of Gender Nonconformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Pollitt, Amanda M; Russell, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Sexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet less is known about how depression status varies across sexual minority subgroups (i.e., mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, and lesbians and gay men). Moreover, studies on the role of young adult gender nonconformity in the relation between sexual orientation and depression are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. The current study examined the disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals during young adulthood in concurrent depression near the beginning of young adulthood and prospective depression 6 years later, paying attention to the diversity within sexual minority subgroups and the role of gender nonconformity. Drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 9421), we found that after accounting for demographics, sampling weight, and sampling design, self-identified mostly heterosexual and bisexual young adults, but not lesbians and gay men, reported significantly higher concurrent depression compared to heterosexuals; moreover, only mostly heterosexual young adults were more depressed than heterosexuals 6 years later. Furthermore, while young adult gender nonconforming behavior was associated with more concurrent depression regardless of sexual orientation, its negative impact on mental health decreased over time. Surprisingly, previous gender nonconformity predicted decreased prospective depression among lesbians and gay men whereas, among heterosexual individuals, increased gender nonconformity was not associated with prospective depression. Together, the results suggested the importance of investigating diversity and the influence of young adult gender nonconformity in future research on the mental health of sexual minorities.

  3. Gender boundaries and sexual categories in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukhalil, A

    1997-01-01

    This essay considers the construction of gender and sexual images in the Arab world and how Western responses to Islam have affected the way Islam is perceived and interpreted. After a brief introduction, the essay discusses the problems of using Islam as a standard methodological yardstick in the face of the diversity of Muslim lifestyles and interpretations. The next section describes gender boundaries and social barriers in Islam that involve rigid segregation of the sexes. While Islam is shown not to favor full gender equality, the dynamic interaction between a Middle Eastern culture and the Islamic religion, each of which promote the ostensible inferiority of women, makes it difficult to determine whether culture or religion has had more influence on gender relations. The essay continues with a look at controversies about homosexuality, the condition that defined the difference between Christianity and Islam. Characteristics of present-day sexism and sexuality among the Arabs are highlighted in a look at the persistence of male dominance, the restriction of women from the public sphere, theories about the toleration of homosexuality, and the taboo extended towards lesbians and others practicing free sex. It is concluded that the study of gender and sexuality in the Middle East remains incomplete and preliminary, although gender studies have progressed in the past two decades. Social and sexual tensions have been exacerbated by the rise of fundamentalism, and homosexuality remains a forbidden topic for Muslim scholars.

  4. Macho Buddhism: Gender and Sexualities in the Diamond Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Scherer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Western Tibetan Buddhist movements have been described as bourgeois and puritanical in previous scholarship. In contrast, Ole Nydahl’s convert lay Karma Kagyu Buddhist movement, the Diamond Way, has drawn attention for its apparently hedonistic style. Focussing on the interpretation of Nydahl’s approach to gender and sexualities, this paper addresses the wider issues of continuity and change during the transition of Tibetan Buddhism from Asia to the West. Nydahl’s pre-modern gender stereotyping, the hetero-machismo of the Diamond Way and the mildly homophobic tone and content of Nydahl’s teaching are interpreted on the background of Indian and Tibetan Buddhist sexual ethics and traditional Tibetan cultural attitudes on sexualities. By excavating the emic genealogy of Nydahl’s teachings, the paper suggests that Nydahl’s and the Diamond Way’s view on and performance of gender and sexualities are consistent with his propagation of convert Buddhist neo-orthodoxy.

  5. The no-go zone: a qualitative study of access to sexual and reproductive health services for sexual and gender minority adolescents in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alex; Spencer, Sarah; Meer, Talia; Daskilewicz, Kristen

    2018-01-25

    Adolescents have significant sexual and reproductive health needs. However, complex legal frameworks, and social attitudes about adolescent sexuality, including the values of healthcare providers, govern adolescent access to sexual and reproductive health services. These laws and social attitudes are often antipathetic to sexual and gender minorities. Existing literature assumes that adolescents identify as heterosexual, and exclusively engage in (heteronormative) sexual activity with partners of the opposite sex/gender, so little is known about if and how the needs of sexual and gender minority adolescents are met. In this article, we have analysed data from fifty in-depth qualitative interviews with representatives of organisations working with adolescents, sexual and gender minorities, and/or sexual and reproductive health and rights in Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Sexual and gender minority adolescents in these countries experience double-marginalisation in pursuit of sexual and reproductive health services: as adolescents, they experience barriers to accessing LGBT organisations, who fear being painted as "homosexuality recruiters," whilst they are simultaneously excluded from heteronormative adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Such barriers to services are equally attributable to the real and perceived criminalisation of consensual sexual behaviours between partners of the same sex/gender, regardless of their age. The combination of laws which criminalise consensual same sex/gender activity and the social stigma towards sexual and gender minorities work to negate legal sexual and reproductive health services that may be provided. This is further compounded by age-related stigma regarding sexual activity amongst adolescents, effectively leaving sexual and gender minority adolescents without access to necessary information about their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health, and sexual and reproductive health services.

  6. Self-Perceptions of Sexual Attractiveness: Satisfaction With Physical Appearance is Not of Primary Importance Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita P

    2016-01-01

    Research on self-perceived sexual attractiveness has predominantly focused on the importance of physical appearance, overlooking nonphysical traits that may contribute to these self-perceptions. The present study examined and compared the importance of a variety of traits for self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Self-identified heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men (N = 1,801) and heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual women (N = 1,092) completed an online questionnaire examining self-perceived sexual attractiveness, body esteem, sexual esteem, adherence to gender norms, and sexual experience. Body esteem and sexual esteem were significant predictors of self-perceived sexual attractiveness, regardless of gender and sexual orientation. Adhering to a masculine gender norm was a significant predictor among all groups (to varying extents) but heterosexual women. Adhering to a feminine gender norm was a significant predictor among heterosexual men and bisexual women. Finally, sexual experience was a significant predictor for all men and bisexual women. Furthermore, while body esteem was a predictor across all groups, for most individuals it did not appear to be of primary importance, with either sexual esteem or masculinity proving to be of greater importance. These findings suggest the need to consider traits related to both physical and nonphysical factors for improving an individual's self-perceived sexual attractiveness.

  7. Differences in Sexual Orientation Diversity and Sexual Fluidity in Attractions Among Gender Minority Adults in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn White; Keo-Meier, Colton L

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender-nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bimodel methods (online and in person) to complete a one-time, Web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n = 452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n = 205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other nonbinary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, and 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions posttransition, and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people.

  8. Gender differences in perception of workplace sexual harassment among future professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amitav; Sharma, Bhavana

    2011-01-01

    Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. A cross-sectional study among the students of professional colleges. A total of 200 students of both sexes were randomly selected from four professional colleges. Data collection was done on a structured questionnaire by interview. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by Crohnbach's α coefficient. Associations between gender and perceptions were explored with Chi-square, Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval, where applicable. The differences in perception on what constitutes sexual harassment among the genders were statistically significant on many measures (Psexual harassment. Men were more lacking in awareness regarding sexual harassment.

  9. Gender Differences in Sexual Behaviors in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunyoung; Kang, Youngmi

    The purposes of this study were to identify whether there are gender differences in sexual behaviors among Korean adolescents and to explore the factors that influence safe sex practices across both sexes. A secondary analysis was conducted using nationally representative data obtained from the 2014 Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Sample consisted of 3,210 adolescents who had experience of sexual intercourse. The dependent variable in this study was practicing safe sex. The independent variables included a range of individual, family, and school factors. Female adolescents were less likely to practice safe sex (i.e., always using a condom). Individual (smoking, no drinking before sexual intercourse), family (living with parents, higher allowance per week) and school factors (non-coeducational school students, had received school-based sex education) were significant predictors of practicing safe sex in males. In contrast, family (lower economic status) and school factors (middle school students) predicted practicing safe sex among female adolescents. We demonstrated that gender plays an important role in the sexual behavior of adolescents. The findings of this study indicate a need to design and implement gender-specific interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender and Race Differences in the Perceptions of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydell, Eric J.; Nelson, Eileen S.

    1998-01-01

    Examines influence of gender and race on perception of sexual harassment and on recommended punitive measures by college judicial boards for potential harasser. Significant gender-based differences were found in perception of an ambiguous sexual-harassment situation, with men tending to attribute greater responsibility to victim than did women.…

  11. Gender and Patterns of Sexual Risk Taking in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppen, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Determined the role gender plays in influencing the prevalence and patterns of sexual risk taking. Responses from 245 undergraduate students show gender differences in risk-taking patterns. For females, potentially risky behavior in the partner domain was negatively related to risky behavior in the sexual practice domain, whereas for males, the…

  12. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263

  13. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey ( N =1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women's current gender identity (i.e., butch , femme , androgynous , or other ) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences.

  14. Gender differences in perception of workplace sexual harassment among future professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitav Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Aim: Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study among the students of professional colleges. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 students of both sexes were randomly selected from four professional colleges. Data collection was done on a structured questionnaire by interview. Statistical Analysis: Internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by Crohnbach′s α coefficient. Associations between gender and perceptions were explored with Chi-square, Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval, where applicable. Results: The differences in perception on what constitutes sexual harassment among the genders were statistically significant on many measures (P<0.01. Conclusions: Men and women differ in their awareness as to what constitute sexual harassment. Men were more lacking in awareness regarding sexual harassment.

  15. Sexual Priming, Gender Stereotyping, and Likelihood to Sexually Harass: Examining the Cognitive Effects of Playing a Sexually-Explicit Video Game

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Mike Z.; Mahood, Chad; Linz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the short-term cognitive effects of playing a sexually explicit video game with female “objectification” content on male players. Seventy-four male students from a university in California, U.S. participated in a laboratory experiment. They were randomly assigned to play either a sexually-explicit game or one of two control games. Participants’ cognitive accessibility to sexual and sexually objectifying thoughts was measured in a lexical decision task. A likelihood-...

  16. Priming Facial Gender and Emotional Valence: The Influence of Spatial Frequency on Face Perception in ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarcke, Steven; Wagemans, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) performed two priming experiments in which they implicitly processed a prime stimulus, containing high and/or low spatial frequency information, and then explicitly categorized a target face either as male/female (gender task) or as positive/negative (Valence task). Adolescents with ASD…

  17. Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity.

  18. Gendered discourses of youth sexualities--an exploration of PubMed articles on prevention of sexually transmissible infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva E; Alex, Lena; Christianson, Monica

    2014-10-01

    To explore how gender is addressed in medical articles on the prevention of sexually transmissible infections (STI) among adolescents. Sixtyone articles were retrieved from a PubMed search and scrutinized by qualitative content analysis. Most articles were affiliated with North American research institutions, but there were also reports from Europe, Africa, South America, and Asia. Gender turned up in the following four recurrent discourses: Gendered Receptiveness for Information, Stereotyped Heterosexual Expectations, Power Imbalance in Sexual Relations, and Gendered Prevention Approaches. Young women were described as knowledgeable, communicative, and responsible, but at risk because of feminine ideals and a lack of negotiating power. Men were described as less informed, more reluctant to discuss, and more risk taking due to masculine ideals and power dominance. Prevention approaches concerned how to postpone sex and/or tailor gender-sensitive programs for specific groups of young women and men. Researchers' own gender expectations might have a substantial impact on how sex and sexual health is considered in prevention research. To avoid reconstruction of current inequalities and stereotypes regarding sexual practices of young women and men, the impact of gender, the power structures in intimate relations, and the cultural context should be considered. Medical research on STI prevention could benefit from including a wider array of gender perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender perspectives of sexual and reproductive practices of people ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender perspectives of sexual and reproductive practices of people living with ... the spread of HIV infection has become the role of gender inequality.1, 2 The ... mainly driven by the subordinate traditional gender roles of women in this culture.

  20. Gender nonconformity, intelligence, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Bhanot, Suraj; Emrith-Small, Hanna; Ghafoor, Shilan; Roberts, Steven

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored whether there were relationships among gender nonconformity, intelligence, and sexual orientation. A total of 106 heterosexual men, 115 heterosexual women, and 103 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and the National Adult Reading Test (NART). NART error scores were used to estimate Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores. Gay men had significantly fewer NART errors than heterosexual men and women (controlling for years of education). In heterosexual men, correlational analysis revealed significant associations between CGN, NART, and FSIQ scores (elevated boyhood femininity correlated with higher IQ scores). In heterosexual women, the direction of the correlations between CGN and all IQ scores was reversed (elevated girlhood femininity correlating with lower IQ scores). There were no significant correlations among these variables in gay men. These data may indicate a "sexuality-specific" effect on general cognitive ability but with limitations. They also support growing evidence that quantitative measures of sex-atypicality are useful in the study of trait sexual orientation.

  1. Sexual minority women's gender identity and expression: challenges and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  2. Gender and Sexuality Diversity and Schooling: Progressive Mothers Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfolja, Tania; Ullman, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Although social acceptance of gender and sexuality diversity is growing in Australian society, in schools, visibility and inclusion of knowledge pertaining to those who are gender- and/or sexuality-diverse, such as lesbians, gay men and transgender people, remain marginalised. This may be due, in part, to a belief that parents are opposed to such…

  3. Differences in Sexual Orientation Diversity and Sexual Fluidity in Attractions among Gender Minority Adults in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Reisner, Sari L.; White, Jaclyn M.; Keo-Meier, Colton L.

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bi-model methods (online and in-person) to complete a one-time web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated Adjusted Risk Ratios (aRR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n=452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n=205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other non-binary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR=1.69; 95% CI=1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions post-transition and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR=0.44; 95% CI=0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people. PMID:26156113

  4. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.

  5. Gender Preference in the Sexual Attractions, Fantasies, and Relationships of Voluntarily Castrated Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Ariel B; Jackowich, Robyn A; Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas Wayne; Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Some men seek castration outside a clear medical need. This study explored how their sexuality changed after castration. To explore changes in preferred gender(s) of sexual attraction, fantasy, and relationships in voluntarily castrated men with or without gonadal hormone therapy. A questionnaire was posted at http://www.eunuch.org that yielded data on men who had been voluntarily castrated physically (n = 198) or chemically (n = 96). Respondents were asked to report retrospectively on their sexuality, including their sexual activity and which gender(s) they were sexually attracted to, fantasized about, or had sexual relations with 6 months to 1 year before and after castration. A substantial proportion of men remained sexually active after castration; 37% had sex at least several times per week. Most respondents did not report a change in preferred gender(s) of attraction (65%, n = 181), fantasies (62%, n = 169), or sexual relationships (66%, n = 163), although approximately 20% to 30% of respondents did report such changes and 8% to 11% became non-sexual after castration. Respondents who were attracted to and fantasized about "only men" or who had sexual relationship with "only women" before castration were the least likely to report a change subsequent to castration. Respondents who were taking neither supplemental testosterone nor estrogen were more likely to report (i) becoming attracted to no one, (ii) fantasizing about no one, and (iii) becoming sexually inactive. Sexual changes in voluntarily castrated men vary and can be influenced by various factors including the use of supplemental testosterone or estrogen therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Concept priming and pain: an experimental approach to understanding gender roles in sex-related pain differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephanie L; Rasinski, Heather M; Geers, Andrew L; Helfer, Suzanne G; France, Christopher R

    2011-04-01

    Prior research has found that sex differences in pain are partially due to individual variations in gender roles. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of covert gender role cues can also moderate the extent to which women and men experience pain. Specifically, we varied gender role cues by asking male and female participants to write about instances in which they behaved in a stereotypically feminine, masculine, or neutral manner. Pain and cardiovascular reactivity to the cold pressor task were then assessed. Results revealed that, when primed with femininity, men reported less pain and anxiety from the cold pressor task than women. However, no differences existed between the sexes in the masculine or neutral prime conditions. The results indicate that covert gender cues can alter pain reports. Further, at least in some situations, feminine role cues may be more influential on pain reports than masculine role cues.

  7. Harassment Due to Gender Nonconformity Mediates the Association Between Sexual Minority Identity and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities.

  8. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M

    2014-01-01

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  9. Sexuality Within Female Same-Gender Couples: Definitions of Sex, Sexual Frequency Norms, and Factors Associated with Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelby B; Ritchie, Lane; Knopp, Kayla; Rhoades, Galena K; Markman, Howard J

    2018-04-01

    Despite a growing number of female same-gender (FSG) relationships, couples-based research and interventions have focused primarily on mixed-gender couples. Consequently, research has applied a heteronormative lens to understanding some relationship factors, including sexuality. The current study sought to provide descriptive data regarding frequency and conceptualizations of sex across partners in FSG relationships, as well as to analyze how relationship factors are associated with sexual satisfaction in this population. Participants (N = 206) were 103 adult FSG couples who had been together for at least 2 months. Individuals provided self-report data on how they conceptualized sex, and actor-partner models were utilized to assess relationship factors associated with sexual satisfaction. Findings indicated that women in FSG relationships hold broad definitions of sex, with the majority of behaviors conceptualized as sex, including acts that involved partnered genital touching. In dyadic actor-partner models, sexual satisfaction was predicted by several factors including sexual frequency, emotional intimacy, and sexual intimacy. Unexpectedly, higher desired sexual frequency was associated with lower sexual satisfaction; however, this finding only emerged after controlling for actual sexual frequency, suggesting that discrepancies between desired and actual sex frequency may be important for FSG couples. Implications for clinical practice with FSG couples are explored, including a strength-based focus on broad conceptualizations of sex within this population and targeting relationship factors associated with sexual satisfaction.

  10. Gender differences in perception of workplace sexual harassment among future professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amitav; Sharma, Bhavana

    2011-01-01

    Background: Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Aim: Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study among the students of professional colleges. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 students of both sexes were randomly selected from four professional colleges. Data collection was done on a structured questionnaire by interview. Statistical Analysis: Internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by Crohnbach's α coefficient. Associations between gender and perceptions were explored with Chi-square, Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval, where applicable. Results: The differences in perception on what constitutes sexual harassment among the genders were statistically significant on many measures (Psexual harassment. Men were more lacking in awareness regarding sexual harassment. PMID:22969176

  11. Handsome wants as handsome does: physical attractiveness and gender differences in revealed sexual preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Elizabeth Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this article I evaluate the effect of physical attractiveness on young adults' sexual and romantic outcomes to reveal gender differences in acted preferences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a probability sample of young adults (n = 14,276), I investigate gender differences in desired sexual partner accumulation, relationship status, and timing of sexual intercourse. I find gender differences in sexual and romantic strategies consistent with those predicted by the double standard of sexuality and evolutionary theory. Specifically, compared to men, women pursue more committed relationships, fewer sexual partners, and delayed sexual intercourse.

  12. Everything's better in moderation: young women's gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Tamara G J

    2010-05-01

    This study examines the association between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior among young women. Previous studies have posed seemingly contradictory arguments: that either traditional attitudes or egalitarian attitudes are associated with riskier behavior. Data are based on the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, representing 520 sexually active 18-19-year-old women. Propensity radius matching was used to assess differences in rates of multiple sexual partners and sex outside of a committed relationship. Relative to moderate gender role attitudes, both egalitarian gender role attitudes and traditional gender role attitudes are associated with higher rates of risky sexual behavior. Both women with egalitarian role attitudes and those with traditional role attitudes have about a 10% higher prevalence of risky behavior compared to women with more moderate gender role attitudes. Existing, seemingly contradictory contentions about the relationship between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior may be more coherent than they seem. By shifting focus from risk to protection, the results suggest that moderate gender role attitudes are protective against risky sexual behavior. Future studies should investigate the causal mechanisms and intervention implications of this protective relationship. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gendered pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Faculty perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, P L; Ash, A S; Friedman, R H; Szalacha, L; Barnett, R C; Palepu, A; Moskowitz, M M

    2000-06-06

    Gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment are common in medical practice and may be even more prevalent in academic medicine. To examine the prevalence of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment among medical school faculty and the associations of gender-based discrimination with number of publications, career satisfaction, and perceptions of career advancement. A self-administered mailed questionnaire of U.S. medical school faculty that covered a broad range of topics relating to academic life. 24 randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 3332 full-time faculty, stratified by specialty, graduation cohort, and sex. Prevalence of self-reported experiences of discrimination and harassment, number of peer-reviewed publications, career satisfaction, and perception of career advancement. Female faculty were more than 2.5 times more likely than male faculty to perceive gender-based discrimination in the academic environment (P productivity but lower career satisfaction scores than did other women (Padvancement (72% compared with 47%). Publications, career satisfaction, and professional confidence were not affected by sexual harassment, and self-assessed career advancement was only marginally lower for female faculty who had experienced sexual harassment (P = 0.06). Despite substantial increases in the number of female faculty, reports of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment remain common.

  15. It is complicated: gender and sexual orientation identity in LGBTQ youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jordon D; Chiodo, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    To explore the variations of sexual orientation and gender identity as well as the intersections of those identities in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning youth. Identity development is a key task of adolescence. Among the multiple identities that young people navigate are sexual orientation and gender identity. Challenges with solidifying and integrating aspects of one's identity can contribute to poor physical and mental health outcomes. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A convenience sample was recruited via collaborations with community organisations and Internet groups who provide information and services for LGBTQ youth under the age of 25. Of the 175 respondents, one-third of the sample reported a gender identity that was not congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Those assigned female sex at birth reported noncongruent gender identities as well as fluid and nonbinary identities such as genderqueer and agender more frequently that respondents assigned male at birth. Individuals with noncongruent gender identities were more likely to identify with a sexual orientation other than lesbian, gay or bisexual than individuals with gender identities congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity are complex and nuanced. Nurse scientists and clinical nurses can contribute to understanding of these identities, their meaning to the young person and the unique health implications by regularly inquiring about sexual orientation and gender identity in their practice. Nurses in clinical practice need to be aware of the sometimes complicated nature of adolescent identity and its related terminology so that they can ask relevant questions and provide culturally safe care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gender and Sexuality in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merens, Teri A

    2016-05-01

    The terms gender and sexuality, once rarely discussed in a public forum, are now dominant topics of conversation on social media, in all forms of entertainment, politics, law, and medicine. The pediatric primary care physician, like all people and institutions involved in the delivery of health care, must be diligent about providing compassionate and competent care to patients and families contending with gender issues. The complex variety of obstacles these patients may face require a well-informed, sensitive clinician who can offer sound medical advice and appropriate referral. This article guides pediatricians through some of the challenges related to gender identity so they can assist their patients in navigating through any difficulties. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e158-e161.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. The gender you are and the gender you like: sexual preference and empathic neural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D; Walder, K; Hendler, T; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2013-10-09

    Empathy relates to the ability to share the emotions and understand the intentions and emotions of the other. Although it has been suggested that women have superior empathic abilities as compared to men, it is unknown whether it is the gender or the sexual preference of the individual that affects empathy. Given that sexual attraction has been reported to affect social behavior, the present study explored the possibility that sexual orientation affects behavioral measures of empathy as well as empathy related activations. Fifty two heterosexual and homosexual women and men were scanned while performing an emotional judgment task involving emotional understanding of a protagonist. The behavioral and neuroimaging results indicate that empathy is related to the gender as well as the sexual preference of the participant. Individuals sexually attracted to men (heterosexual women and homosexual men) showed greater empathy than subjects attracted to women (heterosexual men and homosexual women). Furthermore, brain imaging data reveal that regions within the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), showed sensitivity to the sexual orientation of the individual, such that it was activated more in subjects attracted to men than in subjects attracted to women while evaluating the emotional state of the other. Moreover, the activation in the TPJ was found to be correlated with the degree to which subjects were empathizing. These results suggest that individual differences in empathy are related to the gender as well as the sexual orientation of the subject. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bejerot

    Full Text Available The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  19. Sexuality and Gender Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘extreme male brain theory of autism’ describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24498228

  20. Teachers’ perceptions on gender differences in sexuality education in Portuguese schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Vilaça

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that according teachers’ perceptions, boys and girls actively use the material on sexuality education (SE, as well as the aspects of school life, as symbolic resources to construct their gender identity and their power relationships. In this sense, an investigation where a semi-structured interview was applied to a purposeful sample of teachers who were teaching between the 7th and 12th years, and who had already developed projects or activities of SE (N=87 will be presented, to focus on, among other aspects, their perceptions regarding issues related to gender that affect the responses of students in sexuality education, aiming at understanding their perceptions on: i gender differences in students’ reactions to themes/problems of SE; and ii the nature of the gender interactions during SE. According to the discourse of most teachers, during SE, boys tried to demonstrate their masculinity by presenting themselves differently to girls and distancing themselves from all matters related to women's sexuality, devaluating and distancing themselves from all that is feminine which sometimes involved belittling and insulting the girls. However, the girls reacted positively because SE maintains and supports their sense of gender identity and gender codes that are prescribed for them by society. Therefore, these results show that it is essential to work in teacher training on the relationship between gender, sexuality and power in order to empower teachers to reflect critically on students' reactions to promote gender equity.

  1. Biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity: Impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Gordon, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Mackenzie W

    2018-04-01

    Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors. Multiple layers of evidence confirm that sexual orientation and gender identity are as biological, innate and immutable as the other traits conferred during that critical time in gestation. Negative social responses to diverse orientations or gender identities have caused marginalization of these individuals with resultant alienation from medical care, reduced self-care and reduced access to medical care. The increased risks for many diseases, including gynecologic cancers are reviewed. Gynecologic Oncologists can potentially create more effective healthcare relationships with their patients if they have this information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender differences in adolescent premarital sexual permissiveness in three Asian cities: effects of gender-role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Niu, Hongfeng; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this article investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents' premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP). In a collaborative survey conducted in 2006-2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei, 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15-24 years were recruited in the three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, with 6,204, 6,023, and 4,327 respondents from each city, respectively. All the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on PSP for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multilinear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes toward premarital sex than did females, with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents' gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and PSP was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender-role attitudes were

  3. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p < 0.0001). Social gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p < 0.0001). Syndemics were associated with sexual risk in TMSM who had socially affirmed their gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p < 0.001), but not among those TMSM who had not (aOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.63-1.19; p = 0.37). Findings suggest that syndemic pathways to sexual risk are similar for TMSM who have socially gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Gender Variance and Sexual Orientation Among Male Spirit Mediums in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eli; Allen, Mariette Pathy; Ford, Jessie V

    2018-05-01

    This article describes the gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation of male spirit mediums in Myanmar. Our analysis is based on ethnographic work, field observation, and 10 semi-structured interviews. These observations were conducted from 2010 to 2015, mostly in Mandalay, with some fieldwork in Yangon and Bagan. The focus of this investigation was specifically on achout (gender variant individuals) who were spirit mediums (nat kadaw). Semi-structured interviews explored the ways that participants understood their gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality in relation to their work as spirit mediums and broader social life. Myanmar remains quite a homophobic and transphobic culture but is undergoing rapid economic and social change. Therefore, it provides an interesting context to study how safe spaces are produced for sexual/gender minorities amidst broader social change. We find that, through the animistic belief structure, there is a growing space for gender nonconforming people, gender variant, and same-sex-oriented individuals (achout) to neutralize their stigmatized status and attain a level of respect and economic advantage. Their ability to become nat kadaw (mediums of spirits) mitigates or trumps their stigmatized status.

  5. Acculturation and sexuality: investigating gender differences in erotic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benuto, Lorraine; Meana, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The contention that women are more erotically plastic than men is supported by a significant body of data, from which it has been inferred (Baumeister, 2000) that female sexuality may be more flexible and more heavily influenced by contextual factors than that of men. As a direct test of erotic plasticity, the present study investigated the extent to which acculturation was associated differentially (as would be predicted by the theory of greater female erotic plasticity) with the sexual attitudes and experiences of 111 college men and 167 college women. For sexual attitudes, main effects were found for gender, acculturation level, and ethnicity. Women endorsed more conservative attitudes than men, less acculturated individuals endorsed more conservative sexual attitudes than the more acculturated group, and Asian Americans had the most conservative sexual attitudes. For sexual experience, a main effect was found for acculturation, with the more highly acculturated group reporting a greater variety of sexual experiences than the less acculturated group. There were no gender-by-acculturation interactions. This study thus did not find support for the theory of female erotic plasticity, insofar as the impact of acculturation on a sample of ethno-culturally diverse college students.

  6. North Carolina – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    North Carolina law provides virtually no protection for public employees against job discrimination on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation. No state-wide statute has been enacted in North Carolina to prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Also, little judicial or administrative action surrounding discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity in the employment context or otherwise appears to exist.

  7. [Influence of the sex and gender in the sexual behavior of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vega, Elena; Menéndez Robledo, Elena; García Fernández, Paula; Rico Fernández, Rosana

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between gender and sex with the sexual behavior of adolescents. The sample comprised 815 teenagers (M=15.65, Sd.=1.42). The assessment instruments were the BEM Sex Role Inventory, the Sexual Opinion Survey, the Questionnaire of Risk Perception of Bayés and a questionnaire designed for the study. The results revealed that the majority of adolescents do not match the traditional gender stereotypes, defining themselves as adrogynes (34.4%). The teenagers who are defined as adrogynes or masculine carry out more sexual behaviors, and who display more erotophilia. The need to include the variable "gender" as a category of analysis in research on sexual behavior is indicated.

  8. Sexual Self-Disclosure and Gender Consciousness of Undergraduate Students of Obafemi Awolowo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatosin, S. A.; Adediwura, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated gender consciousness and sexual self-disclosure of undergraduate students attending counseling sessions as well as gender difference in sexual self disclosure. Sixty (60) consenting undergraduates who had attended counseling session for sexual concerns in the last three months preceding this study period were used for the…

  9. Genders and sexualities in individuation: theoretical and clinical explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Gender assignment, as a key aspect of identity and cultural position, has existed throughout recorded time and across all cultures. An individual's biological sex and particular cultural milieu has a profound effect on their sense of themselves as a gendered being. Sexuality is a more recent marker in identity formation. In the last few decades there has emerged a great deal of interest in the psychology of gender formation, in the interplay of biological sex, culture, brain development, and attachment experiences in the formation of gender identities. Queer theory in its post-modern deconstructionist thinking has suggested that gender is a socially 'constructed' concept having no biological or psychological precursors or realities. Contemporary developmental psychoanalysis is bridging the gap between concepts of gender as purely biological and gender as non-existent. In this paper I explore the emergence of same-sex desire at mid-life, presenting two case histories with extensive dream material. The impact of sexual desire on gender identities is examined through the lenses of culture, dynamic systems theory, neuroscience, and depth psychology. The use of dream analysis as a window into the body/mind movement of gender emergence reflects my sense of gender as a fluidly shifting reality of mind, neither hardwired nor fictional.

  10. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  12. Gender/Racial Differences in Jock Identity, Dating, and Adolescent Sexual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Sabo, Don

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent declines in overall sexual activity, sexual risk-taking remains a substantial danger to US youth. Existing research points to athletic participation as a promising venue for reducing these risks. Linear regressions and multiple analyses of covariance were performed on a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 Western New York adolescents in order to examine gender- and race-specific relationships between “jock” identity and adolescent sexual risk-taking, including age of sexual onset, past-year and lifetime frequency of sexual intercourse, and number of sexual partners. After controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and family cohesion, male jocks reported more frequent dating than nonjocks but female jocks did not. For both genders, athletic activity was associated with lower levels of sexual risk-taking; however, jock identity was associated with higher levels of sexual risk-taking, particularly among African American adolescents. Future research should distinguish between subjective and objective dimensions of athletic involvement as factors in adolescent sexual risk. PMID:16429602

  13. Gender differences in perception of workplace sexual harassment among future professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Amitav; Sharma, Bhavana

    2011-01-01

    Background: Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Aim: Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study among th...

  14. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  15. Gender, sexuality, and HIV/AIDS: the what, the why, and the how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G R

    2000-01-01

    The focus of Geeta Rao Gupta's plenary presentation of 12 July 2000 at the XIII International AIDS Conference is on the what, why, and how of gender, sexuality, and HIV/AIDS. Dr Rao Gupta discusses the factors associated with women's vulnerability to HIV; and the ways in which unequal power balance in gender relations increases not only women's, but also men's, vulnerability to HIV-despite, or rather because of, their greater power. She then addresses the question of how one is to overcome the seemingly insurmountable barriers of gender and sexual inequality. How can we change the cultural norms that create damaging, even fatal, gender disparities and roles? According to Dr Rao Gupta, an important first step is to recognize, understand, and publicly discuss the ways in which the power imbalance in gender and sexuality fuels the epidemic. She provides examples of sensitive, transformative, and empowering approaches to gender and sexuality and concludes that, in the final analysis, reducing the imbalance in power between women and men requires policies that are designed to empower women--policies that aim to decrease the gender gap in education, improve women's access to economic resources, increase women's political participation, and protect women from violence.

  16. Gender identity and sexual orientation in women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devita; McMain, Shelley; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2011-02-01

    In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) (and earlier editions), a disturbance in "identity" is one of the defining features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Gender identity, a person's sense of self as a male or a female, constitutes an important aspect of identity formation, but this construct has rarely been examined in patients with BPD. In the present study, the presence of gender identity disorder or confusion was examined in women diagnosed with BPD. We used a validated dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Recalled gender identity and gender role behavior from childhood was also assessed with a validated dimensional measure, and current sexual orientation was assessed by two self-report measures. A consecutive series of 100 clinic-referred women (mean age, 34 years) with BPD participated in the study. The women were diagnosed with BPD using the International Personality Disorder Exam-BPD Section. None of the women with BPD met the criterion for caseness on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Women who self-reported either a bisexual or a homosexual sexual orientation had a significantly higher score on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria than the women who self-reported a heterosexual sexual orientation, and they also recalled significantly more cross-gender behavior during childhood. Results were compared with a previous study on a diagnostically heterogeneous group of women with other clinical problems. The importance of psychosexual assessment in the clinical evaluation of patients with BPD is discussed. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTIONS OF SEXUAL INTENT: A QUALITATIVE REVIEW AND INTEGRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Parkhill, Michele R.; George, William H.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2009-01-01

    Men appear to interpret people’s behaviors more sexually than do women. This finding, which has been replicated in scores of studies using a variety of methodological approaches, has been linked to important social concerns, including sexual assault and sexual harassment. This article provides a critical review of the published literature on gender differences in sexual intent perception, using selective examples to illustrate and summarize the field’s major constructs, methodologies, and empirical findings. Theoretical explanations for gender differences in sexual intent perceptions are reviewed. Finally, we highlight the field’s remaining issues and make several recommendations for future research directions. PMID:19763282

  18. Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    electoral violence in Kenya since the 1990s, the fact that a considerable part of that violence was gender and sexual in nature has gone largely unnoticed. The Nairobi Women's Hospital Gender Violence Recovery Center reports that between ...

  19. The molecular mechanisms of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Ristori, Jiska; Morelli, Girolamo; Maggi, Mario

    2018-05-15

    Differences between males and females are widely represented in nature. There are gender differences in phenotypes, personality traits, behaviors and interests, cognitive performance, and proneness to specific diseases. The most marked difference in humans is represented by sexual orientation and core gender identity, the origins of which are still controversial and far from being understood. Debates continue on whether sexual behavior and gender identity are a result of biological (nature) or cultural (nurture) factors, with biology possibly playing a major role. The main goal of this review is to summarize the studies available to date on the biological factors involved in the development of both sexual orientation and gender identity. A systematic search of published evidence was performed using Medline (from January 1948 to June 2017). Review of the relevant literature was based on authors' expertise. Indeed, different studies have documented the possible role and interaction of neuroanatomic, hormonal and genetic factors. The sexual dimorphic brain is considered the anatomical substrate of psychosexual development, on which genes and gonadal hormones may have a shaping effect. In particular, growing evidence shows that prenatal and pubertal sex hormones permanently affect human behavior. In addition, heritability studies have demonstrated a role of genetic components. However, a convincing candidate gene has not been identified. Future studies (e.i. genome wide studies) are needed to better clarify the complex interaction between genes, anatomy and hormonal influences on psychosexual development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Future Educators’ Gender Norms, Sexuality, and Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodoro J. Labrague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored gender-related norms, sexuality, and reproductive health among education students in a government university in Samar, Philippines. A descriptive-analytical design of study was adopted for this investigation and data were collected over a period of five months. Five hundred fifty (550 education students who were enrolled in the different year level completed the modified John Clelands’ Illustrative Questionnaire for Young People. Results indicated that 14.73% of the students reported having had early sexual experience where in 69.14 % had it unplanned. Among sexually active students, only 17.28% used contraception, with condoms and withdrawal as the most popular choices. Respondents were also found to have some misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS and STI’s. Result also showed that dating was still acceptable, however, the idea of abortion and sexual coercion were considered wrong. No significant differences in the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and STI’s and gender norms were found across year level. Findings suggest a greater need for education, support and advocacy relative to sexuality so as to create a more positive school environment conducive for holistic growth and development of all students. Thus, school administrators should improve/enhance existing policies and programs relative to reproductive health among college students of the University such as health promotion activities, sexuality education, counseling and alike.

  1. How do sexual harassment policies shape gender beliefs? An exploration of the moderating effects of norm adherence and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Justine E

    2013-09-01

    Sexual harassment laws have led to important organizational changes in the workplace yet research continues to document resistance to their implementation and backlash against the people who mobilize such laws. Employing experimental research methods, this study proposes and tests a theory specifying the mechanisms through which sexual harassment policies affect gender beliefs. The findings show evidence that sexual harassment policies strengthen unequal gender beliefs among men and women most committed to traditional gender interaction norms. I also find that men and women's different structural locations in the status hierarchy lead to different, but related sets of concerns about the status threats posed by sexual harassment policies. By specifying the social psychological processes through which sexual harassment law affects beliefs about men and women, this study sets the stage for investigating ways to make laws designed to reduce inequality between social groups more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa

    2017-04-01

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Building Capacity for Feminist Research in Africa : Gender, Sexuality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Capacity for Feminist Research in Africa : Gender, Sexuality and Politics. Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in African scholarship on the importance of understanding sexualities and on connecting this understanding to more relevant policy prescriptions so that African women can enjoy their ...

  4. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  5. Gendered sexuality: a new model and measure of attraction and intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Gilbert, Brenda O; Fischer, Ann R; Weston, Rebecca; DiLalla, David L

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the literature related to sexual orientation is ambiguous with regard to the relationship of sexual orientation, sexual identity, attraction, and intimacy. In order to explore the relationships of self-identified categorical sexual identity (which is the most popular method of sexual orientation assessment) with attraction and intimacy, it is imperative that researchers have access to a reliable and valid measure of the latter. The present study proposes a model for conceptualizing attraction and intimacy, termed gendered sexuality, and examines the factor structure of a measure designed to assess the construct. Results suggest that four factors adequately accounted for the variance in gendered sexuality in a large sample of young adults. These factors assess attraction to females, attraction to males, intimacy with females, and intimacy with males. Exploratory analyses provided preliminary evidence of potential construct validity and suggested that discrepancies between desired and available behavior predict dissatisfaction in interpersonal role as measured by the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2.

  6. Gender and sexual vulnerability of young women in Africa: experiences of young girls in secondary schools in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhanguzi, Florence Kyoheirwe

    2011-06-01

    Sexuality is part and parcel of students' experiences of schooling manifested in personal friendships, relations and social interaction. These encounters constitute sites within which sexual identities are developed, practiced and actively produced through processes of negotiation. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 14 selected secondary schools in Central and Western Uganda, the study illuminates gendered sexual vulnerability within patterns of social interaction and young girls gendered experiences and negotiation of their sexuality. The study reveals that through social and discursive practices, students construct complex gendered relations of domination and subordination that position boys and girls differently, often creating gender inequalities and sexual vulnerability for those gendered as girls. Girls' vulnerability is characterised by confusing and traumatic experiences fraught with double standards and silences. Typical of these experiences are complex tensions and contradictions surrounding constructions of sexuality that are predicated upon unequal power and gender relations characterised by homophobia, misogyny, control of female sexuality and sexual abuse and exploitation, all which work against girls' expression of sexuality. Gender sensitive sexuality education is identified as a valuable site of intervention to address such vulnerabilities and promote gender equality and equity in society.

  7. Impact of a program to diminish gender insensitivity and sexual harassment at a medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C D; Bergen, M R; Korn, D

    2000-05-01

    To measure the effect of an intervention to reduce gender insensitivity and sexual harassment at one medical school. Stanford University School of Medicine undertook a multifaceted program to educate faculty and students regarding gender issues and to diminish sexual harassment. The authors developed a survey instrument to assess the faculty's perceptions regarding environment (five scales) and incidences of sexual harassment. Faculty were surveyed twice during the interventions (1994 and 1995). Between the two years, the authors measured significant improvements in mean ratings for positive climate (p = .004) and cohesion (p = .006) and decreases in the faculty's perceptions of sexual harassment (p = 0006), gender insensitivity (p = .001), and gender discrimination (p = .004). The faculty also reported fewer observations of harassing behavior during the study period. An intervention program to diminish gender insensitivity and sexual harassment can measurably improve a medical school's environment.

  8. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  9. Gender-biased behavior at work: what can surveys tell us about the link between sexual harassment and gender discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Antecol, Heather; Barcus, Vanessa E.; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the links between survey-based reports of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. In particular, we are interested in assessing whether these concepts measure similar forms of gender-biased behavior and whether they have the same effect on workers' job satisfaction and intentions to leave their jobs. Our results provide little support for the notion that survey-based measures of sexual harassment and gender discrimination capture the same underlying behavior. Responde...

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  11. Gender and sexuality representations in spanish contemporary art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Albarrán Diego

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes a wide range of artistic manifestations related to non-standard sexualities represented in queer and feminist theoretical approaches included in well known texts. Three main branches of research, among many others, are suggested. These have been developed by various plastic artists who, in recent years, have proposed, with or without success, alternative ways to understand sexuality beyond the strict binary organization contained in the (antagonistic images of man/woman, heterosexual/homosexual, and masculine/feminine. Key words: Body, Gender, Identity; Queer, Sexuality.

  12. Priming in concert: Assimilation and contrast with multiple affective and gender primes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockenberg, D.A.; Koole, S.L.; Semin, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the influence of multiple sequential primes on social categorization processes. Study 1 examined an evaluative decision task in which targets were preceded and succeeded by two primes. As expected, the temporally closest forward primes had assimilative effects on

  13. Gender, sexuality, and violence in humanitarian crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier 'Gender and Development' approach and the 'Women, Peace, and Security Agenda', analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, 'gender' often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs and proposes a more relational approach to gender. It explores how the contributions to this special issue of Disasters revisit classic gender issues pertaining to violence, livelihoods, and institutions in different settings of humanitarian emergencies, while expanding one's vision beyond them. It draws from the seven papers a number of lessons for humanitarianism, concerning the entangled nature of gender relations, the risks of the unintended effects of gender programming, and the importance of paying sustained attention to how gender relations unfold in a time of crisis. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  14. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania’s 174,000 LGBT workers are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. While 33 Pennsylvania localities provide some protections, 69 percent of the state’s workforce could suffer discrimination without recourse based on their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. Pennsylvania teachers, factory workers and law enforcement officers have all faced workplace discrimination based on their sexual orientation or gender identity...

  15. Gender expression, sexual orientation and pain sensitivity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Lutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature investigating sex differences with regard to pain, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the influence of various aspects of self-identity, including gender expression and sexual orientation, on pain sensitivity within each sex, particularly among women. In men, dispositional femininity is linked to greater clinical pain and trait masculinity is associated with higher pain thresholds. To examine whether gender expression and sexual orientation are associated with within-sex differences in ischemic pain sensitivity in healthy young women. A convenience sample of 172 females (mean age 21.4 years; range 18 to 30 years of age; 56.0% white, 89% heterosexual) performed an ischemic pain task in counterbalanced order. Desired levels of dispositional femininity for a preferred romantic partner and self-described levels of personal dispositional femininity were measured. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbian and bisexual women reported lower pain intensity ratings early in the discomfort task. Irrespective of sexual orientation, attraction to more feminine romantic partners and dispositional masculinity were correlated with lower pain intensity, and with higher pain thresholds and tolerance levels. These preliminary findings suggest that within-sex differences in sexual orientation and other aspects of identity, irrespective of biological sex, may be important to consider when examining experimental pain performance and clinical pain experiences. Larger investigations of the psychophysiological relationships among sexual orientation, gender expression and pain sensitivity are warranted. These findings may have implications for differences in clinical pain sensitivity of lesbian and bisexual women compared with heterosexual women.

  16. Trajectories of dating violence: Differences by sexual minority status and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sexual minority status (as assessed using both identity and behavior) was associated with trajectories of dating violence. University students from a large Southwestern university completed questions on their sexual minority identity, the gender of their sexual partners, and about experiences of dating violence for six consecutive semesters (N = 1942). Latent growth curve modeling indicated that generally, trajectories of dating violence were stable across study participation. Sexual minority identity was associated with higher initial levels of dating violence at baseline, but also with greater decreases in dating violence across time. These differences were mediated by number of sexual partners. Having same and other-sex sexual partners was associated with higher levels of dating violence at baseline, and persisted in being associated with higher levels over time. No significant gender difference was observed regarding trajectories of dating violence. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Receptivity to sexual invitations from strangers of the opposite gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Hogh-Olesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the primary conclusion from Clark and Hatfield's often cited field experiment ``Consent to Sex with a Stranger'' that men agree to sexual invitations from moderately attractive strangers of the opposite gender more readily than women do. In addition, this study investigated...... whether rates of consent are influenced by a subject's age, relationship status, rating of confederate attractiveness, and type of sexual invitation. A number of moderately attractive confederates of the opposite gender individually approached 173 men and 216 women. After a standard introduction...

  18. Gender Moderates the Influence of Self-Construal Priming on Fairness Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinkenflogel, Nic; Novin, Sheida; Huizinga, Mariette; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Research in social and cultural psychology has identified that self-construal, or the way the self is defined in relation to others, plays an important role in social decision-making processes. Yet it remains difficult to isolate the effect of self-construal in a comparative approach. Therefore, we used priming methodology in three studies to induce either an independent or interdependent mindset to test direct consequences on fairness considerations. Specifically, we asked whether participants would accept an unfair ultimatum game offer: a split of 10 euros, where the participant is allocated the marginal share of 3 and the proposer 7. If the participant refuses, neither gets paid. In the first study, we used the well-known similarities and differences prime. Here, activating an interdependent mindset decreased rejection of the unfair offer compared to the independent mindset and control condition, but only in females. The prime did not affect males. In the second and third study we modified our university's mission statement to instead include either independent or interdependent values. Females displayed a similar direction of effects; in males however, activating an interdependent mindset increased rejection. Taken together, the results show that whether participants accept or reject an unfair offer depends on both their gender and the self-construal prime. The results were interpreted using the distinction between relational independence that has been associated with females, and collective interdependence, that has been associated with males. Possible consequences for future studies are discussed.

  19. Gender Moderates the Influence of Self-Construal Priming on Fairness Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinkenflogel, Nic; Novin, Sheida; Huizinga, Mariette; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Research in social and cultural psychology has identified that self-construal, or the way the self is defined in relation to others, plays an important role in social decision-making processes. Yet it remains difficult to isolate the effect of self-construal in a comparative approach. Therefore, we used priming methodology in three studies to induce either an independent or interdependent mindset to test direct consequences on fairness considerations. Specifically, we asked whether participants would accept an unfair ultimatum game offer: a split of 10 euros, where the participant is allocated the marginal share of 3 and the proposer 7. If the participant refuses, neither gets paid. In the first study, we used the well-known similarities and differences prime. Here, activating an interdependent mindset decreased rejection of the unfair offer compared to the independent mindset and control condition, but only in females. The prime did not affect males. In the second and third study we modified our university's mission statement to instead include either independent or interdependent values. Females displayed a similar direction of effects; in males however, activating an interdependent mindset increased rejection. Taken together, the results show that whether participants accept or reject an unfair offer depends on both their gender and the self-construal prime. The results were interpreted using the distinction between relational independence that has been associated with females, and collective interdependence, that has been associated with males. Possible consequences for future studies are discussed. PMID:28421019

  20. The Sexual Orientation and Gender Presentation of Hijra, Kothi, and Panthi in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Cultural categories related to sexuality and gender vary considerably cross-culturally. While Western cultures categorize people primarily in terms of sexual attractions (i.e., gay, straight, bisexual), many cultures distinguish between groups based on additional issues such as gender role presentation and position preference in anal sex (i.e., insertive/receptive). The current study gathered data on three categories of natal males in Mumbai, India-hijra, kothi, and panthi (N = 93). Hijra are androphilic (sexually attracted to adult men), typically sexually receptive, transgender, sometimes castrated, and live in fictive kinship networks that are hierarchically organized. Kothi are also androphilic, typically sexual receptive and relatively feminine but less so than hijra; unlike hijra, kothi are never castrated. Hijra and kothi were understood by some participants to be mutually compatible, and so three groups were identified-those endorsing hijra only (n = 11), kothi only (n = 22), and both hijra and kothi (n = 22). Panthi (n = 38) are the masculine insertive partners of hijra and kothi. Measures employed were self-report and viewing time measures of sexual attraction, sexual behavior and position preference, self-described masculinity/femininity, recalled childhood gender atypicality, gendered occupational preferences, and gender presentation milestones (i.e., wearing female clothes, castration). All hijra and kothi groups were found to be exclusively androphilic in viewing time and self-reported sexual attractions, and to be gender-atypical on all measures. Panthi were found to be relatively male-typical and to have a bisexual pattern of viewing time and self-reported sexual attractions. Kothi were found to be less extreme in their female typicality and to report less female gender presentation milestones than hijra or hijra/kothi. Most hijra and hijra/kothi and all kothi said that they were not castrated. Contrary to the manner in which they are

  1. Gender differences in student attitudes towards sexual appeals in print advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Klug

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexuality is a widely used appeal in advertising today. The aim of this research was to establish whether or not this form of advertising connects with South African students and whether gender differences existed. A triangulated research design with data collected in focus groups, was used. The findings generally indicated negative attitudes towards sexual appeals in advertising. The main difference in gender responses was that males responded more negatively to adverts that contained male models as opposed to female models, whereas, women responded in similar ways regardless of the gender of the model.

  2. History, Gender, Sexuality and Women's Development in the Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global South-Africa in general and Nigeria in particular, is a continent grappling with forces which are anti-development, yet the continent is yearning for development at all levels of human endeavour. Some of these forces are the issue of gender, sexuality, women development, affirmative action, and gender ...

  3. Changing hearts and minds: Results from a multi-country gender and sexual diversity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Park, Chulwoo; Solares, Diego; Williams, John K; Wolf, R Cameron; Metheny, Noah; Vazzano, Andrea; Dent, Juan; Gibbs, Ashley; Nonyane, Bareng Aletta Sanny; Toiv, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Engaging key populations, including gender and sexual minorities, is essential to meeting global targets for reducing new HIV infections and improving the HIV continuum of care. Negative attitudes toward gender and sexual minorities serve as a barrier to political will and effective programming for HIV health services. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003, provided Gender and Sexual Diversity Trainings for 2,825 participants including PEPFAR staff and program implementers, U.S. government staff, and local stakeholders in 38 countries. The outcomes of these one-day trainings were evaluated among a subset of participants using a mixed methods pre- and post-training study design. Findings suggest that sustainable decreases in negative attitudes toward gender and sexual minorities are achievable with a one-day training.

  4. Changing hearts and minds: Results from a multi-country gender and sexual diversity training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Poteat

    Full Text Available Engaging key populations, including gender and sexual minorities, is essential to meeting global targets for reducing new HIV infections and improving the HIV continuum of care. Negative attitudes toward gender and sexual minorities serve as a barrier to political will and effective programming for HIV health services. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, established in 2003, provided Gender and Sexual Diversity Trainings for 2,825 participants including PEPFAR staff and program implementers, U.S. government staff, and local stakeholders in 38 countries. The outcomes of these one-day trainings were evaluated among a subset of participants using a mixed methods pre- and post-training study design. Findings suggest that sustainable decreases in negative attitudes toward gender and sexual minorities are achievable with a one-day training.

  5. A meta-analytic review of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, M; Nguyen, D H; Sackett, P R

    2001-10-01

    Research on gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment informs an ongoing legal debate regarding the use of a reasonable person standard instead of a reasonable woman standard to evaluate sexual harassment claims. The authors report a meta-analysis of 62 studies of gender differences in harassment perceptions. An earlier quantitative review combined all types of social-sexual behaviors for a single meta-analysis; the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the female-male difference varies by type of behavior. An overall standardized mean difference of 0.30 was found, suggesting that women perceive a broader range of social-sexual behaviors as harassing. However, the meta-analysis also found that the female-male difference was larger for behaviors that involve hostile work environment harassment, derogatory attitudes toward women, dating pressure, or physical sexual contact than sexual propositions or sexual coercion.

  6. The importance of feeling sexually attractive: Can it predict an individual's experience of their sexuality and sexual relationships across gender and sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2017-10-01

    Limited research exists on the implications of feeling sexually attractive for various aspects of sexuality and sexual relationships. This article examined associations between self-perceived sexual attractiveness and sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction and amount of sexual experience, among both men and women who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225) or bisexual (n = 651). Results of the study demonstrated that positive self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness predicted greater sexual esteem, greater sexual satisfaction, a higher frequency of sexual activity with others and a larger number of sexual partners among both men and women who identified as heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual. The findings suggest that feeling sexually attractive may have implications for how an individual experiences their sexuality and sexual relationships regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. The importance of considering an individual's self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness when they present with concerns related to their sexual experiences or relationships, and the potential benefits of educational and therapeutic interventions designed to enhance self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Gender-atypical personality or sexual behavior: What is disgusting about male homosexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, T Andrew; Sackett-Fox, Kyrsten

    2018-01-15

    Research consistently finds that homosexuality elicits strong feelings of disgust, but the reasons remain unclear. In the current research, we investigate responses to gay men who violate social norms governing the expression of gender and sexuality. Two hundred forty-three college undergraduates read a vignette about a gay male college student whose personality traits (masculine, feminine, or neutral) and sexual behavior (active vs. passive) varied and reported their affective responses to and cognitive appraisals of the target. The gay target who displayed a feminine personality elicited more disgust and was perceived as lower in gender role conformity than a gay man who displayed a masculine personality. Similarly, the gay target who assumed a passive sex role elicited more disgust and was perceived as lower in gender role conformity than a gay man who assumed an active sex role. The sexual behavior/disgust relationship was mediated by perceived gender role conformity.

  8. Elevated Risk of Posttraumatic Stress in Sexual Minority Youths: Mediation by Childhood Abuse and Gender Nonconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods. We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions. Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths. PMID:22698034

  9. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta-Susan Donges

    Full Text Available There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  10. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  11. Gender and Sexual Health: Care of Transgender Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayon, Ronni

    2016-10-01

    Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals experience significant health disparities. They are more likely to use drugs and alcohol, smoke, be diagnosed with HIV infection or other sexually transmitted infections, and experience depression or attempt suicide. Many also experience discrimination within the health care system. Office-level strategies to create a safe and affirming space for gender-expansive patients include posting of a nondiscrimination statement, use of intake forms that ask about current gender identity and birth-assigned sex, provision of gender-neutral restrooms, and staff training in use of appropriate language. Hormone or surgical therapy can be initiated for patients with persistent gender dysphoria who are of age and have the capacity to make informed decisions, and have reasonable control of coexisting medical and psychiatric conditions. Estrogens, antiandrogens, and progestins are used for feminization, and testosterone for masculinization. Hormone treatment should be followed by careful monitoring for potential adverse effects. Surgical options include male-to-female and female-to-male procedures. The family physician may need to provide a referral letter, preoperative and postoperative examinations and care, and advocacy with health insurance providers. Preventive care for transgender patients includes counseling for cardiovascular health, cancer screening, provision of appropriate contraception, and screening for sexually transmitted infections. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  12. Impact of gender on reactions to military sexual assault and harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Margret E; Turchik, Jessica A; Karpenko, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that experiences ofmilitary sexual assault and harassment can have a negative impact on veterans' health and functioning, even years or decades later, thus clearly identifying this as an important area of concern for social workers. In addition to understanding the scope and general impact of military sexual assault and harassment, social workers also must thoroughly understand how different cultural factors may intersect with veterans' experiences. To this end, this article reviews the current knowledge base on how veterans' life experiences related to gender can affect their experience of and recovery from military sexual assault and harassment, highlights common gender-specific issues, and discusses implications for practice.

  13. Examining aging sexual stigma attitudes among adults by gender, age, and generational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Maggie L; Cohn, Tracy J

    2016-01-01

    Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N = 962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 years). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting 'other' gender. Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs.

  14. Fame Factory: Performing Gender and Sexuality in Talent Reality Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillevi Ganetz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how gender and sexuality are performed in a highly feminised cultural symbolic context. The object of study is a reality show where the contestants compete in mainstream popular music. Fame Factory is a Swedish talent-hunt television series with many similarities to Pop Idol. The audience may follow the struggle of the young artists off stage in the ‘Fame School’ in addition to seeing and voting on their feats on stage. In the Fame School they learn to sing, perform and dance, but also to perform masculinity, femininity and sexuality, even if this is not explicit. Through an analysis of some key episodes of this reality show, the article discusses how gender and sexuality are produced and reproduced within this music television context. It is shown how the performances rest on highly traditional conceptions of these categories, but there are also certain transgressions, especially concerning sexuality, which undermine hegemonic structures.

  15. Schools: A Missed Opportunity to Inform African American Sexual and Gender Minority Youth about Sexual Health Education and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are at disproportionate risk for HIV. Schools play an integral role in educating young people about sexual health in addition to providing sexual health services. This qualitative study examined SGM youths' perception of school sexual health education and services. A total of 42 self-identified African…

  16. Cognitive representations of sexual self differ as a function of gender and sexual debut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Schacht, Rebecca L; Mullins, Peter M; Blayney, Jessica A

    2011-02-01

    This research evaluated the association between gender and sexual debut (initial sexual intercourse) and indirect measures of sexuality. A sample of 440 U.S. college students (pre-sexual debut: 144 women, 153 men; post-sexual debut: 49 women, 94 men) completed the Sexual Self-Schema Scale (SSSS), which assessed cognitive representations about sexual aspects of oneself, and three Implicit Association Tests (IAT), which measured the strength of the associations between the concepts of self + sex, women + sex, and men + sex. Results replicated previous findings that (1) men more strongly associated self + sex and women + sex than did women, and (2) men and women had similarly strong associations of men + sex. Post-sexual debut women's self + sexual and women + sexual associations were stronger than pre-sexual debut women's. Men's associations did not differ significantly as a function of sexual debut. Post-sexual debut women's SSSS scores were more direct, more romantic, and less conservative than pre-sexual debut women's. Post-sexual debut men's SSSS scores were more aggressive and more open-minded than pre-sexual debut men's. Sexual debut appeared to be associated with sexualized and sexually liberal cognitive representations in women and, to a lesser extent, sexually liberal and aggressive cognitive representations in men. Findings were consistent with theories of cognitive consistency and provide preliminary evidence that sexual debut status was associated with differing cognitive representations.

  17. Analysing Resistance of Stereotyped Sexuality via ‘Gender Performance’ in The Silk Fan and Under the Blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Soleha binti Mohd Noor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies had shown that gender stereotyping is still evident in contemporary Malaysian English literature particularly in novels. By using the concepts of ‘gender performance’ and ‘performativity’ introduced by Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble (1990, the current study aims to prove that there is an act of resistance among the new generations/contemporary Malaysian writers against the gender norms placed on sexuality. These writers resisted the norms by performing “gender trouble” through the construction of their characters’ gender identity. Two short stories are selected from 25 Malaysian Short Stories: Best of Silverfish New Writing 2001 – 2005 as the scope of the study to answer these questions; (a what are the stereotyped ‘gender performances’ of the characters’ sexuality in the two selected short stories?, and (b how do contemporary Malaysian writers resist stereotyped sexuality using ‘gender performance’ in their writings? The study found that the selected characters from the short story The Silk Fan and Under the Blanket, do perform “gender trouble” in resisting gender expectations on their sexuality. Thus, based on the results of this study, it is hoped that the misconceptions on gender and the conventional way of thinking about sexuality and gender in Malaysian society can be somewhat liberated.

  18. Human identity versus gender identity: The perception of sexual addiction among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtagh, Mozhgan; Mirlashari, Jila; Rafiey, Hassan; Azin, Ali; Farnam, Robert

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore the images of personal identity from the perspective of women with sexual addiction. The data required for the study were collected through 31 in-depth interviews. Sensing a threat to personal identity, dissatisfaction with gender identity, dissociation with the continuum of identity, and identity reconstruction in response to threat were four of the experiences that were common among women with sexual addiction. Painful emotional experiences appear to have created a sense of gender and sexual conflict or weakness in these women and thus threatened their personal identity and led to their sexual addiction.

  19. Ending sexual and gender-based violence: from knowledge to action

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... speak out and share common experiences had a significant impact on the psychological recovery and emotional well-being of these women. Read about what IDRC grantees are doing to challenge impunity against sexual violence in our brochure, Ending sexual and gender-based violence in English, French or Spanish ...

  20. Gender bias against and sexual harassment of AMWA members in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, S A; Klein, F; Falcao, P; Phelan, E; Smith, K

    1991-01-01

    Despite the increasing participation of women in medicine over the past few decades, hindrances to professional advancement for women physicians and medical students persist. The present study sought to assess the prevalence of gender bias and sexual harassment in a sample of women physicians and medical students. Within a one-year period, 54% of respondents encountered some form of sex discrimination. In addition, approximately one-fourth experienced sexual harassment (27%) and/or discrimination related to parenthood (24%). Unwanted sexual attention not viewed as sexual harassment was experienced by more than twice as many respondents (55%). Other forms of discrimination were reported as well: age (22%), sexual preference (20%), and race (7%). Perceptions of the extent of sex discrimination and sexual harassment, of their impact on professional commitment, and of the adequacy of solutions at institutions varied directly with whether or not respondents had experienced some form of employment discrimination within the past 12 months. This study points to the need for clarification of what constitutes sexual harassment and for the creation of safe, effective mechanisms to remedy and prevent all forms of gender bias.

  1. Staff attitudes towards sexuality in relation to gender of people with intellectual disability: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-12-01

    Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using thematic analysis. Results indicated 3 themes: Women are perceived as sexually innocent, men as more sexually motivated, and motivations for sexual relationships are perceived to differ between men and women with ID. The study indicates unfavourable attitudes towards sexuality in individuals with ID that correlate with traditional, restricted gender stereotypes. The identification of these themes highlights the importance of considering gender when supporting the sexuality of people with ID.

  2. Gender differences in heterosexual college students' conceptualizations and indicators of sexual consent: implications for contemporary sexual assault prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.

  3. Associations of Sexual Victimization, Depression, and Sexual Assertiveness with Unprotected Sex: A Test of the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk Across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokoff, Patricia J.; Redding, Colleen A.; Harlow, Lisa L.; Cho, Sookhyun; Rossi, Joseph S.; Meier, Kathryn S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl; Brown-Peterside, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk (MMOHR) would predict unprotected sex based on predictors including gender, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), sexual victimization (SV), depression, and sexual assertiveness for condom use. A community-based sample of 473 heterosexually active men and women, aged 18–46 years completed survey measures of model variables. Gender predicted several variables significantly. A separate model for women demonstrated excellent fit, while the model for men demonstrated reasonable fit. Multiple sample model testing supported the use of MMOHR in both men and women, while simultaneously highlighting areas of gender difference. Prevention interventions should focus on sexual assertiveness, especially for CSA and SV survivors, as well as targeting depression, especially among men. PMID:25018617

  4. Sexual Self-Descriptions and Gender Stereotypes in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Fernández Liporace

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents partial results from a study carried out to analyze the way young college students self-describe their sexual behavior in relation with sex. Data show significant differences in certain adjectives, linked with traditional roles assigned to women and men in sexual relationships; an additional comparison with results about gender sterotypes reported by Williams & Best (1994 is made. A survey on sociodemographic data and a list of 70 adjectives that describe sexual behaviors were administered to a sample of 248 college students from Buenos Aires city and its suburban area.

  5. Child Sexual Behaviors in School Context: Age and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.

  6. Gender identity rather than sexual orientation impacts on facial preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Cellerino, Alessandro; Fisher, Alessandra D; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Valenzano, Dario R; Mennucci, Andrea; Bandini, Elisa; Di Stasi, Savino M; Maggi, Mario; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2014-10-01

    Differences in facial preferences between heterosexual men and women are well documented. It is still a matter of debate, however, how variations in sexual identity/sexual orientation may modify the facial preferences. This study aims to investigate the facial preferences of male-to-female (MtF) individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) and the influence of short-term/long-term relationships on facial preference, in comparison with healthy subjects. Eighteen untreated MtF subjects, 30 heterosexual males, 64 heterosexual females, and 42 homosexual males from university students/staff, at gay events, and in Gender Clinics were shown a composite male or female face. The sexual dimorphism of these pictures was stressed or reduced in a continuous fashion through an open-source morphing program with a sequence of 21 pictures of the same face warped from a feminized to a masculinized shape. An open-source morphing program (gtkmorph) based on the X-Morph algorithm. MtF GD subjects and heterosexual females showed the same pattern of preferences: a clear preference for less dimorphic (more feminized) faces for both short- and long-term relationships. Conversely, both heterosexual and homosexual men selected significantly much more dimorphic faces, showing a preference for hyperfeminized and hypermasculinized faces, respectively. These data show that the facial preferences of MtF GD individuals mirror those of the sex congruent with their gender identity. Conversely, heterosexual males trace the facial preferences of homosexual men, indicating that changes in sexual orientation do not substantially affect preference for the most attractive faces. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Spontaneous Gender Categorization in Masking and Priming Studies: Key for Distinguishing Jane from John Doe but Not Madonna from Sinatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ruth; Khurana, Beena

    2012-01-01

    Facial recognition is key to social interaction, however with unfamiliar faces only generic information, in the form of facial stereotypes such as gender and age is available. Therefore is generic information more prominent in unfamiliar versus familiar face processing? In order to address the question we tapped into two relatively disparate stages of face processing. At the early stages of encoding, we employed perceptual masking to reveal that only perception of unfamiliar face targets is affected by the gender of the facial masks. At the semantic end; using a priming paradigm, we found that while to-be-ignored unfamiliar faces prime lexical decisions to gender congruent stereotypic words, familiar faces do not. Our findings indicate that gender is a more salient dimension in unfamiliar relative to familiar face processing, both in early perceptual stages as well as later semantic stages of person construal. PMID:22389697

  8. Gender differences in pathways from child physical and sexual abuse to adolescent risky sexual behavior among high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Dawson

    Full Text Available Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women's gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men's attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men's initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women's were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems.

  10. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha J.; Chivers, Meredith L.

    2016-01-01

    Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women’s gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men’s attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men’s initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women’s were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems. PMID:27088358

  11. The Impact of Sexual of Orientation and Gender Expression Bias on African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majied, Kamilah F.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses sexual orientation and gender expression bias as they impact the educational experience of African American students. Sexual orientation and gender expression bias have a unique presentation in Black educational settings. The climate in such settings can be metagrobolized by the combination of distorted notions of Black…

  12. Missing data in substance abuse research? Researchers' reporting practices of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Bacca, Cristina L; Cochran, Bryan N

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term "substance abuse" and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Participants' sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Missing data in substance abuse research? Researchers’ reporting practices of sexual orientation and gender identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacca, Cristina L.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. Method The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term “substance abuse” and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Results Participants’ sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Conclusions Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. PMID:25496705

  14. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-07-01

    Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. Impact of environment upon gender identity and sexual orientation: a lesson for parents of children with intersex or gender confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2005-07-01

    Two histories of physically normal men with persistent gender issues highlight the major impact played by parental input on the sexual and gender development of children. Both men had been subjected to firm, harsh behavior modification by their parents, particularly their mothers, during childhood in response to effeminate behavior. While both men continue to manifest major gender/sexual issues as adults, their outcomes have been dramatically different. The first man takes female hormones and denies any satisfaction from his sexuality. This individual remains convinced that he has female internal sexual organs and monthly internal menstrual bleeding. Although he has a career, he has become alienated from his family and is a social cripple. The second man has a successful career, lives a heterosexual life with his children and wife of 20 years and is involved in his community. He is visually attracted to men and remains obsessed with male pornography. This individual credits his mother with directing him toward a successful heterosexual life, which he feels has prevented the emotional burden of an active homosexual life. These two cases illustrate the tremendous influence played by environment and parental input on the sexual perspectives of developing children.

  16. Preparing Teachers to Deliver Gender-Focused Sexuality/HIV Education: A Case Study from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susan Y.; Rogow, Deborah; Stines, Frederica

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that a focus on gender and power in sexuality/HIV education increases the likelihood of achieving positive sexual health outcomes, and international agencies have called for a shift to a gender-focused approach. However, questions remain about the implementation of such programmes, including how best to prepare teachers to deliver…

  17. An exploration of sexual minority stress across the lines of gender and sexual identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Brallier, Sara A

    2009-01-01

    Despite growing evidence to suggest that gays, lesbians, and bisexuals experience a range of stressors and consequences related to their sexual minority status, no known studies to date have employed focus group discussion to explore and document their perceptions of sexual minority stress. In this exploratory study, we present focus group data on a range of sexual minority stressors as described by 43 gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women. We explore gender and sexual identity differences in the respondents' perceptions of heteronormativity, disclosure issues in different social settings, sources of support, and strategies for coping with stress. Respondents reported that women's same-sex relationships were eroticized and distorted to accommodate heterosexual male desire, while men were negatively depicted as sexually promiscuous and deviant. These differing stereotypes held important consequences for disclosure decisions and affected men's and women's social interactions with heterosexual men. Bisexual respondents reported unique strategies to cope with exclusion and isolation associated with misunderstandings about their sexual identities. Directions for future research on sexual minority stress are discussed.

  18. Ukubhinya : Gender and Sexual Violence in Bulawayo, Colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Ukubhinya: Gender and Sexual Violence in Bulawayo, Colonial Zimbabwe, 1946-1956. Koni Benson, Joyce Chadya. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 108-133. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  19. The case for addressing gender and power in sexuality and HIV education: a comprehensive review of evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Nicole A

    2015-03-01

    Curriculum-based sexuality and HIV education is a mainstay of interventions to prevent STIs, HIV and unintended pregnancy among young people. Evidence links traditional gender norms, unequal power in sexual relationships and intimate partner violence with negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, little attention has been paid to analyzing whether addressing gender and power in sexuality education curricula is associated with better outcomes. To explore whether the inclusion of content on gender and power matters for program efficacy, electronic and hand searches were conducted to identify rigorous sexuality and HIV education evaluations from developed and developing countries published between 1990 and 2012. Intervention and study design characteristics of the included interventions were disaggregated by whether they addressed issues of gender and power. Of the 22 interventions that met the inclusion criteria, 10 addressed gender or power, and 12 did not. The programs that addressed gender or power were five times as likely to be effective as those that did not; fully 80% of them were associated with a significantly lower rate of STIs or unintended pregnancy. In contrast, among the programs that did not address gender or power, only 17% had such an association. Addressing gender and power should be considered a key characteristic of effective sexuality and HIV education programs.

  20. Bullying, Physical Aggression, Gender-Atypicality, and Sexual Orientation in Samoan Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyna, Scott W; Vasey, Paul L

    2017-07-01

    Bullying is characterized by the repeated attempts of a group or individual to gain social advantage by the use of relational, verbal, or physical aggression against a target, especially when there is a perceived or actual power imbalance (Espelage & Swearer, 2003). One consistent finding is that gay (i.e., androphilic) males report higher rates of victimization due to bullying in adolescence than their heterosexual (i.e., gynephilic) counterparts. Western data indicate that gender-atypical behavior, regardless of sexual orientation, is a key predictor of victimization due to bullying. Androphilic males generally display childhood gender-atypicality, including reduced levels of physical aggression, which may cause bullies to perceive them as "easy" targets. In order to test the associations between sexual orientation, childhood gender-atypicality, and recalled victimization due to bullying, a sample of Samoan gynephilic men (n = 100) were compared to a group of Samoan transgender androphilic males (n = 103), known as fa'afafine. Although the fa'afafine reported far more childhood gender-atypicality, the two groups did not differ significantly on measures of physical aggression or their reported rates of victimization due to bullying. Additionally, greater physical aggression, not gender-atypicality, was the only significant predictor of being bullied in both men and fa'afafine. These results suggest that there is nothing inherent in sexual orientation or childhood gender-atypicality that would potentiate victimization from bullying. Instead, the cultural context in which a bully functions influences the extent to which these are "acceptable" reasons to target certain individuals.

  1. Tobacco Denormalization as a Public Health Strategy: Implications for Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antin, Tamar M J; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Although the population-level success of tobacco denormalization is widely accepted, it remains unclear whether these strategies alleviate health inequities for sexual and gender minorities. The high risk of smoking among sexual and gender minorities together with research that documents a relationship between stigma-related processes and smoking prevalence for these groups raises questions about whether tobacco-related stigma intensifies the disadvantages associated with the stigmas of other social identities. We have not adequately considered how tobacco-related stigma overlaps with other social identity stigmas. Given concerns about the intensification of inequality, this type of inquiry has important implications for understanding both the effectiveness and limitations of tobacco denormalization strategies for sexual and gender minorities and identifying those tobacco prevention, treatment, and public health policies that work to ameliorate health inequities.

  2. Gender expression, sexual orientation and pain sensitivity in women

    OpenAIRE

    Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Lutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite a growing body of literature investigating sex differences with regard to pain, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the influence of various aspects of self-identity, including gender expression and sexual orientation, on pain sensitivity within each sex, particularly among women. In men, dispositional femininity is linked to greater clinical pain and trait masculinity is associated with higher pain thresholds.OBJECTIVES: To examine whether gender expression...

  3. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  4. Patient perspectives on answering questions about sexual orientation and gender identity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Bockting, Walter; Dowding, Dawn W

    2017-07-01

    To examine patients' perceptions of being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Health disparities exist in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population, but further research is needed to better understand these disparities. To address this issue, experts recommend the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in health care. Nurses on the front line of patient care play a key role in the collection of these data. However, to enable nurses to conduct such assessments it is important to understand the perspective of the patients on being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in a healthcare setting. An integrative review was conducted using the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005, 52, 546). Six electronic databases were searched, and two reviewers independently reviewed papers for inclusion. Papers were included if they were empirical studies, peer-reviewed papers or reports, assessing patient perspectives on discussing sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Twenty-one relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. A majority of the studies indicated patients' willingness to respond to, and a perceived importance of, questions about sexual orientation and gender identity. However, fears of homophobia and negative consequences hindered willingness to disclose this information. This review indicates that in most cases patients are willing to answer routine questions about their sexual orientation in the healthcare setting and perceive them as important questions to ask. The findings of this review have implications for nurses looking to incorporate questions about sexual orientation into their routine patient assessment. The findings indicate that care providers need to be mindful of heteronormative assumptions and take steps to ensure they are knowledgeable about lesbian, gay

  5. Gender and sexuality of people with mental disorders in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Almeida Guimarães Barbosa

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to understand the ways of living and thinking about sexuality of people with mental disorders. Open interviews were conducted with men and women in public mental health services in Brazil. Transcrips were examined based on the proposal of sexual scripts. Major imbalances coming from conceptions of masculinity and femininity in society were identified in the sexual scripts experienced by these men and women. Interviewees have little pleasure in their sexual lives, with recurrent complaints of sexual abuse, even by steady partners; prejudice; and lack of affection in their relationships. Additionally, they were found to have few self-care skills concerning sexual health, in a context marked by social exclusion. The results showed the need to promote sexual health as a human right, and fight gender stereotypes, which cause so much damage to the sexual health of people with mental disorders.

  6. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J; De Graaf, H; Begeer, S

    2017-09-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relationship (heterosexual in most cases) and most of them lived with their partner. A notable number of autistic participants, again more women than men, reported gender non-conforming feelings. Attention to gender identity and sexual diversity in education and clinical work with people with ASD is advised.

  7. Impact of Extending Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Nondiscrimination Requirements to Federal Contractors

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2012-01-01

    A federal executive order that would require contractors to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity would protect up to 16.5 million more workers than are already protected by state or private anti-discrimination policies. Currently, state laws or private voluntary policies already protect 61% of federal contractor employees from sexual orientation discrimination and 41% from gender identity discrimination. Research also suggests an executive order would not di...

  8. Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction in a Rapidly Changing Cultural Environment: Addressing Gender Equality versus Equivalence in the Bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Marianne; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    The socio-sexual climate in Western cultures is changing at an astounding rate. Never before have societal expectations about gender roles shifted so radically, transforming our understanding of what it means to be a sexual man or woman today. We have observed that confusion regarding masculine and feminine roles within long-term committed relationships can represent challenges for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Despite the relevance to sexual medicine, sexual medicine specialists have largely avoided this controversial topic. To review the current literature relating to heterosexual gender roles and sexual intimacy, to offer perspective and context on this issue, and to propose an approach to the man, woman, or couple based in evolutionary theory that we have found useful in our extensive clinical experiences. We reviewed the English-language peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 through 2015, that addressed the impact of heterosexual gender role expression on sexual intimacy in long-term committed relationships. Main outcomes include a review of the applicable literature and an assessment of the literature's relevance for patients and practitioners of sexual medicine. An alternative context for understanding heterosexual gender expression grounded in evolutionary theory is provided, as is a new treatment perspective based on our work as a sex therapist and an urologist. The impact of gender expression on sexual experience might be impossible to ascertain fully because it is difficult to quantify in research, independently and especially in combination. Furthermore, existing research is fraught with challenges and inadequacies. Although we acknowledge and affirm the critical importance of gender equality, modern conceptualizations of gender in the literature ignore pertinent evolutionary adaptations and might be minimally applicable to sexual medicine patients. More research is needed. We propose that equality of genders does not necessarily mean

  9. Sexuality behind bars in the female central penitentiary of Santiago, Chile: Unlocking the gendered binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Madariaga, Francisca Alejandra; Gómez Garcés, Belén Estefanía; Carrasco Parra, Alicia; Foster, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We explore what it means to promote healthy sexuality for incarcerated women. We report upon the experiences of ten inmates in the Female Central Penitentiary of Santiago, Chile, regarding their sexuality within prison. We used a qualitative, descriptive research approach. Individual and semistructured interviews were conducted with women from different sections of the prison over a 2-month period. Participants highlighted the site for conjugal visits, the Venusterio, as a place of privacy and sexual expression between couples from outside prison. Motivated by loneliness, need of protection, and desire for affection, participants enacted alternate gender and sexual identities and sexual orientation. Some previously heterosexual women became 'machos', women taking on dominant masculine identities. Women found a paradoxical freedom to express a malleable and fluid sexual identity, an identity that might not go outside the prison. Informed by Judith Butler's idea of performativity, we argue that women could enact both different gender and sexual identities in search of satisfying their affective and erotic desires while under the duress of incarceration. The findings suggest a need for a more fluid understanding of gender and sexuality, especially for those midwives and nurses who strive to promote sexual health, not only reproductive health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 76 FR 4193 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs-Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Gender Identity; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 15 / Monday, January 24, 2011...--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Proposed... individuals and families regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. DATES: Comment Due Date: March...

  11. The fragility of Sexual and Gender Dichotomies in the Thought of Paul B. Preciado

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-Vicent, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Contra-Sexuality is a term which opens a lot of questions but has limited certainties. Nevertheless, the aim of this essay is not to achieve absolute truths. On the contrary, the aim is to interrogate the truths of gender through the Preciado’s Philosophy. This essay focus on the Contra-Sexuality term and its subversive nature in heteronormative society. An approach to this concept will allow us to use the dildo to reveal the plasticity of bodies, sexes and genders, in a new world with sexual...

  12. Gender differences in evaluating social-sexual conduct in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, L E; Wiener, R L; Russell, B L; Mannen, R K

    1999-01-01

    Qualitative interviews exploring gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment were conducted with 100 full-time St. Louis area employees. Women more than men reported that telling dirty/sexual jokes was a non-harassing behavior, qualified behaviors as harassing when they happened in the workplace, and considered behaviors as non-harassing when the man's intentions were not harmful. Men more than women reported that requesting a date was a non-harassing behavior, qualified behaviors as harassing when the woman did not welcome the behavior, and considered behaviors as non-harassing when they did not violate workplace norms. Logistic regression analysis predicted the respondent gender with 86% accuracy. Finally, concept mapping suggested that when women think about harassers they are concerned with power and social aptitude, while men seem to be more concerned about the responsibility and psychological adjustment of perpetrators of sexual harassment. When women think about victims of harassment they are concerned with a woman's assertiveness and work effectiveness, while men are more concerned with the psychological state of the woman and how provocative she is when they think about victims of sexual harassment. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to…

  14. Gender harmony and the happy family: Islam, gender and sexuality in post-Reformasi Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    A renewed global emphasis on 'traditional culture' threatens progress in women's and sexual rights. This article focuses on Indonesia, where concepts such as 'gender harmony' and 'the happy (Muslim) family' have become state policy and where neo-Salafism is gaining ground. Indonesia's first

  15. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers′ constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers’ constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers’ drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. PMID:24443822

  16. Kenyan Religious Leaders' Views on Same-Sex Sexuality and Gender Nonconformity: Religious Freedom versus Constitutional Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbote, David Kuria; Sandfort, Theo G M; Waweru, Esther; Zapfel, Andrew

    Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country's specific context. A total of 212 Catholic, Islamic, and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire specifically developed for this study. The leaders' perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. A substantial minority (37%) endorsed the use of violence for maintaining social values, especially regarding homosexuality and gender nonconformity. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in Kenya's Constitution were considered to be applicable to sexual and gender minorities. Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one's religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders' mind-sets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities.

  17. Kenyan Religious Leaders’ Views on Same-Sex Sexuality and Gender Nonconformity: Religious Freedom versus Constitutional Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbote, David Kuria; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Waweru, Esther; Zapfel, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country’s specific context. Two hundred and twelve Catholic, Islam and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire, specifically developed for this study. The leaders’ perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. A substantial minority (37%) endorsed the use of violence for maintaining social values, especially regarding homosexuality and gender nonconformity. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in the Kenya Constitution were seen as also applicable to sexual and gender minorities. Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one’s religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders’ mindsets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities. PMID:27982708

  18. [Sexual orientation and partner-choice of transsexual women and men before gender-confirming interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo Ole; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2012-06-01

    Diverse partner relationship constellations of gender dysphoric women and men with different sexual orientations are explored in a sample of 93 persons before gender-confirming interventions in persons with female gender identity and male body characteristics (MF) and persons with male gender identity and female body characteristics (FM). While in both gender groups the majority is single, relationship patterns show differences. Apart from working life, FM already live predominantly in the new, male gender role and have partners by whom they are desired as males. In contrast, only a small proportion of MF already conduct their private lives in the new, female gender role, and they often have relationships with partners sexually attracted to males and not to their female gender identity. The findings indicate a need for differing resources for gender dysphoric women and men in the process of a transsexual course of development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors of Chinese university students: gender differences in prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Bongardt, Daphne van de; Hawk, Skyler T

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences among university students in contemporary China regarding (1) the prevalence of various types of intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors and (2) their sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors. A total of 1,397 university students (M(age) = 20.3 years) completed related questionnaires. Intrapersonal behaviors (i.e., sexual fantasizing, solitary masturbation, and viewing pornography) were generally reported more frequently than interpersonal behaviors (i.e., petting, oral sex, and intercourse). Gender differences were most evident for intrapersonal sexual behaviors, all of which were reported more frequently by men. Men reported significantly more heterosexual intercourse than women but not petting or oral sex. Several correlates (i.e., age, educational aspiration, family income, urbanity, relationship experience, and Internet use) were significant predictors of various intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors. Gender significantly moderated these correlations in three cases: Family income was a stronger negative predictor of intercourse for women, romantic relationship history was a stronger positive predictor of intercourse for men, and Internet use was a stronger positive predictor of sexual fantasizing for men. We discuss the implications of these findings for sexuality education and sexual health policies and practices in contemporary China.

  20. Penalties for Peer Sexual Harassment in an Academic Context: The Influence of Harasser Gender, Participant Gender, Severity of Harassment, and the Presence of Bystanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kimberly M.; Armenta, Madeline

    2002-01-01

    Examined the impact of harasser gender, participant gender, and presence of bystanders on perceptions of penalty appropriateness for peer sexual harassment in college. Students responded to descriptions of potential sexual harassment between one college student and another and described the appropriate penalty. Participants were more likely to…

  1. Intersectional harassment and deviant embodiment among Autistic adults: (dis)ability, gender and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jessica Penwell

    2017-11-01

    Harassment scholarship increasingly attends to the intersectional nature of harassment and its function within systems of domination. However, little of this work includes disability. In-depth interviews with 24 adults on the autism spectrum in the USA demonstrate the intersections of gender, sexuality and (dis)ability in the construction of deviant embodiments as targets for harassment. These intersections also shape how participants made sense of these experiences of violence. Participants' disability characteristics were often read as gender or sexual variance, with harassers relying on sexist and heterosexist constructs to frighten, demean or humiliate them for disability characteristics. Participant experiences demonstrate the cisgender basis of 'able-bodied' identity as well as the 'able-bodied' basis of cisgender and heterosexual identities and experiences. The interdependency of gender, sexuality and (dis)ability embodiment point to how it is critical for scholars and activists to account for the role of gender and heterosexist harassment in ableist oppression and disability harassment in (hetero)sexist oppression, as well as the limits of current US law enforcement structures in providing redress for harassment.

  2. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ellen A.; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children,…

  3. Gender Variance in Childhood and Sexual Orientation in Adulthood: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, T.D.; van den Ende, J..; Verhulst, F.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the

  4. Policing Visible Sexual/Gender Diversity as a Program of Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dwyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Using interview data on LGBT young people’s policing experiences, I argue policing and security works as a program of government (Dean 1999; Foucault 1991; Rose 1999 that constrains the visibilities of diverse sexuality and gender in public spaces. While young people narrated police actions as discriminatory, the interactions were complex and multi-faceted with police and security working to subtly constrain the public visibilities of ‘queerness’. Same sex affection, for instance, was visibly yet unverifiably (Mason 2002 regulated by police as a method of governing the boundaries of proper gender and sexuality in public. The paper concludes by noting how the visibility of police interactions with LGBT young people demonstrates to the public that public spaces are, and should remain, heterosexual spaces.

  5. Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

    2014-06-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers.

  6. Exploring the diversity of gender and sexual orientation identities in an online sample of transgender individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Laura E; Nussbaum, Robin; Mustanski, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Although the term transgender is increasingly used to refer to those whose gender identity or expression diverges from culturally defined categories of sex and gender, less is known about the self-identities of those who fall within this category. Historically, recruitment of transgender populations has also been limited to specialized clinics and support groups. This study was conducted online, with the aim of exploring the gender identities, sexual orientation identities, and surgery and hormonal statuses of those who identify with a gender identity other than, or in addition to, that associated with their birth sex (n = 292). Genderqueer was the most commonly endorsed gender identity, and pansexual and queer were the most commonly endorsed sexual orientation identities. Participants indentified with a mean of 2.5 current gender identities, 1.4 past gender identities, and 2 past sexual orientation identities. The majority of participants either did not desire or were unsure of their desire to take hormones or undergo sexual reassignment surgery. However, birth sex and age were significant predictors of "bottom" surgery and hormone status/desire, along with several identities and orientations. This study explores explanations and implications for these patterns of identification, along with the potential distinctiveness of this sample.

  7. Ethnicity, gender and risky sexual behaviour among Nigeria youth: an alternative explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Clifford; Somefun, Oluwaseyi Dolapo

    2017-01-31

    While studies in demography and public health have acknowledged the role of ethnic differences, the influence of ethnicity on youth sexual behaviour in Nigeria has received little or no attention. It is important to know how cultural norms and gender roles, which vary by ethnicity, may promote or prevent risky behaviour. Such information could provide insights into previously undetected sexual behaviour in multi-ethnic situations. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for 2003, 2008 and 2013 were pooled to examine the relationship between ethnicity and youth sexual reproductive health, proxied by age at sexual debut, multiple sexual partners (MSP) and condom use at last sexual activity, among the 6304 females and 1549 males who reported being sexually active in the four weeks preceding the survey. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine the risk factors for early sexual activity among young people (15-24). Logistic regression was used to predict condom use at last sexual activity and MSP. The median age at first sexual activity was 16 for females and 17 for males. 43% of male youths used condoms in their last sexual activity, compared to only 16% among females and a higher number of males (81%) had multiple sexual partners compared to females (35%). For females, elevated risks of first sex was higher among Hausa/Fulanis aged 15-19 and elevated risk of first sex was higher among Yoruba males. This study provides further evidence that in order to promote protective sexual behaviours among youth in Nigeria, social, cultural and gender-specific tactics should be put in place for the prevention of HIV and other STIs.

  8. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  9. Sexual Selection Revisited ? Towards a Gender-Neutral Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In a recent issue of this journal, Vandermassen suggested that feminists should include sexual selection theory and evolutionary psychology in a unifying theory of human nature. In response, this article aims to offer some insight into the development of sexual selection theory, to caution against Vandermassen's unreserved assimilation and to promote the opposite ongoing integration ? an inclusion of gender perspectives into evolutionary biology. In society today, opinions...

  10. Intersecting Identities and Substance Use Problems: Sexual Orientation, Gender, Race, and Lifetime Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Bradford, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Research has documented that sexual minorities are at greater risk for substance use than heterosexuals. However, there are limited studies and mixed findings when investigating these health disparities among racial and ethnic minority samples. We used an intersectionality framework to examine disparities in lifetime substance use problems between heterosexual and sexual minority men and women and within sexual minority groups among a racially diverse sample. Method: A nonprobability sample of heterosexual (n = 1,091) and sexual minority (n = 1,465) patients from an urban community health center ranged in age from 18 to 72 years. Participants completed a brief patient survey and reported demographic information and history of lifetime substance use problems. Logistic regressions analyses were used to examine interactions between and among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Results: We found a significant three-way interaction among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Sexual minorities had a greater risk of self-reported lifetime substance use problems than heterosexuals, with nuanced gender and racial differences. Of greatest note, sexual minority women of color had greater risks than heterosexual women of color and than White sexual minority women. Sexual minority men of color did not differ in their risk when compared with heterosexual men of color, and they had lower risk than White sexual minority men. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that an intersectionality framework is crucial to clearly identify lifetime substance use disparities between racially diverse sexual minority and heterosexual men and women. Future research, treatment, and policy should use intersectionality approaches when addressing substance use disparities. PMID:24411810

  11. HIV vulnerability and the erasure of sexual and gender diversity in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In the fight against concentrated HIV epidemics, men who have sex with men (MSM) are often framed as a homogeneous population, with little attention paid to sexual and gender diversity and its impact on HIV vulnerability. This article draws on ethnographic research conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire among les branchés - a local term encompassing several categories of same-sex desire and practice. In the context of increased HIV prevention programming targeting Ivoirian sexual and gender minorities, such diversity is effectively erased. This obfuscation of difference has particularly negative impacts for travestis, who may be at higher risk for HIV infection, though research and prevention efforts in which they are grouped with 'MSM' render them underrepresented and make their vulnerability difficult to quantify. Branchés whose class and/or ethnic backgrounds compound their stigmatised status as sexual and gender minorities also bear the burden of this exclusion. Furthermore, some branchés deploy 'MSM' as a form of self-identification, further complicating who such categories represent. By highlighting the ways in which constructions of gender and sexuality within HIV/AIDS programming obscure complex social realities, I aim to reorient thinking around the development of purposeful HIV programming that engages the complexity of sexual and gender minority experience.

  12. Critical Reflections on Performativity and 'Un/Doing' Gender and Sexuality in Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2002-01-01

    'turn' is most often traceable in the first instance to the work of the feminist philosopher Judith Butler. Butler’s (1990) troubling of how we think of gender and identity has worked through into many fields, including literary studies (Sedgwick 1993c), performance theory (Parker & Sedgwick 1995a...... of 'doing', particularly of gender and sexuality, in studies of conversation and talk-in-interaction are similar to and different from the notion of 'performativity' in the work of Judith Butler. I refer not only to her argument that gender identity "is performatively constituted by the very ‘expressions...... of the productive challenge posed by feminist and queer theories that conceive of gender (and sexuality) as something we ‘do’, not ‘are’. This view is representative of the ‘performative turn’ that can be traced in many fields and disciplines, with distinctive histories and trajectories. The source of this recent...

  13. Sexual and gender minority identity disclosure during undergraduate medical education: "in the closet" in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansh, Matthew; White, William; Gee-Tong, Lea; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Brenman, Stephanie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David; Garcia, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    To assess identity disclosure among sexual and gender minority (SGM) students pursuing undergraduate medical training in the United States and Canada. From 2009 to 2010, a survey was made available to all medical students enrolled in the 176 MD- and DO-granting medical schools in the United States and Canada. Respondents were asked about their sexual and gender identity, whether they were "out" (i.e., had publicly disclosed their identity), and, if they were not, their reasons for concealing their identity. The authors used a mixed-methods approach and analyzed quantitative and qualitative survey data. Of 5,812 completed responses (of 101,473 eligible respondents; response rate 5.7%), 920 (15.8%) students from 152 (of 176; 86.4%) institutions identified as SGMs. Of the 912 sexual minorities, 269 (29.5%) concealed their sexual identity in medical school. Factors associated with sexual identity concealment included sexual minority identity other than lesbian or gay, male gender, East Asian race, and medical school enrollment in the South or Central regions of North America. The most common reasons for concealing one's sexual identity were "nobody's business" (165/269; 61.3%), fear of discrimination in medical school (117/269; 43.5%), and social or cultural norms (110/269; 40.9%). Of the 35 gender minorities, 21 (60.0%) concealed their gender identity, citing fear of discrimination in medical school (9/21; 42.9%) and lack of support (9/21; 42.9%). SGM students continue to conceal their identity during undergraduate medical training. Medical institutions should adopt targeted policies and programs to better support these individuals.

  14. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers' constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-06-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers' alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's 'presumed media influence' theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers' constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers' drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL (SHIL).

  15. Genocidal gender and sexual violence. The legacy of the ICTR, Rwanda's ordinary courts and gacaca courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitesi, U.

    2013-01-01

    This study has set out to investigate the legacy of post-genocide judicial institutions mandated to adjudicate cases of genocide and related offences vis-à-vis genocidal gender and sexual violence. The study takes the complex genocidal experience of victims of gender and sexual violence as the

  16. Gender, sexuality, and the authoritarian personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2010-12-01

    The political correlates of the authoritarian personality have been well established by researchers, but important linkages to other major constructs in psychology need fuller elaboration. We present new data and review old data from our laboratories that show the myriad ways in which authoritarianism is implicated in the important domain of gender roles. We show that women and men high in authoritarianism live in rigidly gendered worlds where male and female roles are narrowly defined, attractiveness is based on traditional conceptions of masculinity and femininity, and conventional sexual mores are prescribed. As a construct, authoritarianism is not just relevant for understanding people's politics, but it also affects the most personal of domains--romantic partnerships, lifestyle goals, and basic attitudes about male and female relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ellen K; Koo, Helen P

    2010-12-14

    In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters), we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1) parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2) factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes). Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers) talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics and identifies gender differences in

  18. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Helen P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Methods Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters, we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2 factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. Results With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes. Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Conclusions Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent

  19. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents results for young men’s health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive. Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals’ training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  20. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Ferreira do; Uziel, Anna Paula; Hernández, Jimena de Garay

    2018-02-19

    This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive). Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals' training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  1. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... Social justice and equity are important principles in African health sciences ... Courses that endeavour to develop students' skills in patient-provider .... (sexual and emotional attraction) and gender identity (one's sense of.

  2. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Compulsivity, and Gender Identity and Its Relationship With Sexual Functioning in a Population Sample of Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Despite awareness of the importance of psycho-affective factors in the development of sexual problems, there is a lack of studies exploring the relation of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC) to sexual functioning. Because sex differences in SSS and SC have been reported, gender identity (GI; an individual's own experience of his or her gender that is unrelated to the actual biological sex) might act as a moderator in this relation. To understand the role of SSS and SC for men and women's sexual functioning and to explore whether these potential associations are moderated by GI. A population-based cross-sectional online survey targeted 279 individuals (69.2% women, 30.8% men; mean age = 32 years). Validated questionnaires, including the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, and the International Index of Erectile Function, were applied. Variations in SSS and SC and their association with sexual functioning were investigated using Spearman rank correlation. Moderation analyses were conducted using regression models in which the interaction terms between SSS and GI and between SCS and GI as predictors of sexual functioning were included. A statistically significant correlation between SSS and SC could be detected in men and women (r = 0.41 and 0.33, respectively; P < .001 for the two comparisons). In women, higher levels of SSS were associated with higher levels of desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm and less sexual pain (P < .05 for all comparisons). No moderating effect of GI could be detected. In men, GI was a significant moderator in the relation between SC and erectile function (β = 0.47; P < .001) and between SSS and erectile and ejaculatory function (β = -0.41 and 0.30; P < .001 for the two comparisons). The present study is the first to show a link between SSS and SC and sexual functioning. The results might have important

  3. Developing an affirmative position statement on sexual and gender diversity for psychology professionals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Victor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Against the background of the dominance of patriarchy and heteronormativity in Africa and the resultant stigma, discrimination and victimisation of sexually and gender-diverse people, this article reports on the development of an affirmative position statement by the Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA for psychology professionals working with sexually and gender-diverse people. The position statement is an attempt to contribute positively to the de-stigmatisation, amongst psychology professionals, of all people with diverse sexual and gender identities. Objective. In documenting and reflecting on the process of developing the statement — a first on the African continent — the article aims to contribute to the potential resources available to others in their work on similar projects around the world. Design. Although initially intended to be relevant to the African continent, the position statement is appropriate to the South African context specifically, but developed in consultation with a range of stakeholders, also from other African countries. Results. Concerns expressed during stakeholder consultations, and thus taken into account in the development of the statement, include relevance to other African countries, negotiating the politics of representation and language, the importance of including gender and biological variance in addition to sexuality, and the need to be sensitive to how Western influence is constructed in some African contexts. Conclusion. Other national psychology organisations stand to benefit by ‘lessons learned’ during this country-specific process with global implications, especially with respect to broadening the lens from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI to sexual and gender diversity, as well as an acknowledgement of the multiple and fluid developmental pathways around sexuality and gender, in general.

  4. The paradox of recognition: hijra, third gender and sexual rights in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hossain, A.

    2017-01-01

    Hijra, the iconic figure of South Asian gender and sexual difference, comprise a publicly institutionalised subculture of male-bodied feminine-identified people. Although they have existed as a culturally recognised third gender for a very long time, it is only recently that hijra have been legally

  5. Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal; Pant, Sunil Babu; Dhakal, Suben; Pokhrel, Subash; Mullany, Luke C

    2012-05-16

    Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Participants (n = 29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes.

  6. Perceptions about gender relations and sexual division of labor for people with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Barros Moreira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society has discussed the idea of “diversity”, and among its possibilities, the insertion of people with disabilities (PWDs in organizations has been often discussed in organizational studies. Although disability appears to be no longer an uncomfortable subject to be discussed, it is still a very delicate issue to be talked about. In addition to it, gender relations and sexual division of   labor are not solved issues when work is involved. This work was carried out with the objective of understanding the perceptions of PWDs about gender relations and sexual division of  labor. We argue that both this perception and its origin are connected to the subjectivity. The research was conducted in a hospital, where five people were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed through the method of content analysis. They did not show explicitly the interviewees’ perception of unequal gender relations, but this was noticed through the method of observation. The interviewees’ view of gender relations was found to be full of social stereotypes. Finally, questions were asked that intended to lead the reader to a deeper reflection about sexual division of labor, disability and prejudice in the organizational environment.

  7. Examining aging sexual stigma attitudes among adults by gender, age, and generational status

    OpenAIRE

    Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender.Method: An online survey was administered to a national sample ...

  8. Disabling sexualities: Exploring the impact of the intersection of HIV, disability and gender on the sexualities of women in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wickenden

    2013-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore how HIV, disability and gender shape the perspectives of HIV-positive women with disabilities regarding intimacy and gender roles. Methods: Twelve women in Lusaka, Zambia were recruited for in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences of having a disability and living with HIV. Interviews were conducted in English, Bemba, Nyanja and Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted, followed by in-depth gender analyses of data relating to intimacy and gender roles. Results: Data analysis led to the identification of two main themes: the impact of HIV diagnosis on intimate relationships amongst the participants; and the disruption and renegotiation of gender roles. These findings demonstrate the loss of intimacy (often decided by the participants and changes in women’s gender roles (infrequently decided by them. Conclusions: The narrow approaches to sexuality and HIV that reinforce misconceptions and stereotypes need to change. In their place should be inclusive and disability and sex-positive approaches that are informed by the diverse realities of women’s lives. Further research is needed to develop stronger evidence of the impact of HIV and disability on gender roles and sexuality.

  9. Ending sexual and gender-based violence: from knowledge to action

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    most pervasive and unreported type of gender-based violence ... Ineffective laws offer limited or no protection to victims, with ... India: With support from IDRC, Peace and Equality ... 21 schools to raise awareness of child sexual abuse,.

  10. Gender, Dialogue and Discursive Psychology: A Pilot Sexuality Intervention with South African High-School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jearey-Graham, Nicola; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2017-01-01

    Good-quality sexuality education can be effective in reducing sexual health risks, but may also be disconnected from the lived realities of learners' lives and reinforce gendered stereotypes. In line with the trend towards "empowerment" in and through sexuality education, we implemented a pilot sexuality intervention with Grade 10…

  11. Gender-Specific Jealousy and Infidelity Norms as Sources of Sexual Health Risk and Violence Among Young Coupled Nicaraguans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.

  12. Sexual Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giles, James

    Through a series of interrelated essays, this book explores fundamental issues concerning gender, sexual and romantic attraction, sexual desire and fantasies, the sexual positions, age dysphoria, and the role of naked skin in human sexuality. It does so by exploring experiential, social, biological...... on sex. It is further argued that sexual desire is an existential need based on the experience of having a gendered body. A case study of age dysphoria is presented showing how the conclusions concerning concerning gender and desire apply in an atypical case. The body's fundamental role in sexuality......, and evolutionary aspects of sexual life. The author criticizes several popular views, rejecting both social constructionist accounts of gender and social constructionist and biological accounts of sexual desire. It is argued instead that gender roles and gender are often confused and that gender itself is based...

  13. Encountering Gender: Resisting a Neo-Liberal Political Rationality for Sexuality Education as an HIV Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée E.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…

  14. Adolescents' Sexual Wellbeing in Southwestern Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Body Image, Self-Esteem and Gender Equitable Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemigisha, Elizabeth; Nyakato, Viola N; Bruce, Katharine; Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza, Gad; Mlahagwa, Wendo; Ninsiima, Anna B; Coene, Gily; Leye, Els; Michielsen, Kristien

    2018-02-22

    Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense-i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms-and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10-14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016. Among 1096 adolescents analyzed, the median age was 12 (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR): 11, 13) and 58% were female. Self-esteem and body image scores were high with median 24 (IQR: 22, 26, possible range: 7-28) and median 22 (IQR: 19, 24, possible range: 5-25) respectively. Gender equitable norms mean score was 28.1 (SD 5.2: possible range 11-44). We noted high scores for self-esteem and body image but moderate scores on gender equitable norms. Girls had higher scores compared to boys for all outcomes. A higher age and being sexually active were associated with lower scores on gender equitable norms. Gender equitable norms scores decreased with increasing age of adolescents. Comprehensive and timely sexuality education programs focusing on gender differences and norms are recommended.

  15. The Social Construction of Gender and Sexuality: Learning from Two Spirit Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Maia; Mayo, J. B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The authors encourage teachers to make use of existing, standard social studies curriculum to uncover and to make visible the normative assumptions that underlie American cultural beliefs about gender and sexuality. The article provides an overview of how some cultures within the various Native American nations conceptualize gender and sexuality…

  16. Actor and Partner Effects of Attachment on Relationship Satisfaction and Sexual Satisfaction Across the Genders : An APIM Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradi, Henk Jan; Noordhof, Arjen; Dingemanse, Pieter; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Kamphuis, Jan H.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies found gender differences in relationship satisfaction and sexuality. We tested gender differences in associations between attachment, a lasting relationship determinant, and two outcomes, relationship and sexual satisfaction. This study improves on earlier research by examining

  17. Gender Relations and the Production of Difference in School-based Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lyn

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from an evaluation of a high school sexuality education program to examine gender relations and production of difference. Participating schools incorporated teaching and learning that normalized sexual diversity and explored HIV-related discrimination and homophobia. Discussion of gender, power, and menstruation and heterosexism and…

  18. Gendered racism and the sexual and reproductive health of Black and Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2018-02-15

    To understand health disparities, it is important to use an intersectional framework that examines unique experiences of oppression faced by particular groups due to their intersecting identities and social positions linked to societal structures. We focus on Black and Latina women and their experiences with 'gendered racism' - unique forms of oppression due to the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender - to foster understanding of disparities between Black and Latina versus White women in sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the U.S. Specifically, we focus on stereotype-related gendered racism (ongoing discrimination and stereotype threat based on historically-rooted stereotypes about Black and Latina women's sexuality and motherhood) and birth control-related mistrust (ongoing mistrust of the government and medical system related to birth control due to historical and current abuses). We analyzed data from two survey studies with adult women in New York (Study 1: paper-and-pencil community data collection, N = 135, M age  = 43.35) and across the U.S. (Study 2: online data collection, N = 343, M age  = 29.49) who were currently pregnant or had at least one child and identified as Black, Latina, or White. Black and Latina women reported greater frequency of and concern over stereotype-related gendered racism (F(3,131) = 17.90, p stereotype-related gendered racism was positively associated with pregnancy-specific stress (ß = .40, p gendered racism may play an important role in existing racial/ethnic disparities in women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes, and interventions addressing gendered racism at multiple levels are needed to promote health equity.

  19. Actor and Partner Effects of Attachment on Relationship Satisfaction and Sexual Satisfaction Across the Genders: An APIM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Henk Jan; Noordhof, Arjen; Dingemanse, Pieter; Barelds, Dick P H; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies found gender differences in relationship satisfaction and sexuality. We tested gender differences in associations between attachment, a lasting relationship determinant, and two outcomes, relationship and sexual satisfaction. This study improves on earlier research by examining these associations in one Actor-Partner-Interdependence-Model, making direct statistical testing between outcomes possible. Furthermore, a community and a distressed sample (N = 113 heterosexual couples each) were included to attempt replication across samples and to examine clinical implications. In both genders, actor attachment avoidance negatively affected relationship satisfaction and (with one exception) sexual satisfaction. Also in both genders, partner attachment avoidance negatively affected sexual satisfaction. However, whereas partner attachment avoidance influenced female relationship satisfaction, it did not affect male relationship satisfaction. The findings replicated across samples. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n = 29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes PMID:22591775

  1. Gender and sexual economics: do women view sex as a female commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C

    2014-07-01

    In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  3. Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: the United for Health Study, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

  4. Perceived gender inequality, sexual communication self-efficacy, and sexual behaviour among female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M.; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Tran, Ly T. H.; Nguyen, Huong T. H.; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the literature on sexual behaviour has documented associations between gender-based relationship inequality and sexual communication ability and the actual use of condoms or other contraceptives among young women. This study aimed to examine these associations among undergraduate female students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1181 female third-year students from two universities in the Mekong Delta was conducted. Latent variable modelling and logistic regression were employed to examine the hypothesised associations. Results Among the 72.4% of students who had ever had boyfriends, 44.8% indicated that their boyfriends had asked for sex, 13% had had penile–vaginal sex and 10.3% had had oral sex. For those who had had penile–vaginal sex, 33% did not use any contraceptive method, including condoms, during their first sexual intercourse. The greater a student’s perception that women were subordinate to men, the lower her self-efficacy for sexual communication and the lower her actual frequency of discussing safer sex matters and asking her partner to use a condom. Sexual communication self-efficacy was associated with actual contraceptive use (P = 0.039) but only marginally with condom use (P = 0.092) at first sexual intercourse. Conclusion Sexual health promotion strategies should address the influence of gender relations on young women’s sexual communication self-efficacy and the subsequent impact on actual contraceptive and condom use. PMID:22877589

  5. The Effects of Gender- and Sexuality-Based Harassment on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Substance Use Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Bersamin, Melina; Russell, Stephen T; Mair, Christina

    2018-06-01

    We tested three competing models about whether gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school have nonindependent, additive, or interactive effects on adolescents' electronic cigarette use (i.e., vaping), cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking (HED). We also tested whether harassment mediated substance use disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) adolescents and their cisgender heterosexual peers. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey, including 316,766 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 from more than 1,500 middle and high schools. We used logistic regression models and interaction terms to estimate associations of past-year gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school on past-month substance use, and the Karlson-Holm-Breen method to test whether harassment mediated LGBT disparities in substance use. Vaping, smoking, drinking, HED, and gender- and sexuality-based harassment were higher for transgender adolescents than for cisgender males and females, and for adolescents who were lesbian, gay, or bisexual only versus heterosexual only. Gender- and sexuality-based harassments were independently associated with greater odds of using each substance in every grade. These two types of harassment had positive interactions with each other for vaping in grade 11, smoking in grade 11, and HED in grades 9 and 11. Gender- and sexuality-based harassment significantly mediated many of the LGBT disparities in substance use. Gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school independently or interactively produced LGBT disparities in substance use. Reducing these types of discrimination in schools will likely mitigate these disparities. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. "What a Girl Wants, What a Girl Needs:" Responding to Sex, Gender, and Sexuality in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data generated from a qualitative study of gender and sexuality in a kindergarten classroom. Post-developmental perspectives of sex, gender, and sexuality are used to show how young children are constructing gender and heterosexual discourses in the early childhood classroom. Drawing from feminist post-structuralism and…

  7. Gender Nonconformity of Identical Twins with Discordant Sexual Orientations: Evidence from Childhood Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tuesday M.; Holmes, Luke; Raines, Jamie; Orbell, Sheina; Rieger, Gerulf

    2018-01-01

    Childhood gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females) predicts a nonstraight (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) sexual orientation in adulthood. In previous work, nonstraight twins reported more childhood gender nonconformity than their genetically identical, but straight, cotwins. However, self-reports could be biased. We…

  8. Adolescents’ Sexual Wellbeing in Southwestern Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Body Image, Self-Esteem and Gender Equitable Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemigisha, Elizabeth; Nyakato, Viola N.; Bruce, Katharine; Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza, Gad; Mlahagwa, Wendo; Ninsiima, Anna B.; Coene, Gily; Leye, Els; Michielsen, Kristien

    2018-01-01

    Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense—i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms—and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10–14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016. Among 1096 adolescents analyzed, the median age was 12 (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR): 11, 13) and 58% were female. Self-esteem and body image scores were high with median 24 (IQR: 22, 26, possible range: 7–28) and median 22 (IQR: 19, 24, possible range: 5–25) respectively. Gender equitable norms mean score was 28.1 (SD 5.2: possible range 11–44). We noted high scores for self-esteem and body image but moderate scores on gender equitable norms. Girls had higher scores compared to boys for all outcomes. A higher age and being sexually active were associated with lower scores on gender equitable norms. Gender equitable norms scores decreased with increasing age of adolescents. Comprehensive and timely sexuality education programs focusing on gender differences and norms are recommended. PMID:29470388

  9. The Role of Religiousness and Gender in Sexuality Among Mexican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Bissell-Havran, Joanna; Nunn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of religiousness and gender in age at first intercourse, and sexual expectations and values in Mexico, a macrocontext where the majority is Mexican and Catholic (83%). Participants were Catholic and nonreligious adolescents (54% girls) attending middle (71%) or high school. Findings indicated that Catholic adolescents engaged in sexual intercourse at later ages than nonreligious adolescents. Both religious attendance and importance of religion and values in sexual decision making were associated with more conservative sexual values. Boys who were raised Catholic were more likely to endorse female virginity values and were less likely to expect to wait to have sex until married than nonreligious boys. These associations were not significant among girls. Catholic boys may be more likely to internalize sexual double standard beliefs regarding premarital sex than nonreligious boys. This study expands our understanding of the role of religiousness in Mexican adolescents' sexuality.

  10. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various disciplines can teach sexual orientation and gender identity issues in their context by challenging heteronormativity and highlighting specific LGBTI health concerns, and can do so more successfully with interactive teaching approaches that hold more potential than formalised lectures. Rights-based teaching ...

  11. Acculturation, gender disparity, and the sexual behavior of Asian American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuying

    2013-01-01

    Asian American youth are less likely to be sexually active than adolescents from other ethnic groups; however, with acculturation, they may adopt the more liberal sexual norms of American society. Moreover, owing to differing parental expectations for sons and daughters about sexuality, gender disparity might exist in the adoption of American sexual norms. This article used the proportional hazards model and the generalized estimating equations Poisson model to examine how acculturation influences the initiation of sexual intercourse and the number of sexual partners. The results show that acculturation leads to more liberal sexual mores among Asian American youth. However, despite what might be expected from the sexual double standard, the models show that more acculturated females, as indicated by their use of English at home, had an earlier onset of sexual intercourse and a higher number of sexual partners. This is the opposite of what would be predicted by the sexual double standard theory. This might be due to the fact that Asian females tend to be more socially accepted by the host society than Asian males. Information on partners shows that Asian American females have more diversified racial backgrounds than their male counterparts. They are also more likely to have older sexual partners.

  12. Sexuality and gender identity teaching within preclinical medical training in New Zealand: content, attitudes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Oscar; Rapsey, Charlene M; Treharne, Gareth J

    2018-06-22

    To investigate inclusion of sexuality and gender identity content, attitudes and barriers to inclusion of content in preclinical curricula of New Zealand medical schools from the perspective of key teaching staff. Staff responsible for curriculum oversight at New Zealand's two medical schools were invited to complete a mixed-methods survey about sexuality and gender identity content in their modules. Of 24 respondents, the majority included very little content relating to sexuality or gender identity (33%) or none at all (54%). This content was deemed important by most participants (69%), and none believed there should be less such content in their curriculum. Time was reported to be the main barrier limiting inclusion of such content. Our finding of limited content is consistent with international literature. Our findings extend the literature by revealing that barriers to greater inclusion of content are not due to overt negative attitudes. Staff responsible for preclinical medical curriculum oversight have positive attitudes about content relating to sexuality and gender identity but perceive curriculum space to be a limiting barrier. This is important as it informs approaches to change. Future interventions with medical schools should focus on methods to increase diverse content as part of existing teaching, education to increase knowledge of LGBTQI relevant material and potentially incorporate strategies used to address unconscious bias. Addressing the perceived barriers of time constraints and lack of relevance is required to ensure medical students receive training to develop the competencies to provide positive healthcare experiences for all patients regardless of sexuality and gender identity.

  13. Differential Patterns of Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Activation Predict Gender-Specific Changes in Sexual Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansosti, Alexandra A.; Bowman, Hilary C.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior. PMID:26063921

  14. Gender and Sexuality in Young Children's Perspectives of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, D.; Jewnarain, D.

    2012-01-01

    Responses to AIDS have often neglected children. Drawing on a qualitative study of young children aged 7-9 years, this paper draws attention to their understandings of HIV and AIDS. It is argued that young children are able to give meaning to the disease in ways that link to their social contexts, where gender inequalities and sexual violence are…

  15. Queering Student Perspectives: Gender, Sexuality and Activism in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kathleen O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the work of a gay-straight alliance and the ways in which members use elements of queer theory to understand their own and others' identities, both to make sense of their experiences and to support their activist efforts. The analysis identifies queer perspectives on gender and sexual identity as useful tools for supporting…

  16. Does students' exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment in medical school affect specialty choice and residency program selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Terry D; McLaughlin, Margaret A; Witte, Florence M; Fosson, Sue E; Nora, Lois Margaret

    2005-04-01

    To examine the role of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in medical students' choice of specialty and residency program. Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were distributed in 1997 to fourth-year students enrolled in 14 public and private U.S. medical schools. In addition to reporting the frequency of gender discrimination and sexual harassment encountered during preclinical coursework, core clerkships, elective clerkships, and residency selection, students assessed the impact of these exposures (none, a little, some, quite a bit, the deciding factor) on their specialty choices and rankings of residency programs. A total of 1,314 (69%) useable questionnaires were returned. Large percentages of men (83.2%) and women (92.8%) experienced, observed, or heard about at least one incident of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical school, although more women reported such behavior across all training contexts. Compared with men, significantly (p harassment influenced their specialty choices (45.3% versus 16.4%) and residency rankings (25.3% versus 10.9%). Across all specialties, more women than men experienced gender discrimination and sexual harassment during residency selection, with one exception: a larger percentage of men choosing obstetrics and gynecology experienced such behavior. Among women, those choosing general surgery were most likely to experience gender discrimination and sexual harassment during residency selection. Interestingly, correlations between exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment and self-assessed impact on career decisions tended to be larger for men, suggesting that although fewer men are generally affected, they may weigh such experiences more heavily in their choice of specialty and residency program. This study suggests that exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment during undergraduate education may influence some medical students' choice of specialty and, to a lesser

  17. Gender Moderates the Association of Depressive Symptoms to Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive African-American Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babowitch, Jacklyn D; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has reported an association between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore whether gender moderates this association in a sample of HIV-positive African-Americans. Participants (N = 93) self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; CES-D), and sexual risk behavior for the past 4 months. Analyses revealed that the depressive symptoms-by-gender interaction was associated with condomless sex and substance use proximal to sex. When analyses were stratified by gender, depressive symptoms were associated with condomless sex and frequency of substance use only for women. We conclude that depressive symptoms may be a more powerful sexual risk factor among women relative to men.

  18. "Dangerous Presumptions": How Single-Sex Schooling Reifies False Notions of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Janna

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent changes in federal regulations about gender equity in education in the USA, some policy makers have resurrected single-sex public education. Because single-sex schooling ignores the complexity of sex, gender, and sexuality, it sets up a "separate but equal" system that is anything but. Discounting the ways in which gender is…

  19. Sexual orientation, gender identity, and romantic relationships in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n?=?675) and general population peers (n?=?8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relation...

  20. Do casual gaming environments evoke stereotype threat? Examining the effects of explicit priming and avatar gender

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, L. K.; Pennington, C.; McCann, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite relatively equal participation rates between females and males in casual gaming, females often report stigmatisation and prejudice towards their gaming competency within this sub-domain. Applying the theoretical framework of “stereotype threat”, this research examined the influence of explicit stereotype priming on females’ casual gameplay performance and related attitudes. It also investigated whether the gender of the game avatar heightens susceptibility to stereotype threat. One hu...

  1. Bodies as open projects: reflections on gender and sexuality | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argues that the social constructivist paradigm falls into the same dualistic trap as biological essentialism when attempting to respond to questions of gender and sexuality. I argue that social constructivism, like biological determinism, presumes a 'split' world, where subjective lived experiences are separated from ...

  2. The influence of gender on suicidal ideation following military sexual trauma among Veterans in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Lindsey L; Bahraini, Nazanin H; Matarazzo, Bridget B; Gerber, Holly R; Soberay, Kelly A; Forster, Jeri E

    2016-10-30

    No studies have examined whether military sexual trauma, as measured and defined within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), is associated with suicidal ideation among Veterans in VHA care, when taking prior suicide attempts into account. Research regarding the role of gender in this association is also limited. The present study examined: (1) whether military sexual trauma was associated with the presence of past-week suicidal ideation among 354 Veterans in VHA (310 men, 44 women); (2) whether gender moderated the association between military sexual trauma and suicidal ideation. Information regarding military sexual trauma, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and psychiatric diagnoses was obtained from self-report instruments and medical records. Adjusting for age, gender, combat, posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, negative affect, and lifetime suicide attempt, Veterans with military sexual trauma were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation, compared to Veterans without military sexual trauma. Furthermore, the association between military sexual trauma and suicidal ideation was stronger for men compared to women. These results contribute to a growing literature identifying military sexual trauma as a risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among Veterans in VHA care and emphasize the importance of screening for suicidal ideation among survivors of military sexual trauma. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Vermont – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    In 1992, the State of Vermont passed a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, which is defined as “female or male homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality.” Protection with respect to gender identity was added in May 2007. Vermont’s Human Rights Law prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in areas such as employment, housing, and education.

  4. "Shake It Baby, Shake It": Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique

    2010-12-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents' permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes.

  5. On cultural transformations of sexuality and gender in recent decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigusch, Volkmar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Western cultures have witnessed a tremendous cultural and social transformation of sexuality in the years since the sexual revolution. Apart from a few public debates and scandals, the process has moved along gradually and quietly. Yet its real and symbolic effects are probably much more consequential than those generated by the sexual revolution of the sixties. Sigusch refers to the broad-based recoding and reassessment of the sexual sphere during the eighties and nineties as the "neosexual revolution". The neosexual revolution is dismantling the old patterns of sexuality and reassembling them anew. In the process, dimensions, intimate relationships, preferences and sexual fragments emerge, many of which had submerged, were unnamed or simply did not exist before. In general, sexuality has lost much of its symbolic meaning as a cultural phenomenon. Sexuality is no longer the great metaphor for pleasure and happiness, nor is it so greatly overestimated as it was during the sexual revolution. It is now widely taken for granted, much like egotism or motility. Whereas sex was once mystified in a positive sense - as ecstasy and transgression, it has now taken on a negative mystification characterized by abuse, violence and deadly infection. While the old sexuality was based primarily upon sexual instinct, orgasm and the heterosexual couple, neosexualities revolve predominantly around gender difference, thrills, self-gratification and prosthetic substitution. From the vast number of interrelated processes from which neosexualities emerge, three empirically observable phenomena have been selected for discussion here: the dissociation of the sexual sphere, the dispersion of sexual fragments and the diversification of intimate relationships. The outcome of the neosexual revolution may be described as "lean sexuality" and "self-sex".

  6. On cultural transformations of sexuality and gender in recent decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigusch, Volkmar

    2004-10-20

    Western cultures have witnessed a tremendous cultural and social transformation of sexuality in the years since the sexual revolution. Apart from a few public debates and scandals, the process has moved along gradually and quietly. Yet its real and symbolic effects are probably much more consequential than those generated by the sexual revolution of the sixties. Sigusch refers to the broad-based recoding and reassessment of the sexual sphere during the eighties and nineties as the "neosexual revolution". The neosexual revolution is dismantling the old patterns of sexuality and reassembling them anew. In the process, dimensions, intimate relationships, preferences and sexual fragments emerge, many of which had submerged, were unnamed or simply did not exist before. In general, sexuality has lost much of its symbolic meaning as a cultural phenomenon. Sexuality is no longer the great metaphor for pleasure and happiness, nor is it so greatly overestimated as it was during the sexual revolution. It is now widely taken for granted, much like egotism or motility. Whereas sex was once mystified in a positive sense - as ecstasy and transgression, it has now taken on a negative mystification characterized by abuse, violence and deadly infection. While the old sexuality was based primarily upon sexual instinct, orgasm and the heterosexual couple, neosexualities revolve predominantly around gender difference, thrills, self-gratification and prosthetic substitution. From the vast number of interrelated processes from which neosexualities emerge, three empirically observable phenomena have been selected for discussion here: the dissociation of the sexual sphere, the dispersion of sexual fragments and the diversification of intimate relationships. The outcome of the neosexual revolution may be described as "lean sexuality" and "self-sex".

  7. The role of gender and sexual experience in predicting adolescent condom use intentions using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Antonia; Mullan, Barbara A; Sainsbury, Kirby; Kuczmierczyk, Andrzej R

    2014-08-01

    To examine how the prediction of condom-related cognitions, intentions, and behaviour amongst adolescents may differ according to gender and sexual experience within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework. Adolescents (N = 306) completed questionnaires about sexual experience, condom use, TPB variables, perceived risk, and safe sex knowledge. Significant differences in TPB variables, perceived risk, and knowledge were found; males and sexually experienced participants were generally less positive about condom use. Twenty percent of the variance in attitudes was accounted for by four variables; specifically, female gender, no previous sexual experience, better safe sex knowledge, and greater risk perceptions were associated with more positive attitudes. The prediction of intentions separately amongst sexually experienced (R(2) = 0.468) and inexperienced (R(2) = 0.436) participants revealed that, for the former group, attitudes and subjective norms were the most important considerations. In contrast, among the inexperienced participants, attitudes and the gender-by-perceived risk interaction term represented significant influences. The results suggest that interventions designed to improve adolescents' intentions to use condoms and rates of actual condom use should consider differences in gender and sexual experience.

  8. Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Becoming Gender-Sensitive and Trauma-Informed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While there is a wide body of literature examining the behavioral, emotional, and social consequences associated with being sexually abused, comparatively few studies have focused on males. Sexual abuse victimization among males remains largely under-reported, under-treated, and under-recognized by researchers, practitioners, and the public. Researchers trying to clarify why sexual abuse in males has been overlooked point to prevailing cultural norms, myths, assumptions, stigma, and biases about masculinity. Consequently, there is often an assumption that males are not negatively affected by sexual abuse. Drawing extensively from the literature, this article provides a critical review of: (1 the nature, experience and impact of sexual abuse victimization for males; and (2 the multidimensional processes that promote and inhibit resilient outcomes. It concludes with a discussion of trauma-informed and gender-responsive recommendations and future directions for social work practice, policy, and research.

  9. Teaching Gender and Sexuality Diversity in Foundations of Education Courses in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Michael; Hoyt, Mei; Slattery, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This article is a summary of comprehensive units on gender and sexuality diversity that the authors have used in teacher education courses in undergraduate and graduate social foundations of education classes over several years. The course lesson plan includes a five-part analysis of the following categories: biological sex; gender identity/sexual…

  10. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype Among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ellen A; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children, and in accordance with our developmental intergroup theoretical framework, were related to children's cognitive development and media exposure. Study 2 (N = 155) replicated the previous findings using more ecologically valid and realistic images of girls and further explored individual differences in the endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. Additional results indicated that the belief that girls should be appearance focused predicted their endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Dementia, women and sexuality: How the intersection of ageing, gender and sexuality magnify dementia concerns among lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Sue

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the significance of socio-cultural context for the experiences of an individual living with dementia. There is, too, an emergent awareness that dementia is a gendered issue, disproportionately affecting women compared with men. However, little attention has been given as yet to the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women living with dementia. This article addresses this gap in knowledge, exploring the significance of the intersection of ageing, gender and sexuality for lesbian and bisexual women with dementia. It suggests that stigma and social marginalisation associated with dementia and with ageing, gender and sexuality intersect to compound the social exclusion of lesbians and bisexual women. This has implications for early diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, community care policy, which is predicated on heterosexist norms fails to take into account older lesbians and bisexual women's support networks and so is less likely to be attuned to their needs. Residential care provision is perceived by older lesbians and bisexual women as being heteronormative at best and homophobic at worst. Services which do not recognise, validate and support their identities will compound their anxiety, confusion and distress. This may be contrary to Equality and Human Rights legislation and UK social policies. This paper draws upon, and analyses, extracts from a range of authorship, synthesising the material to present novel insights into the significance of gender and sexuality for the experience of dementia and dementia care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Sexuality and Gender Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M.

    2014-01-01

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum d...

  13. Connecticut – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A Connecticut statute bans employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. No Connecticut statutes prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. In November 2000, the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities – the agency responsible for administering the anti-discrimination statutes and for processing discrimination complaints – ruled that statutes prohibiting sex discrimination also banned discrimination on the basis of gender identity. ...

  14. What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

  15. Making Digital Cultures of Gender and Sexuality With Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Burgess

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a special issue concerning the interweaving of gender, sexuality, and social media. There are 10 articles included in the issue which together map out a landscape of diverse areas of interest covering topics such as sexism and harassment, health and wellbeing, relationships, and leisure.

  16. Explaining Self-Harm: Youth Cybertalk and Marginalized Sexualities and Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Piela, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates self-harm among young lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) people. Using qualitative virtual methods, we examined online forums to explore young LGBT people's cybertalk about emotional distress and self-harming. We investigated how youth explained the relationship between self-harm and sexuality and gender. We found…

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Premarital Sexual Attitudes of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined age and gender differences in the premarital sexual attitudes exhibited by adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 1044 participants in four age categories were drawn from 4 secondary schools and 4 universities all located within three states of South-West ...

  18. Sexual dysfunctions in people with first-episode psychosis assessed according to a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Usall, Judith; Dolz, Montse; Limoncin, Erika; Gravina, Giovanni L; Carosa, Eleonora; Sánchez, Bernardo; Barajas, Ana; Baños, Iris; Huerta, Elena; Farreny, Aida; Franchi, Camilla; Group, Genipe; Ochoa, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic mental disorders often can suffer from sexual dysfunction. Nevertheless, the sexual functioning of new patients with first-episode psychosis has been little explored. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in sexual functioning in people with first-episode psychosis. A group of 40 males and 37 females with first-episode psychosis took part in the research. We administered a psychiatric protocol composed of the PANSS, UKU and SCID-DSM-IV diagnosis. We found that the 42.5% of the male group had sexual dysfunctions while the percentage of the female group was 37.8%. The correlation between sexual dysfunctions and psychopathology did not reveal any association in males. However, in females, general psychopathology and positive symptoms are linked to the alteration of vaginal lubrication: (r=0.547; p=0.003) and (r=0.485; p=0.011), although orgasm alteration was also associated with general psychopathology (r=0.500; p=0.013). Moreover, we found a relation between the alteration of vaginal lubrication with depression(r=0.627; p<0.0001) and disorder of volition (r=0.600; p<0.001). These data suggest that the association between sexual dysfunctions and psychopathology regarded only women. Therefore, during the taking charge of patients it is fundamental to consider the gender-specific relationship between psychopathology and sexual problems.

  19. A population-based study of sexual orientation identity and gender differences in adult health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conron, Kerith J; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Landers, Stewart J

    2010-10-01

    We provide estimates of several leading US adult health indicators by sexual orientation identity and gender to fill gaps in the current literature. We aggregated data from the 2001-2008 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance surveys (N = 67,359) to examine patterns in self-reported health by sexual orientation identity and gender, using multivariable logistic regression. Compared with heterosexuals, sexual minorities (i.e., gays/lesbians, 2% of sample; bisexuals, 1%) were more likely to report activity limitation, tension or worry, smoking, drug use, asthma, lifetime sexual victimization, and HIV testing, but did not differ on 3-year Papanicolaou tests, lifetime mammography, diabetes, or heart disease. Compared with heterosexuals, bisexuals reported more barriers to health care, current sadness, past-year suicidal ideation, and cardiovascular disease risk. Gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese and to obtain prostate-specific antigen tests, and lesbians were more likely to be obese and to report multiple risks for cardiovascular disease. Binge drinking and lifetime physical intimate partner victimization were more common among bisexual women. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic disease risk, victimization, health care access, mental health, and smoking merit increased attention. More research on heterogeneity in health and health determinants among sexual minorities is needed.

  20. Opinions on sexual and gender diversity in the Netherlands and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper

    2018-01-01

    Original title: "Opvattingen over seksuele en genderdiversiteit in Nederland en Europa" This report describes the attitudes of the Dutch public to sexual and gender diversity based on the most recent and reliable figures. It looks at opinions on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender

  1. "I'm not gay. . . . I'm a real man!": Heterosexual Men's Gender Self-Esteem and Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Mugny, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Five studies examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men, but not heterosexual women, endorse negative attitudes toward homosexuality (i.e., sexual prejudice) in order to maintain a positive gender-related identity that is unambiguously different from a homosexual identity. Studies 1 and 2 showed that men's (but not women's) gender self-esteem (but not personal self-esteem) was positively related to sexual prejudice: The more positive heterosexual men's gender self-esteem, the more negative their attitude toward homosexuality. Studies 3 and 4 showed that this link appears specifically among men motivated to maintain psychological distance from gay men. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the perceived biological differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. The previously observed link between men's gender self-esteem and sexual prejudice appeared in the control and no-differences conditions but disappeared in the differences condition. These findings are discussed in terms of men's attitudes as a defensive function against threat to masculinity.

  2. Gender influence on perceptions of hostile environment sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, C L; Bensko, N L; Bell, P A; Viney, W; Woody, W D

    1995-08-01

    Perceptions of sexual harassment were investigated as a function of perpetrators' and recipients' gender. Undergraduate students (100 women, 98 men) were presented 34 scenarios of men and women interacting at work. Participants were asked to read carefully each scenario and indicate on a scale anchored by 1 (strongly disagree) and 7 (strongly agree) their opinions as to whether the scenario represented an incident of sexual harassment. Analysis indicated that women rated "hostile environment" scenarios as more harassing than men, and male perpetrators were rated as more harassing than female perpetrators. Even though some scenarios were rated as more harassing than others, the full range of the 7-point scale was used on every scenario, indicating a lack of agreement on what constitutes harassment. This lack of agreement highlights the debate within the legal community about whether the "reasonable person" or the "reasonable woman" standard should be used to judge sexual harassment in the workplace.

  3. Gender Differences in the Association between Conduct Disorder and Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Ewing, Brett A.; Storholm, Erik D.; Parast, Layla; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite suggestions that there are gender differences in the association between conduct disorder (CD) and risky sexual behavior, limited empirical research has examined this question. Youth (N = 616) were recruited from four primary care clinics and completed questions related to risky sexual behavior, alcohol and marijuana use, and CD. Results of stratified multivariate models indicated that the association between CD and having four or more lifetime partners, having two or more partners in the last 3 months, and engaging in condomless sex was stronger among female youth. However, association between CD and alcohol and other drug use before sex was stronger in male youth. This is an important contribution to our understanding of gender-specific manifestations of conduct disorder, and has the potential to inform screening and brief intervention efforts for this population. PMID:28182979

  4. Language, gender, and sexual orientation: Gender-specific features of discursive styles of homosexual users of an internet forum

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Biljana

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether and in which way homosexual people rely on gender-specific style characteristics when communicating in the internet environment. It is assumed that the basis of differences in language practices is not some identity category (either gender or sexual), that uses these practices only as a means of expression. Instead, language is seen as a resource that allows us to respond to a variety of communication situations. The methodological framework for col...

  5. Gay Penguins, Sissy Ducklings ... and Beyond? Exploring Gender and Sexuality Diversity through Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Renée

    2016-01-01

    From 2006 to 2008 UK-based primary school teachers in the "No Outsiders" project explored possibilities for addressing sexualities equality in their classrooms. What all teachers had in common was a resource pack that included 27 children's books exploring themes of gender and sexuality diversity either directly or indirectly (i.e. by…

  6. Discourses Governing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, and Asexual Teachers' Disclosure of Sexual Orientation and Gender History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower-Phipps, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) individuals, yet schools remain institutions where sexual and gender diversity are marginalized and/or silenced. Queer theory, a non-linear theory that disrupts dominant beliefs about gender and sexuality and what…

  7. The “Fake Marriage” Test in Taiwan: Gender, Sexuality, and Border Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hua Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many reports, migrant sex workers often use marriages of convenience to cross national borders in order to avoid laws criminalizing commercial sex in many destination countries. Taiwan is one of the countries developing strategies to prevent this illicit migration, particularly through the application of a fake marriage test. Based on in-depth interviews with eighteen Chinese migrant sex workers and thirteen officers of Taiwan’s National Immigration Agency (NIA, this article argues, first, that the discourse of “national security” has been widely drawn on to justify Taiwan’s rigid border control at the expense of stigmatized Chinese prostitutes who have been scapegoated. Border control is therefore not only racialized or classed but also sexualized, to the extent that all Chinese migrant women are considered potential prostitutes. Second, this article reveals how the exclusion of and hostility toward Chinese sex workers are simultaneously linked with a gender regime that seeks to exclude Chinese spouses who deviate from Taiwanese gender and social norms. The border is therefore a contested site where gender, sexuality, and nationality are interwoven.

  8. Gender analysis of sexual behaviour of senior high-school students in Skopje, R. Macedonia - cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, B; Donev, D; Spasovski, M

    2009-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The aim of the study was to assess the gender influence on the main determinants of sexual behaviour of senior high-school students in Skopje, R. Macedonia (prevalence and age of onset of sexual activity, duration of the relationship before and the contraceptive method used during the first sexual intercourse, and number of lifetime sexual partners). After ensuring privacy and confidentiality, a cross-sectional study was carried out in Skopje by enrolling 310 high-school students (49.7% males, 49% females, 1.3% unknown) from 5 randomly selected high-schools, from the 4th grade, using a 32-item paper-and-pencil self administered questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual activity was higher among boys than girls (when reaching grade 4 of the study 62.7% of the boys and 26.7% of the girls are sexually active) (p boys and 17 years for girls; concerning the duration of the relationship before the first sexual intercourse 33% of the boys and 2.5% of the girls had experienced one-night stand relationship (p boys and 5% of the girls (p boys and 15.5% of the girls did not start with sexual activity because they did not have a chance (p boys and 79.1% of the girls felt unprepared (p Boys and girls are vulnerable at different times in their development and hence need to be reached with different public health interventions for improving their sexual and reproductive health, adapted to local cultural and gender norms. Key words: Macedonia, high-school students, sexual behaviour, gender.

  9. Prevalence of Past-Year Sexual Assault Victimization Among Undergraduate Students: Exploring Differences by and Intersections of Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Mair, Christina; Miller, Elizabeth; Blosnich, John R; Matthews, Derrick D; McCauley, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    A critical step in developing sexual assault prevention and treatment is identifying groups at high risk for sexual assault. We explored the independent and interaction effects of sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity on past-year sexual assault among college students. From 2011 to 2013, 71,421 undergraduate students from 120 US post-secondary education institutions completed cross-sectional surveys. We fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine differences in past-year sexual assault. Compared to cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) men, cisgender women (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.29, 2.68) and transgender people (AOR = 3.93; 95% CI 2.68, 5.76) had higher odds of sexual assault. Among cisgender people, gays/lesbians had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals for men (AOR = 3.50; 95% CI 2.81, 4.35) but not for women (AOR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.87, 1.46). People unsure of their sexual identity had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals, but effects were larger among cisgender men (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.10, 4.08) than cisgender women (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.40, 2.02). Bisexuals had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals with similar magnitude among cisgender men (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 2.37, 4.27) and women (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI 2.05, 2.60). Among transgender people, Blacks had higher odds of sexual assault than Whites (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI 1.09, 62.82). Predicted probabilities of sexual assault ranged from 2.6 (API cisgender men) to 57.7% (Black transgender people). Epidemiologic research and interventions should consider intersections of gender identity, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity to better tailor sexual assault prevention and treatment for college students.

  10. Meeting the Needs of Sexual and Gender Minority Youth: Formative Research on Potential Digital Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Jessica; Root-Bowman, Meredith; Estabrook, Sherry; Levine, Deborah S; Kantor, Leslie M

    2017-05-01

    Sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) have unique risk factors and worse health outcomes than their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. SGMY's significant online activity represents an opportunity for digital interventions. To help meet the sex education and health needs of SGMY and to understand what they consider important, formative research was conducted to guide and inform the development of new digital health interventions. Semistructured interviews, in-person focus groups, and online focus groups were conducted with 92 youths (aged 15-19 years) who self-identify as nonheterosexual, noncisgender, questioning, and/or have engaged in same-sex sexual behavior. Data were coded and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Thematic analysis revealed that SGMYs are often driven online by experiences of isolation, stigmatization, and lack of information and are looking for a supportive, validating community and relevant, accurate information. Gender minority youths felt that they faced a larger number of and more extreme incidences of discrimination than sexual minority youths. Most youths described interpersonal discrimination as having substantial negative effects on their mental health. Any digital intervention for SGMY should focus on mental health and well-being holistically rather than solely on risk behaviors, such as preventing HIV. Interventions should include opportunities for interpersonal connection, foster a sense of belonging, and provide accurate information about sexuality and gender to help facilitate positive identity development. Content and delivery of digital interventions should appeal to diverse sexualities, genders, and other intersecting identities held by SGMY to avoid further alienation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity disparities in heterosexual and sexual minority youth ages 12-22 years old: roles of childhood gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Roberts, Andrea L; Corliss, Heather L; Blood, Emily A; Kroshus, Emily; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity is an important health determinant. Little is known about sexual orientation differences in physical activity and their psychosocial determinants. The aim of this study is to examine adolescent and young adult hours/week of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and team sports participation by sexual orientation and investigate contributions of gender nonconformity and low athletic self-esteem to possible sexual orientation differences. Analysis of data from 5,272 males and 7,507 females from 1999 to 2005 waves of the US Growing Up Today Study (ages 12-22 years). Sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) reported 1.21-2.62 h/week less MVPA (p gender heterosexuals. Gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem accounted for 46-100 % of sexual orientation MVPA differences. Physical activity contexts should be modified to welcome sexual minority males and females. Targeting intolerance of gender nonconformity and fostering athletic self-esteem may mitigate sexual orientation MVPA disparities.

  12. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Gendered sexual uses of alcohol and associated risks: a qualitative study of Nigerian University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka W. Dumbili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse among young people is a global phenomenon. In many countries, young people engage in heavy drinking and this exacerbates risky sexual behaviour. In Nigeria, alcohol held multiple roles in the traditional era but was mainly consumed by adult males for pleasure. Adult females and young people were culturally constrained from drinking in most communities. In contemporary Nigeria, young people’s drinking is increasing, and many engage in sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol. Methods This study draws on the traditional gender and social sexual scripts to explore the factors that motivate young people to use alcohol for sexual purposes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 to 23-year old male and female undergraduate students from a Nigerian university. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVivo 10 software. Results Men drink to become confident to initiate sexual relationships, stimulate sexual urges, prolong erection, increase sexual satisfaction and become more aggressive during sexual intercourse. Women also drink to be bold in initiating sexual relationships, for sexual arousal and to increase satisfaction. Relatedly, not every brand of alcohol is used for sexual purposes. For example, while men use ‘herbal’ alcoholic beverages and a mixture of locally-produced gin and marijuana, women use champagne and other flavoured alcoholic beverages. The results also revealed that young people use alcohol or salt in a bid to prevent conception after sexual intercourse. Conclusions Adherence to the traditional gender (masculinity and social sexual scripts amongst men and the enactment of what appears to be a new form of femininity script amongst women contribute to a culturally specific understanding of the motivations to use alcohol for sexual purposes. Evidence-based strategies should be employed to distribute information about the consequences of sexual intercourse under the influence

  14. Identity, self-regulation, and gender inequality: Sexual and reproductive health and rights of Adolescent girls and Female sex workers In South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Many sexual and reproductive health inequities are rooted in gender inequality that place women in South Africa, especially adolescent girls and sex workers, at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Gender inequality causes multiple layers of stigma, discrimination, and marginalisation, including misuse of criminal law, gender-based and sexual violence, and denial of sexual and reproductive health rights, which continue to create barriers to realising these rights. This thesis adopts a social a...

  15. (W)righting women: constructions of gender, sexuality and race in the psychiatric chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Andrea; Costa, Lucy; Ross, Lori

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the interpretative nature of psychiatry in relation to gender, sexuality and race within the particular time and place of one urban, Canadian, clinical psychiatric setting. We bring women's psychiatric inpatient charts and a critical feminist perspective into dialogue in an effort to focus on gender, sexuality and race in psychiatric narratives on women's madness. The research used a qualitative, retrospective research design to examine the psychiatric narrative as a technique of power as it operates on women. This paper focuses on the overarching theme of 'medicalisation', identified from the analysis of women's psychiatric inpatient charts, including two subthemes: (1) language and composition and (2) decontextualisation. Our analysis suggests that psychiatric chart documentation practices that reproduce gendered, sexualised, and racialised biases and assumptions and decontextualise the social and structural context of women's experiences of madness serve to create the paradox of women's visibility/erasure in psychiatric charts. The paper concludes with an exploration of the significance of women's authorship legitimacy in psychiatric chart documentation.

  16. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMoleiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both DSM and ICD, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  17. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender Relations and Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Michael Crichton's "Disclosure" as a Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to use Michael Crichton's novel "Disclosure" and the film based on it for class discussions of such issues as what constitutes sexual harassment, harassment of men, relationship between sexual harassment and power, organizational responses to harassment, and gender differences in career advancement tactics. (SK)

  19. Workplace sexual harassment in two general hospitals in Taiwan: the incidence, perception, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Chih-Ken; Sheng, Yi-Chen; Lu, Pei-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Huei-Jun; Lin, Jyh-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine sexual harassment (SH) among hospital staffs in Taiwan, in terms of three-month incidence rate, the frequency of each type and the perception of SH, perpetrated by coworkers, patients and patients' families and to investigate the gender differences for these issues. The subjects were employees at two general hospitals in Taiwan. The self-administered "Hospital Sexual Harassment Questionnaire" was sent to eligible staff, and the voluntary respondents answered the questionnaire anonymously. There were 536 respondents available for analysis, with an overall response rate of 43.4%. The three-month incidence rates of SH by coworkers, patients, and patients' families in our study population were 2.4, 4.3, and 1.7%, respectively. Telling sexual jokes was the most common type of SH. The males had greater opportunities to be exposed to porn videos by their coworkers. The females were more frequently exposed to sex jokes and remarks made by patients and their family members and unwanted physical touching by patients in the workplace. There were significant differences with regard to the perception of sex jokes and sexually explicit verbal descriptions as SH or not between genders. The information in this study can be a helpful reference for administrators in hospitals when they are establishing education plans and policies. It might be possible to prevent sexual harassment and misunderstandings between genders and to further avoid the negative impact on the emotional well-being of workers in hospitals.

  20. Emotional responses to sexual and emotional infidelity: constants and differences across genders, samples, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabini, John; Green, Melanie C

    2004-11-01

    In three studies (total N = 619), the authors tested an evolutionary hypothesis: Men are more bothered by sexual than emotional infidelity, whereas the reverse is true of women. More diverse samples (in age) and measures than is typical were used. In Study 1, the authors found across gender, sample, and method that sexual infidelity was associated with anger and blame, but emotional infidelity was associated with hurt feelings. The evolutionary effect was replicated with undergraduates but not with the nonstudent sample. In Study 2, narrative scenarios were used; it was found that nonstudent men and women were more hurt and upset by emotional infidelity but were made angrier by sexual infidelity. In Study 3, using Likert-type scales, scenarios, and a nonstudent sample, it was found that both genders were more upset, hurt, and angrier about sexual than emotional transgressions when rating one kind without hearing the opposite type. The implications for how emotional responses evolved are discussed.

  1. Exploring gender differences in body image, eating pathology, and sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nicole T; Bluestein, Brooke M; Nappa, Alexa C; Woods, Krystle C; Depatie, Melissa M

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between body image (weight/shape concerns), eating pathology, and sexual harassment among men and women (N=2446). Hierarchical regressions controlling for depression revealed main effects of gender such that women reported greater weight/shape concerns, eating pathology, dietary restraint, eating concerns, and binge eating compared to men. Main effects for sexual harassment indicated that as harassment increased, participants reported increased weight/shape concerns, eating pathology, dietary restraint, eating concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors. There were small but significant interactions between gender and harassment for eating pathology total score (which included each of the domains listed above), weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and eating concerns such that the relationship between increased harassment and increased pathology was stronger for women compared to men. The largest interaction was found for compensatory behaviors, such that while women and men's scores both increased as harassment increased, the relationship was stronger for men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Empirically Supported Interventions for Sexual and Gender Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ashley; Craig, Shelley L

    2015-01-01

    When empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are effectively adapted for use with minority populations, they may be more efficacious. As such, there is a need to adapt existing ESTs for use with diverse sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY). The unique bias-based challenges faced by SGMY require the integration of affirmative practices into ESTs to effectively address the specific needs of this underserved group of youth. The primary purpose of the authors in this article is to present a clearly articulated stakeholder driven model for developing an affirmative adapted version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for use with diverse SGMY. The authors' approach to adaptation follows the "adapt and evaluate" framework for enhancing cultural congruence of interventions for minority groups. A community based participatory research approach, consistent with a stakeholder driven process, is utilized to develop the intervention from the ground up through the voices of the target community. Researchers conducted 3 focus groups with culturally diverse SGMY to explore salient aspects of youths' cultural and SGM identities in order to inform the intervention and ensure its applicability to a wide range of SGMY. Focus group data is analyzed and integrated into an existing group-based CBT intervention. The following themes emerge as critical to affirmative work with diverse SGMY: (1) the interplay between cultural norms, gender norms, sexual orientation, and gender identity; (2) the complex role of religious community within the lives of SGMY; and (3) consideration of extended family and cultural community as youth navigate their SGM identities.

  3. "Girls need to behave like girls you know": the complexities of applying a gender justice goal within sexuality education in South African schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabaza, Sisa; Shefer, Tamara; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2016-11-01

    Sexuality education, as a component within the Life Orientation (LO) programme in South African schools, is intended to provide young people with knowledge and skills to make informed choices about their sexuality, their own health and that of others. Key to the programme are outcomes relating to power, power relations and gender. In this paper, we apply a critical gender lens to explore the ways in which the teaching of sexuality education engages with larger goals of gender justice. The paper draws from a number of ethnographic studies conducted at 12 South African schools. We focus here on the data collected from focus group discussions with learners, and semi-structured interviews with individual learners, principals and Life Orientation (LO) teachers. The paper highlights the complexities of having gender justice as a central goal of LO sexuality education. Teaching sexuality education is reported to contradict dominant community values and norms. Although some principals and school authorities support gender equity and problematize hegemonic masculinities, learners experience sexuality education as upholding normative gender roles and male power, rather than challenging it. Teachers rely heavily on cautionary messages that put more responsibility for reproductive health on female learners, and use didactic, authoritative pedagogical techniques, which do not acknowledge young people's experience nor facilitate their sexual agency. These complexities need to be foregrounded and worked with systematically if the goal of gender justice within LO is to be realised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The reasonable woman standard: a meta-analytic review of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, J A

    1998-02-01

    Courts and legislatures have begun to develop the "reasonable woman standard" (RWS) as a criterion for deciding sexual harassment trials. This standard rests on assumptions of a "wide divergence" between the perceptions of men and women when viewing social-sexual behavior that may be considered harassing. Narrative reviews of the literature on such perceptions have suggested that these assumptions are only minimally supported. To test these assumptions quantitatively, a meta-analytic review was conducted that assessed the size, stability, and moderators of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment. The effect of the actor's status relative to the target also was evaluated meta-analytically, as one alternative to the importance of gender effects. Results supported the claims of narrative reviews for a relatively small gender effect, and draw attention to the status effect. In discussing legal implications of the present findings, earlier claims are echoed suggesting caution in establishing the reasonable woman standard, and one alternative to the RWS, the "reasonable victim standard," is discussed.

  5. A quantitative study on gender differences in disclosing child sexual abuse and reasons for nondisclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the available literature on disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA), little is known about how gender affects disclosure. This article aims to quantitatively examine whether gender differences exist in formal (to legal or child protection authorities) and informal (to a family member or

  6. Endorsement and Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones Among Sexual Minority Young Adults in the Growing Up Today Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-02-01

    This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1,235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that women were more likely than men to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, men reached milestones earlier than women, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience.

  7. Endorsement and Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones Among Sexual Minority Young Adults in the Growing Up Today Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S. Bryn

    2017-01-01

    This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that females were more likely than males to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, males reached milestones earlier than females, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. PMID:27148762

  8. Sexual and Reproductive Health Education Needs, Gender Roles Attitudes and Acceptance of Couple Violence According to Engaged Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun; Kok, Gulsah; Guvenc, Gulten; Ozdemir, Funda; Gonenc, Ilknur Munevver; Hicyilmaz, Basak Demirtas; Sezer, Neslihan Yılmaz

    2018-04-01

    This descriptive study was aimed to evaluate the attitudes of the engaged men and women who are of legal age to marry towards gender roles and acceptance of couple violence, and determine their sexual/reproductive health education needs. It was conducted in two marriage registry offices in Ankara, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 740 participants. Data were collected by using semi-structured form, Gender Roles Attitude Scale and Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale. It was found that the engaged couples had educational needs concerning sexual/reproductive health; socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, residence, and income level created significant differences in the attitudes related to accepting gender roles and violence; and having an egalitarian attitude towards gender roles decreased the rate of accepting violence between the couples. Results indicate that premarital counseling is a promising strategy to support engaged couples' sexual/reproductive health needs, and increase their awareness about gender based couple violence in communities.

  9. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  10. The Relationship Between Endorsement of the Sexual Double Standard and Sexual Cognitions and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    Sexual gender norms promoting sexual prowess for men, but sexual modesty for women have been shown to negatively affect sexual and mental health in both men and women. Knowledge about the relationship between gender norms and sexual cognitions and emotions might further the understanding of continued gender-norm conformity. In the present study, we investigated whether and how gendered sexual attitudes are related to (positive and negative) sex-related emotions, via sexual cognitions (autonomy, body esteem, and approach/avoidance motives for sex). A survey was submitted to 293 heterosexually identified, sexually active, Dutch (central and southern regions) 18-25 year-olds. Results from a moderated mediation model (using structural equation modeling) revealed that women, but not men, who more strongly endorsed traditional gender-related sexual attitudes experienced significantly less positive and more negative emotions, as a result of decreased sexual autonomy and sexual body esteem as well as increased avoidance motives for sex. We conclude that, as a result of negative cognitions associated with the endorsement of traditional gender norms, women in particular are at risk of experiencing negative emotional outcomes in the sexual context. We argue that sexual cognitions and emotions deserve explicit attention in sex-positive and gender-transformative sexuality education, which has been proven to be a vital resource for achieving increased gender-equity in sexual and romantic relationships.

  11. Gender Difference or Indifference? Detective Decision Making in Sexual Assault Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderden, Megan A.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research examining sexual assault case decision making has failed to account for the demographic characteristics of the criminal justice practitioners charged with making case decisions. Inclusion of such information is important because it provides researchers with a greater understanding of how criminal justice practitioners' own gender,…

  12. Views from both sides of the bridge? Gender, sexual legitimacy and transgender people's experiences of relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iantaffi, Alex; Bockting, Walter O

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine whether transgender people's experiences of relationships are influenced by heteronormativity, the related concept of sexual legitimacy, and gender as a binary construct. Data from an Internet-based study of transgender people in the USA was used. Findings seem to indicate that participants were strongly influenced by heteronormative discourses. However, less rigid gender beliefs are associated with lower levels of internalised transphobia, which, in turn, are associated with higher levels of self-esteem. Transgender people can therefore find themselves in a double-bind where, on one hand, conforming to gender and sexual norms leads to validation by mainstream US society, but could possibly entail diminished psychological well-being.

  13. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-06-24

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school.Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted.The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender-power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.

  14. Gendered experiences of sexual abuse of teenagers and children in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Sonia M; Erviti, Joaquina

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence in a national representative sample of Mexican youngsters is examined from a gender perspective using data from the 2007 National Survey on Exclusion, Intolerance and Violence in Public Institutions of High School Level Education. Of those surveyed, 1.76% were forced into their first experience of intercourse, and 6.43% had their genitalia touched or their first sexual interaction imposed against their will. In this sample, 6.82% had experienced sexual abuse before the age of 18. Child sexual abuse was most commonly perpetrated by family members and neighbors. Only 20% reported being abused by an unknown person. Males and females had different victimization experiences. Forty percent disclosed information about the abuse to another person, and 7% reported their experiences to law enforcement agencies. Males and females stated different reasons for not disclosing. These findings are discussed within the context of the social construction of the male and female body and sexuality in the Mexican context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  16. Association of gender norms, relationship and intrapersonal variables, and acculturation with sexual communication among young adult Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    Sexual communication is an important strategy in promoting safer sex behavior, but few investigators have explored sexual communication among young adult Latinos. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the role of traditional gender norms, relationship factors (relationship characteristics and relationship power), intrapersonal factors (attitudes and subjective norms), and acculturation as statistical predictors of three different types of sexual communication (sexual health, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication) in Latino women and men. The sample was 220 Latinos (111 women and 109 men) ages 18-30 years who were sexually active in heterosexual relationships. In multiple regression, after controlling for relationship power, intrapersonal factors, and acculturation, traditional gender norms did not predict sexual communication for either women or men. For both women and men, pleasure-focused communication (pleasure discussions and physical sexual communication) increased with acculturation. For women, the strongest predictor of all types of sexual communication was their attitudes toward sexual communication. Greater relationship power and lower acculturation were associated with women's sexual health communication. For men, no variables explained sexual health communication or physical sexual communication, and acculturation and attitude toward pleasure discussions predicted pleasure communication. Women who believed they had power in their relationships and had positive attitudes toward pleasure discussions and a high level of acculturation reported more physical sexual communication. Findings suggest the importance of relationship power, attitudes, and acculturation in young adult Latinos' sexual communication. Sexual risk prevention strategies among young adult Latinos should include encouraging sexual communication by supporting positive attitudes toward pleasure-focused communication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley

  17. Gender Policing During Childhood and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Sexual Minority Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men ( N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress. Over one third of the sample (37.8%) reported their parent(s) or the person(s) who raised them had policed their gender, including the use of disciplinary actions. Using multivariable regression, this study examined the relationship between parental gender policing and psychological well-being and substance use, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and current student status. Gender policing during childhood and adolescence was associated with recent substance use behaviors and psychological distress in multivariable models. A linear association between substance use behaviors and psychological distress and the number of disciplinary actions experienced during childhood and adolescence was also observed. Parents' attempts to police their sons' gender expression were associated with markers of distress among young sexual minority men. The relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and distress among young sexual minority men are discussed.

  18. Sexual orientation, gender identity, and romantic relationships in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth.

  19. “Shake It Baby, Shake It”: Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique

    2010-01-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents’ permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes. PMID:21212809

  20. Human Right to Education: The Inclusion of Gender Theme and Sexualities in Education Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Duro Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the evolution of the propositions that led to Law 13,005 / 2014, corresponding to the National Education Plan, and in what political context was given the construction of the possibility that it be approved without the guideline which provided for overcoming educational inequalities with emphasis on promoting racial equality, regional, gender and sexual orientation, trying to question the ideological crusade that has mobilized against the inclusion of what they called "gender ideology" as a real affront to fundamental constitutional rights, which put education in human rights and level as the non-inclusion of gender discussions and sexualities impossible to take effect guaranteeing the constitutional principles of equality, respect for diversity and the construction of a guided education on solidarity and social justice. Thus, within this diversity of approaches, it discusses-theoretical and methodological frameworks with an emphasis on cultural studies. The study proposed herein it is a fragment of a wider investigation that aims to map and discuss the fields of educational policies, gender and sexuality, in order to make possible the realization of education as a fundamental social right. These primarily qualitative approach of research will center around the analysis of the topics, theoretical and methodological frameworks and academic affiliation of the authors, signaling paths for future studies that will permit greater dialogue between the graduate production and social quality of law teaching in Brazil.

  1. Gender differences in self-reported drinking-induced disinhibition of sexual behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    administered the Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale (DIDS). We made several comparisons of behavioral patterns using the ARSD scale of the DIDS for each gender: kissing or having sex vs. no sexual contact, or having sex versus kissing or no contact. In general, men reported more ARSD than women. Men who......Sex and drinking go hand-in-hand in Western societies. Men also tend to report more sexual disinhibition under the influence of alcohol and drugs than women. At a vacation resort,we conducted a survey of young men and women regarding self-reported alcohol-related sexual disinhibition (ARSD), and we...... reported either kissing or having sex the night before reported significantly more ARSD than men not reporting either kissing or having sex. Women who had had sex the night before reported more ARSD than women who had either kissed or not reported any sexual contact on the night before, but women who had...

  2. Depressive symptoms among Hong Kong adolescents: relation to atypical sexual feelings and behaviors, gender dissatisfaction, pubertal timing, and family and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T H; Stewart, Sunita M; Leung, Gabriel M; Lee, Peter W H; Wong, Joy P S; Ho, L M; Youth Sexuality Task Force

    2004-10-01

    A representative community sample of Hong Kong boys (n = 1,024) and girls (n = 1,403), age 14-18 years, provided information regarding same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, pubertal timing, early experience with sexual intercourse, and depressive symptoms. They also rated the quality of their family and peer relationships and self-perceived attractiveness. Depressive symptoms were higher in youths reporting same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, early pubertal maturation, and early sexual intercourse. Family relationships were less satisfactory for those who reported same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, and early sexual intercourse, and peer relationships were also worse for those who reported gender dissatisfaction. In multivariate analyses, same-sex attraction, early sexual intercourse, and early pubertal maturation were unique and direct contributors to depressive symptoms; however, gender dissatisfaction's association with depressive symptoms was largely accounted for by shared correlations with negative family and peer relationships. The multivariate model explained 11% of the variance of depressive symptoms. These findings offer a preliminary documentation of the prevalence and correlates of atypical sexual self-assessments and behavior among adolescents in Hong Kong. Such information is important if theories of sexual identity and risk factors for depressive symptoms are to have cross-cultural utility. Copyright 2004 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  3. Stories from the field: students' descriptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Florence M; Stratton, Terry D; Nora, Lois Margaret

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have documented the prevalence of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical training, but very few have examined the behaviors that students perceive as discriminatory or harassing. The authors addressed this lack of information by examining graduating medical students' written descriptions of personal experiences with such behaviors during medical school. The authors reviewed the responses of graduating seniors at 12 U.S. medical schools to a questionnaire, administered in 2001-02, that asked them to provide written descriptions of their personal experiences with gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Seven response categories were created on the basis of recurring themes: educational inequalities; stereotypical comments; sexual overtures; offensive, embarrassing, or sexually explicit comments; inappropriate touching; sexist remarks; and not classifiable. The three authors examined the students' written accounts and placed each into one or more of the categories. Of the students' responses, 290 (36.6%) contained 313 written descriptions of personal experiences that the students perceived as either discriminatory or harassing. The most frequently reported experiences involved educational inequalities; experiences in this category were reported more frequently by men than by women. All other categories of experiences were reported more frequently by women. The results support earlier findings of the prevalence of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during undergraduate medical education. Perhaps formal antiharassment policies should provide examples of unacceptable behavior that are based on categories such as those revealed by this analysis. Perhaps, too, medical students' comments could be used to develop educational interventions for physicians in supervisory positions.

  4. Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth: gendered norms and perceived family health risks. Focus group discussions in a Tanzanian suburb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbekenga, Columba K; Pembe, Andrea B; Darj, Elisabeth; Christensson, Kyllike; Olsson, Pia

    2013-01-15

    Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth is a socio-cultural practice with health implications, and is described in several African countries, including Tanzania. This study explored discourses on prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence in relation to family health after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data for the discourse analysis were collected through focus group discussions with first-time mothers and fathers and their support people in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this setting, prolonged sexual abstinence intended at promoting child health was the dominant discourse in the period after childbirth. Sexual relations after childbirth involved the control of sexuality for ensuring family health and avoiding the social implications of non-adherence to sexual abstinence norms. Both abstinence and control were emphasised more with regard to women than to men. Although the traditional discourse on prolonged sexual abstinence for protecting child health was reproduced in Ilala, some modern aspects such as the use of condoms and other contraceptives prevailed in the discussion. Discourses on sexuality after childbirth are instrumental in reproducing gender-power inequalities, with women being subjected to more restrictions and control than men are. Thus, interventions that create openness in discussing sexual relations and health-related matters after childbirth and mitigate gendered norms suppressing women and perpetuating harmful behaviours are needed. The involvement of males in the interventions would benefit men, women, and children through improving the gender relations that promote family health.

  5. Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson TF; Hines, Melissa Marie

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically-referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relationship between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum f...

  6. Gender attitudes, sexual violence, and HIV/AIDS risks among men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C; Kaufman, Michelle; Cain, Demetria; Cherry, Chauncey; Jooste, Sean; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2005-11-01

    This study examined gender attitudes and sexual violence-supportive beliefs (rape myths) in a sample of South African men and women at risk for HIV transmission. Over 40% of women and 16% of men had been sexually assaulted, and more than one in five men openly admitted to having perpetrated sexual assault. Traditional attitudes toward women's social and gender roles, as well as rape myths, were endorsed by a significant minority of both men and women. Multivariate analyses showed that for men, sexual assault history and rape myth acceptance, along with alcohol and other drug use history, were significantly related to cumulative risks for HIV infection. In contrast, although we found that women were at substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, women's risks were only related to lower levels of education and alcohol use history. We speculate that women's risks for STI/HIV are the product of partner characteristics and male-dominated relationships, suggesting the critical importance of intervening with men to reduce women's risks for sexual assault and STI/HIV.

  7. Gender differences? Internet use and parent-child communication about sex toward sexual attitudes among early adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Weng, Chia-Sui; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Chou, Fan-Hao; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2015-06-01

    With the progress of information technology, early adolescents are able to access sex-related information through the Internet easily. This information has been shown to have a significant influence on the sexual health of this population. In addition, parent-child communications about sex affect the sexual health of adolescents. Few empirical studies have focused on early adolescents and gender differences. This study explores gender differences between early adolescents in terms of the use of the Internet to obtain sex-related information, parent-child communication, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. This cross-sectional and comparative study uses an analysis of covariance and a hierarchical regression for data analysis. The researchers recruited 457 sixth-grade boys (n = 204) and girls (n = 253) in southern Taiwan as participants and used a structured questionnaire to collect data. Participants exhibited significant differences in terms of Internet usage behavior, parent-child communications about sex, and sex-related knowledge and sexual attitudes. The male participants spent more time on "recreation and entertainment" activities on the Internet, whereas their female peers spent significantly more time searching for information. Regarding parent-child communications about sex, girls had better mother-child communications than boys. In addition, no gender-based difference was found for father-child communications about sex. The knowledge of physical changes occurring during puberty and of menstrual healthcare among female participants was superior to their male counterparts. Girls had a more informed sexual attitude, particularly with regard to issues of gender roles, relationships with the opposite gender, and the social aspects of sex. Sex-related knowledge and parent-child communication about sex were the two major predictors of sexual attitudes for boys and girls, respectively. To develop healthy sexual attitudes among early adolescents, nursing

  8. School Education and Development of Gender Perspectives and Sexuality in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Noriko; Ushitora, Kaori; Morioka, Mari; Motegi, Terunori; Tanaka, Kazue; Tashiro, Mieko; Inoue, Emiko; Ikeya, Hisao; Sekiguchi, Hisashi; Marui, Yoshimi; Sawamura, Fumika

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in the attitudes of Japan's post-war youth towards gender equality and sexuality, and to examine whether these attitudes bore a relationship to school education. Different generations were delineated based on changes in courses of study and year of birth, and semi-structured interviews were conducted enquiring…

  9. Gender moderates the relationship between impulsivity and sexual risk-taking in a cocaine-using psychiatric outpatient population

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Anne C.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Potenza, Marc N.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Adults who abuse substances are at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Within this population, sexual risk behaviors have been associated with increased impulsivity. Studies in non-clinical populations showing gender-related differences in sexual decision-making and casual sexual partnering suggest impulsivity has a greater influence on men than women, but these differences have not been documented in substance-using patients. In a sample of 89 adult...

  10. Health for All? Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and the Implementation of the Right to Access to Health Care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    The framework of health and human rights provides for a comprehensive theoretical and practical application of general human rights principles in health care contexts that include the well-being of patients, providers, and other individuals within health care. This is particularly important for sexual and gender minority individuals, who experience historical and contemporary systematical marginalization, exclusion, and discrimination in health care contexts. In this paper, I present two case studies from South Africa to (1) highlight the conflicts that arise when sexual and gender minority individuals seek access to a heteronormative health system; (2) discuss the international, regional, and national human rights legal framework as it pertains to sexual orientation, gender identity, and health; and (3) analyze the gap between legislative frameworks that offer protection from discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity and their actual implementation in health service provision. These case studies highlight the complex and intersecting discrimination and marginalization that sexual and gender minority individuals face in health care in this particular context. The issues raised in the case studies are not unique to South Africa, however; and the human rights concerns illustrated therein, particularly around the right to health, have wide resonance in other geographical and social contexts.

  11. Health for All? Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and the Implementation of the Right to Access to Health Care in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The framework of health and human rights provides for a comprehensive theoretical and practical application of general human rights principles in health care contexts that include the well-being of patients, providers, and other individuals within health care. This is particularly important for sexual and gender minority individuals, who experience historical and contemporary systematical marginalization, exclusion, and discrimination in health care contexts. In this paper, I present two case studies from South Africa to (1) highlight the conflicts that arise when sexual and gender minority individuals seek access to a heteronormative health system; (2) discuss the international, regional, and national human rights legal framework as it pertains to sexual orientation, gender identity, and health; and (3) analyze the gap between legislative frameworks that offer protection from discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity and their actual implementation in health service provision. These case studies highlight the complex and intersecting discrimination and marginalization that sexual and gender minority individuals face in health care in this particular context. The issues raised in the case studies are not unique to South Africa, however; and the human rights concerns illustrated therein, particularly around the right to health, have wide resonance in other geographical and social contexts. PMID:28559686

  12. Moderators of the relationship between masculinity and sexual prejudice in men: friendship, gender self-esteem, same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F

    2014-04-01

    Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling.

  13. Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, Alison; Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma; Jackson, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction to Special Issue of Journal of Gender Studies entitled Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: Researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence.

  14. Gender and Daily School: Dilemmas and Prospects of the School Intervention in the Affective-Sexual Socialization of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pereira da Rocha Rosistolato

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the classification of gender used by teachers who develop projects on sexual education in Rio de Janeiro to explain the views and the dilemmas of school intervention in the affective-sexual socialization of adolescents. The empirical material that supports the arguments is composed by 16 in-depth interviews, conducted with teachers responsible for school spaces where sexual education projects are developed in basic schools of Rio de Janeiro: The Centers of Adolescents Multipliers (Núcleos de Adolescentes Multiplicadores-/NAM‘s. Remarks were also made in a training course for teachers who wish to work with sexual education in school. The representations of gender classifications presented range from modern to traditional concerning femininity and masculinity. The projects were coordinated mostly by teachers, and pupils’ participation was basically composed of women. The teachers sought consistency between their performance in school and family spaces. But at the same time that they guided their students to combat the inequalities of gender, they had doubts and uncertainties about the possibility of educating their own children according to ideals of gender equality, especially the sons. Familiar situations contrasted with performances in the classroom, presenting tensions between denial and assertion of masculinity and traditional femininities.

  15. Improving Measures of Sexual and Gender Identity in English and Spanish to Identify LGBT Older Adults in Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Stuart; Milesi, Carolina; Stern, Michael; Viox, Melissa Heim; Morrison, Heather; Guerino, Paul; Dragon, Christina N; Haffer, Samuel C

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this research is to advance the study of health disparities faced by older sexual and gender minorities by assessing comprehension of and improving measures of sexual and gender identity in surveys. Cognitive interviews were conducted by expert interviewers with 48 non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (non-LGBT) and 9 LGBT older English and Spanish speakers. All respondents were able to answer questions about their sex assigned at birth and current gender identity successfully despite some cisgender respondents' lack of clear understanding of the transgender response option. On the contrary, while the vast majority of English speakers could answer the question about their sexual identity successfully, almost 60% of the non-LGBT Spanish speakers did not select the "heterosexual, that is, not gay (or lesbian)" response category. Qualitative probing of their response process pointed mainly to difficulties understanding the term "heterosexual," leading to their choosing "something else" or saying that they didn't know how to answer. A second round of testing of alternative response categories for the sexual identity question with Spanish speakers found a marked improvement when offered "not gay (or lesbian), that is, heterosexual" instead of beginning with the term "heterosexual." This research adds to our understanding of gender and sexual identity questions appropriate for population surveys with older adults. Inclusion of these measures in surveys is a crucial step in advancing insights into the needs of and disparities faced by LGBT older adults.

  16. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Goicolea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school. Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore Aps. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted. The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender–power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.

  17. Anxiety disorders, gender nonconformity, bullying and self-esteem in sexual minority adolescents: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Abbeygail; Robinson, Emily; Oginni, Olakunle; Rahman, Qazi; Rimes, Katharine A

    2017-11-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (i.e. youth not exclusively heterosexual) report more anxiety than heterosexual youth on symptom questionnaires but no research has used standardised diagnostic tools to investigate anxiety disorder risk. This study uses a UK birth cohort to investigate the risk of anxiety disorders in sexual minority and heterosexual youth using a computerised structured clinical interview and explores the influence of gender nonconformity, bullying and self-esteem. Participants were 4,564 adolescents (2,567 girls and 1,996 boys) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between sexual orientation at 15.5 years and the presence of an anxiety disorder at 17.5 years. Covariates including maternal occupation, ethnicity, mother-reported childhood gender nonconformity at 30, 42 and 57 months, child-reported gender nonconformity at 8 years, child-reported bullying between 12 and 16 years and self-esteem at 17.5 years were added sequentially to regression models. Sexual minority adolescents (i.e. those not exclusively heterosexual) had higher early childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), lower self-esteem and reported more bullying than adolescents identifying as 100% heterosexual. Minority sexual orientation at 15.5 years was associated with increased risk of an anxiety disorder at 17.5 years for girls (OR 2.55, CI 1.85-3.52) and boys (OR 2.48, CI 1.40-4.39). Adjusting for ethnicity, maternal occupation, mother-reported and child-reported CGN had minimal impact on this association. Adjusting for bullying between 12 and 16 years and self-esteem at 17.5 years reduced the strength of the associations, although the overall association remained significant for both sexes (girls OR 2.14 and boys OR 1.93). Sexual minority youth are at increased risk of anxiety disorders relative to heterosexual youth at 17.5 years. Bullying between 12-16 years and lower self

  18. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with…

  19. C-Tactile Mediated Erotic Touch Perception Relates to Sexual Desire and Performance in a Gender-Specific Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendas, Johanna; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Ritschel, Gerhard; Olausson, Håkan; Weidner, Kerstin; Croy, Ilona

    2017-05-01

    Unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors-the so-called C-tactile (CT) afferents-play a crucial role in the perception and conduction of caressing and pleasant touch sensations and significantly contribute to the concept of erotic touch perception. To investigate the relations between sexual desire and sexual performance and the perception of touch mediated by CT afferents. Seventy healthy participants (28 men, 42 women; mean age ± SD = 24.84 ± 4.08 years, range = 18-36 years) underwent standardized and highly controlled stroking stimulation that varied in the amount of CT fiber stimulation by changing stroking velocity (CT optimal = 1, 3 and 10 cm/s; CT suboptimal = 0.1, 0.3, and 30 cm/s). Participants rated the perceived pleasantness, eroticism, and intensity of the applied tactile stimulation on a visual analog scale, completed the Sexual Desire Inventory, and answered questions about sexual performance. Ratings of perceived eroticism of touch were related to self-report levels of sexual desire and sexual performance. Pleasantness and eroticism ratings showed similar dependence on stroking velocity that aligned with the activity of CT afferents. Erotic touch perception was related to sexual desire and sexual performance in a gender-specific way. In women, differences in eroticism ratings between CT optimal and suboptimal velocities correlated positively with desire for sexual interaction. In contrast, in men, this difference correlated to a decreased frequency and longer duration of partnered sexual activities. The present results lay the foundation for future research assessing these relations in patients with specific impairments of sexual functioning (eg, hypoactive sexual desire disorder). The strength of the study is the combination of standardized neurophysiologic methods and behavioral data. A clear limitation of the study design is the exclusion of exact data on the female menstrual cycle and the recruitment of an inhomogeneous sample

  20. Stability of Sexual Attractions Across Different Timescales: The Roles of Bisexuality and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M; Dickenson, Janna A; Blair, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    We examined the stability of same-sex and other-sex attractions among 294 heterosexual, lesbian, gay, and bisexual men and women between the ages of 18 and 40 years. Participants used online daily diaries to report the intensity of each day's strongest same-sex and other-sex attraction, and they also reported on changes they recalled experiencing in their attractions since adolescence. We used multilevel dynamical systems models to examine individual differences in the stability of daily attractions (stability, in these models, denotes the tendency for attractions to "self-correct" toward a person-specific setpoint over time). Women's attractions showed less day-to-day stability than men's, consistent with the notion of female sexual fluidity (i.e., heightened erotic sensitivity to situational and contextual influences). Yet, women did not recollect larger post-adolescent changes in sexual attractions than did men, and larger recollected post-adolescent changes did not predict lower day-to-day stability in the sample as a whole. Bisexually attracted individuals recollected larger post-adolescent changes in their attractions, and they showed lower day-to-day stability in attractions to their "less-preferred" gender, compared to individuals with exclusive same-sex or exclusive other-sex attractions. Our results suggest that both gender and bisexuality have independent influences on sexual fluidity, but these influences vary across short versus long timescales, and they also differ for attractions to one's "more-preferred" versus "less-preferred" gender.

  1. Gender differences in the association between conduct disorder and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Ewing, Brett A; Storholm, Erik D; Parast, Layla; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2017-04-01

    Despite suggestions that there are gender differences in the association between conduct disorder (CD) and risky sexual behavior, limited empirical research has examined this question. Youth (N = 616) were recruited from four primary care clinics and completed questions related to risky sexual behavior, alcohol and marijuana use, and CD. Results of stratified multivariate models indicated that the association between CD and having four or more lifetime partners, having two or more partners in the last 3 months, and engaging in condomless sex was stronger among female youth. However, the association between CD and alcohol and other drug use before sex was stronger in male youth. This is an important contribution to our understanding of gender-specific manifestations of conduct disorder, and has the potential to inform screening and brief intervention efforts for this population. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Safer sexual practices among African American women: intersectional socialisation and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L; Blackmon, Sha'Kema; Shiflett, Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    Scholars have posited that childhood socialisation experiences may play a key role in influencing behaviours and attitudes that contribute to the acquisition of HIV. This study examined the links between past ethnic-racial and gender socialisation, sexual assertiveness and the safe sexual practices of African American college women utilising a cluster analytic approach. After identifying separate racial-gender and ethnic-gender socialisation profiles, results indicated that ethnic-gender socialisation cluster profiles were directly associated with sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Greater levels of ethnic socialisation and low traditional gender role socialisation were found to be associated with greater sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Further analysis showed that sexual assertiveness mediated the links between the identified ethnic-gender socialisation profiles and safer sex behaviour. Implications for policy and programme development are discussed.

  3. Responding to Issues of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    It's hard not to notice how attitudes around sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have changed over the past two decades. In this article, Stewart Rudy compares his time as a public school student to his time as a public school educator. Rudy questions whether improvement in the school system has translated into improved experiences for…

  4. Physical Activity Disparities in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Youth Ages 12-22 Years Old: Roles of Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Athletic Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Kroshus, Emily; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is an important health determinant. Little is known about sexual orientation differences in physical activity and their psychosocial determinants. Purpose To examine adolescent and young adult hours/week of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and team sports participation by sexual orientation and investigate contributions of gender nonconformity and low athletic self-esteem to possible sexual orientation differences. Methods Analysis of data from 5,272 males and 7,507 females from 1999-2005 waves of the US Growing Up Today Study (ages 12-22 years). Results Sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) reported 1.21-2.62 hours/week less MVPA (p'sgender heterosexuals. Gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem accounted for 46%-100% of sexual orientation MVPA differences. Conclusions Physical activity contexts should be modified to welcome sexual minority males and females. Targeting intolerance of gender nonconformity and fostering athletic self-esteem may mitigate sexual orientation MVPA disparities. PMID:24347406

  5. An Argument for Teaching a Human Sexuality Course within the Context of a Women and Gender Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, Briana L.

    2012-01-01

    The course proposed is planned as an undergraduate Human Sexuality course within a Women and Gender Studies program. Teaching a course on Human Sexuality with an interdisciplinary approach allows for students to gain knowledge from several different academic disciplines. This course would teach from a sex-positive and holistic view of sexuality as…

  6. "Some of Those Girls Can Be Real Drama Queens": Issues of Gender, Sexual Harassment and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s many feminists working for gender justice in education have highlighted the predominance and seriousness of sexual harassment in schools and condemned the enduring trivialization of such behaviours. This paper develops this body of work by focusing on how issues of sexual harassment are located within prevailing contemporary…

  7. Exploring the role of gender norms in nutrition and sexual health promotion in a piloted school-based intervention: The Philadelphia Ujima™ experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ana; Robertson-James, Candace; Reels, Serita; Jeter, Janay; Rivera, Hilda; Yusuf, Zena; Liu

    2015-08-01

    Perceptions of masculinity and femininity influence behaviors and can be identified in young children and adolescents (Brannon, 2004). Thus, adolescents' engagement in health risk or promoting behaviors is influenced by perceptions of masculinity and femininity and the differences in expectations, norms and responsibilities for girls and boys (WHO, 2007). Girls and boys have different needs, and gender-based interventions that consider similarities as well as differences are needed. A gender-based nutrition and sexual health promotion program was developed and piloted by the Philadelphia Ujima Coalition in a high school setting. To explore the gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of the influence of gender norms on weight, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual health and the implication of these differences in future gender-integrated health promotion programming for youth, a content analysis of student and facilitator debriefing forms were implemented for the participating schools. The content analysis was used to identify central themes, concepts gained, and overall impact of the intervention sessions. Overall, gender norms influence healthy eating practices and activity through influencing perceptions of body type in adolescents. Gender norms also influence sexual activity and decision making through influencing perceptions of beauty, masculinity, femininity, pressures and popular concepts related to sexual activity. Thus, interventions that address gender may more effectively promote health and wellness in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: identity politics or identity risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Edward

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.

  9. Disparities in Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence Among Transgender/Gender Nonconforming and Sexual Minority Primary Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Sarah E; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; King, Dana S; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Marquez, Samantha M; Presley, Cara; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the odds of intimate partner violence (IPV) among primary care patients across subgroups of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals relative to cisgender women, and cisgender sexual minority men and women relative to cisgender heterosexual men and women. Participants completed an IPV screener as part of routine primary care visits at an urban community health center (N = 7572). Electronic medical record data were pooled for all patients who received the IPV screener January 1 to December 31, 2014. Overall, 3.6% of the sample reported experiencing physical or sexual IPV in the past year. Compared to cisgender women (past-year prevalence 2.7%), all TGNC subgroups reported elevated odds of physical or sexual IPV, including transgender women (past-year prevalence 12.1%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-8.6), transgender men (6.6%; AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.6), gender non-binary individuals (8.2%, AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.7-5.4), and TGNC individuals who did not report their gender identity (9.1%; AOR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.2-6.3). The prevalence of isolation-related IPV and controlling behaviors was also high in some TGNC groups. Our findings support that IPV is prevalent across genders and sexual orientations. Clinical guidelines for IPV screening should be expanded to include TGNC individuals and not just cisgender women. Future research could explore the complex patterns by which individuals of different genders are at increased risk for different types of IPV, and investigate the best ways to screen TGNC patients and support TGNC survivors.

  10. Portuguese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual minorities: transphobia, homophobia, and gender role beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N = 188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M = 17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. A/r/tografhic experiences: gender and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borre Nunes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A poetic and narrative text. It tells personal stories that led to intentional and pretentious processes of teaching and learning in the field of visual arts. It is written by a group of producers of images and that through lectures, dialogues and poetic immersion, has sought to think about gender identities, sexualities and visual culture. An a/r/tografhic field provides the basis for our teaching practices and provides the possibility of a collective writing that confuses the authorship, denouncing our memories. The review of texts grounded on the everyday situations demonstrated the power of a Visual Arts teacher training that is based on the acts of learning, researching, being an artist, and teaching visual arts.

  12. Interrelationships between LGBT-Based Victimization, Suicide, and Substance Use Problems in a Diverse Sample of Sexual and Gender Minority Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; O'Cleirigh, C; Bradford, Judith B.

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e., victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity; LGBT) and suicidality. A non-probability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age 19 to 70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, and substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

  13. Gender, Sexual Health Seeking Behavior, and HIV/AIDS Among Tarok Women in North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisaremi, Titilayo Cordelia

    2016-06-01

    In this study, which was part of a larger project I undertook in North-central Nigeria, I explored the differences in the sexual health seeking behavior of Tarok women and men and how these differences affect the spread of HIV. With the help of three research assistants, I conducted 16 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in four Tarok communities in North-central Nigeria. I found certain negative effects of gender inequality on women's sexual health seeking behavior in particular, a situation that has adverse implications for HIV acquisition and transmission. I therefore concluded that addressing the challenges of gender inequality is imperative for a sustained fight against HIV and AIDS in Nigeria.

  14. Testing the Invariance of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's Sexual Behavior Questionnaire Across Gender, Ethnicity/Race, and Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anne Q; Hsueh, Loretta; Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Sotelo, Frank L; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Federal and state policies are based on data from surveys that examine sexual-related cognitions and behaviors through self-reports of attitudes and actions. No study has yet examined their factorial invariance--specifically, whether the relationship between items assessing sexual behavior and their underlying construct differ depending on gender, ethnicity/race, or age. This study examined the factor structure of four items from the sexual behavior questionnaire part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). As NHANES provided different versions of the survey per gender, invariance was tested across gender to determine whether subsequent tests across ethnicity/race and generation could be done across gender. Items were not invariant across gender groups so data files for women and men were not collapsed. Across ethnicity/race for both genders, and across generation for women, items were configurally invariant, and exhibited metric invariance across Latino/Latina and Black participants for both genders. Across generation for men, the configural invariance model could not be identified so the baseline models were examined. The four item one factor model fit well for the Millennial and GenerationX groups but was a poor fit for the baby boomer and silent generation groups, suggesting that gender moderated the invariance across generation. Thus, comparisons between ethnic/racial and generational groups should not be made between the genders or even within gender. Findings highlight the need for programs and interventions that promote a more inclusive definition of "having had sex."

  15. No One Expects a Transgender Jew: Religious, Sexual and Gendered Intersections in the Evaluation of Religious and Nonreligious Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Cragun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While a large body of research has established that there is substantial prejudice against atheists and nonreligious individuals, both in the US and in other countries where nonreligious people are minorities, to date very little research has looked beyond attitudes toward solitary identities (e.g., “atheists” vs. “gay atheists”. Given the growing recognition of the importance of intersectionality in understanding the experiences of minorities, in this article we examined attitudes toward intersected identities, combining five (nonreligious identities (i.e., Christian, Jewish, Muslim, atheist, and nonreligious with four sexual/gender identities (i.e., heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, and transgender using a 100-point thermometer scale (N = 618. We found that sexual/gender identities were more influential in ordering the results than were religious identities, with heterosexual individuals being rated most positively, followed for the most part by: homosexual, bisexual, and then transgender individuals. However, within the sexual/gender identities, (nonreligion ordered the results; Christians and Jewish individuals rated most highly among heterosexuals while nonreligious and atheist individuals rated most highly among transgender individuals. We suggest these results indicate that people believe minority sexual/gender identities “taint” or “pollute” religious identities, unless those religious identities are already perceived as tainted, as is the case for atheists and the nonreligious.

  16. Implementing Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data Collection in Emergency Departments: Patient and Staff Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Kodadek, Lisa; Shields, Ryan; Peterson, Susan; Snyder, Claire; Schneider, Eric; Vail, Laura; Ranjit, Anju; Torain, Maya; Schuur, Jeremiah; Lau, Brandyn; Haider, Adil

    2016-12-01

    To identify patient and provider perspectives concerning collection of sexual orientation and gender identity (SO&GI) information in emergency departments (EDs). Semistructured interviews were conducted during the period of 2014-2015 with a diverse purposive sample of patients across the spectrum of sexual orientation and gender identities (n = 53) and ED nurses, physician assistants, physicians, and registrars (n = 38) in a major metropolitan area. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by multiple coders using constant comparative methods. Patients were willing to provide SO&GI information if collected safely and appropriately, and staff described willingness to collect SO&GI information to inform understanding of health disparities. Key themes across respondents were as follows: What will be done with the data? How will it be collected? Who will collect it? Is the environment conducive to safe disclosure? Confidentiality and potential sensitivity; standardized collection emphasizing population health; nurse intake and/or nonverbal data collection; and environmental cues and cultural competency promoting comfort for sexual and gender minorities emerged as critical considerations for effective implementation. Staff and patients are amenable to SO&GI data collection in EDs, but data quality and patient and provider comfort may be compromised without attention to specific implementation considerations.

  17. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.

  18. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.

  19. Gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment: data from a male-dominated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Amy E; Gradus, Jaimie L; Stafford, Jane; Kelly, Kacie

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental health symptoms. As expected, women reported a higher frequency of sexual harassment. Further, women had increased odds of experiencing all subtypes of sexual harassment. Being female conferred the greatest risk for experiencing the most serious forms of harassment. For both men and women, sexual harassment was associated with more negative current mental health. However, at higher levels of harassment, associations with some negative mental health symptoms were stronger for men than women. Although preliminary, the results of this investigation suggest that although women are harassed more frequently than men, clinicians must increase their awareness of the potential for sexual harassment among men in order to provide the best possible care to all victims of harassment. Copyright 2007 APA.

  20. Sexual and gender minority's social media user characteristics: Examining preferred health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Rodgers, Shelly; McElroy, Jane A; Everett, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of social media involvement on health issues in sexual and gender minorities (SGMs). Demographic and technological characteristics of social media users and nonusers were identified, and the influence of social media involvement on these factors was assessed for its potential to influence health information needs and preferences. A survey of 2,274 SGM individuals revealed that age, sexual orientation, number of Internet access points, and use of smartphones predicted levels of social media involvement. Results suggest that a broader range of traditional and nontraditional communication channels is needed to meet a diversity of health information needs in SGMs.

  1. Gender-typical responses to sexual and emotional infidelity as a function of mortality salience induced self-esteem striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Jamie L; Landau, Mark J; Pyszczynski, Tom; Cox, Cathy R; Greenberg, Jeff; Solomon, Sheldon; Dunnam, Heather

    2003-12-01

    The authors propose that gender-differentiated patterns of jealousy in response to sexual and emotional infidelity are engendered by the differential impact of each event on self-esteem for men and women. Study 1 demonstrated that men derive relatively more self-esteem from their sex lives, whereas women's self-esteem is more contingent on romantic commitment. Based on terror management theory, it is predicted that if gender-differentiated responses to infidelity are motivated by gender-specific contingencies for self-esteem, they should be intensified following reminders of mortality. In Study 2, mortality salience (MS) increased distress in response to sexual infidelity for men and emotional infidelity for women. Study 3 demonstrated that following MS, men who place high value on sex in romantic relationships exhibited greater distress in response to sexual infidelity, but low-ex-value men's distress was attenuated. The authors discuss the implications for evolutionary and self-esteem-based accounts of jealousy as well as possible integration of these perspectives.

  2. Gender relations, sexual behaviour, and risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections among women in union in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Nankinga

    2016-05-01

    partners. Interventions promoting sexual health must effectively address negative masculine attitudes and roles that perpetuate unhealthy sexual behaviours and gender relations within marriage. It is also important to promote marital fidelity and better communication within union and to encourage women to take charge of their health jointly with their partners.

  3. Latino men who have sex with transgender women: the influence of heteronormativity, homonegativity and transphobia on gender and sexual scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Levine, Ethan; Martínez, Omar

    2017-09-01

    Latino men who have sex with transgender women make up an overlooked sector of the population that requires more attention than is currently given in sexuality and gender studies, particularly in regard to their non-commercial, long-term sexual and romantic relationships with transgender women. Sixty-one sexual histories were selected for this qualitative analysis from a larger study on Latino male bisexuality in the New York City metropolitan area. Findings suggest that participants' sexual and gender scripts with transgender women are strongly regulated by heteronormativity. Furthermore, homonegativity and transphobia often intersect in the lived experiences of men who have sex with transgender women, resulting in relationship conflicts over the control of transgender women's bodies, sexual behaviours and gender performance both in public and in private. Findings also suggest that low relationship conflict is more common among men who have sex with transgender women who exhibit diverse sexual roles (being both insertive and receptive during anal sex), or transgress heteronormative scripts through dialogue of desires and/or by embracing transgender women as human beings and not as hyperfeminised objects of desire. Stigma reduction and alternatives to heteronormative interventions are needed to improve relationship dynamics and potentially positively impact on the sexual health and overall wellbeing of Latino men who have sex with transgender women and their transgender partners.

  4. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16–20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361

  5. Gendered Sexuality : Exploring dynamics of the sexual double standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, P.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363312633

    2017-01-01

    The sexual double standard (SDS) is a divergent set of expectations for boys and men, and girls and women for engaging in romantic and sexual behaviour. It prescribes that boys and men should be sexually active, assertive and take sexual initiative, whereas girls and women should be sexually

  6. Gender Differences in Sexual Attraction and Moral Judgment: Research With Artificial Face Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, Julio; Cervera-Crespo, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Sexual attraction in humans is influenced by cultural or moral factors, and some gender differences can emerge in this complex interaction. A previous study found that men dissociate sexual attraction from moral judgment more than women do. Two experiments consisting of giving attractiveness ratings to photos of real opposite-sex individuals showed that men, compared to women, were significantly less influenced by the moral valence of a description about the person shown in each photo. There is evidence of some processing differences between real and artificial computer-generated faces. The present study tests the robustness of González-Álvarez's findings and extends the research to an experimental design using artificial face models as stimuli. A sample of 88 young adults (61 females and 27 males, average age 19.32, SD = 2.38) rated the attractiveness of 80 3D artificial face models generated with the FaceGen Modeller 3.5 software. Each face model was paired with a "good" and a "bad" (from a moral point of view) sentence depicting a quality or activity of the person represented in the model (e.g., she/he is an altruistic nurse in Africa vs. she/he is a prominent drug dealer). Results were in line with the previous findings and showed that, with artificial faces as well, sexual attraction is less influenced by morality in men than in women. This gender difference is consistent with an evolutionary perspective on human sexuality.

  7. Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents' Views On HIV Research Participation and Parental Permission: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B

    2017-06-01

    Sexual and gender minority adolescents are underrepresented in HIV research, partly because institutional review boards (IRBs) are reluctant to waive parental permission requirements for these studies. Understanding teenagers' perspectives on parental permission and the risks and benefits of participating in HIV research is critical to informing evidence-based IRB decisions. Data from 74 sexual and gender minority adolescents aged 14-17 who participated in an online focus group in 2015 were used to examine perspectives on the risks and benefits of participation in a hypothetical HIV surveillance study and the need for parental permission and adequate protections. Data were analyzed thematically; mixed methods analyses examined whether concerns about parental permission differed by whether teenagers were out to their parents. Most adolescents, especially those who were not out to their parents, would be unwilling to participate in an HIV study if parental permission were required. Perceived benefits of participation included overcoming barriers to HIV testing and contributing to the health of sexual and gender minority youth. Few risks of participation were identified. Adolescents suggested steps that researchers could take to facilitate informed decision making about research participation and ensure minors' safety in the absence of parental permission; these included incorporating multimedia presentations into the consent process and explaining researchers' motivations for conducting the study. Respondents believed that the benefits of HIV surveillance research outweighed the risks. Requiring parental permission may exclude many sexual and gender minority teenagers from taking part in HIV research, especially if they are not out. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  8. Is all sexual harassment viewed the same? Mock juror decisions in same- and cross-gender cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, J H; Riordan, C M; Thomas, K M

    2001-04-01

    Given recent court decisions, there is a need to investigate less common forms of sexual harassment, including women harassing men and same-gender harassment. The present study was a 2 (harasser gender) x 2 (target gender) x 2 (participant gender) factorial design in which 408 mock jurors made decisions in a hostile work environment case. Women harassing men were more likely to be found guilty than were men harassing women, and harassers in same-gender cases were more likely to be found guilty and were perceived more negatively than harassers in cross-gender cases. Participant gender differences were found in cross-gender, but not same-gender, conditions. Results suggest that the gender composition of the harasser and target may be an extralegal factor influencing managerial and juror decision making.

  9. Gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Sutherland, Melissa A; Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an ecological lens to explore gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. This was a secondary analysis of data from a larger behavioral intervention trial that targeted drinking behaviors among adolescents. Data from a total of 2,560 male and female urban adolescents between the ages of 14 and 21 were analyzed for personal, interpersonal, and community exposure to violence and risky sexual behavior. Violence has an impact on sexual risk. For females, carrying a weapon (p= 0.020) and feeling safe in intimate relationships (p= 0.029) were individual correlates of risky sexual behavior, while for males, race/ethnicity (p= 0.019) and being in a physical fight (p= 0.001) were significant correlates of risky sexual behavior. Risky sexual behavior among adolescents may lead to negative reproductive health outcomes. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to affect change in this population through their frequent contact with adolescents in a variety of community and school-based venues. Nurse practitioners are also well-prepared to identify at-risk adolescents and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  10. From Freud to Feminism: Gendered Constructions of Blame Across Theories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Corry; Alaggia, Ramona; Fallon, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Most theories of child sexual abuse are, to some degree, gendered, with nonoffending mothers bearing the burden of blame, ideologically and legally, for the transgressions of predominantly male offenders. This article explores the social construction of blame for child sexual abuse via critical analyses of evolving theoretical perspectives on maternal culpability for the inception and maintenance of abuse dynamics. Drawing on selected conceptual and research knowledge that supports and refutes anecdotal claims, this synthesis of the literature culminates in the proposal of an evidence-informed, feminist-grounded, multitheoretical child sexual abuse framework that disrupts dominant mother-blaming discourse and guides socially just and ethically responsive policy, practice, and research.

  11. An Intersectional Framework for Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Savneet

    2010-01-01

    This article calls for an examination of identity and difference from a sociocultural perspective in art therapy theory and practice. Identity markers such as race, class, gender, and sexuality have tended to be seen in isolation and in ways that hamper the ability to understand and theorize difference. In constructing knowledge and in advancing…

  12. Corrupting Conversations with the Marquis de Sade: On Education, Gender, and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, the author joins a conversation started by Martin ("Reclaiming the conversation: the ideal of the educated woman." Yale University Press, New Haven, 1985) regarding gender and education seeking to extend the conversation to address sexuality. To do so, the author brings a reading of the Marquis de Sade to challenge the…

  13. "They've Got All the Knowledge": HIV Education, Gender and Sexuality in South African Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data derived from two socially contrasting primary schools in Durban, this paper focuses on how gender and sexuality feature in the teaching and discussion of HIV/AIDS. A detailed analysis of two "life-skills" lessons in the two schools shows that, despite the social differences between the schools, discussions of gender and…

  14. Gender Power Control, Sexual Experiences, Safer Sex Practices, and Potential HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042

  15. The relationship between endorsement of the sexual double standard and sexual cognitions and emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, P.M.J.; van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, T.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual gender norms promoting sexual prowess for men, but sexual modesty for women have been shown to negatively affect sexual and mental health in both men and women. Knowledge about the relationship between gender norms and sexual cognitions and emotions might further the understanding of

  16. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  17. Moral Judgments on Short-Term Sexual Behaviors among Chinese College Students: Exploring the Roles of Gender and Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Li, Aijuan; Zhu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study primarily investigated the effects of gender and physical attractiveness on moral judgments on three typical kinds of short-term sexual behaviors (short-term fling, one-night stand, and hookup) in the Chinese culture context. A total of 120 university student subjects were presented with a series of stereotypically physically attractive (versus physically unattractive) photos before they rated the extent to which each of the three short-term sexual behaviors are morally acceptable. The results showed that male students judged all three behaviors to be more morally acceptable than female students did. Further analyses showed that this gender difference was moderated by the level of physical attractiveness. Under the high attractiveness condition, short-term flings and hookups were judged more morally acceptable by male students than by female students, but this gender difference was not significant under the low attractiveness condition. However, with regard to one-night stands, the data showed that male students judged this type of behavior to be more morally acceptable than did female students under the low attractiveness condition, while this gender difference was not significant under the high attractiveness condition. Thus, these findings further our understanding of how Chinese young people view different types of short-term sexual behaviors, and provide novel evidence regarding how physical attractiveness influences people's moral judgments on short-term sexual behaviors.

  18. Growing-Up Challenged and Challenging: Gender and Sexuality Norms in Referential Research on "Internet Risks" and in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribar, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The paper thematises children's engendering and sexualisation in new media environments, and their ambivalent attitudes toward commercial (porno)sexuality constructions. The inquiry into adaptation to dominant gender identity and sexuality prescriptions in spite of children's ambivalences is contextualised by the critical analysis of grand…

  19. Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310 provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be

  20. Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310) provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be capable of accommodating axis

  1. Comparing perceived effectiveness of FDA-proposed cigarette packaging graphic health warnings between sexual and gender minorities and heterosexual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Nagler, Rebekah H; Minsky, Sara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-10-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed nine graphic health warnings (GHWs) on cigarette packaging that were rated equally effective across racial/ethnic, education, or income groups of adult smokers. However, data on GHW effectiveness among sexual and gender minority (SGM) adults, who have higher smoking prevalence, are currently lacking. This study analyzed whether perceived effectiveness of GHWs differed by gender and sexual orientation. Data came from a randomized experiment among 1,200 adults with an oversample from low socioeconomic status groups, conducted between 2013 and 2014 in three Massachusetts communities. Participants viewed and rated the effectiveness of nine GHWs. Mixed effects regression models predicted perceived effectiveness with gender and sexual orientation, adjusting for repeated measurements, GHWs viewed, age, race, ethnicity, smoking status, and health status. Female heterosexuals rated GHWs as more effective than male heterosexual, lesbian, and transgender and other gender respondents. There was no significant difference between female and male heterosexuals versus gay, male bisexual, or female bisexual respondents. Differences by gender and sexual orientation were consistent across all nine GHWs. Significant correlates of higher perceived effectiveness included certain GHWs, older age, being African-American (vs white), being Hispanic (vs non-Hispanic), having less than high school education (vs associate degree or higher), and being current smokers (vs non-smokers). Perceived effectiveness of GHWs was lower in certain SGM groups. We recommend further studies to understand the underlying mechanisms for these findings and investments in research and policy to communicate anti-smoking messages more effectively to SGM populations.

  2. [Gender identity disorder: challenges and specificity in the treatment of requests for sexual reassignment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécoud, P; Pralong, F; Bauquis, O; Stiefel, F

    2011-02-16

    Gender identity disorder is defined as a permanent desire to relieve one's own sexual features to acquire the sexual features and line to life of the opposite sex. The diagnosis is based on the psychiatric evaluation and treatment on an interdisciplinary approach by endocrinologists, surgeons and psychiatrists, and can be conceptualized into distinct phases: diagnostic evaluation, real life experience, hormonal treatment and surgery. Multiples challenges have to be faced, especially by the psychiatrist who follows the patient during the whole process.

  3. Maintaining the privacy of a minor's sexual orientation and gender identity in the medical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with self-identity, sexual orientation, and gender identity is often a struggle for minors. The potential negative outcomes minors face when their sexual orientation or gender identity is disclosed to others before they have an opportunity to address it in their own time has become more evident in the media. Because of the intimate nature of the provider-patient relationship, the healthcare provider may be the first person in whom they confide. If a minor receives a positive, nonjudgmental experience from his or her provider, it will often lead to a more positive self-image, whereas a negative, judgmental experience will often result in the opposite. Critical components of their experience are a sense of trust that the provider will keep the information confidential and the healthcare setting being organized in a manner that promotes privacy. Healthcare providers play a key role in developing and projecting a safe, comfortable environment where the minor can discretely discuss issues of sexual orientation and gender identity. Establishing this environment will usually facilitate a positive therapeutic relationship between the minor and the provider. Steps healthcare providers can take to achieve trust from minor patients and ensure confidentiality of sensitive information are understanding privacy laws, making privacy a priority, getting consent, training staff, and demonstrating privacy in the environment. © 2015 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  4. Assessing gender stereotypes and sexual risk practices in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch Gallén, Ángel; Tomás Aznar, Concepción; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación

    2017-06-22

    To analyze the construct validity and the internal consistency of the 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI-12) questionnaire and to study the association between gender stereotypes and sexual risk practices in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cross-sectional study of 601 MSM who voluntarily and anonymously responded to an online survey on risk practices and gender stereotypes. The BSRI-12 was used to obtain gender stereotypes (masculine, feminine, undifferentiated and androgynous). For data analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the BSRI-12 and logistic regression were performed. Two main factors (Cronbach alpha 0.95 and 0.81) were obtained from the EFA. Using the androgynous roles as the reference category, we found lower odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among those who endorse feminine roles (OR: 0.53; 95%CI: 0.29-0.95). Endorsing masculine roles with alcohol consumption (OR: 1.92; 95%CI: 1.15-3.20) or the undifferentiated when not knowing the partner's serological status (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.02-2.35) were associated with higher odds of UAI compared to those endorsing the androgynous roles. Undifferentiated participants also perform receptive UAI using poppers (OR: 2.19; 95%CI: 1.24-3.87), and insertive UAI not knowing the serological status of the sexual partner (OR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.04-2.76) compared to androgynous participants. The BSRI is a valid and consistent instrument for identifying gender stereotypes in MSM. A greater proportion of participants within the undifferentiated and the masculine category engage in risk practices with the influence of substance consumption and unawareness of their sexual partner's serological status. The information obtained may be useful to define intervention and prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Destinations unknown: the gender construction and changing nature of the sexual expressions of Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, N J; Kittisuksathit, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses qualitative findings from a study of the sexual awareness, lifestyles and related health service needs of young, single factory workers in Thailand. The context of this study is Thailand's growing industrialization, the deepening intensity of the threats to sexual health (especially regarding HIV/AIDS transmission) and the vulnerability of young migrant women. Findings from 18 focus group discussions held with groups of young (15-24) male and female factory workers are outlined with principal reference to the gender construction of sexuality. Key themes explored include attitudes towards courtship, marriage, sexual feelings and arousal, expressions of involvement in pre-marital sexual activities and the consequences of such activity. In conclusion there is some discussion of the implication for young women's sexual health, of the interplay of a measure of pre-marital intercourse and the continuing emotional barriers to effective use of contraception.

  6. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obesity at the Intersections of Gender, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation in US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauren A.; Birkett, Michelle A.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Everett, Bethany

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined purging for weight control, diet pill use, and obesity across sexual orientation identity and ethnicity groups. Methods. Anonymous survey data were analyzed from 24 591 high school students of diverse ethnicities in the federal Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System Survey in 2005 and 2007. Self-reported data were gathered on gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation identity, height, weight, and purging and diet pill use in the past 30 days. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of purging, diet pill use, and obesity associated with sexual orientation identity in gender-stratified models and examined for the presence of interactions between ethnicity and sexual orientation. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity was associated with substantially elevated odds of purging and diet pill use in both girls and boys (odds ratios [OR] range =  1.9–6.8). Bisexual girls and boys were also at elevated odds of obesity compared to same-gender heterosexuals (OR = 2.3 and 2.1, respectively). Conclusions. Interventions to reduce eating disorders and obesity that are appropriate for LGB youths of diverse ethnicities are urgently needed. PMID:23237207

  7. Sexual and Gender Diversity within the Black Men who have Sex with Men HIV Epidemiological Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bianca D M; Miyashita, Ayako

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological categories not only reflect existing frameworks for public health, but reify how subpopulations are defined, understood, and targeted for interventions. The sweeping categorization of Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) used in HIV research and intervention work is one such example. The current paper builds upon previous critiques of the "MSM" nomenclature by delineating the sexual and gender diversity embedded in the term as it pertains specifically to Black peoples. The emphasis is on developing greater specificity about the sociocultural and structural factors that may be shared among these subgroups, such as racism and poverty, and the factors that are likely to distinguish the groups, such as levels of sexual minority identification, access to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) services and community, and experiences with anti-bisexual or anti-transgender bias. The aim then is to provide a framework for HIV health policy work for Black sexual minority cisgender men (SMCM) and gender minorities (GM).

  8. Sexual and Gender Diversity within the Black Men who have Sex with Men HIV Epidemiological Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bianca D.M.; Miyashita, Ayako

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological categories not only reflect existing frameworks for public health, but reify how subpopulations are defined, understood, and targeted for interventions. The sweeping categorization of Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) used in HIV research and intervention work is one such example. The current paper builds upon previous critiques of the “MSM” nomenclature by delineating the sexual and gender diversity embedded in the term as it pertains specifically to Black peoples. The emphasis is on developing greater specificity about the sociocultural and structural factors that may be shared among these subgroups, such as racism and poverty, and the factors that are likely to distinguish the groups, such as levels of sexual minority identification, access to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) services and community, and experiences with anti-bisexual or anti-transgender bias. The aim then is to provide a framework for HIV health policy work for Black sexual minority cisgender men (SMCM) and gender minorities (GM). PMID:27525047

  9. Gender, mature appearance, alcohol use, and dating as correlates of sexual partner accumulation from ages 16-26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Collins, W Andrew

    2008-06-01

    To determine growth in sexual partnering from age 16-26 years, and to test whether biological and social factors launched these growth patterns. A prospective design was used. Participants were 176 young people (47% female) followed from birth to age 26 years. Sexual partnering was measured as the accumulated number of different sexual intercourse partners at ages 16, 19, 23, and 26 years. Physical appearance of maturity, alcohol use, and dating were measured at ages 13-16 via observations, interviews, and questionnaires. Mature appearance at age 13 years, use of alcohol more than monthly at age 16, and a history of a steady romantic partner before age 16 were each associated with a greater number of sexual intercourse partners by age 16. However a more mature appearance, more frequent alcohol use, and greater dating involvement did not foreshadow a steeper accumulation of sexual partners between ages 16 and 26. Only gender had such a "growth" influence, with males accruing sexual partners more rapidly from the ages of 16-26 years when compared with females. Adolescents had accumulated a higher number of sexual partners by age 16 years when they looked older, drank alcohol more frequently, and were more involved with dating in early to middle adolescence. Also male gender was associated with accumulation of sexual partners more rapidly between ages 16 and 26 years, and there was little indication that the accumulation of different sexual partners had begun to slow by age 26 for the average participant.

  10. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of high sexual self-efficacy among adolescents in Soweto, South Africa: implications for gender-sensitive research and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Dietrich, Janan; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Nkala, Busi; Cui, Zishan; Chia, Jason; Hogg, Robert S; Gray, Glenda; Kaida, Angela; Miller, Cari L

    2018-04-01

    Sexual self-efficacy (SSE) - one's confidence in their ability to perform given sexual behaviours, has been shown to predict adolescents' HIV-prevention practices (e.g., Condom use). Few studies within sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV incidence and prevalence disproportionately affects young women, have examined gendered differences in SSE. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of high-SSE separately among adolescent men and women (aged 14-19) in Soweto, South Africa using a previously validated SSE scale (high-SSE [>3/6 items]; study-alpha = 0.75). SSE scale items assessed self-efficacy related to sexual refusal and condom use. Adolescent women were significantly more likely to report high-SSE than adolescent men (72.3% versus 49.5%; p < 0.01). High-SSE among adolescent men was associated with more positive beliefs about sexual relationships and negatively associated with probable depression. High-SSE among adolescent women was associated with increased HIV knowledge, more positive beliefs about condom use and sexual relationships, having an adult in the home, and negatively associated with being an older adolescent (16-17 versus ≤15), and ever experiencing physical violence. Differences in prevalence and correlates of SSE among adolescent men and women in South Africa highlight important areas for gender-sensitive interventions. Targeted efforts to reduce negative sexual beliefs, improve HIV knowledge and mental well-being may improve SSE and thus the uptake of HIV-prevention practices among adolescent men. For adolescent women, findings indicate programming should move beyond individual-levels determinants of behaviour to focus on improving enabling environments (e.g., Reduced violence and improved family relationships) in which sexual agency can be enacted.

  11. The impact of gender, culture, and sexuality on Mauritian nursing: Nursing as a non-gendered occupational identity or masculine field? Qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollup, Oddvar

    2014-05-01

    International studies have generally defined nursing as a female-dominated occupation. The almost absence of male nurses seems universal, except as a privileged minority occupying positions within nursing specialties ('islands of masculinity'). Nursing is associated with relatively low status owing to gender and income, and is also influenced by cultural perceptions of social status, the nature of the work and sexuality. This study aims to describe and analyse how gender and cultural perceptions influenced the development of nursing in Mauritius. This paper examines why nursing in Mauritius became gendered in different ways due to the impact of gender equivalence in the work force, the gendered segregation in clinical practice and the absence of caring feminisation in nursing. This qualitative study is based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews and convenience sampling. The sample includes nurses working at five hospitals. They all come from the central and southern part of Mauritius. The data were collected over a five-month period during 2006. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 nurses, both men (27) and women (20), of different grades, ages, religions and ethnic backgrounds. Nursing practice is gender segregated, influenced and supported by cultural traditions and perceptions of gender relations, sexuality and touch in nursing. However, the professional identity and role is considered non-gendered, implied by the title of 'nursing officer' and the presence of male nurses who constitute almost 50 percent of the work force. Male nurses do not face similar barriers deterring them from entering nursing profession. Nursing did not develop the image of women's work and a low status job in Mauritius. The nursing profession in Mauritius has been shaped by a different 'history of origin', social, cultural and societal conditions on the basis of the absence of gender imbalance in the work force and caring feminisation in nursing. Moreover, the

  12. "She Don't Need No Help": De-consolidating gender, sex, and sexuality in New Orleans bounce music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoux Casey, Christina; Eberhardt, Maeve

    2019-01-01

    New Orleans bounce music is a dance-oriented hip-hop form that has emerged as a notably non-normative genre, in which queer black bounce artists destabilize binary cultural paradigms and emphasize queerness as inclusive and relational. We explore how five artists’ lyrics and public personae...... actively refute the consolidated, naturalized nexus of gender, sex, and sexuality by disentangling each of the three strands from one another. In order to explore how this is accomplished, we created a corpus of bounce lyrics. We analyzed lexical indices of gender; self-positioning as feminine subjects......; sexual subject-object positioning; normalization of sex between men; retention of masculine subjectivities; and rejection of gender binarism. Further, the artists repeatedly expose the ubiquitous nature of sex between men in their lyrics, working to assert its existence and normalcy in the popular...

  13. The Social Acceptability of Sexual Slang: Functions of Biological Sex and Psychological Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.; Cortese, Juliann

    A study explored the social acceptability that accompanies the expression of sexual slang. The study of gender differences in language use is nothing new. Previous research has indicated that men and women differ in their use of tentative language, topic selection, control techniques, and conversational style. However, this research has examined…

  14. Differential effects of dopamine antagonists infused to the medial preoptic area on the sexual behavior of female rats primed with estrogen and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Dean; Pfaus, James G

    2012-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) is important for the control of appetitive aspects of sexual behavior in the female rat. Recently, following infusions of DA agonists to the mPOA of females primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) alone, we found that the ratio of D1R/D2R activity within the mPOA determines the expression of appetitive behaviors (Graham and Pfaus, 2010). To further the knowledge of this mechanism, the present experiments examined the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of selective DA receptor antagonists. Ovariectomized, sexually-experienced rats primed with EB and progesterone (P) were implanted bilaterally with cannulae aimed at the mPOA and infused with 4 doses (0, 0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 μg) of the nonselective D1R/D2R antagonist flupenthixol (FLU), and selective D1R or D2R antagonists, SCH 23390 (SCH) or raclopride (RAC), respectively, in a randomized order prior to tests of sexual behavior in bilevel chambers. The high dose of FLU significantly decreased solicitations, hops and darts, and pacing behavior. The high dose of SCH also significantly decreased solicitations. In contrast, the high dose of RAC produced an increase in pacing, and a trend toward an increase in solicitations but no other effect on sexual behavior. These results reinforce the idea that the ratio of D1R/D2R activity within the mPOA of female rats is critical for the expression of appetitive behaviors, and further that this ratio is altered by P which shifts the DA effect to a predominantly facilitative D1R activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual behavior among unmarried business process outsourcing employees in Chennai: gender differences and correlates associated with it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bimal; Rastogi, Saumya; Sam, Asirvatham Edwin; Williams, Joseph D; Kandasamy, Aarthi

    2013-01-01

    Premarital sex is often associated with high risk sexual behavior such as early age of initiation, multiple partners and inconsistent condom use. Evidence shows that such sexual behavior pre-disposes to sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. This paper tried to investigate the correlates of premarital sexual behavior among male and female business process outsourcing (BPO) employees to highlight the gender differences that exist in relation to it. Data were collected from 526 unmarried BPO employees during behavioral surveillance survey in Chennai, in the year 2009. The results showed that about one-third of respondents (males - 39.6%, females - 26.1%) had experienced premarital sex. Men reported having had their first sexual intercourse at 12 years and women at 16 years of age. While the prevalence of premarital sex was found to be high, the percentage using a condom during last sex was also high, especially, among the female employees (82.4%). Logistic regression showed that monthly individual income, work in shifts, migration, peer influence and friends with previous sexual experience were significant predictors of premarital sex among the male BPO employees. Visit to night clubs was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of premarital sex among the female employees. The study concludes that there is a significant gender dimension in the premarital sexual behavior among the BPO employees and that even as the sexual behavior of the young people is transitioning; their ability to negotiate safe sex behavior is also increasing. It is recommended to enhance efforts to advocate safe sex behavior among young adults employed in the BPO industry.

  16. Reasons why undergraduate women comply with unwanted, non-coercive sexual advances: A serial indirect effect model integrating sexual script theory and sexual self-control perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Kennett, Deborah J

    2018-01-16

    This study explored the predictors of young women's compliance with unwanted sexual activities, integrating the social with the cognitive and behavioral correlates of sexual compliance. In total, 222 young heterosexual women completed measures examining the Sexual Self-Control model, including reasons for consenting, sexual resourcefulness, and compliance with unwanted sex, as well as gender role measures pertaining to sexual script theory, including the sexual double standard, gender role stress, and virginity scripts. An exploratory analysis of serial indirect effects demonstrated that women scoring lower in sexual resourcefulness endorsed higher female gender role stress, which in turn was associated with higher endorsement of reasons for consent, translating into more frequent compliance with unwanted sexual activities. The relationship between one's ability to refuse and their decision to refuse appears quite complex. Understanding one's decision requires consideration of the social aspects of gender role endorsement.

  17. Embodied harms: gender, shame, and technology-facilitated sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The fluidity of Thai women's gendered and sexual subjectivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweesit, Suchada

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of gender and sexuality as factors within contemporary Thai factory women's subjectivities. Competing discourses of what it means to be a woman in contemporary Thai society make women's self-presentations fluid and incoherent. Data from participant-observation and open-ended interviews suggest that the fluidity and inconsistency of women's self-presentations reflect both their negative experiences and oppression within the Thai patriarchal system, and women's strength and resistance to the normative discourses that oppress them. By naming or reinterpreting experiences and desires in their own terms, Thai factory women can redraw elements of their own lives.

  19. Music Videos and Sexual Risk in African American Adolescent Girls: Gender, Power and the Need for Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Music videos contain sexual content often reflecting women as promiscuous, submissive, or passive. Few studies have examined gender- and sex-related attitudes in African American females, particularly across genres of music videos. Purpose: Using constructs from Cultivation Theory, Theory of Gender and Power and Social Cognitive…

  20. Multi-targeted priming for genome-wide gene expression assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomas Aleksandra B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary approaches to assaying global gene expression are needed to assess gene expression in regions that are poorly assayed by current methodologies. A key component of nearly all gene expression assays is the reverse transcription of transcribed sequences that has traditionally been performed by priming the poly-A tails on many of the transcribed genes in eukaryotes with oligo-dT, or by priming RNA indiscriminately with random hexamers. We designed an algorithm to find common sequence motifs that were present within most protein-coding genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of Neurospora crassa, but that were not present within their ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA genes. We then experimentally tested whether degenerately priming these motifs with multi-targeted primers improved the accuracy and completeness of transcriptomic assays. Results We discovered two multi-targeted primers that would prime a preponderance of genes in the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa while avoiding priming ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA. Examining the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to nitrogen deficiency and profiling Neurospora crassa early sexual development, we demonstrated that using multi-targeted primers in reverse transcription led to superior performance of microarray profiling and next-generation RNA tag sequencing. Priming with multi-targeted primers in addition to oligo-dT resulted in higher sensitivity, a larger number of well-measured genes and greater power to detect differences in gene expression. Conclusions Our results provide the most complete and detailed expression profiles of the yeast nitrogen starvation response and N. crassa early sexual development to date. Furthermore, our multi-targeting priming methodology for genome-wide gene expression assays provides selective targeting of multiple sequences and counter-selection against undesirable sequences, facilitating a more complete and

  1. Preference for human body odors is influenced by gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Yolanda; Preti, George; Crabtree, Christina R; Runyan, Tamar; Vainius, Aldona A; Wysocki, Charles J

    2005-09-01

    Human body odor may contribute to selection of partners. If so, sexual orientation may influence preference for and perhaps production of human body odors. In a test of these hypotheses, heterosexual and homosexual males and females made two-alternative forced-choice preference judgments for body odors obtained from other heterosexual and homosexual males and females. Subjects chose between odors from (a) heterosexual males and gay males, (b) heterosexual males and heterosexual females, (c) heterosexual females and lesbians, and (d) gay males and lesbians. Results indicate that differences in body odor are detected and responded to on the basis of, in part, an individual's gender and sexual orientation. Possible mechanisms underlying these findings are discussed.

  2. Gender and sexuality: emerging perspectives from the heterosexual epidemic in South Africa and implications for HIV risk and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that gender power inequity in relationships and intimate partner violence places women at enhanced risk of HIV infection. Men who have been violent towards their partners are more likely to have HIV. Men's behaviours show a clustering of violent and risky sexual practices, suggesting important connections. This paper draws on Raewyn Connell's notion of hegemonic masculinity and reflections on emphasized femininities to argue that these sexual, and male violent, practices are rooted in and flow from cultural ideals of gender identities. The latter enables us to understand why men and women behave as they do, and the emotional and material context within which sexual behaviours are enacted. In South Africa, while gender identities show diversity, the dominant ideal of black African manhood emphasizes toughness, strength and expression of prodigious sexual success. It is a masculinity women desire; yet it is sexually risky and a barrier to men engaging with HIV treatment. Hegemonically masculine men are expected to be in control of women, and violence may be used to establish this control. Instead of resisting this, the dominant ideal of femininity embraces compliance and tolerance of violent and hurtful behaviour, including infidelity. The women partners of hegemonically masculine men are at risk of HIV because they lack control of the circumstances of sex during particularly risky encounters. They often present their acquiescence to their partners' behaviour as a trade off made to secure social or material rewards, for this ideal of femininity is upheld, not by violence per se, by a cultural system of sanctions and rewards. Thus, men and women who adopt these gender identities are following ideals with deep roots in social and cultural processes, and thus, they are models of behaviour that may be hard for individuals to critique and in which to exercise choice. Women who are materially and emotionally vulnerable are least able to risk experiencing

  3. Childhood Familial Victimization: An Exploration of Gender and Sexual Identity Using the Scale of Negative Family Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Katherine; McDonald, Courtney

    2017-11-01

    Familial violence poses a serious public health concern and has therefore received a considerable amount of attention from academics and practitioners alike. Research within this field has found that parent-to-parent and parent-to-child violence often occur simultaneously and are especially prevalent within households that suffer from social and environmental stressors. Sibling violence and its relationship to these other forms of familial violence has received considerably less attention, largely related to the widely held belief that sibling violence is natural, especially for boys. Using the Scale of Negative Family Interactions (SNFI), parent-to-child and sibling-to-sibling violence is investigated. Specifically, the relationship between participants' gender and sexual identities and their reports of familial violence are explored to better understand participants' gendered and sexed experiences. Data suggest that gender and sexual minorities may have a unique experience of familial violence, although further research is needed in this area.

  4. Attitudes and perceptions of workers to sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Hardman, Lisa

    2005-12-01

    The authors investigated how individual factors (age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment) and organizational factors (gender ratio, sexual harassment policies, the role of employers) related to workers' attitudes toward and perceptions of sexual harassment. In Study 1, participants were 176 workers from a large, white-collar organization. In Study 2, participants were 75 workers from a smaller, blue-collar organization. Individuals from Study 2 experienced more sexual harassment, were more tolerant of sexual harassment, and perceived less behavior as sexual harassment than did individuals from Study 1. For both samples, organizational and individual factors predicted workers' attitudes toward and experiences of sexual harassment. Individual factors-such as age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment, and perceptions of management's tolerance of sexual harassment-predicted attitudes toward sexual harassment. Workers' attitudes, the behavioral context, and the gender of the victim and perpetrator predicted perceptions of sexual harassment. The authors discussed the broader implications of these findings and suggested recommendations for future research.

  5. Stereotypes in Four Current AOUM Sexuality Education Curricula: Good Girls, Good Boys, and the New Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Graling, Kelly; Lustig, Kara

    2011-01-01

    It has long been noted that sexuality education curricula contain gender stereotypes and heterosexism that may be harmful to people of all genders. Many of the stereotypes and sources of heterosexism that have been discussed in the literature have to do with old-fashioned and restrictive roles for men and women and focus on heterosexual sex and…

  6. Critical Exchange: Peculiar Bedfellows--Gender, Sexuality, Religion and Schooling: A Reply to Stern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary L.

    2017-01-01

    Mary L. Rasmussen is a sociologist of education with expertise in studies of gender and sexuality. This angle of scrutiny (Harwood 2006) is her point of departure in conversations about schooling and religion. From this angle, Rasmussen believes that schooling and religion can be incredibly powerful in creating community. She is also clear that…

  7. "Shake It Baby, Shake It": Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Bogers, S.; Kloosterman, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents' permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate

  8. Syndemic Factors Mediate the Relationship between Sexual Stigma and Depression among Sexual Minority Women and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Poteat, Tonia; Wagner, Anne C

    Stigma and discrimination contribute to elevated depression risks among sexual minority women (SMW) and gender minority (GM) people who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or queer. Syndemics theory posits that adverse psychosocial outcomes cluster to negatively impact health and mental health outcomes among sexual minorities. We tested whether a syndemic condition composed of low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, and economic insecurity mediated the relationship between sexual stigma and depressive symptoms among SMW/GM. We implemented a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey with SMW and GM in Toronto, Canada. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to test a conceptual model of pathways between sexual stigma, syndemic factors, and depressive symptoms. A total of 391 SMW/GM with a mean age of 30.9 (SD = 7.62) were included in the analysis. The model fit for a latent syndemics construct consisting of psychosocial variables (low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, economic insecurity) was very good (χ 2  = 6.022, df = 2, p = .049; comparative fit index = 0.973, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.918, root-mean square error of approximation = 0.072). In the simultaneous model, sexual stigma had a significant direct effect on depression. When the syndemic variable was added as a mediator, the direct path from sexual stigma to depression was no longer significant, suggesting mediation. The model fit the data well: χ2 = 33.50, df = 12, p = .001; comparative fit index = 0.951, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.915, root-mean square error of approximation = 0.068. Our results highlight the salience of considering both sexual stigma and syndemic factors to explain mental health disparities experienced by SMW and GM. Addressing sexual stigma in the context of co-occurring psychosocial factors and economic insecurity will be key to achieving optimal health for SMW and GM. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs

  9. Gender-related differences in the associations between sexual impulsivity and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Galit; Pilver, Corey E; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-08-01

    Sexual impulsivity (SI) has been associated with conditions that have substantial public health costs, such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. However, SI has not been examined systematically with respect to its relationships to psychopathology. We aimed to investigate associations between SI and psychopathology, including gender-related differences. We performed a secondary data analysis of Wave-2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national sample of 34,653 adults in the United States. DSM-IV-based diagnoses of mood, anxiety, drug and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Scheduled DSM-IV Version. The prevalence of SI was considerable (14.7%), with greater acknowledgment by men than women (18.9% versus 10.9%; p women and men, SI was positively associated with most Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders (OR range: Women, Axis-I:1.89-6.14, Axis-II:2.10-10.02; Men, Axis-I:1.92-6.21, Axis-II:1.63-6.05). Significant gender-related differences were observed. Among women as compared to men, SI was more strongly associated with social phobia, alcohol abuse/dependence, and paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. The robust associations between SI and psychopathology across genders suggest the need for screening and interventions related to SI for individuals with psychiatric concerns. The stronger associations between SI and psychopathology among women as compared to men emphasize the importance of a gender-oriented perspective in targeting SI. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the extent to SI predates, postdates or co-occurs with specific psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Questioning scrutiny: bioethics, sexuality, and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance; Fiester, Autumn

    2012-09-01

    The clinic is a loaded space for LGBTQI persons. Historically a site of pathology and culturally a site of stigma, the contemporary clinic for queer patient populations and their loved ones is an ethically fraught space. This paper, which introduces the featured articles of this special issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry on "Bioethics, Sexuality, and Gender Identity," begins by offering an analysis of scrutiny itself. How do we scrutinize? When is it apt for us to scrutinize? And what are the benefits and perils of clinical and bioethical scrutiny? Bearing in mind these questions, the second half of this paper introduces the feature articles in this special issue in response to such forms of scrutiny. How, why, when, and in what ways to sensitively scrutinize LGBTQI persons in the clinic are the aims of this piece.

  11. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence : What is the World Bank Doing and What Have We Learned, A Strategic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alys M. Willman; Crystal Corman

    2013-01-01

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is the most prevalent form of gender inequality. More than one third of the women in the world have experienced some form of gender based violence. The impacts of such violence extend far beyond the individual survivors, affecting households and communities, and spanning across generations. SGBV is widely recognized as a development constraint that f...

  12. How Victimization, Climate, and Safety around Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression Relate to Truancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Berger, Christian; Dantas, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Victimization based on actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender expression (SOGE) carries significant consequences. In this study, we examined how SOGE-based victimization and contextual factors predicted truancy among 886 Chilean students (M[subscript age] = 16.00, SD = 1.30) in four high schools. Victimization predicted truancy…

  13. Same- and Cross-Gender Sexual Harassment Victimization in Middle School: A Developmental-Contextual Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoll, Jessica S.; Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy J.; Pepler, Debra; Simkins-Strong, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Using a developmental-contextual framework, the present study investigated risk factors for same- and cross-gender sexual harassment victimization in 986 middle school students. Participants completed questionnaires in the fall and spring of the same school year so risk factors could be explored longitudinally. Results revealed that gender…

  14. Evidence of Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    LGBT people use sexual orientation and gender identity employment non-discrimination laws as frequently as people of color and women use race and sex non-discrimination laws. This study examines complaints filed based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of people in the workforce most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color and women. Data on discrimination complaints were requested from the 22 states t...

  15. Gender and sexual orientation differences in cognition across adulthood: age is kinder to women than to men regardless of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Reimers, Stian; Choi, Jean; Collaer, Marcia L; Peters, Michael; Silverman, Irwin

    2007-04-01

    Despite some evidence of greater age-related deterioration of the brain in males than in females, gender differences in rates of cognitive aging have proved inconsistent. The present study employed web-based methodology to collect data from people aged 20-65 years (109,612 men; 88,509 women). As expected, men outperformed women on tests of mental rotation and line angle judgment, whereas women outperformed men on tests of category fluency and object location memory. Performance on all tests declined with age but significantly more so for men than for women. Heterosexuals of each gender generally outperformed bisexuals and homosexuals on tests where that gender was superior; however, there were no clear interactions between age and sexual orientation for either gender. At least for these particular tests from young adulthood to retirement, age is kinder to women than to men, but treats heterosexuals, bisexuals, and homosexuals just the same.

  16. Any effects of social orientation priming on object-location memory are smaller than initially reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Héloïse; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2015-12-01

    It has previously been reported that priming a collectivistic social orientation (compared with an individualistic one) boosts object-location memory (Kühnen & Oyserman, 2002; Oyserman, Sorensen, Reber, & Chen, 2009). We conducted 4 experiments to replicate this reported effect, using the same methods as in those initial reports. In Experiment 1 (n = 145), we found a hint of a priming effect on object-location memory, but also an unanticipated interaction between priming and gender. In Experiment 2 (n = 90), we included gender as a formal factor and doubled the "dosage" of the priming, yet did not see any priming effects on memory. In Experiment 3 (n = 101), we octupled the priming "dosage" and again saw no significant effects on memory. Finally, in Experiment 4 (n = 102), we performed an exact replication of the methods of the original reports and again found no priming effects on memory. Any effects of this type of social orientation priming on object-location memory appear to be smaller and/or less robust than initially thought. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The politics of gaydar: ideological differences in the use of gendered cues in categorizing sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Jost, John T; Rule, Nicholas O

    2013-03-01

    In the present research, we investigated whether, because of differences in cognitive style, liberals and conservatives would differ in the process of categorizing individuals into a perceptually ambiguous group. In 3 studies, we examined whether conservatives were more likely than liberals to rely on gender inversion cues (e.g., feminine = gay) when categorizing male faces as gay vs. straight, and the accuracy implications of differential cue usage. In Study 1, perceivers made dichotomous sexual orientation judgments (gay-straight). We found that perceivers who reported being more liberal were less likely than perceivers who reported being more conservative to use gender inversion cues in their deliberative judgments. In addition, liberals took longer to categorize targets, suggesting that they may have been thinking more about their judgments. Consistent with a stereotype correction model of social categorization, in Study 2 we demonstrated that differences between liberals and conservatives were eliminated by a cognitive load manipulation that disrupted perceivers' abilities to engage in effortful processing. Under cognitive load, liberals failed to adjust their initial judgments and, like conservatives, consistently relied on gender inversion cues to make judgments. In Study 3, we provided more direct evidence that differences in cognitive style underlie ideological differences in judgments of sexual orientation. Specifically, liberals were less likely than conservatives to endorse stereotypes about gender inversion and sexual orientation, and this difference in stereotype endorsement was partially explained by liberals' greater need for cognition. Implications for the accuracy of ambiguous category judgments made with the use of stereotypical cues in naturalistic settings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors of Chinese university students: gender differences in prevalence and correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; van de Bongardt, D.; Hawk, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences among university students in contemporary China regarding (1) the prevalence of various types of intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors and (2) their sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors. A total of 1,397

  19. Modelling cross-gender and sexual relations : Exploring the Soul Buddyz Edutainment Initiative in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cousins (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHIV/AIDS among youth is a serious problem in South Africa. Cross-gender relations and associated constructs surrounding masculinity/femininity and sexuality are increasingly recognized as at the heart of the issue. Growing attention has thus been given to developing initiatives geared

  20. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Workplace Incivility: Who Is Most Targeted and Who Is Most Harmed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrügg, Lauren; Miner, Kathi N.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have proposed that interpersonal workplace discrimination toward members of oppressed social groups has become covert and subtle rather than overt and explicit and that such experiences lead to negative outcomes for targets. The present study examined this proposition by examining experiences and consequences of workplace incivility—a seemingly harmless form of interpersonal maltreatment—based on gender, sexual orientation, and their intersection. A sample of 1,300 academic faculty (52% male, 86% White) participated in an online survey study assessing their experiences of workplace incivility, job stress, job satisfaction, job identity centrality, and demographics. Results showed that sexual minority women reported the highest levels of workplace incivility. Findings also revealed that women reported lower job satisfaction than men and that heterosexuals reported higher job stress and lower job identity centrality than sexual minorities with higher levels of incivility. Thus, sexual minority status buffered the negative effects of incivility for sexual minorities. These findings point to the resiliency of sexual minorities in the face of interpersonal stressors at work. PMID:27199804

  1. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Workplace Incivility: Who Is Most Targeted and Who Is Most Harmed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrügg, Lauren; Miner, Kathi N

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have proposed that interpersonal workplace discrimination toward members of oppressed social groups has become covert and subtle rather than overt and explicit and that such experiences lead to negative outcomes for targets. The present study examined this proposition by examining experiences and consequences of workplace incivility-a seemingly harmless form of interpersonal maltreatment-based on gender, sexual orientation, and their intersection. A sample of 1,300 academic faculty (52% male, 86% White) participated in an online survey study assessing their experiences of workplace incivility, job stress, job satisfaction, job identity centrality, and demographics. Results showed that sexual minority women reported the highest levels of workplace incivility. Findings also revealed that women reported lower job satisfaction than men and that heterosexuals reported higher job stress and lower job identity centrality than sexual minorities with higher levels of incivility. Thus, sexual minority status buffered the negative effects of incivility for sexual minorities. These findings point to the resiliency of sexual minorities in the face of interpersonal stressors at work.

  2. Psychiatric symptoms and same-sex sexual attraction and behavior in light of childhood gender atypical behavior and parental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.

  3. Importance of Health and Social Care Research into Gender and Sexual Minority Populations in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2015-11-01

    Despite progressive legislative developments and increased visibility of sexual and gender minority populations in the general population, mass media often report that this population face a wide range of discrimination and inequalities. LGBT (lesbian, gay, and bisexual, and transgender) populations have not been considered as priority research populations in Nepal. Research in other geographical settings has shown an increased risk of poor mental health, violence, and suicide and higher rates of smoking, as well as alcohol and drugs use among LGBT populations. They are also risk for lifestyle-related illness such as cancer, diabetes, and heart diseases. Currently, in Nepal, there is a lack of understanding of health and well-being, social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination as experienced by these populations. Good-quality public health research can help design and implement targeted interventions to the sexual and gender minority populations of Nepal. © 2015 APJPH.

  4. Schooling Sexualities and Gendered Bodies. Experiences of LGBT Students in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study how Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people (LGBT) students in Icelandic upper secondary schools interpret their experience of heteronormative environment and how they respond to it. The aim is to explore how sexualities and gendered bodies are constructed through "schooling". The article draws on interview…

  5. Health, body image, gender, and migration status: their relationship to sexuality in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Darya; Iecovich, Esther

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between gender, migration status, perceived health, body image, and sexual activity and satisfaction among older adults. It was hypothesized that men and those who are long-standing residents in Israel will report better perceived health, a positive body image, and these will be associated with greater sexuality, compared with women, new immigrants with poorer perceived health and a negative body image. The sample included 200 respondents who were 60 years and older, functionally independent and living with a spouse or a partner for at least one year, heterosexual, and living in the community in Israel. Respondents were recruited through community-based services for older persons and snowballing. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine differences by groups of respondents and to identify the best predictors of the outcome variables. The majority had some kind of sexual activity. No significant differences were found between men and women with regard to perceived health, body image, sexual activity and satisfaction, but significant differences were found between new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries and long-standing residents in Israel. Mental health, age, and migration status were significant in explaining sexual activity, while age, education, and sexual activity were significant in explaining sexual satisfaction. A variety of factors play a role with regard to sexuality in old age, in particular immigration status. Appropriate interventions can help older adults cope with the determinants that negatively affect their mental health and sexual life.

  6. Gender socialization and sex affilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić Saduša F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's depth interviews with students of the University of Nis checked for the possibility of receptivity to sexual stereotypes and conditioning of sexual/gender socialization by sexual group affiliation. Examined the experiences and attitudes of students of both sexes regarding early gender socialization and it's characteristically stereotypes, stereotypes about dressing, instrumentalization of sexuality, the influence of parents/environment on the formation of sexual morality, own the gender socialization in the family, twin rules for the socialization of children of different gender and sex/gender roles in marriage. Belonging to the sex group has no effect on susceptibility to sexual stereotypes regarding early gender socialization and dressing. Difference may be seen in the effort to comment on and evaluate the wear behavior of girls more than a young man dressing, which may be an indicator for further research had sexual dimorphism in terms of dressing and nudity. It seems that the experience of respondents of both sexes are dependent primarily from the general family atmosphere (closeness, openness to communicate with each other, the absence of the traditional gender division of roles in the family/emotional distance from the parent of the opposite sex or of both parents, the rigidity, the strict division of gender roles in the family. In the first case, where both parents are involved in the upbringing of the child, relationships are intimate with both, and vice versa. Therefore, we can conclude about the lack of connection between the sex of the child and separated upbringing (traditional: the mother confides sexual education of women, a father of male child in the first case, and a link to another should only check to prove it. Sex does not condition susceptibility to stereotypes about education and gender roles. Traditionally, transitional and modern attitudes are equally represented in subjects of both sexes.

  7. Teen Dating Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Bullying Among Middle School Students: Examining Mediation and Moderated Mediation by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbush, Stacey; Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari

    2016-11-01

    This longitudinal study tested whether sexual harassment perpetration mediates the relationship between bullying perpetration and teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration and tested moderated mediation by assessing whether the developmental pathway varies by gender among middle school-aged youth. Although TDV has been associated with bullying and sexual harassment, the developmental relationship among all three behaviors has rarely been examined, especially by gender. The data were collected from one cohort of seventh grade middle school students (N = 612) from four schools. Students were surveyed every 6 months during seventh and eighth grades for a total of four waves of data collection. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to address the study aims, consisting of three stages: measurement models, mediation, and moderated mediation (otherwise known as Contrast of Mediated Effects). Results indicate no evidence of mediation. However, in the overall model, bullying and sexual harassment both emerged as significant predictors of TDV at a later time point. Among girls, only bullying significantly predicted TDV at a later time point, and, among boys, only sexual harassment significantly predicted TDV at a later time point. Prevention programs that target bullying and sexual harassment perpetration may reduce later perpetration of TDV. Further research is needed to disentangle the temporal relationships between these aggressive behaviors among youth.

  8. Sex, Sexual Orientation, Gender Atypicality, and Indicators of Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Lanna J; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2017-07-01

    The current study evaluated the possibility that greater negative mental health outcomes reported among gay, lesbian, and gender-atypical individuals, compared to gender-typical individuals, are present in childhood and persist into adulthood. Sex and sexual orientation differences in self-reported adulthood and recalled childhood indicators of depression and anxiety and their association with current and retrospectively reported gender (a)typicality were examined in a non-clinically recruited community sample of Canadian heterosexual men (n = 98), heterosexual women (n = 142), gay men (n = 289), and lesbian women (n = 69). Indicators of depression and anxiety were constructed based on diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and specific phobias. Factor reduction analyses yielded three factors: (1) indicators of childhood separation anxiety, (2) indicators of childhood depression and anxiety, and (3) indicators of adulthood depression and anxiety. Lesbian women scored higher on childhood separation anxiety than all other groups. Heterosexual men scored lower on indicators of childhood separation anxiety than gay men and lower on indicators of childhood and adulthood depression and anxiety than all other groups. No other significant group differences were observed. Correlational analysis suggested that for men, but not for women, gender-atypical behavior was associated with negative mental health. The current study indicated that childhood should be considered a critical time period during which the noted sexual orientation-related mental health discrepancies manifest and that childhood gender atypicality is a key factor for understanding the emergence of such discrepancies.

  9. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  10. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  11. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector : A perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Dias, Sonia F.; Degomme, Olivier; Devillé, Walter; Kennedy, Patricia; Kováts, András; De Meyer, Sara; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  12. Sexual practices in youth: analysis of lifetime sexual trajectory and last sexual intercourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Heilborn

    Full Text Available This article examines the sexual practices of young Brazilians based on data from the GRAVAD Research Project, a household survey targeting males and females from 18 to 24 years of age (n = 4,634 in three Brazilian State capitals: Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, and Salvador. The set of practices experienced over the course of their sexual careers is characterized by traits of social belonging, elements from individual life histories, and prescribed rules of conduct for men and women. The authors compared the young people's range of lifetime practices and those from last sexual relations in order to discuss the spread and incorporation of practices into life histories. The data point to the hegemony of vaginal sex in both the lifetime repertoire of sexual practices and the last sexual encounters, such that vaginal sex provides the prime definition of heterosexuality.

  13. Teen Dating Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Bullying Among Middle School Youth: Examining Measurement Invariance by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbush, Stacey; Williams, Jason

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated measurement invariance by gender among commonly used teen dating violence (TDV), sexual harassment, and bullying measures. Data were collected from one cohort of seventh-grade middle school students (N = 754) from four schools. Using structural equation modeling, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses assessed measurement models and tested measurement invariance by gender for aggression measures. Analyses invoked baseline data only. Physical and psychological TDV perpetration measures achieved strict measurement invariance, while bullying perpetration demonstrated partial strict invariance. Electronic TDV and sexual harassment perpetration achieved metric/scalar invariance. Study findings lend validation to prior and future studies using these measures with similar populations. Future research should increase attention to measurement development, refinement, and testing among study measures. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in North Dakota support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, thr...

  15. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    About 8,900 LGBT workers in Wyoming are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees in Wyoming has recently been documented in surveys, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, four more complaints would be filed in Wyoming eac...

  16. Sexual and Gender Minority Health Curricula and Institutional Support Services at U.S. Schools of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, Ali J; Drake, Carolyn B; Glick, Jennifer L; Claiborn, Camilla Scott; Seal, David

    2017-01-01

    Limited research has examined the ways in which public health training programs equip students to address health disparities affecting the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and other sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations. This study outlines the availability of public health curricula on SGM health topics, and the prevalence of LGBT and SGM-inclusive institutional support services across CEPH-accredited U.S. schools of public health. Content analysis of all course offerings related to gender and sexuality revealed a limited focus on sexual and gender minority health: just 4.7% of courses contained keywords indicating that LGBT or SGM health topics were covered. Similar analysis of institutional support services available at U.S. schools of public health found that only 25% of schools had LGBT student organizations, and just 19% had an office of diversity that specifically advertised LGBT or SGM-inclusive programming or services on the institution's Web site. Finally, only two of 52 schools offered an educational certificate centered on LGBT health. These findings illustrate a significant need for enhanced curricular content and institutional support services that equip public health students to address SGM health disparities. Improvement in this area may encourage future health care professionals to work to reduce these disparities, to improve SGM persons' experiences in health care settings, and to generate further research in this area.

  17. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  18. VISUALITY AND FEMINISM: THE DISCOURSE OF ADVERTISEMENT, SEXUAL DIFFERENCE AND GENDER REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Mijatović

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay stresses the effects of a reflexive gaze in visual arts as well as in their representation of both sex and gender. The reflexive gaze involves a spectator in an image thus depriving him of its subject while at the same time returning it as an object of desire. Sexuality, in the advertisements represents not only a commodity but the latter, according to the Marx’s definition of the fetishism of commodity, reveals both the dimension and the aspects of sexuality that previously escaped visualization. The effects of retroversion are the outcomes of the modes of commodity. In contrast to previous concepts, according to Lacan sexuality represents commodity. A monitoring position of a reflexive gaze is not defined via binary oppositions such as subject-object, active-passive, masculine-feminine. It is rather an inter-space situated between constitutive and objected identifications. The latter, seen in the context of the grounding perspectives, are senseless and impossible to grasp, but the entire visual field along with the range and horizon of the image is situated in «their shadow».

  19. Sexual learning among East African adolescents in the context of generalized HIV epidemics: A systematic qualitative meta-synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia S Knopf

    Full Text Available AIDS-related illness is the leading cause of mortality for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda account for 21% of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The United Nations framework for addressing the epidemic among adolescents calls for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education. These HIV prevention efforts could be informed by a synthesis of existing research about the formal and informal sexual education of adolescents in countries experiencing generalized epidemics. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of sexual learning among East African adolescents living in the context of generalized HIV epidemics.Qualitative metasynthesis, a systematic procedure for integrating the results of multiple qualitative studies addressing a similar phenomenon, was used. Thirty-two research reports met study inclusion criteria. The reports were assessed in a four-step analytic process: appraisal, classification of findings, synthesis of findings, and construction of a framework depicting the process of sexual learning in this population.The framework includes three phases of sexual learning: 1 being primed for sex, 2 making sense of sex, and 3 having sexual experiences. Adolescents were primed for sex through gender norms, cultural practices, and economic structures as well as through conversations and formal instruction. They made sense of sex by acquiring information about sexual intercourse, reproduction and pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and relationships and by developing a variety of beliefs and attitudes about these topics. Some adolescents described having sexual experiences that met wants or needs, but many experienced sex that was coerced or violent. Whether sex was wanted, coerced, or violent, adolescents experienced worry about sexually transmitted infections or premarital pregnancy.The three phases of sexual learning interact to shape adolescents' sexual lives

  20. "All of My Lovers Fit Into This Scale": Sexual Minority Individuals' Responses to Two Novel Measures of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galupo, M Paz; Lomash, Edward; Mitchell, Renae C

    2017-01-01

    Previous qualitative research on traditional measures of sexual orientation raise concerns regarding how well these scales capture sexual minority individuals' experience of sexuality. The present research focused on the critique of two novel scales developed to better capture the way sexual and gender minority individuals conceptualize sexuality. Participants were 179 sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, pansexual, queer, asexual) individuals who identified as cisgender (n = 122) and transgender (n = 57). Participants first completed the new scales, then provided qualitative responses regarding how well each scale captured their sexuality. The Sexual-Romantic Scale enabled the measurement of sexual and romantic attraction to each sex independently (same-sex and other-sex). Participants resonated with the way the Sexual-Romantic scale disaggregated sexual and romantic attraction. Although cisgender monosexual (lesbian/gay) individuals positively responded to the separation of same- and other-sex attraction, individuals with either plurisexual (bisexual, pansexual, or fluid) or transgender identities found the binary conceptualization of sex/gender problematic. The Gender-Inclusive Scale incorporated same- and other-sex attraction as well as dimensions of attraction beyond those based on sex (attraction to masculine, feminine, androgynous, and gender non-conforming individuals). The incorporation of dimensions of sexual attraction outside of sex in the Gender-Inclusive Scale was positively regarded by participants of all identities. Findings indicate that the Sexual-Romantic and Gender-Inclusive scales appear to address some of the concerns raised in previous research regarding the measurement of sexual orientation among sexual minority individuals.

  1. Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among Canadian Transgender Youth and its Relation to Mental Health, Sexual Health, and Gender Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie; Watson, Ryan J; Adjei, Jones; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While little research has been conducted into the reproductive experiences of transgender people, available evidence suggests that like cisgender people, most transgender people endorse a desire for these experiences. This study explores the pregnancy experiences and related health factors among transgender and gender-diverse 14-25 year olds using a national Canadian sample ( N = 923). Results indicated that 26 (5%) transgender youth reported a pregnancy experience in the past and the prevalence among 14-18 year olds was comparable to population-based estimates using the same question in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey. Transgender youth with a history of pregnancy involvement reported a diverse range of gender identities, and this group did not differ from the remainder of the sample on general mental health, social supports, and living in felt gender. This group did report over six times greater likelihood of having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection by a doctor (19%), but did they not differ in reported contraception use during last sexual intercourse. These findings suggest that pregnancy involvement is an issue that should not be overlooked by health professionals working with transgender youth and that this group has particular sexual health needs.

  2. Sexuality in transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2015-01-01

    such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby......Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...

  3. [Mental health implications of workplace discrimination against sexual and gender minorities: A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Marie; Chamberland, Line

    Despite legislative advances in terms of workplace equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGM), available data ascertains the persistence of workplace discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and especially of transgender/transsexual employees. This article, based on an extensive literature review, explores the relationship between different types of workplace discrimination experiences and their impacts on the mental health of SGM and of different sub-populations: men who have sex with men, non-heterosexual women, lesbian and gay parents, and trans people. Furthermore, the article explores certain individual and systemic protection and risk factors that have an impact on this relationship, such as coming-out at work and organisational support. Finally, the existing literature on workplace discrimination and mental health of sexual and gender minorities highlights the importance, in the current legal and social context, of intersectional approaches and of research on homo- and trans-negative microaggressions. The article ends with a discussion on the implications for practice, research, and workplace settings, as well as with several recommendations for these settings.

  4. Interaction Effects between Exposure to Sexually Explicit Online Materials and Individual, Family, and Extrafamilial Factors on Hong Kong High School Students' Beliefs about Gender Role Equality and Body-Centered Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Siu-ming; Kan, Siu-mee Iu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects between Hong Kong adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit online materials (SEOM) and individual, family, peer, and cultural factors on their beliefs about gender role equality and body-centered sexuality. Based on a survey design with a sample of 503 high school students in Hong Kong, the results…

  5. Perceived barriers to care and provider gender preferences among veteran men who have experienced military sexual trauma: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; McLean, Caitlin; Rafie, Samantha; Hoyt, Tim; Rosen, Craig S; Kimerling, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that there may be unique barriers to accessing care among men who have experienced sexual trauma. The primary goal of the current research was to elucidate potential barriers to accessing military sexual trauma (MST)-related care for male veterans. A secondary goal was to explore whether veterans have preferences regarding the gender of clinicians providing MST-related care. Qualitative analyses were used to examine data collected from semistructured interviews conducted with 20 male veterans enrolled in Veterans Health Administration care who reported MST but who had not received any MST-related mental health care. Veterans identified a number of potential barriers, with the majority of reported barriers relating to issues of stigma and gender. Regarding provider gender preferences, veterans were mixed, with 50% preferring a female provider, 25% a male provider, and 25% reporting no gender preference. These preliminary data suggest that stigma, gender, and knowledge-related barriers may exist for men regarding seeking MST-related care. Interventions to address potential barriers, such as outreach interventions and providing gender-specific psychoeducation, may increase access to care for male veterans who report MST. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Attractiveness of the underling: an automatic power --> sex association and its consequences for sexual harassment and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, J A; Raymond, P; Pryor, J B; Strack, F

    1995-05-01

    One characteristic of men who sexually harass is that they are not aware that their actions are inappropriate or a misuse of their power (L. F. Fitzgerald, 1993a). We investigated the existence and automaticity of a mental association between the concepts of power and sex, and its consequences for sexual harassment tendencies. Using a subliminal priming paradigm, Experiment 1 demonstrated an automatic link between power and sex, and only for men high in the likelihood to sexually harass or aggress. In Experiment 2, male participants were unobtrusively primed with either power-related or neutral stimuli. For men likely to sexually aggress, but not other participants, attraction ratings of a female confederate were significantly higher in the power priming than the neutral priming condition.

  7. Imágenes de género y conductas sexual y reproductiva Gender images and sexual and reproductive conduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Miño-Worobiej

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar algunos factores como la construcción de las ideas y representaciones de género, asociados a las condiciones materiales de vida y los proyectos de vida de las adolescentes, relacionados con la conducta sexual y reproductiva. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La investigación fue desarrollada en Asunción, Paraguay, en 2000. Se utilizaron técnicas cualitativas de recogida de datos (entrevistas en profundidad y de análisis interpretativo. Fueron entrevistadas 40 jóvenes de entre 15 y 20 años, agrupadas en "escolarizadas" y "no escolarizadas". RESULTADOS: Existen construcciones de género que son denominadas en este estudio como "modernas" y "tradicionales", que enmarcan las percepciones acerca de los roles de género de las mujeres y las posiciones frente a los varones, además de las relaciones de pareja y al ejercicio del poder en el marco de ellas. En este ámbito se inscriben también las ideas y representaciones acerca de la maternidad. CONCLUSIONES: Los distintos "tipos" imágenes de género asociados a los proyectos de vida de las adolescentes condicionan ciertas percepciones acerca de los roles de género y al mismo tiempo la conducta reproductiva.OBJECTIVE: To analyze some of the factors associated with material living conditions of adolescents and their means for earning a living, such as idea construction and gender representations, related to sexual and reproductive conduct. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation was conducted in Asuncion, Paraguay, in 2000. Qualitative data collection techniques (in-depth interviews and interpretive analysis were used. A total of 40 interviews were conducted of young people between the ages of 15 and 20, grouped as "schooled" and "not schooled." RESULTS: Gender constructions exist, denominated in this study as "modern" and "traditional," that classify perceptions about gender roles for women and their position in relation to males, as well as for partner relationships and the exercise

  8. Sarah was a butch: sexual identity, gender practices, and Sarah's place as mother in the Jewish National Pantheon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Henriette Dahan

    2012-01-01

    Three fields of discourse regarding a masculine-like woman connect at a point that the queer field calls intersex, medical practice calls a sexual disorder, and rabbinic literature terms aylonit. The queer discursive field focuses on the freedom to choose an identity, but not the freedom from choosing one. The medical field focuses on sexual practice as the source of determining "normal" sexuality. In the discursive field of Jewish law there are no demands, because the Halakhic authority determines gender identity on behalf of the individual, maintaining ambiguity. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  9. The Vertex of the Triangle: Dom Casmurro, Gender and Sexuality during Brazilian Fin-de-siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Miskolci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a Queer theoretical approach, this article explores transformations on gender and sexual relations in Brazilian society at the end of XIX century. This work associates a sociological analysis of the love triangle in the novel Dom Casmurro to a historical reconstitution of the period, as a way to give elements to a non-heteronormative comprehension of Brazilian social history. The focus on Machado de Assis´s most famous work allows exploring the fear and the violent refusal of any transgression of the gender and sexual order. The triangle’s vertex is always an Other and even if we identify s/he with a character, it is only the symbol of what that time and society rejected as a danger for the current structure of love and power relations.

  10. Annual physical examination reports vary by gender once teenagers become sexually active

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Arik V.; Matson, Pam; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Ford, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Few sexually active male adolescents receive sexual/reproductive health (SRH) services. We examine whether the association between adolescents’ sexual behavior status and physical examination over time can help us understand why. Methods We conducted longitudinal cohort analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health with 9239 adolescents who completed the baseline school (1994/95) and Wave 2 (1996) follow-up surveys approximately 1.5 years later (retention rate=71%). We fit logistic regression models with random effects to estimate individual odds of reporting a physical examination in the past 12 months at follow-up, as compared to baseline, stratified by sexual behavior status and gender, and adjusting for sociodemographic and healthcare access factors. Results 34.5% males and 38.2% females reported experiencing vaginal intercourse by follow-up, and 22.4% males and 24.7% females reported first experiencing intercourse during the study. Among sexually active adolescents, about half reported annual exams and one-fifth no exams. Among females, baseline to follow-up exam reports significantly increased in: sex initiators (adjusted Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]=2.09 [1.66–2.64]); those reporting sex at both times (2.16 [1.51–3.09]); and those reporting no sex either time (2.47 [2.00–3.04]). Among males, baseline to follow-up exam reports significantly increased in those reporting no sex either time (1.57 [1.26–1.96]) and showed increasing trends in sex initiators (1.27 [0.92–1.76]). Discussion A majority of sexually active adolescents report annual physical exams over time. Providers should not miss opportunities to deliver evidence-based SRH to sexually active adolescents. Future efforts are needed to increase all adolescents’ access to SRH services. PMID:21700156

  11. Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection – a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway

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    Gravningen Kirsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years. Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%. Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0. Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4, ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3, and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7 increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42 decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0 increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6, and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8. Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia

  12. Factors associated with sexual orientation and gender disparities in chronic pain among U.S. adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra L. Katz-Wise

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated factors associated with sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain frequency among youth. Data were analyzed from 4534 female and 3785 male youth from Waves I–IV (1995–2009 of the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Gender-stratified weighted logistic regression models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and included sexual orientation (primary predictor and frequency of three types of chronic pain (outcomes. Models with sexual orientation only were compared to models with factors hypothesized to increase or decrease risk of pain. Significant odds ratios (OR for chronic pain frequency (daily/weekly vs. rarely with confidence intervals (CI and associated factors are reported. Compared to same-gender heterosexual females, mostly heterosexuals were more likely to report headaches (OR = 1.40, CI = 1.09, 1.79 and mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals were more likely to report muscle/joint pain (mostly heterosexual OR = 1.69, CI = 1.29, 2.20; bisexual OR = 1.87, CI = 1.03, 3.38. Compared to same-gender heterosexual males, gay males were more likely to report headaches (OR = 2.00, CI = 1.06, 3.82, but less likely to report muscle/joint pain (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.11, 0.74. Significant disparities were attenuated by up to 16% when associated factors were added to the model. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain were partially explained by associated factors, but more research is needed to develop intervention and prevention strategies.

  13. Gênero, sexualidade e educação: notas para uma "Epistemologia" Gender, sexuality and education: appointments toward an "epistemology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita de Assis César

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A combinação entre sexualidade e educação é um tema que remonta aos primórdios da instituição escolar brasileira. Muitos projetos e iniciativas de educação sexual pontuaram a história da educação no Brasil e o encontro com a perspectiva de gênero sempre foi problemática. Nos anos de 1990, com o aparecimento dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, a sexualidade e o gênero passaram a habitar os discursos e as práticas educacionais brasileiros de forma mais bem instalada, mas não menos conflituosa. Este texto analisa os principais caminhos "epistemológicos" que os discursos sobre a sexualidade e o gênero percorreram na instituição escolar ao longo de quase um século. A partir de uma perspectiva ancorada nos conceitos de Michel Foucault, especialmente as noções de dispositivo da sexualidade e biopolítica, analisou-se essa produção discursiva e institucional acerca da sexualidade. Mais contemporaneamente, procurou-se demonstrar as (in compreensões sobre a diversidade sexual por meio de questionamentos oriundos da teoria queer, tomada como referência decisiva para a discussão da fala docente e de documentos oficiais presentes na escola a respeito de gênero e sexualidade.The combination of sexuality and education goes backward to the beginnings of the brazilian educational institution. Many projects and initiatives concerning sexual education have pervaded Brazil's educational history, but facing gender perspectives has always been a troublesome matter. During the 90's, after the appearance of the National Curricular Parameters, both sexuality and gender themes have more frequently inhabited Brazil's educational discourses and practices, although not in a less conflicting manner. The present text discusses the "epistemological" paths that have characterized discourses about sexuality in Brazil's school system throughout the XXth century. Those discursive and institutional productions concerning sexuality were analyzed by

  14. Addressing gender inequalities to improve the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Avni

    2015-01-01

    Globally, women constitute 50% of all persons living with HIV. Gender inequalities are a key driver of women's vulnerabilities to HIV. This paper looks at how these structural factors shape specific behaviours and outcomes related to the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV. There are several pathways by which gender inequalities shape the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV. First, gender norms that privilege men's control over women and violence against women inhibit women's ability to practice safer sex, make reproductive decisions based on their own fertility preferences and disclose their HIV status. Second, women's lack of property and inheritance rights and limited access to formal employment makes them disproportionately vulnerable to food insecurity and its consequences. This includes compromising their adherence to antiretroviral therapy and increasing their vulnerability to transactional sex. Third, with respect to stigma and discrimination, women are more likely to be blamed for bringing HIV into the family, as they are often tested before men. In several settings, healthcare providers violate the reproductive rights of women living with HIV in relation to family planning and in denying them care. Lastly, a number of countries have laws that criminalize HIV transmission, which specifically impact women living with HIV who may be reluctant to disclose because of fears of violence and other negative consequences. Addressing gender inequalities is central to improving the sexual and reproductive health outcomes and more broadly the wellbeing of women living with HIV. Programmes that go beyond a narrow biomedical/clinical approach and address the social and structural context of women's lives can also maximize the benefits of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

  15. Evidence of Housing Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies, 2008-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2016-01-01

    LGBT people file housing discrimination complaints based on sexual orientation and gender identity as frequently as people of color and women file complaints based on race and sex. This study examines complaints filed with state enforcement agencies based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of adults most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color, and women. Data on discrimination complaints were collecte...

  16. Perceiving age and gender in unfamiliar faces: brain potential evidence for implicit and explicit person categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2008-11-01

    We used repetition priming to investigate implicit and explicit processes of unfamiliar face categorization. During prime and test phases, participants categorized unfamiliar faces according to either age or gender. Faces presented at test were either new or primed in a task-congruent (same task during priming and test) or incongruent (different tasks) condition. During age categorization, reaction times revealed significant priming for both priming conditions, and event-related potentials yielded an increased N170 over the left hemisphere as a result of priming. During gender categorization, congruent faces elicited priming and a latency decrease in the right N170. Accordingly, information about age is extracted irrespective of processing demands, and priming facilitates the extraction of feature information reflected in the left N170 effect. By contrast, priming of gender categorization may depend on whether the task at initial presentation requires configural processing.

  17. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.

    2012-01-01

    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  18. The limitations of 'Black MSM' as a category: Why gender, sexuality, and desire still matter for social and biomedical HIV prevention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G; Parker, Caroline; Wilson, Patrick A; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    The USA faces disproportionate and increasing HIV incidence rates among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). New biomedical technologies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have been developed to address their HIV risk. Very little consideration, however, has been given to the diversity obscured by 'BMSM' as a category, to how this diversity relates to men's sexual partnering strategies, or to the relevance of these issues for new HIV prevention methods. We conducted a community-based ethnography from June 2013 to May 2014 documenting factors that affect the acceptance of and adherence to PrEP among BMSM. We conducted in-depth interviews with 31 BMSM and 17 community stakeholders, and participant observation. To demonstrate the diversity of social identities, we present a taxonomy of indigenous categories organised along the axes of sexual identity, sexual positioning, and gender performance. We analyse how HIV prevention strategies, such as PrEP, may be more effective if programmes consider how gender, sexuality, and sexual desire shape sexual partnering strategies. This article underlines the importance of attending to the diversity of sexual and social subjectivities among BMSM, of bringing the study of sexuality back into HIV prevention, and of integrating biomedical prevention approaches into community-based programmes.

  19. Factors related to sexual practices and successful sexually transmitted infection/HIV intervention programs for Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Me; Dancy, Barbara; Florez, Elizabeth; Holm, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review was to explore factors that are related to sexual practices among Latino adolescents and identify which of those factors are common across successful sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention programs for Latino adolescents. An integrative literature review was conducted. Search terms included Latino, Hispanic, education, intervention/prevention programs, sex, sexuality, reproductive health, health risk behaviors, multiple sex partners, contraception, STI/HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, delay in initiation of sexual intercourse, consistent use of birth control, avoidance of STI/HIV infections, unintended pregnancy, cultural factors, and gender roles. Findings revealed from the review of 17 articles addressing factors related to sexual practices among Latino adolescents included familialism, religion, gender roles, level of knowledge/information, and privacy/confidentiality. Five successful STI/HIV intervention programs, that incorporated those factors to effectively reduce risky sexual behaviors were identified. STI/HIV knowledge and gender roles were recognized as common factors integrated into and across successful intervention programs for this population. Only STI/HIV knowledge and gender roles were found as common factors across the five successful STI/HIV intervention programs and should be incorporated into future intervention programs that are culturally and gender specific. Therefore, health care providers need to understand culturally related gender roles and their impact on sexual practices to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate sex education about STIs and HIV for Latino adolescents to increase the program potential for reducing STI/HIV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Immaterial Boys? A Large-Scale Exploration of Gender-Based Differences in Child Sexual Exploitation Service Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockbain, Ella; Ashby, Matthew; Brayley, Helen

    2017-10-01

    Child sexual exploitation is increasingly recognized nationally and internationally as a pressing child protection, crime prevention, and public health issue. In the United Kingdom, for example, a recent series of high-profile cases has fueled pressure on policy makers and practitioners to improve responses. Yet, prevailing discourse, research, and interventions around child sexual exploitation have focused overwhelmingly on female victims. This study was designed to help redress fundamental knowledge gaps around boys affected by sexual exploitation. This was achieved through rigorous quantitative analysis of individual-level data for 9,042 users of child sexual exploitation services in the United Kingdom. One third of the sample were boys, and gender was associated with statistically significant differences on many variables. The results of this exploratory study highlight the need for further targeted research and more nuanced and inclusive counter-strategies.

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Sexual Entitlement and Self-Efficacy among Young Women and Men: Gender Differences and Associations with Age and Sexual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Hewitt-Stubbs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars have called for an increased focus on positive aspects of sexual health and sexuality. Using a longitudinal design with two assessments, we investigated patterns of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure and self-efficacy to achieve sexual pleasure among 295 young men and women aged 17–25 years attending one Australian university. We also tested whether entitlement and efficacy differed by gender, and hypothesized that entitlement and efficacy would be higher in older participants and those with more sexual experience. A sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure increased significantly over the year of the study, whereas, on average, there was no change in self-efficacy over time. At Time 1 (T1, young women reported more entitlement than young men. Age was positively associated with T1 entitlement, and experience with a wider range of partnered sexual behaviors was concurrently associated with more entitlement and efficacy and was also associated with increased entitlement to partner pleasure and increased self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure at T2 relative to T1. A group with the least amount of sexual experience was particularly low in entitlement and efficacy when compared to groups with a history of coital experience. There was no evidence that any association differed between young men and young women. Limitations of the study include a sample of predominantly middle class, Caucasian students at one university and the possibility that students more interested in sex and relationships, and with more sexual experience, chose to participate.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Sexual Entitlement and Self-Efficacy among Young Women and Men: Gender Differences and Associations with Age and Sexual Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt-Stubbs, Gillian; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Mastro, Shawna; Boislard, Marie-Aude

    2016-01-01

    Many scholars have called for an increased focus on positive aspects of sexual health and sexuality. Using a longitudinal design with two assessments, we investigated patterns of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure and self-efficacy to achieve sexual pleasure among 295 young men and women aged 17–25 years attending one Australian university. We also tested whether entitlement and efficacy differed by gender, and hypothesized that entitlement and efficacy would be higher in older participants and those with more sexual experience. A sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure increased significantly over the year of the study, whereas, on average, there was no change in self-efficacy over time. At Time 1 (T1), young women reported more entitlement than young men. Age was positively associated with T1 entitlement, and experience with a wider range of partnered sexual behaviors was concurrently associated with more entitlement and efficacy and was also associated with increased entitlement to partner pleasure and increased self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure at T2 relative to T1. A group with the least amount of sexual experience was particularly low in entitlement and efficacy when compared to groups with a history of coital experience. There was no evidence that any association differed between young men and young women. Limitations of the study include a sample of predominantly middle class, Caucasian students at one university and the possibility that students more interested in sex and relationships, and with more sexual experience, chose to participate. PMID:26797642

  3. Intersecting Race and Gender Cues are Associated with Perceptions of Gay Men's Preferred Sexual Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2015-07-01

    Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.

  4. Sexual practices in Malaysia: determinants of sexual intercourse among unmarried youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, S N; Low, W Y

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes findings on selected determinants of sexual intercourse among 468 unmarried adolescents from a survey in Malaysia. Data on respondents' background, sexual experience, contraceptive use, and sexual attitudes are provided. Based on multiple logistic regressions, factors significantly predictive of sexual experience are gender, employment, and sexual attitudes.

  5. Of beauties, beaus, and beasts : studying women's and men's actual and imagined experiences of sexual and gender harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Vanselow, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from five studies focusing on different factors that influence interpretation of different behaviors constituting different forms of sexual harassment and gender harassment is presented. Six factors of influence were studied: (1) physical attractiveness and (2) quality of financial resources of the harasser, (3) gender and (4) attitudes of the harassee, (5) interpreting derogatory versus interpreting "flirtatious" behavior, and (6) interpreting actual harassment versus interpreting i...

  6. Perceptions of Same-Sex Relationships and Marriage as Gender Role Violations: An Examination of Gendered Expectations (Sexism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Carol M; Rees, Amy M; Titus, Tana L

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to add to the literature that has demonstrated a link between sexism and sexual prejudice. The study evaluated whether a community sample with an age range of 19-64 (n = 122), including 32% sexual minority participants, believe that dating, sex, and marriage with same-sex partners are perceived to be gender role violations. Results varied by participant sexual/gender identity (LGBTQ or heterosexual) and political ideology. Liberal LGBTQ persons do not see same-sex relationships as gender role violations; LGBTQ non-liberals and heterosexual liberals rated same-sex relationships as mild violations; and non-liberal heterosexuals perceive same-sex relationships as "moderate" violations. Our results suggest both positive movement in attitudes toward same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, and broader recognition that gender identity, gender role expression, and sexual orientation are separate and distinct components of one's overall sexual identity.

  7. Gender Discrimination and Sexual Harassment in Medical Education: Perspectives Gained by a 14-School Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Lois Margaret; McLaughlin, Margaret A.; Fosson, Sue E.; Stratton, Terry D.; Murphy-Spencer, Amy; Fincher, Ruth-Marie E.; German, Deborah C.; Seiden, David; Witzke, Donald B.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed medical students about their exposures to and perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment (GD/SH) in selected academic and nonacademic contexts. Findings included that more women than men reported all types of GD/SH across all contexts, and that GD/SH is prevalent in undergraduate medical education, particularly within core…

  8. Evidence of Employment Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies 1999-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Christopher; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad

    2008-01-01

    To more accurately measure the effect of anti-discrimination laws, this report compares sex, race, and sexual orientation complaint rates through a population-adjusted model. Today, twenty states and the District of Columbia prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation. Of those, thirteen also prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity. An aggregation of all available state level data reveals that sexual orientation discrimination laws are used at similar freque...

  9. Senescence in immune priming and attractiveness in a beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukšte, J; Kivleniece, I; Krama, T; Rantala, M J; Krams, I

    2012-07-01

    Age-related decline in immune activity is referred to as immunosenescence and has been observed for both the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and the innate immune system of invertebrates. Because maintaining a basic level of immune defence and mounting an immune response is costly, optimal investment in immune function should vary over a wide range of individual states such as the individual's age. In this study, we tested whether the immune response and immunological priming within individuals become less efficient with age using mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, as a model organism. We also tested whether ageing